WorldWideScience

Sample records for provisions mining law

  1. Economics of mining law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Modern mining law, by facilitating socially and environmentally acceptable exploration, development, and production of mineral materials, helps secure the benefits of mineral production while minimizing environmental harm and accounting for increasing land-use competition. Mining investments are sunk costs, irreversibly tied to a particular mineral site, and require many years to recoup. Providing security of tenure is the most critical element of a practical mining law. Governments owning mineral rights have a conflict of interest between their roles as a profit-maximizing landowner and as a guardian of public welfare. As a monopoly supplier, governments have considerable power to manipulate mineral-rights markets. To avoid monopoly rent-seeking by governments, a competitive market for government-owned mineral rights must be created by artifice. What mining firms will pay for mineral rights depends on expected exploration success and extraction costs. Landowners and mining firms will negotlate respective shares of anticipated differential rents, usually allowing for some form of risk sharing. Private landowners do not normally account for external benefits or costs of minerals use. Government ownership of mineral rights allows for direct accounting of social prices for mineral-bearing lands and external costs. An equitable and efficient method is to charge an appropriate reservation price for surface land use, net of the value of land after reclamation, and to recover all or part of differential rents through a flat income or resource-rent tax. The traditional royalty on gross value of production, essentially a regressive income tax, cannot recover as much rent as a flat income tax, causes arbitrary mineral-reserve sterilization, and creates a bias toward development on the extensive margin where marginal environmental costs are higher. Mitigating environmental costs and resolving land-use conflicts require local evaluation and planning. National oversight ensures

  2. Provisions of English Statutory Law on Servitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoria S. Arhipova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presented article author tried to list and describe in detail the statutory law of England concerning the right of another's property limited use, analyze laws on servitudes, highlight the most basic features of servitudes in English law. Also in the article such provisions of limited use of foreign property law are given, which are characteristic exclusively for English law, shows the relationship of the statutory law of England in this relationship with doctrine and judicial precedent.

  3. THE MINING LAW NOW AND THEN IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneously with the development of mining, a mining law has been developed as well. At first, ores belonged to those owning the land, while later on, the state, without any regard to its system, has been and is, in general, the owner of ore deposits so that the land owner has never been able to prevent their exploration and exploitation. It is necessary to point out that during the development of mining significantly greater changes were effectuated especially in the last century, while the financial liabilities towards the governmental authorities have remained the same and have varied from a half, one fifth, one tenth to one thirtieth and one fiftieth of the value of mineral resources, A similar situation is with the concessions granted on 50 (+50 years _or 99 years, while certain differences exist in the size od the investigated area and the ore field. While at an earlier stage the mining law was based on regalia and decrees as well as on autonomous mining courts, by the abolition of servitude and privileges the mining law has been made to mining legislation. Due to the fact that during the socialist system the private enterprise was abolished, the Mining Law and the Law on Concessions should be, first of all, amended. By new changes of the Law, the conditions in mining should be established, under which foreign legal and physical entities could be engaged in exploration and exploitation of mineral resources with us, then the provisions relating to the exploitation of gravel and sand in the areas of interest for water resources management should be more thoroughly stipulated, etc (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. 26 CFR 509.102 - Applicable provisions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable provisions of law. 509.102 Section... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.102 Applicable provisions of law. (a) General... reason of any alteration of law in relation to internal revenue. (b) Retroactivity of regulations or...

  5. 27 CFR 479.191 - Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES, AND CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Other Laws Applicable § 479.191 Applicability of other provisions of internal revenue laws. All of the provisions of the internal revenue laws not... provisions of internal revenue laws. 479.191 Section 479.191 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU...

  6. CONTROVERSIAL LAW ISSUES IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF THE NEW LEGAL PROVISIONS IN FAMILY LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan LUPAȘCU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relatively short period of the new Romainian Civil Code implementation highlights the existence of some controversial law issues regarding the legal provisions contained in Book II, entitled “About family”. Apart from the theoretical disputes, there are also court decisions that contain different solutions in the enforcement of the same legal provisions. Controversy exists not only in relation to the newly introduced institutions in our legal landscape, but also regarding the ones taken over from the old regulation, institutions that have undergone some changes. The examples are most varied and they do not bypass almost any matter. Thus, we signal the presence of different interpretations of regulations regarding: engagement, marriage, divorce, parentage, adoption, the legal duty to maintain, the parental authority, etc. The present study highlights such controversy’s by presenting the views expressed and the arguments invoked in their support and also some propositions of Ferenda Law.

  7. 22 CFR 126.11 - Relations to other provisions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relations to other provisions of law. 126.11 Section 126.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.11 Relations to other provisions of law. The provisions in this subchapter are in addition to, and are not in lieu of,...

  8. The Regulation of Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa: Law and Governance Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta Feris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of sustainability, including ecological, social and economic concerns. In particular, AMD is set to affect infrastructure, displace people and affect their livelihoods, influence economic activity, impact on the resource extraction industry, and affect South Africa's policies and actions in relation to climate change and its efforts to move towards a low carbon economy; and it will test the efficiency of regulatory interventions emanating from both the private and the public sector to the extreme. Given these pervasive challenges, in this article we provide a survey of the AMD problem in South Africa through the law and governance lens. We commence by highlighting the various issues and challenges that result from AMD in the environmental context on the one hand, and the law and governance context on the other hand. We then describe the many provisions of the regulatory framework that we believe would be instrumental in responding to the threat. We conclude the article with brief remarks on what we believe are important considerations in the future regulation of AMD.

  9. 22 CFR 92.92 - Service of legal process under provisions of State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Service of legal process under provisions of State law. 92.92 Section 92.92 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE LEGAL AND RELATED SERVICES NOTARIAL AND RELATED SERVICES Quasi-Legal Services § 92.92 Service of legal process under provisions of State law. It may be found that a State statue...

  10. 27 CFR 555.2 - Relation to other provisions of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Introduction § 555.2..., any other provision of law, or regulations, respecting commerce in explosive materials. For... manufacturing, importing or exporting arms, ammunition, or implements of war, see section 38 of the Arms Export...

  11. 20 CFR 615.8 - Provisions of State law applicable to claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regular compensation which is not sharable; and if determined to be “not good,” the suitability of work... EXTENDED BENEFITS IN THE FEDERAL-STATE UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION PROGRAM § 615.8 Provisions of State law... apply to claims for, and the payment of, regular compensation shall apply to claims for, and the payment...

  12. Process analysis transit of municipal waste. Part II - Domestic provisions of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starkowski Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, the Polish legal system referring to municipal waste management was restructured in a revolutionary way. The analysis of new provisions of law described in the article requires particular attention, taking into account their place in the entire system of dealing with waste and connections with the remaining elements of this system. At present, Polish regulations lay down the rules of conduct with all types of waste, diversifying a subjective area of responsibility. These assumptions are determined by the provisions of law that are in force in the Republic of Poland. At present, the system of legal provisions is quite complex; however, the provisions of law of the EU constitute its base (the first article. At the level of Polish law, the goals and tasks concerned with dealing with waste were set forth, which leads to tightening of the system. All actions in this respect - from propagating the selective accumulation and collection of municipal waste, keeping the established levels of recycling and recycling of packaging wastes, and limiting the mass of biodegradable waste directed at the storage - is only a beginning of the road to reduction of environmental risks. In this case, permanent monitoring of proper waste dealing in the commune, the province as well as the entire country is essential. Third part of the article will present characterization, division, classification and identification of waste, together with the aspects of logistic process of municipal waste collection and transport.

  13. Provisions of Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988 Relating to Drug Law Enforcement. Information Memorandum 89-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Mary

    This document describes major provisions of the Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988, a federal law relating to enforcement of controlled substances laws which authorizes over two billion dollars for anti-drug activities. Provisions of the Act relating primarily to drug abuse education, prevention or treatment and regulation of the manufacture,…

  14. Enacting National Seabed Mining Laws in Africa: Importance of a Practitioner’s Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas N. Kimani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Countries should develop seabed mining laws that maintain environmental and social protections, yet whose safeguard rules are easier to understand and can be implemented at lower cost. Blindly adopting foreign laws, however well drafted, may result in a regime that is fragmented, inefficient and costly to administer from industry’s perspective. Insights from Kenya, demonstrates the value of adopting a practitioners perspective to identify practical problems, potential opportunities and important policy issues.

  15. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  16. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  17. Can technology help to reduce underage drinking? Evidence from the false ID laws with scanner provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yörük, Barış K

    2014-07-01

    Underage drinkers often use false identification to purchase alcohol or gain access into bars. In recent years, several states have introduced laws that provide incentives to retailers and bar owners who use electronic scanners to ensure that the customer is 21 years or older and uses a valid identification to purchase alcohol. This paper is the first to investigate the effects of these laws using confidential data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 Cohort (NLSY97). Using a difference-in-differences methodology, I find that the false ID laws with scanner provision significantly reduce underage drinking, including up to a 0.22 drink decrease in the average number of drinks consumed by underage youth per day. This effect is observed particularly in the short-run and more pronounced for non-college students and those who are relatively younger. These results are also robust under alternative model specifications. The findings of this paper highlight the importance of false ID laws in reducing alcohol consumption among underage youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. "Vehicular homicide", a new Italian offence: law provisions and comparison with some other European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinelli, E; Pichini, S; Zaami, S; Giorgetti, R; Busardò, F P; Pacifici, R

    2016-07-01

    According to the most recent World Health Organization report, road accidents represent a very serious public health issue, claiming each year more than 1.2 million lives worldwide and being the leading cause of death among young people aged between 15 and 29 years. Up to now, the policies to reduce this issue are different, unbalanced and often inadequate not only in Italy, but also in the other European Countries. Specifically, the Italian Parliament has recently introduced a new law (n. 41 of March 23rd, 2016), making vehicular homicide together with road traffic injuries a criminal offense, both to be punished as a result of negligence. The measure came into force on March 25th, 2016. In this paper, the provisions of the above-reported law have been assessed, taking into account the modifications introduced in the Penal Code by this law and the impact it is having and will have on drivers on a day-to-day basis. Similarities and differences with legislative framework of some other European countries were also examined. Finally, some open questions to be solved are named as an open eye for future considerations.

  19. 14 CFR 382.9 - What may foreign carriers do if they believe a provision of a foreign nation's law conflicts with...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... English language, of the foreign law involved; (2) A description of how the foreign law applies and how it... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What may foreign carriers do if they believe a provision of a foreign nation's law conflicts with compliance with a provision of this part? 382...

  20. INSPECTION IN THE FIELD OF EMPLOYMENT RELATIONSHIPS AND PENALTY PROVISIONS UNDER THE LABOR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojo Belovski

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available If the primary efficacy of the projected normative order is absent, the mechanism of secondary efficacy occurs, which implies forceful realization of norms – repressive measures, i.e. coercive measures, and punitive undertakings. In the Labor Law there is a whole Chapter (Chapter XXV devoted to inspection supervision in the field of employment relationships. Labor inspection functions as a specialized organ of the Ministry which is responsible for the affairs in the area of labor. A request for a control by a labor inspectorate can be instigated by a worker individually, by the Trade Union and by the employer. It can also be instigated ex officio by the inspection supervision. Concerning supervision of the legal commencement of employment the procedure for the labor inspector is as follows: a to find employees at the place of work of the employer who are not employed according to the law; b employees not registered in the mandatory social insurance; c shall make a decision and shall order the employer to commence employment with the persons found there or with other persons without public job announcement within 8 days; d to employ for an indefinite period of time; e the number of employees shall not be reduced within the next three months; f will make a proposal for settlement by issuing a payment order of misdemeanor for the person responsible or a person authorized by the employer under the Law on Misdemeanors; g if the employer does not accept the payment order of misdemeanor, the inspector in charge will file a request for initiating a misdemeanor procedure. As an example of the misdemeanor provisions, a fine of 7,000 Euros in denar equivalent shall be pronounced on the employerlegal entity if: 1 if no agreement for employment has been made between the employee and the employer and the employer failed to register the employee in the Mandatory pension and Disability Insurance Fund, Health insurance and insurance in case of unemployment

  1. Questioning the Status Quo: Can Stakeholder Participation Improve Implementation of Small-Scale Mining Laws in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Osei-Kojo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ghana’s small-scale mining sector faces complex challenges, including environmental degradation and pollution, loss of life and increased health risks, despite several years of implementation of small-scale mining laws. These challenges, generally, are known to have escalated because of illegal small-scale mining, locally known as “galamsey”. Despite the illegal status of this category of miners, this paper examines the extent to which stakeholder participation can improve implementation of mining regulations and also address the marginalization of these miners. This paper about stakeholder participation is timely because news reports in mid-2016 mentioned that the Government of Ghana, despite many years of disengagement, is now planning to engage with galamsey operators, in terms of registration, as part of measures to effectively regulate the activities of small-scale miners. Findings from fieldwork indicate that (1 chiefs are seldom consulted in the granting of mining licenses; (2 illegal miners do not participate in the implementation of small-scale mining laws; and (3 stakeholders, such as officers in district mining offices, feel distant from the implementation process. Against the backdrop of these findings, it remains useful to explore the extent to which effective stakeholder participation could help overcome the status quo—particularly its ramifications for both the implementation of ASM laws and the eradication of other underlying challenges the sector faces.

  2. Mafqūd and Fasakh in the Writings of Muslim Jurists and Provisions of Malaysian Federal Territory Islamic Family Law: The Case of MH 370 Missing Plane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mek Wok Mahmud; Siti Zulaikha binti Mokhtar

    2017-01-01

    .... This is known as mafqud, or missing person. Therefore, the objective of this study is to discuss the concept of fasakh and mafqud in accordance with the views of Muslim jurists and the provisions of Islamic family law in Malaysia...

  3. The strategic importance of international investments in the field of mining and international law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena Popa Tache

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the entrance restrictions for foreign investment were eliminated or restricted in a wide range of industries, especially mining (among other fields such as aviation, financial services, real estate. Foreign investors still remain reluctant to placement of investments in developing countries, shall be required also to seek host countries with a certain degree of stability in the existence of international treaties on investment In conclusion, it is emphasized that the investment environment must substantiate its order and hierarchy on a set of regulations with a mandatory character, as the soft law regulations, such as conduct codes of the transnational companies, the project of articles regarding the responsibility of states of the International Law Committee, the arbitrage practices (that does not admit precedents or other acts without mandatory force have proven insufficient. An especially important role is played by the common effort of experts to expose all the forceful positions, as well as the vulnerabilities of all the actors involved in international investments, so that, through a full and objective analysis of these aspects, firm regulatory solutions may be extracted.

  4. Carrots and sticks: compliance provisions in state competitive food laws-examples for state and local implementation of the updated USDA standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, Camille K; Chriqui, Jamie F; Piekarz, Elizabeth; Dang, Quang; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2014-07-01

    Competitive foods remain prevalent in schools even though the majority of states' laws have addressed this for several years. Whereas updated federal standards take effect during school year 2014-2015, aspects of competitive food regulation will remain relegated to the states and districts and concerns exist about compliance with the federal standards. This study examined compliance provisions codified into state law that focused on incentives, monetary penalties, or contracts which could provide examples for other jurisdictions. Codified statutory and administrative laws effective as of January 2013 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. All laws were analyzed by 2 study authors to determine the presence and components of relevant provisions. Eighteen states' laws contained compliance mechanisms including financial and/or programmatic incentives (5 states), contract provisions (11 states), and monetary penalties for noncompliance (7 states). Five states' laws contained a combination of approaches. Compliance measures help to strengthen competitive food laws by providing state agencies with an enforcement mechanism. Enforcing such provisions will help to create healthier school environments. This study will provide useful insight for governments at all levels as they implement competitive food laws. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  5. State laws restricting driver use of mobile communications devices distracted-driving provisions, 1992-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Jennifer K; Anderson, Evan D; Burris, Scott C; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2011-06-01

    State laws limiting the use of mobile communications devices (MCDs) by drivers are being enacted at an accelerating pace. Public health law research is needed to test various legislative models and guide future legal innovation. To define the current state of the law, facilitate new multi-state evaluations, and demonstrate the utility of systematic, scientific legal research methods to improve public health services research. Westlaw and Lexis-Nexis were used to create a 50-state, open-source data set of laws restricting the use of any form of MCD while operating a motor vehicle that were in effect between January 1, 1992, and November 1, 2010. Using an iterative process, the search protocol included the following terms: cellphone, cell phone, cellular phone, wireless telephone, mobile telephone, text, hands-free, cell! and text! The text and citations of each law were collected and coded across 22 variables, and a protocol and code book were developed to facilitate future public use of the data set. Thirty-nine states and the District of Columbia have at least one form of restriction on the use of MCDs in effect. The laws vary in the types of communication activities and categories of driver regulated, as well as enforcement mechanisms and punishments. No state completely bans use of MCDs by all drivers. State distracted-driving policy is diverging from evidence on the risks of MCD use by drivers. An updatable data set of laws is now available to researchers conducting multistate evaluations of the impact of laws regulating MCDs by drivers. If this data set is shown to be useful for this public health problem, similar rigorously developed and regularly updated data sets might be developed for other public health issues that are subject to legislative interventions. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mining Co-location Pattern of Network Spatial Phenomenon Based on the Law of Additive Color Mixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AI Tinghua

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining co-location pattern is one of the hottest topics of current research in the spatial data mining community. The existing co-location mining methods belong to spatial statistics or data mining approaches, requiring much understanding of complex mathematical or statistical algorithms and parameters; and they consider events as taking place in a homogeneous and isotropic context in Euclidean space, whereas the physical movement in an urban space is usually constrained by a road network. This paper proposes a visualization method to mine co-location pattern along networks. The visual language is used to represent mutual influence between two geographic phenomena along networks. Firstly, taking Tobler's first law of geography into consideration, we use a network kernel density estimation method to express distribution pattern of geographic phenomena along networks, and construct a mapping between the distribution pattern of geographic phenomenon and color. Secondly, based on the law of additive color mixing, two colors representing two geographic phenomena are mixed to get cognition of the interaction between the two geographic phenomena. This method makes use of visual thinking, and it is intuitive and can be easily understood.

  7. 21 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - List of Applicable Laws, Regulations, and Administrative Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Administrative Provisions A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Good Manufacturing Practices Pt. 26, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 26—List of... authorization and supervision of medicinal products for human and veterinary use and establishing a European...

  8. Sewer-mining: A water reuse option supporting circular economy, public service provision and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makropoulos, C; Rozos, E; Tsoukalas, I; Plevri, A; Karakatsanis, G; Karagiannidis, L; Makri, E; Lioumis, C; Noutsopoulos, C; Mamais, D; Rippis, C; Lytras, E

    2017-07-17

    Water scarcity, either due to increased urbanisation or climatic variability, has motivated societies to reduce pressure on water resources mainly by reducing water demand. However, this practice alone is not sufficient to guarantee the quality of life that high quality water services underpin, especially within a context of increased urbanisation. As such, the idea of water reuse has been gaining momentum for some time and has recently found a more general context within the idea of the Circular Economy. This paper is set within the context of an ongoing discussion between centralized and decentralized water reuse techniques and the investigation of trade-offs between efficiency and economic viability of reuse at different scales. Specifically, we argue for an intermediate scale of a water reuse option termed 'sewer-mining', which could be considered a reuse scheme at the neighbourhood scale. We suggest that sewer mining (a) provides a feasible alternative reuse option when the geography of the wastewater treatment plant is problematic, (b) relies on mature treatment technologies and (c) presents an opportunity for Small Medium Enterprises (SME) to be involved in the water market, securing environmental, social and economic benefits. To support this argument, we report on a pilot sewer-mining application in Athens, Greece. The pilot, integrates two subsystems: a packaged treatment unit and an information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure. The paper reports on the pilot's overall performance and critically evaluates the potential of the sewer-mining idea to become a significant piece of the circular economy puzzle for water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reforming the Financial Assistance Provision in the Second Company Law Directive: A Danish Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Hansen, Søren Friis

    2003-01-01

    Based on the many Danish cases on the prohibition against companies advances funds to allow a third party to acquire shares in the company (financial assistance), it is debated if there is a need to reform Article 23 of the Second Company Law Directive, and how this reform should look....

  10. The regulation of acid mine drainage in South Africa: law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is arguably one of the most serious environmental concerns in South Africa. AMD is a legacy left behind by abandoned, derelict and defunct mines, and is a continuing by-product of existing mining activities. In addition to its environmental impacts, AMD will also impact on all the parameters of ...

  11. How can the criminal law support the provision of quality in healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Karen; Horder, Jeremy

    2014-06-01

    The egregious failings in patient safety at Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust between 2005 and 2009 identified by Sir Robert Francis QC in his public inquiry prompted him to recommend the introduction of a new criminal offence into English law in circumstances where a patient dies or is seriously harmed by a breach of fundamental standards. The authors evaluate whether, from the perspective of fairness and justice, a new criminal offence in this context is necessary and desirable. The authors considered the basic principles and functions of the criminal law and compared them with the principles and functions of the civil law. They then identify two primary tasks for the criminal law to perform in healthcare settings: (a) to establish primary duties to patients consisting of appropriately graded offences targeted at conduct that harms patients or unjustifiably poses risks to patients, and (b) to establish secondary duties to patients, consisting of offences aimed at punishing and deterring instances in which healthcare management and workers undermine the goals of regulation by lying or giving misleading information to regulatory officials or by obstructing their work. The authors focus on the first of these functions, identifying the scope of existing regulatory schemes that may give rise to criminal liability in English law when applied to healthcare contexts to identify whether a new criminal offence is needed. A gap in the existing regime of criminal liability is identified, and it is this gap which a new criminal offence seeks to fill. The authors suggest how such an offence should be structured, drawing primarily upon foundational principles of criminal liability. It is suggested that a new general offence of wilfully neglecting or ill-treating a patient that can be committed by any healthcare organisation or worker (appropriately defined) is warranted. The criminal law has an important role to play in the healthcare context. Its central function is not

  12. Deformation failure characteristics of coal body and mining induced stress evolution law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhijie; Qu, Guanglong; Wen, Jinhao; Shi, Yongkui; Jia, Chuanyang

    2014-01-01

    The results of the interaction between coal failure and mining pressure field evolution during mining are presented. Not only the mechanical model of stope and its relative structure division, but also the failure and behavior characteristic of coal body under different mining stages are built and demonstrated. Namely, the breaking arch and stress arch which influence the mining area are quantified calculated. A systematic method of stress field distribution is worked out. All this indicates that the pore distribution of coal body with different compressed volume has fractal character; it appears to be the linear relationship between propagation range of internal stress field and compressed volume of coal body and nonlinear relationship between the range of outburst coal mass and the number of pores which is influenced by mining pressure. The results provide theory reference for the research on the range of mining-induced stress and broken coal wall.

  13. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Pienaar, Jan; Brink, Brian; van Zyl, Andrew; Muirhead, Debbie; Grant, Alison; Churchyard, Gavin; Watts, Charlotte; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-09-01

    HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost-benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost-benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022. A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM), was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%-8%) and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%-19%) by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879-US$1.6 million) per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%-except when no benefits were paid out to employees leaving the workforce and when absenteeism

  14. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost-Benefit Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Meyer-Rath

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes in the workplace. A full cost-benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost-benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022.A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM, was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%-8% and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%-19% by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879-US$1.6 million per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%-except when no benefits were paid out to employees leaving the workforce and

  15. The Impact of Company-Level ART Provision to a Mining Workforce in South Africa: A Cost–Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; Pienaar, Jan; Brink, Brian; van Zyl, Andrew; Muirhead, Debbie; Grant, Alison; Churchyard, Gavin; Watts, Charlotte; Vickerman, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV impacts heavily on the operating costs of companies in sub-Saharan Africa, with many companies now providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes in the workplace. A full cost–benefit analysis of workplace ART provision has not been conducted using primary data. We developed a dynamic health-state transition model to estimate the economic impact of HIV and the cost–benefit of ART provision in a mining company in South Africa between 2003 and 2022. Methods and Findings A dynamic health-state transition model, called the Workplace Impact Model (WIM), was parameterised with workplace data on workforce size, composition, turnover, HIV incidence, and CD4 cell count development. Bottom-up cost analyses from the employer perspective supplied data on inpatient and outpatient resource utilisation and the costs of absenteeism and replacement of sick workers. The model was fitted to workforce HIV prevalence and separation data while incorporating parameter uncertainty; univariate sensitivity analyses were used to assess the robustness of the model findings. As ART coverage increases from 10% to 97% of eligible employees, increases in survival and retention of HIV-positive employees and associated reductions in absenteeism and benefit payments lead to cost savings compared to a scenario of no treatment provision, with the annual cost of HIV to the company decreasing by 5% (90% credibility interval [CrI] 2%–8%) and the mean cost per HIV-positive employee decreasing by 14% (90% CrI 7%–19%) by 2022. This translates into an average saving of US$950,215 (90% CrI US$220,879–US$1.6 million) per year; 80% of these cost savings are due to reductions in benefit payments and inpatient care costs. Although findings are sensitive to assumptions regarding incidence and absenteeism, ART is cost-saving under considerable parameter uncertainty and in all tested scenarios, including when prevalence is reduced to 1%—except when no benefits were paid out to employees

  16. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  17. Reducing stigma in healthcare and law enforcement: a novel approach to service provision for street level sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Kate; Delahunty-Pike, Alannah; O'Shea, Tim

    2015-04-09

    Providing services for street level sex workers requires a multidisciplinary approach, addressing both health and safety concerns typical of their age and gender and those that arise specific to their line of work. Despite being a diverse population, studies have identified some specific health needs for sex workers including addictions treatment, mental health. Additionally, studies have shown a higher risk of physical and sexual assault for this population. The Persons at Risk program (PAR) in London, Ontario, Canada was started in 2005 to address the specific needs of street level sex workers by using a harm-reduction model for policing and healthcare provision. This qualitative study evaluated this model of care in terms of improving access to healthcare and essential police services for street level sex workers. A total of 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with current and former female street level sex workers enrolled in the PAR program. In addition, 3 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and law enforcement professionals. The research team then analyzed and coded the transcripts using qualitative description to identify key themes in the data. Results indicated that participants represent a vulnerable population with increased safety concerns and healthcare needs relating to addictions, mental health and infectious disease. Despite this, participants reported avoiding healthcare workers and police officers in the past because of fear of stigma or repercussions. All participants identified the harm reduction approach of the PAR program as being essential to their continued engagement with the program. Other important aspects included flexible hours, the location of the clinic, streamlined access to mental health and addictions treatment and the female gender of the police and healthcare worker. The PAR program provides sex workers access to much needed primary healthcare that is flexible and without judgment. In addition, they are

  18. Water Law, Mining and Hydro-Energy Conflicts in South America: Tales from the Andes and Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tafur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts in connection with hydro-energy and mining activities vis-à-vis other water uses, mainly human consumption, agriculture, industry, tourism, or even the essential flows needed for ecosystem protection, call into question whether South America’s path in the 21st Century will be characterized as ‘open veins’ (borrowing from the title of Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano’s book or sustainable development. In this era of ‘New Conquistadors’, as some have called it, the key question is whether water law and environmental legal frameworks in the region are fit to deal with the pressure posed by these extracting industries. The paper seeks to contribute to this debate by discussing legal issues in connection with a controversial gold mining project in the Argentina-Chile border and a hydro-energy project in the Chilean Patagonia. The goal of the paper is to provide a South American perspective of water law through the lens of conflict. The paper concludes that water-related conflicts in these projects reveal weaknesses in the regulatory scheme for such endeavours and underscores the need to adopt reforms or implement mechanisms to ensure that water resources are adequately assessed, protected, and monitored.

  19. Provision of financial services, violation of public law conduct of business rules, and private law norm settinga Dutch, German, and European perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Legal uncertainty exists with regards to the relationship between a violation of public law conduct of business rules and private law norm setting. In the area of financial services this uncertainty has led to the question whether private law duties of care can deviate from the norms pursuant to

  20. The new follow-on-biologics law: a section by section analysis of the patent litigation provisions in the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Michael P

    2010-01-01

    An abbreviated pathway for the approval of biosimilar biological products, often called "follow-on biologics," has been enacted into law as part of the health care legislation recently passed by Congress and signed by the President. The subtitle of the health care bill establishing this approval pathway, the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act of 2009, includes many provisions governing the identification of patents relevant to a given biosimilar biological product and the assertion of those patents in infringement suits. This article provides a section-by-section analysis of the patent-related provisions of the new approval pathway for biosimilar biological products, and points out several ways in which the new law differs fundamentally from the Hatch-Waxman Act, which provides the approval pathway for generic versions of small molecule drugs.

  1. The nurses' power to detain informal psychiatric patients: a review of the statutory and common law provisions in England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, G D

    2000-10-01

    This paper explores the extent to which nurses can use statutory and common law provisions as lawful authority to detain informal psychiatric patients. The power of a nurse to detain informal psychiatric patients received statutory recognition for the first time in the Mental Health Act (1983). Section 5(4) of this Act, the 'Nurses Holding Power', provides for nurses of the 'prescribed class' to detain informal psychiatric patients for up to 6 hours. Further statutory authority that may be invoked with respect to the detention of patients is laid out in the Criminal Law Act (1967) and the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (1984). These statutes set out the circumstances whereby a nurse can use reasonable force to detain a patient. One of the most confusing areas in law is the extent to which common law powers can be used by nurses to detain or restrain informal psychiatric patients, including those who lack mental capacity. The detention of those patients who lack the mental capacity to express an informed desire to leave hospital has caused uncertainty and difficulties for nurses caring for them. These difficulties relate to whether it is lawful to detain and give treatment to informal patients who lack the capacity to express a choice. The principles derived from the case law are discussed in relation to detention, clinical practice and patients rights.

  2. Mining, accountability and the law in the Bakgatla-ba-Kgafela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interpretation of customary law not only leaves the chief's unaccountability unchecked but also endorses the punishment of village activists who call the chief to account. Hence it remains extremely difficult for ordinary rural residents to challenge the chief to account for vast mineral revenues that he controls on behalf of their ...

  3. Gas migration model based on overburden strata fracture evolution law in three dimensional mine-induced stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Yin, Guangzhi

    2017-04-01

    Based on the fracture features obtained from similarity simulation excavation experiment in 3D mine-induced stress condition, the gas migration model in gob area was set up, and numerical simulation using COMSOL Multiphysics software on gas migration law was studied. The research results show that: Gas pressure variety gradient and flow velocity are obviously influenced by fracture distribution shape. Gas concentration distribution presents the rounded rectangle shape in the lower strata, while in higher strata it tends to be a "O shape” morphology which is similar to the fracture form in strata above the gob. Besides, the pressure relief gas mainly accumulates in the working face fracture field, especially in the higher overlying strata. In the compaction field, gas concentration distribution form presents a “saddle” shape morphology in the vertical section, and gas concentration in boundary fracture zone is higher than in the compaction zone. It is remarkable that gas concentration in start-up fractured zone is also relatively high, and with the advance of working face, its gas enrichment degree decreases. The results of the research have an important guiding significance for coal and gas simultaneous extraction.

  4. Apology and Spanish Criminal Law at the Post-Sentencing Level: the Gap Between Legal Provisions and Victims and Offenders’ Experiences in Cases of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Varona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Spanish provisions in criminal law requesting apology by offenders in organized crime, including terrorism. In order to grant parole, apology is required, among other possible means provided by law, to accredit the abandonment of the ends and means of the terrorist activity. Those legal provisions will be contrasted with the experience and narratives of victims and offenders in cases of terrorism. Final conclusions will be derived in relation to the possibility of restorative apologies in these contexts.Este artículo aborda las provisiones españolas en materia de derecho penal que solicitan la petición de perdón de los delincuentes del crimen organizado, incluyendo el terrorismo. Entre otras medidas posibles que plantea la ley, para obtener la libertad condicional se requiere una disculpa, para acreditar el abandono de los fines y los medios de la actividad terrorista. Estas provisiones legales se contrastarán con la experiencia y las narraciones de víctimas y delincuentes en casos de terrorismo. Se ofrecen conclusiones finales en relación con la posibilidad de disculpas restaurativas en estos contextos.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3002481

  5. Data-mining analysis of the provision of mobility devices in the United States with emphasis on complex rehab technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Johnson Taylor, Susan

    2017-11-28

    The objective of this study was to describe the provision of wheeled-mobility equipment from the perspective of a large equipment supplier in the United States. The records of clients who were prescribed a mobility device over a 6-month period were randomly sampled to product a dataset of 1,689 clients. Analysis was limited to descriptive statistics and measures of relationships. The majority of the clients were adults (72%) and female (58%) with 62% receiving a manual wheelchair. The majority of interventions (58%) included some contribution from the client or client's family. Overall, 86% of all prescribed wheelchairs were classified as complex rehab technology (CRT). About half (52%) of all interventions involved a therapist. Therapist involvement was 2.5 times more likely during CRT interventions compared to standard durable medical equipment (StdDME). The project provides a novel description of mobility-related equipment provision using a large retrospective dataset. The analysis demonstrates the utility of analyzing a large number of client interventions. The capabilities of such analyses have business, clinical, and policy implications. Combining the data available from suppliers with prospective collection of client-specific information, such as outcomes, would be a more powerful means to assess the provision of wheeled-mobility equipment.

  6. Commercial surrogacy: how provisions of monetary remuneration and powers of international law can prevent exploitation of gestational surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramskold, Louise Anna Helena; Posner, Marcus Paul

    2013-06-01

    Increasing globalisation and advances in artificial reproductive techniques have opened up a whole new range of possibilities for infertile couples across the globe. Inter-country gestational surrogacy with monetary remuneration is one of the products of medical tourism meeting in vitro fertilisation embryo transfer. Filled with potential, it has also been a hot topic of discussion in legal and bioethics spheres. Fears of exploitation and breach of autonomy have sprung from the current situation, where there is no international regulation of surrogacy agreements--only a web of conflicting national laws that generates loopholes and removes safeguards for both the surrogate and commissioning couple. This article argues the need for evidence-based international laws and regulations as the only way to resolve both the ethical and legal issues around commercial surrogacy. In addition, a Hague Convention on inter-country surrogacy agreements is proposed to resolve the muddled state of affairs and enable commercial surrogacy to demonstrate its full potential.

  7. Legal Provisions, Discrimination and Uncertainty on LGBT community in Albania. Laws on human rights vs exerted rights of LGBT persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana Curi

    2018-03-01

    On March 13, 2010, the Anti-Discrimination Law, one of the essential legal instruments that protects human rights in Albania, and also includes the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, came into force. Albania has already the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination. Two LGBT organizations have already been established in Albania: the Alliance against Discrimination LGBT and LGBT Pro Albania. They aim to protect the rights of sexual minorities in Albania and promote a national movement of social mobilization to protect and promote the rights of this community in Albania

  8. Mine and land ownership in operation planning procedures. On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law; Bergwerkseigentum und Grundeigentum im Betriebsverfahren. Zur verwaltungsrechtlichen Gestaltung vernetzter Grundrechtspositionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt-Assmann, E.; Schoch, F.

    1994-12-31

    On the framing of issues of conflicting civil rights under administrative law. The available arsenal of legal instruments for solving conflicts between proprietary titles to land surfaces and mines is more extensive and differentiated and, if properly deployed, more effective than one might at first expect. The control mechanisms become effective either immediately through laws or through administrative or private acts and are based on public or on private law. They range from the sphere of mining rights, operation planning law, the law on the prevention of damage to private persons over to the regulations under mining law on the payment of damages. The constitutionality of the mining regulations examined here is beyond dispute. They comply with the constitutional requirement to frame the issue concerned and afford protection while at the same time providing the required measure of openness and flexibility for conforming to the peculiarities of the mining business and permitting the necessary sensitivity of administrative control for managing this multipolar legal relationship. At the statutory level the regulatory purpose of the mining law in force is thus fulfilled. (orig./HSCH) [Deutsch] Das Arsenal an gesetzlichen Instrumenten zur Loesung der zwischen Bergwerkseigentum und Oberflaecheneigentum auftretender Konflikte ist reichhaltiger, differenzierter und - bei richtigem Einsatz - wirkungsvoller als zunaechst vermutet. Die Steuerungsmechanismen wirken gesetzesunmittelbar oder kraft behoerdlicher bzw. privater Massnahmen, sie bedienen sich oeffentlichrechtlicher und privatrechtlicher Mittel, und sie reichen sachlich vom Berechtsamswesen ueber das Betriebsplanrecht bis hin zum Recht der privaten Schadenspraevention und enden im bergrechtlichen Schadenersatzrecht. Beruecksichtigt man diesen breiten Hintergrund, sollte kein Zweifel an der Verfassungsmaessigkeit der hier untersuchten berggesetzlichen Vorschriften bestehen. Sie genuegen einerseits dem

  9. Provision of Healthcare Services to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nigeria: Students' Attitudes Following the Passage of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Jolly, Kate; Gale, Nicola K; Ifaniyi, Oluwafemi A; Somefun, Esther O; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Fakayode, Victoria A

    2016-08-01

    After signing of the Same-Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act 2013 in Nigeria, media reports portray widespread societal intolerance toward the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population. This study was conducted to assess the attitudes of university undergraduates in Lagos state, Nigeria, toward provision of healthcare services for men who have sex with men (MSM), because the 2014 same-sex marriage prohibition law stipulates a jail sentence for organizations providing services to MSM. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires to collect information, including homophobic attitudes and views on access to healthcare, from 4000 undergraduates in 10 randomly selected faculties in two universities. During analysis, inter-university and inter-faculty comparison was carried out between medical and nonmedical students. Outright denial of healthcare services to MSM was supported by 37.6% of the 3537 undergraduates who responded, whereas denial of HIV prevention services was supported by 32.5%. However, compared with 38.7% and 34.1% of undergraduates from other faculties, 23.7% and 18.2% of medical students agreed that healthcare providers should not provide services to MSM and that MSM should not have access to HIV prevention services, respectively (P = 0.000). Although a significant proportion of the medical students supported the statement that doctors and other healthcare workers should be compelled to give priority to other groups before MSM (29.4% of medical vs. 47.2% of students from other faculties), a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of students. The homophobic statement with the highest support was that doctors and healthcare workers should be compelled to report MSM who come to access treatment (48.1% of medical vs. 57.4% of students from other faculties). A very high proportion of the undergraduate students had a negative attitude toward provision of healthcare services to MSM in

  10. Mine reclamation in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd Durham; James G. Barnum

    1980-01-01

    Open cut mine land reclamation laws have only been effective since 1971 in Arkansas. Since that time all land affected by mining had to be reclaimed. To guarantee reclamation, the first law required a $500 per acre surety bond be posted with the Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology. The Arkansas Open Cut Land Reclamation Act of 1977 changed the bonding...

  11. Integrated mining and land reclamation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The course was designed to explore: mine land development and start-up operations; impact of changes in mining laws and land use; successful mine planning and reclamation operations; opportunities for financing mining and reclamation projects; cost-effective water pollution control in mining; developing successful integrated mining and land reclamation; achieving a balance between mining reclamation and land use planning; and reclamation and land re-use opportunities - benefits to local communities and mining companies.

  12. South African labour law and HIV / AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R; Strode, A

    1999-01-01

    This article contains five key pieces of labor legislation in South Africa, including one applying specifically to the mining industry which protect the rights of employees. These laws include: the Employment Equity Act, No. 55 of 1998; the Labour Relations Act, No. 66 of 1995; the Occupational Health and Safety Act, No. 85 of 1993; the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act No. 130 of 1993; the Mines Health and Safety Act, No. 29 of 1996; and the Basic Conditions of Employment Act, No. 75 of 1997. This paper further presents the Medical Schemes Act, No. 131 of 1998 and the protection of the right to privacy and dignity. Although HIV/AIDS was expressly referred to only in the Employment Equity Act, there are provisions in all the other Acts, which have relevance to HIV/AIDS.

  13. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciate the legal significance of consent. "Every human being ... {2} Nothing in this article shall affect the provisions of laws ... (1 A court may, at any stage of a case, order that the accused .... undue influence, incapacitated person is invalid.

  14. The effect of entry into force of the mining law 2009 began January 2014 in the production of NPI (Nickel Pig Iron) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, P.

    2018-01-01

    China is the largest producer NPI (Nickel Pig Iron) obtained from the processing of the low grade laterite (oxide ore) with pyrometallurgical process. Furthermore NPI is used as substitute FeNi (Ferro Nickel) to make stainless steel (SS). The low grade laterite are imported from Philippines and Indonesia because China does not have the natural resources of laterite. China mainly imported limonite contains Ni 1.5 % from Indonesia. The entry into force of the Mining Law 2009 began January 12, 2014 which prohibits the export of the raw materials of mineral, and obliged to process minerals in Indonesia. Applicability of the legislation automatically affects the production of NPI in China. The effects in the short term since the enactment of the Act, the production of NPI declined and imports FeNi increased in China in 2014/2015. So that in anticipation, the NPI producers in China are trying to relocate the NPI plant out of China especially to Indonesia. For the producers who do not relocate the NPI plant, they tried to get the low grade saprolite from the other country especially from Philippines. If the NPI factory from China is relocated to Indonesia, it seems that China is likely to relocate the NPI plant to Indonesia. So in anticipation of the government must make government regulations (GR/PP: Peraturan Pemerintah) which in principle do not harm Indonesia. The government regulation (GR/PP) is to be mutually beneficial to both parties or win-win solution. This reality will be studied in this paper.

  15. Legal Transplants: A conflict of statutory law and customary Law in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Mola Pumuye

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Papua New Guinea adopted the common law system of government in 1975 during independence. The genesis of most if not all its legislation can be traced back to the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and other commonwealth countries. The tendency for legal transplants of legislative texts from these common law jurisdictions to sections of Papua New Guinean laws has been a constant reoccurrence. With huge texts of laws transplanted it begs the question whether these laws are coherent with existing laws and appropriate for Papua New Guinea. This paper analyses the existing Mining Act 1992 and Oil and Gas Act 1998 vesting ownership of minerals and petroleum in the State although these resources are located on customary land. I will use the said acts to establish the hypothesis that, in the rush to transplant legislation from Australia, this transplanted provision fails the functionality test and is not effective in Papua New Guinea. I will also try and point out the effects and solutions to redress this situation.Keywords: Customary law, alienated land, legal transplants, functionality test

  16. DIVORCE PROCEEDINGS, IN LIGHT OF THE NEW PROVISIONS OF LAW NO. 202/2010 REGARDING SOME MEASURES FOR ACCELERATING THE RESOLUTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOANA PADURARIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Law no. 202/2010 regarding some measures for accelerating the resolution process establishes procedural rules with immediate effect, meant to streamline judicial procedures, and to expeditiously resolve processes, regulating specific legislative measures, which aim mainly to simplify solving cases. In matters of divorce, a first change is that, unlike the previous situation, the divorce case by agreement will be judged in the council chamber. Also, according to the above mentioned law, if the conditions for dissolution by agreement are accomplished, we can divorce not only in front of the court, but also to the notary public or officer of civil status, opportunity that did not existed in past. Another novelty is the express possibility to demand resolution through mediation for divorce, specifying that the parties can not only refuse the judge's recommendation to seek mediation, but that the parties can refuse mediation session even after information. Regarding mediation, the law brings news on divorce. Under that legislation, divorce can be made by the parties even when the couple has minor children and agree to the mediation process.

  17. Taxation on mining and hydrocarbon investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz De La Vega Rengifo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article comments the most important aspects of the tax treatment applicable to investments of mining and oil and gas industry. The document highlights the relevant tax topics of the general tax legislation(Income Tax Law and the special legislation of both industries (General Mining Law and Hydrocarbons Organic Law.

  18. The Judicialization of Health in Brazil: Guiding Principles, Organization as the Law 8.080/90, Possibilities and Limites of Jurisdiction in Actions of Free Medicine Provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Christina Zenkner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this paper deals with the increasing movement of judicialization of the right to health, characterized by the excess of judicial demands aiming at the obtaining of health treatments and medicines. A study was made on the right to health, its principles and health organization in Brazil in light of Law 8.080 / 90. It analyzed parameters for rationalization of the judicialization in the supply of medicines. He noted the need to adapt procedures and criteria, both administrative and judicial, to make public policies feasible in order to achieve satisfaction of the right to health.

  19. Post-licensing orders under atomic energy law. With special emphasis on provisions for accident management in nuclear installations; Nachtraegliche Anordnungen im Atomrecht. Unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Massnahmen des sogenannten anlageninternen Notfallschutzes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmeke, R.

    1995-12-31

    The author discusses the aspects of implementation of backfitting measures by way of a so-called informal order of an administrative authority based on retrofitting agreements between the authority and the facility operator. The author`s review of the legal aspects leads to the conclusion that this procedure is admissible also in the case of facility operators agreeing to implement retrofitting measures beyond the scope prescribed by existing law. It is explained that the legal provisions for the prevention of damage cover not only measures for prevention of defined risk or damage, but also risks or damage caused by probable risks beyond the danger threshold expressly defined, while such orders of the administrative authority are not admissible in the procedure for licensing, or during the operational phase of a given installation (protection of third parties). The author qualifies post-licensing orders as an interference with the property rights of facility owners protected by the constitution, as in his eyes the provisions of the atomic energy law comply with the constitutional requirements of protection of existing rights. The book further discusses the relationship between post-licensing orders and subsequent, amending licences, and presents considerations on the planned revision of the Atomic Energy Act. (HP) [Deutsch] Der Autor widmet sich der Realisierung von Nachruestungsmassnahmen im Wege des wg. informalen Verwaltungshandelns durch Sanierungsabsprachen Behoerde-Betreiber. Diese seien auch dann zulaessig, wenn die Betreiber sich fuer Modernisierungsmassnahmen bereiterklaeren, die ueber das gesetzlich Gebotene hinausgehen. - Die atomrechtliche Schadensvorsorge umfasse neben der eigentlichen Gefahrenabwehr auch die der Gefahrenschwelle vorgelagerte Risikovorsorge, waehrend beim sog. Restrisiko bei der Genehmigungserteilung und waehrend der Betriebsphase einschraenkende behoerdliche Anordnungen nicht zulaessig seien (Drittschutzproblematik). - Der Autor

  20. Business Law, Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex; Werlauff, Erik

    be the book within your reach. We call it “Our Corporate Bible”. In an easily comprehendible way we address some of the most essential issues of business law, and provide guidelines and clarity for understanding and proper application of the legal provisions that govern business law in Europe....

  1. Nuclear Law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Admissibility of the action to set aside - possible violation of basic rights - preclusion - forfeiture of action - substantial modification of an installation - effects on the safety level - involvement of the public - violation of procedural rules - omitted interpretation. Guiding principles: It is a matter of substantial modification subject to authorization as defined by the Atomic Energy Law if and when this modification affects the safety level of the installation, unless it is obvious that these effects are insignificant. It cannot make any difference whether these modifications may have a positive or negative effect on the safety level. The provisions governing sect. 4 para. 1 and sect. 6 para. 1 of the AtVfV confer on a third party affected a right under public law to be involved in the licensing procedure as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law, with the result that its violation concedes the party affected a right to claim the annulment of the (partial) licence granted. The issue of licensing capacity under substantive law does not matter. An interpretation omitted by way of action can only be reproved successfully if the substantial modifications may negatively affect the rights of the complaining party, not if the operator takes protective measures which obviously improve the safety level. Arnsberg Administrative Court - 7 K 74/79 - Decision of January 27, 1981.

  2. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  3. 25 CFR 216.7 - Approval of mining plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of mining plan. 216.7 Section 216.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216.7 Approval of mining plan. (a) Before surface mining operations...

  4. Mining industry versus land ownership and local government?. On the importance of the constitutional protection of property rights and local government rights in the procedure for approval of plan of operations under mining law; Bergbau contra Oberflaecheneigentum und kommunale Selbstverwaltung?. Zur Bedeutung der verfassungsrechtlichen Garantie des Eigentums und der gemeindlichen Selbstverwaltung bei der bergrechtlichen Betriebsplanzulassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenke, W.R.

    1994-12-31

    The procedure for approval of the plan of operations, certifying the permissibility of a mining project, is laid down in sections 51 ff of the German Mining Act (BBergG). The BBergG largely still adheres to the principles incorporated in the old ABG, (general mining law for the Prussian states), which stem from an epoch with constitutional approaches very different from nowadays` constitutional rights and principles. Hence the legal position of land owners in administrative procedures for approval of mining work plans was left unconsidered in the law, and the rights of the local government concerned received as little attention. Today, initiatives are building up calling for remedy of this unsatisfactory situation of third parties affected by mining projects, arguing that economic interests and the vital importance of our natural resources must not prevail over principles embodied in our Constitution (Art.28, para.2, sentence 1 GG). The book in hand presents an analysis originating from two expert opinions, starting from the principle question of whether the legal position of land owners and local governments needs to be strengthened on constitutional grounds to an extent significantly exceeding the present level of protection provided for by jurisdiction and administrative practice in matters subject to the BBergG. (orig./HSCH) [Deutsch] Das Verfahren der bergrechtlichen Zulassung eines Betriebsplans, in welchen ueber die Zulaessigkeit bergbaulicher Vorhaben befunden wird, ist in den Paragraphen 51 ff. Bundesberggesetzes (BBergG) geregelt. Das BBergG orientiert sich noch an den aus einer anderen Verfassungsepoche stammenden Vorschriften des ABG. Der Rechtsstellung des Oberflaecheneigentuemers wurde demzufolge im Verahren der Betriebsplanzulassung keine Bedeutung beigemessen. Ebenso schwach schien auch die Stellung der Gemeinden. In den letzten Jahren sind gegenueber den Annahme einer derart schwachen Rechtsposition Dritter bei der Betriebsplanzulassung zunehmend

  5. 19 CFR 171.55 - Notice provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 6079 of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 and implementing regulations. (b) Notice provision. The... property and shall include a statement of the applicable law under which the property is seized and a...

  6. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  7. Accounting treatment of provisions for mine closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Franco Concha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available La Ley del Impuesto a la Renta vigente y su Reglamento no mencionan ni reconocen a laProvisión por Cierre de Minas1 como gasto deducible para efectos del cálculo de la renta netaimponible2, lo que genera un vacío legal que no permite que las empresas que se dedican a laactividad minera puedan determinar si dicha provisión se debería o no considerar como gastodeducible del Impuesto a la Renta.La presente investigación tiene como objetivo sustentar y validar la especificación e inclusióno no de la Provisión por Cierre de Minas como gasto deducible para efectos de la Ley delImpuesto a la Renta a través de la evaluación del tratamiento contable financiero y tributariode dicha provisión.

  8. Law without Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sidharth, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws emerging from an underpinning of lawlessness.

  9. At what point does what’s mine become yours? A critical analysis of the current law on common intention constructive trusts and cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Fullbrook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of the law in relation to the use of common intention constructive trusts to determine disputes arising from the breakdown of relationships between cohabiting, non-married couples. It is clear that there is a need to protect vulnerable parties to a relationship and to maintain certainty with regard to property ownership, but this is a difficult balance to strike.  This examination has been conducted by analysing the key cases that have been heard in the senior courts in relation to this matter since the landmark ruling of the House of Lords in Stack v Dowden almost ten years ago.  This has identified three key issues with the current state of the law: (1 judicial confusion over whether the existence of beneficial shares in property should be imputed or implied by the courts; (2 the creation of unrealistic expectations as to the reliance that the court will place on non-financial contributions to a relationship; and (3 practical and evidential difficulties caused by its implementation.  Further analysis of the Cohabitation Rights Bill suggests that it is unlikely to overcome any of these issues because it seeks to increase, rather than reduce the role of the courts.  This article concludes that the law should be simplified such that couples are allocated the same portion of the beneficial interest in the property as their legal interest unless they expressly declare otherwise.

  10. Utilisation of residues in coal and ore mining in Nordrhein-Westfalen according to the specifications of mining law. Verwertung von Reststoffen im Steinkohle- und Erzbergbau Nordrhein-Westfalens im Betriebsplanverfahren nach Bundesbergrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, H. (Landesoberbergamt Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dortmund (Germany))

    1992-12-01

    In order to stabilize the marketing position of domestic coal and lignite, the mining industry of North-Rhine-Westphalia developed a new sales strategy about 10 years ago. Apart from supplying coal to their customers, Rheinbraun AG and Ruhrkohle AG also took care of the disposal of residues from power plants, heating stations, and furnaces. This induced many communal and private plant owners to continue buying domestic coal - especially in southern Germany where disposal of residues was impossible or too costly. The brown coal residues were dumped in the Rheinish brown coal district, which had ample capacity. In the case of hard coal residues, the industry had to develop and test techniques for underground dumping. (orig./HS).

  11. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  12. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  13. MUSLIM PERSONAL LAW AND THE MEANING OF "LAW" IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Two percent of the total population of South Africa consists of Muslims2 who follow a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa3 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, ...

  14. Environmental law. Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloepfer, M. (Trier Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Umwelt- und Technikrecht)

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST).

  15. 8. Still killing: Land-mines in Southern Africa: International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Mines may be described as fighters that never miss, strike blindly, do not carry weapons openly, and go on killing long after hostilities have ended. In short, mines are the greatest violators of international humanitarian law, practising blind terrorism.

  16. Surface mine impoundments as wildlife and fish habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble

    1989-01-01

    Unreclaimed surface mine impoundments provide poor fish and wildlife habitat. Recommendations given here for reclaiming "prelaw" impoundments and creating new impoundments could provide valuable fish and wildlife habitat if incorporated into existing laws and mine plans.

  17. Longwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-14

    As part of EIA`s program to provide information on coal, this report, Longwall-Mining, describes longwall mining and compares it with other underground mining methods. Using data from EIA and private sector surveys, the report describes major changes in the geologic, technological, and operating characteristics of longwall mining over the past decade. Most important, the report shows how these changes led to dramatic improvements in longwall mining productivity. For readers interested in the history of longwall mining and greater detail on recent developments affecting longwall mining, the report includes a bibliography.

  18. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of minority rights in education is particularly sensitive in South Africa where members of previously disadvantaged groups regard the demand for minority protection with suspicion. An overview of the literature on the concept minority, legal provisions in international law and the main provisions in South African law ...

  19. Implication of Copyright Provisions for Literary Works in Films and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of this paper is to discuss the various provisions of the copyright law as they affect films, video and by extension video CD. The study examines the various interpretations of the provisions of the copyright law as they affect film, video and allied media and concluded that as a result of rapid changes in techno logy of ...

  20. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and national development about the proposals of law: (no.418) from M. Richard Mallie, about various dispositions relative to miners rights and mines, (no.489) from M. Michel Sordi, about various dispositions relative to mines; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur les propositions de loi: (no.418) de M. Richard Mallie, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux droits des mineurs et aux mines, (no.489) de M. Michel Sordi, portant diverses dispositions relatives aux mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report concerns two proposals of law which have a common concern: warranting the rights of the miners and retired miners after the disappearing of the national association of retired miners management (ANGR), the members of which are the three companies of Charbonnages de France group (French national coal board), today undergoing a progressive shut-down. In this report, it is proposed to merge the contributions of both proposals with the creation of a new national agency for the warranty of the perenniality of miners' rights. It proposes also some necessary adaptations of the structures of Charbonnages de France group and some dispositions aiming at modernizing the French mining law and ensuring the exploitation of solid mineral fuels after the disappearing of the group. (J.S.)

  1. 42 CFR 422.378 - Relationship to State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to State law. 422.378 Section 422.378... Relationship to State law. (a) Preemption of State law. Any provisions of State law that relate to the... licensed under State law; (ii) Generally apply to other MA organizations and plans in the State; and (iii...

  2. Mine aftershocks and implications for seismic hazard assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kgarume, T

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available is employed due to the small number of aftershocks succeeding each mainshock. Mine tremor aftershocks were found to obey statistical relations governing aftershocks (Gutenberg-Richter frequencymagnitude, Modified Omori law and the density law...

  3. THE LAW OF THE SEA: OFFSHORE BOUNDARIES AND ZONES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    certain aspects of the law of the sea. Among the topics covered in this book are fisheries resources in offshore waters, mining in the sea, the law and new technologies, and international control of high seas’ resources. (Author)

  4. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  5. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  6. Inexpressive Law

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonara, Emanuela; Parisi, Francesco; von Wangenheim, Georg

    2010-01-01

    According to expressive law theories, expression of values is an important function played by the law. Expressive laws affect behavior, not by threatening sanctions or promising rewards, but by changing individual preferences and tastes and, in some cases, by affecting social norms and values. New laws, however, can run against sticky social norms, failing to achieve their expressive effects. By developing a dynamic model, in this paper we show that inexpressive laws (laws whose expressive fu...

  7. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  8. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  9. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African and Indian constitutions

    OpenAIRE

    C Rautenbach

    1999-01-01

    The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, at this stage, not formally recognised in terms of South African law. Since Muslim personal law receives no constitutional recognition the question may be asked whether the 199...

  10. Competition law: private law, public law, regulatory or economic law?

    OpenAIRE

    Palacios Lleras, Andrés

    2013-01-01

    Let’s imagine that we want to establish a new law school in Colombia. How would we classify competition law within its curricular structure? By attempting to answer this apparently harmless question, this article shows the inherent difficulties in trying to classify competition law as private law, public law, regulation or “economic law”. This is due not only because such categories are very imprecise, but also because they depart significantly form our daily experiences with this field of la...

  11. Social mobilisation and violence at the mining frontier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middeldorp, Nick; Morales, Carlos; Haar, van der Gemma

    2016-01-01

    This paper documents opposition to mining in Honduras, a country at the verge of an attempted ‘mining boom’ since the ratification of a new mining law in April 2013. It analyses how a broad movement – involving NGOs, social movements and local communities – engages in opposition to the extractive

  12. Muslim personal law and the meaning of "law" in the South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Muslim population of South Africa follows a practice which may be referred to as Muslim personal law. Although section 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa 108 of 1996 recognises religious freedom and makes provision for the future recognition of other personal law systems, Muslim personal law is, ...

  13. Sentinel Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, Morten

    into geography dimension) combined with a decrease in the money invested in customer support for laptop computers (drilldown into product dimension) is observed. The work leading to this thesis progressed from algorithms for regular sentinel mining with only one source and one target measure, into algorithms...... progression in the efficiency of sentinel mining, where the latest bitmap-based algorithms, that also take advantage of modern CPUs, are 3–4 orders of magnitude faster than the first SQL-based sentinel mining algorithm. This work also led to the industrial implementation of sentinel mining in the commercial...

  14. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  15. The Law and Internal Armed Conflict: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    The law of internal armed conflict is currently plagued with uncertainty regarding what laws apply and when they apply. Common Article 3 of the 1949...these laws. It is my argument that Common Article 3 is sufficient to cover this area of the law . Its provisions are broad enough to cover all

  16. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  17. Interzones of Law and Metaphysics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    between the two do not merely concern the rights and obligations explicitly laid down in the law, but fundamental presumptions regarding the nature of human beings, overall purposes of social order, hierarchical and dynamic features of society and the possibility at all of regulation, its logics......The dissertation analyzes a contemporary battlefield of law, the field of EU social rights, from a political-philosophical point of view. It is the conviction of the dissertation that law is deeply and inescapably conceptually connected with fundamental features of social order. The interrelations...... and sources of authority. On the basis of a historical-conceptual understanding of law according to which law, social structure and metaphysical presumptions are inescapably intertwined, the dissertation derives from the binding provisions of law certain essential features of social order. More precisely...

  18. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  19. The modernisation of mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ritchken, E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation discusses the modernisation of mining. The presentation focuses on the mining clusters, Mining Challenges, Compliance versus Collaboration, The Phakisa, The Mining Precinct & the Mining Hub also Win-Win Beneficiation: Iron...

  20. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    , the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...

  1. law, the laws of nature and ecosystem energy services

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    forest can be regrown in a relatively short time (decades to a century, compared to tens of ..... 80 /214. The IUCN treats only a small subset of biomass-based energy as products of ecosystem provisioning services.65 Biomass energy is important, supplying ... The laws of physics and thermodynamics govern ecosystem.

  2. 48 CFR 552.270-8 - Compliance with Applicable Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Applicable Law. 552.270-8 Section 552.270-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552.270-8 Compliance with Applicable Law. As...

  3. 42 CFR 2.20 - Relationship to State laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relationship to State laws. 2.20 Section 2.20 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.20 Relationship to State laws...

  4. Sweeping Changes in Immigration Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Dan P.

    1978-01-01

    Among the changes in Immigration Laws are the rectification of the long-standing inequity between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres by instituting identical preference systems, the provision for the adjustment from a non-immigrant visa status to that of a permanent resident, and amendments to the Labor Certification requirements. (NQ)

  5. 5 CFR 9701.106 - Relationship to other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.106 Relationship to other provisions....106 Section 9701.106 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES..., modifies or otherwise affects the employment discrimination laws that the Equal Employment Opportunity...

  6. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...

  7. Current rates, degression and calculation examples according to the Renewable Energy Law (EEG) from 4th August 2011 ('EEG 2012'); Verguetungsansaetze, Degression und Berechnungsbeispiele nach dem neuen Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG) vom 04. August 2011 ('EEG 2012')

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    On 30st June 2011, the German Bundestag has passed the Law on the revision of the legal framework for the promotion of power generation from renewable energy sources. With this, the Renewable Energy Law has been amended substantially. The amendment was signed on 4 August 2011 at the Federal Law Gazette (BGBl I, page 1634) proclaimed and came into force on 1 January 2012. The tables in the contribution under consideration present the minimum feed-in tariffs, bonuses and annual degression steps for the power generation from renewable energy and coal mine gas under the Renewable Energy Law in the new version. These tables are valid for installations which are put into operation from 1st January 2012. For plants which have been put into operation before 2012, generally the existing law remains in force, subject to certain transitional provisions.

  8. FROM DATA MINING TO BEHAVIOR MINING

    OpenAIRE

    ZHENGXIN CHEN

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge economy requires data mining be more goal-oriented so that more tangible results can be produced. This requirement implies that the semantics of the data should be incorporated into the mining process. Data mining is ready to deal with this challenge because recent developments in data mining have shown an increasing interest on mining of complex data (as exemplified by graph mining, text mining, etc.). By incorporating the relationships of the data along with the data itself (rathe...

  9. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  10. 41 CFR 50-204.36 - Radiation standards for mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Radiation standards for mining. 50-204.36 Section 50-204.36 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to... CONTRACTS Radiation Standards § 50-204.36 Radiation standards for mining. (a) For the purpose of this...

  11. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  12. 25 CFR 216.4 - Technical examination of prospective surface exploration and mining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and mining operations. 216.4 Section 216.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS SURFACE EXPLORATION, MINING, AND RECLAMATION OF LANDS General Provisions § 216... meet for the protection of nonmineral resources during the conduct of exploration or mining operations...

  13. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  14. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  15. Democracy from Islamic law perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubarak Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is frequently argued that because many Muslim states are monarchies or dictatorships or because of certain events that have taken place within their borders, Islamic law is not compatible with democracy and democracy is even neglected in the provisions of the holy Qur'an. Islamic law, according to what can be traced in its primary sources, not only supports democracy and people's participation in the state affairs but even possesses provisions in the Qur'an verses which encourage counselling and consultation and some scholars deem that to be democratic representation. Islamic Law, according to the provisions of some verses from the holy Qur'an encourages democracy but not liberal democracy like that of the western world. The religious democracy that can go with our modern time and solve many contemporary problems of the Muslim world is the model which was introduced by late Ayatollah Imam Khomeini after the 1979 Islamic revolution in Iran. The author in this research work concludes by showing that the ideal democracy enshrined in the holy Qur'an, as the primary source of Islamic law, is not liberal democracy of the western world, but rather a religious democracy.

  16. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  17. Mining Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the estimated value of mineral production increased in the United States for the third consecutive year. Production and prices increased for most industrial mineral commodities mined in the United States. While production for most metals remained relatively unchanged, with the notable exception of gold, the prices for most metals declined. Minerals remained fundamental to the U.S. economy, contributing to the real gross domestic product (GDP) at several levels, including mining, processing and manufacturing finished products. Minerals’ contribution to the GDP increased for the second consecutive year.

  18. 40 CFR 144.4 - Considerations under Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Considerations under Federal law. 144... (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Provisions § 144.4 Considerations under Federal law. The following is a list of Federal laws that may apply to the issuance of permits under these rules...

  19. 31 CFR 800.102 - Effect on other law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect on other law. 800.102 Section... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS General § 800.102 Effect on other law. Nothing in this part shall be construed..., or review provided by or established under any other provision of federal law, including the...

  20. 45 CFR 98.3 - Effect on State law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect on State law. 98.3 Section 98.3 Public... Goals, Purposes and Definitions § 98.3 Effect on State law. (a) Nothing in the Act or this part shall be construed to supersede or modify any provision of a State constitution or State law that prohibits the...

  1. 46 CFR 502.26 - Attorneys at law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attorneys at law. 502.26 Section 502.26 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Appearance and Practice Before the Commission § 502.26 Attorneys at law. Attorneys at law who are admitted to practice before the Federal courts or before the...

  2. 17 CFR 30.11 - Applicability of state law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicability of state law. 30.11 Section 30.11 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION FOREIGN FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.11 Applicability of state law. Pursuant to section 12(e)(2) of the Act, the provisions of any state law,...

  3. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from consequ...

  4. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  5. mining activities.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eichhornia crassipes) is patchy. L2: Nyikonga, 02°48' 45.0"S,. 007.6"E. (M). Nyikonga area receives discharge from. Nyikonga River that drains Nyarugusu and other mining areas in Geita District. Shoreline vegetation includes Typha capensis ...

  6. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    products affecting mining performance, usage rate above plan, etc.), people (e.g. skill deficiencies of key personnel, poor safety and environmental awareness), cost estimation (using incorrect unit costs in calculations, escalation of costs higher than revenue increases, changes in interest rates, change in exchange rates), ...

  7. One Stop Group Law Shop?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The article, which is the editorial for February 2012 i European Company Law, argues that the EU must introduce a directive offering the possibility to a European cross-border group of being treated, for company law reasons, in any EU country according to the same provisions which are in force...... in the parent company's country of domicile, thus facilitating cross-border activities and establishment for European groups of companies. The article argues that an analogy should be drawn from the CCCTB Directive (the Directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base) which is on the threshold of being...... adopted in 2012, allowing cross-border groups to be taxed for corporate tax purposes according to the corporate tax provisions in the country of domicile of the parent company....

  8. The Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations: Comparative Analysis of the Choice of Law Rules under Lithuanian and the United States Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H Gabartas

    2002-01-01

      This article deals with the specific provisions of the new Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania that establish the rules used in order to determine the law applicable to contractual obligations (Article 1.37...

  9. Mine waste management legislation. Gold mining areas in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftei, Raluca-Mihaela; Filipciuc, Constantina; Tudor, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Agency for Mineral Resources (NAMR) manages, on behalf of the state, the mineral resources. Waste management framework Nowadays, Romania, is trying to align its regulation concerning mining activity to the European legislation taking into consideration waste management and their impact on the environment. Therefore the European Waste Catalog (Commission Decision 2001/118/EC) has been updated and published in the form of HG 856/2002 Waste management inventory and approved wastes list, including dangerous wastes. The HG 349/2005 establishes the legal framework for waste storage activity as well as for the monitoring of the closing and post-closing existing deposits, taking into account the environment protection and the health of the general population. Based on Directive 2000/60/EC the Ministry of Waters Administration, Forests and Environment Protection from Romania issued the GO No 756/1997 (amended by GO 532/2002 and GO 1144/2002),"Regulations for environment pollution assessment" that contains alarm and intervention rates for soil pollution for contaminants such as metals, metalloids (Sb, Ag, As, Be, Bi, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Sn, TI, V, Zn) and cyanides. Also GO No 756/1997 was amended and updated by Law No 310/2004 and 112/2006 in witch technical instructions concerning general framework for the use of water sources in the human activities including mining industry, are approved. Chemical compounds contained in industrial waters are fully regulated by H. G. 352/2005 concerning the contents of waste water discharged. Directive 2006/21/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive 2004/35/EC is transposed into the national law of the Romanian Government under Decision No 856/2008. The 856/2008 Decision on the management of waste from extractive industries establishes "the legal framework concerning the guidelines, measures and procedures to prevent or reduce as far

  10. Mining revival

    OpenAIRE

    Lusty, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In relation to its size the United Kingdom (UK) is remarkably well-endowed with mineral resources as a result of its complex geological history. Their extraction and use have played an important role in the development of the UK economy over many years and minerals are currently worked at some 2100 mine and quarry sites. Production is now largely confined to construction minerals, primarily aggregates, energy minerals and industrial minerals including salt, potash, kaolin and fluorspar, altho...

  11. The Legal Nature and the Effects of Privatization of Public Companies in Iranian Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sajjad Ghasem Pour; Abasat Pour Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    ... that was studied generally not partly with the aim of interpretation of the law by the authorities and the absence of known solutions and common law provisions on the right of states and as well...

  12. TRIPs公約、NAFTA、我國「商標法」有關「仿品進口」邊境管制措施之比較研究 Border Measures Provisions of Counterfeiting: A Comparision Study of TRIPs, NAFTA and Taiwan Trademark Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    易建明 Jiann-Ming Yih

    2005-06-01

    measure, must be made available. Special requirements related to border measures are contained in Section 4 (Article 51-Article 60 of the enforcement part of the TRIPs Agreement. Parties and must, under Article 51, provide border enforcement procedures for goods bearing a counterfeit. Taiwan Trademark Law has been amended in order to enable Taiwan to meet the requirement of TRIPs Agreement in 2003. NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement is the most important Free Trade Agreement (FTA, and when Taiwan tries to establish FTA with U.S., NAFTA may be a model. This article attempts to examine how the border measures provisions of counterfeiting might be incorporated into the existing Custom regulations. This article explains relation of border measures provisions of counterfeiting and trade policy, and compares border measures provisions of counterfeiting among TRIPs, NAFTA, and Taiwan Trademark Law. The conclusions of this Article as follow: I. Notice of suspension among TRIPs, NAFTA and Taiwan Trademark Law is similar but duration of suspension is different. Prima facie evidence is very important regulation in TRIPs, NAFTA, but Taiwan Trademark Law did not mention the Prima facie evidence. II. Customs services may take action on their own action on their own initiative (ex officio action under Article 58 based upon prima facie evidence that an intellectual property right is being infringed, which is not regulated in 2003 Trademark Law of Taiwan. It is worth noticing that ex officio action may become a trend when establishing FTA with Taiwan.

  13. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  14. Law in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

    This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

  15. Legal Policy Of Peoples Rights In Around Mining Corporate Post-Mining Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Berlianty

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to gain an understanding of the essence of the rights of communities around post-mining corporate responsibility towards the fulfillment of the rights of communities around post-mining as well as government policies to protect the sustainability of the post-mining communities around the mining business. This type of research is a normative legal research methods using primary legal materials secondary and tertiary. With the approach of sociolegal through down the field in Gebe to get data concrete. Data were analyzed with qualitative analysis. The results showed that the essence of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of the right to a decent life welfare the right to social security in the form of employment the guarantee of free education and healthcare for the local population as well as the right to a good environment and healthy as a guarantee of the continuity of human existence and future generations. These rights have not been fully realized post-mining. Corporate responsibility in accordance with Article 74 of Law No. 40 of 2007 on the fulfillment of the rights of communities around mining operations after the mine in the form of welfare responsibilities clothing food and shelter especially electricity and water have not been met then the social responsibility to empower communities around the mine as stakeholders as well as environmental responsibility. Legal policy such as the empowerment of communities around the mine in order to be self-sufficient after the post-mining public service policies in education and health as a form of existence of government using existing programs nationally and subordinate to the PT. Antam. as well as environmental protection policies in the form of post-mining reclamation formulated in the companys liabilities.

  16. School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitt, David A.

    1987-01-01

    The United States Supreme Court upheld a California state law requiring employers to allow a pregnant woman up to four months of unpaid maternity leave if she claims pregnancy as a disability. A bill before Congress addresses parental leave and job protection for parents caring for a new baby or a sick child. (MLH)

  17. Adoption Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollinger, Joan Heifetz

    1993-01-01

    Efforts to achieve uniformity in state adoption laws are confronted by a lack of consensus on six major issues: (1) parental consent and interests; (2) children's interests; (3) the nature of the actual adoption transaction; (4) adoptive relationships as substitutes for biological relationships; (5) confidentiality and anonymity; and (6) the…

  18. Forestation of surface mines for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas G. Zarger

    1980-01-01

    This report reviews TVA program efforts to promote the use of wildlife shrubs in mined-land reclamation including work on plant materials development, demonstrations to acquaint landowners with a variety of food and cover plants, and action programs to incorporate wildlife plants into postmining land use. It deals briefly with wildlife considerations under Public Law...

  19. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  20. Northern Trust Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  1. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  2. Ghana Mining Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management Policies, Mineral Economics, Environmental Aspects, Computer Applications and Mining Education.

  3. 12 CFR 213.9 - Relation to state laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... act and this part. No exemption will extend to the civil liability provisions of sections 130, 131...) Enforcement and liability. After an exemption has been granted, the requirements of the applicable state law...

  4. Labour Law Patrimonial Liabilities. General Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana COVRIG

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The damages under labour law are assessed according to special legal provisions and in the absence of such regulations, civil law regulations must be applied in relation to the prices at the time at which the agreement of will was made or the damaged person may bring the action before the court. In the case of goods’ damage, the damage assessment is done in all cases taking into account the real degree of wear of the asset.

  5. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is one of the category of crimes that cross border organized and has been established as an extraordinary crime. This crime is becoming a serious threat to countries in the world. In this regard, the Government's attitude of firmness needed to enforce cyber laws against the freedom development in social media. The development of the immeasurable it in the country of Indonesia required the limitations by doing legal liability over the behavior of law which deviates towards the use of technology tools. Strict law enforcement efforts as a clear attitude to stop actively moving massive terrorism, by enacting the provisions of the law on information and electronic transactions as well as the law of terrorism effectively. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2015. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 157-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.82

  6. Principles of European Contract Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole; Beale, Hugh

    of articles, with a detailed commentary explaining the purpose and operation of each article and its relation to the remainder. Each article also has extensive comparative notes surveying the national laws and other international provisions on the topic. "The Principles of European Contract Law Parts I &......This text provides a comprehensive guide to the principles of European contract law. They have been drawn up by an independent body of experts from each Member State of the EU, under a project supported by the European Commission and many other organizations. The principles are stated in the form......; II" cover the core rules of contract: formation, authority of agents, validity, interpretation, contents, performance, non-performance and remedies. The articles previously published in Part I (1995) are included in a revised and re-ordered form. Throughout Europe there is great interest...

  7. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  8. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  9. Description of basic mining legal principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    The Federal Mining Act manages access, via the system of mining concessions, to areas free for mining natural resources that do not belong to the surface property and deposits' owner. These cover especially important natural resources for the economy, including coal, ore, salt, crude oil and natural gas, and also terrestrial heat. For mining operations there exist, however, the same decrees for natural resources in the property of the surface owners, which are predominantly higher-value industrial minerals such as roofing slate, basalt, quartz sand, and clays for the fireproofing industry. In the case of mining laws, administrative procedures such as issuing mining concessions, approving operating plans, and issuing permits or licenses to explore according to water rights or the Federal Immission Control Act, those authorities and departments in whose remit the projects fall are dealt with by the Mining Authority. This means that the Mining Authority is the only state point of contact for the applicant, essentially an "all-in-one" service as it will itself instigate any further participation procedures required. The classic licensing procedure of mining is the operations plan procedure, whereby the operator submits an operating plan to the Mining Authority, which then examines it to ensure it fulfills mandatory legal safety objectives. If necessary these safety objectives can be met during licensing of the operating plans by stipulating additional requirements, Depending on the subject and validity period there are overall operating plans having the widest possible remit with comprehensive participation by the authorities and basic operating plans that form the basis for every mining works. There are also special operating plans, which owing to the dynamics of mining, resolve matters that suddenly become necessary or when the basic operating plans as originally conceived were not relevant. The closing-down operating plan is the designated tool for closing down

  10. International humanitarian law: the status of unlawful combatants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses this concept as it relates to lawful and unlawful combatants in international armed conflicts focusing on the provisions of the Geneva Convention of 1949 (The Third Geneva Convention) and the provisions of the 1977 Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions (API) in determining what constitutes ...

  11. Long-term liablities of coal mining; Ewigkeitslasten im Kohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenz, Walter (ed.) [GDMB Gesellschaft der Metallurgen und Bergleute e.V., Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The closer the end of coal mining in 2018, the more the issue of groundwater re-emergence in the Ruhr area is also being considered. This is especially the case because currently the subject of restitution and liability issues in the area of contaminated sites of the peaceful use of nuclear energy is discussed. In addition, the companies concerned lost considerable value on the stock market. For this reason, the question of whether the financial provisions in the created foundation are sufficient to shoulder the expected responsibilities and measures also arises with regard to coal mining. The question is which measures are to be taken and where damages can occur. Additional impulses are given by the Meggen judgment of the BVerwG of 18.12.2014, which interpreted the responsibility of the mining companies very widely. In the Rhineland, an earthquake hit 2.4 on 22.12.2015 - probably due to a rise in groundwater around the closed opencast mine Bergheim. All these questions are included in the colloquium on economics and environmental law on 26 January 2016. This also includes experiences and problems from other federal states such as Brandenburg and Saxony. [German] Je naeher das Ende des Steinkohlenbergbaus 2018 rueckt, desto eher geraet auch die Frage des Grundwasserwiederanstiegs im Ruhrgebiet ins Blickfeld. Das gilt zumal deshalb, weil aktuell ueber Rueckstellung und Haftungsfragen im Bereich der Altlasten der friedlichen Nutzung der Kernenergie diskutiert wird. Zudem verloren die betroffenen Gesellschaften an der Boerse erheblich an Wert. Daher stellt sich auch in Bezug auf den Steinkohlenbergbau die Frage, ob die finanziellen Rueckstellungen in der geschaffenen Stiftung ausreichen, um die zu erwartenden Verantwortlichkeiten und Massnahmen schultern zu koennen. Vorgelagert ist die Frage, welche Massnahmen zu ergreifen sind und wo Schaeden auftreten koennen. Zusaetzliche Impulse bekommt diese Frage durch das Meggen-Urteil des BVerwG vom 18.12.2014, welches die

  12. Mining ergonomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPhee, B.

    2007-02-15

    Changes in work practices and a drive for greater productivity have introduced a range of emerging issues in ergonomics in mining. Some of the practices appear to be at odds with the need to improve general occupational health and safety. Longer shift lengths and fatigue, mental overload and underload, intermittent heavy physical work, reduced task variation, sedentary work in fixed postures and whole-body vibration all have risks for health and safety. The increasing age of some of the workforce is of concern. There appears to be a need to recognise these as potential causes of health problems. The article gives a review of these problems are reports on research findings. 36 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold mine stope for 21st Century.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Merwe, JN

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Final Project Report Implementation of state-of-art mining knowledge and technologies in design and operation of a safe and efficient deep gold mine stope for 21st Century van der Merwe, J. N., Wojno, L. and Toper, A. Z. Research agency : Rock... than 15 m face advance per month, dilution and gold losses reduced by 15 % compared to adjacent stoping, consistent provision of recommended environmental conditions and finally cost effectiveness. The main areas of concern with current mining...

  14. NOTES ON ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: THE AMERICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    But according to the supremacy clause of the US. Constitution state law is subordinate to ... interest of protecting individual liberties, evolving social values should permit the courts to exercise the power of ... include provisions that meetings of certain agencies be open to the public and providing for stricter procedural rules in ...

  15. Coping with the New Copyright Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Lynne S.; Millington, William G.

    1977-01-01

    Provisions of the new law cover many issues important to educators, including rights for videotaping TV programs off the air, showing films, copying material for interlibrary loan, performing dramatic or musical works, and especially duplicating printed material for classroom use. The new guidelines are explained briefly. (LBH)

  16. A generic mine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhoven, J. van; Riet, M.W.G. van; Dol, H.S.; Mohamoud, A.A.; Keus, D.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the field of mine laying and of mine countermeasures, understanding of the actuation behaviour of influence mines is of vital importance. Modelling can enhance such understanding. In this paper, a flexible generic mine model is presented that allows the user to easily generate different computer

  17. COMERCIAL LAW: EXCEPCIONAL OR SPECIAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Arcila Salazar, Carlos Andrés; Megabanco Eje Cafetero del Banco de Bogotá S.A.

    2007-01-01

    For those who assert that Commercial Law is an exceptional law, because of the gaps within the commercial law, there is a need to refer to the Civil Law to strictly apply its exceptional elements. For those who understand the commercial law as a special law, legal gaps need to be integrated in first place with the system of formal sources that compose the Commercial Law and the referral to the Civil Law should constitute the ultimate ratio; the former cannot be understood as a source of the l...

  18. Environmental considerations related to mining of nonfuel minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Throughout most of human history, environmental stewardship during mining has not been a priority partly because of the lack of applicable laws and regulations and partly because of ignorance about the effects that mining can have on the environment. In the United States, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, in conjunction with related laws, codified a more modern approach to mining, including the responsibility for environmental stewardship, and provided a framework for incorporating environmental protection into mine planning. Today, similar frameworks are in place in the other developed countries of the world, and international mining companies generally follow similar procedures wherever they work in the world. The regulatory guidance has fostered an international effort among all stakeholders to identify best practices for environmental stewardship.The modern approach to mining using best practices involves the following: (a) establishment of a pre-mining baseline from which to monitor environmental effects during mining and help establish geologically reasonable closure goals; (b) identification of environmental risks related to mining through standardized approaches; and (c) formulation of an environmental closure plan before the start of mining. A key aspect of identifying the environmental risks and mitigating those risks is understanding how the risks vary from one deposit type to another—a concept that forms the basis for geoenvironmental mineral-deposit models.Accompanying the quest for best practices is the goal of making mining sustainable into the future. Sustainable mine development is generally considered to be development that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. The concept extends beyond the availability of nonrenewable mineral commodities and includes the environmental and social effects of mine development.Global population growth, meanwhile, has

  19. Labour's law?

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Elke J.; Wagner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A cross section analysis of 23 OECD members shows that there is an 'antagonistic' relationship between the legal protection of investor interests on the one hand and labour interests on the other: the stronger the legal protection of investor rights in a country, the less developed are the individual and collective rights of labour and vice versa. A main cause for a country's position with respect to this trade off is its type of legal system, specifically whether it belongs to the common law...

  20. South African mining experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, J.D. (British Coal Corporation (UK). North Selby Mine)

    1992-09-01

    The article details the author's visit to South Africa on the 1990 Institution of Mining Electrical and Mining Mechanical Engineers Travelling Scholarship. The author undertook to visit to six coal mines (including two opencast mines and one rail loading terminal), four local engineering manufacturers, three power stations, three gold mines, two diamond mines (both in Botswana), a steel and vanadium works, the 1990 Mining Electra exhibition and the head offices of the Anglo American Corporation of South Africa. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. 50 CFR 38.8 - Consistency with Federal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consistency with Federal law. 38.8 Section 38.8 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.8 Consistency with Federal law. Any provisions o...

  2. 40 CFR 146.2 - Law authorizing these regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law authorizing these regulations. 146.2 Section 146.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM: CRITERIA AND STANDARDS General Provisions § 146.2 Law...

  3. Relevance of the law of international organisations in resolving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, it locates this to be within a legal rather than political impasse. The paper argues that the general rules of the law of international organisations may provide the key to resolving the impasse. And that accordingly, the general principles of the regime of international law point to the interpretation of the provisions of ...

  4. Wealth distribution in Chinese bankruptcy reorganization law and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yongqing

    2011-01-01

    Wealth distribution provisions in bankruptcy reorganization law, which regulate the distribution of the debtor's overall value among all the interested parties with an aim of ensuring a fair and equitable distribution, constitute an important part of the bankruptcy reorganization law. This article

  5. 10 CFR 490.7 - Relationship to other law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to other law. 490.7 Section 490.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ALTERNATIVE FUEL TRANSPORTATION PROGRAM General Provisions § 490.7 Relationship to other law. (a) Nothing in this part shall be construed to require or authorize sale of, or...

  6. 16 CFR 240.2 - Applicability of the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability of the law. 240.2 Section 240.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR ADVERTISING ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.2 Applicability of the law. (a) The substantive provisions of section 2 (d) and (e)...

  7. 20 CFR 640.2 - Federal law requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PROMPTNESS-UNEMPLOYMENT COMPENSATION § 640.2 Federal law requirements. (a) Conformity. Section 303(a)(1) of the Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 503(a)(1), requires that a State law include provision for: Such... Social Security Act, 42 U.S.C. 503(b)(2), provides in part that: Whenever the Secretary of Labor, after...

  8. Coded Statutory Data Sets for Evaluation of Public Health Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costich, Julia Field

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: The evaluation of public health law requires reliable accounts of underlying statutes and regulations. States often enact public health-related statutes with nonuniform provisions, and variation in the structure of state legal codes can foster inaccuracy in evaluating the impact of specific categories of law. The optimal…

  9. Who is an astronaut? The inadequacy of current international law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, F.

    2010-06-01

    The concept of 'astronaut' as found in law in the 'space treaties' and elsewhere does not fit well with the modern proposals for commercial space tourism. Will the 'rescue and return' provisions apply to commercial flights? Many national laws will apply to space tourism but for the future the international legal regime should be reconsidered. Finally what may happen in a crisis in space?

  10. A comparative analysis of copyright enforcement provisions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While so many factors have been adduced for piracy in Nigeria, the inadequacy and sometimes lack of effective copyright enforcement laws is of significance. This paper focuses on a critical appraisal of the copyright enforcement provisions (specifically the remedies available in an action for infringement) under the Nigerian ...

  11. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  12. Public lies, private looting and the forced closure of Grootvlei Gold Mine, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J.M. McKay

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mine closure and acid mine drainage (AMD are major interrelated challenges facing South Africa’s Witwatersrand gold mines. As a result of mining, the East, West and Central Rand compartments of the Witwatersrand Basin are interconnected, making AMD a regional problem. Consequently, the South African National Department of Mineral Resources recommends regional mine closure strategies. Unfortunately, the mismanagement of Grootvlei Gold Mine and its AMD problem resulted in premature and unplanned closure of the mine; massive job losses; pollution of a river and its Ramsar wetland site, as well as a significant setback for regional mine closure. Although directors were held civilly liable for damages to the mine, to date no one has been held liable for the water pollution, creating an impression that environmental laws can be flouted with impunity.

  13. The function of food law. On objectives of food law, legitimate factors and interests taken into account

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the effect of the legislature’s choice to lay down in Article 5 of the General Food Law a limited and closed set of objectives to be pursued by food law. If taken seriously, this provision may make it difficult to reach a fair balance of interests. In particular, commercial

  14. "Ethics surrounding the provision of abortion care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Miranda, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The provision of abortion care represents a great ethical challenge to physicians, particularly in countries where the law states that abortion is a crime. The concept that it is a crime carries a stigma that is worse than that associated with other acts qualified by law as crimes. This stigma leads to at least two different kinds of unethical behavior. One is the refusal to provide safe abortion services to women who comply with the legal requirements, alleging conscientious objection, and the other is to discriminate against women with complications of induced abortion. Both unethical behaviors may be associated with severe consequences for the health of women whose care was refused or delayed. Less attention is given to the ethical obligation to prevent induced abortion from recurring by offering postabortion contraception to comply with the ethical obligation of preventing harm to the patients for whose care they are responsible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A Study on regeneration cases with industrial Heritage in mining areas of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seungyeoun; Ji, Sangwoo; Yim, Giljae

    2017-04-01

    The mining areas have to face urban decline problem in population and aging after its closing. Many mines were shut down due to changes in industrial structure through 20 century. Central and local governments has been trying to solve urban decline of abandoned mine areas by enacting special acts or introducing support programs for decades. In the year of 1995, South Korean government also enacted "Special act on the assistance to the development of abandoned mine areas" to promote the economy of abandoned mine areas that is depressed following the decline of the coal industry and to help balanced regional development and to improve the living standard of the residents in such abandoned mine areas. Local authorities has been trying to revitalize the regional economy by attracting tourism industry under the financial support and deregulation by this special law. With this background, this study analysis 13 regeneration cases which are utilizing the industrial heritage of the abandoned area in S. Korea. Despite the importance of mining, negative images of abandon mine have been engraved due to environmental destruction. Most of abandoned mines were left without any action since its closing. Early stage of abandoned mine area regeneration, such as Sabuk, Munkyong, are focusing on adjacent land not on abandoned mine. Abandoned mines were restored its original state and theme park including hotels, casinos and other tourist facilities were developed on adjacent land. Eco-trails on some granite caves such as Jungsun were opened to the public as natural resources not industrial heritage. The industrial heritage was very restricted to making museums about history of mining industry. However, there has been a significant change in perception toward reusing industrial heritage for urban regeneration in recent years. From the viewpoint of urban regeneration, abandon mine areas and its facilities are receiving attention as important regional assets as industrial heritage to

  16. Survey and Assessment of Laws on the Informal Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Tolentino, Maria Catalina M.; Sibal, Jorge V.; Macaranas, Bonifacio S.

    2001-01-01

    This study classifies the laws affecting the informal sector and assesses the extent of the empowerment of the sector based on the provisions in the laws that allow for organization, decision making mechanisms and transfer of power from the traditional center to another. Results indicate that, to some extent, four groups within the sector are accorded empowerment through Philippine laws: the agricultural sector, small and medium enterprises, industrial home workers and cooperatives. These gro...

  17. 7 CFR 1951.241 - Special provision for interest rate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Special provision for interest rate change. 1951.241... Community and Direct Business Programs Loans and Grants § 1951.241 Special provision for interest rate... interest rate charged by FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 to water and waste disposal...

  18. Inequalities in the Provision of Paediatric Speech and Language Therapy Services across London Boroughs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pring, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The inverse-care law suggests that fewer healthcare resources are available in deprived areas where health needs are greatest. Aims: To examine the provision of paediatric speech and language services across London boroughs and to relate provision to the level of deprivation of the boroughs. Methods & Procedures: Information on the…

  19. Development of a risk-based mine closure cost calculation model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available . This research is important because currently there are a number of mines that do not have sufficient financial provision to close and rehabilitate the mines. The magnitude of the lack of funds could be reduced or eliminated if the closure cost calculation...

  20. APCOM 87. Volume 1 - mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, L.; Kersten, R.W.O.; Cutland, J.R. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    35 papers are presented in this volume under the following session headings: rock mechanics; shafts; mine planning theory; expert systems in mining; mine planning case studies; ventilation; computer applications in education; and control of mining operations.

  1. Indigenous Customs and Colonial Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manaf Kottakkunnummal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at the contesting articulations of gender, family, and religion in colonial South India. The article discusses the encounter between matrilineal customs and the Anglo-Muhammadan law in the site of Mappila Muslim matrilineal practices in colonial Malabar, of the Madras Presidency during c. 1910-1928. Young male members of the joint family used the language that matriliny is un-Islamic, and passed laws in the Legislative Assembly to demand that joint family property requires to be inherited in the patrilineal line. Three legislations were passed during the period of 1910-1940 to bring Muslim families in accordance with the ideal notions of familial organization existed in that period. The ideal notions were set up by the precepts of the Anglo-Muhammadan law, the orientalist knowledge of Islam, ideologies of colonial modernity, and dreams of caste and religious reform movements among the people of Malabar, and other neighboring states, Cochin and Travancore. In response to that, there was a re-articulation of customs and familial practices by using legal provisions available in the Islamic law, and an effort for justifying the practices to avoid the ruin of matriliny. Subsequently, the matrilineal Mappilas of Malabar retained matrilineal customs rather intact, though the gender relations and religious practices were re-articulated in the idioms of patriarchy and textuality.

  2. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available causes of fatalities in underground narrow reef mining. Data are gathered and processed from multiple underground mine sources, and techniques such as surfel modeling and synthetic view generation are explored towards creating visualisations of the data...

  3. Mining robotics sensors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, JJ

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available causes of fatalities in underground narrow reef mining. Data are gathered and processed from multiple underground mine sources, and techniques such as surfel modeling and synthetic view generation are explored towards creating visualisations of the data...

  4. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  5. Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Need-Based Educational Aid Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-44) was put in place to improve and reauthorize provisions relating to the application of the antitrust laws to the award of need-based educational aid. The contents for this Act is as follows: (1) Short Title; and (2) Extension Relating to the Application of the Antitrust Laws to the…

  6. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  7. Uranium mining: Saskatchewan status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V. [AREVA Resources Canada Inc., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    This paper gives the status of uranium mining by Areva in Saskatchewan. Uranium production now meets 85% of world demand for power generation. 80% of world production of uranium comes from top 5 countries: Kazakhstan, Canada, Australia, Niger and Namibia. Saskatchewan is currently the only Canadian province with active uranium mines and mills and the largest exploration programs. Several mine projects are going through the environmental assessment process. Public opinion is in favour of mining activities in Saskatchewan.

  8. Mountaintop mining consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Palmer; E.S. Bernhardt; W.H. Schlesinger; K.N. Eshleman; E. Foufoula-Georgiou; M.S. Hendryx; A.D. Lemly; G.E. Likens; O.L. Loucks; M.E. Power; P.S. White; P.R. Wilcock

    2010-01-01

    There has been a global, 30-year increase in surface mining (1), which is now the dominant driver of land-use change in the central Appalachian ecoregion of the United States (2). One major form of such mining, mountaintop mining with valley fills (MTM/VF) (3), is widespread throughout eastern Kentucky, West Virginia (WV), and southwestern Virginia. Upper elevation...

  9. Mined Acid Forest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Abstract. The quality of degraded mined soils can be restored through effective reclamation practices. In this study, we evaluated the impact of varying duration of land reclamation on soil quality at AngloGold Ashanti, Iduapriem mine. Ltd., Tarkwa, Ghana. Soil samples were taken from mined sites of the Company at various ...

  10. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  11. Data Mining for CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  12. Uranium, mining and hydrogeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Broder J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Hasche-Berger, Andrea (eds.) [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geophysik

    2008-07-01

    Subject of the book is Uranium and its migration in aquatic environments. The following subjects are emphasised: Uranium mining, Phosphate mining, mine closure and remediation, Uranium in groundwater and in bedrock, biogeochemistry of Uranium, environmental behavior, and modeling. Particular results from the leading edge of international research are presented. (orig.)

  13. Exceptional model mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duivesteijn, Wouter

    2013-01-01

    Finding subsets of a dataset that somehow deviate from the norm, i.e. where something interesting is going on, is a classical Data Mining task. In traditional local pattern mining methods, such deviations are measured in terms of a relatively high occurrence (frequent itemset mining), or an unusual

  14. Iura novit arbiter in Danish arbitration law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Petersen, Clement Salung

    2017-01-01

    of the arbitral tribunal concerned. But irrespective of the extent a given tribunal chooses to use these powers, it must treat the parties with equality. In this respect, the discretion granted to arbitrators under Danish arbitration law appears to be somewhat wider than that recommended by the International Law....... In such situations, the tribunal has an obligation to raise and consider the matters of arbitrability and public policy ex officio. In this regard, the tribunal can make its own legal inferences from the factual basis of the dispute and independently consider and apply the relevant law, including all relevant legal......Although the Danish Arbitration Act (DAA) includes no express provisions on iura novit arbiter, non-codified Danish arbitration law limits the power of arbitral tribunals under iura novit arbiter in a number of ways. As regards decisions on the merits, the most significant limitations follow from...

  15. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  16. PROCEDURE FOR AUTHENTIC INTERPRETATION OF LAWS IN CROATIAN, MACEDONIAN, SLOVENE AND SERBIAN PARLIAMENTARY LAW AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordan Struić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author outlines current rules of procedure of the Croatian parliament, the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia, the Slovenian National Assembly and the National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia in order to compare provisions which regulate the procedure for preparing and adopting an authentic interpretation of the law. In addition, the author examines the parliamentary practice to determine the frequency of adopting an authentic interpretation of the law. For this purpose, the author analyses relevant provisions, parliamentary practice as well as practice of Constitutional Courts and the data published on the website of parliaments and in the official gazettes of these four states. The starting hypothesis is that, despite some specific solutions, there is a general similarity in the process of preparing and adopting an authentic interpretation of the law in these four states, followed by frequent use of authentic interpretation from all four parliaments.

  17. Carbon Sequestration on Surface Mine Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Graves; Christopher Barton; Richard Sweigard; Richard Warner; Carmen Agouridis

    2006-03-31

    Since the implementation of the federal Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA) in May of 1978, many opportunities have been lost for the reforestation of surface mines in the eastern United States. Research has shown that excessive compaction of spoil material in the backfilling and grading process is the biggest impediment to the establishment of productive forests as a post-mining land use (Ashby, 1998, Burger et al., 1994, Graves et al., 2000). Stability of mine sites was a prominent concern among regulators and mine operators in the years immediately following the implementation of SMCRA. These concerns resulted in the highly compacted, flatly graded, and consequently unproductive spoils of the early post-SMCRA era. However, there is nothing in the regulations that requires mine sites to be overly compacted as long as stability is achieved. It has been cultural barriers and not regulatory barriers that have contributed to the failure of reforestation efforts under the federal law over the past 27 years. Efforts to change the perception that the federal law and regulations impede effective reforestation techniques and interfere with bond release must be implemented. Demonstration of techniques that lead to the successful reforestation of surface mines is one such method that can be used to change perceptions and protect the forest ecosystems that were indigenous to these areas prior to mining. The University of Kentucky initiated a large-scale reforestation effort to address regulatory and cultural impediments to forest reclamation in 2003. During the three years of this project 383,000 trees were planted on over 556 acres in different physiographic areas of Kentucky (Table 1, Figure 1). Species used for the project were similar to those that existed on the sites before mining was initiated (Table 2). A monitoring program was undertaken to evaluate growth and survival of the planted species as a function of spoil characteristics and

  18. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  19. Mining Land Subsidence Monitoring Using SENTINEL-1 SAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, W.; Wang, Q.; Fan, J.; Li, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, DInSAR technique was used to monitor land subsidence in mining area. The study area was selected in the coal mine area located in Yuanbaoshan District, Chifeng City, and Sentinel-1 data were used to carry out DInSAR techniqu. We analyzed the interferometric results by Sentinel-1 data from December 2015 to May 2016. Through the comparison of the results of DInSAR technique and the location of the mine on the optical images, it is shown that DInSAR technique can be used to effectively monitor the land subsidence caused by underground mining, and it is an effective tool for law enforcement of over-mining.

  20. Data mining in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-04-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining.

  1. LEGAL ENTITIES IN ROMANIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlingher Remus Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Legal entities play an increasing role in international economic relations, as well as in political, cultural, social or human relations. Any legal entity is subject to the law of a certain country, as it can only exist or function on the basis of legal provisions. In this sense, the paper analyses the law applicable to the organic statute of a legal entity, the importance and criteria underlying the establishment of a legal entity’s nationality, the recognition of foreign legal entities in Romania, as well as the rights and obligations of foreign legal entities residing in our country.

  2. Woman in Roman law: Subject or object of the law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Rome, legal status of woman and her factual possibilities of impact on public life were in serious discrepancy. General attitude of the legal status of woman in time of Romans is best shown by Papinian, 'In many provisions of our law, the position of woman is worse than of man (D.9.1.5.'. Every free Roman woman was considered a subject of law, according to classical Roman law. Nevertheless, there were extensive legislations that limited her legal and business capacity. Naturally, woman did not have legal personality in all periods of Roman state and her legal status was adjusted to the factual changes that had occurred in Roman society. What makes her position specific in Rome is progressive social role that did not exist in Greek-Asian world. From these previously mentioned views, which were confronting, it is possible to draw some doubts. Was woman really on the margins of political happenings, or was she an actual actor, even initiator, of some political events?.

  3. Study on Load-displacement Test of Rubber Pads of Coal Mine Roadway Constructed by Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Chen, Xiaoguo; Yang, Liyun

    2017-12-01

    Shield method construction of coal mine roadway is the future trend of the development of deep coal mining. The main shaft supporting is the segment. There is rubber pads between segment and segment. The performance of compression deformation of rubber pad is essential for the overall stability of lining. Through load test, displacement of the rubber pad under load, the thrust force law of the rubber pad deformation, and provide a theoretical basis for the stability analysis of coal mine tunnel shield construction.

  4. Biodiversity conservation versus artisanal gold mining: a case study of Chimanimani National Park, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gandiwa, E.; Gandiwa, P.

    2012-01-01

    Artisanal gold mining plays an important role in sustainable development of rural communities. The objectives of this study were to: i) assess the environmental impacts of recent artisanal gold mining activities in Chimanimani National Park (CNP), eastern Zimbabwe, and ii) discuss the associated implications of artisanal gold mining to sustainable development in the Chimanimani area. Data were collected in January 2010 and law enforcement records kept at CNP were examined to gather trends in ...

  5. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  6. Maryland Law and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubel, Robert Y.

    This document analyzes the major elements of Maryland school and college law pertaining to governance. While recognizing differences between school and college law in Maryland, this study shows that there are many elements in common between the two. This study will be primarily concerned with civil law rather than criminal law. School personnel or…

  7. Innovations in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the…

  8. [Teaching about Family Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family"…

  9. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    here is that of unilateral state practice and that practice has been relying, at least to some extent, on general public international law. This chapter explains how it is important to revisit international law to better understand the relative relevance of the UNCLOS in oceans governance today. Indeed......, treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  10. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  11. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  12. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  13. 30 CFR 756.20 - Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's... RECLAMATION PROGRAMS § 756.20 Approval of amendments to the Crow Tribe's abandoned mine land reclamation plan. Revisions to the following provisions of the Crow Tribe's Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan, as submitted...

  14. DATA MINING TECHNOLOGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Titrade Cristina-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge discovery and data mining software (Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining - KDD) as an interdisciplinary field emersion have been in rapid growth to merge databases, statistics, industries closely related to the desire to extract valuable information and knowledge in a volume as possible.There is a difference in understanding of "knowledge discovery" and "data mining." Discovery information (Knowledge Discovery) in the database is a process to identify patterns / templates of valid da...

  15. Mining local process models

    OpenAIRE

    Tax, Niek; Sidorova, Natalia; Haakma, Reinder; van der Aalst, Wil M.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe a method to discover frequent behavioral patterns in event logs. We express these patterns as \\emph{local process models}. Local process model mining can be positioned in-between process discovery and episode / sequential pattern mining. The technique presented in this paper is able to learn behavioral patterns involving sequential composition, concurrency, choice and loop, like in process mining. However, we do not look at start-to-end models, which distinguishes ou...

  16. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  17. Implementation of paste backfill mining technology in Chinese coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Chen, Jianhang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  18. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingliang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application.

  19. [The psychotic, laws and the Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haumonté, M T

    1986-02-01

    We relate some clinical examples of patients who went to hospital as offenders (murders). They were not condemned because they were mentally ill; we tried to demonstrate that article 64 of the French law is inadequate in reference to modern psychological, phenomenological and psycho-analytical discoveries. We relate cases of patients who harshly punished themselves because they were not convicted by the Law. The last observation induces the transition between the Law, as Lacan says, (the fundamental taboo of incest) and the laws put up by our societies.

  20. Denmark: criminal law as an anchorage point for pro-active anti-terrorism legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on the compatibility of criminal law anti-terrorism legislation in Danish law with basic principles regarding the rule of law and due process. The so-called anti-terror-packages of 2002 and 2006 involve a set of rather uncertain and wide-reaching provisions fundamentally...... challenging the principle of legality and substantially widening of the scope of criminal law. These provisions criminalize various activities more or less remote from actual or attempted terrorist acts and participation in such activities, too. The legislature has even over-implemented vari-ous legal...

  1. The Use of Remote Sensing Satellites for Verification in International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettling, J. K.

    The contribution is a very sensitive topic which is currently about to gain significance and importance in the international community. It implies questions of international law as well as the contemplation of new developments and decisions in international politics. The paper will begin with the meaning and current status of verification in international law as well as the legal basis of satellite remote sensing in international treaties and resolutions. For the verification part, this implies giving a definition of verification and naming its fields of application and the different means of verification. For the remote sensing part, it involves the identification of relevant provisions in the Outer Space Treaty and the United Nations General Assembly Principles on Remote Sensing. Furthermore it shall be looked at practical examples: in how far have remote sensing satellites been used to verify international obligations? Are there treaties which would considerably profit from the use of remote sensing satellites? In this respect, there are various examples which can be contemplated, such as the ABM Treaty (even though out of force now), the SALT and START Agreements, the Chemical Weapons Convention and the Conventional Test Ban Treaty. It will be mentioned also that NGOs have started to verify international conventions, e.g. Landmine Monitor is verifying the Mine-Ban Convention. Apart from verifying arms control and disarmament treaties, satellites can also strengthen the negotiation of peace agreements (such as the Dayton Peace Talks) and the prevention of international conflicts from arising. Verification has played an increasingly prominent role in high-profile UN operations. Verification and monitoring can be applied to the whole range of elements that constitute a peace implementation process, ranging from the military aspects through electoral monitoring and human rights monitoring, from negotiating an accord to finally monitoring it. Last but not least the

  2. Rights, Equality, Educational Provisions and Facilities for Students with Disabilities in Thailand: Legal and Practical Perspectives over the Past Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chomanad Cheausuwantavee

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to critically examine the present status of educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities in Thailand, in accordance with the enforcement of various laws over the past decade (1992-2008. The legal essence of laws such as the Constitution of The Kingdom of Thailand 1997, the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Act 1991, and the National Education Act 1999, was typologically compared to actual situations, in terms of educational provisions and facilities, by reviewing a total of 25 research papers.The findings showed that there had been no further educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities, despite indications within the laws. There are discrepancies between legislations and practices due to the ineffectiveness of law enforcement, and the negative attitudes of service providers and society towards students with disabilities. Therefore, positive attitudes of stakeholders have to be promoted, alongside the new laws.

  3. Searching the Future for the Legal Regime of Space Activities: the Need for Unification of National Space Legislation' Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoda, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    space activities. For the future legal regime of space activities it is vital to preserve the existed principles and main provisions of the international space law. related legislations are developing rapidly. They become serious instrument for legal regulation of space activities. those projects with a foreign party involvement. Quite often partners in international space projects agree to choice a domestic law of one of them. They do this for defining a certain organizational and/or contractual issue (disputes settlement, for example) of the project. that such practice will spread widely. could help to preserve the existed important provisions of international space law (responsibility of states for their national activities, for instance). development of international space private law. We believe that solely special laws and regulations of national legislations could not regulate modern space activities. Being more and more commercial, space activities are becoming a real part of "downed to Earth" commercial activities. Therefore, in many countries provisions of civil, commercial, investment and other branches of national law are applied to such activities. which could low possible risks of such activities and to control them. Such unification seems to be suitable in the following fields: 1)implementation of provisions of international space law in national space laws; 2)definition of unified terminology, accepted by national laws of all parties; 3)unification in national legislations of a certain standards (insurance rates and rules, for instance); 4)unification in national laws of issues related to liability (for instance, a mutual wave of liability in certain types of 5)implementation in national laws of unified rules and procedures of space-related commercial disputes settlement; 6)unification of mechanisms for protection of space-related intellectual property. unification of their provisions. Special attention is paid to provisions of private law

  4. Performance of Ponderosa Pine on Bituminous Mine Spoils in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter H. Davidson

    1977-01-01

    Seedlings from 40 seed sources of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) were planted on a strip-mine spoil in central Pennsylvania in 1969. Survival of seedlings from different sources ranged from 23 to 90 percent after six growing seasons. The average height of the seedlings ranged from 67 to 140 cm for the same period. Eight sources produced...

  5. China and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vincent, Steven D

    2005-01-01

    ...), and has made maritime claims citing historic waters. China asserts that these actions are consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Convention On The Law Of the Sea (UNCLOS) Treaty...

  6. Law, Democracy & Development - Vol 13, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The law regarding the division of the retirement savings of a retirement fund mumber on his or her divorce with specific reference to Cockroft v Mine Employees Pension Fund, (2007) 3 BPLR 296 (PFA) · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. L Nevondwe, 1- ...

  7. The Texas Advanced Directive Law: Unfinished Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapottos, Michael; Youngner, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Advance Directive Act allows physicians and hospitals to overrule patient or family requests for futile care. Purposefully not defining futility, the law leaves its determination in specific cases to an institutional process. While the law has received several criticisms, it does seem to work constructively in the cases that come to the review process. We introduce a new criticism: While the law has been justified by an appeal to professional values such as avoiding harm to patients, avoiding the provision of unseemly care, and good stewardship of medical resources, it is applied incompletely. It allows physicians and institutional committees to refuse "futile" treatments desired by patients and families while at the same time providing no way of regulating physicians who recommend or even push "futile" treatments in similar cases. In this sense, the TADA is incomplete on its own terms.

  8. Implied terms in English and Romanian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Dinu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the matter of implied terms from the point of view of both English and Romanian law. First, the introductory section provides a brief overview of implied terms, by defining this class of contractual clauses and by providing their general features. Second, the English law position is analysed, where it is generally recognised that a term may be implied in one of three manners, which are described in turn. An emp hasis is made on the Privy Council’s decision in Attorney General of Belize v Belize Telecom Ltd and its impact. Third, the Romanian law position is described, the starting point of the discussion being represented by the provisions of Article 1272 of the 2009 Civil Code. Fourth, the study ends by mentioning some points of comparison between the two legal systems in what concerns the approach towards implied terms.

  9. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Electoral Commission s 181(1)(f). 2 Section 181 of the Constitution. 3 Section 181(1)(b) of the Constitution. LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 20 (2016) ...... Despite its decisions not being binding, and bearing the disparaging term “soft mechanism”, the SAHRC through its ...

  10. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    4 Corder H et al Report on Parliamentary Oversight and Accountability Faculty of Law, University of Cape. Town (1999) ... Development Agency Bill; Ad Hoc Committee on Criminal Law (Forensic Procedures) ...... Limited; Governing Body Foundation; Governors' Alliance; Gun Free Society; Health Systems Trust; Heart and.

  11. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW. OCRACY. ELOPMENT. LAW. DEMOCRACY. & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 21 (2017). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ldd.v21i1.5. ISSN: 2077-4907 ... Furthermore, tourism development often involves training of personnel in a variety of ... a detrimental impact on local communities including, among others, their culture,.

  12. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Chair in Customary Law, Human Rights and. Indigenous Values, Faculty of Law, University of. Cape Town. The research presented in this article was in part supported by the South. African Research Chairs Initiative of the. Department of Science and Technology and the. National Research Foundation of South Africa.

  13. Protection of personality rights in civil law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Personality rights have long been described as the youngest member of the civil law family of absolute subjective (individual civil rights. By establishing these rights, an individual is guaranteed full and direct legal authority and control over one's personal assets, which include the most important human values such as: life, integrity, dignity and privacy. The ultimate importance of these personal assets is supported by appropriate legal protection of personality rights, which have been guaranteed in numerous provisions of constitutional law, civil law, criminal law and administrative law. The legal protection of personality rights stems from the understanding that a human being cannot be reduced to a biological entity; being part of the community, man is also a social being. Taking into account constant interactions and mutual relations between members of the society, man should be guaranteed certain rights. It primarily implies the guaranteed right to inviolability of one's personality, which is the basis for generating other personality rights. These rights are inherent, inalienable and absolute in terms of their effects; as such, they provide protection from the interference of the state and any third party. Focusing on the rules of civil law, the authors have explored the potentials and the scope of legal protection of personality rights provided by awarding a civil sanction. Although civil sanction is basically monetary sanction, it is deemed to be quite appropriate for the protection of personal (non-patrimonial assets.

  14. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  15. Perception of the judiciary law by the law-maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy V. Lazarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop conceptualtheoretical provisions and scientific recommendations for the implementation of judiciary decisions in the legislation of the Russian Federation. Methods universal dialectic method of cognition as well as the general scientific and private research methods based on it. Results the necessity to analyze the fundamental precedent judicial decisions for the possible implementation of the legal positions of courts into legislative acts. The problem is not confined to the perception of provisions created by the constitutional charter courts. The paper shows the main directions of future activities on the implementation idea. The operation of the Department is shown which was created at the Institute for Legislation and Comparative Law at the Government of the Russian Federation entrusted with the relevant functions. Scientific novelty the mechanism of implementation of judiciary decisions in the Russian legislation has been developed and introduced into scientific circulation. Practical significance the findings of this paper can be used in scientific legislative and lawenforcement activities and the educational process of institutions of higher education.

  16. Variations in State Laws Governing School Reintegration Following Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Leah L; Lyons, Vivian H; McCart, Melissa; Herring, Stanley A; Rivara, Frederick P; Vavilala, Monica S

    2016-12-01

    We sought to examine the prevalence, scope, and specificity of provisions governing school reintegration in current state concussion laws. State concussion laws as of May 2016 were independently assessed and classified by 2 trained coders. Statutes were classified as "Return-to-Learn" (RTL) laws if they contained language mandating institutional action at the state, district, or school level related to academic reintegration of youth who have sustained a concussion. All statutes classified as RTL laws were further analyzed to determine scope, required actions, and delineation of responsibility. RTL laws were uncommon, present in only 8 states. Most (75%) of these laws held schools responsible for RTL management but mandated RTL education for school personnel was less frequent, present in only one-quarter of the laws. None of the RTL laws provided guidance on support of students with persistent postconcussive symptoms, and only 1 recommended an evidence-based standard for RTL guidelines. Our review of state concussion laws indicates scant and vague legal guidance regarding RTL. These findings suggest an opportunity for legislative action on the issue of RTL, and reveal the need for better integration of laws and research, so that laws reflect existing best-practice recommendations and remain current as the evidence base develops. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Medicine and abortion law: complicating the reforming profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Sheelagh; Thomson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The complicated intra-professional rivalries that have contributed to the current contours of abortion law and service provision have been subject to limited academic engagement. In this article, we address this gap. We examine how the competing interests of different specialisms played out in abortion law reform from the early twentieth-century, through to the enactment of the Abortion Act 1967, and the formation of the structures of abortion provision in the early 1970s. We demonstrate how professional interests significantly shaped the landscape of abortion law in England, Scotland, and Wales. Our analysis addresses two distinct and yet related fields where professional interests were negotiated or asserted in the journey to law reform. Both debates align with earlier analysis that has linked abortion law reform with the market development of the medical profession. We argue that these two axes of debate, both dominated by professional interests, interacted to help shape law's treatment of abortion, and continue to influence the provision of abortion services today. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Mining and the Environment

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In addition to CODELCO, a second state-owned mining company is La Empresa Nacional de Minería (ENAMI, national mining company). ...... The department came up with the Urgent Plan for Environmental Hygiene, which was intended to solve environmental problems in ENAMI's works relatively quickly and at a low cost ...

  19. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence o...

  20. pubmed.mineR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... meaningful information from the text, and, thus makes the information contained in the text accessible to various data-mining algorithms. It is roughly equivalent to text analytics. An important facet of text- mining is extraction of patterns and trends, and R with its rich repertoire of statistical tools is well suited for this purpose.

  1. Mining Glossary and Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This booklet was produced in an effort to increase the awareness and appreciation of young people for the Earth's resources. The Mining Education Glossary is intended to provide easy reference to mining terms which are used in the minerals recovery industry and as a useful resource for teaching basic learning skills. Accompanying the glossary are…

  2. 7 CFR 632.51 - Accord with environmental laws and orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accord with environmental laws and orders. 632.51... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Environment § 632.51 Accord with environmental laws and orders. (a) A final program EIS is available in compliance...

  3. Lack of predictability in the criminal law. The offences of “insult” and “libel”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea, A.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, provision in the criminal law for the offences of "insult" and "libel" is a controversial issue in Romanian criminal law. Lack of predictability of the criminal law regarding the two above mentioned crimes has consequences on the security of legal relations and affects the defence of social relations covering freedom of expression and its limits.

  4. A World Parliament and the Transition from International Law to World Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bummel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World civilization depends on the provision of global public goods such as tackling climate change, ensuring international financial stability or peace and security. Yet, the intergovern­mental system of global governance is not capable of delivering the required results. At a fundamental level, the change necessary to achieve functioning world governance consists of a transition from international law to world law. A key element in this is the development of a global legislative system that includes a democratically elected world parliament. The establishment of a UN Parliamentary Assembly would be a pragmatic first step.

  5. Data mining for service

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Virtually all nontrivial and modern service related problems and systems involve data volumes and types that clearly fall into what is presently meant as "big data", that is, are huge, heterogeneous, complex, distributed, etc. Data mining is a series of processes which include collecting and accumulating data, modeling phenomena, and discovering new information, and it is one of the most important steps to scientific analysis of the processes of services.  Data mining application in services requires a thorough understanding of the characteristics of each service and knowledge of the compatibility of data mining technology within each particular service, rather than knowledge only in calculation speed and prediction accuracy. Varied examples of services provided in this book will help readers understand the relation between services and data mining technology. This book is intended to stimulate interest among researchers and practitioners in the relation between data mining technology and its application to ...

  6. Opencast mining 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The latest issue of this annual publication contains the following items on the United Kingdom`s opencast mining industry: `Challenging times for the Coal Authority`; `Coal - to be or not to be`; `Profits and progress: the major producers`; `Miller`s Tale` (about Miller Mining); `New Labour, New limits on opencast mining`; `On the right track`; `Coal exploration for the Millennium`; `A cleaner future for Houghton Main`; `Auger mining - an update`; `The application of virtual reality to risk management`; `Single suction submersible pumps for dewatering in mines`; and `Woodland - a natural after use`. It also contains a listing and map (insert) of UK opencast coal sites in production as at 1 November 1997, details of site operators, industry news, equipment news, a suppliers directory, site news, and site profiles (on Brynhenllys, East Balbeggie Farm, Herrington Colliery and Pegswood Moor Farm).

  7. Formulation of Policy for Cyber Crime in Criminal Law Revision Concept of Bill Book of Criminal Law (A New Penal Code)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soponyono, Eko; Deva Bernadhi, Brav

    2017-04-01

    Development of national legal systems is aimed to establish the public welfare and the protection of the public. Many attempts has been carried out to renew material criminal law and those efforts results in the formulation of the concept of the draft Law Book of the Law of Criminal Law in the form of concept criminal code draft. The basic ideas in drafting rules and regulation based on the values inside the idology of Pancasila are balance among various norm and rules in society. The design concept of the New Criminal Code Act is anticipatory and proactive to formulate provisions on Crime in Cyberspace and Crime on Information and Electronic Transactions. Several issues compiled in this paper are whether the policy in formulation of cyber crime is embodied in the provisions of the current legislation and what the policies formulation of cyber crime is in the concept of the bill book of law - criminal law recently?.

  8. If mining conflicts suppress the right of public participation, then can mining be sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Preston

    2014-09-01

    Any actions by the executive to exclude public participation in reviewing documentation related to resource management and extractive developments by legislative or policy changes such as the proposed new planning legislation in NSW and the new mining State Environmental Planning Policy (Mining Petroleum, Production and Extractive Industries Amendment (Resource Significance 2013 (Amended Mining SEPP, are retrogressive steps. The argument in this paper is that, due to the often negative and large-scale impacts that mineral extraction developments may have on the community and the environment, mineral extraction developments should be subject to a rigorous EIA processes which incorporate effective and inclusive rights of public participation, especially in relation to major projects. Such rights should be enshrined in environmental legislation in the objects clause, standing for merit and judicial review provisions, and there should be a duty for the decision-makers to properly consider public submissions. Such provisions may lead to revision of the development or its outright rejection. Furthermore, innovative policies, programmes and legislative reform should be drafted to protect public participation and the right to oppose inappropriate developments.

  9. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  10. Harmonizing Tort Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.H. van Boom (Willem)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents a review of the literature on comparative tort law and economics. It pays special attention to the economics arguments against and in favour of harmonization of tort law in Europe.

  11. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  12. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  13. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  14. 48 CFR 252.222-7004 - Compliance with Spanish social security laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition of the Enterprise) from the Ministerio de Trabajo y S.S., Tesoreria General de la Seguridad Social... social security laws and regulations. 252.222-7004 Section 252.222-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations... PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7004 Compliance with Spanish social...

  15. Liability in Employment Law

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roman

    2006-01-01

    97 Liability in labour law Summary This diploma paper analyzes liability in labour law with focus on liability for damage. At first the diploma paper introduces conception of liability in general and idea of liability in labour law considering different position of employee and employer in labour relations. The diploma paper then enumerates the types of labour-law liability. The next chapter concentrates on liability for damage. This chapter describes characteristic features of liability for ...

  16. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  17. Sociological Aesthetics of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer-Lescano, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Aesthetic theory has the potential to develop a sensorium for the rational and arational forces of law. But the aesthetic knowledge of law is underdeveloped. That is why this article proposes a self-reflective sociological aesthetics of law that is capable of acknowledging human and social forces. The article unfolds its argument in three steps: first, it outlines the main approaches in the field of “law and aesthetics”; second, it connects these approaches in legal aesthetics with sociologic...

  18. Responsibility in Labour Law

    OpenAIRE

    Mandíková, Irena

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with responsibility in labour-law relationships. At the beginning, the thesis focuses on defining responsibility in labour law from a general perspective, in particular in the light of its characteristics. This part is followed by a classification of responsibility in terms of individual branches of law. A prevalent part of this thesis examines the most common type of labour-law responsibility, i.e. responsibility for damage. This part describes in detail the individual type...

  19. The tort law industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortmann, J.

    2009-01-01

    Tort law is fast becoming ‘big business’. Hardly a week goes by without some lawyer or other launching a mass claim to redress a perceived injustice. Investors, too, are starting to recognize the commercial potential of tort law. Coinciding with the increasing commercialization of tort law, is

  20. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  1. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  2. Education on Environmental Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Guillermo J.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that environmental law, as part of legal science, should be taught at universities; discusses the development of environmental law and its relationship to other sciences; and proposes a framework for studying environmental law as a university course for study. (DC)

  3. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    LAW, DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT/ VOL 21 (2017) ratified may apply in Kenya. The general rules of international law apply if a norm has achieved the status of jus cogens or erga omnes.2 The Kenyan courts have cautiously created inroads into the application of international customary law so as to uphold. Article 2(6) ...

  4. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This article is about Kepler's first law or the law of ellipses, named after its discoverer and shown by Newton to follow from an inverse square law of force: A planet revolving about the sun moves in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus of the ellipse. We present two proofs of this classical result: Newton's proof, from the ...

  5. Determinants of coal mine labor productivity change. [1950 to 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, J. G.; Stevenson, W. L.

    1979-11-01

    Coal mine labor productivity (tons per miner-shift) has been falling yearly since 1970. The decline in labor productivity since 1970 has implications for the coal industry's labor demand, cost of production, and injuries and could hinder the ability of the industry to meet the coal output goals of the National Energy Plan. The purpose of this research study was to identify and measure the causes of labor productivity decline. Concise answers are given to three questions: Why is coal mine labor productivity important. What are the causes of labor productivity decline in deep and surface coal mines. What are the implications of these findings for future coal mine labor productivity. Coal mine labor productivity is important for three reasons: (1) it affects the cost of coal production, (2) it affects coal industry labor demand, and (3) it affects injuries and injury rates in coal mining. Labor productivity is the link between output levels and employment requirements. The period of declining productivity coincides with major changes in the coal industry's environment: (1) change from a largely unregulated industry to a highly regulated industry (the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969; implementation of many state surface mine reclamation laws, etc.) and (2) change from a declining, marginal profits industry to a growing, profitable industry (increasing coal prices and demand in the 1970s). A major conclusion of the study is that a portion of the high labor productivity of the 1960s was possible because some of the costs of coal mining - worker injuries, black lung disability, and environmental damage - were not being paid for by the coal industry and coal consumers. Once these costs were forced internally on the mine operators by legislation, productivity fell and the cost of production increased.

  6. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining – The Way Forward | Suglo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining involves many operations such as rock breakage, materials handling, equipment maintenance, mine design, scheduling and budgeting. At one stage or the other mine managements often have to decide whether to undertake a major mining operation using their own equipment and personnel or to contract the ...

  7. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  8. Organic Law Of Judicial Guarantees And Constitutional Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López Freire

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the various unconstitutional and fallacies of the Organic Law of Judicial guarantees and Constitutional Control. For that, there will be a comprehensive collation between the mentioned law and the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador and force. Through this analysis shows a lack of knowledge of Ecuadorian law or legal science by their authors. This study elucidated, inter alia, the inconsistencies in matters relating to the interpretation of constitutional provisions, full compensation, material and integral; challenge administrative acts, judicial unit.

  9. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  10. On-Site Radon Detection of Mining-induced Fractures from Overlying Strata to the Surface: A Case Study of the Baoshan Coal Mine in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale longwall mining of shallow coal seams may cause mining-induced fractures that can project completely through to the surface. This could lead to a series of mine safety and environmental issues, further deteriorating the already fragile ecological environment in the Western mining areas in China. Therefore, an accurate and effective understanding of the spatiotemporal evolution law of mining-induced fractures in overlying strata and its relationship to upper aquifers is critical. In this paper, the application of the geophysical-chemical properties of radon in mining engineering is explored as a potential solution to the shortcomings of existing surveying methods. A radioactive measurement method is proposed for the detection of the development of mining-induced fractures from overlying strata to the surface in the Baoshan Coal Mine (BCM. The on-site test indicated that the first weighting step is approximately 60 m, the average periodic weighting step is approximately 20 m, and the influence coverage of the advanced abutment pressure is approximately 30 m. The presented method could be used as an indirect technical support to increase the safety of coal mining by acting as a simple, fast, and reliable method of detecting mining-induced fractures in overlying strata.

  11. Approximation of Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niiniluoto, Ilkka

    2014-03-01

    Approximation of laws is an important theme in the philosophy of science. If we can make sense of the idea that two scientific laws are "close" to each other, then we can also analyze such methodological notions as approximate explanation of laws, approximate reduction of theories, approximate empirical success of theories, and approximate truth of laws. Proposals for measuring the distance between quantitative scientific laws were given in Niiniluoto (1982, 1987). In this paper, these definitions are reconsidered as a response to the interesting critical remarks by Liu (1999).

  12. racial discrimination laws and the interests of justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUKKE

    In this paper a general introduction of the facts of the case will be given. Thereafter the principles applied by die court in evaluating racial discrimination laws and the interests of justice will be highlighted. The case deals with certain provisions of the Black Administration Act,4 which applies to. Africans living under a system ...

  13. Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, International Law and Justice : Access to Gender Equality. Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) are legally bound to put their provisions ...

  14. Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence (JILJ) is a scholarly, online/print, open access, peer-reviewed, and fully refereed annual ... Control of pollution arising from oil and gas industry: appraising the scope of provisions under the 1999 Nigerian Constitution · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  15. 19 CFR 122.2 - Other Customs laws and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other Customs laws and regulations. 122.2 Section 122.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS General Definitions and Provisions § 122.2 Other Customs...

  16. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  17. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Qingliang Chang; Jianhang Chen; Huaqiang Zhou; Jianbiao Bai

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology a...

  18. Mine-Detecting Canines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-09-01

    affliction known as hip dysplasia which disables a majority of German Shepherds after age 5 to 7 years. b. Minimize the aggressive tendencies which cause...Sheet 33-34 7 Density of Dog Alerts As a Function of "Sit" Distance from Center of Mines 40 8 Detection Performance of Dogs 41 9 Detection Performance...by Time of Day 43 10 Detection Performance of Dog Groups 44 11 Mines Detected by Type of Mine 45 12 Detection Performance, Grouped by Handlers 46 13

  19. Data Mining in Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoech, Dick; Quinn, Andrew; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the historical and larger context of data mining and describes data mining processes, techniques, and tools. Illustrates these using a child welfare dataset concerning the employee turnover that is mined, using logistic regression and a Bayesian neural network. Discusses the data mining process, the resulting models, their predictive…

  20. Environmental law. Important laws and ordinances for environmental protection. With the transitional provisions issued in the period leading to the German Unification. Full text edition with detailed index and an introduction by Prof. Dr. Peter-Christoph Storm. As of November 15, 1990. 6. rev. and enlarged ed. Umweltrecht. Wichtige Gesetze und Verordnungen zum Schutz der Umwelt. Mit den Ueberleitungsregelungen aus Anlass der Herstellung der Einheit Deutschlands. Textausgabe mit ausfuehrlichem Sachverzeichnis und einer Einfuehrung von Prof. Dr. Peter-Christoph Storm. Stand: 15. November 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulation on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environments law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment. Common administative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy are radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. The transitional provisons required for estaslishing the unified Germany are given in an annex. (orig.).

  1. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Concluding remarks then follows. 2 CONTEXTUAL BACKGROUND .... make provision for the appointment of chiefs by the President on the recommendation of the relevant provincial assembly of ... President and bestowed them on the National Council of Chiefs, it has at least reduced. 20 Dodo O “Traditional leadership ...

  2. Teachers' Unions on the Defensive?: How Recent Collective Bargaining Laws Reformed the Rights of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marianno, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    Between 2011 and 2013 lawmakers in every state proposed, and often enacted, laws intended to impact codified state provisions related to teachers and teachers' unions (author calculation). These new laws either worked against union interests (e.g., by prohibiting collective bargaining) or they aligned with union positions (e.g. by providing…

  3. 48 CFR 252.228-7006 - Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7006 Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance. As prescribed at 228.370(e), use the following clause: Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance (DEC 1998) (a...

  4. 7 CFR 1.634 - What is the law governing ex parte communications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the law governing ex parte communications? 1.634 Section 1.634 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Conditions in FERC Hydropower Licenses General Provisions Related to Hearings § 1.634 What is the law governing ex parte communications? (a) Ex parte...

  5. 43 CFR 45.34 - What is the law governing ex parte communications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the law governing ex parte communications? 45.34 Section 45.34 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior CONDITIONS AND PRESCRIPTIONS IN FERC HYDROPOWER LICENSES Hearing Process General Provisions Related to Hearings § 45.34 What is the law governing ex parte...

  6. 48 CFR 970.5204-2 - Laws, regulations, and DOE directives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Laws, regulations, and DOE... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clauses for Management and Operating Contracts 970.5204-2 Laws, regulations, and DOE directives. As prescribed...

  7. 24 CFR 135.11 - Other laws governing training, employment, and contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-INCOME PERSONS General Provisions § 135.11 Other laws governing training, employment, and contracting... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other laws governing training, employment, and contracting. 135.11 Section 135.11 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to...

  8. Data mining in Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Ruxandra-Ştefania PETRE

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how data mining is used in cloud computing. Data Mining is used for extracting potentially useful information from raw data. The integration of data mining techniques into normal day-to-day activities has become common place. Every day people are confronted with targeted advertising, and data mining techniques help businesses to become more efficient by reducing costs. Data mining techniques and applications are very much needed in the cloud computing paradigm. The implem...

  9. Mining the Moon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmitt, Harrison H

    2004-01-01

    The author, a geologist who collected rocks on the Moon during the Apollo 19 mission, argues that the time is now ripe to return there, to mine the quantities of the isotope helium-3 found on the Moon...

  10. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  11. Acid mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Jerry M.; Cravotta, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) consists of metal-laden solutions produced by the oxidative dissolution of iron sulfide minerals exposed to air, moisture, and acidophilic microbes during the mining of coal and metal deposits. The pH of AMD is usually in the range of 2–6, but mine-impacted waters at circumneutral pH (5–8) are also common. Mine drainage usually contains elevated concentrations of sulfate, iron, aluminum, and other potentially toxic metals leached from rock that hydrolyze and coprecipitate to form rust-colored encrustations or sediments. When AMD is discharged into surface waters or groundwaters, degradation of water quality, injury to aquatic life, and corrosion or encrustation of engineered structures can occur for substantial distances. Prevention and remediation strategies should consider the biogeochemical complexity of the system, the longevity of AMD pollution, the predictive power of geochemical modeling, and the full range of available field technologies for problem mitigation.

  12. Ensemble Data Mining Methods

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ensemble Data Mining Methods, also known as Committee Methods or Model Combiners, are machine learning methods that leverage the power of multiple models to achieve...

  13. Protecting mine hoisting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidorenko, V.A.; Shatilo, A.N.

    1982-10-01

    The paper discusses problems associated with coal and rock hoisting in underground coal mines in the USSR. Design of standardized safety systems used in Soviet coal mines is described. Failures of control systems which determine hoisting speed are analyzed. When a cage approaches a loading level or ground level at excessive speed the bumping beams accept cage energy. Cage deformation, damage and hoisting rope damage are the result. Correcting cage position in relation to loading levels is a relatively complicated process. The electronic system for automatic control of cage speed and automatic braking when cage speed exceeds the maximum permissible speed in a mine shaft section is evaluated. System design is shown in a scheme. Its specifications are given. It consists of speed sensors, a system activating safety brakes and a system for cage positioning after safety braking. Use of the safety system in some coal mines is discussed.

  14. SME mining engineering handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Darling, Peter

    2011-01-01

    ...) 948-4200 / (800) 763-3132 www.smenet.org SME advances the worldwide mining and minerals community through information exchange and professional development. With members in more than 70 countrie...

  15. The perceptions of the work environment of women in core mining activities / Johannes Christiaan (Ian) de Klerk

    OpenAIRE

    De Klerk, Johannes Christiaan

    2012-01-01

    Until 1996, all women in South Africa were prohibited, by law, from working underground. With the introduction of the Mining Charter all this changed and companies started hiring women for different positions. The objectives of the study were: to determine the perceptions of the working environment of women in the mining activities, to establish what changes were made to accommodate women in this specific mine and to establish if women can advance in this company. A field study was done at a ...

  16. Incidence of social resistance in provincial mining legislation. The cases of Córdoba and Catamarca (2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Christel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade in Argentina, the growth of open pit mining has faced strong social resistance and provincial laws prohibiting such activity. This work aims to analyse the ways in which the different subnational political regimes and economic systems impact upon the possibility of incidence of social resistance on provincial mining legislation, looking at the cases of Cordoba and Catamarca.

  17. Strategies for knowledge management in law firms in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Fombad

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article formulates a route map on how law firms in Botswana may utilise knowledge management to enhance their competitive edge amidst the changing legal environment. It draws from the multiple definitions and perspectives of knowledge management, several frameworks and models together with the empirical findings to recommend a strategy for knowledge management in law firms in Botswana. It underscores the fact that knowledge management is becoming an imperative for the survival of law firms as knowledge intensive organisations. Law firms in Botswana can no longer afford to rely on the traditional methods of managing knowledge because there is a need for the 'best minds' and the best knowledge in their area of practice. It is recommended that lawyers should be proactive, adaptive, innovative, effective and competitive in the provision of outstanding, cost-efficient and effective services to clients. Most previous studies in this area have been carried out in developed countries with large law firms.

  18. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  19. Data Stream Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Mohamed Medhat; Zaslavsky, Arkady; Krishnaswamy, Shonali

    Data mining is concerned with the process of computationally extracting hidden knowledge structures represented in models and patterns from large data repositories. It is an interdisciplinary field of study that has its roots in databases, statistics, machine learning, and data visualization. Data mining has emerged as a direct outcome of the data explosion that resulted from the success in database and data warehousing technologies over the past two decades (Fayyad, 1997,Fayyad, 1998,Kantardzic, 2003).

  20. Mining water governance

    OpenAIRE

    Sosa Landeo, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main conflicting actors: rural communities and mining companies. Through an in-depth analysis of how the actors navigate these challenges, focusing on those related to water, the thesis sets out to understand w...

  1. Applied data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Guandong

    2013-01-01

    Data mining has witnessed substantial advances in recent decades. New research questions and practical challenges have arisen from emerging areas and applications within the various fields closely related to human daily life, e.g. social media and social networking. This book aims to bridge the gap between traditional data mining and the latest advances in newly emerging information services. It explores the extension of well-studied algorithms and approaches into these new research arenas.

  2. Data Mining with Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Klímek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    One of the oppotunities in data mining is a use of clustering analysis. Clustering analysis belongs to unsupervised methods of data mining. We put here a focus on this method. Some basic principles are described in the second part of this paper. This method is examined on two examples from the marketing field. In the first example is used software Statgraphics 5.0Plus to solve clustering problem (nearest neighbour algorithm and Eucleidian distance); and in the second example is used Statistic...

  3. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  4. WEB STRUCTURE MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ELENA DINUCĂ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The World Wide Web became one of the most valuable resources for information retrievals and knowledge discoveries due to the permanent increasing of the amount of data available online. Taking into consideration the web dimension, the users get easily lost in the web’s rich hyper structure. Application of data mining methods is the right solution for knowledge discovery on the Web. The knowledge extracted from the Web can be used to raise the performances for Web information retrievals, question answering and Web based data warehousing. In this paper, I provide an introduction of Web mining categories and I focus on one of these categories: the Web structure mining. Web structure mining, one of three categories of web mining for data, is a tool used to identify the relationship between Web pages linked by information or direct link connection. It offers information about how different pages are linked together to form this huge web. Web Structure Mining finds hidden basic structures and uses hyperlinks for more web applications such as web search.

  5. Criminal law aspects of assisted human reproduction in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous shortcomings of the Law on Infertility Treatment by Biomedically Assisted Fertilization culminate in provisions defining criminal offences. A question is raised regarding the possibility and results of the application of such criminal provisions due to the legislative technique used in the process of their creation, language, qualified forms of the offences, span of criminal sanctions, as well as having in mind the overlapping of such criminal offences with some of the misdemeanors punishable by the same Law. A possibility to provide for a criminal law protection in this highly sensitive area is put into question due to a very courageous action of the legislator reflected in the attempt to introduce criminal offences, punishable by long prison sentences.

  6. Mine Waste at The Kherzet Youcef Mine : Environmental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issaad, Mouloud; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Kolli, Omar

    2017-04-01

    Mining activity in Algeria has existed since antiquity. But it was very important since the 20th century. This activity has virtually ceased since the beginning of the 1990s, leaving many mine sites abandoned (so-called orphan mines). The abandonment of mining today poses many environmental problems (soil pollution, contamination of surface water, mining collapses...). The mining wastes often occupy large volumes that can be hazardous to the environment and human health, often neglected in the past: Faulting geotechnical implementation, acid mine drainage (AMD), alkalinity, presence of pollutants and toxic substances (heavy metals, cyanide...). The study started already six years ago and it covers all mines located in NE Algeria, almost are stopped for more than thirty years. So the most important is to have an overview of all the study area. After the inventory job of the abandoned mines, the rock drainage prediction will help us to classify sites according to their acid generating potential.

  7. Making law work for the poor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo

    2005-11-15

    To many, law – the systems of binding rules governing human relations – seems remote from the reality of daily struggle in poor and marginalised communities around the world. Yet, directly or indirectly, legal rules shape the way we behave in our everyday life, and contribute to organise social and economic relations (from commercial codes to EC 'freedom-of-movement' treaty provisions to welfare state legislation). Since the 1960s, development agencies have supported law reform processes in developing countries. Interest in law reform was recently revived by the recognition of the importance of institutional frameworks for social change ('New Institutional Economics'), and by the attention paid by several development agencies to concepts like good governance and the rule of law. Earlier emphasis on 'legal transplants' and naive assumptions about the way the law operates have given way to a better understanding of the complex nature of processes of legal and socio-economic change. Drawing on three examples, this paper explores the extent to which legal tools can contribute to improve the lives of poorer groups in both developing and developed countries; the conditions under which this is possible; and the constraints that such tools face in the pursuit of this aim. The paper aims to spark reflection and debate on these issues – not to come up with definitive answers. It is likely to be of interest for development lawyers, development practitioners working at a macro-planning level, and researchers. As for development practitioners, the paper sets out the case for taking law seriously as a tool for positive change. As for development lawyers, it argues that designing and implementing legal interventions that deliver that positive change is function not only of sound legal thinking, but also of a solid understanding of power relations and other social, cultural, political and economic factors that affect the way the law operates in

  8. Law of the cloud: on the supremacy of the user interface over copyright law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavera De Filippi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technologies are commonly used for delivering content or information to users who no longer need to store this data onto their own devices. This is likely to have an important impact on the effectivity of copyright law in the context of online applications, insofar as the underlying infrastructure of the cloud is such that is allows cloud operators to control the manner in which and the extent to which users can exploit such content - regardless of whether it is protected by copyright law or it has already fallen in the public domain. This article analyses the extent to which the provisions of copyright law can potentially be bypassed by cloud computing applications whose interface is designed to regulate the access, use and reuse of online content, and how these online applications can be used to establish private regimes of regulation that often go beyond the scope of the traditional copyright regime.

  9. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  10. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  11. The Main Law Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The internal law of a State is the expression of the sovereign will of that Sate; however, thereare some features common to all law systems. The evolution of the society as a whole gave rise tointernational bodies (such as the European Union, through which the signatory countries haveassimilated certain unitary regulations in the internal law system. The origin of this law system is thelaw book of Justinian, during whose time the Roman law was codified. Thus, in the year 528 a. d.Justinian arranged the legal rules of those times in a unitary whole, adapted to the realities of those days.In our country, as per the fundamental law - the Constitution, the treaties and conventions ratified byRomania prevail in case of a conflict between them and the internal legislation regarding the humanrights.

  12. On Hack's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigon, Riccardo; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Maritan, Amos; Giacometti, Achille; Tarboton, David G.; Rinaldo, Andrea

    1996-11-01

    Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of basin boundaries is shown to be connected to the power law decay of the probability of total contributing areas at any link and to Hack's law. An explanation for Hack's law is derived from scaling arguments. From the results we suggest that a statistical framework referring to the scaling invariance of the entire basin structure should be used in the interpretation of Hack's law.

  13. New publications on environmental law. Publications within the period of July 1, 1986 to September 30, 1987. Neue Literatur zum Umweltrecht. Veroeffentlichungen im Zeitraum vom 1. 7. 1986 bis zum 30. 9. 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohse, S.

    1987-01-01

    The bibliography (1229 quotations) contains the literature which was included into the collection of the Federal Office for the Environment, special field 'problems of environmental legislation'. The literature which was, because of its scientific-technical character, directly included into the data bank of environmental literature (ULIDAT) of the Federal Office for the Environment, in the same period of registration, is not listed. The list includes a total of 1229 publications from the following fields: environmental protection, general issues; constitutional law concerning the environment; administrative environmental law; environmental law of procedure; financial environmental law; criminal law concerning the environment; private law and labour law on the environment; law on regional development, care of nature and water protection; refuse law; immission control law; atomic energy law; energy law and mining law; criminal law concerning risks and sanitary environmental law. The bibliography ends with an index of the authors. (orig./HSCH).

  14. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-04-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified.

  15. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  16. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Twenty Underage Drinking Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fell, James C; Scherer, Michael; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B

    2016-03-01

    Over the last two decades, many states have adopted several of the 20 laws that aim to control youth access to and possession of alcohol and prevent underage drinking in the United States. However, many of these laws have not been evaluated since their adoption. The objective of this study was to determine which minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws currently have an effect on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes. We updated the effective dates of the 20 MLDA-21 laws examined in this study and used scores of each law's strengths and weaknesses. Our structural equation model included the 20 MLDA-21 laws, impaired driving laws, seat belt safety laws, economic strength, driving exposure, beer consumption, and fatal crash ratios of drinking-to-nondrinking drivers under age 21. Nine MLDA-21 laws were associated with significant decreases in fatal crash ratios of underage drinking drivers: possession of alcohol (-7.7%), purchase of alcohol (-4.2%), use alcohol and lose your license (-7.9%), zero tolerance .02 blood alcohol concentration limit for underage drivers (-2.9%), age of bartender ≥21 (-4.1%), state responsible beverage service program (-3.8%), fake identification support provisions for retailers (-11.9%), dram shop liability (-2.5%), and social host civil liability (-1.7%). Two laws were associated with significant increases in the fatal crash ratios of underage drinking drivers: prohibition of furnishing alcohol to minors (+7.2%) and registration of beer kegs (+9.6%). The nine effective MLDA-21 laws are estimated to be currently saving approximately 1,135 lives annually, yet only five states have enacted all nine laws. If all states adopted these nine effective MLDA-21 laws, it is estimated that an additional 210 lives could be saved every year.

  18. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  19. Ocean, Technology, Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OCEANS, *LEGISLATION, USSR, NATURAL RESOURCES, CONTINENTAL SHELVES, PROTECTION, TRANSLATIONS, PRESERVATION, FISHERIES, REGULATIONS, POLLUTION, OCEAN BOTTOM, INTERNATIONAL LAW , WATERWAYS, CANALS, NORTH SEA, STRAITS, BALTIC SEA.

  20. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...... of comparative criminal law....

  1. Sustainable gold mining management waste policy in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Elena; Filipciuc, Constantina

    2016-04-01

    Sustainable mining practices and consistent implementation of the mining for the closure planning approach, within an improved legislative framework, create conditions for the development of creative, profitable, environmentally-sound and socially-responsible management and reuse of mine lands. According to the World Commission on Environment and Development definition, sustainable development is the type of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Romania has the largest gold reserves in Europe (760 million tons of gold-silver ores, of which 40 million tons in 68 gold deposits in the Apuseni Mountains. New mining projects draw particular attention regarding the environmental risks they cause. Rehabilitation is an ongoing consideration throughout the mine's lifecycle, both from a technical and a financial standpoint. The costs of land rehabilitation are classified as the mine's operating costs. According to Directive 2004/35/EC on environmental liability, the prevention and remedying of environmental damage should be implemented by applying the "polluter pays" principle, in line with the principle of sustainable development. Directive on the management of waste from extractive industries and amending Directive obliges operators to provide (and periodically adjust in size) a financial guarantee for waste facility maintenance and post-closure site restoration, including land rehabilitation. According to the Romanian Mining Law, the license holder has the following obligations related to land use and protection: to provide environmental agreements as one of the prerequisites for a building permit; to regularly update the mine closure plan; to set up and maintain the financial guarantee for environmental rehabilitation; and to execute and finalize the environmental rehabilitation of affected land in the mining site, according to the mine closure plan, including the post

  2. Transfer pricing principles in VAT Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dennis Ramsdahl

    2011-01-01

    The main part of the article is devoted to a critical analysis of the optional transfer pricing provisions in the EC VAT Directive in the light of the principle of fiscal neutrality. As an integrated part of this analysis, the VAT transfer pricing regime is considered in the light of the well......-known principles for transfer pricing in the area of income tax law, as set out in Art. 9 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. The last part of the article contains a brief discussion of to which extent it is desirable to harmonize the two tax systems´ transfer pricing rules....

  3. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing any separability assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its...

  4. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  5. The Provision of the Disabled Facilities in Public Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talib Yuhainis Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Person with Disabilities Act 2008 has become an eye opener towards the provision of disabled facilities in all public buildings especially regarding healthcare accessibility. The aim of this research is to analyse the provision of the disabled facilities provided in a public hospital in Perak, Malaysia. To support the research, it was supporting with two objectives that are to identify the designs and requirements of disabled facilities that need to be fulfilled according to Uniform Building By-Laws (UBBL and other standard regulations and to identify the level of awareness of public on disabled facilities in the public hospital. For the purpose of the research, the observation method has been done towards three (3 selected hospital in Perak and questionnaire survey have been distributed to 96 respondents among the staff and visitors of the hospitals. All the data collected from the questionnaire survey and the checklist using UBBL standard requirement, then analysed using the SPSS V.21. The outcome of the observation indicates that most of the hospitals were provided with the disabled facilities, but there are still some rooms for improvement regarding specifications and the provision itself. In a nutshell, this research helps the management of the hospital together with the public on the importance of the provision of the disabled facilities in public buildings.

  6. New solutions in the juvenile criminal law in the light of the restorative justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available New criminal legislation got into force in Serbia at the beginning of 2006. In that way, Serbia got unique Criminal Code which includes all provisions of material criminal law except provisions related to the criminal position of juveniles. System of criminal sanctions for juvenile off enders, procedure for their imposition and the way, procedure and terms for their execution are regulated by the provisions of the separate law - the Law on juvenile off enders and criminal protection of juveniles. Some of the most important novelties introduced by new juvenile criminal law are system of diversion, i.e. system of diversion orders, which aim at excluding the imposition of criminal sanctions in the cases when criminal sanction is not necessary from the perspective of crime suppression. Bearing that in mind, this paper is dedicated to forms of diversion orders as a form of measures that lead to more efficient system of restorative justice within our new juvenile criminal legislation. .

  7. Health and Safety Assessment in Lakhra Coal Mines and Its Mitigation Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sallahuddin Panhwar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The coal mine excavation, transportation and coal cutting process are involved in hazards and risks that can result in fatalities, injuries and diseases, if these are not properly managed. This study has been undertaken for assessment of the safety and health issues amongst the mines workers. Convenience sampling technique was exercised upon 97 mine workers and interviewed with the help of set questionnaire. Personnel protection to workplace environment was monitored by using physical observation and scientific analysis. All parameters were measured against national and international protocols pertaining to labor law at coal mines. It has been determined that very high risk was persisting while mine excavation, coal cutting and transportation processes. Previous record of last five years was suggesting that 04 deaths happened due to roof fall, 03 fatalities occurred through suffocation by inhaling toxic gases, one causality happened via rope haulage pulley, and also one death due to stone fall down from mine shaft. 121 workers injured in different kinds of accidents within five years. It has been learnt from in-depth analysis that maximum of health risk and subsequent health damages are triggering due to lack of awareness, non-compliance of labor as well as mines laws. Thus, it is recommended that government should not allow coal mining contractors and companies, those which are failing in compliance with the suggested standards.

  8. Regulating Mining in South Africa and Zimbabwe: Communities, the Environment and Perpetual Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumai Murombo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining as an extractive activity has the potential to promote sustainable economic growth in developing countries; however this largely depends on how the activities are regulated. Mining contributes to environmental pollution and degradation, and the social degeneration of local communities. Corporate social responsibility initiatives are often self-serving short-term programs that in the long term do not benefit mining communities. In this article, the mining, environment and community trilemma is investigated through the lens of what is happening in South Africa and Zimbabwe. It is argued that continued calls for nationalisation and indigenisation are the sequel of the failure of postcolonial mineral law and policy reforms. Regulatory continuity from colonial laws has seen mining companies continue to treat mineral rich developing countries as sources of raw materials. Little is done to develop the communities impacted by mining activities. Recommendations are made on how mining can support sustainable development without creating a cycle of poverty within mining communities. This can happen through effective regulation embedded within sustainable development, transparency and accountability and equitable access to mineral wealth.

  9. Law as a tool to promote healthcare safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to inform healthcare providers and healthcare facility leadership about the statutory, administrative, criminal, and tort law implications related to preventable harms from unsafe injection practices. Design/methodology/approach Review of legal theory and precedents. Findings The law can address disputes over unsafe injection practices in a variety of ways. Administrative agencies may hold a provider or facility responsible for preventable harms according to specific statutory and regulatory provisions governing licensure. State courts can compensate victims of certain actions or inactions based on tort law, where a breach of a legal duty caused damages. Prosecutors and the public can turn to criminal law to punish defendants and deter future actions that result in disability or death. Research limitations/implications The state law findings in this review are limited to legal provisions and court cases that are available on searchable databases. Due to the nature of this topic, many cases are settled out of court, and those records are sealed from the public and not available for review. Practical implications Preventable harm continues to occur from unsafe injection practices. These practices pose a significant risk of disease or even death for patients and could result in legal repercussions for healthcare providers and facility leadership. Originality/value This article reviews emerging law and potential legal implications for health care and public health related to unsafe medical practices related to needle, syringe, and vial use. PMID:26855615

  10. The application of international environmental law in armed conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radivojević Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of environment protection during armed conflicts. The authors primarily focus on examining the possibility of applying international environmental law in armed conflicts. In the first part of the paper, the authors provide an overview of relevant rules of international humanitarian law which are important for environment protection and contained in different sources of law governing this area (international treaties, international customs and general principles. In this part, the authors point out to the weaknesses and shortcomings of the IHL environmental provisions, including both the traditional rules which have an indirect effect on environment protection and the contemporary rules which in most cases directly protect the environment. The second part of the article deals with the rules of international environmental law applicable in armed conflicts. The authors first examine the possibility of applying multilateral environmental treaties in armed conflicts. In that context, the authors point out to different types of such treaties, with specific reference to the treaties which do not contain provisions on their applicability during armed conflicts. Further on, the authors analyze the application of customary environmental rules in armed conflicts. These rules are considerably less important than international treaties and they commonly comprise a few general principles which may be considered nowadays as the rules of customary law. Finally, the authors explore the possibility of applying the rules of environmental soft law, such as the rules contained in different declarations and resolutions adopted at international conferences or within the framework of international organizations.

  11. IMPLEMENTASI RECHTSVINDING YANG BERKARAKTERISTIK HUKUM PROGRESIF / The Implementation of Rechtsvinding Based on Progressive Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Ridha Hakim

    2016-07-01

      The fundamental purpose of law is to create justice, legal certainty and utility. The contradiction between justice and legal certainty are dilemmatic for law enforcement officer. The legal certainty side is easier to be applied so that it neglect the justice itself. The law principle is unhierarchical, thus there is no superior principle which can ignore the other principle. The relevance of the application of legal principles is based on the situation in legal issues. Responding to these challenges appear paradigm of progressive law that the law is a scheme that is not final, it continues to move, to change, it follows the dynamics of human life. Therefore, the law is not seen as something that lives in a stagnation. Law is born from provision living in the society (ibi societas ibi ius. On that basis, the law must continue to be dissected and explored through progressive efforts to reach the ultimate truth for the sake of justice.

  12. Intelligent Mining Engineering Systems in the Structure of Industry 4.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rylnikova Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The solution of the problem of improving the human environment and working conditions at mines is based on the provision of the rationale of parameters and conditions for the implementation of an environmentally balanced cycle of comprehensive development of mineral deposits on the basis of the design of mining engineering systems characterized by the minimization of the human factor effect in danger zones of mining operations. In this area, robotized technologies are being developed, machinery and mechanisms with the elements of artificial intelligence, and mining and transport system automatic controls are being put into service throughout the world. In the upcoming decades, mining machines and mechanisms will be virtually industrial robots. The article presents the results of zoning of open-pit and underground mine production areas, as well as mining engineering system of combined development depending on the fact and periodicity of human presence in zones of mining processes. As a surface geotechnology case study, the software structure based on a modular concept is described. The performance philosophy of mining and transport equipment with the elements of artificial intelligence is shown when it is put into service in an open pit.

  13. Intelligent Mining Engineering Systems in the Structure of Industry 4.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylnikova, Marina; Radchenko, Dmitriy; Klebanov, Dmitriy

    2017-11-01

    The solution of the problem of improving the human environment and working conditions at mines is based on the provision of the rationale of parameters and conditions for the implementation of an environmentally balanced cycle of comprehensive development of mineral deposits on the basis of the design of mining engineering systems characterized by the minimization of the human factor effect in danger zones of mining operations. In this area, robotized technologies are being developed, machinery and mechanisms with the elements of artificial intelligence, and mining and transport system automatic controls are being put into service throughout the world. In the upcoming decades, mining machines and mechanisms will be virtually industrial robots. The article presents the results of zoning of open-pit and underground mine production areas, as well as mining engineering system of combined development depending on the fact and periodicity of human presence in zones of mining processes. As a surface geotechnology case study, the software structure based on a modular concept is described. The performance philosophy of mining and transport equipment with the elements of artificial intelligence is shown when it is put into service in an open pit.

  14. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    mineworkers' legal representation imbroglio in Madigiwana. *. This article is based on the research supported in part by the National Research Foundation of South ... circumstances are the principles of separation of powers and the rule of law whereby ..... See Gauteng Gambling Board v MEC for Economic Development,.

  15. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    Revisiting the participation of traditional leaders in municipal councils in South. Africa. MBUZENI MATHENJWA. Associate Professor of Law, University of .... control and management of the affairs of Black people. In terms of ... was that traditional leaders were no longer empowered solely on the basis of their hereditary right,.

  16. String Mining in Bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelhoda, Mohamed; Ghanem, Moustafa

    Sequence analysis is a major area in bioinformatics encompassing the methods and techniques for studying the biological sequences, DNA, RNA, and proteins, on the linear structure level. The focus of this area is generally on the identification of intra- and inter-molecular similarities. Identifying intra-molecular similarities boils down to detecting repeated segments within a given sequence, while identifying inter-molecular similarities amounts to spotting common segments among two or multiple sequences. From a data mining point of view, sequence analysis is nothing but string- or pattern mining specific to biological strings. For a long time, this point of view, however, has not been explicitly embraced neither in the data mining nor in the sequence analysis text books, which may be attributed to the co-evolution of the two apparently independent fields. In other words, although the word "data-mining" is almost missing in the sequence analysis literature, its basic concepts have been implicitly applied. Interestingly, recent research in biological sequence analysis introduced efficient solutions to many problems in data mining, such as querying and analyzing time series [49,53], extracting information from web pages [20], fighting spam mails [50], detecting plagiarism [22], and spotting duplications in software systems [14].

  17. 40 CFR 440.131 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... diverted from the active mining area and runoff which is not diverted from the mill area. (2) The facility... groundwater infiltration. This discharge shall be subject to the limitations for mine drainage applicable to...

  18. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. 25 CFR 900.140 - Can any provision of the regulations under this part be waived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the contract, or is consistent with the policies of the Act and is not contrary to statutory law. ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CONTRACTS UNDER THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND... provision of these regulations, including any cost principles adopted by the regulations under this part, if...

  20. The successful transposition of European provisions by member states : application to the Framework Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhelyazkova, Asya; Torenvlied, Rene

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to explain variation between member states in compliance with provisions of a European Union (EU) law. Predictions are derived about the effects of technical fit, discretion, Commission warnings, and conflict in the Council on the probability of member-state transposition of

  1. 32 CFR 37.875 - Should my TIA include a provision concerning foreign access to technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Related to Other Administrative Matters Intellectual Property § 37.875 Should my TIA include a provision.... export laws, regulations and policies (e.g., the International Traffic in Arms Regulation at chapter I...: (i) In individual cases, the Government may waive the requirement of substantial manufacture in the...

  2. Practices and Challenges in the Provision of Pre-Primary Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    ii) To mobilize and support LGAs to set up satellite pre-primary classes in difficult and hard-to-reach areas; iii) To sensitize LGAs to enforce by-laws in order to promote correct school-age enrolment in pre-primary education; iv) To mobilize the private sector to continue supporting the provision of pre- primary education;.

  3. Towards locating the Nigerian Shari'ah Penal Codes' provisions for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The punishment for willful homicide under Islamic law is retaliation (qiṣāṣ) that is death. However, relatives of the murdered are at liberty to waive this and accept compensation money (diyah) or pardon the culprit absolutely. These provisions of the Sharī'ah were not in force in Nigeria until1999 when Zamfara State ...

  4. 26 CFR 521.102 - Applicable provisions of the Internal Revenue Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code. 521.102 Section 521.102 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Revenue Code. (a) The Internal Revenue Code provides in part as follows: Chapter I—Income Tax Sec. 22... Revenue Code, other provisions of the internal revenue laws, and to Article XXII of the convention, the...

  5. SPACE LAW BIBLIOGRAPHY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only since the end of World War II has there been a serious interest in the problems of law and activities in the upper atmosphere. Scholarly... law reviews which apply--either directly or by analogy--to man’s activities above the surface of the earth. The immediate problem is State sovereignty

  6. Climate Change Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farber, D.A.; Peeters, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together over seventy fifty authors for a comprehensive examination of the emerging global regime of climate change law. Despite the relative youth of climate change law, we can already begin to see the outlines of legal regimes addressing climate change mitigation and adaptation

  7. Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field research.

  8. Haramaya Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly works on any topic relevant to the legal community, including analysis of domestic or international laws and cases, the African Union and other international organizations, challenges and lessons from domestic practice, and original field ...

  9. Pop Goes the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school…

  10. On Kepler's First Law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. On Kepler's First Law - The Law of Ellipses. Shailesh A Shirali. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 30-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0030-0042 ...

  11. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  12. Revising China's Environmental Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, G.; Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.; Liu, Wenling; Liu, J.

    2013-01-01

    China's Environmental Protection Law (EPL) is the main national environmental legislative framework. Yet the environmental legal system is incomplete, and implementation and enforcement of environmental laws have shown major shortcomings (1–3). A controversial attempt to revise the EPL could have

  13. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  14. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  15. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  16. Benford's Law in Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the -th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we ...

  17. Oromia Law Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...

  18. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  19. Archives: Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 20 of 20 ... Archives: Mizan Law Review. Journal Home > Archives: Mizan Law Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 20 of 20 Items. 2017. Vol 11, No 1 ...

  20. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  1. [Law 6/84: "an inappropriate law"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroco, L E

    1994-01-01

    The intervention of Dr. Luis Elmano Barroco was evaluated at a meeting on March 19, 1994, on the topic of the state of abortion after 10 years of the new abortion law. Some aspects of the law of 1984 are characterized as inappropriate and inadequate because of the experience of the maternity ward of Dr. Alfredo da Costa. It was expected that in the wake of the publication of the law, official health care institutions would provide services for termination of pregnancy in accordance with legal indications. However, a survey carried out by the Association for Family Planning in July 1993 revealed that more than 50% of hospitals did not perform abortions because of the inexistence of specialized services or lack of resources or on grounds of conscientious objection. Even a revision of the abortion law does not take into consideration the fact that before 12 weeks of gestation it is difficult to precisely confirm grave lesions or the physical and psychological state of health of the pregnant woman which could be potentially life threatening. It was not taken into account either that it is impossible to diagnose definitively chromosomal aberrations, severe diseases, and fetal malformation before the 16th week. The law did not contemplate the prevailing socioeconomical conditions either that lead to clandestine abortion with high morbidity and mortality from cervical lesions, uterine perforation, infections, sepsis, and salpingitis. Prenatal diagnosis for eugenic abortion can be carried out by cytogenetic analysis of the amniotic fluid and ecography, but such diagnosis probably amounts to only 30-40% of risk cases in the whole country. A recent study by the Johns Hopkins University indicated that the chance of survival of a child born before 24 weeks is nil, therefore the limit of induced abortion should be extended to the 24th week to facilitate diagnosis of possible genetic abnormalities.

  2. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBY

    CONSENT IN THE ERITREAN CIVIL CODE. Consent is a requirement or prerequisite for many ... Notwithstanding the provisions of ArtfZl] Civil Code where an investigating police officer considers it necessary, having .... Liability Article 2028 — General Principle. Whosoever causes damage to another by an offence.

  3. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...

  4. IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... a high level of community participation in the provision of such infrastructure as schools, electricity, ... Department of Geography & Environmental Management, ... “secondary towns”. The range of cites or towns that constitute the level of urban hierarchy vary among countries, depending on the pattern of.

  5. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  6. Placebo and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerden, Jan C

    2004-01-01

    This article considers issues concerning cases where the use of placebo is lawful or is not lawful under aspects of German criminal law. It will differentiate between cases of individual therapy and cases of supervised experiments within the scope of medical tests. Thereby, it reveals that a medication of placebo with regard to an individual patient seems to be lawful if there is no alternative possibility of a better treatment using a chemically effective medicine and if the limits of presumed consent are complied with. On the other hand, in the context of the supervised experiment, the assignment of a patient to a group treated with placebo is only lawful if the patient has been fully informed about the possibilities of a treatment and if the patient has given consent to it.

  7. Realising social justice in public health law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Marie; Thomson, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Law has played an important, but largely constitutive, role in the development of the public health enterprise. Thus, law has been central to setting up the institutions and offices of public health. The moral agenda has, however, been shaped to a much greater extent by bioethics. While social justice has been placed at the heart of this agenda, we argue that there has been little place within dominant conceptions of social justice for gender equity and women's interests which we see as crucial to a fully realised vision of social justice. We argue that, aside from particular interventions in the field of reproduction, public health practice tends to marginalise women-a claim we support by critically examining strategies to combat the HIV pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa. To counter the marginalisation of women's interests, this article argues that Amartya Sen's capabilities approach has much to contribute to the framing of public health law and policy. Sen's approach provides an evaluative and normative framework which recognises the importance of both gender and health equity to achieving social justice. We suggest that domestic law and international human rights provisions, in particular the emerging human right to health, offer mechanisms to promote capabilities, and foster a robust and inclusive conception of social justice.

  8. Restaurant menu labeling laws and alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Brandon J; Ali, Mir M

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the effect of local and state mandatory restaurant menu labeling laws on alcohol use. Using a difference-in-differences estimation approach and data on adults aged 21 and older (n=2,157,722) from the 2002-2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we estimated the effect of menu labeling laws on self-reported consumption of alcoholic beverages in the past month. The regression analysis indicates that on average implementation of menu labeling laws is associated with a 1.2 percentage-point drop in the fraction of survey respondents reporting that they drank an alcoholic beverage in the past month (95% confidence interval=-0.020, -0.004), compared with jurisdictions that had not implemented menu labeling laws. Moreover, we find that the estimated policy effects on alcohol use are larger among men than among women and larger among minorities than among non-Hispanic whites. Further provision of calorie information on foods and beverages in food service establishments, such as through federal menu labeling regulations, may have the potential to lead to a meaningful reduction in alcohol use throughout the U.S. and may result in larger reductions in alcohol use among men and minorities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Data mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chattamvelli, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    DATA MINING METHODS, Second Edition discusses both theoretical foundation and practical applications of datamining in a web field including banking, e-commerce, medicine, engineering and management. This book starts byintroducing data and information, basic data type, data category and applications of data mining. The second chapterbriefly reviews data visualization technology and importance in data mining. Fundamentals of probability and statisticsare discussed in chapter 3, and novel algorithm for sample covariants are derived. The next two chapters give an indepthand useful discussion of data warehousing and OLAP. Decision trees are clearly explained and a new tabularmethod for decision tree building is discussed. The chapter on association rules discusses popular algorithms andcompares various algorithms in summary table form. An interesting application of genetic algorithm is introduced inthe next chapter. Foundations of neural networks are built from scratch and the back propagation algorithm is derived...

  10. Journey from Data Mining to Web Mining to Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Richa

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the journey of big data starting from data mining to web mining to big data. It discusses each of this method in brief and also provides their applications. It states the importance of mining big data today using fast and novel approaches.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONSUMER PROTECTION ACT 68 OF 2008 ON THE COMMON LAW WARRANTY AGAINST EVICTION: A COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Barnard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Consumer Protection Act 68 of 2008 (CPA has great implications for the South African common law of sale. In this contribution the influence of the CPA on the seller’s common law duty to warrant the buyer against eviction is investigated. Upon evaluation of the relevant provisions of the CPA, the legal position in the United Kingdom – specifically the provisions of the Sales of Goods Act of 1979 – is investigated.

  12. Mining and the African Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Weng, Lingfei; Dirks, Paul; Sayer, Jeffrey; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Africa is on the verge of a mining boom. We review the environmental threats from African mining development, including habitat alteration, infrastructure expansion, human migration, bushmeat hunting, corruption, and weak governance...

  13. Equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements: guidelines and tools for integrated provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available looks at equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements and offers guidelines and tools for integrated provision that incorporates the 1) development of fully provisioned quality living environments, 2) improvement of access...

  14. 30 CFR 925.12 - State program provisions and amendments disapproved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... land use. (c) The definitions of “coal processing plant” and “coal preparation plant” at 10 CSR 40-8... § 925.12 State program provisions and amendments disapproved. (a) The amendment at 10 CSR 40-4.030(4)(A... mining activities. (b) The amendment at 10 CSR 40-4.030(4)(B), submitted on December 14 and 18, 1987, is...

  15. Databases for Data Mining

    OpenAIRE

    LANGOF, LADO

    2015-01-01

    This work is about looking for synergies between data mining tools and databa\\-se management systems (DBMS). Imagine a situation where we need to solve an analytical problem using data that are too large to be processed solely inside the main physical memory and at the same time too small to put data warehouse or distributed analytical system in place. The target area is therefore a single personal computer that is used to solve data mining problems. We are looking for tools that allows us to...

  16. Data mining for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Meta S

    2014-01-01

    Delve into your data for the key to success Data mining is quickly becoming integral to creating value and business momentum. The ability to detect unseen patterns hidden in the numbers exhaustively generated by day-to-day operations allows savvy decision-makers to exploit every tool at their disposal in the pursuit of better business. By creating models and testing whether patterns hold up, it is possible to discover new intelligence that could change your business''s entire paradigm for a more successful outcome. Data Mining for Dummies shows you why it doesn''t take a data scientist to gain

  17. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  18. A STUDY OF TEXT MINING METHODS, APPLICATIONS,AND TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajamani*1 & S. Saranya2

    2017-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract useful information from the large amount of data. It is used to implement and solve different types of research problems. The research related areas in data mining are text mining, web mining, image mining, sequential pattern mining, spatial mining, medical mining, multimedia mining, structure mining and graph mining. Text mining also referred to text of data mining, it is also called knowledge discovery in text (KDT) or knowledge of intelligent text analysis. T...

  19. THE PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION OF ART. 14 OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN MATTERS OF INHERITANCE AND AFILLIATION REGARDING THE PROVISIONS OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA ALEXANDRA ANGHELESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the provisions of the New Civil Code that has recently entered into force, the study focuses on the analysis of its provisions regarding matters of inheritance and affiliation in order to establish their compliance with the established case-law of the European Court of Human Rights in interpreting article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

  20. 49 CFR 39.9 - What may the owner or operator of a foreign-flag vessel do if it believes a provision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What may the owner or operator of a foreign-flag vessel do if it believes a provision of a foreign nation's law prohibits compliance with a provision of this part? 39.9 Section 39.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER...

  1. Comparative Opinion Mining: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Varathan, Kasturi Dewi; Giachanou, Anastasia; Crestani, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Opinion mining refers to the use of natural language processing, text analysis and computational linguistics to identify and extract subjective information in textual material. Opinion mining, also known as sentiment analysis, has received a lot of attention in recent times, as it provides a number of tools to analyse the public opinion on a number of different topics. Comparative opinion mining is a subfield of opinion mining that deals with identifying and extracting information that is exp...

  2. Law, Democracy & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Julia Sloth-Nielsen (Professor and Dean of Law, University of the Western Cape) Nico Steytler (Professor of Law and Director, Community Law Centre, University of the Western Cape) Tobias van Reenen (Professor of Law, University of the Western Cape) Riekie Wandrag (Associate Professor of Law, University of the ...

  3. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  4. 30 CFR 75.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200 Mine map. The operator of a coal mine shall have...) Mines above or below; (j) Water pools above; and (k) Either producing or abandoned oil and gas wells...

  5. 30 CFR 75.373 - Reopening mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reopening mines. 75.373 Section 75.373 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.373 Reopening mines. After a mine is abandoned...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1200 - Mine map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 77.1200 Mine...) Either producing or abandoned oil and gas wells located on the mine property; (f) The location and...

  7. Teaching American Law to French Law Students--in English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Allen

    1978-01-01

    Described is the history and academic activity of the program, offered in English, to French law students, at the Center for the Study of English and American Law. The program includes instruction in law, along with English language instruction. (JMD)

  8. Taxation of Social Security benefits under the new income tax provisions: distributional estimates for 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, D

    1994-01-01

    The 1993 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act raised the proportion of benefits includable in income for the Federal personal income tax. This article presents estimates of the income-distributional effects of the new provision in 1994, the first year for which it is effective. Under the pre-1993 law, up to 50 percent of benefits were included in taxable income for certain high-income beneficiaries. Under the new law, some of these beneficiaries are required to include an even higher proportion of benefits--up to 85 percent. Only 11 percent of beneficiary families, concentrated in the top three deciles by family income, include more of their benefits in taxable income under the new law than they would have under the old law. Another 8 percent include the same amount of benefits under either. The remaining beneficiary families, more than 80 percent, include no benefits in taxable income under either the old law or the new.

  9. Overlapping Community Detection Algorithm Based on the Law of Universal Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Chunde; Li Mingjiang; Wang Yongchao

    2015-01-01

    Community mining has been the focus of many recent researches on complex networks. In this paper, the authors proposed a community mining algorithm based on Universal Gravitation principle (UGPCA). This algorithm based on the Law of Universal Gravitation is used to add the quality into the information of the nodes, and measure the weights of nodes in the networks. Each node will generate a gravitational field and have a force to the other nodes which can be reached. At last, the authors teste...

  10. Abortion law across Australia--A review of nine jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Costa, Caroline; Douglas, Heather; Hamblin, Julie; Ramsay, Philippa; Shircore, Mandy

    2015-04-01

    This article reviews the current legal status of abortion in Australia and its implications. Australian abortion law has been a matter for the states since before Federation. In the years since Federation there have been significant reforms and changes in the abortion laws of some jurisdictions, although not all. Across Australia there are now nine sets of laws, state and Commonwealth, concerned with abortion. The test of a lawful abortion varies greatly across jurisdictions. In a number of states and territories, it is necessary to establish a serious risk to the physical or mental health of the woman if the pregnancy was to continue. In some cases, the certification of two doctors is required, particularly for abortions at later gestations. There are also physical restrictions on access, such as in South Australia and the Northern Territory where abortion must take place in a hospital. Only in the ACT has abortion been removed from the criminal law altogether. Variations in the law and restrictions arising from these are not consistent with the aims and provision of the universal, accessible health care system aspired to in Australia. There is an urgent need for overall reform and the introduction of uniformity to Australia's abortion laws, including removal of abortion from the criminal law. © 2015 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  11. Studies in Frequent Tree Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Knijf, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483551X

    2008-01-01

    Employing Data mining techniques for structured data is particularly challenging, because it is commonly assumed that the structure of the data encodes part of its semantics. As a result are classical data mining techniques insufficient to analyze and mine these data. In this thesis we develop

  12. Penitence in Terms of Tax Law and Criminal Law Norms: Problems-Approaches-Solution Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burçin BOZDOĞANOĞLU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In our country, despite basis of statement is accepted, determination of reported basis of assessment could be done by tax audition. Located in Tax Law Article 371 penitence and rectification provides the ability to resolve disputes to taxpayer at the administrative stage providing certain conditions, on taxes based on declaration. According to Article 359 of Tax Law, based on the conditions mentioned in Article 371 of the law states with penitence about the status of the penitence to the relevant authorities it is started whether the application of criminal smuggling. So, “payment” condition in Article 371 which is currently taken a place among the conditions to benefit from located penitence institution and tax loss that prevents withdrawal penalty, the issue is not the punishment of trafficking in terms of the current is still in the case of a subject that cannot be agreed upon. However the fate of specified period of time for penitence institute existence of force majeure is controversial issue. In this context; the processing of tax evasion rather than tax loss without penitence institution evaluation of the implementation of equality in taxation. Results can occur within the framework of the provisions on the grounds penitence tax declarations which are not accepted for the reason of given without tax loss rather than a move to focus on the value of properties. In our study, these issues are evaluated, based on tax law and criminal law norms and offers opinions and suggestions for issues raised.

  13. VARIOUS TECHNIQUES OF INDIVIDUALISING PUNISHMENTS IN THE NEW CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ION IFRIM

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the new criminal code provisions in relation to criminal law in force, the new Penal Code has dropped explicit mention, as criteria of individualization of punishment, the general provisions of Part penalty and limits set out in the Special Part of Penal Code, as and causes that aggravate or mitigate criminal liability. Also, the new Penal Code was established several general criteria of individualization of punishment on which the judge can make a clearer assessment of the social significance of the individual offense and offender.

  14. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross......-border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law....

  15. Mining approximate periodic pattern in hydrological time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y. L.; Li, S. J.; Bao, N. N.; Wan, D. S.

    2012-04-01

    There is a lot of information about the hidden laws of nature evolution and the influences of human beings activities on the earth surface in long sequence of hydrological time series. Data mining technology can help find those hidden laws, such as flood frequency and abrupt change, which is useful for the decision support of hydrological prediction and flood control scheduling. The periodic nature of hydrological time series is important for trend forecasting of drought and flood and hydraulic engineering planning. In Hydrology, the full period analysis of hydrological time series has attracted a lot of attention, such as the discrete periodogram, simple partial wave method, Fourier analysis method, and maximum entropy spectral analysis method and wavelet analysis. In fact, the hydrological process is influenced both by deterministic factors and stochastic ones. For example, the tidal level is also affected by moon circling the Earth, in addition to the Earth revolution and its rotation. Hence, there is some kind of approximate period hidden in the hydrological time series, sometimes which is also called the cryptic period. Recently, partial period mining originated from the data mining domain can be a remedy for the traditional period analysis methods in hydrology, which has a loose request of the data integrity and continuity. They can find some partial period in the time series. This paper is focused on the partial period mining in the hydrological time series. Based on asynchronous periodic pattern and partial period mining with suffix tree, this paper proposes to mine multi-event asynchronous periodic pattern based on modified suffix tree representation and traversal, and invent a dynamic candidate period intervals adjusting method, which can avoids period omissions or waste of time and space. The experimental results on synthetic data and real water level data of the Yangtze River at Nanjing station indicate that this algorithm can discover hydrological

  16. Russian Law and Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fishman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Faculty of Law of the University of Helsinki is committed to diverse and internationally collaborative approaches to studying various legal systems in the context of comparative law, and UHLS and the Law Faculty of the National Research University, Higher School of Economics have developed an ongoing program to undertake this effort. The original annual conference series on the Development of Russian Law was launched in 2008 as an initiative to further knowledge and critical thinking about Russian law during its period of transition and modernization. The conference is held annually and brings together legal practitioners and scholars from Russia, Finland and elsewhere to discuss important matters of Russian law, legal reform, and legal practice. Prior years’ Conference themes have included discussions of legal reforms, the justice system, the Russian legal profession, human rights, civil and business law, legal policy, rule-of-law and market economy.This year’s program was designed to attract law faculty, scholars from different disciplines, and also practicing lawyers, to address a wide range of topics grouped around the general theme of how the phenomenon and challenges of globalization affect Russian legal system development. The call for papers included: (i Relationships between Russian domestic and international law, (ii The impacts of international legal institutions on the development of Russian law(s, (iii Globalization in the field of business law, (iv Global law & Russian legal theory, (v Regional models of legal cooperation and Russia’s participation, (vi Transnational legal problems in areas such as constitutionalism and rule-of-law, (vii Theoretical and applied implications of the concept of global transplants, and (viii A global human rights agenda, including Russia’s place in this agenda.This was a very ambitious and multi-faceted undertaking. Through a process of careful evaluation, the Conference organizers produced

  17. 76 FR 70075 - Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION... addressing Proximity Detection Systems for Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. This... Continuous Mining Machines in Underground Coal Mines. MSHA conducted hearings on October 18, October 20...

  18. Frequent pattern mining

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2014-01-01

    Proposes numerous methods to solve some of the most fundamental problems in data mining and machine learning Presents various simplified perspectives, providing a range of information to benefit both students and practitioners Includes surveys on key research content, case studies and future research directions

  19. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  20. Novel mining methods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monchusi, B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available 2012 Slide 12 CSIR mine safety platform AR Drone Differential time-of-flight beacon Sampling ? CSIR 2012 Slide 13 Reef Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) head Scan X-Y Laser/Spectrometer/Computer Rock Breaking ? CSIR 2012 Slide...

  1. Grants Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Mineral Belt was the focus of uranium extraction and production activities from the 1950s until the late 1990s. EPA is working with state, local, and federal partners to assess and address health risks and environmental effects of the mines

  2. Mining water governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosa Landeo, Milagros

    2017-01-01

    This thesis documents as well as questions how the presence of large mining operations in Andean regions of Peru alters social and natural landscapes. Taking conflicts over water as a useful entry-point for the analysis, it explores and unravels the dilemmas and challenges faced by the main

  3. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  4. Mining lore : Chinese labourers in BC's coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, C.

    2010-09-15

    This article presented a historical review of Chinese labourers in Canada's industries and how they were often exploited and treated poorly. The 1860 gold rush in British Columbia attracted the first labourers from China. More labourers followed, the majority male, to work in the coal mines around Nanaimo. More than half the employees at coal baron Robert Dunsmuir's Wellington mine on Vancouver Island were Chinese labourers who worked under conditions and wages that other miners would not accept. During a large strike at the Wellington Mine in 1883, the striking white miners were replaced with Chinese from Victoria, which contributed to a brewing anti-Chinese sentiment. The striking miners eventually withdrew their demand for higher wages, insisting only that Dunsmuir rid his mine of the Chinese. Dunsmuir refused, held out, and broke the strike. When an anti-immigration bill was passed in 1884 by the British Columbia (BC) Legislative Assembly, the Canadian government stepped in, only to hire thousands of Chinese labourers to work on the railway. Their low wages saved contractors $3 million, making construction economically feasible. However, just a few weeks after blocking BC's anti-immigration bill, the Canadian government passed a Chinese Immigration Act that would come into effect only after construction was completed. The Act restricted and regulated Chinese immigration, and imposed a head tax on any Chinese entering the country, making it unaffordable to bring a wife and family to Canada. When the railroad was completed, thousands of Chinese labourers were left unemployed with nowhere to go. In 1887, an explosion at a Nanaimo mine killed 150 employees. The miners blamed the Chinese, claiming that their lack of English made them a safety hazard. By the early 1920s, the Chinese community in Victoria formed the Chinese Benevolent Association to provide general welfare assistance and oppose discriminatory laws. In 2006, the Canadian government

  5. Mining Together : Large-Scale Mining Meets Artisanal Mining, A Guide for Action

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The present guide mining together-when large-scale mining meets artisanal mining is an important step to better understanding the conflict dynamics and underlying issues between large-scale and small-scale mining. This guide for action not only points to some of the challenges that both parties need to deal with in order to build a more constructive relationship, but most importantly it sh...

  6. The Mining Minds digital health and wellness framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banos, Oresti; Bilal Amin, Muhammad; Ali Khan, Wajahat; Afzal, Muhammad; Hussain, Maqbool; Kang, Byeong Ho; Lee, Sungyong

    2016-07-15

    The provision of health and wellness care is undergoing an enormous transformation. A key element of this revolution consists in prioritizing prevention and proactivity based on the analysis of people's conducts and the empowerment of individuals in their self-management. Digital technologies are unquestionably destined to be the main engine of this change, with an increasing number of domain-specific applications and devices commercialized every year; however, there is an apparent lack of frameworks capable of orchestrating and intelligently leveraging, all the data, information and knowledge generated through these systems. This work presents Mining Minds, a novel framework that builds on the core ideas of the digital health and wellness paradigms to enable the provision of personalized support. Mining Minds embraces some of the most prominent digital technologies, ranging from Big Data and Cloud Computing to Wearables and Internet of Things, as well as modern concepts and methods, such as context-awareness, knowledge bases or analytics, to holistically and continuously investigate on people's lifestyles and provide a variety of smart coaching and support services. This paper comprehensively describes the efficient and rational combination and interoperation of these technologies and methods through Mining Minds, while meeting the essential requirements posed by a framework for personalized health and wellness support. Moreover, this work presents a realization of the key architectural components of Mining Minds, as well as various exemplary user applications and expert tools to illustrate some of the potential services supported by the proposed framework. Mining Minds constitutes an innovative holistic means to inspect human behavior and provide personalized health and wellness support. The principles behind this framework uncover new research ideas and may serve as a reference for similar initiatives.

  7. Evaluating Women’s Labour in 1990s Japan: The Changing Labour Standards Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Rawstron

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the legislative changes regarding Japanese working women in the 1990s, specifically the changes to the Labour Standards Law. This Law was altered in 1997 (effective 1999 by the removal of a number of provisions known as the Women’s ‘Protection’ Provisions (josei hogo kitei. These gender-specific provisions restricted Japanese women from working particular jobs and hours, and limited overtime and holiday work. The role of these gender-specific provisions is examined through a collection of articles from four of Japan’s mainstream daily, widely-circulated newspapers: the Asahi Shinbun, the Mainichi Shinbun, the Nihon Keizai Shinbun, and the Yomiuri Shinbun. These newspapers were of the opinion that the provisions were simultaneously protective and restrictive towards women. The newspapers all supported the removal of the provisions in order to increase equality in Japan’s workforce and society. However, all presented strong concerns that Japanese society was unable to support these changes. This article situates the law reform within the wider context of 1990s Japan, by tracing the links between labour legislation and socio-cultural issues in Japan, particularly the low fertility rate. This article closes with an evaluation of changes within Japanese society and working habits since the removal of the provisions.

  8. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  9. Interprofessionalism, personalization and care provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Mary; Brocklehurst, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    This UK-based empirical research investigates interprofessionalism and personalization to assess their potential to achieve quality care provision for people with long-term conditions. Governmental policies extol the virtues of interprofessionalism and personalization to drive modernization forward, however, change requires the commitment of health and social care professionals. Therefore the complexity of turning policy into practice requires continual review to ensure policy ideals become practice realities rather than speculative rhetoric. This paper examines interprofessional working (IPW) and interprofessional education (IPE) by analysing the experiences and working relationships of professionals from different professions and their potential impact upon personalization initiatives. The conclusion argues that educational providers and professional awarding bodies need to enshrine interprofessionalism into curricula and qualification accreditation thereby instilling collaboration intrinsically into care provision.

  10. Multisource causal data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Shallenberger, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    Analysts are faced with mountains of data, and finding that relevant piece of information is the proverbial needle in a haystack, only with dozens of haystacks. Analysis tools that facilitate identifying causal relationships across multiple data sets are sorely needed. 21st Century Systems, Inc. (21CSi) has initiated research called Causal-View, a causal datamining visualization tool, to address this challenge. Causal-View is built on an agent-enabled framework. Much of the processing that Causal-View will do is in the background. When a user requests information, Data Extraction Agents launch to gather information. This initial search is a raw, Monte Carlo type search designed to gather everything available that may have relevance to an individual, location, associations, and more. This data is then processed by Data- Mining Agents. The Data-Mining Agents are driven by user supplied feature parameters. If the analyst is looking to see if the individual frequents a known haven for insurgents he may request information on his last known locations. Or, if the analyst is trying to see if there is a pattern in the individual's contacts, the mining agent can be instructed with the type and relevance of the information fields to look at. The same data is extracted from the database, but the Data Mining Agents customize the feature set to determine causal relationships the user is interested in. At this point, a Hypothesis Generation and Data Reasoning Agents take over to form conditional hypotheses about the data and pare the data, respectively. The newly formed information is then published to the agent communication backbone of Causal- View to be displayed. Causal-View provides causal analysis tools to fill the gaps in the causal chain. We present here the Causal-View concept, the initial research into data mining tools that assist in forming the causal relationships, and our initial findings.

  11. A baseline understanding of state laws governing e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdet, C K; Chriqui, J F; Chaloupka, F J

    2014-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been available for purchase in the USA since 2007, and have grown rapidly in popularity. Currently, there are no federal restrictions on e-cigarettes; therefore, any regulations are under the purview of state and/or local governments. This study examines state laws governing e-cigarettes through youth access restrictions, smoke-free air requirements and/or excise taxation. Codified statutory and administrative laws, attorney general opinions, executive orders, and revenue notices and rulings effective as of 15 November 2013 for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, were compiled using Boolean searches in Lexis-Nexis and Westlaw. All laws were analysed by two study authors to determine the presence and components of relevant provisions. Two categories of laws were identified; (1) explicit e-cigarette laws and (2) laws focused on tobacco-derived and/or nicotine-containing products. Thirty-four states' laws address e-cigarettes either explicitly or as part of language applying to tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products. Laws explicitly addressing e-cigarettes primarily focus on youth access (22 states) or smoke-free air (12 states); only Minnesota imposes an excise tax on e-cigarettes. Similarly, tobacco-derived or nicotine-containing products are primarily regulated through youth access restrictions (6 states), smoke-free air laws (5 states), or excise taxation (2 states). In the current absence of federal law governing e-cigarettes, more than one-half of the states have taken the initiative to regulate these products. The opportunity exists for the remaining states to incorporate e-cigarette-related restrictions into their pre-existing tobacco control laws. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Gauging Newton's law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wheeler, James T

    2007-01-01

    .... Applying this principle to Newton's law with the simplest measurement theory leads to Lagrangian mechanics, while use of conformal measurement theory leads to Hamiltonian mechanics.PACS Nos.: 45.20.Jj, 11.25.Hf, 45.10...

  13. Teaching Criminal Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  14. Environmental and energy law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Makuch, Karen E; Pereira, Ricardo, Dr

    2012-01-01

    "Environmental & Energy Law attempts to bridge the knowledge gap between legal developments designed to achieve environmental and/or energy-related objectives and the practical, scientific and technical...

  15. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  16. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  17. Study on the Temporal and Spatial Effect of the Relief Pressure of Upper Protective Layer Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Chengcheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the law of pressure relief of upper protective layer mining. Through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation method, studied the distance on the protection layer mining floor stress field evolution and distribution, found a protective layer on the longwall mining goaf bottom coal seam inclination direction is concave, and strike plane was “O” shape of relief ball shell, the pressure relief angle in the cut or end mining line near the corner of the middle bottom is minimum, the scope of protection of coal seam pressure relief effect than on both sides of the pressure relief effect, namely the scope of protection of inclined coal seam central drainage radius than the two larger; in the trend of protected layer pressure relief protection layer mining face lag distance based on this theory, research to guide the protected layer of gas drilling drainage is very important.

  18. Current situation of coal mine safety in Japan and Technical cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Koichi [Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Japan's most recent safety conditions in the coal mines is marked by a steady decline in accidents, as shown in the Fiegure 1, in which the fatality is nil in 1998, the second year since the enactment of The Mine Safety Law. And at present there has been increasing number of request from abroad, in recent years, for technical cooperation in the area of coal mine safety japan has been cooperating with such countries as Australia, China, Indonesia and Turky both on bilateral and multilateral basis. (translated by NEDO)

  19. Examples of development of the postindustrial objects from the liquidated mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olga Kaszowska; Piotr Kalisz; Wieslaw Mika [Glowny Instytut Gornictwa, Katowice (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    The paper concerns with the problem of developing of different kind industrial objects and administrative-social buildings, comprising an important part of the surface infrastructure of liquidated mining plants. The regulations of Polish law in the scope of mines' liquidation and their surface building objects management are discussed. The ways of proceeding with this type of objects for chosen hard coal mines on the area of Upper and Lower Silesia are presented together with examples of the development of few postmine objects. 17 refs., 7 figs.

  20. Euthanasia and criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Pletková, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    71 8. Summary- Euthanasia and criminal law Euthanasia is often regarded as a controversial topic that is being discussed all around the world. The legislative rules differ among the countries to various extent. The scope of this work is to offer a summary of legal regulations in euthanasia, particulary in the area of criminal law and a several examples of these regulations in Europe, USA and Australia. In the first chapter, the term of euthanasia is defined which is necessary for the purpose ...

  1. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.

  2. Mining (except Oil and Gas) Sector (NAICS 212)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Regulatory and enforcement information for the mining sector, including metal mining & nonmetallic mineral mining and quarrying. Includes information about asbestos, coal mining, mountaintop mining, Clean Water Act section 404, and abandoned mine lands

  3. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  4. Service mining framework and application

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Wei-Lun

    2014-01-01

    The shifting focus of service from the 1980s to 2000s has proved that IT not only lowers the cost of service but creates avenues to enhance and increase revenue through service. The new type of service, e-service, is mobile, flexible, interactive, and interchangeable. While service science provides an avenue for future service researches, the specific research areas from the IT perspective still need to be elaborated. This book introduces a novel concept-service mining-to address several research areas from technology, model, management, and application perspectives. Service mining is defined as "a systematical process including service discovery, service experience, service recovery, and service retention to discover unique patterns and exceptional values within the existing services." The goal of service mining is similar to data mining, text mining, or web mining, and aims to "detect something new" from the service pool. The major difference is the feature of service is quite distinct from the mining targe...

  5. Analysis, Mining and Visualization Service at NCSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmson, R.; Cox, D.; Welge, M.

    2004-12-01

    NCSA's goal is to create a balanced system that fully supports high-end computing as well as: 1) high-end data management and analysis; 2) visualization of massive, highly complex data collections; 3) large databases; 4) geographically distributed Grid computing; and 5) collaboratories, all based on a secure computational environment and driven with workflow-based services. To this end NCSA has defined a new technology path that includes the integration and provision of cyberservices in support of data analysis, mining, and visualization. NCSA has begun to develop and apply a data mining system-NCSA Data-to-Knowledge (D2K)-in conjunction with both the application and research communities. NCSA D2K will enable the formation of model-based application workflows and visual programming interfaces for rapid data analysis. The Java-based D2K framework, which integrates analytical data mining methods with data management, data transformation, and information visualization tools, will be configurable from the cyberservices (web and grid services, tools, ..) viewpoint to solve a wide range of important data mining problems. This effort will use modules, such as a new classification methods for the detection of high-risk geoscience events, and existing D2K data management, machine learning, and information visualization modules. A D2K cyberservices interface will be developed to seamlessly connect client applications with remote back-end D2K servers, providing computational resources for data mining and integration with local or remote data stores. This work is being coordinated with SDSC's data and services efforts. The new NCSA Visualization embedded workflow environment (NVIEW) will be integrated with D2K functionality to tightly couple informatics and scientific visualization with the data analysis and management services. Visualization services will access and filter disparate data sources, simplifying tasks such as fusing related data from distinct sources into a

  6. HIV-positive persons' awareness and understanding of their state's criminal HIV disclosure law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Carol L; Difranceisco, Wayne; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2009-12-01

    Commentary on the potential impact of HIV-specific disclosure laws on persons living with HIV has been critical, plentiful, and enduring. Yet empirical information with which to answer even the most basic questions about these laws, such as whether HIV-positive persons living in a state with a disclosure law are aware of the law, is absent. This study reports on data gathered from a statewide sample of 384 HIV-positive persons living in a state with an HIV disclosure law. Participant awareness and understanding of the law were assessed. Data on the sources from which participants received information on the law and the perceived helpfulness of these sources were also collected. Analyses were conducted to identify associations between participant awareness or understanding of the law and demographic characteristics of participants or information sources encountered. The majority of participants were aware that their state had enacted an HIV-specific disclosure law. Understanding of the law was good, although there was substantial confusion over several provisions. The most prevalent and most helpful sources of information on the law were AIDS-related resources as opposed to mass media. Forty-two percent of the participants learned about the law when first diagnosed with HIV. Sixty-two percent of the participants reported that their case manager had told them about the law.

  7. Nuremberg Laws in Ion Antonescu Regime. Compulsory Community Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Florian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In December 1940, the Law-Decree no. 3 984 set out the military status of Jews. Practically, all Jews in Romania were excluded from the military service. The meaning of this political measure was extremely powerful for the destiny of the Jewish community. As the Law text provisioned, it was a political and legislative decision continuing that regarding the racial definition of Jews. The direct consequence was the socio-political marginalization, on ethnic criteria, of a group of men.

  8. The role of law in public health: the case of family planning in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Michelle Marie; Powlowski, Marcus; Nañagas, Juan M P; Bossert, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Compared to neighboring countries, the Philippines has high fertility rates and a low prevalence of modern-method contraception use. The Philippine government faces political and cultural barriers to addressing family planning needs, but also legal barriers erected by its own policies. We conducted a review of laws and policies relating to family planning in the Philippines in order to examine how the law may facilitate or constrain service provision. The methodology consisted of three phases. First, we collected and analyzed laws and regulations relating to the delivery of family planning services. Second, we conducted a qualitative interview study. Third, we synthesized findings to formulate policy recommendations. We present a conceptual model for understanding the impact of law on public health and discuss findings in relation to the roles of health care provider regulation, drug regulation, tax law, trade policies, insurance law, and other laws on access to modern-method contraceptives.

  9. Foreign Medical Graduates. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, and International Law of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives on Public Law 94-484, Oversight on Immigration of Foreign Medical Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    Hearings before the House Subcommittee on Immigration, Citizenship, and International Law are presented regarding the immigration of foreign medical graduates and the new restrictions placed on their entry into this country under the provision of Title IV of the Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-484). Testimony…

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF EU LAW IN MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA-MAGDA VLAICU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available When the original Rome Treaty was drafted, it was envisaged by the authors that the procedure as set out in what is now article 258 T.F.E.U. (infringement procedure would be the primary means by which EU law is enforced - a “centralized” and “public” form of enforcement assured by the ECJ, the Commission and Member States, which was itself innovative, since most international treaties contained no such mechanism. It was a point of view shared by Member States, who could see no reason why provisions of EC Treaties should be treated any differently from those of other international treaties. Thus, on the one hand, the effect of international treaties was generally governed by the principle that they cannot by themselves create rights and obligations for individuals, but only for contracting states - therefore, states were considered the only ones entitled to claim respect of international norms in international courts (individuals and national courts were excluded; on the other hand, as the text of EC treaties made no specific reference to the effect their provisions were to have, the general rule governing international treaties should also apply to them. The European Court of Justice disagreed and engaged in a prolonged judicial activism, resulting in the creation of other legal mechanisms by which national courts and individuals (rather than ECJ, Commission and Member States were to take the leading role in the enforcement of EU law - a “decentralized” and “private” form of enforcement, governed by three interrelated principles developed jurisprudentially by the ECJ: direct effect, indirect effect and state liability. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of actual means of EU law enforcement, as presented above; to this end, there will be considered the legal/judicial basis, scope, limits and practical difficulties of the ”centralized” and “decentralized” form of enforcement.

  11. The application of data mining methods

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Data mining is becoming more and more important. The aim of this thesis is to study and research data mining, to clarify the background, knowledge and method of data mining, and research some specific areas applications. The aim is also to experiment with an open software by mining some sample data, to prove the advantage and convenience of data mining. This thesis first introduces the basic concepts of data mining, such as the definition of data mining, its basic function, common methods...

  12. Citation-related reliability analysis for a pilot sample of underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinilakodi, Harisha; Grayson, R Larry

    2011-05-01

    The scrutiny of underground coal mine safety was heightened because of the disasters that occurred in 2006-2007, and more recently in 2010. In the aftermath of the 2006 incidents, the U.S. Congress passed the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act), which strengthened the existing regulations and mandated new laws to address various issues related to emergency preparedness and response, escape from an emergency situation, and protection of miners. The National Mining Association-sponsored Mine Safety Technology and Training Commission study highlighted the role of risk management in identifying and controlling major hazards, which are elements that could come together and cause a mine disaster. In 2007 MSHA revised its approach to the "Pattern of Violations" (POV) process in order to target unsafe mines and then force them to remediate conditions in their mines. The POV approach has certain limitations that make it difficult for it to be enforced. One very understandable way to focus on removing threats from major-hazard conditions is to use citation-related reliability analysis. The citation reliability approach, which focuses on the probability of not getting a citation on a given inspector day, is considered an analogue to the maintenance reliability approach, which many mine operators understand and use. In this study, the citation reliability approach was applied to a stratified random sample of 31 underground coal mines to examine its potential for broader application. The results clearly show the best-performing and worst-performing mines for compliance with mine safety standards, and they highlight differences among different mine sizes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Information and the War against Terrorism, Part III: New Information-Related Laws and the Impact on Civil Liberties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Lee S.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews provisions of information-related laws in light of the September 11th attacks and their impact on civil liberties. Highlights include the USA Patriot Act of 2001; law enforcement and the ECPA (Electronic Communications Privacy Act); intelligence and the FISA (Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978); implications for information…

  14. Poverty, Productivity, and Public Health: The Effects of "Right to Work" Laws on Key Standards of Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Darrell

    2012-01-01

    On February 1, 2012, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels signed a "right to work" (RTW) provision in the state's labor laws, making Indiana the 23rd RTW state in the nation. In addition to becoming the 23rd RTW state in the nation, Indiana is the first in more than a decade to pass a law undermining the ability of unions to organize and…

  15. Infiltration of surface mined land reclaimed by deep tillage treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, S.K.; Cowsert, P. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Surface mining of coal leads to the drastic disturbance of soils. Compaction of replaced subsoil and topsoil resulting from hauling, grading, and leveling procedures produces a poor rooting medium for crop growth. Soil compaction results in high bulk density, low macroporosity, poor water infiltration capacity, and reduced elongation of plant roots. In the United States, Public Law 95-87 mandates that the rooting medium of mined soils have specific textural characteristics and be graded and shaped to a topography similar to premining conditions. Also, crop productivity levels equivalent to those prior to mining must be achieved, especially for prime farmland. Alleviation of compaction has been the major focus of reclamation, and recently new techniques to augment the rooting zone with deep-ripping and loosening equipment have come to the forefront. Several surface mine operators in the Illinois coal basin are using deep tillage equipment that is capable of loosening soils to greater depths than is possible with conventional farm tillage equipment. Information on the beneficial effects of these loosening procedures on soil hydrological properties, such as infiltration, runoff potential, erosion, and water retention, is extremely important for future mined land management. However, such information is lacking. In view of the current yield demonstration regulation for prime farmland and other unmined soils, it is important that as much information as possible be obtained concerning the effect of deep tillage on soil hydrologic properties. The objectives of this study are: (1) to compare infiltration rates and related soil physical properties of mined soils reclaimed by various deep tillage treatments and (2) to study the temporal variability of infiltration and related physical properties of the reclaimed mined soil after deep tillage treatment.

  16. Natural Law And Civil Law in John Locke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Hessmann Dalaqua

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the relationship between natural law and civil law in John Locke’s philosophy. Although renowned scholars have claimed that such a relationship is deductive, this paper will try to show a different interpretation and argue that the relationship between civil law and natural law is one of determination. Far from being a mere deduction of an immutable natural law, civil law plays a determinative role in natural law. As we shall see, this interpretation highlights something that Locke held in high regard: the deliberative character of natural law. Citizens’ deliberation in the legislature to some extent creates natural law. Citizens are thus free to determine the law, and participating in such a determination is crucial to their political liberty. In this sense, as we shall explain, Locke’s political liberty is akin to republicanism.

  17. Phosphate Mines, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Jordan's leading industry and export commodities are phosphate and potash, ranked in the top three in the world. These are used to make fertilizer. The Jordan Phosphate Mines Company is the sole producer, having started operations in 1935. In addition to mining activities, the company produces phosphoric acid (for fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals), diammonium phosphate (for fertilizer), sulphuric acid (many uses), and aluminum fluoride (a catalyst to make aluminum and magnesium). The image covers an area of 27.5 x 49.4 km, was acquired on September 17, 2005, and is located near 30.8 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Foam plastics for mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demenkova, K.M.; Belyaeva, L.S.; Shamardina, I.A.; Solonitsyn, E.M. (VNIIGD (USSR))

    1991-05-01

    Evaluates properties and use of foam plastics in underground coal mines. Use of foam plastics for construction of ventilation barriers and filling voids between liners and roadway walls is discussed. Standard foam plastics used in the USSR, foam plastics developed and tested by the VNIIGD research institute and other foam plastics recommended for use in coal mines are comparatively evaluated. Plastics on a carbamide formaldehyde basis, effects of modifying additives (phenol formaldehyde resins, the GKZh-10 and GKZh-94 silicon compounds, sodium silicates and dibutyl phthalate). Compression strength of the foam plastics modified by the evaluated additives ranges from 0.2 to 0.7 MPa, mass from 75 to 130 kg/m{sup 3}. Types of sodium carbonate compounds used for foam generation are discussed.

  19. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  20. Presumption of lawful acquirement of property and confiscation of unlawfully acquired property in the case-law of the Romanian Constitutional Court. The reference constitutional framework for regulating of the extended confiscation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta SAFTA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines - from a dual perspective - historical and teleological, the constitutional provisions that enshrine the presumption of lawful acquirement of assets, including the development and interpretation thereof in the case-law of the Constitutional Court, in order to create a framework for analysis of Law no. 63/2012 amending and supplementing the Criminal Code and Law no. 286/2009 on the Criminal Code, a law that establishes the measure of extended confiscation, expression of international regulatory concerns in this area.

  1. Mines and Demolitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-04-22

    Rough .andling Tests . ~Forty-Foot Drop Test S. " Extremu- Temperatura Functioning Temperature-Humidity " r Extreme-Temperature Storage "* •d...operability. The performance characteristics, a ": Ithrough d below, are determined with unconditioned samples. These samples also serve as control ...firing can eafely be controlled . At least five samples are used for each possible fuza/mine combinacion. The order of functioning of the main

  2. Mining unstructured software data

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchelli, Alberto; Lanza, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Our thesis is that the analysis of unstructured data supports software understanding and evolution analysis, and complements the data mined from structured sources. To this aim, we implemented the necessary toolset and investigated methods for exploring, exposing, and exploiting unstructured data.To validate our thesis, we focused on development email data. We found two main challenges in using it to support program comprehension and software development: The disconnection between emai...

  3. Data Mining Verfahren

    OpenAIRE

    Lechner, Werner

    2008-01-01

    Der vorliegende Forschungsbericht dokumentiert Ergebnisse, die in der Abteilung Informatik der Fakultät Wirtschaft und Informatik der Fachhochschule Hannover im Sommersemesters 2007 im Rahmen eines von der Forschungskommission genehmigten Forschungssemesters vom Autor erarbeitet wurden. Der Bericht stellt die wichtigsten Verfahren aus dem Gebiet des Data Minings vor, diskutiert auf der Basis von selbst programmierten Beispielen die Eignung der verschiedenen Verfahren für die entsprechenden An...

  4. Ethics and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Katherine; Jiwani, Bashir; Steele, Duncan

    2017-12-01

    Health care providers' interpretation of law can have intended and unintended effects on health care delivery in Canada. At times, health care providers encounter situations where they perceive the law to conflict with their sense of what is most ethically justified. In many cases, these health care providers feel especially torn because they assume that the legal requirements must dictate the decision, and cannot be explored or questioned. We challenge this assumption: the law is not as cut-and-dried as some assume; therefore, its significance to health care decisions should be carefully considered. Within a systematic ethics process, legal considerations can be a source of values and information and can create opportunities for further dialogue. This approach is justified because it appropriately reflects the relationship of the law to ethics. This way of thinking about the law and ethics also avoids potentially harmful consequences of legalistic approaches to decision-making, such as breakdowns in communication, adversarial relationships, and a reduction of ethically complex decisions to simple rule following.

  5. International Space Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lits

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the modern day technologies that drive our global society are highly dependent on the use of outer space. For example, daily activities such as sending emails, making phone calls and carrying out bank transactions cannot be done unless satellite technologies are involved. When you catch a plane, the air traffic control is dependent on GPS. Even natural disaster management is dependent on satellite imaging. Taking into account the importance of this, it becomes increasingly necessary to be knowledgeable in the field of international law as it is the only sphere of law that reaches beyond the physical boundaries of the Earth, goes deep into space and provides protection for today’s society. With new steps being taken to exploit further the potentials of outer space, and with increasing talk of new space missions and new discoveries, current international space law is being placed under scrutiny, for it should be remembered that the major international legal documents in this field were adopted in the middle of the 20th century, and thus there are fears that the law may have become obsolete, irrelevant in the face of new challenges in the use of outer space. This paper delivers an analysis of existing international space law and attempts to raise several crucial issues pertinent in the area.

  6. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  7. GIS and Urban Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Zhu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems (GIS are a kind of location intelligence technology that supports systematic collection, integration, analysis and sharing of spatial data. They provide an effective tool for characterising and visualising geographical distributions of recyclable resources or materials dispersed across urban environments in what may be described as “urban mines”. As logistics can be a key barrier to recycling, GIS are critical for capturing and analysing location intelligence about the distribution and values of recyclable resources and associated collection systems to effectively empower and inform the policy makers and the broader community with comprehensive, accurate and accessible information. This paper reviews the functionality of modern GIS, discusses the potential role of GIS in urban mining studies, and describes how GIS can be used to measure, report, analyse and visualise the spatial or geographical characteristics of dispersed stocks of recyclable waste and their collection and recovery systems. Such information can then be used to model material flows and assess the social and environmental impacts of urban mining. Issues and challenges in the use of GIS for urban mining are also to be addressed.

  8. Organizational Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Hamid R.; Barko, Christopher D.

    Many organizations today possess substantial quantities of business information but have very little real business knowledge. A recent survey of 450 business executives reported that managerial intuition and instinct are more prevalent than hard facts in driving organizational decisions. To reverse this trend, businesses of all sizes would be well advised to adopt Organizational Data Mining (ODM). ODM is defined as leveraging Data Mining tools and technologies to enhance the decision-making process by transforming data into valuable and actionable knowledge to gain a competitive advantage. ODM has helped many organizations optimize internal resource allocations while better understanding and responding to the needs of their customers. The fundamental aspects of ODM can be categorized into Artificial Intelligence (AI), Information Technology (IT), and Organizational Theory (OT), with OT being the key distinction between ODM and Data Mining. In this chapter, we introduce ODM, explain its unique characteristics, and report on the current status of ODM research. Next we illustrate how several leading organizations have adopted ODM and are benefiting from it. Then we examine the evolution of ODM to the present day and conclude our chapter by contemplating ODM's challenging yet opportunistic future.

  9. Data Mining and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samms, Kevin O.

    2015-01-01

    The Data Mining project seeks to bring the capability of data visualization to NASA anomaly and problem reporting systems for the purpose of improving data trending, evaluations, and analyses. Currently NASA systems are tailored to meet the specific needs of its organizations. This tailoring has led to a variety of nomenclatures and levels of annotation for procedures, parts, and anomalies making difficult the realization of the common causes for anomalies. Making significant observations and realizing the connection between these causes without a common way to view large data sets is difficult to impossible. In the first phase of the Data Mining project a portal was created to present a common visualization of normalized sensitive data to customers with the appropriate security access. The tool of the visualization itself was also developed and fine-tuned. In the second phase of the project we took on the difficult task of searching and analyzing the target data set for common causes between anomalies. In the final part of the second phase we have learned more about how much of the analysis work will be the job of the Data Mining team, how to perform that work, and how that work may be used by different customers in different ways. In this paper I detail how our perspective has changed after gaining more insight into how the customers wish to interact with the output and how that has changed the product.

  10. Towards a European contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hondius, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    I. Introduction. II. Subject-matter of this paper. III. Constitutionality. IV. Codification. V. Is it Feasible?VI. Howto proceed. VII. New problems: finding the Law. VIII. The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany. IX. Common Law and Civil Law. X. East and west. XI. European Community Law. XII.

  11. Expert Mining for Solving Social Harmony Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jifa; Song, Wuqi; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Liu, Yijun

    Social harmony problems are being existed in social system, which is an open giant complex system. For solving such kind of problems the Meta-synthesis system approach proposed by Qian XS et al will be applied. In this approach the data, information, knowledge, model, experience and wisdom should be integrated and synthesized. Data mining, text mining and web mining are good techniques for using data, information and knowledge. Model mining, psychology mining and expert mining are new techniques for mining the idea, opinions, experiences and wisdom. In this paper we will introduce the expert mining, which is based on mining the experiences, knowledge and wisdom directly from experts, managers and leaders.

  12. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    9. Inventions by Employees Chapter 10. Settlement of Disputes Part II. Collective Labour Relations Chapter 1. Trade Union Freedom Chapter 2. Trade Unions and Employers’ Associations Chapter 3. Institutionalised Relations between Employers and Employees Chapter 4. Collective Bargaining Chapter 5......Table of Contents: The Author List of Abbreviations General Introduction Chapter 1. General Background Chapter 2. Definitions and Notions Chapter 3. Historical Background Chapter 4. Role of Government Institutions in the Shaping and Administration of Labour and Industrial Relations Policy Chapter 5....... Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...

  13. 36 CFR 6.7 - Mining wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining wastes. 6.7 Section 6... DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.7 Mining wastes. (a) Solid waste from mining includes but is not limited to mining overburden, mining byproducts, solid waste from the extraction...

  14. Mining highly stressed areas, part 2.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, R

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire related to mining at great depth and in very high stress conditions has been completed with the assistance of mine rock mechanics personnel on over twenty mines in all mining districts, and covering all deep level mines...

  15. Spatio-Temporal Rule Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2005-01-01

    Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....

  16. The trespasses of property law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify a limit to the appropriate application of property law to the use and storage of bodily material. I argue here that property law ought to be limited to protecting 'contingent rights' and that recent cases where property rights have been recognised in semen represent the application of property law beyond this limit. I also suggest how the law ought to develop in order to avoid the overextensive use of property law.

  17. Hardship in Bulgarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya TSONEVA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the legal treatment of hardship(change of circumstances in Bulgarian law trying to show where it stands in comparison with other legislations (Germany, England, USA and international legal instruments (Unidroit Principles on International Commercial Contracts and Principles of European Contract Law. An overall picture of the different approaches to hardship is concisely presented. Hardship prerequisites and effects are analyzed with a stress on specific problems identified in some recent Bulgarian court decisions. Attention is drawn to certain. concepts and reasoning in other legal systems that may be helpful to Bulgarian theory and practice when dealing with hardship cases.

  18. Text Mining Applications and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Text Mining: Applications and Theory presents the state-of-the-art algorithms for text mining from both the academic and industrial perspectives.  The contributors span several countries and scientific domains: universities, industrial corporations, and government laboratories, and demonstrate the use of techniques from machine learning, knowledge discovery, natural language processing and information retrieval to design computational models for automated text analysis and mining. This volume demonstrates how advancements in the fields of applied mathematics, computer science, machine learning

  19. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  20. Free movement of companies under company law, tax law and EU law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  1. 30 CFR 819.21 - Auger mining: Protection of underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. 819.21 Section 819.21 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... STANDARDS-AUGER MINING § 819.21 Auger mining: Protection of underground mining. Auger holes shall not extend...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1712 - Reopening mines; notification; inspection prior to mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to mining. 77.1712 Section 77.1712 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... prior to mining. Prior to reopening any surface coal mine after it has been abandoned or declared... an authorized representative of the Secretary before any mining operations in such mine are...

  3. Telemedicine and European law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callens, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    A Directive of the European Union was first published in 2000, which dealt with telemedicine as part of its provisions. This E-Commerce Directive, as it became known, was subjected to further study which revealed some problems relative to the practice of telemedicine. Among the subjects discussed in this paper are those of privacy, data protection, free movement of services, the impact of electronic communication and ethical issues.

  4. The Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law: selected issues in providing home care services to the frail elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Hillel

    2005-05-01

    The paper describes and analyses selected issues related to the provision of home care services to frail elderly people following the Israeli Long-Term Care Insurance Law (1988). The goals and principles of the Law, which mandates the provision of home care services to frail elderly people, are presented. The paper also evaluates its contribution toward enhancing the well-being of elderly clients. Several major dilemmas that arose following implementation of the Law are analysed and evaluated in comparison with other countries that have enacted and implemented similar laws. These dilemmas are community vs institutional care; services in kind vs monetary allowances; service provision through contracting out with nongovernmental agencies; unstable and unskilled labour force; and service quality. Finally, policy implications are discussed, mainly in the following areas: investment in human resources as a condition for achieving high service quality, and the need for coordination between the agencies that provide long-term care services to elderly people.

  5. Sentiment Analysis and Opinion Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Sentiment analysis and opinion mining is the field of study that analyzes people's opinions, sentiments, evaluations, attitudes, and emotions from written language. It is one of the most active research areas in natural language processing and is also widely studied in data mining, Web mining, and text mining. In fact, this research has spread outside of computer science to the management sciences and social sciences due to its importance to business and society as a whole. The growing importance of sentiment analysis coincides with the growth of social media such as reviews, forum discussions

  6. Web Mining and Social Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Guandong; Zhang, Yanchun; Li, Lin

    mining, and the issue of how to incorporate web mining into web personalization and recommendation systems are also reviewed. Additionally, the volume explores web community mining and analysis to find the structural, organizational and temporal developments of web communities and reveal the societal...... sense of individuals or communities. The volume will benefit both academic and industry communities interested in the techniques and applications of web search, web data management, web mining and web knowledge discovery, as well as web community and social network analysis....

  7. Managing and Mining Graph Data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2010-01-01

    Managing and Mining Graph Data is a comprehensive survey book in graph management and mining. It contains extensive surveys on a variety of important graph topics such as graph languages, indexing, clustering, data generation, pattern mining, classification, keyword search, pattern matching, and privacy. It also studies a number of domain-specific scenarios such as stream mining, web graphs, social networks, chemical and biological data. The chapters are written by well known researchers in the field, and provide a broad perspective of the area. This is the first comprehensive survey book in t

  8. Civil and common law influences on the Danish auditor's responsibilities in relation to fraud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We use a legal perspective to examine how the role of auditors in Denmark has been defined and the auditor's responsibilities in relation to fraud have been determined. The study draws on laws, legal cases and documents produced by professional organisations. We show that developments during...... in the form of ‘general principles legislature’, ensured that the role of the auditor was defined as a result of market forces and the judicial processes of the courts. We observe that in the Danish legal system important interpretative powers are granted to the courts in line with case law traditions...... the twentieth century were conditioned by the central legislative role of the Danish state combined with a hands-off approach to enforcing new law provisions. While the organising role of the state was consistent with the Roman civil law tradition, the implications of legislative absences, and later provisions...

  9. [Dentistry and healthcare legislation 10. The law governing complaints: readily accessible filing procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ven, J M; Eijkman, M A J; Brands, W G

    2014-03-01

    The law promises patients a readily accessible means of filing complaints. Healthcare providers are therefore required to adopt regulations governing complaints which satisfy a number of conditions. Most dentists choose to adopt the regulations which have been established by their professional organization. In addition to handling complaints, there is also a provision for mediation, which is often used by patients. Mediation appears, then, to be a successful provision. Many complaints have their origin in insufficient knowledge of healthcare legislation and patients' rights legislation. This demonstrates that more attention should be given to these subjects in educational programmes and programmes in continuing education. The present law governing complaints is expected to be replaced this year by a new, more comprehensive law in which considerable attention will be devoted to the quality of care as well as to complaints. It seems likely, however, that the new law governing complaints will damage the effective manner in which patients' complaints are dealt with in dentistry today.

  10. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  11. Setting the Law Straight:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enabulele_&_ Bazuaye

    other State or international organisation can claim protection over such a national for events that occurred within the territory of the State.1 Indeed it is now a rule of practical relevance, following the notable case of Jurisdiction of the Courts of Danzig,. 2 that a State could confer international law benefits on individuals by ...

  12. Panarchy and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Ruhl

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Panarchy theory focuses on improving theories of change in natural and social systems to improve the design of policy responses. Its central thesis is that successfully working with the dynamic forces of complex adaptive natural and social systems demands an active adaptive management regime that eschews optimization approaches that seek stability. This is a new approach to resources management, and yet no new theory of how to do things in environmental and natural resources management, particularly one challenging entrenched ways of doing things and the interests aligned around them, is likely to gain traction in practice if it cannot gain traction in the form of endorsement and implementation through specific laws and regulations. At some point, that bridge must be crossed or the enterprise of putting panarchy theory into panarchy practice will stall. Any effort to operationalize panarchy theory through law thus comes up against the mission of law to provide social stability and the nature of law itself as a complex adaptive system. To state the problem in another way, putting panarchy theory into practice will require adaptively managing the complex adaptive legal system to adaptively manage other complex adaptive natural and social systems, all in a way that maintains some level of social order. Panarchy theorists have yet to develop an agenda for doing so. It is time for lawyers to join the team.

  13. Family Law Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-11

    void ab initio: those which are knowingly bigamous, and those which are "incestuous" (i.e., within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity and...fourth degree of consanguinity ; marriages between parties having a lawful spouse living. § 42.0101. Also, under Samoan custom, women do not marry men

  14. Confidentiality and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealander, Karen A.; Schwiebert, Valerie L.; Oren, Thomas A.; Weekley, Jean L.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces issues surrounding confidentiality in the schools, and the laws that govern and protect students, teachers, and school counselors. Maintains that although impossible for school counselors to be fully aware of all legal principles affecting their work, it is essential that they continually seek to stay abreast of changes in legal and…

  15. Essentials of WTO law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prévost, Denise; Van den Bossche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    At a time when developments in WTO law have made this field increasingly complex, this concise and non-technical introduction provides a timely and carefully considered overview of the substantive rules and institutional arrangements of the WTO. Illustrative examples clarify important issues of the

  16. | Yilma | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Likewise, the applicability of patent laws to the digital environment and the patentability of software-related inventions are contentious. This article briefly deals with these issues. Also addressed in this article are issues relating to Ethiopias roles in the global Internet governance ecosystem, and the extent to which Ethiopian ...

  17. Law and Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe; Tamm, Ditlev

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an introduction to the field of law and literature in Denmark and a legal and literary reading of one of the Western world’s first crime stories, The Pastor of Vejlbye, written by the Danish writer, Steen Steensen Blicher, in 1829. This is a story that is based on a true case...

  18. Constitutionalization of environmental law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta Guerrero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how Environmental Law can take intoconsideration some of fundamental rights study categories, by a constitutional point of view, particularly the right to a balanced and appropriate environment recognized in article 2, paragraph 22 of the 1993 Peruvian Constitution in order to develop policies oriented to implementation of constitutional legal status for environment rights and property.

  19. International institutional law

    CERN Document Server

    Schermers, Henry G

    1972-01-01

    In several respects the present study is an enlargement of a former analysis about the specialized agencies of the United Nations to more organisations and into further detail. In particular the creation of the European Communities, adding new aspects to international institutional law, have received attention.

  20. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  1. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    The state is trying to meet these rising demands through two main routes. The first is through invoking .... population, and they have registered recent economic growth that has enhanced the demand for land which .... investors.16 For example, the predecessor of the Expropriation Proclamation, that is, the expropriation law ...

  2. Does Divorce Law Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Mariotti, Marco; Manzini, Paola; Fella, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we derive an explicit model of negotiations between spouses when utility is (partially) transferable only in case of separation. We show that inefficient separation may occur in equilibrium even under consensual divorce law. This provides theoretical support for the view that changes in social norms rather than in legislation may be responsible for increasing divorce rates.

  3. Charles's Law- -The Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, CB

    1989-01-01

    Errors in the teaching of the concepts of Charles's Law are traced back through history to a major French physics text published in 1816. Relevant original sources are quoted and remedies are suggested. Five major criticisms are summarized. (Author/CW)

  4. Laws of emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijda, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Laws of Emotion is an accessible new book that reviews much of the insightful new research on emotions conducted over the last ten years. It expands on the theory of emotions introduced in Nico Frijda's earlier work, and addresses a number of unanswered, basic problems on emotion theory. The

  5. Creating EU law judges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayoral Diaz-Asensio, Juan Antonio; Jaremba, Urszula; Nowak, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The judicial protection system in the European Union (EU) is premised on the fact that national judges are supposed to act as decentralized EU judges. This role is exercised through tools enshrined in, inter alia, primacy, direct and indirect effect of EU law, and the preliminary ruling procedure...

  6. Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, examine, explore and analyze legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's articles aim at interpretation, description, exploration and diagnosis towards the solution of problems (or legal issues) ...

  7. Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muradu_Abdo

    Reforming Ethiopia's Expropriation Law. Muradu Abdo ♧. Abstract. Ethiopia is increasingly using expropriation as the single most important device to take land particularly from small landholders to supply it to corporate farmers and industrialists with a declared intention of boosting economic growth. This is happening in the ...

  8. Nanoplasmonics beyond Ohm's law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger; Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -of-motion that goes beyond the common local-response approximation and use of Ohm's law as the central constitutive equation. The electron gas is treated within a semi-classical hydrodynamic model with the emergence of a new intrinsic length scale. We briefly review the new governing wave equations and give examples...

  9. Harmonization of social security law of Serbia with the law of European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Velizar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the author shortly exposes Communitarian social security law and remained tasks of the harmonization of Serbian legislation in this field. Recently some amendments of legislation were made in order to strengthen principles of gender equality and prevent discrimination, to regulate employment of persons with disability, as well as to install supervision in Institutions for occupational retirement. Regarding the compulsory social insurance in Serbia it may be concluded that there exists a high degree of compliance with the EU legislation, with an exception of privileged mode of entitlement for old age and disability pensions for women and partial disability caused by work injury where it is necessary to conclude agreements on social security with 10 EU states members. On the other side, occupational retirement provision is partially incompatible with Communitarian social security law, i.e. with Directive 2003/41/EC in the field of technical provision, as well as with Directive 113/2004/EU regarding the obligation of equation of the life expectancy for both sexes.

  10. Polish legal regulations considering recovery of secondary materials from coal mining dumping grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawor Łukasz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article there is presented temporary situation of coal mining dumping grounds in Poland – their inventarization, localization and environmental impacts. The coal mining dumping grounds in Poland are situated in three coal basins: Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Lower Silesian Coal Basin and Lublin Coal Basin. In all mentioned areas occur ca. 270 coal mining waste dumps, covering surface of over 4400 ha. The main environmental impacts connected with dumping grounds are fire hazards, water pollution and a danger of slope sliding. The question of recovery of coal from disposed wastes with regard to legal regulations is discussed. There are presented technical methods of coal recovery considering environmental protection issues. There is a necessity and technical possibility of recovery of coal from the coal-mining waste dumps. The coal recovery reduces hazards of self-ignition and fires of the dump. It is also economically justified. The analysis of required regulations in legal system in Poland for safe exploitation of secondary materials from coal mining dumps is done. Socio-economic aspects of recovery of coal are discussed. The valid legal regulations in Poland regulate the issues connected with coal mining dumping grounds in a very general way. It is necessary to prepare supplements to the legal provisions or new regulations concerning post-mining dumping grounds.

  11. Uranium Mines and Mills Location Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Uranium Mines and Mills location database identifies and shows the location of active and inactive uranium mines and mills, as well as mines which principally produced other minerals, but were known to have uranium in the ore.

  12. Large Mines and the Community: Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large Mines and the Community: Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain ... and multilateral agencies), mining company officials, staff of government mining and development agencies, and academics and researchers in economic, social, environmental, and natural resource issues.

  13. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  14. Readings in technology assessment. [in relation to social impact and the law

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Papers are presented which reflect research in the following areas: development of the concept of technology assessment; institutionalization of technology assessment; the interface between law and technology assessment; and assessment case studies. Case studies include hazards of the medical use of X-rays, environmental noise effects in transportation planning, genetic technology, impact of underground coal mining, and aircraft/airport noise abatement.

  15. Seismic Parameters of Mining-Induced Aftershock Sequences for Re-entry Protocol Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Javier A.; Estay, Rodrigo A.

    2017-11-01

    A common characteristic of deep mines in hard rock is induced seismicity. This results from stress changes and rock failure around mining excavations. Following large seismic events, there is an increase in the levels of seismicity, which gradually decay with time. Restricting access to areas of a mine for enough time to allow this decay of seismic events is the main approach in re-entry strategies. The statistical properties of aftershock sequences can be studied with three scaling relations: (1) Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude, (2) the modified Omori's law (MOL) for the temporal decay, and (3) Båth's law for the magnitude of the largest aftershock. In this paper, these three scaling relations, in addition to the stochastic Reasenberg-Jones model are applied to study the characteristic parameters of 11 large magnitude mining-induced aftershock sequences in four mines in Ontario, Canada. To provide guidelines for re-entry protocol development, the dependence of the scaling relation parameters on the magnitude of the main event are studied. Some relations between the parameters and the magnitude of the main event are found. Using these relationships and the scaling relations, a space-time-magnitude re-entry protocol is developed. These findings provide a first approximation to concise and well-justified guidelines for re-entry protocol development applicable to the range of mining conditions found in Ontario, Canada.

  16. THE PARTICULARITIES OF NON-MATERIAL DAMAGES IN ROMANIAN CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Sidonia Culda

    2014-01-01

    The topic of this article may be analysed only by proceeding from the conception oncivil liability. In our civil law, delictual civil liability represents common law materialliability, in the sense that its norms and principles are applied without exception if there are no special regulations. The Civil code also contains provisions regarding contractual civil liability which appear as different from the norms that regulate the regime of civil liability, but practically they are at the same t...

  17. Coverage of the emergency health care law and the compulsory insurance against Road Traffic Crashes (SOAT)

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, J. Jaime; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. CRONICAS, Centro de Excelencia en Enfermedades Crónicas, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. EDHUCASALUD, Asociación Civil para la Educación en Derechos Humanos con Aplicación en Salud. Lima, Perú. Médico, Magíster y Doctor en Epidemiología.; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. Centro de Trastornos Respiratorios del Sueño (CENTRES), Clínica Anglo Americana. Lima, Perú. Grupo de Investigación en Sueño (GIS). Lima, Perú. Médico, Magíster en Medicina y Magíster en Sueño: fisiología y Medicina.; Gianella, Camila; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. EDHUCASALUD, Asociación Civil para la Educación en Derechos Humanos con Aplicación en Salud. Lima, Perú. Licenciada en Psicología Social, Magíster en Salud Internacional.; Paca-Palao, Ada; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Obstetriz, Magíster en Población y Salud.; Luna, Diego; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Ciencias Sociales y Políticas, Universidad del Pacífico. Lima, Perú. Asociación Civil “Gobierno Coherente”. Lima, Perú. Sociólogo.; Lopez, Luis; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Dirección de formación Profesional y los Recursos Humanos, Ministerio del Trabajo y Promoción del Empleo. Lima, Perú. Economista.; Huicho, Luis; Programa de Investigación en Accidentes de Tránsito, Salud Sin Límites Perú. Lima, Perú. Departamento de Pediatría, Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina, “San fernando” Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; PIAT, Equipo

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to ascertain, from patients’ perspective, the degree of knowledge and the actual coverage of the Emergency Health Care Law and the Compulsory Insurance against Road Traffic Crashes (SOAT). Material and methods. A cross-sectional, active surveillance of emergency wards of selected health facilities in three Peruvian cities (Lima, Pucallpa y Ayacucho) was conducted. Results. Out of 644 surveyed victims, 77% did not know about the law about provision of e...

  18. Robots in mining

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available fatalities (184 previous yr) • 0.14 per million hrs worked (0.16) • 0.31 per 1000 people at work (0.36) • Every 2.5 days a miner dies... In a potentially preventable accident • 1 over the course of this conference 1.. http...://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/sectors/mining.htm 2. http://www.dme.gov.za/mhs/accident_stats.stm © CSIR 2010 Slide 5 Annual Fatalities • Good downward trend © CSIR 2010 Slide 6 Fatalities by category (2007) 76 19 47 50 5 4 8 1 1 1 8 Fall of ground Machinery Transportation General...

  19. THE CONCEPT OF PATRIMONY AND COMMON ASPECTS OF OFFENCES AGAINST PATRIMONY REGULATED BY THE CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA POCORA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze in detail the concept of patrimony and then, will identify the common aspects of all offences against patrimony regulated by the actually Criminal Law. We presented elements of meaning of “patrimony” term, stipulated both by Criminal Law and Civil Law, under this point of view, it can be observed that incriminating the offences against patrimony, the Criminal Law takes into account the illicit action of offender and not the juridical position of victim. Continuing the conceptual analyze of “patrimony”, we highlight although the Constitutional provisions. As regarding the common aspects of offences against patrimony, we presented a classification of these crimes, based on identity of material element, as well as result of some foreign criminal legislation (for example, the Italian Criminal Law, French Criminal Law.

  20. Constitutional Requirements Regarding the Law on Local Elected Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Gradinaru

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The provisions of the Law no 249/2006 for the amending and completion of Law no 393/2004 onthe Statute of the local elected include a new issue of cessation de jure of the mandate as a local or countycouncilor and mayor, before the expiry of its normal duration, reasoned by the resignation of the politicalparty or of the organization of the national minorities on whose list he was elected. The Constitutionalprovisions enhance the representativeness of the local elected mandate, as with the parliamentary one, in thesense of an implied prohibition of any interference in the work of the elected that would come from voters,political parties, state authorities, NGOs. The independent status of the local elected receives extensiveconnotations if we relate up to their moving from one political party to another, and in the context in whichthis is sanctioned by law we face the restrictions of the representative mandate.