WorldWideScience

Sample records for provisions lifesaving appliances

  1. 46 CFR 199.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that is— (A) At least as long as twice the height where it is stowed above the waterline with the... person smaller than the lower size limit of the adult-size lifejacket; and (ii) A sufficient number of..., alternative provisions must be made to the satisfaction of the OCMI that may include an increase in the number...

  2. 46 CFR 199.190 - Operational readiness, maintenance, and inspection of lifesaving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... motor fitted to a rescue boat would not allow the outboard motor to be run other than with its propeller...) Servicing of inflatable lifesaving appliances, inflated rescue boats, and marine evacuation systems. (1) Each inflatable lifesaving appliance and marine evacuation system must be serviced— (i) Within 12...

  3. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block... marked on the stern of the vessel to meet the requirements of subpart 67.123 of this chapter. (2) The number of persons for which the boast is equipped must be clearly marked, preferably on the bow, in...

  4. 46 CFR 109.301 - Operational readiness, maintenance, and inspection of lifesaving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... propeller submerged for a period of 3 minutes, the outboard motor should be run for such period as... rescue boats, and marine evacuation systems. (1) Each inflatable lifesaving appliance and marine...) Rotational deployment of marine evacuation systems. In addition to or in conjunction with the servicing...

  5. 46 CFR 169.245 - Lifesaving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving equipment. 169.245 Section 169.245 Shipping... Inspection and Certification Inspections § 169.245 Lifesaving equipment. At each inspection for certification and periodic inspection the following tests and inspections of lifesaving equipment will be conducted...

  6. CPR: A Real Lifesaver (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System Taking Care of Your Teeth Bad Breath CPR: A Real Lifesaver KidsHealth > For Kids > CPR: A ... Let's find out how it works. What Is CPR? Cardio means "of the heart " and pulmonary means " ...

  7. 46 CFR 115.808 - Lifesaving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to not be in serviceable condition must be repaired or replaced. (c) Each item of lifesaving... abandon ship or man overboard drill be held under simulated emergency conditions specified by the...

  8. Oral Appliances Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is an effective treatment option for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). A custom-fit oral sleep appliance can improve your sleep, restore your alertness and revitalize your health. Here is a guide to help you get ...

  9. 33 CFR 144.10-1 - Lifesaving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lifesaving equipment. 144.10-1... equipment. (a) Except as allowed in paragraph (b) of this section, no person may be on an unmanned platform unless the following lifesaving equipment is readily accessible on the platform: (1) A life preserver or...

  10. 46 CFR 189.25-15 - Lifesaving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving equipment. 189.25-15 Section 189.25-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-15 Lifesaving equipment. For inspection...

  11. Home Appliance Expo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiring, Susan M.

    This description of a free, two-day home appliance exposition organized by the county extension center of Johnson County, Kansas, outlines the basic structure of the exposition in a format that can serve as a guide for organizing similar expositions. Discussion of the exposition is divided into the following sections: rationale for an appliance…

  12. Lifesaving Drugs from Pfizer in Short Supply: FDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Lifesaving Drugs From Pfizer in Short Supply: FDA Agency seeking alternatives, extending 'shelf life' for meds ... the Pfizer company Hospira. In some cases, the FDA is extending expiration dates. "These are all critically ...

  13. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  14. File System Virtual Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    version. The result is over 300 configurations. 14 · File system virtual appliances Type Description Memory Pressure Some RedHat Enterprise Linux 3 kernels...blocking. This results in minutes-long de- lays in dirty data writeback under low memory situations. RedHat acknowledged the semantic mismatch but did not...ten. This caused a file system to mistakenly assume that all pages were written, resulting in data corruption. Stack Size RedHat Enterprise Linux

  15. Evaluation of pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training oriented pharmaceutical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamami, Yoshito; Imai, Toru; Imanishi, Masaki; Takechi, Kenshi; Shiraishi, Naoko; Koyama, Toshihiro; Sagara, Hidenori; Shiino, Yasukazu; Sendo, Toshiaki; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Many pharmacists are participating in team-based medical care in emergency hospitals. Therefore, there is a desperate need to improve the education system. In the present study, we provided a "pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training" to the students in their fifth and sixth year of the pharmaceutical school and evaluated the program's impact on the students' learning and confidence in their ability to perform pharmaceutical interventions for emergency patients. We conducted a pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training program with 12 participants who were in their fifth and six year of pharmaceutical school. We prepared a fictional scenario in which a patient with cardiac arrest has been rushed into a hospital. We measured the participants' level of knowledge of pharmaceutical lifesaving procedures and participants' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions before and after the training session. Using the data obtained from type II quantification method, we examined what elements in the content of the pharmaceutical lifesaving skill training attended by pharmacy students will affect the students' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions. In addition, using the correspondence structural analysis, we examined which sections of the content of the pharmaceutical lifesaving skill training should be improved in the future. When we evaluated the level of knowledge acquired in pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training, the post-training overall correct answer rate was significantly higher than the pre-training overall correct answer rate. And also, level of participants' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions similarly increased after pharmaceutical lifesaving skill training. The influence degree graph indicates that the items likely to have a major impact on the participants' confidence to perform pharmaceutical interventions was "Selecting medicine". According to the correspondence structural analysis graph based on the questionnaire

  16. Current Sensor Based Home Appliance and State of Appliance Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Takeshi; Osaki, Tomoyuki; Konishi, Ryosuke; Sugahara, Kazunori

    This paper presents a current sensor-based home appliance and its state recognition method for intelligent outlets. Our system has three main functions: remote control, monitoring, and power supply schedule management. This research focuses particular on the monitoring function. To recognize the appliance and the state of the appliance, we extract ten features based on a measured current signal. In the experiment, we gather a number of signals with various appliances, and find that three features Irms, Iavg, and Ipeak yield valid recognition results of 84.3%, 86.4%, and 90.3% for classifying the state of the appliance into three categories. Moreover, sufficient recognition rates of 97.4%, 97.7%, and 99.0% are obtained by consideration of three candidates.

  17. Major Appliance Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smreker, Eugene; Calvert, King

    This module is a comprehensive text on basic appliance repair, designed to prepare students for entry-level jobs in this growing field. Ensuring a firm grounding in electrical knowledge, the module contains 13 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) major appliance repair orientation; (2) safety and first aid; (3) fundamentals of…

  18. Non-Intrusive Appliance Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteen, G; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Krist, J.O.; Bakker, Vincent; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Energy conservation becomes more important nowadays. The use of smart meters and, in the near future, smart appliances, are the key to achieve reduction in energy consumption. This research proposes a non-intrusive appliance monitor and recognition system for implementation on an embedded system.

  19. Shoulder pain and dysfunction in young surf lifesavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Josh; Marshall, Nick; Abbott, Allan

    2015-05-01

    To determine the incidence and prevalence of significantly interrupting shoulder pain (SIP) in young surf lifesavers and to determine association with training dosage and the 'combined elevation test'. 54 surf lifesavers aged 10-18 from the Gold Coast, Australia. Retrospective survey of SIP and training dosage. Cross-sectional measures of the combined elevation test. Retrospective. 56.5% of female surf lifesavers reported a history of SIP compared to males with 48.5%. Females had a higher combined elevation score compared to males, 28.32 ± SD 8.52 cm and 26.09 ± SD 6.64 cm, respectively. Young surf lifesavers had an incidence rate of 2.1 SIP episodes per thousand hours of training, an incidence proportion of 51.9% and prevalence of 18.5%. Combined elevation had low level positive trends with training dosages and statistically significant negative correlation with board paddling sessions per week (r = -0.287, p ≤ 0.05). Those with a history of SIP had a statistically significant higher number of sessions (p = 0.008), duration (p = 0.015) and distance (p = 0.005) swimming per week. Young surf lifesavers with a history of SIP have greater swimming dosage not associated with a decreased combined elevation score. More board paddling sessions per week decreased the combined elevation score of young surf lifesavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 29 CFR 1917.26 - First aid and lifesaving facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. 1917.26 Section 1917..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.26 First aid and..., to the employer. (b) A first aid kit shall be available at the terminal, and at least one person...

  1. Clinical effects of funcional appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Orrego C., Herbet M.; Ex Profesor de Post Grado. Especialista de Odontopediatría, Área de ortodoncia. UNMSM. Egresado de la Maestría en Estomatología.UNMSM. Diplomado en Ortodoncia UPCH.

    2014-01-01

    The funtional appliances therapy used wifh a correct diagnosis is able to make changes in teeth and in our patients profile .At the present time functional appliances can be used with or without fíxed appliances getting satisfactory results in malocclusions treatment.This report presents clinical cases in order to evaluate theraphy results in vertical ,transversal and sagital planes. La ortopedía funcional de los maxilares es un recurso terapéutico que aplicado luego de un adecuado diagnos...

  2. PAT portable appliance testing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 require any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required.This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam that anyone who conducts this work is required to take by law.It is an affordable and handy reference for electricians who administer PAT. It is also an ideal refesher and revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff, caretakers and charity shop volunteers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.Brian Scaddan, I Eng, MIET, is a consultant for and an Honorary Member of City & Guilds. ...

  3. Evaluation of pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training oriented pharmaceutical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Zamami, Yoshito; Imai, Toru; Imanishi, Masaki; Takechi, Kenshi; Shiraishi, Naoko; Koyama, Toshihiro; Sagara,Hidenori; Shiino, Yasukazu; Sendo, Toshiaki; Ishizawa, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Background Many pharmacists are participating in team-based medical care in emergency hospitals. Therefore, there is a desperate need to improve the education system. In the present study, we provided a ?pharmaceutical lifesaving skills training? to the students in their fifth and sixth year of the pharmaceutical school and evaluated the program?s impact on the students? learning and confidence in their ability to perform pharmaceutical interventions for emergency patients. Methods We conduct...

  4. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Wreen, M J

    1991-01-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assign...

  5. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...... materials and environments. This has been done by the use of existing hardware technologies in novel combinations, controlled and mediated in the software applications we have developed. These developments, (the SpacePanel, the TagTable and ProjecTable , the SitePack and the software application Topos...

  6. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances. (a) Comfort cooling systems. When not provided and installed by the home manufacturer, any... for use with the furnace in the home and installed in accordance with the appliance manufacturer's... appliances of the vented type except ranges and ovens must be vented to the exterior of the home. (2) Upon...

  7. 76 FR 20233 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... CFR Part 305 RIN 3084-AB03 Appliance Labeling Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (FTC or Commission... appliances the figure is 500 employees). Lamp catalog sellers qualify as small businesses if their sales are...

  8. Teaching Life-Saving Manoeuvres in Primary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicchia, Sara; Cangiano, Giovanna; Capanna, Silvia; De Rosa, Mariangela; Papaleo, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In the event of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) early intervention provided by a layperson can be life-saving. Teaching first aid in primary school may increase the lifelong ability and motivation of young people to take action in an emergency. Objective. The aim of this article is to report a training experience on BLSD (Basic Life Support and Defibrillation) designed for a group of pupils in an Italian primary school, with assessment of its effectiveness at a distance. Methods. The assessment was carried out using a multiple choice questionnaire on a sample of 130 pupils aged 11-12, 62 trained in BLSD and 68 as a control group. The trained group also performed an emergency simulation to assess their learning of practical skills. Results. Using the t test, significant differences emerged in the questionnaire scores between the case-control group. The results of the skill test were positive, even for the most difficult manoeuvres such as opening airways, assessing breathing, or using an AED (Automated External Defibrillator). Conclusion. Although there are still some open questions regarding the ability to retain these skills in the medium/long term, the study shows that life-saving manoeuvres can be effectively taught to primary school pupils.

  9. Teaching Life-Saving Manoeuvres in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Calicchia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the event of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA early intervention provided by a layperson can be life-saving. Teaching first aid in primary school may increase the lifelong ability and motivation of young people to take action in an emergency. Objective. The aim of this article is to report a training experience on BLSD (Basic Life Support and Defibrillation designed for a group of pupils in an Italian primary school, with assessment of its effectiveness at a distance. Methods. The assessment was carried out using a multiple choice questionnaire on a sample of 130 pupils aged 11-12, 62 trained in BLSD and 68 as a control group. The trained group also performed an emergency simulation to assess their learning of practical skills. Results. Using the t test, significant differences emerged in the questionnaire scores between the case-control group. The results of the skill test were positive, even for the most difficult manoeuvres such as opening airways, assessing breathing, or using an AED (Automated External Defibrillator. Conclusion. Although there are still some open questions regarding the ability to retain these skills in the medium/long term, the study shows that life-saving manoeuvres can be effectively taught to primary school pupils.

  10. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  11. Controlling Home Appliances Remotely through Voice Command

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Faisal; Beg, Saira; Fahad Khan, Muhammad

    2012-06-01

    Controlling appliances is a main part of automation. The main object of Home automation is to provide a wireless communication link of home appliances to the remote user. The main objective of this work is to make such a system which controls the home appliances remotely. This paper discusses two methods of controlling home appliances one is via voice to text SMS and other is to use the mobile as a remote control, this system will provide a benefit to the elderly and disable people and also to those who are unaware of typing an SMS.

  12. Modified-casted Appliance for Surgically-assisted Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Clinical Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Batra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse maxilla-mandibular discrepancies are a major component of several malocclusions. Surgically assisted rapid palatal expansion (SARPE is a common treatment modality for older patients in the correction of a maxillary transverse deficiency. In such cases, retention of the appliance plays an important role and this becomes a problem in patients having enamel hypoplasia. Therefore, the design was modified of a tooth-borne rapid maxillary expansion appliance with provision for miniscrew skeletal anchorage in a Class II malocclusion case having anterior open bite with bilateral posterior crossbite and enamel hypoplasia.

  13. Impacts of appliance efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, P.; Kesselring, J.

    1992-12-01

    Federal efficiency standards for appliances limit the range of models available on the market. Utility energy efficiency programs often encourage consumers to purchase the most efficient of the remaining options, but more-stringent efficiency standards could have a significant impact on such utility efforts. Using long-run technology scenario forecasting, EPRI-sponsored researchers studied ways in which the interplay of technological change, federal standards, utility efficiency programs, and market forces could affect future energy markets for three major residential end uses: refrigeration, central air conditioning, and water heating. The researchers reached several important conclusions about utility demand-side management efforts. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  15. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... instructions in the manufactured home. Appliances shall be secured in place to avoid displacement and movement... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appliances, cooling. 3280.714... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning...

  16. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  17. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  18. Snake Venom: From Deadly Toxins to Life-saving Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waheed, Humera; Moin, Syed F; Choudhary, M I

    2017-01-01

    Snakes are fascinating creatures and have been residents of this planet well before ancient humans dwelled the earth. Venomous snakes have been a figure of fear, and cause notable mortality throughout the world. The venom constitutes families of proteins and peptides with various isoforms that make it a cocktail of diverse molecules. These biomolecules are responsible for the disturbance in fundamental physiological systems of the envenomed victim, leading to morbidity which can lead to death if left untreated. Researchers have turned these life-threatening toxins into life-saving therapeutics via technological advancements. Since the development of captopril, the first drug that was derived from bradykininpotentiating peptide of Bothrops jararaca, to the disintegrins that have potent activity against certain types of cancers, snake venom components have shown great potential for the development of lead compounds for new drugs. There is a continuous development of new drugs from snake venom for coagulopathy and hemostasis to anti-cancer agents. In this review, we have focused on different snake venom proteins / peptides derived drugs that are in clinical use or in developmental stages till to date. Also, some commonly used snake venom derived diagnostic tools along with the recent updates in this exciting field are discussed. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Colistin: still a lifesaver for the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaiskos, Ilias; Souli, Maria; Galani, Irene; Giamarellou, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Living in the 'era of antibiotic resistance' and facing the threat of an 'end to antibiotics', physicians in the last decade have revived use of colistin, since the available literature at the clinical level was poor and limited Areas covered: Herein, the authors present the current available knowledge regarding colistin, i.e. in vitro activity and interactions, current pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD), clinical efficacy against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria, as well as toxicity issues, whereas the recently published newer plasmid mediated mcr-1 resistance gene is reviewed and discussed. Expert opinion: As proven in a big number of studies and despite their retrospective design, it is surmized that for carbapenemase producing K. pneumoniae, colistin should be given in combination with another active in vitro antibiotic and preferably meropenem/doripenem whenever the relevant minimum inhibitory concentration is ≤8 mg/L. However, colistin monotherapy seems adequate for infections caused by A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa. Based on current knowledge on PK/PD, appropriate dosage schedules are discussed in detail. The worldwide fear of the spread of the plasmid mediated mcr-1 colistin resistance gene is prevailing which, if not limited, the real catastrophy of a life-saver antibiotic will follow soon.

  20. On the feasibility of life-saving locomotive bumpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paden, Brad E; Kelly, Paraic M; Hines, Jacob A; Bothman, David; Simms, Ciaran

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by the thousands of pedestrians killed each year in train impacts, this paper investigates the life-saving capability of four high-level locomotive bumper concepts. The head motions produced by the four concepts are modeled as one or two square acceleration pulses and are analyzed using the Head Injury Criterion (HIC). Surprisingly, the analyses show that all four concepts can achieve HIC values of less than 200 for an impact with a locomotive traveling at 100 km/h. Two of the concepts eject the pedestrian trackside with at a velocity of roughly 40 km/h and the risk of ground-impact injury is discussed in the context of related automobile accident data. The computed bumper lengths are a fraction of the overall length of a locomotive and are thus feasible for practical implementation. One concept involves an oblique impact and the potential for rotational head injury is analyzed. This basic feasibility research motivates future investigations into the detailed design of bumper shapes, multi-body pedestrian simulations, and finite-element injury models. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Autonomy, religious values, and refusal of lifesaving medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wreen, M J

    1991-09-01

    The principal question of this paper is: Why are religious values special in refusal of lifesaving medical treatment? This question is approached through a critical examination of a common kind of refusal of treatment case, one involving a rational adult. The central value cited in defence of honouring such a patient's refusal is autonomy. Once autonomy is isolated from other justificatory factors, however, possible cases can be imagined which cast doubt on the great valuational weight assigned it by strong anti-paternalists. This weight is sufficient, in their estimation, to justify honouring the patient's refusal. There is thus a tension between the strong anti-paternalist's commitment to the sufficiency of autonomy and our intuitions respecting such cases. Attempts can be made to relieve this tension, such as arguing that patients aren't really rational in the circumstances envisaged, or that other values, such as privacy or bodily integrity, if added to autonomy, are sufficient to justify an anti-paternalistic stance. All such attempts fail, however. But what does not fail is the addition of religious freedom, freedom respecting a patient's religious beliefs and values. Why religious freedom reduces the tension is then explained, and the specialness of religious beliefs and values examined.

  2. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...... barriers for saving energy in general are in different ways caused by the political insistence on eternal economic expansion, in some aspects against the public preferences. Of the many ‘here and now’ policies to promote the dissemination of energy efficient appliances, buildings and other end......-use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  3. Retrospective Evaluation of Appliance Price Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2008-07-20

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1. For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2. Past retail price predictions made by DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3. The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4. Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances.

  4. 76 FR 23714 - Railroad Safety Appliance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ..., the requirements in part 231 sometimes allow for spatial relationships between safety appliances that... ``to advisory committees established by the Federal government in a generous sense of that term...

  5. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home...

  6. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  7. An Efficient, Scalable Time-Frequency Method for Tracking Energy Usage of Domestic Appliances Using a Two-Step Classification Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Meehan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Load monitoring is the practice of measuring electrical signals in a domestic environment in order to identify which electrical appliances are consuming power. One reason for developing a load monitoring system is to reduce power consumption by increasing consumers’ awareness of which appliances consume the most energy. Another example of an application of load monitoring is activity sensing in the home for the provision of healthcare services. This paper outlines the development of a load disaggregation method that measures the aggregate electrical signals of a domestic environment and extracts features to identify each power consuming appliance. A single sensor is deployed at the main incoming power point, to sample the aggregate current signal. The method senses when an appliance switches ON or OFF and uses a two-step classification algorithm to identify which appliance has caused the event. Parameters from the current in the temporal and frequency domains are used as features to define each appliance. These parameters are the steady-state current harmonics and the rate of change of the transient signal. Each appliance’s electrical characteristics are distinguishable using these parameters. There are three Types of loads that an appliance can fall into, linear nonreactive, linear reactive or nonlinear reactive. It has been found that by identifying the load type first and then using a second classifier to identify individual appliances within these Types, the overall accuracy of the identification algorithm is improved.

  8. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  9. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Motor-Operated Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum, this course is designed to prepare students to operate, diagnose malfunctions, repair, and service motor operated appliances. The course is comprised of seven units: (1) Mixers and Blenders, (2) Vacuum Cleaners and Floor Polishers, (3) Washing Machines, (4) Garbage…

  10. Skeletal class II malocclusion correction using the Bass appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar Doshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal class II malocclusion is best treated by growth modification using the myofunctional appliances or the orthopedic appliances or the combination of the both depending upon the type of malocclusion encountered during the growth period of an individual. Though all myofunctional appliances work on the same principle with few basic differences; the orthodontist has to make a choice among the plethora of the appliances at his disposal. The present article is a case report of class II malocclusion treatment using the Bass appliance for the growth modification, which was followed by fixed appliance for the occlusal detailing.

  11. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  12. [Bite jumping appliance with lower lip bumper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwat, J; Deckunakorn, S

    1991-01-01

    The removable bite jumping appliance with lower lip bumper is a new orthodontic appliance designed to correct the abnormal habit of lower lip biting children with mentalis muscle hyperactivity. Upper anterior teeth protrusion, mandible retrusion, lower anterior teeth lingual collapse and anterior deep bite usually are found in association with this lower lip biting habit, especially in the mixed dentition period (7-12 yrs). The function of this appliance is similar to the partial functional appliance. It is made into two parts: upper removable plate with anterior inclined bite plane and lower lip bumper attached to the upper plate. Three cases are discussed and compared before and after treatment. Changes in both skeletal and dental pattern were recorded in the following aspects: increase in the posterior rotation of mandible (increased SN-MP), stimulation of forward growth of the mandible (the increase is SNB value overcomes the increase in SNA, through reduction ANB), retroclination of upper maxillary teeth (reduced 1-NA), proclination of lower anterior teeth (increased 1-NB), the reduction of overjet. Additionally, the normal position of the lower lip provided by this appliance effectively corrects the lip biting with mentalis muscle hyperactivity.

  13. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  14. Smart Home: Controlling and Monitoring Households Appliances Using Gsm Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Budi Rahmadya; Fahrul Ghazi; Derisma

    2016-01-01

    This study discussed about using the smart home automation systems for household appliances such as lights and fans, by utilizing the GSM network as a communication medium to control and monitor the household appliances...

  15. Skeletal class II malocclusion correction using the Bass appliance

    OpenAIRE

    Jigar Doshi; Tarulatha Revanappa Shyagali; Kalyani M Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal class II malocclusion is best treated by growth modification using the myofunctional appliances or the orthopedic appliances or the combination of the both depending upon the type of malocclusion encountered during the growth period of an individual. Though all myofunctional appliances work on the same principle with few basic differences; the orthodontist has to make a choice among the plethora of the appliances at his disposal. The present article is a case report of class II maloc...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appliance, the heating appliance shall be installed by the manufacturer of the manufactured home in... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Heating, Cooling and Fuel Burning...

  17. ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMAN, SUGGESTED GUIDE FOR A TRAINING COURSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOVE, L. CARL; RONEY, MAURICE W.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS GUIDE IS TO AID IN PLANNING AND DEVELOPING A COURSE FOR TRAINING ELECTRICAL APPLIANCE SERVICEMEN. OUTLINES (ONE PAGE EACH) COVER -- (1) RELATED INSTRUCTION, (2) FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRICITY, (3) BASIC CONTROLS AND ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS, (4) RESISTANCE HEATING APPLIANCES, (5) MOTORS FOR ELECTRIC APPLIANCES, (6) MOTOR DRIVEN…

  18. 33 CFR 149.339 - What is the requirement for previously approved lifesaving equipment on a deepwater port?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... previously approved lifesaving equipment on a deepwater port? 149.339 Section 149.339 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment Unmanned Deepwater Port Requirements § 149.339...

  19. Can children aged 12 years or more refuse life-saving treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The best interests of the child are paramount, and should the child unreasonably refuse to consent to life-saving treatment, the Minister of Social Development may give consent for such treatment in terms of the Children's Act. Otherwise, should a parent, guardian, caregiver or healthcare provider believe that such a refusal ...

  20. 75 FR 4265 - Airworthiness Directives; Lifesavings Systems Corp., D-Lok Hook Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Corp., D-Lok Hook Assembly AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation... (AD) for the Lifesavings Systems Corp., D-Lok Hook assembly installed on certain rescue hoist assemblies. This AD results from a mandatory continuing airworthiness information (MCAI) AD issued by the...

  1. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  2. Appliance Services. Basic Course. Career Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killough, Joseph

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 25 terminal objectives for a basic appliance repair course. The materials were developed for a 36-week course (2 hours daily) designed to enable the student to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of electricity as well as applied electricity.…

  3. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  4. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Paim Patel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. METHODS: The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1, post-distalization (T2 and final phases of treatment (T3. For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. RESULTS: Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  5. Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar Gandikota

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment.

  6. Application of New Materials in the Household Appliances Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Ren, Y.

    The widespread use of new materials in household appliances industry, not only help those products to get rid of the appearance shackles caused by original materials, but also gave the designers the freedom to open up the world of product design. This paper aims to analyze the impact of new materials for home appliances design through relevant research, to explore the application of new material in household appliances functional design, shape design, color design and emotional design, etc., so as to reveal the impact and promoting effects of new material in household appliances world, as well as the prospects of new material in future household appliances design.

  7. Non-extraction treatment of severe crowding with pendulum appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandikota, Chandrasekhar; Venkata, Yudhister Palla; Challa, Padmalatha; Juvvadi, Shubhaker Rao

    2013-07-01

    An extraction case was planned for non-extraction treatment using pendulum appliance and the effect of appliance was evaluated in a 14-year-old girl with a severe maxillary and mandibular crowding followed by non-extraction fixed appliance preadjusted edgewise appliance mechanotherapy. Total treatment time was for 22 months. The obtuse nasolabial angle was maintained intact. Correction of crowding, co-ordinated arch forms was achieved with molar distalization. The impetus on soft-tissue paradigm is stressed in this case report and pendulum appliance can indeed boost our clinical acumen and swing our priorities toward non-extraction treatment.

  8. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  9. [Appliance of viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlak, Tonko; Jungić, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Viscosupplementation or intraarticular appliance of hyaluronic acid is one of the methods in the treatment of patients with OA. Application is indicated in OA grade I-III according to Kellgren. Medical devices of hyaluronic acid, present on Croatian market, are produced by extraction from rooster combs or by biofermentation from nonpathogenic streptococcus strains. Boifermentative production excludes present of animal origin proteins and prions in medical device, same as possibility of unwanted alergic reactions appearance. Numerous researches have proved that this kind of treatment is safe, effective, well tolerated and it can be repeated if needed. Alleviation of the symptoms is proved up to one year after the last i.a. injection of hyaluronic acid. Appliance of viscosupplementation significantly slows down progression of OA and more invasive treatment methods are usually prolonged or delayed.

  10. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F R; Lentini-Oliveira, D; Machado, M A C; Prado, G F; Prado, L B F; Saconato, H

    2007-04-18

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adenotonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they change the mandible posture forwards and potentially enlarge the upper airway and increase the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effectiveness of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for OSAS in children. A sensitive search was developed for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 3); PubMed (January 1966 to September 2005); EMBASE (1980 to September 2005); Lilacs (1982 to September 2005); BBO-Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (1986 to September 2005); and SciELO (1997 to September 2005). There was no restriction of language or source of information. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiologic function, behavioural problems, drop outs and withdrawals, quality of life, side effects (tolerability), economic evaluation. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. The initial search identified 384 trials

  11. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  12. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  13. Blood lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion responses of elite surf lifesavers to high-performance competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Wade H; Kerr, Rebecca M; Spinks, Warwick L; Leicht, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    A paucity of empirical research exists into surf lifesaving competition from which coaches and athletes may formulate training and recovery strategies. Seventeen (male=9; female=8) high-performance surf lifesavers (21.2+/-3.9 years) contested multiple rounds of team and individual events at a 2-day surf lifesaving competition. Individual events consisted of the multi-discipline ironman (IRON), paddle board (BOARD) and surf swim (SWIM). Blood lactate (BLa), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were determined following heats, semi-finals and final. IRON HR and RPE following semi-finals (153.0+/-21.6beatsmin(-1) and 14.4+/-1.5) and final (171.0+/-9.1beatsmin(-1) and 19.1+/-0.2) were greater than heats (141.8+/-17.2beatsmin(-1) and 12.0+/-1.9; psurf lifesavers employ race strategies with all-out maximal exercise limited to semi-finals and finals.

  14. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  15. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System

    OpenAIRE

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG’s), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL’s), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both ...

  16. Electric household appliances lighting. Synthesis; Electromenager eclairage. Note de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French behavior concerning the electric household appliances and the lighting of their accommodation. The document presents statistically the answers to the questions on the electric household in the accommodation, the choice criteria, the use conditions, the washing temperatures, the nature of the electric household appliances, the microwave ovens, the influence of the energy-label on the appliances and the lighting. (A.L.B.)

  17. Magnetic fields from electric toothbrushes promote corrosion in orthodontic stainless steel appliances but not in titanium appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Oda, Hirotake; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Electric toothbrushes are widely used, and their electric motors have been reported to produce low-frequency electromagnetic fields that induced electric currents in metallic objects worn by the users. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generated low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and induced electric currents in orthodontic appliances in artificial saliva (AS), which accelerated corrosion in stainless steel (SUS) appliances, but not in titanium (Ti) appliances; the corrosion was evaluated by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a three-dimensional laser confocal microscope. The pH of AS used for appliance immersion did not change during or after MF exposure. These results suggested that MF-induced currents from electric toothbrushes could erode SUS appliances, but not Ti appliances, because of their high corrosion potentials. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of metallic corrosion by induced currents in dental fields, which may trigger metal allergies in patients.

  18. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  19. 76 FR 5832 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... Employment and Training Administration Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division..., Iowa location of Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division. The Department... Webster City, Iowa location of Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division. The...

  20. 76 FR 14100 - Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division..., applicable to workers of Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances Division, Webster City... at the Webster City, Iowa location of Electrolux Home Products, Inc., Electrolux Major Appliances...

  1. Condenser assembly system for an appliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litch, Andrew David

    2017-10-17

    An appliance includes a compact condenser assembly formed with at least two separately and independently produced wire on tube condensers. Each of the at least two wire on tube condensers has a condenser inlet and a condenser outlet. The at least two wire on tube condensers are at least substantially locked and positioned in a matingly engaged configuration forming a compact condenser assembly. The at least two wire on tube condensers are configured to be operationally connected in at least one of a parallel configuration, a series configuration, a selectable configuration, and a bypass configuration.

  2. Scheduling home appliances for energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    the electrical devices are classified into low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate normally. On the contrary, the low priority devices are granted or denied access to electrical power according to; their energy consumption and the available margin....... This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks. Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. To analyze...

  3. Presurgical Orthopedics Appliance: The Latham Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Carlos

    2016-05-01

    The Latham appliance is an active presurgical orthopedic device used for cleft defects. Its long-term effects are debated. It was introduced to help surgeons achieve a more predictable surgical outcome; hence, it should be evaluated for its presurgical benefits. The device has been successful in expanding and aligning the maxillary segments; retruding protruded premaxillae; aligning bilateral alveolar ridges; placing less tension on surgical closures; and reducing fistulation rates. However, it has not been shown to have either a positive or negative long-term effect on maxillary development or occlusion. It is a valuable preoperative tool for surgeons treating cleft defects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Turning the Appliance Market Around towards A++

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Brange, Birgitte; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    2007-01-01

    energy efficient model within their specification, and 4) in the website are also listed the shops, where consumers can get the appliances at lowest prices. The latter was the most innovative and maybe also the most effective measure in the package. Results showed up as a permanent U-turn of the market...... in the course of a few years. Where models C, D, E earlier dominated the market, the A, A+ and A++, came to dominate as the standard models in stock. Consequently, their prices dropped significantly. The theory of a rational market behavior is based on some assumptions, one being that full information...

  5. 77 FR 234 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (``Appliance Labeling Rule'') AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY...

  6. Magnet‑retained Prophylactic Appliance for Post‑excisional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magnet‑retained Prophylactic Appliance for Post‑excisional. Pressure Therapy and Custom‑made Acrylic Therapeutic. Pressure Appliance for Auricular Keloid: A Clinical Report. Manu Rathee, Renu Kundu. INTRODUCTION. Keloid is a cutaneous fibrous scar that represents disequilibrium in the dermal wound healing.

  7. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances. Artificial limbs, braces, orthopedic shoes, hearing aids, wheelchairs, medical accessories, similar...

  8. An effective way of reactivation of first class appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available First class appliance produces rapid distalization of the maxillary first and second molars, even when the second molars are completely erupted. The range of molar distalization is 4-8 mm. It has both buccal and palatal component. Here, we are going to present a technique to reactivate a broken first class appliance for effective distalization.

  9. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for Safety reserves the right to disapprove any exclusion recommended by the railroad in paragraphs (c... defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force during... nature of the repair to any welded safety appliance bracket or support identified in paragraph (e) of...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically listed... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Electrical Systems § 3280.807...

  11. 21 CFR 878.3250 - External facial fracture fixation appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External facial fracture fixation appliance. 878.3250 Section 878.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External facial fracture fixation appliance. (a) Identification. An external facial fracture fixation...

  12. Convex stoma appliances: an audit of stoma care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Angie

    2016-12-08

    This article observes the complexities surrounding the use of convex appliances within the specialist sphere of stoma care. It highlights some of the results taken from a small audit carried out with 24 stoma care nurses examining the general use of convex appliances and how usage of convex products has evolved, along with specialist stoma care practice.

  13. DC Home Appliances for DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD KAMRAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper strengthens the idea of DC distribution system for DC microgrid consisting of a building of 50 apartments. Since the war of currents AC system has been dominant because of the paucity of research in the protection of the DC system. Now with the advance research in power electronics material and components, generation of electricity is inherently DC as by solar PV, fuel cell and thermoelectric generator that eliminates the rectification process. Transformers are replaced by the power electronics buck-boost converters. DC circuit breakers have solved the protection problems for both DC transmission and distribution system. In this paper 308V DC microgrid is proposed and home appliances (DC internal are modified to operate on 48V DC from DC distribution line. Instead of using universal and induction motors in rotary appliances, BLDC (Brushless DC motors are proposed that are highly efficient with minimum electro-mechanical and no commutation losses. Proposed DC system reduces the power conversion stages, hence diminishes the associated power losses and standby losses that boost the overall system efficiency. So in view of all this a conventional AC system can be replaced by a DC system that has many advantages by cost as well as by performance

  14. Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R.; Chapin, F.A.W.

    1983-11-21

    An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.

  15. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  16. Mandibular appliance modulates condylar growth through integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, M Rubia; Hajjar, D; Franchini, K Gomes; Moriscot, A Sigari; Santos, M Fagundes

    2008-02-01

    Functional orthopedic therapy corrects growth discrepancies between the maxilla and mandible, possibly through postural changes in the musculature and modulation of the mandibular condylar cartilage growth. Using Wistar rats, we tested the hypothesis that chondrocytes respond to forces generated by a mandibular propulsor appliance by changes in gene expression, and that integrins are important mediators in this response. Immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the use of the appliance for different periods of time modulated the expression of fibronectin, alpha5 and alphav integrin subunits, as well as cell proliferation in the cartilage. In vitro, cyclic distension of condylar cartilage-derived cells increased fibronectin mRNA, as well as Insulin-like Growth Factor-I and II mRNA and cell proliferation. A peptide containing the Arginine-Glycine-Asparagine sequence (RGD), the main cell-binding sequence in fibronectin, blocked almost all these effects, confirming that force itself modulates the growth of the rat condylar cartilage, and that RGD-binding integrins participate in mechanotransduction.

  17. Trial of an injury reporting system for surf lifesavers in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erby, Ruth; Heard, Robert; O'Loughlin, Kate

    2010-01-01

    To pilot an injury reporting form designed for use in Australian surf lifesaving; the need for such a form is to meet legislative requirements and as an initial step in developing an injury prevention program for volunteer surf lifesavers [4]. Competitors at the National Surf Life Saving Championships (NSLSC) held at Kurrawa Beach, Queensland, in 1998/1999 who reported to the medical tent over the course of the five-day event. Twenty-five volunteers of varying experience staffed the medical tent and included one paramedic coordinator, two doctors, three nurses, three physiotherapists and 16 first-aid officers. An injury reporting form was designed using the Australian Sports Injury Data Dictionary [1] and pilot tested at the NSLSC in 1998/1999. The layout and format were based on similar forms used in other sports (eg skiing) with a number of the items altered to be more specific to surf lifesaving competition events. Four strategies were used to assess if the form provided interpretable data: number of forms returned; completeness of data recorded in each section; detailed analysis of difficulties in coding and entering data; detailed feedback from the medical tent personnel about the usability of the form. A total of 433 completed forms were returned and from these both descriptive and injury incidence data were obtained. Medical tent personnel reported the form to be generally usable, though they suggested some changes to it. The injury reporting form was found to be an effective tool to describe injuries and calculate injury incidence. Following minor revisions, a modified form was designed to improve the quality and accuracy of the information obtained; this form has been used nationally since 2001.

  18. The calculus lifesaver all the tools you need to excel at calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Banner, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    For many students, calculus can be the most mystifying and frustrating course they will ever take. The Calculus Lifesaver provides students with the essential tools they need not only to learn calculus, but to excel at it. All of the material in this user-friendly study guide has been proven to get results. The book arose from Adrian Banner's popular calculus review course at Princeton University, which he developed especially for students who are motivated to earn A's but get only average grades on exams. The complete course will be available for free on the Web in a series of

  19. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  20. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  1. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  2. Exploring the Potential for Increased Production from the Wave Energy Converter Lifesaver by Reactive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molinas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Fred Olsen is currently testing their latest wave energy converter (WEC, Lifesaver, outside of Falmouth Bay in England, preparing it for commercial operation at the Wavehub test site. Previous studies, mostly focusing on hydrodynamics and peak to average power reduction, have shown that this device has potential for increased power extraction using reactive control. This article extends those analyses, adding a detailed model of the all-electric power take-off (PTO system, consisting of a permanent magnet synchronous generator, inverter and DC-link. Time domain simulations are performed to evaluate the PTO capabilities of the modeled WEC. However, when tuned towards reactive control, the generator losses become large, giving a very low overall system efficiency. Optimal control with respect to electrical output power is found to occur with low added mass, and when compared to pure passive loading, a 1% increase in annual energy production is estimated. The main factor reducing the effect of reactive control is found to be the minimum load-force constraint of the device. These results suggest that the Lifesaver has limited potential for increased production by reactive control. This analysis is nevertheless valuable, as it demonstrates how a wave-to-wire model can be used for investigation of PTO potential, annual energy production estimations and evaluations of different control techniques for a given WEC device.

  3. Update on Oral Appliance Therapy for OSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, M

    2017-01-01

    The majority of the adult population is affected by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), according to recent epidemiological research. Oral appliance (OA) therapy is increasingly recommended, particularly for patients with milder OSA. This review updates the evidence in favor of OA therapy. A high level of evidence shows that OA is effective in the treatment of OSA, but continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is more efficient. Higher adherence with OAs may compensate for this difference. Daytime sleepiness is better treated with CPAP than with OA in patients with severe OSA. In patients with milder OSA, it is unclear whether sleepiness is significantly reduced. The long-term effectiveness of OAs is uncertain because of side-effects and the risk of OSA deterioration. OAs are effective, but their efficacy is more variable than that of CPAP. More research is needed about the mechanism of action of OA, subjective effects and long-term health outcomes.

  4. Angle Class II correction with MARA appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Chiqueto

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects produced by the MARA appliance in the treatment of Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 44 young patients divided into two groups: The MARA Group, with initial mean age of 11.99 years, treated with the MARA appliance for an average period of 1.11 years, and the Control Group, with initial mean age of 11.63 years, monitored for a mean period of 1.18 years with no treatment. Lateral cephalograms were used to compare the groups using cephalometric variables in the initial and final phases. For these comparisons, Student's t test was employed. RESULTS: MARA appliance produced the following effects: Maxillary growth restriction, no change in mandibular development, improvement in maxillomandibular relationship, increased lower anterior facial height and counterclockwise rotation of the functional occlusal plane. In the upper arch, the incisors moved lingually and retruded, while the molars moved distally and tipped distally. In the lower arch, the incisors proclined and protruded, whereas the molars mesialized and tipped mesially. Finally, there was a significant reduction in overbite and overjet, with an obvious improvement in molar relationship. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the MARA appliance proved effective in correcting Angle's Class II, division 1 malocclusion while inducing skeletal changes and particularly dental changes.OBJETIVO: avaliar os efeitos proporcionados pelo aparelho MARA no tratamento da má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão. MÉTODOS: utilizou-se uma amostra de 44 jovens, divididos em dois grupos - Grupo MARA, com idade inicial média de 11,99 anos e tratado com o aparelho MARA por um período médio de 1,11 ano; e Grupo Controle, com idade inicial média de 11,63 ano e observado por um período médio de 1,18 ano, sem nenhum tratamento. Utilizou-se as telerradiografias em norma lateral para comparar os grupos quanto às variáveis cefalométricas das

  5. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  6. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application

  7. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  9. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  10. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S3: THIRD INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  11. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S1: FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  12. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S2: SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  13. 7 CFR 3300.37 - Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. 3300... SPECIAL EQUIPMENT Procedures for Separate Testing of Mechanical Refrigerating Appliances § 3300.37 Testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance. For separate testing of a mechanical refrigerating appliance...

  14. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good opportunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode

  15. Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good oppourtunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode.

  16. UNILATERAL DISTALIZATION OF MAXILLARY MOLAR BY PENDULUM APPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safra Mauna

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Pendulum appliance is one of intraoral appliances to distalize molars for correction of class II molar relationship or space gaining in the maxillary arch. Its major advantages are: no need to depend on patient compliance; ease of fabrication; and better patient acceptance. In this case, 22 years old female patient with class II division 2 malocclusion was treated with pendulum appliance for unilateral distalization of the maxillary molar teeth. Pendulum can distalize second molar until 4 mm in 4 months and continues to distalize first molar in 3 months. Nevertheless, relapse 2 mm happens during anterior retraction. This case has shown that pendulum is an effective and reliable appliance for distalizing maxillary molars. However, molar distalization is at the expense of moderate anchorage loss during anterior retraction, which could possibly be reduced if the anchor unit is adequately reinforced.

  17. Waste Home Appliance Disposal and Low Temperature Crushing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Masakatsu; Takamura, Yoshiyuki

    From the viewpoint of environmental preservation, considerable interest is being advanced by the recycling of industrial goods such as home appliances. In terms of waste home appliances, there is an urgent need for an improvement in recycling rates for waste, because four items (refrigerators, airconditioners, washing machines and televisions) were designated as primary specified goods under those laws that encourage the use of recycled materials. Under this situation, new merits are being discovered in low temperature crushing technology as an appropriate disposal technology for recycling activities. Here, crushing and separating technology for metal composites, and crushing and sorting technology for plastics will be introduced as examples of low temperature crushing technology developed for waste home appliances that achieves recycling rates of over 90% through recycle system for waste home appliances.

  18. Residential consumer's handbook for wood-fired appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, D.; Maxwell, T. T.; Nunnelly, R. M.

    1981-11-01

    This manual describes the various types of wood burning appliances and accessories on the market. The characteristics of the various types of units are given to assess the best unit for a given application. Tips on selecting a unit are given. The most important overall considerations are shown to be the size (heat output) and safety features of the unit. Performance parameters, particularly heat output and efficiency, are defined. Test values for these parameters for several appliances of each type are given. This summary of results allows the various types of appliances and design features to be evaluated. This table also shows that the performance of units in a given category is very similar. Hence price, quality of construction, appearance, and type of appliance, rather than efficiency, become the most important parameters in selecting a stove in a given category.

  19. Clinical Aspects of Combination of Aesthetic Fixed Orthopedic Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Ozhohan, Z. R.; Biben, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the results of examination of 80 patients with aesthetic fixed orthopedic appliances. The state of the occlusal surface of fixed orthopedic appliances as well as the occlusal contact surface area was studied. The occlusal surfaces were made of ceramics and zirconium dioxide. The surface area of occlusal contacts was studied using 3Shape Dental System since computer occlusiography provides the most accurate results. Physical examination indicated a higher level of ceramic ...

  20. Impacts on daily performances related to wearing orthodontic appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabe, E; Sheiham, A.; Oliveira, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence, intensity, and extent of the impacts on daily performances related to wearing different types of orthodontic appliances.Materials and Methods: A total of 1657 students, 15 to 16 years old, were randomly selected from those attending all secondary schools in Bauru, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only those wearing orthodontic appliances at the time of the survey were included. Face-to-face structured interviews were done to collect information about impacts on quality ...

  1. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  2. Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesqu, B; Allaire, S; Gauvin, D; Koutrakis, P; Gingras, S; Rhainds, M; Prud'Homme, H; Duchesne, J F

    2001-12-17

    Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median = 8 years old; range = 5-14 years old) and an adult (median = 37 years old; range = 23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly.

  3. Evaluation of asbestos-containing products and released fibers in home appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung Ho; Park, Wha Me

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect asbestos-containing products and released asbestos fibers from home appliances. The authors investigated a total of 414 appliances manufactured between 1986 and 2007. Appliances were divided into three categories: large-sized electric appliances, small-sized electric appliances, and household items. Analysis for asbestos-containing material (ACM) was performed using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and stereoscopic microscopy. Air sampling was performed to measure airborne concentration of asbestos using a phase-contrast microscope (PCM). The results of the analysis for ACM in appliances show that large-sized electric appliances (refrigerators, washing machines, kimchi-refrigerators) and household items (bicycles, motorcycles, gas boilers) contain asbestos material and small-sized electric appliances do not contain asbestos material. All appliances with detected asbestos material showed typical characteristics of chrysotile (7-50%) and tremolite (7-10%). No released fibers of ACM were detected from the tested appliances when the appliances were operating. This study gives the basic information on asbestos risk to people who use home appliances. All appliances with detected asbestos material showed typical characteristics of chrysotile (7-50%) and tremolite (7-10%). No released fibers of ACM were detected from the tested appliances when the appliances were operating.

  4. Recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, E; Kuo, C-M

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a calculation of recycling rates of waste home appliances in Taiwan, for the EPA to amend these rates in order to increase the recycling efficiency. The recycling rate is calculated by a formula according to the statistical results obtained through: (1) an estimation of domestic use of home appliances using time series analysis with multiplicative seasonal ARIMA model, (2) a further estimation of generated waste home appliances based upon the estimated domestic use and the corresponding distribution of lifetime span, and (3) a cost analysis of recycling home appliances based on a sampling survey with stratified systematic sampling conducted among collectors and a survey on five recycling plants of waste home appliances. The suggested recycling rates in this study finally used by the EPA show that all of the recycling rates have increased compared with the rates in previous years. This study also implies that amending the recycling rates may only solve some recycling problems temporarily; however, the recycling system of waste home appliances in Taiwan has to be reformed to increase the recycling efficiency for the long term.

  5. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A; Coughlan, James M

    2015-10-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our "Display Reader" smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future.

  6. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendowski, Daniel J; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of maximum protrusion, the titration appliance may provide immediate, temporary therapeutic benefit.

  7. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  8. New horizons in orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics: fixed Twin Blocks & TransForce lingual appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century functional appliances evolved from night time wear to more flexible appliances for increased day time wear to full time wear with Twin Block appliances. The current trend is towards fixed functional appliances and this paper introduces the Fixed Twin Block, bonded to the teeth to eliminate problems of compliance in functional therapy. TransForce lingual appliances are pre-activated and may be used in first phase treatment for sagittal and transverse arch development. Alternatively they may be integrated with fixed appliances at any stage of treatment.

  9. Serious game training improves performance in combat life-saving interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planchon, Jerome; Vacher, Anthony; Comblet, Jeremy; Rabatel, Eric; Darses, Françoise; Mignon, Alexandre; Pasquier, Pierre

    2017-10-12

    In modern warfare, almost 25% of combat-related deaths are considered preventable if life-saving interventions are performed. Therefore, Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) training for soldiers is a major challenge. In 2014, the French Military Medical Service supported the development of 3D-SC1®, a serious game designed for the French TCCC program, entitled Sauvetage au Combat de niveau 1 (SC1). Our study aimed to evaluate the impact on performance of additional training with 3D-SC1®. The study assessed the performance of soldiers randomly assigned to one of two groups, before (measure 1) and after (measure 2) receiving additional training. This training involved either 3D-SC1® (Intervention group), or a DVD (Control group). The principal measure was the individual performance (on a 16-point scale), assessed by two investigators during a hands-on simulation. First, the mean performance score was compared between the two measures for Intervention and Control groups using a two-tailed paired t-test. Second, a multivariable linear regression was used to determine the difference in the impacts of 3D-SC1® and DVD training, and the order of presentation of the two scenarios, on the mean change from baseline in performance scores. A total of 96 subjects were evaluated: seven could not be followed-up, while 50 were randomly allocated to the Intervention group, and 39 to the Control group. Between measure 1 and measure 2, the mean (SD) performance score increased from 9.9 (3.13) to 14.1 (1.23), and from 9.4 (2.97) to 12.5 (1.83), for the Intervention group and Control group, respectively (p<0.0001). The adjusted mean difference in performance scores between 3D-SC1® and DVD training was 1.1 (95% confidence interval -0.3, 2.5) (p=0.14). Overall, the study found that supplementing SC1 training with either 3D-SC1® or DVD improved performance, assessed by a hands-on simulation. However, our analysis did not find a statistically significant difference between the effects

  10. Lifetime of household appliances: empirical evidence of users behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ester; Adenso-Díaz, Belarmino; Lozano, Sebastián; González-Torre, Pilar

    2011-06-01

    The household appliance industry is one of the most important sectors from both the economic and environmental point of view. A greater understanding of the way in which consumers of these items behave would help to better plan the recycling needs as a function of previous purchase figures. This paper presents the findings of a field survey of Spanish consumer habits with respect to different common household appliances as regards replacement time and the reasons for replacing these appliances. The methodology used is based on survival analysis; specifically, a competing risks model. A Cox proportional hazards model is also used for the sake of comparison. Our results show that as the number of people and/or persons under 18 years in the household increases, the lifetimes of some types of appliance decrease significantly. Competing risk model shows that the probability of replacing the refrigerator due to malfunction and technological obsolescence increases with the increase of family members with a higher education. We also provide the cumulative incidence function for different appliances, which can be used to forecast future demands and electrical and electronic waste generation.

  11. Status Checking System of Home Appliances using machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Chi-Yurl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes status checking system of home appliances based on machine learning, which can be applied to existing household appliances without networking function. Designed status checking system consists of sensor modules, a wireless communication module, cloud server, android application and a machine learning algorithm. The developed system applied to washing machine analyses and judges the four-kinds of appliance’s status such as staying, washing, rinsing and spin-drying. The measurements of sensor and transmission of sensing data are operated on an Arduino board and the data are transmitted to cloud server in real time. The collected data are parsed by an Android application and injected into the machine learning algorithm for learning the status of the appliances. The machine learning algorithm compares the stored learning data with collected real-time data from the appliances. Our results are expected to contribute as a base technology to design an automatic control system based on machine learning technology for household appliances in real-time.

  12. Nonwearable gaze tracking system for controlling home appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hwan; Lee, Jong Man; Jung, Dongwook; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2014-01-01

    A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement), selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation), and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel). The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3 × 2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments.

  13. Nonwearable Gaze Tracking System for Controlling Home Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwan Heo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel gaze tracking system for controlling home appliances in 3D space is proposed in this study. Our research is novel in the following four ways. First, we propose a nonwearable gaze tracking system containing frontal viewing and eye tracking cameras. Second, our system includes three modes: navigation (for moving the wheelchair depending on the direction of gaze movement, selection (for selecting a specific appliance by gaze estimation, and manipulation (for controlling the selected appliance by gazing at the control panel. The modes can be changed by closing eyes during a specific time period or gazing. Third, in the navigation mode, the signal for moving the wheelchair can be triggered according to the direction of gaze movement. Fourth, after a specific home appliance is selected by gazing at it for more than predetermined time period, a control panel with 3×2 menu is displayed on laptop computer below the gaze tracking system for manipulation. The user gazes at one of the menu options for a specific time period, which can be manually adjusted according to the user, and the signal for controlling the home appliance can be triggered. The proposed method is shown to have high detection accuracy through a series of experiments.

  14. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  15. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  16. The use of life-saving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for pregnant woman with status asthmaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinack, Carolin; Lenherr, Renato; Hendra, Heidy; Franzen, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Status asthmaticus can develop into a life-threatening disorder that requires mechanical ventilation. Severe respiratory failure during pregnancy can worsen maternal and fetal outcomes. Previous case studies have demonstrated extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) as a life-saving measure for pregnant women with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as non-pregnant patients with status asthmaticus. A 25-year-old woman, who was 5 weeks pregnant, was admitted with status asthmaticus and severe hypercapnic respiratory failure. Despite rescue therapies such as pressure control ventilation with high inspiratory pressures, inhaled beta2 agonists and antimuscarinic drugs, intravenous salbutamol, methylprednisolone and magnesium sulfate, her condition gradually deteriorated. Veno-venous ECMO was initiated for respiratory support and the patient's clinical condition as well as the gas exchange improved within the next few days. ECMO was removed and the patient was extubated after 2 days. Sonography, however, revealed a retrochorial hematoma; the patient was diagnosed with abortus imminens and successfully treated with magnesium substitution and bed rest. Finally, she gave birth to a healthy boy at 38 weeks of gestation. This is the first case report on the successful use of ECMO in a pregnant woman with severe respiratory insufficiency due to status asthmaticus, who failed to respond to invasive mechanical ventilation and maximum pharmacological treatment. Despite this life-threatening condition, the use of ECMO in our patient has greatly improved the chance of survival for the mother and the baby, who was born without any complications.

  17. [Management of mesenteric ischemia in the era of intestinal stroke centers: The gut and lifesaving strategy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, A; Corcos, O

    2017-09-01

    Mesenteric ischemia is a gut and life-threatening, medical and surgical, digestive and vascular emergency. Mesenteric ischemia is the result of an arterial or venous occlusion, a vasospasm secondary to low-flow states in intensive care patients, aortic clamping during vascular surgery or intestinal transplantation. Progression towards mesenteric infarction and its complications is unpredictable and correlates with high rates of mortality or a high risk of short bowel syndrome in case of survival. Thus, mesenteric ischemia should be diagnosed and treated at an early stage, when gut injury is still reversible. Diagnostic workup lacks sensitive and specific clinical and biological marker. Consequently, diagnosis and effective therapy can be achieved by a high clinical suspicion and a specific multimodal management: the gut and lifesaving strategy. Based on the model of ischemic stroke centers, the need for a multidisciplinary and expert 24/24 emergency care has led, in 2016, to the inauguration of the first Intestinal Stroke Center (Structure d'urgences vasculaires intestinales [SURVI]) in France. This review highlights the pathophysiological features of chronic and acute mesenteric ischemia, as well as the diagnosis workup and the therapeutic management developed in this Intestinal Stroke Center. Copyright © 2017 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time sample entropy predicts life-saving interventions after the Boston Marathon bombing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peev, Miroslav P; Naraghi, Leily; Chang, Yuchiao; Demoya, Marc; Fagenholz, Peter; Yeh, Daniel; Velmahos, George; King, David R

    2013-12-01

    Identifying patients in need of a life-saving intervention (LSI) during a mass casualty event is a priority. We hypothesized that real-time, instantaneous sample entropy (SampEn) could predict the need for LSI in the Boston Marathon bombing victims. Severely injured Boston Marathon bombing victims (n = 10) had sample entropy (SampEn) recorded upon presentation using a continuous 200-beat rolling average in real time. Treating clinicians were blinded to real-time results. The correlation between SampEn, injury severity, number, and type of LSI was examined. Victims were males (60%) with a mean age of 39.1 years. Injuries involved lower extremities (50.0%), head and neck (24.2%), or upper extremities (9.7%). Sample entropy negatively correlated with Injury Severity Score (r = -0.70; P = .023), number of injuries (r = -0.70; P = .026), and the number and need for LSI (r = -0.82; P = .004). Sample entropy was reduced under a variety of conditions. (Table see text). Sample entropy strongly correlates with injury severity and predicts LSI after blast injuries sustained in the Boston Marathon bombings. Sample entropy may be a useful triage tool after blast injury. © 2013.

  19. Life-saving automated external defibrillation in a teenager: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Corsino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent sudden death during sport participation is commonly due to cardiac causes. Survival is more likely when an automated external defibrillator (AED is used soon after collapse. Case presentation We describe a case of sudden death in a 14 year old boy with two remarkable points, successful resuscitation at school using an AED and diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was immediately started by a witness and 5 minutes after the event the child was placed on an AED monitor that determined he was in a non shockable rhythm, therefore CPR was continued. Two minutes later, the AED monitor detected a shockable rhythm and recommended a shock, which was then administered. One minute after the shock, a palpable pulse was detected and the child began to breathe by himself. Four days after cardiac arrest, the boy was conversing and self-caring. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of ARVC. Conclusion Ventricular fibrillation secondary to ARVC may be a devastating event and places young patients and athletes at high risk of sudden death. Immediate CPR and AED have been demonstrated to be lifesaving in such events. Therefore, we suggest that schools should have teachers skilled in CPR and accessible AEDs.

  20. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...... cannot exceed the maximum kWh. This will imply managing what appliances can use this electricity and which ones cannot. The problematic presented here can be analyzed by using teletraffic theory. In a communication network there are nodes requesting to use the resources to transmit their information......, and there is a maximum bandwidth that these nodes can use. In this project, the appliances request kWh instead of kbps, and the bandwidth is the maximum electricity usage per household....

  1. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  2. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  3. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  4. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Małgorzata Łatuszyńska

    2012-01-01

    ... (as the dependent variable) in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq...

  5. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  6. Lower lip sucking habit treated with a lip bumper appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeç, Derya; Taner, Tülin Uğur

    2005-11-01

    The patient was an 11-year-old girl with a lower lip sucking habit with increased overjet, maxillary generalized spacing, and mandibular incisor irregularity. Hyperactivity of the mentalis muscle and deepening of the labiomental sulcus because of the abnormal sucking habit was observed. Orthodontic treatment was started with a lip bumper appliance to break the lower lip sucking habit and continued with fixed orthodontic mechanotherapy. The lip bumper appliance therapy resulted in the elimination of the lower lip sucking habit, musculus mentalis hyperactivity, and labiomental strain in addition to a gain in arch length, improvement of the lower incisor inclinations, and overjet reduction.

  7. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  8. Comparison between Herbst appliances with or without miniscrew anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Manni, Antonio; Pasini, Marco; Mauro, Cozzani

    2012-01-01

    Background : Herbst appliance is largely used in orthodontics for the correction of Class II. The aim of this paper was to analyze dental and skeletal effects of a splints Herbst-miniscrews combined device in comparison to a mandibular splints Herbst appliance. Materials and Methods : Fifty Class II division 1 patients (27 males and 23 females with a mean age of 11.8 ± 1.7 years) were included in the study. Lateral headfilms of 25 patients with a mandibular resin splint and a miniscrew an...

  9. Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Li; Chieng, Joyce; Wong, Connie; Benic, Gareth; Farella, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males) wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI). A questionnaire was used to collect patient’s information, including gender, a...

  10. Competence in the use of supraglottic airways by Australian surf lifesavers for cardiac arrest ventilation in a manikin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbery-Morgan, Lachlan; Angel, Cara; Murphy, Michelle; Carew, James; Douglas, Finn; Murphy, Robert; Hood, Natalie; Rechtman, Andrew; Scarff, Christopher; Simpson, Nicholas; Stewardson, Andrew; Steinfort, Daniel; Radford, Sam; Douglas, Ned; Johnson, Douglas

    2017-02-01

    Lifesavers in Australia are taught to use pocket mask (PM) rescue breathing and bag valve mask (BVM) ventilation, despite evidence that first responders might struggle with these devices. Novices have successfully used the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) Supreme and iGel devices previously, but there has been no previous comparison of the ability to train lifesavers to use the supraglottic airways compared to standard techniques for cardiac arrest ventilation. The study is a prospective educational intervention whereby 113 lifesavers were trained to use the LMA and iGel supraglottic airways. Comparisons were made to standard devices on plastic manikins. Successful ventilation was defined as achieving visible chest rise. The median time to first effective ventilation was similar between the PM (16 s, 95% confidence interval 16-17 s), BVM (17 s, 16-17 s) and iGel devices (18 s, 16-20 s), but longer for the LMA (36 s, 33-38 s). The iGel frequently failed to achieve ventilation (10%) compared with the PM (1%, P < 0.01) and LMA (3%, P < 0.01) but was not worse than the BVM (3%, P < 0.57). Hands-off time was similar between the BVM, LMA and iGel (10 s for each device), but worse for the PM (13 s, P = 0.001). Lifesavers using the PM and BVM perform ventilation for cardiopulmonary resuscitation well. There appears to be a limited role for supraglottic airway devices because of limitations in terms of time to first effective ventilation and reliability. Clinical validation of manikin data with live resuscitation performance is required. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  11. Diagnosis and management of acute medial tibial stress syndrome in a 15 year old female surf life-saving competitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Max

    2014-08-01

    As the profound health and cost benefits of physical activity to society are established and participation guidelines implemented, health practitioners are increasingly expected to utilize efficacious and justified injury management and prevention strategies. The complex and multifactorial nature of sports injury makes elucidation of multiple risk factors and how they may subtly and variably interact, difficult. The purpose of this case report is to discuss the differential diagnosis, acute management and rehabilitation of a case of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) in a surf life-saving athlete, in the context of sports injury prevention. The subject of this case study, a 15 year old female surf life-saving competitor, presented to the physiotherapist (PT) with recent onset, first episode, bilateral, diffuse posteromedial shin pain. Differential diagnosis, acute management, rehabilitation and preventative strategies for the subject are presented. Emerging injury surveillance research in surf life-saving suggests minor and major trauma as primary causative factors, however, the significance of high training volumes is likely underestimated. The influence of biomechanical, and subtle arthrokinematic dysfunctions on established risk factors for MTSS injury and prevention of re-injury for this subject, are also discussed. Furthermore, the concept of preventing tibial stress fracture (TSF) by successfully managing acute MTSS, is presented. Lastly, a critical analysis of reliability of clinical assessment methodologies utilised with the subject is provided. Level 5; Single case report.

  12. A solution for parallel network architectures applied to network defense appliances and sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, Eric C.; Velez, Paul G.; Johal, Amanpreet S.

    2012-06-01

    Network defense has more technologies available for purchase today than ever before. As the number of threats increase, organizations are deploying multiple defense technologies to defend their networks. For instance, an enterprise network boundary often implements multiple network defense appliances, some with overlapping capabilities (e.g., firewalls, IDS/IPS, DNS Defense). These appliances are applied in a serial fashion to create a chain of network processing specifically designed to drop bad traffic from the network. In these architectures, once a packet is dropped by an appliance subsequent appliances do not process it. This introduces significant limitations; (1) Stateful appliances will maintain an internal state which differs from network reality; (2) The network manager cannot determine, or unit test, how each appliance would have treated each packet; (3) The appliance "votes" cannot be combined to achieve higherlevel functionality. To address these limitations, we have developed a novel, backwards-compatible Parallel Architecture for Network Defense Appliances (PANDA). Our approach allows every appliance to process all network traffic and cast a vote to drop or allow each packet. This "crowd-sourcing" approach allows the network designer to take full advantage of each appliance, understand how each appliance is behaving, and achieve new collaborative appliance behavior.

  13. 78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers Petition for... (DOE) denial of a petition from the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) requesting... DOE's responses are set forth in the paragraphs that follow. BSH Home Appliances Corporation (BSH) \\4...

  14. 78 FR 57139 - Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... 19656. DOE notes that the test procedures for wine chillers adopted by the Association of Home Appliance... Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America Corporation (PAPRSA) From the Department of Energy... (DOE) gives notice of its decision and order (Case No. RF-031) granting Panasonic Appliances...

  15. 76 FR 1037 - Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... Commission 16 CFR Part 305 Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances... Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and... Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances and Other Products Required Under the Energy Policy and...

  16. 78 FR 35894 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ..., DOE noted ``that the test procedures for wine chillers adopted by the Association of Home Appliance... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Notice of Petition for Waiver of Panasonic Appliances... receipt of a petition for waiver from Panasonic Appliances Refrigeration Systems Corporation of America...

  17. 77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...) received a petition from the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) requesting reconsideration..., amendment, or repeal of a rule.'' (5 U.S.C. 553(e)). The Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM...

  18. Three case reports demonstrating treatment of relatively complex orthodontic cases using a completely customised lingual appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John

    2016-01-01

    It is a commonly held misconception among Irish dentists that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. This article demonstrates the use of contemporary completely customised lingual orthodontic appliances to treat a diverse range of malocclusions, to a satisfactory level, and thereby may disabuse clinicians of the belief that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances.

  19. The effect of orthodontic extraoral appliances on depression and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parents of the 1‑year‑treatment group also scored significantly higher on the Beck depression inventory than those of the pre‑treatment group. Conclusion: The results of this study emphasize the need for due consideration of psychological parameters before and during treatment with extra‑oral appliances, particularly ...

  20. Customer service in appliance sales departments of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research investigated the customer service in appliance sales departments in prominent retail stores in Tshwane, RSA in three phases to involve different role players. Store managers firstly judged tangible evidence of the service offering in their own stores; consumers' perception of the service quality (N=296) in retail ...

  1. Determining the Relationship between the Use of Fixed Appliances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mike Saghiri

    2011-10-07

    Oct 7, 2011 ... development like loss of periodontal support (Theilade and Theilade, 1976), and some medical problems such as cardiac disease (Mercado and Marshall, 2001), it is imperative to know the other effective factors that initiate periodontal problems including fixed orthodontic appliances application (Travess et ...

  2. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  3. Readability of Home Appliance Instruction Manuals: An Assessment with Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Judith A.; Hunt, Fern E.

    1993-01-01

    Using cloze tests on 13 home appliance manuals with 477 children aged 8-17 resulted in mean scores clustered in the 30-40% range. Low comprehension was attributed to either unfamiliarity with technical information, poor reading skills, or poorly written manuals. Recommendations for improving readability to ensure children's safety were made. (SK)

  4. Interoperability for smart appliances in the IoT world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.; Solanki, M.; Hartog, F. den; Roes, J.

    2016-01-01

    Household appliances are set to become highly intelligent, smart and networked devices in the near future. Systematically deployed on the Internet of Things (IoT), they would be able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing ecosystems. Smart systems are technically very

  5. Low-complexity energy disaggregation using appliance load modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Altrabalsi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale smart metering deployments and energy saving targets across the world have ignited renewed interest in residential non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NALM, that is, disaggregating total household’s energy consumption down to individual appliances, using purely analytical tools. Despite increased research efforts, NALM techniques that can disaggregate power loads at low sampling rates are still not accurate and/or practical enough, requiring substantial customer input and long training periods. In this paper, we address these challenges via a practical low-complexity lowrate NALM, by proposing two approaches based on a combination of the following machine learning techniques: k-means clustering and Support Vector Machine, exploiting their strengths and addressing their individual weaknesses. The first proposed supervised approach is a low-complexity method that requires very short training period and is fairly accurate even in the presence of labelling errors. The second approach relies on a database of appliance signatures that we designed using publicly available datasets. The database compactly represents over 200 appliances using statistical modelling of measured active power. Experimental results on three datasets from US, Italy, Austria and UK, demonstrate the reliability and practicality.

  6. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drawings, sketches, or other visual aids that provide detailed information relating to the design, location...; (v) The weld is designed for infinite fatigue life in the application that it will be placed; (vi... railroad provides a detailed basis as to why the design of the vehicle or placement of the safety appliance...

  7. Do soft drinks affect metal ions release from orthodontic appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of orange juice and Coca Cola(®) on the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A continuous flow system designed for in vitro testing of orthodontic appliances was used. Orange juice/Coca Cola(®) was flowing through the system alternately with artificial saliva for 5.5 and 18.5h, respectively. The collected samples underwent a multielemental ICP-OES analysis in order to determine the metal ions release pattern in time. The total mass of ions released from the appliance into orange juice and Coca Cola(®) (respectively) during the experiment was calculated (μg): Ni (15.33; 37.75), Cr (3.604; 1.052), Fe (48.42; ≥ 156.1), Cu (57.87, 32.91), Mn (9.164; 41.16), Mo (9.999; 30.12), and Cd (0.5967; 2.173). It was found that orange juice did not intensify the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances, whereas Coca Cola(®) caused increased release of Ni ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy conservation opportunities in commercial appliances. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, J.R.; Searight, E.F.; Wong, A.

    1978-12-01

    This study establishes a data base of energy-consuming appliances in the commercial sector, and identifies and rates the most-promising development opportunities that would save significant amounts of energy on a national level. A detailed national inventory of 45 major appliances and their energy consumption was established for the year 1975. Thirty-four potential appliance improvements were identified, evaluated, and ranked. The opportunities are identified by means of a literature search and contact with industry representatives. The commercial sector is defined in terms of the divisions prescribed in the S.I.C. Manual (1972) of the OMB. These groups are recombined into the commercial subsectors of communications; utilities; wholesale; retail; finance, insurance, real estate, and services; hospital; schools; and public administration. The major energy-consuming appliances in the following six functional-use categories were identified: space heating and cooling; water heating; refrigeration; cooking; and lighting. The equipment in these categories was estimated to consume 87% of the total energy used in the commercial sector, with the remaining 13% consumed by equipment such as computers, business machines, laundry equipment, dishwashing, and other food-service equipment. (MCW)

  9. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  10. Designing, Building and Controlling of Home Appliances Unit Using PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ben Safar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart home is a residential building that is usually new or modern equipped with necessary tools and wiring that enable its occupants to control a number of electrical devices and several household appliances through a suitable software. Recently, the development of home automation systems is accelerating rapidly as a result of the rapid intersection of modern technologies. Here we are talking about systems for home communication networks as well as entertainment, security, convenience, etc. These systems are controlled by sending signals through wires distributed throughout the house or Through wireless means to programmable keys or devices so that they understand these commands and deal with them as desired. In this paper, I will discuss how to design the circuit with appropriate components, build it in Printed Circuit Board and connect it to a personal computer by using programmable language in order to control all home appliances by just one click. 

  11. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  12. Effects of cervical headgear appliance: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Fernanda Pinelli; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, Jose Fernando Castanha; Pupulim, Daniela Cubas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although much has been investigated about the effects of cervical headgear, there remains some controversy. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to disclose the actual effects of the cervical headgear appliance, based on articles of relevant quality.METHODS: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Inclusion criteria consisted of human studies written in English; published between 1970 and 2014; in which...

  13. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  14. Orthodontic treatment with a series of removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, David A; Trosien, Andrew H; Fong, Patricia F; Miller, Robert A; Lee, Rodney S

    2003-09-01

    In the United States, the demand for straight white teeth has never been more important to patients. Crowded, poorly aligned teeth are not esthetically pleasing and are difficult to keep clean. However, until recently, the process of straightening the teeth typically has involved appliances involving bands, brackets and wires that also can be difficult to clean. The desire for a cosmetic solution to misaligned teeth has led to an increase in the number of patients seeking veneers, crowns and other laboratory-fabricated cosmetic restorations. Some clinicians are not aware that there are other ways to align teeth without either significant enamel reduction or conspicuous fixed orthodontic appliances. An alternative method of treatment, involving a series of clear removable appliances, circumvents this shortcoming and enables tooth alignment while avoiding deterioration in the cosmetics of the smile during treatment. This article describes a method of treatment, Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif.), that clinicians can use in conjunction with 3-D computer models to accomplish the esthetic and oral hygiene objectives during and after treatment. The authors present three case reports, all involving a chief concern of crowding. The first case involved treatment of both arches by interproximal reduction, alignment of teeth and leveling the curve of Spee. The second case involved treatment of both arches by proclination, expansion and minor interproximal reduction. The final case shows relief of lower-arch crowding via lower-incisor extraction. In addition to satisfying the patient's chief concern of desiring straight teeth, this method of treatment satisfies additional objectives of esthetic treatment and esthetic results with significant oral hygiene benefits. Clinicians can address a patient's chief concern effectively without requiring an inventory of appliances (such as bands, brackets, wires and instruments). Furthermore, the use of 3-D computer models

  15. Microbial contamination of toothbrushes during treatment with multibracket appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Eichenauer, Johanna; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction It was aimed to assess the retention of caries-associated microorganisms on two different manual toothbrushes (conventional and tapered) and to evaluate the influence of multibracket appliances (MB) on the microbial contamination of the brush head. Methods 50 MB-patients and 50 subjects without MB received a toothbrush (elmex® interX medium short head or meridol®) plus toothpaste (elmex®) for exclusive use and an information sheet with standardised brushing instructions. After 14...

  16. Evaluation of photo-activation appliances used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Ribeiro de Magalhães Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the Vickers microhardness promoted by three photo-activation appliances: one Halogen Light Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and two Light Emitting Diodes. One with a larger diode (Ultraled, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and the other with seven smaller diodes (Ultraled xp, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in composites with different matrixes. Methods: Three test specimens were made for each resinous materials using silicone molds measuring 4 X 8 X 30 mm. Polymerization was performedin three stages and on the two surfaces. After having been submitted to careful polishing with sequential abrasive papers and diamond paste, the Vickers microhardness of the test specimens was determined. Afterwards these values were submitted to statistical analysis by the ANOVA table and Student’s-t test. Results: The microhardness values obtained in the hybrid composite were as follows: 51.63 kg/mm2 +- 3.27; 52.22 kg/mm2 +- 3.3; 38.08 kg/mm2 +-0.31 and in the ormocer, 41.87 kg/mm2 +- 2.36; 41.5 kg/mm2 +- 1.2; 33.63 kg/mm2 +- 1.2, by the Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances, respectively. Conclusion: The Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances promoted microhardness values that were similar between them and higher than the values produced by Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in the composites. It was verified that the intensity of the photo-activator appliances is directly related to the microhardness they produce in the composites.

  17. Automated Home Appliances Control Using Embedded Web Server

    OpenAIRE

    Ahad, Abdul; Y.Mahesh; Sukanya, G; Harika, N; Uma Sri, A

    2014-01-01

    In modern construction in industrialized nations, most homes have been wired for TV, lights and fans etc... Many household tasks were automated by the development of specialized automated appliances. In this project we are going to create the embedded web server so that we can control the electrical devices through online by using either computer or by using smart phone. The purpose of this project is to design a control system that able to control a system device remotely from distance and ...

  18. Key Account Management Practices in Home Appliance Industry of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaq, Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Key account management (KAM) is considered as an important marketing trend since last few years. The purpose of this thesis orients to the discussion about key account management practices from selling company’s perspectives in home appliance market of Pakistan. The study is carried through with four steps: elements of key accounts management, identification and analysis of key accounts, strategies for key accounts, and operational level capabilities used in key account management fo...

  19. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-05-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG's), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL's), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL's. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL's and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL's. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG's registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach.

  20. Rapid palatal expansion: a comparison of two appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda do Prado Rodrigues

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed occlusal radiographs to compare the transverse changes produced in patients treated with rapid maxillary expansion using two types of appliances. The sample consisted of 31 children aged 7 to 10.6 years, of both genders, with posterior cross-bite. Fifteen children were treated with a tooth-borne expander and 16 were treated with a tooth-tissue-borne expander. Occlusal radiographs obtained at treatment onset and at the end of the retention period were digitized. The following variables were measured: intermolar distance (IMD, interapical distance (IApD, interbase distance (IBaD and interarm distance (IArD. The results revealed increases in all measurements in both groups after rapid maxillary expansion. Comparison between groups revealed that the increases were greater in patients treated with the tooth-borne expander, except for the IArD measurement, which presented the same increase in both groups. Even though the IMD measurements differed between expanders, they were proportional to the activation of the appliances (IBaD. The increase in the IApD measurement was proportionally greater in the group treated with the tooth-borne expander (0.7:1.0 than in that treated with the tooth-tissue-borne expander (0.4:1.0. It was concluded that both appliances had similar effects, although the tooth-tissue-borne expander produced a lesser opening at the apical region of the incisors.

  1. Evaluation of safety management in an Appliances manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of accidents and work related diseases, are not allowed regardless of the safety of employees, customers, contractors and other persons. Assessment of individual safety management activities could reduce many losses. Present study aimed to evaluate the safety management of a household appliance manufacturing company.  .Material and Method: This study has done in a household appliance manufacturing company in Damavand city. Two questionnaires were firstly designed based on the weighted scores. The questionnaire 1 consisted of 4 indicators: Safety of machinery, Electrical safety, Risk assessment and Fire safety. Questionnaire 2 consisted of 11 sub indicators. Both questionnaires were completed by 30 HSE experts and supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was based on cronbachs alpha coefficient. the safety status of each unit was determined and scored using information acquired by the questionnaires. Lastly, the safety of the entire company was determined.  .Result: Results showed that in safety management: the pressing and store house were in a good range of 66.66 and 60.12 points. Powder painting, enameling, laboratory were in a average range of 56.25, 55.92 and 54.15 points. Assembling and door storage were in a week range of 46.06 points.  .Conclusion: The findings showed that the safety status in the studied appliances company is in average range with 55.45 points. Therefore, it is recommended that the safety indicators should be improved for the betterment of the safety management in the company.

  2. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Jin, X.; Earle, L.

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses.The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  3. Laboratory Testing of Demand-Response Enabled Household Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jin, X. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    With the advent of the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems capable of two-way communications between the utility's grid and the building, there has been significant effort in the Automated Home Energy Management (AHEM) industry to develop capabilities that allow residential building systems to respond to utility demand events by temporarily reducing their electricity usage. Major appliance manufacturers are following suit by developing Home Area Network (HAN)-tied appliance suites that can take signals from the home's 'smart meter,' a.k.a. AMI meter, and adjust their run cycles accordingly. There are numerous strategies that can be employed by household appliances to respond to demand-side management opportunities, and they could result in substantial reductions in electricity bills for the residents depending on the pricing structures used by the utilities to incent these types of responses. The first step to quantifying these end effects is to test these systems and their responses in simulated demand-response (DR) conditions while monitoring energy use and overall system performance.

  4. Progress toward Producing Demand-Response-Ready Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sastry, Chellury [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes several historical and ongoing efforts to make small electrical demand-side devices like home appliances more responsive to the dynamic needs of electric power grids. Whereas the utility community often reserves the word demand response for infrequent 2 to 6 hour curtailments that reduce total electrical system peak load, other beneficial responses and ancillary services that may be provided by responsive electrical demand are of interest. Historically, demand responses from the demand side have been obtained by applying external, retrofitted, controlled switches to existing electrical demand. This report is directed instead toward those manufactured products, including appliances, that are able to provide demand responses as soon as they are purchased and that require few, or no, after-market modifications to make them responsive to needs of power grids. Efforts to be summarized include Open Automated Demand Response, the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturer standard CHA 1, a simple interface being developed by the U-SNAP Alliance, various emerging autonomous responses, and the recent PinBus interface that was developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  5. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG’s), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL’s), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL’s. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL’s and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL’s. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG’s registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach. PMID:28824226

  6. The sword of Damocles: an illustrative example of the life-saving effect of the collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the effective importance of the collateral network, especially in the current era, where most patients with significant coronary artery disease are revascularized, be it percutaneously or surgically; thus, people may question a significant benefit of the coronary collateral circulation. However, the presented 61-year-old male patient demonstrates an unambiguous situation of a life-saving effect of the collateral circulation. The patient presented without any angina symptoms and with only mild shortness of breath on moderate to severe exertion. A subsequent angiography revealed a complete chronic occlusion of the main coronary artery. The entire left coronary system was provided by well-developed right to left collaterals. Additionally, the patient had an 80-90% stenosis of his mid-right coronary artery (RCA). The entire blood supply to the heart had to pass this lesion to provide the RCA area and also the left anterior descending and left circumflex areas via collaterals. This extreme example illustrates the potentially lifesaving effect of the coronary collateral circulation. Obviously, the entire myocardium can in some cases be perfused entirely via one critically stenosed vessel.

  7. An Ethical Framework for Allocating Scarce Life-Saving Chemotherapy and Supportive Care Drugs for Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguru, Yoram; Fernandez, Conrad V; Bernhardt, Brooke; Berg, Stacey; Pyke-Grimm, Kim; Woodman, Catherine; Joffe, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Shortages of life-saving chemotherapy and supportive care agents for children with cancer are frequent. These shortages directly affect patients' lives, compromise both standard of care therapies and clinical research, and create substantial ethical challenges. Efforts to prevent drug shortages have yet to gain traction, and existing prioritization frameworks lack concrete guidance clinicians need when faced with difficult prioritization decisions among equally deserving children with cancer. The ethical framework proposed in this Commentary is based upon multidisciplinary expert opinion, further strengthened by an independent panel of peer consultants. The two-step allocation process includes strategies to mitigate existing shortages by minimizing waste and addresses actual prioritization across and within diseases according to a modified utilitarian model that maximizes total benefit while respecting limited constraints on differential treatment of individuals. The framework provides reasoning for explicit decision-making in the face of an actual drug shortage. Moreover, it minimizes bias that might occur when individual clinicians or institutions are forced to make bedside rationing and prioritization decisions and addresses the challenge that individual clinicians face when confronted with bedside decisions regarding allocation. Whenever possible, allocation decisions should be supported by evidence-based recommendations. "Curability," prognosis, and the incremental importance of a particular drug to a given patient's outcome are the critical factors to consider when deciding how to allocate scarce life-saving cancer drugs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  9. Circumpubertal skeletal Class II patient treated using herbst functional appliance an comprehensive fixed mechanotheraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Sayeeda Laeque Bangi; Ashok Talapaneni; Saravanan Pichai; Arshad Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal classII div I malocclusion are common orthodontic problem due to mandibular deficiencies. This problem could be addressed by stimulating sagittal mandibular growth by using functional and fixed functional appliance which can be used during pre and post pubertal growth period. Herbst appliance being rigid fixed functional appliance is beneficial in treatment of post pubertal skeletal class II patients and does not depend on patients compliance. A female patient of age 12 years with po...

  10. A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    recreated a living room environment that had three controllable appliances : a fan, a lamp, and one laptop functioning as a video player (see Figure 13). The...A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances Through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting Yu-Hsiang Chen Ben Zhang Claire Tuna Yang Li...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Context Menu for the Real World: Controlling Physical Appliances Through Head-Worn Infrared Targeting 5a. CONTRACT

  11. Classification of Household Appliance Operation Cycles: A Case-Study Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zeyu Wang; Ravi S. Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation control strategies can be developed in the Smart Grid to operate appliances in an efficient manner. This paper provides a way of classifying different operational cycles of a household appliance by intro...

  12. An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Household Appliances

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Larry

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes our study of the price elasticity of demand for home appliances, including refrigerators, clothes washers, and dishwashers. In the context of increasingly stringent appliance standards, we are interested in what kind of impact the increased manufacturing costs caused by higher efficiency requirements will have on appliance sales. We begin with a review of existing economics literature describing the impact of economic variables on the sale of durable goods. We then d...

  13. Perancangan Dan Pembuatan Alat Home Electricity Based Home Appliance Controller Berbasis Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Alfannizar, Ibnu; Rahayu, Yusnita

    2017-01-01

    Currently the increasing of electricity bill become hot topic in Indonesia society. The increasing of electricity bills is due to the uncontrolled USAge of home appliances. In addition, the uncontrolled USAge of appliance will also cause a fire. One of the alternative solution to over come by deploying a remotely control system for home appliances. This paper purpose a home automation control system design prototyping. This design system is expected comply to Internet of Things (IoT) system. ...

  14. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhi Ansar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC. However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance.

  15. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion by RME and modified Tandem appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Juhi; Maheshwari, Sandhya; Verma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Patients with a skeletal Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency can be treated successfully using a combined protraction facemask and alternate rapid maxillary expansions and contractions (Alt-RAMEC). However, due to poor patient compliance during facemask therapy there has been growing interest in intraoral appliances for correcting Class III malocclusion. The tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA) is an intraoral appliance which has been used successfully for the treatment of growing Class III patients. This case report describes the management of a 10-year-old boy with a Class III malocclusion and maxillary deficiency treated with modified TTBA appliance.

  16. Effects of the pendulum appliance, cervical headgear, and 2 premolar extractions followed by fixed appliances in patients with Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; de Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues; McNamara, James A

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, we compared the cephalometric effects, the dental-arch changes, and the efficiency of Class II treatment with the pendulum appliance, cervical headgear, or extraction of 2 maxillary premolars, all associated with fixed appliance therapy. The sample of 82 patients with Class II malocclusion was divided into 3 groups: group 1 patients (n = 22; treatment time, 3.8 years) were treated with the pendulum appliance and fixed orthodontic appliances. Group 2 patients (n = 30; treatment time, 3.2 years) were treated with cervical headgear followed by fixed appliances; group 3 patients (n = 30; treatment time, 2.1 years) were treated with 2 maxillary premolar extractions and fixed appliances. The average starting ages of the groups ranged from 13.2 to 13.8 years. Data were obtained from serial cephalometric measurements and dental casts. The dental casts were analyzed with the treatment priority index. The treatment efficiency index was also used. The 3 treatment protocols produced similar cephalometric effects, especially skeletally. Comparisons among the 2 distalizing appliances (pendulum and cervical headgear) and extraction of 2 maxillary premolars for Class II treatment showed changes primarily in the maxillary dentoalveolar component and dental relationships. The facial profile was similar after treatment, except for slightly more retrusion of the upper lip in the extraction patients. The treatment priority index demonstrated that occlusal outcomes also were similar among the groups. The treatment efficiency index had higher values for the extraction group. The effects of treatment with the pendulum appliance or cervical headgear and extraction of 2 maxillary premolars associated with fixed appliances were similar from both occlusal and cephalometric standpoints. Class II treatment with extraction of maxillary teeth was more efficient because of the shorter treatment time. Differences in maxillary incisor retraction should be noted, but

  17. Clinical Aspects of Combination of Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Biben

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the peculiarities of the combination of zirconia and ceramic occlusal surfaces when constructing aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances. Materials and methods. The study included 70 patients with zirconia and ceramic occlusal surfaces of aesthetic fixed dental prostheses. Group I included 24 patients with a combination of zirconia and ceramic occlusal surfaces. Group II included 30 patients with a combination of ceramic occlusal surfaces. Group III included 16 patients with a combination of zirconia occlusal surfaces. All the patients were observed 12 and 24 months after prosthetic repair. Results. 12 and 24 months after prosthetic repair, the occlusal contact surface area was the largest in Group II (8.18±0.16 mm2 and 9.17±0.1 mm2, respectively. In Group I, where only one occlusive surface was made of zirconium dioxide, significantly reduced levels of abrasion were observed as compared to Group II – 8.07±0.21 mm2 and 8.65±0.23 mm2, respectively. 36 months after denture wearing, in Group III, the smallest contact surface area – 7.84±0.15 mm2as well as the lowest growth of the surface area was observed – 8.07±0.13 mm2. Conclusions. Dental prostheses with at least one ceramic occlusal surface exhibit a strong tendency to abrasion and, consequently, to an increase in the occlusal surface area resulting in an excessive load on prosthetic appliance. Moreover, functional and aesthetic values of prosthetic prosthesis sharply decrease. Therefore, we recommend to produce zirconia occlusal surface or at least to combine the same materials, as it will increase the longevity of prosthetic appliance.

  18. Standby consumption of household appliances; Standby-Verbrauch von Haushaltgeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.; Bush, E.

    2003-07-01

    While electricity consumption of household appliances is well documented for conventional operation cycles, there are still many gaps in our knowledge regarding consumption in the standby status. The aim of this project was to obtain new findings by carrying out market surveys, measurements and evaluations. The total standby losses for household appliances in Switzerland amount to approximately 400 GWh, and the associated electricity costs are about 80 million Swiss francs. The greatest fraction - approximately 80 percent - is traceable to heating requirements for coffee machines. In some appliance categories the share of standby losses compared to overall electricity consumption is extremely high. This figure for coffee machines in offices is 84 percent, for coffee machines in private households it is 60 percent, and for induction cooker tops it is 48 percent. The main technical requirements for enhancing the energy efficiency of coffee machines are an automatic switch-off function and improved insulation of boilers. According to the latest manufacturers' specifications of induction cooker tops, it is apparently possible to significantly reduce the surprisingly high losses associated with control devices. Generally speaking, the efficiency of power supply units could still be improved. It is now possible to reduce consumption levels from the previously standard level of about 4 W to less than 0.5 W. Since it appears that relatively simple measures may significantly increase the efficiency, it is recommended that action be taken. Here, it is essential to work out detailed guidelines and define testing standards for declaring standby losses. The proposal put forward here for an energy declaration for coffee machines is intended to help test centres, EU authorities and manufacturers to carry out uniform measurements and evaluations. Given the high power consumption of coffee machines, their significant efficiency enhancement potential and the availability of

  19. The semiotics of smart appliances and pervasive computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents Digital Habitats, a conceptual and methodological framework for analyzing and designing smart appliances in the context of pervasive computing. The concrete topic is a project in pervasive gaming for children. The paper is semiotic in two senses: on the one hand, it is based...... on the linguistic theory of semantic roles; on the other hand, it focuses on signs, their referents, and their mode of signifying. After an introductory discussion of smart technology and networks of stupidity, we present our framework which consists of a set of theoretical concepts supplemented by diagrams...

  20. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  1. Research and development of efficient, environmentally improved household gas appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adžić Miroljub

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental research and analysis of performance of three domestic house hold gas appliances was carried out. The objective of this work, based on the conducted analysis of the research data, was to improve the appliances’ performance, prefer ably through relative simple modifications, in order to satisfy DIN 4702 emissions and efficiency standards when using different fuels, including natural gas, liquefied petroleum gases and lower quality natural gas. This report summarizes details of this work and how the objectives were achieved. .

  2. APPLIANCE OF COMPETITORS TECHNIQUES IN LEADING THE SKIES IN TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rašid Hadžić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Competitors techniques in skiing characterize driving on edges, without gliding in certain fazes of turning. Today that characteristic is more and more present in all di- scipline, (downhill, super G, giant slalom and slalom so we can talk about appliance of basic technique of leading skies on all disciplines, with differences in position of skies in amplitude of moving and frequencies of changes of edges. From that point of view we distinct three typical shape of moving in turning, which have mutual distinction in influence on ski loading, and that has influence on tur- ning line and acceleration or checking in certain fazes of turning.

  3. Mechanical appliances, mechanical movements and novelties of construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2008-01-01

    From the devices that power ships and trains to the workings of clocks, typewriters, and guns, this engrossing visual narrative profiles the specific and unique properties of hundreds of mechanical devices. Nearly 1,000 detailed illustrations depict steam-powered appliances, spring-powered devices, hydraulic equipment, and other machines, many of which remain in common use today. Each apparatus features a detailed line drawing and an informative explanation of its workings and uses. A final chapter chronicles 400 years of impassioned but futile searching for a perpetual motion machine.The comp

  4. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  5. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang-Chien Lin

    2007-05-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal overjet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

  6. Implant-retained oral appliances : a novel treatment for edentulous patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; de Vries, Frist; Heydenrijk, Kees; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    Objectives: Mandibular repositioning appliances (MRAs) are a viable treatment alternative in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Because these appliances require retention in the patient's dentition, edentelous patients generally do not qualify for this treatment. This

  7. MODERATION OF ONLINE CONSUMERS' REVIEW ON RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEIVED RISK AND CONSUMERS' UNWILLINGNESS TO BUY HOME APPLIANCES ONLINE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mubbsher Munawar Khan; Sanya Ali Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    ...) on consumers' unwillingness to buy home appliances online. The moderation of online consumer reviews with the relationship between perceived risk and consumers' unwillingness to buy home appliances online is also investigated...

  8. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Natapol Thongplew Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in globalizing Thailand from a

  9. Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Cilil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1, and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2. Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

  10. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances and accessories. 888.3030 Section 888.3030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a) Identification...

  11. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with Cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fabrication of feeding appliance. In addition, it is also the primary step in the fabrication of different devices such as palatal obturator, articulation development prosthesis, palatopharyngeal obturator, palatal lift prosthesis, nasal conformer, and appliances for presurgical infant orthopedic or presurgical nasoalveolar molding, ...

  12. What to Do If Your Appliances Are Wet After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If your home was flooded, look for signs that your appliances have gotten wet. Throw away wet or flooded appliances to protect from shock and fire.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  13. Boundedly rational consumers, energy and investment literacy, and the display of information on household appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    It is an ongoing debate how to increase the adoption of energy-efficient light bulbs and household appliances in the presence of the so-called ‘energy efficiency gap’. One measure to support consumers’ decision-making towards the purchase of more efficient appliances is the display of energy-related

  14. Toward semantic interoperability of energy using and producing appliances in residential environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy is therefore a matter of managing and optimizing the energy

  15. Created in Close Interaction with the Industry: The Smart Appliances REFerence (SAREF) Ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Around two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings can be traced back to the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Today, most appliances are highly intelligent and networked devices, in principle being able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing

  16. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  17. Launch of new or improved gas appliances onto the Dutch market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, W.C. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie (Netherlands)

    1997-10-01

    In the Netherlands the market for both natural gas and gas appliances is highly saturated. In such a market it is difficult but not impossible to introduce new technological developments and new gas appliances. Close cooperation between the different market parties is essential for successful introduction. (au)

  18. Effects of cervical headgear appliance: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pinelli Henriques

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although much has been investigated about the effects of cervical headgear, there remains some controversy. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to disclose the actual effects of the cervical headgear appliance, based on articles of relevant quality.METHODS: A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Inclusion criteria consisted of human studies written in English; published between 1970 and 2014; in which only the cervical headgear was used to correct Class II malocclusion; prospective or retrospective; with a clear description of cervical headgear effects; with a sample size of at least 15 individuals. No comparative studies, clinical cases or cases with dental extractions were included and the sample should be homogeneous.RESULTS: Initially, 267 articles were found. A total of 42 articles were selected by title and had their abstracts read. Finally, 12 articles were classified as with high quality and were used in this systematic review.CONCLUSIONS: The cervical headgear appliance proved efficient to correct Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Its effects consisted in correction of the maxillomandibular relationship by restriction of maxillary anterior displacement; distalization and extrusion of maxillary molars; and slight maxillary expansion.

  19. Effects of cervical headgear appliance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Fernanda Pinelli; Janson, Guilherme; Henriques, Jose Fernando Castanha; Pupulim, Daniela Cubas

    2015-01-01

    Although much has been investigated about the effects of cervical headgear, there remains some controversy. Therefore, the objective of this systematic review is to disclose the actual effects of the cervical headgear appliance, based on articles of relevant quality. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases. Inclusion criteria consisted of human studies written in English; published between 1970 and 2014; in which only the cervical headgear was used to correct Class II malocclusion; prospective or retrospective; with a clear description of cervical headgear effects; with a sample size of at least 15 individuals. No comparative studies, clinical cases or cases with dental extractions were included and the sample should be homogeneous. Initially, 267 articles were found. A total of 42 articles were selected by title and had their abstracts read. Finally, 12 articles were classified as with high quality and were used in this systematic review. The cervical headgear appliance proved efficient to correct Class II, Division 1 malocclusion. Its effects consisted in correction of the maxillomandibular relationship by restriction of maxillary anterior displacement; distalization and extrusion of maxillary molars; and slight maxillary expansion.

  20. Microbial contamination of toothbrushes during treatment with multibracket appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenauer, Johanna; von Bremen, Julia; Ruf, Sabine

    2014-10-10

    It was aimed to assess the retention of caries-associated microorganisms on two different manual toothbrushes (conventional and tapered) and to evaluate the influence of multibracket appliances (MB) on the microbial contamination of the brush head. 50 MB-patients and 50 subjects without MB received a toothbrush (elmex® interX medium short head or meridol®) plus toothpaste (elmex®) for exclusive use and an information sheet with standardised brushing instructions. After 14 days of regular tooth brushing, the brushes were collected and sluiced in Sputasol solution. The suspension was incubated on selective agar plates and the amount of Streptococcus mutans, lactobacilli and Candida albicans for each brush head was assessed. Regarding the retention of microorganisms, no differences could be detected between the two bristle designs. However, the amount of S. mutans was significantly higher on brushes used by MB-patients (p < 0.005) than on the brushes of subjects without MB. The number of Lactobacilli and C. albicans was minimal in all cases and below statistical evaluation. During treatment with MB appliances, toothbrushes were contaminated more intensely with S. mutans independent of bristle design. A more frequent replacement of toothbrushes may thus be recommended for patients undergoing MB-treatment.

  1. Comparison between Herbst appliances with or without miniscrew anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manni, Antonio; Pasini, Marco; Mauro, Cozzani

    2012-12-01

    Herbst appliance is largely used in orthodontics for the correction of Class II. The aim of this paper was to analyze dental and skeletal effects of a splints Herbst-miniscrews combined device in comparison to a mandibular splints Herbst appliance. Fifty Class II division 1 patients (27 males and 23 females with a mean age of 11.8 ± 1.7 years) were included in the study. Lateral headfilms of 25 patients with a mandibular resin splint and a miniscrew anchorage (test group) and of 25 patients with mandibular acrylic resin splints (control group) were analyzed before (T0) and after (T1) the Herbst treatment. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of each variable were calculated; paired t-test was used to evaluate statistical changes before and after the treatment, in each group and Student t-test was used to compare the two groups. Significant differences were observed for P treatment, mandibular incisor proclination was significantly lower in the test group (2.8°) in comparison to the control group (7.4°). The miniscrew-Herbst system, described in the present study, allows correction of Class II malocclusion, with a lower anchorage loss, in form of mandibular incisor proclination, during the treatment, in comparison to mandibular acrylic splints Herbst.

  2. Multimedia architectures: from desktop systems to portable appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Vasudev; Konstantinides, Konstantinos; Natarajan, Balas R.

    1997-01-01

    Future desktop and portable computing systems will have as their core an integrated multimedia system. Such a system will seamlessly combine digital video, digital audio, computer animation, text, and graphics. Furthermore, such a system will allow for mixed-media creation, dissemination, and interactive access in real time. Multimedia architectures that need to support these functions have traditionally required special display and processing units for the different media types. This approach tends to be expensive and is inefficient in its use of silicon. Furthermore, such media-specific processing units are unable to cope with the fluid nature of the multimedia market wherein the needs and standards are changing and system manufacturers may demand a single component media engine across a range of products. This constraint has led to a shift towards providing a single-component multimedia specific computing engine that can be integrated easily within desktop systems, tethered consumer appliances, or portable appliances. In this paper, we review some of the recent architectural efforts in developing integrated media systems. We primarily focus on two efforts, namely the evolution of multimedia-capable general purpose processors and a more recent effort in developing single component mixed media co-processors. Design considerations that could facilitate the migration of these technologies to a portable integrated media system also are presented.

  3. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made.

  4. How much might a society spend on life-saving interventions at different ages while remaining cost-effective? A case study in a country with detailed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvizhinadze, Giorgi; Wilson, Nick; Nair, Nisha; McLeod, Melissa; Blakely, Tony

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the maximum intervention cost (EMIC) a society could invest in a life-saving intervention at different ages while remaining cost-effective according to a user-specified cost-effectiveness threshold. New Zealand (NZ) was used as a case study, and a health system perspective was taken. Data from NZ life tables and morbidity data from a burden of disease study were used to estimate health-adjusted life-years (HALYs) gained by a life-saving intervention. Health system costs were estimated from a national database of all publicly funded health events (hospitalizations, outpatient events, pharmaceuticals, etc.). For illustrative purposes we followed the WHO-CHOICE approach and used a cost-effectiveness threshold of the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (NZ$45,000 or US$30,000 per HALY). We then calculated EMICs for an "ideal" life-saving intervention that fully returned survivors to the same average morbidity, mortality, and cost trajectories as the rest of their cohort. The EMIC of the "ideal" life-saving intervention varied markedly by age: NZ$1.3 million (US$880,000) for an intervention to save the life of a child, NZ$0.8 million (US$540,000) for a 50-year-old, and NZ$0.235 million (US$158,000) for an 80-year-old. These results were predictably very sensitive to the choice of discount rate and to the selected cost-effectiveness threshold. Using WHO data, we produced an online calculator to allow the performance of similar calculations for all other countries. We present an approach to estimating maximal cost-effective investment in life-saving health interventions, under various assumptions. Our online calculator allows this approach to be applied in other countries. Policymakers could use these estimates as a rapid screening tool to determine if more detailed cost-effectiveness analyses of potential life-saving interventions might be worthwhile or which proposed life-saving interventions are very unlikely to benefit from such additional

  5. A Field Study of Lightning Surges Propagating through Low-voltage Electric Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tsunayoshi; Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Oguchi, Shuichi; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    In today's highly information-based society, lightning damage has a significant impact on an increasing number of electric appliances such as personal computers and facsimile machines. Lightning surge protection devices for electric appliances are on the market and concern for lightning protection has been increasing, but there are still many unknown aspects of lightning surges that propagate into residences. To provide effective lightning protection measures, clarification of surge propagation patterns is needed. The Tokyo Electric Power Company has observed the patterns of lightning surge propagation into houses using lightning surge waveform detectors installed at ordinary residences and obtained data on 30 lightning surge current waveforms between 2008 and 2009. This paper discusses various aspects of lightning surge currents propagating into low-voltage appliances, including home electric appliances, based on the lightning surge current waveform data obtained from lightning observations. The result revealed the patterns of lightning surge currents propagating into the ground and lines of low-voltage appliances.

  6. The Demand Reduction Potential of Smart Appliances in U.S. Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Parker, Graham B.

    2013-08-14

    The widespread deployment of demand respond (DR) enabled home appliances is expected to have significant reduction in the demand of electricity during peak hours. The work documented in this paper focuses on estimating the energy shift resulting from the installation of DR enabled smart appliances in the U.S. This estimation is based on analyzing the market for smart appliances and calculating the total energy demand that can potentially be shifted by DR control in appliances. Appliance operation is examined by considering their sub components individually to identify their energy consumptions and savings resulting from interrupting and shifting their load, e.g., by delaying the refrigerator defrost cycle. In addition to major residential appliances, residential pool pumps are also included in this study given their energy consumption profiles that make them favorable for DR applications. In the market analysis study documented in this paper, the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) and National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) databases are used to examine the expected life of an appliance, the number of appliances installed in homes constructed in 10 year intervals after 1940 and home owner income. Conclusions about the effectiveness of the smart appliances in reducing electrical demand have been drawn and a ranking of appliances in terms of their contribution to load shift is presented. E.g., it was concluded that DR enabled water heaters result in the maximum load shift; whereas, dishwashers have the highest user elasticity and hence the highest potential for load shifting through DR. This work is part of a larger effort to bring novel home energy management concepts and technologies to reduce energy consumption, reduce peak electricity demand, integrate renewables and storage technology, and change homeowner behavior to manage and consume less energy and potentially save consumer energy costs.

  7. Overjet Problems at the Growing Child, Case Report Using the Twin Block Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Harun Achmad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Overjet is a horizontal relationship between maxillary and mandibular incisors. Normal range from overjet is 2-4 mm. Increased overjet is marked by maxillary incisor’s protrusion. A 6 mm overjet will have impact on psychological and social relationship of children due to the aesthetics of the face profile. Increased overjet has relationship with Class II Angle malocclusion, Class II skeletal sagittal relationship, and mandibular retrognathia. Clinical problem caused by increased overjet in children are maxillary permanent incisors trauma in growing age, damaged periodontal tissue, lip incompetency, social impact such as lack of confidence in children, and also increased overjet has a close relationship with Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD sign and symptoms. Methods : Increased overjet case can be managed by maxillary retraction of labial segment and increasing mandibular labial segment. Case management are based on skeletal and soft tissue pattern and patient’s age. Reducing overjet can be based on using several appliances, such as functional removable appliance to modify dental and skeletal relationship, fixed orthodontic appliances with tipping and bodily movement or using jaw reposition by orthognathic surgery. Results : One of the effective appliance to reduce overjet, especially Class II malocclusion treatment is Twin Block Functional Appliances developed by Clark. Twin Block appliances is used for developing age children in certain time period to support mandibular growth. This appliance is easy to use, so the patient cooperativity can be maintained. Maximum treatment depends on children’s cooperativity.  By using Twin Block functional appliance, we can observe that early treatment can be effective to reduce overjet, to change skeletal pattern, and to increase children psychology such as self-confidence by making aesthetic changes to their faces significantly.[B1]  Conclusion : This appliances is made with 70o angle to

  8. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching appliances for lifeboats and rescue boats at intervals recommended in the manufacturer's instructions under...

  9. Short-term anteroposterior treatment effects of functional appliances and extraoral traction on class II malocclusion. A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonarakis, Gregory Stylianos; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the anteroposterior short-term skeletal and dental effects on Class II malocclusion in growing patients following treatment with functional appliances (activators or twin block), extraoral traction, or combination appliances (appliances with both functional and extraoral traction components), based on published data. A literature search was carried out identifying a total of nine prospective clinical trials. The data provided in the publications underwent meta-analysis using the random effects model with regard to SNA, SNB, ANB, and overjet. All appliance groups showed an improvement in sagittal intermaxillary relationships (decrease in ANB) when compared to untreated subjects. Activators and twin block appliances accomplish this mainly by acting on the mandible (increases in SNB) while twin block appliances also seem to act on the maxilla (decrease in SNA). Extraoral traction appliances achieve this by acting on the maxilla (decreases in SNA). Combination appliances mainly act on the mandible (increase in SNB). Activators, twin block, and combination appliances also reveal a decrease in overjet, which is not the case in the singular use of extraoral traction. Intermaxillary changes being present in all appliance groups, anteroposterior treatment response following the use of functional appliances and/or extraoral traction in growing class II malocclusion patients is most evident in one of the two jaws (mandible for activators and combination appliances and maxilla for extraoral traction) except for the twin block group, which shows changes on both jaws.

  10. Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Mei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. Methods The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI. A questionnaire was used to collect patient’s information, including gender, age, treatment motivation, and frequency of tooth brushing. Results Gingival (PI score = 0.9 ± 0.7, mesial (0.8 ± 0.6, and distal (0.8 ± 0.5 areas accumulated more biofilm than occlusal areas (0.3 ± 0.3 (P < 0.038. The maxillary lateral incisors (1.1 ± 0.8 and maxillary canines (1.0 ± 0.8 had more biofilm than other teeth (P < 0.05. The maxillary arch (0.8 ± 0.7 had significantly more biofilm than mandibular arch (0.6 ± 0.6 (P = 0.042. No significant difference was found between the right side (0.7 ± 0.7 and left side (0.7 ± 0.6 (P = 0.627. Less biofilm was found in females (0.6 ± 0.5, adults (0.3 ± 0.3, and “self-motivated” patients (0.3 ± 0.3, compared with males (0.9 ± 0.5, children (0.8 ± 0.6, and “family-motivated” patients (1.1 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001. The amount of biofilm was associated with self-report of the frequency of daily tooth brushing (P < 0.001. Conclusions Patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances have the highest biofilm accumulation on the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines, particularly in the gingival area and areas behind arch wires. Less biofilm was observed in female and adult patients and in those who were self-motivated and brushed their teeth more often.

  11. INTRODUCING A NEW REMOVABLE APPLIANCE FOR INTRUSION OF POSTERIOR TEETH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M KALANTAR MOTAMEDI Karimi

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In patients with anterior open bite, wether with skeletal factors, or with dental factors, the excessive eruption of posterior teeth, is one of the specific findings, and this excessive eruption causes the backward and downward rotation of mandible, which results in an increase in lower facial height and steep mandibular plane. In these patients, depressing of posterior teeth is the ideal treatment and to achieve this goal is one of the most difficult tooth movements for orthodontist. Methods. For this purpose, a removable appliance was designed and to evaluate its eficacy, six patients were selected, four of them were in permanent dentition and two in mixed dentition period. They were under treatment with this appliance, full time for three to three and a half months. Before starting treatment, lateral cephalometric radiograph and study casts were prepared and the above mentioned period were repeated. The amount of bite closure was measured by comparing study casts before and after treatment. Also cephalometric changes were evaluated by comparing pre-and-post treatment records. Results. As a result average of maxillary first molar intrusion was 1.1 mm and average of mandibular first molar intrusion was 1.3 mm , which had resulted in upward and forward rotation of the mandible. The average changes due to mandibular rotation were: The amount of bite closure 3.7mm; Decrease in lower facial height 3mm; Prominence of chin 3.2 mm; Decrease in mandibular plane angle 2.3; Decrease in y-axis angle 2; Increase in facial angle 2.3. Discussion. Therefore it is obvious that clinically the suggested appliance is capable of, intruding posterior teeth in both of maxilla and mandible and then due to upward and forward rotation of the mandible, the steep mandibular plane and lower facial height are decreased. Now according to the results of this investigation can be highly hopefull that, the number of patients who need orthographic surgery, for

  12. Issues in federal preemption of state appliance energy efficiency regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Balistocky, S.; Schaefler, A.M.

    1982-12-01

    The findings and conclusions of the analysis of the various issues involved in the federal preemption of state regulations for the DOE no standard rule on covered appliances are summarized. The covered products are: refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, kitchen ranges and ovens, water heaters (excluding heat pump water heaters), room air conditioners, central air conditioners (excluding heat pumps), and furnaces. A detailed discussion of the rationale for the positions of groups offering comment for the record is presneted. The pertinent categories of state and local regulations and programs are explained, then detailed analysis is conducted on the covered products and regulations. Issues relating to the timing of preemption of state regulations are discussed, as well as issues relating to burden of proof, contents of petitions for exemptions from preemption, criteria for evaluating petitions, and procedural and other issues. (LEW)

  13. The Next Generation of Appliances: Visions for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1998-01-01

    to consume no more than 50 kWh per year, without using any risky synthetic gasses. Washing appliances will use no electricity for heating, which will bring annual electricity consumption below 50 kWh for a washing machine. For electronic equipment, the efficiency gain known from battery operated version...... should be applied to units on the main supply, bringing the electricity consumption for a computer used 2 hours per day down to 5 kWh per year, for instance. With careful behaviour, annual electricity consumption for a household can easily be brought down below 250 kWh per capita, compared to 1000-2000 k......Wh which is typical today in Western Europe....

  14. Effects of fixed appliances in correcting Angle Class II on the depth of the posterior airway space: FMA vs. Herbst appliance--a retrospective cephalometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Czapka, Kathrin; Ludwig, Björn; Glasl, Bettina; Gross, Ulrich; Lisson, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study based on the metric evaluation of lateral cephalograms was to investigate the extent to which treatment with two different fixed appliances for the correction of Angle Class II influenced the morphology of the extrathoracic airway space (the posterior airway space, PAS). A total of 43 patients with Angle Class II malocclusion were classified into two groups according to the appliance used for treatment: the functional mandibular advancer (FMA; n = 18) or the Herbst appliance (n = 25). Lateral cephalograms were taken of each patient at the start of functional jaw orthopedic treatment (time point T1) and at its completion (time point T2). Specific distances and angles were measured and analyzed in a cephalometric analysis. We observed major differences among the 43 patients in the depth of the posterior airway space during treatment with fixed appliances for Angle Class II correction. Regression analysis revealed that changes in sagittal and vertical positions had different effects on the depth of specific PAS sections: increases in anterior facial height are associated proportionately with increases in PAS width, particularly in the upper region. On the other hand, increases in posterior facial height and in the mandible's forward displacement correlated inversely to the decreases in depth, particularly in the central and lower PAS regions. The two treatment appliances (FMA, Herbst appliance) had the same effects on extrathoracic airway depth. Analyses of lateral cephalograms indicate that Angle Class II treatment with fixed appliances does not prevent sleep apnea in patients at risk. Nevertheless, this study does not permit absolutely reliable conclusions about the dimensions of the pharyngeal airway space. As the lateral cephalogram provides good images of structures in the midsagittal plane but is incapable of imaging the transverse dimension, there is an automatic lack of information concerning the precise

  15. Skeletal alterations associated with the use of bonded rapid maxillary expansion appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Moara de; Rossi, Andiara de; Abrão, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Bonded maxillary expansion appliances have been suggested to control increases in the vertical dimension of the face after rapid maxillary expansion (RME). However, there is still no consensus in the literature about its real skeletal effects. The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate, longitudinally, the vertical and sagittal cephalometric alterations after RME performed with bonded maxillary expansion appliance. The sample consisted of 26 children, with a mean age of 8.7 years (range: 6.9-10.9 years), with posterior skeletal crossbite and indication for RME. After maxillary expansion, the bonded appliance was used as a fixed retention for 3.4 months, being replaced by a removable retention subsequently. The cephalometric study was performed onto lateral radiographs, taken before treatment was started, and again 6.3 months after removing the bonded appliance. Intra-group comparison was made using paired t test. The results showed that there were no significant sagittal skeletal changes at the end of treatment. There was a small vertical skeletal increase in five of the eleven evaluated cephalometric measures. The maxilla displaced downward, but it did not modify the facial growth patterns or the direction of the mandible growth. Under the specific conditions of this research, it may be concluded that RME with acrylic bonded maxillary expansion appliance did promote signifciant vertical or sagittal cephalometric alterations. The vertical changes found with the use of the bonded appliance were small and probably transitory, similar to those occurred with the use of banded expansion appliances.

  16. Comparison of the effects produced by headgear and pendulum appliances followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Fernanda; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Janson, Guilherme; Castanha Henriques, José Fernando; Pinzan, Arnaldo

    2008-12-01

    This study compared the effects produced by two different molar distalizers, namely cervical headgear (CHG) and the intraoral pendulum appliance, associated with fixed orthodontic appliances. The headgear group comprised 30 patients (19 females, 11 males), with an initial age of 13.07 years [standard deviation (SD) = 1.3], treated with CHG and fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 3.28 years, and the pendulum group 22 patients (15 females, 7 males), with initial age of 13.75 years (SD = 1.86), treated with the pendulum appliance followed by fixed orthodontic appliances for a mean period of 4.12 years. Lateral cephalograms were taken at the start (T1) and on completion (T2) of orthodontic treatment. The pendulum and CHG groups were similar as to initial age, severity of the Class II malocclusion, gender distribution, initial cephalometric characteristics, and initial and final treatment priority index (TPI). Only treatment time was not similar between the groups, with a need for annualization for data for the pendulum group. The data were compared with independent t-tests. There was significantly greater restriction of maxillary forward growth and improvement of the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship in the CHG group (P pendulum group (P pendulum group. The pendulum appliance produced only dentoalveolar effects, different from the CHG appliance, which restricted maxillary forward displacement, thus improving the skeletal maxillomandibular relationship.

  17. A prospective study on the clinical effectiveness of the stainless steel crown Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkauskiene, Dalia; Jakobsone, Gundega; McNamara, James A

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of the stainless steel crown Herbst (cHerbst) used as a single appliance for a single phase therapy. A total of 180 consecutive Class II patients were treated with cHerbst for one year and followed up one year after the end of treatment. Class I relationship was achieved in all 175 patients who finished the functional phase of treatment, 58 patients continued treatment with fixed appliances while 21 patients (12%) showed relapse. Seventy two patients (41.1%) obtained and maintained stable Class I relationship one year after treatment with the cHerbst appliance used as a single appliance. Altogether 46 episodes of appliance breakages were observed and most of them could be repaired at the chair side. Patients' questionnaire revealed that in general the appliance was easy to tolerate and did not cause esthetic or functional problems. The crown Herbst appliance is a viable therapeutical option in patients with Class II malocclusions and it is characterized by low complication rate along with good patient compliance. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  18. Immunoexpression of cytokeratin 19 in oral swab from fixed orthodontic appliance users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Mutia Ramdhini

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of fixed orthodontic appliances can improve someone's mastication, speech and appearance. However, this appliance acts as a strange object that may cause irritation to the mucosa epithelial of oral cavity, because of the friction and pressure from the components of the fixed orthodontic appliances which are in direct contact with the oral mucosa. Irritation in the oral mucosa could stimulate the increase of cytokeratin. The appearance of cytokeratin is then used to identify the condition of these cells. This study was a descriptive research to find the expression of cytokeratin 19 with immunohistochemical method in oral mucosa epithelial of fixed orthodontic appliances users. Sample in this study was chosen from 30 fixed orthodontic appliances users. The result of this study was determined by calculating the number of positive cells (brown, compared with total number of cells. The account of positive cells would present the reaction of the epithelial cells according to the inflamation stage which caused by the use of orthodontic appliances. As a conclusion of this study, the use of fixed orthodontic appliances may cause changes in epithelial mucosa which form an adaptation process by increasing the number of progenitor cells marked by cytokeratin 19.

  19. Design and manufacturing of patient-specific orthodontic appliances by computer-aided engineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Sandro; Neri, Paolo; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2018-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments are usually performed using fixed brackets or removable oral appliances, which are traditionally made from alginate impressions and wax registrations. Among removable devices, eruption guidance appliances are used for early orthodontic treatments in order to intercept and prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available eruption guidance appliances, however, are symmetric devices produced using a few standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific patient's needs since the actual dental anatomies present various geometries and asymmetric conditions. In this article, a computer-aided design-based methodology for the design and manufacturing of a patient-specific eruption guidance appliances is presented. The proposed approach is based on the digitalization of several steps of the overall process: from the digital reconstruction of patients' anatomies to the manufacturing of customized appliances. A finite element model has been developed to evaluate the temporomandibular joint disks stress level caused by using symmetric eruption guidance appliances with different teeth misalignment conditions. The developed model can then be used to guide the design of a patient-specific appliance with the aim at reducing the patient discomfort. At this purpose, two different customization levels are proposed in order to face both arches and single tooth misalignment issues. A low-cost manufacturing process, based on an additive manufacturing technique, is finally presented and discussed.

  20. Effect of thermoplastic appliance thickness on initial stress distribution in periodontal ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Shin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation into the initial stress distribution induced within the periodontal ligament by thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses is performed. Based on the plaster model of a 25-year-old male patient, a finite element model of the maxillary lateral incisors and their supporting structures is constructed. In addition, four finite element models of thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses in the range of 0.5–1.25 mm are also constructed based on the same plaster model. Finite element analysis simulations are performed to examine the effects of the force delivered by the thermoplastic appliances on the stress response of the periodontal ligament during the elastic recovery process. The results show that the stress induced in the periodontal ligament increases with an increasing appliance thickness. For example, the stress triples from 0.0012 to 0.0038 MPa as the appliance thickness is increased from 0.75 to 1.25 mm. The results presented in this study provide a useful insight into as a result of the compressive and tensile stresses induced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses. Moreover, the results enable the periodontal ligament stress levels produced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses to be reliably estimated.

  1. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhat Ozkalayci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth.

  2. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  3. Regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances using reversible fair scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Rossello Busquet, Ana; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption threshold which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. According to the bandwidth demand and priority of each class, the reversible fair scheduling algorithm delays some of the appliances and prolongs......This paper describes a novel methodology for regulating electricity demand peaks for home appliances. To achieve this objective, we will make use of the reversible fair scheduling algorithm originally developed for telecommunication networks. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation...

  4. E-waste Management in Japan: a focus on Appliance Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Fumikazu; Yoshida, Haruyo

    2013-01-01

    As 10 years have passed since the Japanese home electrical appliance recycling system came into operation, the results of the system have become clearer, and it is therefore time for us to analyze and evaluate its performance in terms of both the environment and the economy. The system covers 4 specified house appliances, and although roughly 2/3 of these discarded appliances are collected and recycled formally by the manufactures, the greater part of the remaining 1/3 is exported as used ite...

  5. Worker replacement and cost-benefit analysis of life-saving health care programs, a precautionary note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Philippe; Sultan-Taïeb, Hélène; Barnay, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The assumption according to which ill individuals can be replaced at work that underpins the 'friction cost method' (FCM) to value productivity costs has been primarily discussed within the framework of cost-utility analysis. This paper investigates the consequences of this assumption for cost-benefit analysis (CBA). It makes three contributions. First, it provides the first analytical account of the overall consequences of ill worker replacement on social welfare and it analyzes the associated compensation effects within a CBA framework. Second, it highlights a double counting problem that arises when ill worker replacement is assumed in the CBA of life-saving health care programs. To the best of our knowledge, no satisfactory solution to this problem has yet been provided in the literature. Third, this paper suggests and discusses two original ways to address this double counting issue. One consists in adjusting value of a statistical life estimations for the well-being provided by future incomes. Another possibility lies in the estimation of marginal rates of substitution between health and wealth so as to directly monetize the value of life over and above consumption. We show that both solutions raise unresolved questions that should be addressed in future research to enable appropriate use of the FCM in CBA.

  6. The Airline Lifesaver: a 17-year analysis of a technique to prompt the delivery of a safety message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E Scott; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Pettinger, Charles B

    2004-01-01

    The Airline Lifesaver (AL) is a 13.3 cm x 9.8 cm card any passenger can deliver to the attendant of a commercial airline in order to prompt the delivery of an important safety message. In particular, the AL requests the following safety--belt reminder be added to the regular announcements given at the end of the flight-"Now that you have worn a seat belt for the safest part of your trip, the flight crew would like to remind you to buckle-up during your ground transportation." The AL card was handed to 1,258 flight attendants over a 17-year period and compliance with the request for the safety message was systematically tracked. Slightly more than one-third of the AL cards (n=460) included an incentive for making the announcement. Without the incentive, compliance to give the buckle-up reminder was 35.5% of 798 flights. With the incentive, compliance was significantly higher (i.e., 53.3%). The validity of the AL intervention is discussed with regard to its: (a) relevance to cognitive dissonance and consistency theory, and (b) broad-based applicability as a component of community-wide efforts to facilitate a safety-focused culture. The 17-year study also demonstrated a practical and cost-effective application of a behavior-based incentive program.

  7. Portrayal of medical decision making around medical interventions life-saving encounters on three medical television shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwei, Rebecca J; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Wingert, Katherine; Montague, Enid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Previous literature has shown that patients obtain information about the medical system from television shows. Additionally, shared decision making is regularly cited as the ideal way to make decisions during a medical encounter. Little information exists surrounding the characteristics of medical decision-making, such as who makes the decision, on medical television shows. We evaluate the characteristics of medical decisions in lifesaving encounters on medical television shows and evaluate if these characteristics were different on staged and reality television shows. Methods We coded type of medical intervention, patient’s ability to participate in decision, presence of patient advocate during decision, final decision maker, decision to use intervention, and controversy surrounding decision on three television shows. Frequencies by show were calculated and differences across the three television shows and between staged (ER) and reality (BostonMed and Hopkins) television shows were assessed with chi-square tests. Results The final data set included 37 episodes, 137 patients and 593 interventions. On ER, providers were significantly more likely to make the decision about the medical intervention without informing the patient when a patient was capable of making a decision compared to BostonMed or Hopkins (ptelevision shows we analyzed. It is possible that what patients see on television influences their expectations surrounding the decision making process and the use of medical interventions in everyday healthcare encounters. PMID:26478829

  8. [Treatment of Class II malocclusion using Herbst appliance with headgear and rapid palatal expansion and straight wire appliance with implant anchorage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-jie; Zheng, Cang-shang; Zhang, Min

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of early treatment of Class II malocclusion with Herbst appliance with headgear and rapid palatal expansion and straight wire appliance with implant anchorage. Twenty-five Chinese children (14 males, 11 females, aged from 10-12 years with an average age of 10.5 years) were treated with Herbst appliance with headgear and rapid palatal expansion for 6 months. Then they were further treated with straight wire appliance with implant anchorage. Cephalometric data pre- and post-treatment were measured and analysed. Multiple correlation analysis was performed with SPSS13.0 software package. Compared with pretreatment, as angle SNB (4.2800±1.4000)° and as angle NP-FH (3.5600±1.0440)° increased posttreatment. as angle SNA (0.5600±0.8206)°, as angle ANB (4.7600±1.2000)°, as angle U1-NA (11.9200±1.4411)° and as angle U1-SN (13.1600±1.7720)° decreased posttreatment (Pheadgear and rapid palatal expansion. The maxillary dentition is significantly retracted by fixed appliance with implant anchorage and the skeletal pattern of patients is significantly improved.

  9. Resilient appliance therapy of temporomandibular disorders. Subdiagnoses, sense of coherence and treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Håkan

    2010-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) with orofacial pain with or without reduced jaw function, are frequent conditions in the general population. Different factors such as tooth clenching and grinding, sometimes due to enhanced psychosocial stress, and trauma to the jaws may be important as etiologic factors. Signs and symptoms of TMD are a common cause for general practitioners to use different intraoral appliances as pain and bite-force reducing devices and for improvement of a reduced jaw function. Intraoral appliances are often used parallel to other treatment modalities. Before treatment start a thorough history taking and clinical examination is necessary for a relevant diagnosis. Sometimes the diagnostic process has to be complemented with proper radiographic imaging in order to support the diagnostic process. The overall aim of this thesis was to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the TMJ on the clinically assessed diagnoses and to evaluate short- and long-term treatment outcome of a resilient intraoral appliance, in patients with TMD pain. A further aim was to study Sense of Coherence as an influencing factor on treatment outcome, on these patients. In article I the aim was to compare findings on MRI in TMD pain patients with clinical diagnoses of myofascial pain or arthralgia/osteoarthritis in combination with myofascial pain according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD). The temporomandibular joints of 60 consecutive patients, 19 with myofascial pain and 41 patients with arthralgia/osteoarthritis in combination with myofascial pain were examined clinically and with MRI. The most common MRI findings were disc displacements with or without reduction and structural bone changes. These findings were found in both pain groups, however, disc displacements were found significantly more often in patients with arthralgia/osteoarthritis in combination with myofascial pain. Joint fluid was found in both pain groups. The clinical

  10. Treatment with facemask and removable upper appliance versus modified tandem traction bow appliance: the effects on mandibular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Tuba; Kaygisiz, Emine; Erkun, Safak; Yuksel, Sema

    2017-10-20

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the mandibular arch posterior space changes in Class III patients treated with facemask (FM) with removable upper appliance or modified tandem traction bow appliance (MTTBA). Pre- and post-treatment and pre- and post-observation lateral cephalograms of 76 subjects with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion from the period 2000-10 years formed the materials of this study. In the first group, 25 patients (10 girls, 15 boys; mean age: 10 years, 1 month) were treated with MTTBA. The average treatment time was 12 months. In the second group, 26 patients were treated (13 girls, 13 boys; mean age: 10 years, 4 months) with a Delaire-type FM. The average treatment time was 13 months. The remaining 25 children (9 girls, 16 boys; mean age: 9 years, 8 months) were observed without treatment for 10 months. ANOVA, Duncan, and paired t-tests were used for statistical evaluation. Although ramus width and mandibular posterior space increased significantly in all groups, no significant differences were found among the groups. Significant increase in tipping of lower molar (L6/GoMe) in the MTTBA group showed a significant difference compared with the FM and control groups. Significant retroclination of the lower incisors (L1/NB) in the MTTBA and FM treatment groups was significantly different compared with the control group. Retroclination of lower incisors in the MTTBA group was significantly greater than that in the FM group. FM and MTTBA treatment approaches did not affect the dimensions of posterior space. To generalize the results of this study, long term evaluation by considering the third molar position should be done.

  11. A Numerical Model to Simulate the Motion of a Lifesaving Module During its Launching from the Ship’S Stern Ramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymarski Paweł

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a numerical model of object motion in six degrees of freedom (DoF which is intended to be used to simulate 3D motion of a lifesaving module during its launching from a ship using a stern ramp in rough sea. The model, of relatively high complexity, takes into account both the motion of the ship on water in changing sea conditions, and the relative motion of the ramp with respect to the ship.

  12. Cephalometric study of Class II Division 1 patients treated with an extended-duration, reinforced, banded Herbst appliance followed by fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblyn, Travis; Rogers, Michael; Andrews, Lee; Martin, Chris; Tremont, Timothy; Gunel, Erdogan; Ngan, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The Herbst appliance has been used in the treatment of Class II malocclusions with deficient mandibles. Various protocols, including different durations of the orthopedic treatment phase and stepwise advancement of the mandible, have been advocated for increasing the orthopedic effects. The objective of this study was to investigate the skeletal and dental changes in patients treated with a reinforced banded Herbst appliance for an extended duration and fixed appliance therapy. The study group consisted of 30 patients (16 boys, 14 girls; mean age, 12.3 ± 2.5 years) with Class II Division 1 malocclusions who were successfully treated with the new Herbst protocol followed by fixed appliances. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken before treatment, at the completion of Herbst treatment, and after removal of fixed appliances. The average treatment times were 1.5 ± 0.7 years for the Herbst treatment and 1.8 ± 0.5 years for the fixed appliances. A control Class II sample from the Bolton-Brush study was used to subtract growth from treatment changes to determine the appliance effect. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test. After the Herbst treatment, the incisal relationships of all subjects had been overcorrected to end-to-end relationships. Overjet was reduced by 7.2 mm after subtracting changes from growth. The skeletal contribution was 2.5 mm (35%), and the dental contribution was 4.7 mm (65%). The molar relationship was overcorrected to a more Class I relationship by 7.5 mm. The Wits appraisal was improved by 4.2 mm. Vertically, overbite was decreased by 3.3 mm. The maxillary and mandibular molars were extruded by 1 mm. The occlusal plane rotated clockwise by 5° with little change in the mandibular plane angle. After the treatment with fixed appliances, the overjet correction was maintained at 7.6 mm. The skeletal contribution was 2.9 mm (38%), and the dental contribution was 4.7 mm (62%). The molar

  13. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeevarathan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA, which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  14. Correction of class III malocclusion using modified tandem appliance-two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarathan, J; Koora, Kiran; Sudhakar, V; Muthu, M S; Prabhu, Rathna V

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal discrepancies in growing children can have great physical and psychological impact on their appearance. These deformities require orthopedic correction at an appropriate age to avoid future extensive management. Managing a midfacial deficiency or true mandibular prognathism is perhaps the most challenging situation for the clinician. Many orthopedic appliances like chin cup, facemask, and so on have been advocated to correct class III malocclusion. The major problems with these appliances are physical appearance, skin irritation from the anchorage pads and hence, less patient compliance. We present management of class III malocclusion in two children with modified tandem appliance (MTA), which is an intraoral appliance, with no extraoral anchorage, and has better patient compliance and cooperation.

  15. Comparison of soft-tissue profiles after treatment with headgear or Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Erin A C; Southard, Karin A; Qian, Fang; Stock, Suzanne E; Mann, Kyle R; Meyer, David L; Southard, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    Herbst and headgear appliances are considered effective for correcting Class II malocclusions in growing patients, although their skeletal and dental effects differ. In the literature, there is no comparison between profile esthetic outcomes with the Herbst and headgear. The purpose of this study was to provide that comparison. Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 48 matched pairs of growing Class II Division 1 patients treated with either the Herbst appliance or headgear (both combined with fixed appliances) were used to generate pretreatment and posttreatment standardized silhouettes. The silhouettes were randomly arranged and judged by lay people and orthodontic residents using a 7-point Likert scale. Statistical analyses including nonparametric procedures and intraclass correlation were used to compare initial, final, and change profile esthetic scores for the 2 groups of subjects and agreement between evaluators. Both groups of subjects had significant profile improvements with treatment (P headgear (both combined with fixed appliances) will benefit from significantly improved profiles that are equally attractive.

  16. Technical Appliance in E-Learning: Student’s Perception on the Usage of Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Mohd Johari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insights into student’s perception on the usage of technical appliances on online learning. The study took place in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM based on the sample of 1084 student s with the experiences of using E-learning Portal as one of the distance education academic programme. The students were surveyed on the participation needs based on respondent’s personal background, such as age, gender, ethnic groups, education streams and year-of-study. Results of the study showed even though most of the students felt uncertain about the technical appliances in E-learning Portal, the study illustrates the true nature of the student’s perceptions with respect to the functionality and effectiveness of technical appliance in E-learning Portal. This research is essential to elucidate the functions of technical appliances in facilitating the process of learning through the portal.

  17. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  18. Changes in 3D Midfacial Parameters after Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dave Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: These data support the notion that maxillary bone width and volume can be changed in nongrowing adults. Furthermore, midfacial redevelopment may provide a potentially-useful method of managing adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, using biomimetic, oral appliances.

  19. Poster Abstract: A Practical Model for Human-Smart Appliances Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, Jonathan; Fruergaard, Andreas; Johannesen, Marco Høvinghof

    2016-01-01

    for human-smart appliance interaction. We present a prototype implementation with an off-the-shelf smart lighting and heating system in a shared office space. Our approach minimizes the need for location metadata. It relies on a human-feedback loop (both sensor based and manual) to identify the optimal......Buildings are increasingly equipped with smart appliances that allow a fine grained adaption to personal comfort requirements. Such comfort adaption should be based on a human-feedback loop and not on a centralized comfort model. We argue that this feedback-loop should be achieved through local...... interaction with smart appliances. Two issues stand out: (1) How to impose logical locality when interacting with a smart appliance? (2) How to mediate conflicts between several persons in a room, or between building-wide policies and user preferences? We approach both problems by defining a general model...

  20. Home Appliances as Home Controllers: Concepts and Set-Top Box Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jovanovic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel softwarebased home control platform suitable as an extension to digital home appliances that are equipped with a CPU (settop boxes, home theatre systems, TV sets, gaming consoles, etc. By using an appliance they are already accustomed to, users become able to control lights, appliances and media playback in their homes. Intelligence and awareness are achieved with a support for execution of recipes – preprepared scripts that define timely actions and respond to triggers obtained from sensors. Software abstraction layer facilitates integration of any desired communication protocol. In our prototype, we supported Zigbee and DMX for light control, X10 for light/appliances control over power line, as well as Ethernet-based optical cameras as motion/presence sensors and UPnP/DLNA based equipment for distributed media playback.

  1. Development of a multimodal transportation educational virtual appliance (MTEVA) to study congestion during extreme tropical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    In this study, a prototype Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is developed to assist in transportation and cyberinfrastructure undergraduate education. This initial version of the MTEVA provides a graphical user interface...

  2. Emissions from residential gas-fired appliances. Topical report, December 1982-March 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.T.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1985-02-01

    Emission data from over 200 residential gas-fired appliances were obtained through a literature survey, catalogued, and reviewed. Both vented and unvented equipment were included in the study. Emission factors for nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/), carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons, total aldehydes, and other trace constituents were compiled for 9 appliance categories. Emission factors were found to be dependent on appliance design and operation and test method. Specifically, burner type, primary aeration, impingement of a flame on a surface, length of burner on-time, location of the appliance during a test and test protocol were all found to influence emissions. Methods of reducing emissions through burner modification and re-design were also compiled and presented.

  3. Prosthodontic Management of Segmental Mandibulectomy Patient with Guidance Appliance and Overlay Denture

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna, U.; Thulasingam, C.

    2012-01-01

    Patients who undergo segmental or hemi-mandibulectomy suffer from various postoperative problems in esthetics and function. The solution to such problem is providing a mandibular guidance appliance to correct mandibular deviation to resected side due to loss of muscle action on the affected side. This article describes the treatment of a female patient who underwent segmental mandibulectomy on right side secondary to adenoid cystic carcinoma of the base of tongue. An acrylic guidance applianc...

  4. Brodie syndrome in early mixed dentition treated with adhesive removable appliance A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Soldevilla Galarza, Luciano; Dpto. Académico Estomatología Pediátrica. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.; Ramos Torres, Viviana; Estudiante de Pregrado 5º año. Facultad Odontología. UNMSM. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    We reported a clinical case of crossed vestibular posterior bilateral bite identified as the Brodie bite that compromises the use of a bonded removable appliance with reverse screw action in the upper maxillary and the use of lower Bihelix. The purpose of modifications of the design permits the expansion appliance to be used in reverse mode mainly in the correction of the Brodie bite in the early mixed dentition. The goals of the treatment were to achieve the correct interception between the ...

  5. Effects of maxillary expansion and placebo effect of appliances on nocturnal enuresis – preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Oshagh, Morteza; Bahramnia, Fateme; Aminsharifi, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghodrati, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal enuresis has been found a common symptom among children with breathing problems and sleep apnea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and placebo effects of slow maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods Four children with enuresis aged 7–12 years were selected. Rigid acrylic expansion appliances were fabricated and delivered to them. Frequency of enuresis was recorded by the parents during three stages: 1) before appliance del...

  6. Assessment of nickel release from various dental appliances used routinely in pediatric dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Parimala; Agrawal, Suchi; Bansal, Arpana; Jain, Ankur; Tiwari, Utkarsh; Anand, Ayushi

    2016-01-01

    Context: The use of nickel-containing alloys in dentistry has been questioned because of the biological liabilities of nickel and the release of nickel ions from dental appliances into the oral cavity. The potential health hazards of nickel and chromium and their compounds have been the focus of attention for more than 100 years. It has established that these metals could cause hypersensitivity. Aims: To assess the nickel release from various dental appliances used in pediatric dentistry. Set...

  7. Clinical Effectiveness of Using Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances with Combined Occlusal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Biben

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions. Aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface demonstrated high functional and aesthetic characteristics. The use of the USHPS system showed a decisive advantage of milled frameworks and combined occlusal surface over traditional cast ceramic frameworks.The combination of high mechanical, strength and tribological properties of zirconium dioxide and high biological as well as aesthetic properties of ceramic materials helped reveal high clinical characteristics of aesthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface.

  8. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  9. Efficacy of modified pendulum appliance for the correction of class II malocclusion: A clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Koul; Ayushi Singla; Anil Singla; Vivek Mahajan; Harupinder Singh Jaj; Priyanka Negi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the efficiency of pendulum appliance for distalizing maxillary first molar while decreasing the anchorage loss by banding first and second premolar and making them one unit. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 20 patients (mean age 13 ± 2 years) who had skeletal Class I and Angle's Class II molar relation. Modified pendulum appliance was given to distalize maxillary first molar and to decrease the anchorage los...

  10. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic demands of young age groups. PMID:23956884

  11. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Łatuszyńska

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable) in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data e...

  12. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Livas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic demands of young age groups.

  13. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  14. Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Li; Chieng, Joyce; Wong, Connie; Benic, Gareth; Farella, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males) wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI). A questionnaire was used to collect patient's information, including gender, age, treatment motivation, and frequency of tooth brushing. Gingival (PI score = 0.9 ± 0.7), mesial (0.8 ± 0.6), and distal (0.8 ± 0.5) areas accumulated more biofilm than occlusal areas (0.3 ± 0.3) (P biofilm than other teeth (P biofilm than mandibular arch (0.6 ± 0.6) (P = 0.042). No significant difference was found between the right side (0.7 ± 0.7) and left side (0.7 ± 0.6) (P = 0.627). Less biofilm was found in females (0.6 ± 0.5), adults (0.3 ± 0.3), and "self-motivated" patients (0.3 ± 0.3), compared with males (0.9 ± 0.5), children (0.8 ± 0.6), and "family-motivated" patients (1.1 ± 0.5) (P biofilm was associated with self-report of the frequency of daily tooth brushing (P biofilm accumulation on the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines, particularly in the gingival area and areas behind arch wires. Less biofilm was observed in female and adult patients and in those who were self-motivated and brushed their teeth more often.

  15. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  16. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  17. Performance of Remotely Controlled Mandibular Protrusion Sleep Studies for Prediction of Oral Appliance Treatment Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Ngiam, Joachim; Cistulli, Peter A

    2017-03-15

    Mandibular protrusion during sleep monitoring has been proposed as a method to predict oral appliance treatment outcome. A commercial remotely controlled mandibular protrusion (RCMP) device has become available for this purpose with predictive accuracy demonstrated in an initial study. Our aim was to validate this RCMP method for oral appliance treatment outcome prediction in a clinical sleep laboratory setting. Forty-two obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 10 events/h) were recruited to undergo a RCMP sleep study before commencing oral appliance treatment. The RCMP study was used to make a prediction of treatment "Success" or "Failure" based on a rule of ≤ 1 respiratory event per 5 min supine rapid eye movement sleep. Oral appliance treatment response was verified by polysomonography and defined as treatment AHI 30 events/h). Two participants (5%) were not able to tolerate the RCMP study. Oral appliance treatment outcome was verified in 33 participants (RCMP results: "Success" n = 10, "Failure" n = 15, "Inconclusive" n = 8). In those with a treatment outcome prediction (n = 25) the diagnostic characteristics of the RCMP test were sensitivity 81.8%, specificity 92.9%, positive predictive value 90%, and negative predictive value 86.7% (n = 3 misclassified). The RCMP device was well tolerated by patients and successfully used to perform mandibular protrusion sleep studies in our sleep laboratory. The RCMP sleep study showed good accuracy as a prediction technique for oral appliance treatment outcome, although there was a high rate of inconclusive tests.

  18. Life-saving vascular access in vascular capital exhaustion: single center experience in intra-atrial catheters for hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Intra-atrial catheter (IAC placement through an open surgical approach has emerged as a life-saving technique in hemodialysis (HD patients with vascular access exhaustion. Objective: To assess the complications of IAC placement, as well as patient and vascular access survival after this procedure. Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed all seven patients with vascular capital exhaustion, without immediate alternative renal replacement therapy (RRT, who underwent IAC placement between January 2004 and December 2015 at a single center. Results: Seven patients were submitted to twelve IAC placements. Bleeding (6/7 and infections (3/7 were the main complications in the early postoperative period. Two (2/7, 29% patients died from early complications and 5/7 were discharged with a properly functioning IAC. The most frequent late complication was catheter accidental dislodgement in all remaining five patients, followed by catheter thrombosis and catheter-related infections in the same proportion (2/5. During follow-up, two of five patients died from vascular accesses complications. After IAC failure, one patient was transferred to peritoneal dialysis and a kidney transplant was performed in the other. Only one patient remains on HD after the third IAC, with a survival of 50 months. The mean patient survival after IAC placement was 19 ± 25 (0-60 months and the mean IAC patency was 8 ± 11 (0-34 months. Conclusion: Placing an IAC to perform HD is associated to significant risks and high mortality. However, when alternative RRT are exhausted, or as a bridge to others modalities, this option should be considered.

  19. Oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Kate; Vanderveken, Olivier M; Tsuda, Hiroko; Marklund, Marie; Gagnadoux, Frederic; Kushida, Clete A; Cistulli, Peter A

    2014-02-15

    Oral appliances (OA) have emerged as an alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) treatment. The most commonly used OA reduces upper airway collapse by advancing the mandible (OAm). There is a strong evidence base demonstrating OAm improve OSA in the majority of patients, including some with more severe disease. However OAm are not efficacious for all, with approximately one-third of patients experiencing no therapeutic benefit. OAm are generally well tolerated, although short-term adverse effects during acclimatization are common. Long-term dental changes do occur, but these are for the most part subclinical and do not preclude continued use. Patients often prefer OAm to gold-standard CPAP treatment. Head-to-head trials confirm CPAP is superior in reducing OSA parameters on polysomnography; however, this greater efficacy does not necessarily translate into better health outcomes in clinical practice. Comparable effectiveness of OAm and CPAP has been attributed to higher reported nightly use of OAm, suggesting that inferiority in reducing apneic events may be counteracted by greater treatment adherence. Recently, significant advances in commercially available OAm technologies have been made. Remotely controlled mandibular positioners have the potential to identify treatment responders and the level of therapeutic advancement required in single night titration polysomnography. Objective monitoring of OAm adherence using small embedded temperature sensing data loggers is now available and will enhance clinical practice and research. These technologies will further enhance efficacy and effectiveness of OAm treatment for OSA.

  20. The Effectiveness and Clinical Usability of a Handheld Information Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A. Abbott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical environments are complex, stressful, and safety critical—heightening the demand for technological solutions that will help clinicians manage health information efficiently and safely. The industry has responded by creating numerous, increasingly compact and powerful health IT devices that fit in a pocket, hook to a belt, attach to eyeglasses, or wheel around on a cart. Untethering a provider from a physical “place” with compact, mobile technology while delivering the right information at the right time and at the right location are generally welcomed in clinical environments. These developments however, must be looked at ecumenically. The cognitive load of clinicians who are occupied with managing or operating several different devices during the process of a patient encounter is increased, and we know from decades of research that cognitive overload frequently leads to error. “Technology crowding,” enhanced by the plethora of mobile health IT, can actually become an additional millstone for busy clinicians. This study was designed to gain a deeper understanding of clinicians’ interactions with a mobile clinical computing appliance (Motion Computing C5 designed to consolidate numerous technological functions into an all-in-one device. Features of usability and comparisons to current methods of documentation and task performance were undertaken and results are described.

  1. Dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Zeynep; Tortop, Tuba

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dentofacial effects of a modified tandem traction bow appliance (modified TTBA) in skeletal Class III subjects, and the effect of age on treatment response. The material consisted of the pre-treatment/pre-observation and post-treatment/post-observation lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist films of 45 children with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusions. Thirty patients were treated with a modified TTBA. Two treatment groups of 15 patients each were formed: an early (nine girls, six boys; mean skeletal age: 8.18 ± 0.50 years) and a late treatment (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 11.75 ± 1.00 years) group. The remaining 15 children (5 girls, 10 boys; mean skeletal age: 7.90 ± 0.62 years) were observed without treatment for 8 months and served as a control for the early treatment group. Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used for statistical analysis. Significant forward maxillary movement was determined in both treatment groups (P skeletal correction of the Class III malocclusion was achieved.

  2. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  3. Management of class II malocclusion in an adolescent patient with “The Poosh Appliance”: An in office fabricated fixed functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam K Manik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Class II malocclusions with mandibular retrognathism are best managed with functional orthopedic appliances. Patients reporting before peak pubertal growth are treated with removable functional appliances. Young adults or Class II patients in late adolescence have been treated most effectively using fixed functional appliances (FFAs in combination with fixed orthodontic appliance. In such patients, some skeletal changes but largely dentoalveolar changes account for the treatment results. Most of the readily available FFAs have high cost or require laboratory fabrication. Both mandibular protraction appliance (MPA and churro jumper appliance are in-office-fabricated FFAs. The Poosh appliance is a newly designed in-office-fabricated FFA. It is a modification of the popular churro jumper appliance. This article presents the design, fabrication, and use of Poosh appliance in a 15-year-old male patient to manage Class II malocclusion successfully.

  4. Assessment of need and capacity to benefit for people with a disability requiring aids, appliances and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso, Malcolm; Owen, Alan; Stevermuer, Tara; Williams, Kathryn; Eagar, Kathy

    2009-10-01

    To develop an equitable system for allocating equipment, aids and appliances to adults with disabilities based on assessment of need and capacity to benefit for use by occupational therapists, who are the main professional group involved in assessing and prioritising applications. An assessment tool was developed, pilot tested and field tested at four sites in New South Wales. Assessments were undertaken in parallel with existing systems. Feedback on use of the tool was obtained from those conducting the assessments and those making decisions to fund applications for equipment based on the assessments. One hundred and six assessments were undertaken. Applications for bed, sleeping and seating equipment and equipment to assist with mobility, toileting, showering and transfers accounted for 94.2% of equipment requested. Provision of equipment was expected to have greatest impact on the physical effort and safety of carers and the safety and quality of life of applicants. Regression analysis identified assessment items that explain variation between applicants and that can avoid unnecessary data collection. The assessment tool provides a standardised method for assessing requests for equipment based on the twin concepts of need and capacity to benefit. The results support the use of both concepts as the foundation of the assessment process. Further development is required, particularly to move to the next stage of using the assessment tool as the basis for prioritising applications for equipment.

  5. The Design of Non-occlusal Intraoral Appliances on Hard Palate and Their Effect on Masseter Muscle Activity during Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    長谷川, 浩一

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to reveal whether masseter muscle activity during sleep is affected by the difference in design of non-occlusal intraoral appliances on hard palate. Eight healthy Japanese participants were selected and wore each of the four types of appliances (horse shoe, thin, thick and medium thick) during sleep for one week with a one week interval without appliance during sleep. A masseter muscle electromyograph (EMG) was recorded during sleep. The EMG activities were analyzed by calcul...

  6. Perceived Effectiveness, Self-Efficacy, And Social Support For Oral Appliance Therapy Among Older Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    OpenAIRE

    Carballo, Nancy J.; Alessi, Cathy A.; Martin, Jennifer L.; Mitchell, Michael N.; Hays, Ron D.; Col, Nananda; Patterson, Emily S.; Jouldjian, Stella; Josephson, Karen; Fung, Constance H.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder among older adults. Oral appliances are increasingly prescribed as therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. Adherence to oral appliance therapy is highly variable. Based on value-expectancy theory and other social-psychological theories, adherence to oral appliance therapy may be influenced by patients' perceived effectiveness of the therapy, self-efficacy, and availability of social support. We examined these perceptions among older adults wi...

  7. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Thomali, Yousef; Basha, Sakeenabi; Mohamed, Roshan Noor

    2017-08-01

    The main purpose of the present systematic review was to evaluate the quantitative effects of the pendulum appliance and modified pendulum appliances for maxillary molar distalization in Class II malocclusion. Our systematic search included MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus and key journals and review articles; the date of the last search was 30 January 2017. We graded the methodological quality of the studies by means of the Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies, developed for the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP). In total, 203 studies were identified for screening, and 25 studies were eligible. The quality assessment rated four (16%) of the study as being of strong quality and 21 (84%) of these studies as being of moderate quality. The pendulum appliances showed mean molar distalization of 2-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 6.67° to 14.50° and anchorage loss with mean premolar and incisor mesial movement of 1.63-3.6 mm and 0.9-6.5 mm, respectively. The bone anchored pendulum appliances (BAPAs) showed mean molar distalization of 4.8-6.4 mm, distal tipping of molars from 9° to 11.3° and mean premolar distalization of 2.7-5.4 mm. Pendulum and modified pendulum appliances are effective in molar distalization. Pendulum appliance with K-loop modification, implant supported pendulum appliance and BAPA significantly reduced anchorage loss of the anterior teeth and distal tipping of the molar teeth.

  8. Treatment effects of various prescriptions and techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Eliades, Theodore

    2017-09-01

    Although several prescriptions and techniques exist for comprehensive fixed appliance treatment, their treatment effects have not yet been adequately assessed in an evidence-based manner. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the therapeutic and adverse effects of various prescriptions or techniques for orthodontic appliances from randomized clinical trials on human patients. Eight databases were searched up to July 2016 for randomized trials assessing any orthodontic prescriptions or techniques in human patients. After elimination of duplicate studies, data extraction, and risk of bias assessment according to the Cochrane guidelines, random effects meta-analyses with mean differences (MD) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed. Compared to Roth preadjusted appliances, both Begg and modified Begg appliances were associated with statistically significantly worse occlusal outcome assessed with Peer Assessment Review (PAR) scores (1 trial, MD 3.1 points, 95% CI 1.9-4.3 points and 1 trial, MD 2.4 points, 95% CI 1.2-3.6 points, respectively) with low quality of evidence, due to bias and imprecision. Compared to a partially programmed fixed orthodontic appliance, a fully programmed appliance was associated with a statistically significant, but clinically irrelevant increase in treatment duration (1 trial, MD 2.4 months, 95% CI 0.6-4.2 months), supported by high quality of evidence. However, caution is needed in the interpretation of these results as only a limited number of small trials with methodological issues were available. Based on existing trials, there is limited evidence to support any robust clinical recommendation regarding the prescriptions or techniques for fixed orthodontic appliances. Registration: PROSPERO (CRD42016042727). None.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating intraoral orthopedic appliances for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricton, James; Look, John O; Wright, Edward; Alencar, Francisco G P; Chen, Hong; Lang, Maureen; Ouyang, Wei; Velly, Ana Miriam

    2010-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that have assessed the efficacy of intraoral orthopedic appliances to reduce pain in patients with temporomandibular disorders affecting muscle and joint (TMJD) compared to subjects receiving placebo control, no treatment, or other treatments. A search strategy of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane CENTRAL Register, and manual search identified all English language publications of RCTs for intraoral appliance treatment of TMJD pain during the years of January 1966 to March 2006. Two additional studies from 2006 were added during the review process. Selection criteria included RCTs assessing the efficacy of hard and soft stabilization appliances, anterior positioning appliances, anterior bite appliances, and other appliance types for TMJD pain. Pain relief outcome measures were used in the meta-analyses, and the QUORUM criteria for data abstraction were used. A quality analysis of the methods of each RCT was conducted using the CONSORT criteria. The review findings were expressed both as a qualitative review and, where possible, as a mathematical synthesis using meta-analysis of results. A total of 47 publications citing 44 RCTs with 2,218 subjects were included. Ten RCTs were included in two meta-analyses. In the first meta-analysis of seven studies with 385 patients, a hard stabilization appliance was found to improve TMJD pain compared to non-occluding appliance. The overall odds ratio (OR) of 2.46 was statistically significant (P = .001), with a 95% confidence interval of 1.56 to 3.67. In the second meta-analysis of three studies including 216 patients, a hard stabilization appliance was found to improve TMJD pain compared to no-treatment controls. The overall OR of 2.15 was positive but not statistically significant, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.80 to 5.75. The quality (0 to 1) of the studies was moderate, with a mean of 55% of quality criteria being met

  10. Perceived Effectiveness, Self-efficacy, and Social Support for Oral Appliance Therapy Among Older Veterans With Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Nancy J; Alessi, Cathy A; Martin, Jennifer L; Mitchell, Michael N; Hays, Ron D; Col, Nananda; Patterson, Emily S; Jouldjian, Stella; Josephson, Karen; Fung, Constance H

    2016-11-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a prevalent sleep disorder among older adults. Oral appliances are increasingly prescribed as therapy for obstructive sleep apnea. Adherence to oral appliance therapy is highly variable. Based on value-expectancy theory and other social-psychological theories, adherence to oral appliance therapy may be influenced by patients' perceived effectiveness of the therapy, self-efficacy, and availability of social support. We examined these perceptions among older adults with obstructive sleep apnea who were prescribed oral appliance therapy. We mailed surveys to all patients aged ≥65 years who had been prescribed oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnea over the prior 36 months at a Veterans Affairs medical center. We examined frequencies of responses to items that assessed perceived effectiveness, self-efficacy, and social support for nightly use of oral appliances from friends, family, or health care staff. Thirty-nine individuals responded (response rate, 30%; mean [SD] age 71.4 [SD 6.3] years; 97% male). Thirty-six percent of the respondents perceived regular use of oral appliance therapy to be effective in managing obstructive sleep apnea; 39% agreed that they felt confident about using oral appliances regularly; 41% felt supported by people in their life in using oral appliance therapy; and 38% agreed that health care staff would help them to use their oral appliance regularly. These rates represented less than half of respondents despite the finding that 65% of patients believed that they would use their oral appliance regularly. Although oral appliance therapy is increasingly prescribed for obstructive sleep apnea, only about one third of older adults prescribed it perceived it to be an effective treatment, were confident about oral appliance use, and/or believed that they would receive needed support. Future research is needed to better understand older adults' perceptions so that interventions can be designed to improve the

  11. Assessment of the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, Claudia; Ghisi, Enedir

    2010-09-15

    In many countries the residential sector accounts for about 20.0% of the electricity consumption, which increases the concern about energy savings. The main objective of this paper is to assess the impact of energy-efficient household appliances on the electricity consumption of the Brazilian residential sector by using electricity end-use data. The consumption of each appliance is obtained based on official data from existing studies, being estimated for a dwelling and for the whole residential sector. Results indicate that the potential for energy savings by replacing existing appliances with energy-efficient household appliances would be 29.5% in the residential sector of Brazil.

  12. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  13. Circumpubertal skeletal Class II patient treated using herbst functional appliance an comprehensive fixed mechanotheraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeeda Laeque Bangi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal classII div I malocclusion are common orthodontic problem due to mandibular deficiencies. This problem could be addressed by stimulating sagittal mandibular growth by using functional and fixed functional appliance which can be used during pre and post pubertal growth period. Herbst appliance being rigid fixed functional appliance is beneficial in treatment of post pubertal skeletal class II patients and does not depend on patients compliance. A female patient of age 12 years with post pubertal growth status by 6 months, reported to the department of orthodontics. On extraoral examination she had a convex profile with retrognathic mandible and everted lower lip. Intraoral examination revealed class II molar relationship and end on canine relationship on both side, over jet of 7 mm and overbite of 4 mm. Since patient was post pubertal by 6 months growth modulation procedure was carried out with Herbst appliance for a period of 8 months followed by fixed appliance therapy for one year 4 months to correct the dento alveolar problems. Post treatment results showed that combination of Herbst and fixed mechanotheraphy using 0.022 slot was effective in the treatment of skeletal and dental irregularities in a short period of time.

  14. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II on class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassaei S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Materials and Methods: In this before-after clinical trial, 35 patients with class II div I malocclusion were selected. These samples were under treatment with Fa II appliance for 11 months. The range of age of females was 10-13 years and males 11-14 years. Combination analysis was used to determine skeletal and dental effects. Paired t-test was used to compare the differences of mean value pre and post treatment. P<0.05 was considered as the level of significance. Results: There was significant difference between pre and post treatment in respect to posterior and anterior facial height, eruption of upper and lower posterior teeth, eruption of upper anterior teeth, mandibular body length, ANB angle, IMPA and 1 to SN. No significant difference was observed between pre and post treatment regarding facial growth.Conclusion: Treatment with Fa II functional appliance leads to significant alterations in dental and skeletal elements of craniofacial complex and improvement of dental and jaws relationship.

  15. Selection of response criteria affects the success rate of oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tatsuya; Tsuiki, Satoru; Kobayashi, Mina; Nakayama, Hideaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-03-01

    In oral appliance therapy for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), treatment success is arbitrarily defined. We investigated if the selection of response criteria affected the success rate of oral appliance treatment. The effects of an oral appliance on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nadir percutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) were investigated in 224 OSA patients. Treatment success was defined as a reduction in AHI to 50% reduction in baseline AHI (criterion 1), a follow-up AHI of 50% reduction in baseline AHI (criterion 2), a >50% reduction in baseline AHI alone (criterion 3), or a >50% reduction in baseline AHI with the nadir SpO2 above 90% (criterion 4). The baseline AHI was reduced with an oral appliance in place compared with the follow-up value (23 ± 11-8.5 ± 8.7 events/h; Poral appliance treatment. To avoid adverse health outcomes, an adjunct definition of treatment success using SpO2 may be effective for patients who have more severe OSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Energy Efficiency: The Implementation of Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS Application on Home Appliances for Residential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman K.A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, Minimum Energy Performance Standard (MEPS has been widespread across the country especially developed country. However, most consumers do not even know about the MEPS. Without sufficient knowledge, much energy have been wasted before this. The aim of this study is to review the implementation of MEPS of Asia country and to compare electricity consumption of home appliances with star rating and without star rating. In order to fulfil the objectives of the study, the equipment must be chosen correctly and must be learned properly. The home appliances that will be used also need to be chosen so that the comparison between the appliances will be matched correctly. To understand the results, the analysis was done using graphs and table. The purpose of using graph and table is to understand the comparison between appliances more clearly. The results show that home appliances with MEPS is more efficient on energy saving rather than without MEPS. This is the evidence as a method to educate a consumer on energy saving.

  17. Estimation and comparison of ostomy appliance costs with tariffs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2008-02-01

    This study estimated costs of production and distribution of ostomy appliances, and compared cost estimates with tariffs in Belgium. The cost model took into account manufacturing costs, overhead, R&D, warehousing, profits, and distribution margins. Data were derived from manufacturers, a decomposition of finished products, and interviews with stakeholders. The cost model generated estimated retail prices of euro 2.96 for one-piece appliances, euro 1.62 for two-piece pouches, and euro 2.06 for two-piece flanges. Production and distribution costs accounted for 40 and 60% of retail prices, respectively. Estimated retail prices corresponded well with tariffs for one-piece appliances and for two-piece pouches. For two-piece regular flanges, a substantial difference was observed between the calculated price of euro 2.06 and the tariffs of euro 6.05. In the absence of publicly disclosed information on the cost structure of appliances, estimating ostomy appliance costs is valuable to reimbursement agencies when setting tariffs.

  18. DNA damage in oral mucosa cells of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Heravi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The release of toxic metal ions from orthodontic alloys has induced concerns regarding the biocompatibility of fixed appliances. This study investigated the genotoxic effect of metal appliances in a sample of patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment.The study included twenty-five healthy individuals requiring orthodontic therapy in both jaws. The patients were treated by stainless steel orthodontic brackets and nickel-titanium or stainless steel arch wires. The oral mucosa cells were gathered just before the appliance placement and 9 months later. The cells were centrifuged, fixed and dropped onto slides. After staining, the micronucleus (MN assay was used to determine genome alteration. The data were analyzed by paired sample t-test.The mean micronuclei frequency in the buccal mucosa was 10.6 ± 5.7 per 1000 cells before the appliance placement and 9.2 ± 6.37 per 1000 cells 9 months later. No significant difference was found in the MN count before and 9 months after therapy (p=0.336.Under the conditions used in this study, application of fixed orthodontic appliances did not expose healthy individuals to increased risk of DNA damage in oral mucosa cells.

  19. OSAS treatment with oral appliance: assessment of our experience through the use of a new device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, G; Azzuni, C; Rinaldo, F M D; Cervelli, D; Marianetti, T M; Sferrazza, A; Pelo, S

    2013-02-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is defined as repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway and oxygen desaturation of the arterial hemoglobin. OSAS is associated with loud snoring, excessive daytime sleepiness, cardiovascular and neurocognitive disease, increase risk of road accidents. The aim of this study is to evaluate non-surgical therapy for OSAS using a mandibular advancement device (MAD) that provides for lower jaw protrusion and for an adequate vertical opening, that allows for greater airflow. The device was assembled using the working principles of "Herbst-like" appliances and splints of neuromuscular deprogramming of the "Federici" type used for gnathologic treatments. We selected 17 males and 4 females, with an average age of 42 years, and an average BMI of 29. Eighteen patients were treated with our oral appliance, 1 patient was treated with the orthesis proposed by Schmidt-Nowara et al and 2 patients were treated with the oral appliance proposed by Johal and Battagel. All patients used the appliance for at least 6 months. After treatment with the oral appliance, the posterior airway space increased (p = 0.0002); no statistically significant difference for the improvement degree of OSAS severity (p = 0.1085) was shown; an improvement was found in: AHI (p = 0.0028); Nadir O2 (p = 0.0035); TO2 TMJ) discomfort. Our MAD has proved effective in improving the polysomnographic and radiographic parameters and assures good TMJ compliance.

  20. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  1. Evaluation of temporomandibular disorders in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Diego; Oberti, Giovanni; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-03-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in Class III patients treated with mandibular cervical headgear (MCH) and fixed appliances. The sample of 75 patients included 25 patients with no previous orthodontic treatment, 25 Class I patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances and without extractions, and 25 patients with dentoskeletal Class III disharmonies treated with MCH and fixed appliances. The Helkimo index was used to test the prevalence of TMD symptoms in the 3 groups. The prevalence rates of the Helkimo index in the 3 groups were compared with the z score on proportions. No statistically significant differences in the prevalence rates of the Helkimo index scores in the 3 groups were found (P = .367). Most subjects in the 3 groups had an Helkimo index of zero (66.7%). Subjects with Class III malocclusions treated with MCH and fixed appliances do not have greater prevalence of TMD symptoms than do Class I subjects treated with fixed appliances or untreated subjects.

  2. Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator: a new appliance for Class II correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Hasan Alali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article demonstrates the description and use of a new appliance for Class II correction. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A case report of a 10-year 5 month-old girl who presented with a skeletally-based Class II division 1 malocclusion (ANB = 6.5º on a slightly low-angle pattern, with ML-NSL angle of 30º and ML-NL angle of 22.5º. Overjet was increased (7 mm and associated with a deep bite. RESULTS: Overjet and overbite reduction was undertaken with the new appliance, Fixed Lingual Mandibular Growth Modificator (FLMGM. CONCLUSION: FLMGM may be effective in stimulating the growth of the mandible and correcting skeletal Class II malocclusions. Clinicians can benefit from the unique clinical advantages that FLMGM provides, such as easy handling and full integration with bracketed appliance at any phase.

  3. Remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy for advanced maxillary cancer. Treatment with individual appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horimoto, Susumu; Kakei, Masaki; Saito, Tomokatsu [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others

    1998-08-01

    Seven advanced maxillary cancers, 5 squamous cell carcinomas, and 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas were treated with remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy. For treatment, we fabricated individual dental acrylic appliances for the postoperative area of the oral cavity. Because the appliance was specially matched to the remaining maxillary structures, radiation doses to the treated area were easily reproduced without distress to the patient. However, minor or major complications (moderate or severe mucositis and osteoradionecrosis) were observed in all patients. In this study, the number of patients was too small to assess the significance of this treatment. Nevertheless, with improvements, we think that remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy with a dental acrylic appliance will soon be used to treat advanced maxillary carcinoma. (author)

  4. Application of smart technology in monitoring and control of home appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Abdulrazaq

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inherent dependency of home appliances on human for monitoring and control has been found to be mainly responsible for power wastage, and increase in the rate of wear and tear, which invariably implies additional spending on the part of owners. The smart technology provides a way out. This paper presents an automated system which is based on arduino and android device for monitoring and controlling appliances to prevent the wastage of power. The system design is based on the Microcontroller MIKRO-C software, active sensors and wireless internet services which is used in different monitoring and control processes of fan, air-conditioner, light and heater. The system when tested performs efficiently in monitoring and controlling through switching the appliances in the room based on human presence and environmental changes due to light intensity and temperature variation.

  5. Environmental emission mitigation potential of efficient electrical appliances in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, R.M.; Shrestha, R. [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). Energy Program; Fernando, W.J.L.S. [Sri Lanka Energy Managers` Association, Colombo (Slovakia)

    1998-08-01

    This study assesses the techno-economic potential of selected efficient demand-side appliances to mitigate emission of air pollutants from the power sector of Sri Lanka. The study shows that through the use of the selected efficient appliances a total of about 38 646 GWh (i.e. 18.5% of total electricity generation) and about 25.6% (29 541,000 tons), 34.2% (293,000 tons) and 34.6% (374,000 tons) of the total COsub(2), SOsub(2) and NOsub(x) emission respectively could be avoided during 1997-2015 with the use of the efficient appliances from the technical and national economic perspectives. (author)

  6. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciate the legal significance of consent. "Every human being ... {2} Nothing in this article shall affect the provisions of laws ... (1 A court may, at any stage of a case, order that the accused .... undue influence, incapacitated person is invalid.

  7. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea patients using oral appliances: Our experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljuš Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is one of the most prevalent sleep disorders. It is recognized as a serious risk factor for car and workplace accidents due to daytime sleepiness, and factor for coronary heart diseases and stroke. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of oral appliances for mandibular advance in treating mild to moderate OSA. Methods. A total of 15 patients were included in this study, all diagnosed with mild or moderate OSA. Oral appliances were custom made for each patient in protrusive position at 50% of maximum mandibular advancement. The patients were given instructions not to sleep on their backs and avoid alcohol consumption during the study as these are the factors that can contribute to symptoms progression. Results. Complete and partial treatment success was achieve in 14 of the patients. Apnea-hypopnea index values were significantly lower (p < 0.05 at the end of a 6-month observation period compared to those at the treatment beginning. A great improvement in symptoms was observed, with daytime sleepiness index values significantly reduced already within the first month of the treatment. Conclusion. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with oral appliances has proven successful. Patients were comfortable using oral appliances and were ready to wear them for prolonged period of time. Use of oral appliances is very common in the world and should not be discarded. They are also very comfortable, practical and affordable comparing to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP apparatus, not to mention surgery. Use of oral appliances is safe and very well tolerated, and ought to be offered to patients with OSA.

  8. Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang

    2006-07-10

    China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

  9. Modeling of GE Appliances in GridLAB-D: Peak Demand Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Vyakaranam, Bharat GNVSR; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Leistritz, Sean M.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-04-29

    The widespread adoption of demand response enabled appliances and thermostats can result in significant reduction to peak electrical demand and provide potential grid stabilization benefits. GE has developed a line of appliances that will have the capability of offering several levels of demand reduction actions based on information from the utility grid, often in the form of price. However due to a number of factors, including the number of demand response enabled appliances available at any given time, the reduction of diversity factor due to the synchronizing control signal, and the percentage of consumers who may override the utility signal, it can be difficult to predict the aggregate response of a large number of residences. The effects of these behaviors can be modeled and simulated in open-source software, GridLAB-D, including evaluation of appliance controls, improvement to current algorithms, and development of aggregate control methodologies. This report is the first in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE's demand response enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report will describe the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The second and third reports will explore the potential of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation and the effects on volt-var control schemes.

  10. Changes in subgingival microflora after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković-Sandić Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The placement of fixed orthodontic appliances may lead to increased plaque accumulation and changes in subgingival microflora. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in frequency of subgingival microflora that occur after placement and removal of fixed orthodontic appliance using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Methods. This study included 33 orthodontic patients, who were divided into two groups. Subgingival plaque samples were collected from the right upper incisor (U1 and right upper first molar (U6. In group A, the samples were taken three times: before placement appliance (T1, after one month (T2, and after 3 months (T3. In group B the samples were also taken three times: before appliance removal (T1, after one month (T2, and after three months (T3. PCR method was used to determine the presence of P. gingivalis, A. actinomycetemcomitans, T. forsythia, and P. intermedia. Results. In group A the frequency of P. gingivalis showed statistically significant decrease at U1 (p=0.049 and U6 (p=0.008, from T1 to T2, and at U1 (p=0.048 from T1 to T3. In group B only the frequency of T. forsythia showed a statistically significant decrease, at U6 (T1 vs. T2, p=0.004; T1 vs. T3, p=0.0003. Regarding other analyzed bacteria, changes in the presence were noticed but no statistical significance was found. Conclusion. Placement of fixed appliances may have an impact on subgingival microflora, but in the first months after the placement and removal of the appliance changes were not significant, probably due to good oral hygiene. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175075

  11. Fabrication of a resin appliance with alloy components using digital technology without an analog impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mortadi, Noor; Jones, Quentin; Eggbeer, Dominic; Lewis, Jeffrey; Williams, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a resin appliance incorporating "wire" components without the use of an analog impression and dental casts using an intraoral scanner and computer technology to build the appliance. This unique alignment of technology offers an enormous reduction in the number of fabrication steps when compared with more traditional methods of manufacture. The prototype incorporated 2 Adams clasps and a fitted labial bow. The alloy components were built from cobalt-chromium in an initial powdered form using established digital technology methods and then inserted into a build of a resin base plate. This article reports the first known use of computer-aided design and additive manufacture to fabricate a resin and alloy appliance, and constitutes proof of the concept for such manufacturing. The original workflow described could be seen as an example for many other similar appliances, perhaps with active components. The scan data were imported into an appropriate specialized computer-aided design software, which was used in conjunction with a force feedback (haptic) interface. The appliance designs were then exported as stereolithography files and transferred to an additive manufacturing machine for fabrication. The results showed that the applied techniques may provide new manufacturing and design opportunities in orthodontics and highlights the need for intraoral-specific additive manufacture materials to be produced and tested for biocompatibility compliance. In a trial, the retainer was fitted orally and judged acceptable by the clinician according to the typical criteria when placing such appliances in situ. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pollutant Emission Factors from Residential Natural Gas Appliances: A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Chang, G.-M.

    1996-08-01

    There is a need to reduce air pollutant emissions in some U.S. urban regions to meet federal and state air quality guidelines. Opportunities exist for reducing pollutant emissions from natural gas appliances in the residential sector. A cost-benefit analysis on various pollutant-reducing strategies is needed to evaluate these opportunities. The effectiveness of these pollutant-reducing strategies (e.g., low-emission burners, energy conservation) can then be ranked among themselves and compared with other pollutant-reducing strategies available for the region. A key step towards conducting a cost-benefit analysis is to collect information on pollutant emissions from existing residential natural gas appliances. An extensive literature search was conducted to collect data on residential natural-gas-appliance pollutant emission factors. The literature primarily describes laboratory tests and may not reflect actual emission factor distributions in the field. Pollutant emission factors for appliances operated at over 700 test conditions are summarized for nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, fine particulate matter, formaldehyde, and methane. The appliances for which pollutant emissions are summarized include forced-air furnaces; stand-alone space heaters (vented and unvented); water heaters; cooking range burners, ovens, and broilers; and pilot lights. The arithmetic means of the nitrogen oxides and fine particulate matter emission factor distributions agree well with the Environmental Protection Agency published emission factor values for domestic gas appliances (in report AP-42). However, the carbon monoxide and methane distribution means are much higher than the relevant AP-42 values. Formaldehyde emission factors are not addressed in AP-42, but the emission factor mean for formaldehyde is comparable to the AP-42 emission factor value for total hydrocarbon emissions.

  13. A retrospective cephalometric study of the effects of the Harvold appliance in the treatment of 20 patients with a Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, C M

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of the Harvold appliance on the dentoalveolar and skeletal structures and note the changes produced. The primary impact of the Harvold appliance as shown in this study was dentoalveolar.

  14. 76 FR 47518 - Energy Conservation Program: Treatment of “Smart” Appliances in Energy Conservation Standards and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ...-product basis? Should the definition of ``smart'' appliances include requirements for communication...? Should the definition require two-way communication capability? If so, what data should the appliance be... network integrity communication) but where the primary function is not active.'' Does this definition...

  15. Oral Appliance Versus Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome : A 2-Year Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, Michiel H. J.; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; de Bont, Lambert G. M.; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Oral appliance therapy has emerged as an important alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this study we report about the subjective and objective treatment outcome of oral appliance therapy and

  16. 46 CFR 160.040-4 - Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line...-Throwing Appliance, Impulse-Projected Rocket Type (and Equipment) § 160.040-4 Equipment for impulse-projected rocket type line-throwing appliance. (a) Four rocket projectiles, each complete with bridle and...

  17. 78 FR 37586 - TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Kelly Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division, Including On-Site Leased... Application for Reconsideration for the workers and former workers of TE Connectivity, CIS-Appliances Division... employees across TE Connectivity. The Department also confirmed that, during 2010 to present, the subject...

  18. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances (2015 Update)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, K. Foley, J. Young, G. Chung

    2016-06-01

    The Department of Energy commissioned a technology characterization and assessment of appliances used in commercial buildings for cooking, cleaning, water heating, and other end-uses. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development, and demonstration opportunities to improve energy efficiency in each end-use. This report serves as an update to a 2009 report of the same name by incorporating updated data and sources where possible and updating the available technology options that provide opportunities for efficiency improvements.

  19. MARS APAREYİ VE KLİNİK UYGULAMASI- THE CLINICAL ASPECTS OF THE MARS APPLIANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Yıldız; erbay, elif

    2013-01-01

    Anahtar kelimeler: Herbst apareyi, Mars apareyi, Class II maloklüzyon, Fonksiyonel ortopedik tedaviMars apareyi, iskeletsel II. sınıf düzensizliklerin tedavisinde başarı ile kullanılan ve hasta işbirliğini gerektirmeyen sabit bir fonksiyonel aygıttır. Bu yazıda Mars apareyinin özelliklerinden söz edilerek, bu aparey ile tedavi edilen bir vakadan elde edilen klinik ve radyolojik bulgular bildirilmektedir.Key Words: Herbst appliance, Mars appliance, Class II malocclusion, Functional orthopedic ...

  20. Reduction of mandible fractures with direct bonding technique and orthodontic appliances: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-yu; Chang, Li-ren; Chen, Wen-hui; Lin, Li-wen

    2010-04-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) with the arch bars or looped wires has been widely used to treat mandible fractures. However, manipulation of these appliances takes time and the medical staff is endangered by wire stabbing injuries. A modified method, the direct bonding technique combined with orthodontic appliances, simplifies the IMF concept to overcome these problems. It is faster, safer and easier to apply while the response of patients, with respect to treatment results, ease of the living and oral hygiene is more favorable. This report presents two cases of mandible fractures treated according to this protocol which resulted in good outcomes as expected.

  1. Modified Wrap-Around Retainer: A Quick Tip To Enhance the Retention of the Appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kanhu Charan; Pattanaik, Snigdha

    2016-07-01

    As the teeth are in an inherently unstable position after the completion of the orthodontic treatment, a little pressure even from the soft tissues may create a relapse tendency. So there is always a need for a retention period until the gingival and periodontal reorganization is completed around the new position of the tooth. Removable appliances can be used effectively for the retention purpose of which Begg's wrap around retainers are most commonly used. This article presents a new modification in the design of the appliance which will help us to use the retainer more efficiently.

  2. A fixed partial appliance approach towards treatment of anterior single tooth crossbite: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gawthaman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crossbite can be treated using both removable and fixed appliances. This paper describes the report of two cases by a method of treating anterior single tooth in crossbite which is locked out of arch form with a simple fixed partial appliance. Orthodontic treatment was initiated by creating space for the locked out incisor using open coil spring and further corrected using MBT brackets and nitinol archwire for alignment. Treatment goals were achieved, and esthetics and occlusion were maintained postoperatively. Treatment objectives were obtained within a short duration using this technique, and there was an improvement in patients' smile.

  3. Parents spend an average of nine hours a day providing palliative care for children at home and need to maintain an average of five life-saving devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzarin, P; Schiavon, B; Brugnaro, L; Benini, F

    2018-02-01

    This Italian study investigated home-based palliative care for young children and how long it took parents to meet their needs. The study population consisted of 33 families with a child under the responsibility of the Veneto Regional Center for Pediatric Palliative Care, northern Italy, who needed medical support in at least two of the following areas: respiratory, feeding, pain and seizures. The children had a mean age of 6.8 ± 4.7 years. We found that 72% of the patients needed medical devices for feeding, 36% had a tracheostomy and 55% were on mechanical ventilatory support. The children needed an average of five different life-supporting medical appliances, and the time taken to provide for their care increased significantly with each additional appliance (p = 0.016). Their most time-consuming daily needs were feeding (174 minutes) and support when they woke up at night (67 minutes). The average daily time that parents spent taking care of their child amounted to eight hours and 54 minutes per day. Parents providing palliative care for children with life-limiting diseases spent an average of nine hours a day caring for them each day and had to maintain an average of five medical appliances. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Issue of letters of TSO design approval... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter... design approval and the country of manufacture issues a Certificate of Airworthiness for Export as...

  5. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Using Indoor Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the combustion safety procedures for appliances and heating equipment that uses indoor air for combustion in low-rise residential buildings. Only appliances installed in the living space, or in an area freely communicating with the living space, vented alone or in tandem with another appliance are considered here. A separate measure guideline addresses combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage that use outdoor air for combustion. This document is for inspectors, auditors, and technicians working in homes where energy upgrades are being conducted whether or not air infiltration control is included in the package of measures being applied. In the indoor combustion air case, guidelines summarized here are based on language provided in several of the codes to establish minimum requirements for the space using simplified prescriptive measures. In addition, building performance testing procedures are provided by testing agencies. The codes in combination with the test procedures offer comprehensive combustion safety coverage to address safety concerns, allowing inexperienced residential energy retrofit inspectors to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits to proceed.

  6. 77 FR 33337 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... household appliances and other consumer products to help consumers compare competing models.\\2\\ When first... illegible.\\6\\ In addition, retailers must post label information on Web sites and in paper catalogs from... furnace map used on the Energy Star logo, which appears on the label for qualified products. This logo...

  7. 76 FR 72872 - Rule Concerning Disclosures Regarding Energy Consumption and Water Use of Certain Home Appliances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ...\\ When first published in 1979,\\3\\ the Rule applied to eight appliance categories: refrigerators... information on Web sites and in paper catalogs from which covered products can be ordered.\\7\\ \\1\\ 42 U.S.C... ENERGY STAR logo specifications adopted by the Environmental Protection Agency use a U.S. map to...

  8. Load control in low voltage level of the electricity grid using µCHP appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, M.G.C.; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of microCHP (Combined Heat and Power) appliances and other means of distributed generation causes a shift in the way electricity is produced and consumed. Households themselves produce electricity and deliver the surplus to the grid. In this way, the distributed generation also has

  9. Maxillary protraction at early ages. The revolution of new bone anchorage appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Mendoza, B; Iglesias-Linares, A; Yañez-Vico, R M; Mendoza-Mendoza, A; Alió-Sanz, J J; Solano-Reina, E

    2012-01-01

    An update is provided on the different types of early treatment for class III malocclusions of maxillary origin. There is an increasing tendency to prescribe maxillary orthopedic treatment with skeletal anchorage, with the purpose of enhancing the skeletal and reducing the dentoalveolar effects--offering a management option for children with important deformations that otherwise would have to wait until adult age to receive surgical treatment. A literature review has been made of maxillary bone orthopedic traction appliances in growing children with class III malocclusions. A Medline (PubMed) search was made using the following MeSH terms: Cephalometric, Child, Malocclusion class III/therapy, Extraoral traction appliances, Palatal expansion, Bone plates, Skeletal anchorage, Orthodontic anchorage. Many articles show that the greatest maxillary advances are obtained at very early ages, though with a greater tendency towards relapse. However skeletal anchorage has been seen to afford a lesser relapse rate and greater dentofacial orthopedic efficiency due to its low dentoalveolar impact. In any case, further randomized clinical studies are needed to firmly establish the quantifiable differences in terms of maxillary advance, optimum traction age, optimum traction appliance and potential side effects. At present, the incorporation of surgically inserted bone anchorage appliances (miniplates and miniscrews) offers a purely orthopedic approach to treatment, with minimization of the undesirable side effects of traditional dentofacial orthopedic compensation based on dentoalveolar anchorage. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to consolidate the supporting scientific evidence in this field.

  10. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-02-25

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  11. A Study on Efficient Energy Use for Household Appliances in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    efficient energy use. The paper presents a study on the energy consumption of the most common household appliances in Malawi and prescribes the various steps ... The total installed capacity in Malawi grid is only 375. MW [5]. This will not be enough if access to electricity were to be increased. The World Bank reports that.

  12. Estimating returns to scale and scale efficiency for energy consuming appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group; Okwelum, Edson O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group

    2018-01-18

    Energy consuming appliances accounted for over 40% of the energy use and $17 billion in sales in the U.S. in 2014. Whether such amounts of money and energy were optimally combined to produce household energy services is not straightforwardly determined. The efficient allocation of capital and energy to provide an energy service has been previously approached, and solved with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) under constant returns to scale. That approach, however, lacks the scale dimension of the problem and may restrict the economic efficient models of an appliance available in the market when constant returns to scale does not hold. We expand on that approach to estimate returns to scale for energy using appliances. We further calculate DEA scale efficiency scores for the technically efficient models that comprise the economic efficient frontier of the energy service delivered, under different assumptions of returns to scale. We then apply this approach to evaluate dishwashers available in the market in the U.S. Our results show that (a) for the case of dishwashers scale matters, and (b) the dishwashing energy service is delivered under non-decreasing returns to scale. The results further demonstrate that this method contributes to increase consumers’ choice of appliances.

  13. Feasibility of an appliance energy testing and labeling program for Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter; Busch, John; Hakim, Sajid; Turiel, Issac; du Pont, Peter; Stone, Chris

    2000-04-01

    A feasibility study evaluated the costs and benefits of establishing a program for testing, labeling and setting minimum efficiency standards for appliances and lighting in Sri Lanka. The feasibility study included: refrigerators, air-conditioners, flourescent lighting (ballasts & CFls), ceiling fans, motors, and televisions.

  14. The value of a mandibular repositioning appliance for the treatment of nonapneic snoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.C.; Rovers, M.M.; Heijden, G.J. van der; Grolman, W.

    2011-01-01

    In this evidence-based case report, the authors addressed the following clinical question: What is the effect of a mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) in patients with nonapneic snoring on the snoring loudness, partners' sleep disturbance, and quality of life? The authors retrieved relevant

  15. Survival of palatal miniscrews used for orthodontic appliance anchorage: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karagkiolidou, A.; Ludwig, B.; Pazera, P.; Gkantidis, N.; Pandis, N.; Katsaros, C.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the overall success of miniscrews inserted in the paramedian palatal region for support of various appliances during orthodontic treatment. METHODS: The patients received 1 or 2 miniscrews in the paramedian anterior palate of 8.0-mm length and

  16. 78 FR 37995 - Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open Teleconference/Webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...-2013-BT-NOC-0023] Appliance Standards and Rulemaking Federal Advisory Committee: Notice of Open... submitted must identify the ASRAC, and provide docket number EERE-2013-BT-NOC-0005. Comments may be...-BT-NOC- 0005 in the subject line of the message. 3. Mail: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of...

  17. Effects of conventional anchorage on premolar root development during treatment with a pendulum appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Pantel, Cora; Ludwig, Björn; Gülden, Norbert; Glasl, Bettina; Lisson, Jörg

    2010-07-01

    By metrically analyzing orthopantomograms, we aimed in this study to retrospectively investigate whether maxillary premolars used as anchoring teeth during molar distalization with pendulum appliances would reveal inhibited root development. The upper molars were distalized with a modified pendulum appliance (Pendulum K) in 36 adolescents (14 males, 22 females, mean age 12.3 years). Mean treatment period was 19.5 weeks. Orthopantomograms of each patient were taken at the start (time point T1) and after completion of molar distalization (time point T2). The enlargement of the posterior region was ascertained individually quadrant by quadrant for each radiograph, followed by measurement of the vestibular tooth lengths of the premolars whose root development was for the most part not yet complete. To assess further root development in the premolar region, the differences were calculated between tooth lengths at the start and end of treatment. During treatment with the pendulum appliance a general increase in tooth lengths in the anchorage region was observed (1.37 +/- 1.70 mm, pPendulum K. However, the Pendulum K appliance's specific biomechanics make it possible to transfer the reactive forces and moments to the anchorage unit so that they remain within the physiological range, allowing uninhibited premolar root development. This also applies after completed eruption of the second molars, when the treatment period and hence duration of exposure to the active and reactive forces and moments arising during molar distalization are comparatively increased.

  18. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ..., including dishwashers, refrigerator- freezers, freezers, apparel washing machines and dryers, electric... (Electric Water Heaters), Louisville, KY GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C, submitted a notification of... involves the production of electric water heaters. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b) of the regulations, FTZ...

  19. The stoma appliances market in five European countries: a comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornago, Dante; Garattini, Livio

    2002-01-01

    This comparative exercise analysed the domestic market for stoma appliances in five European countries--Denmark, France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. National legislation, prescription procedures, delivery modalities and the market were investigated in each country. The analysis involved reviewing national and international literature on stoma appliances and interviewing a selected expert panel of market operators in each country comprising at least one health authority representative, one distributor of medical devices and one manufacturer. No specific relationship was found between the health care system framework and the stoma market, except for a greater inclination towards home care in national health services. All five countries reimburse stoma bags, but the distribution of these appliances varies widely, ranging from Denmark, where home delivery is mandatory, to Italy, where any channel can be used. The comparative analysis underlined two important features of the stoma bag market: the discretion of enterostomists in directing patients towards a specific brand of bags, and the patients' high brand loyalty. Despite that, the analysis did not identify any single country that could be considered a benchmark for stoma bag regulation. Each country deals with stoma appliances in different ways, making this a very fragmented market.

  20. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H. [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Jamaluddin, M.Y. [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Applied Economics, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ahmed, S. [Malaya Univ., Dept. of Engineering Design and Manufacture, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2007-03-15

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (Author)

  1. Classification of Household Appliance Operation Cycles: A Case-Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyu Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a new generation of power grid system, referred to as the Smart Grid, with an aim of managing electricity demand in a sustainable, reliable, and economical manner has emerged. With greater knowledge of operational characteristics of individual appliances, necessary automation control strategies can be developed in the Smart Grid to operate appliances in an efficient manner. This paper provides a way of classifying different operational cycles of a household appliance by introducing an unsupervised learning algorithm called k-means clustering. An intrinsic method known as silhouette coefficient was used to measure the classification quality. An identification process is also discussed in this paper to help users identify the operation mode each types of operation cycle stands for. A case study using a typical household refrigerator is presented to validate the proposed method. Results show that the proposed the classification and identification method can partition and identify different operation cycles adequately. Classification of operation cycles for such appliances is beneficial for Smart Grid as it provides a clear and convincing understanding of the operation modes for effective power management.

  2. Mapping chemical elements on the surface of orthodontic appliance by SEM-EDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Michalak, Izabela; Chojnacka, Katarzyna; Czopor, Wojciech; Berniczei-Royko, Adam; Vegh, Andras; Gedrange, Thomas

    2014-05-25

    During orthodontic treatment, the various elements that constitute the fixed appliance undergo different processes. As a result of a change of the surface, elution/coverage of metals on the surface can be observed in the process of corrosion/passivation. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system (SEM-EDX) was used to analyze the composition of stainless steel elements of orthodontic fixed appliances (before and after orthodontic treatment), to obtain the composition of the surface of the elements. The analyzed elements were: brackets (Victory Series APC PLUS 022, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); wires (0.017×0.025, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA); and bands (37+, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA, USA). The results showed a decrease of chromium and iron contribution to the surface, with increase of oxygen content in used vs. new elements of the appliance. Our results confirm the formation of oxides (passivation layer) on the surface of stainless steel as a result of the presence of the orthodontic appliance in patients' oral cavities.

  3. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances A proof of concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. Methods. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner

  4. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months : a controlled observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maret, Delphine; Marchal-Sixou, Christine; Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Hamel, Olivier; Georgelin-Gurgel, Marie; Van Der Sluis, Lucas; Sixou, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study.

  5. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Willem A.; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    Background. The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Methods. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," " brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into

  6. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A New Resource for Global Efficiency Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerke, Brian F; McNeil, Michael A; Tu, Thomas; Xu, Feiyang

    2017-09-06

    A major barrier to effective appliance efficiency program design and evaluation is a lack of data for determination of market baselines and cost-effective energy savings potential. The data gap is particularly acute in developing countries, which may have the greatest savings potential per unit GDP. To address this need, we are developing the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), which automatically compiles data from a wide variety of online sources to create a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a wide range of energy-consuming products across global markets. This paper summarizes the database framework and demonstrates the power of IDEA as a resource for appliance efficiency research and policy development. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we develop robust cost-effectiveness indicators that allow rapid determination of savings potential within each market, as well as comparison of that potential across markets and appliance types. We discuss implications for future energy efficiency policy development.

  7. Single Visit Feeding Appliance for 1‑day‑old Neonate with Cleft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cleft lip and palate is one of the most common craniofacial anomalies of humans. Intraoral impression making is the first clinical step in the fabrication of feeding appliance for infants with oro‑nasal communication. It is difficult to control the flow of the impression material in the cleft area and undercuts in a child patient.

  8. Research and Development of Natural Draft Ultra-Low Emissions Burners for Gas Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sholes, Darren [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Combustion systems used in residential and commercial cooking appliances must be robust and easy to use while meeting air quality standards. Current air quality standards for cooking appliances are far greater than other stationary combustion equipment. By developing an advanced low emission combustion system for cooking appliances, the air quality impacts from these devices can be reduced. This project adapted the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Ring-Stabilizer Burner combustion technology for residential and commercial natural gas fired cooking appliances (such as ovens, ranges, and cooktops). LBNL originally developed the Ring-Stabilizer Burner for a NASA funded microgravity experiment. This natural draft combustion technology reduces NOx emissions significantly below current SCAQMD emissions standards without post combustion treatment. Additionally, the Ring-Stabilizer Burner technology does not require the assistance of a blower to achieve an ultra-low emission lean premix flame. The research team evaluated the Ring-Stabilizer Burner and fabricated the most promising designs based on their emissions and turndown.

  9. Efficiency of molar distalization with the XBow appliance related to second molar eruption stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; McGrath, L M; Heo, G; Major, P W

    2013-12-01

    To quantitatively evaluate on lateral cephalograms horizontal, vertical, and angular changes in the position of the maxillary first molar based on the presence and absence of erupted maxillary second molars when it is distalized with the XBow appliance. In this retrospective study, a total of 102 consecutively treated cases were assessed. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at the start and after completion of active treatment with the XBow appliance. In one group of patients, distal movement of the maxillary first molars was performed before the eruption of maxillary second molars; in the other group of patients, both first and second maxillary molars were simultaneously moved distally. All cephalograms were superimposed on palatal plane using the method of best-fit. In order to compare the mean horizontal, vertical, and angular changes in molar position between the treatment groups and gender, a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was performed with the pre-treatment class II severity used as a covariate. Regression analysis was also performed to further explore any possible relationships between the predictor variables and the quantity and quality of distalization. A MANCOVA revealed that the eruption stage of the maxillary second molar did not have a significant effect on the change in position of the maxillary first molar after treatment with a XBow appliance. When distalizing maxillary first molars with a XBow appliance, there is no difference in the amount of distalization in patients with erupted and unerupted maxillary second molars.

  10. 49 CFR 176.54 - Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances. 176.54 Section 176.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Operating Requirements § 176.54 Repairs involving welding...

  11. Caries outcomes after orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances: do lingual brackets make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M.H.; Attin, R.; Schwestka-Polly, R.; Wiechmann, D.

    2010-01-01

    Orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is considered a risk factor for the development of white spot caries lesions (WSL). Traditionally, brackets are bonded to the buccal surfaces. Lingual brackets are developing rapidly and have become more readily available. Buccal surfaces are considered to

  12. Influence of Cervitec gel on periodontal health of patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Özdemir

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The present data suggested that brushing with Cervitec gel once a day has the potential to reduce bacterial accumulation around teeth and fixed appliances in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. However, within the limits of this study, Cervitec seems to have no significant effect on total bacteria, P.g., and T.d. levels of subgingival dental plaque.

  13. A Fuzzy Inference System Design for ICP Protocol Optimization in Cache Appliances Hierarchies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Linares

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A cache appliance is a network terminal which provides cache memory functions, such as object queries service from a user; such objects could be stored in one cache or in a cache hierarchy, trying to avoid carry out service from an origin server. This cache appliance structure improves network performance and quality of service. These appliances use ICP protocol (Internet Cache Protocol to support interoperation between existing cache hierarchies and web servers, through implementation of a message format to communicate web caches. One cache sends an ICP query to its neighbors. The neighbors send back ICP replies indicating "HIT" or "MISS". When one cache faces an excessive traffic situation, that is, a very high number of service queries from users, ICP protocol may allocate the service to cache which has the desired object. Because of traffic conditions, specific appliance may congests and the requests may be refused, which can decrease network's quality of service. So, a system designed for optimizing cache allocation, considering factors as traffic and priority could be useful. This paper presents a fuzzy inference system design, which uses entries such as number of queries over a time interval and traffic tendency, and as output, the web cache allocation decision that will provides the service; this design is proposed to optimize allocation of caches into a hierarchy for network services performance, so balancing out requesting among hierarchy members and improving services performance.

  14. Application of shape changing smart materials in household appliances : A fragmented and inconsistent uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Kassim, A.; Horvath, I.; Gerritsen, B.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shape changing smart materials (SCSM) have a wide range of applications, supporting product functions through material features. Surprisingly, their application in consumer durables such as household appliances is not as expected. This phenomenon could be related to a possible SCSM knowledge gap

  15. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  16. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing any separability assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its...

  17. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  18. The effect of e-learning on the quality of orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn-Borgmann, Stephanie; Lippold, Carsten; Wiechmann, Dirk; Stamm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The effect of e-learning on practical skills in medicine has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Today's multimedia learning environment and access to e-books provide students with more knowledge than ever before. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of online demonstrations concerning the quality of orthodontic appliances manufactured by undergraduate dental students. The study design was a parallel-group randomized clinical trial. Fifty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: 1) conventional lectures, 2) conventional lectures plus written online material, and 3) access to resources of groups one and two plus access to online video material. Three orthodontic appliances (Schwarz Plate, U-Bow Activator, and Fränkel Regulator) were manufactured during the course and scored by two independent raters blinded to the participants. A 15-point scale index was used to evaluate the outcome quality of the appliances. In general, no significant differences were found between the groups. Concerning the appliances, the Schwarz Plate obtained the highest scores, whereas the Fränkel Regulator had the lowest scores; however, these results were independent of the groups. Females showed better outcome scores than males in groups two and three, but the difference was insignificant. Age of the participants also had no significant effect. The offer that students could use additional time and course-independent e-learning resources did not increase the outcome quality of the orthodontic appliances. The advantages of e-learning observed in the theoretical fields of medicine were not achieved in the educational procedures for manual skills. Factors other than e-learning may have a higher impact on manual skills, and this should be investigated in further studies.

  19. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  20. The effects of the pendulum distalising appliance and cervical headgear on the dentofacial structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Ebubekir; Enacar, Ayhan

    2011-05-01

    Headgears are effective in distalising maxillary molars, but success depends on patient compliance and tolerance. Intra-oral distalising appliances are simple to construct and use and may be a better alternative for patients who are non-compliant or cannot tolerate headgear. To compare the Pendulum (PEN) appliance and cervical headgear (CHG) on distal movement of maxillary first molars in patients requiring maxillary molar distalisation. Thirty patients were randomly divided into two groups. Both groups had comparable occlusal and cephalometric characteristics before treatment. Fifteen patients (9 girls, 6 boys) with a mean age of 1 1.45 +/- 1.54 years (Range: 8.58-13.50 years) were treated with Pendulum appliances and 15 patients (10 girls, 5 boys) with a mean age of 11.72 + 1.24 years (Range: 9.58-13.33 years) were treated with a Ricketts-type CHG. A pilot study of four patients estimated that the time required to distalise the maxillary molars with the Pendulum appliance was five months. Therefore, the end of treatment records for the CHG group were taken after 4.96 +/- 0.35 months. Lateral and postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs were taken of both groups at the start (T1) and end of distalisation/treatment (T2). Changes in cephalometric measurements in the two groups were compared with Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests. Measurements indicated that U6-ANS distance, overjet and U1-APo distance increased, U6-PP angle and U6-PTV distance reduced, and the molar relationship improved more in the PEN group compared with the CHG group. Statistically, significant right molar - left molar differences were found between the two groups. Distalisation produced significant side effects, resulting in distal tipping of the first molars and an increase in overjet, whereas the CHG reduced the overjet. The Pendulum appliance was more effective than the CHG in distalising the maxillary first molars.

  1. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home's total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the 'ground truth' demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  2. Class II malocclusion with complex problems treated with a novel combination of lingual orthodontic appliances and lingual arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Masahiro; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    This case report describes a novel method of combining lingual appliances and lingual arches to control horizontal problems. The patient, who was 25 years of age at her first visit to our hospital with a chief complaint of crooked anterior teeth, was diagnosed with skeletal Class II and Angle Class II malocclusion with anterior deep bite, lateral open bite, premolar crossbite, and severe crowding in both arches. She was treated with premolar extractions and temporary anchorage devices. Conventionally, it is ideal to use labial brackets simultaneously with appliances, such as a lingual arch, a quad-helix, or a rapid expansion appliance, in patients with complex problems requiring horizontal, anteroposterior, and vertical control; however, this patient strongly requested orthodontic treatment with lingual appliances. A limitation of lingual appliances is that they cannot be used with other conventional appliances. In this report, we present the successful orthodontic treatment of a complex problem using modified lingual appliances that enabled combined use of a conventional lingual arch. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The UK-DALE dataset, domestic appliance-level electricity demand and whole-house demand from five UK homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jack; Knottenbelt, William

    2015-03-01

    Many countries are rolling out smart electricity meters. These measure a home’s total power demand. However, research into consumer behaviour suggests that consumers are best able to improve their energy efficiency when provided with itemised, appliance-by-appliance consumption information. Energy disaggregation is a computational technique for estimating appliance-by-appliance energy consumption from a whole-house meter signal. To conduct research on disaggregation algorithms, researchers require data describing not just the aggregate demand per building but also the ‘ground truth’ demand of individual appliances. In this context, we present UK-DALE: an open-access dataset from the UK recording Domestic Appliance-Level Electricity at a sample rate of 16 kHz for the whole-house and at 1/6 Hz for individual appliances. This is the first open access UK dataset at this temporal resolution. We recorded from five houses, one of which was recorded for 655 days, the longest duration we are aware of for any energy dataset at this sample rate. We also describe the low-cost, open-source, wireless system we built for collecting our dataset.

  4. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBY

    CONSENT IN THE ERITREAN CIVIL CODE. Consent is a requirement or prerequisite for many ... Notwithstanding the provisions of ArtfZl] Civil Code where an investigating police officer considers it necessary, having .... Liability Article 2028 — General Principle. Whosoever causes damage to another by an offence.

  5. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...

  6. IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... a high level of community participation in the provision of such infrastructure as schools, electricity, ... Department of Geography & Environmental Management, ... “secondary towns”. The range of cites or towns that constitute the level of urban hierarchy vary among countries, depending on the pattern of.

  7. The use of Twin Force functional fixed orthopedic appliance in the treatment of Class II division 1 malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Marcos Shinao; Rosário, Henrique Damian; El-Haje, Ossam; Alvim-Pereira, Fabiano; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2014-01-01

    Fixed protruding appliances are interesting tools for correction of Class II dental malocclusion in adult and growing patients. The appliances most commonly used for this purpose are: Herbst, Forsus and Jasper Jumper. The present clinical case report shows an alternative called Twin Force Bite Corrector which was used for 3 months by a patient aged 10 years and 6 months associated with the Andrews prescription fixed appliance (Abzil 3M). After treatment, malocclusion was found to be adjusted to Class I dental occlusion in a single stage.

  8. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea: results of a randomised placebo controlled trial using parallel group design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, N.; Svanholt, P.; Solow, B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non......-advancement appliance (MNA); and (c) no intervention. The appliances were custom made, in one piece. The MAAs had a mean protrusion of the mandible of 74% (range 64-85%). Outcome measures, assessed after continuous use for 4 weeks, were AHI (polysomnography), daytime sleepiness (Epworth) and quality of life (SF-36...

  9. Anterior Sectional Twin Bracket Appliance - Innovative Use for Correction of Single Tooth Crossbite: A Case Report with Biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Raj Kumar; Raghav, Pradeep; Reddy, Munish C; Kanwal, Ritika

    2015-01-01

    Anterior sectional twin bracket appliance (ASTBA) is a sectional mechanism that involves two brackets on upper central incisors. This appliance is previously been used for correction of rotated incisors and midline spacing. But, detail biomechanics for single tooth crossbite correction is not previously explained. Here, in this article, we are presenting a detailed biomechanics of ASTBA for anterior single tooth crossbite correction along with case report. How to cite this article: Verma RK, Raghav P, Reddy MC, Kanwal R. Anterior Sectional Twin Bracket Appliance- Innovative Use for Correction of Single Tooth Crossbite: A Case Report with Biomechanics. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1): 66-69.

  10. Equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements: guidelines and tools for integrated provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available looks at equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements and offers guidelines and tools for integrated provision that incorporates the 1) development of fully provisioned quality living environments, 2) improvement of access...

  11. The effect of e-learning on the quality of orthodontic appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schorn-Borgmann S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephanie Schorn-Borgmann,1 Carsten Lippold,2 Dirk Wiechmann,3 Thomas Stamm2 1Private Practice, Nordkirchen, Germany; 2Department of Orthodontics, University of Münster, Münster, Germany; 3Department of Orthodontics, University of Hannover, Hannover, Germany Purpose: The effect of e-learning on practical skills in medicine has not yet been thoroughly investigated. Today’s multimedia learning environment and access to e-books provide students with more knowledge than ever before. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of online demonstrations concerning the quality of orthodontic appliances manufactured by undergraduate dental students. Materials and methods: The study design was a parallel-group randomized clinical trial. Fifty-four participants were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: 1 conventional lectures, 2 conventional lectures plus written online material, and 3 access to resources of groups one and two plus access to online video material. Three orthodontic appliances (Schwarz Plate, U-Bow Activator, and Fränkel Regulator were manufactured during the course and scored by two independent raters blinded to the participants. A 15-point scale index was used to evaluate the outcome quality of the appliances. Results: In general, no significant differences were found between the groups. Concerning the appliances, the Schwarz Plate obtained the highest scores, whereas the Fränkel Regulator had the lowest scores; however, these results were independent of the groups. Females showed better outcome scores than males in groups two and three, but the difference was insignificant. Age of the participants also had no significant effect. Conclusion: The offer that students could use additional time and course-independent e-learning resources did not increase the outcome quality of the orthodontic appliances. The advantages of e-learning observed in the theoretical fields of medicine were not achieved in the educational

  12. Changes in soft tissue profile using functional appliances in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The effects of orthodontic treatment are considered to be successful if the facial harmony is achieved, while the structures of soft tissue profile are in harmony with skeletal structures of neurocranium and viscerocranium. In patients with skeletal distal bite caused by mandibular retrognathism, facial esthetics is disturbed often, in terms of pronounced convexity of the profile and change in the position and relationship of the lips. Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of soft tissue profile changes in patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion treated with three different orthodontic appliances: Fränkel functional regulator type I (FR-I, Balters’ Bionator type I and Hotz appliance. Methods. The study included 60 patients diagnosed with skeletal Class II malocclusion caused by mandibular retrognathism, in the period of early mixed dentition. Each subgroup of 20 patients was treated with a variety of orthodontic appliances. On the lateral cephalogram, before and after treatment, the following parameters were analyzed: T angle, H angle, the height of the upper lip, the position of the upper and lower lip in relation to the esthetic line. Within the statistical analysis the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, two-factor analysis of variance with repeated measures and the factor analysis of variance were calculated using ANOVA, Bonferroni test and Student’s t-test. Results. A significant decrease of angles T and H was noticed in the application of FR-I, from 21.60° to 17.15°, and from 16.45° to 13.40° (p<0.001. FR-I decreased the height of the upper lip from 26.15 mm to 25.85 mm, while Hotz appliance and Balters’ Bionator type I increased the height of the upper lip, thereby deteriorating esthetics of the patient. Conclusion. All used orthodontic appliances lead to changes in soft tissue profile in terms of improving facial esthetics, with the most distinctive

  13. Effect of social media in improving knowledge among patients having fixed appliance orthodontic treatment: A single-center randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Silwadi, Fadi M; Gill, Daljit S; Petrie, Aviva; Cunningham, Susan J

    2015-08-01

    Research has shown that orthodontic patients are more likely to retain information presented in an audiovisual format. However, there has been little research on the effectiveness of audiovisual information provided through different routes such as the Internet. This parallel-group randomized controlled trial assessed whether provision of audiovisual information on the YouTube (Google, San Bruno, Calif) Web site to orthodontic patients undergoing fixed appliance treatment results in improved patient knowledge when compared with conventional methods of information provision. The effects of sex and ethnicity were also investigated. Participants were recruited from the Department of Orthodontics of the Eastman Dental Hospital, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom. The patients were 13 years of age and over, with no history of orthodontic treatment, and patient and parental (where appropriate) consent were obtained. The participants were randomized into control (n = 34) and intervention (n = 33) groups using a random number table; there was stratification based on age group, with permuted blocks of 10 patients. Both groups were given routine verbal and written patient information related to fixed appliances, and the participants in the intervention group were sent 3 e-mails over 6 weeks requesting that they view a 6-minute YouTube video containing similar information but in audiovisual format. Patient knowledge was measured using identical questionnaires answered on the day of recruitment (baseline) and again 6 to 8 weeks later. The researchers were unaware of group allocations when enrolling patients and scoring questionnaires. Sixty participants (89.55%) completed the study. Those who completed the trial in the intervention group (n = 30) demonstrated significantly greater improvements in knowledge than did those in the control group (n = 30), scoring, on average, almost 1 point more (95% CI for the difference, 0.305-1.602; P = 0

  14. CHANGES IN ORO-PHARYNGEAL AIRWAY DIMENSIONS AFTER TREATMENT WITH FUNCTIONAL APPLIANCE IN CLASS II SKELETAL PATTERN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Batool; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2015-01-01

    Functional appliances have been used since many decades for the correction of mandibular retrognathism. Similar oral appliances are a treatment modality for patients with Obstructive sleep apnoea. Hence, interception at the right age with these growth modification appliances might benefit a child from developing long-term respiratory insufficiency. Therefore, the purpose of our study was to assess the short-term effects of Twin block appliance (CTB) on pharyngeal airway size in subjects with skeletal Class-II pattern in a sample of Pakistani population. A retrospective study was conducted from orthodontic records of 62 children (31 males, 31 females) with retrognathic mandibles using lateral cephalograms obtained at initial visit and after CTB treatment. Paired t-test was used to compare the pre-functional and post-functional treatment airway size. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison between the genders and statistical significance was kept at ≤ 00.5. The upper airway width (p skeletal pattern.

  15. Long-term oral-appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea : A cephalometric study of craniofacial changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Hoekema, A.; Pruim, G. J.; Slater, J. J. R. Huddleston; Stegenga, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this randomized controlled study was to cephalometrically assess possible changes in craniofacial morphology associated with long term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep

  16. Oral appliances and maxillomandibular advancement surgery : An alternative treatment protocol for the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A; de Lange, J; Stegenga, B; de Bont, LGM

    Purpose: The present study comprises a retrospective evaluation of the potential application of mandibular repositioning appliance (MRA) therapy preceding maxillomandibular advancement (MMA) surgery in the treatment of the Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS). Our initial experiences

  17. Correction of Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion with a mandibular protraction appliances and multiloop edgewise archwire technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benedito Freitas; Heloiza Freitas; Pedro César F dos Santos; Guilherme Janson

    2014-01-01

    .... After the diagnosis of severe Angle Class II division 1 malocclusion, a mandibular protraction appliance was placed to correct the Class II relationships and multiloop edgewise archwires were used for finishing...

  18. What`s new in codes and standards - Office of Building Technologies (OBT): Appliance and lighting standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    US homeowners spend $110 billion each year to power such home appliances as refrigerators, freezers, water heaters, furnaces, air conditioners, and lights. These uses account for about 70% of all the primary energy consumed in homes. During its typical 10-15-year lifetime, the appliance`s operating costs may exceed its initial purchase price several times over. Nevertheless, many consumers do not consider energy efficiency when making purchases. And manufacturers are reluctant to invest in more efficient technology that may not be accepted in the highly competitive marketplace. Recognizing the great potential for energy savings, many states began prescribing minimum energy efficiencies for appliances. Anticipating the burden of complying with differing state standards, manufacturers supported developing federal standards that would preempt state standards.

  19. Interprofessionalism, personalization and care provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Mary; Brocklehurst, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    This UK-based empirical research investigates interprofessionalism and personalization to assess their potential to achieve quality care provision for people with long-term conditions. Governmental policies extol the virtues of interprofessionalism and personalization to drive modernization forward, however, change requires the commitment of health and social care professionals. Therefore the complexity of turning policy into practice requires continual review to ensure policy ideals become practice realities rather than speculative rhetoric. This paper examines interprofessional working (IPW) and interprofessional education (IPE) by analysing the experiences and working relationships of professionals from different professions and their potential impact upon personalization initiatives. The conclusion argues that educational providers and professional awarding bodies need to enshrine interprofessionalism into curricula and qualification accreditation thereby instilling collaboration intrinsically into care provision.

  20. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Chien Lin; Hong-Po Chang; Hsin-Fu Chang

    2007-01-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods: Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of u...

  1. Oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doff, Michiel H J; Hoekema, Aarnoud; Wijkstra, Peter J; van der Hoeven, Johannes H; Huddleston Slater, James J R; de Bont, Lambert G M; Stegenga, Boudewijn

    2013-09-01

    Oral appliance therapy has emerged as an important alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in treating patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In this study we report about the subjective and objective treatment outcome of oral appliance therapy and CPAP in patients with OSAS. Cohort study of a previously conducted randomized clinical trial. University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands. One hundred three patients with OSAS. CPAP and oral appliance therapy (Thornton Adjustable Positioner type-1, Airway Management, Inc., Dallas, TX, USA). Objective (polysomnography) and subjective (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey [SF-36]) parameters were assessed after 1 and 2 years of treatment. Treatment was considered successful when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was oral appliance therapy and CPAP in treating mild to severe OSAS in a 2-year follow-up. More patients (not significant) dropped out under oral appliance therapy (47%) compared with CPAP (33%). Both therapies showed substantial improvements in polysomnographic and neurobehavioral outcomes. However, CPAP was more effective in lowering the AHI and showed higher oxyhemoglobin saturation levels compared to oral appliance therapy (P Oral appliance therapy should be considered as a viable treatment alternative to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). In patients with severe OSAS, CPAP remains the treatment of first choice. The original randomized clinical trial, of which this study is a 2-year follow-up, is registered at ISRCTN.org; identifier: ISRCTN18174167; trial name: Management of the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: oral appliance versus continuous positive airway pressure therapy; URL: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN18174167.

  2. To explore preferences and willingness to pay for attributes regarding stoma appliances amongst patients in the UK, France and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Beenish; Lloyd, Andrew; Elkin, Eric; Porret, Terri

    2015-04-01

    To explore patient preferences regarding stoma appliances in the UK, France and Germany and to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for attributes of stoma appliances. A discrete choice (DCE) survey was developed based on published literature, attributes of current available appliances and qualitative interviews with patients from the UK (N = 3), France (N = 2) and Germany (N = 2). Members from a patient panel in the UK, France and Germany were asked to participate in the DCE survey and to fill out two quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. Data were analyzed using the conditional logit model whereby the coefficients obtained from the model provided an estimate of the (log) odds ratios (ORs) of preference for attributes. WTP was estimated for each level of a given identified attribute. Seven key attributes were identified for the DCE survey: comfort and elastic flexibility, skin problems, early detection of leakage, leakage, filter performance, service/help after hospital discharge and out-of-pocket cost. A total of 415 participants (166 patients in UK, 99 in France, and 150 in Germany) completed the questionnaires. All attributes were significant predictors of choice. The two most important drivers of preference were the attributes comfort and elastic flexibility and skin problems which resulted in high WTP values. Appliances which were able to detect episodes of leakage were also of high importance to participants' appliances. The results show the importance of different attributes of stoma appliances for patients. Improving comfort and elastic flexibility, and risk of skin problems were the most important aspects of appliances. The WTP values indicate the value people place on improvement in each attribute of appliances.

  3. Aparelho Herbst: protocolos de tratamento precoce e tardio The Herbst appliance: early and late treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Até que ponto o crescimento mandibular pode ser realmente influenciado pelos aparelhos ortopédicos de reposicionamento anterior, ainda permanece indecifrável. Mas a lógica leva a crer que se existe alguma chance de potencializar o deslocamento anterior da mandíbula, ela será mais certa quando se utiliza aparelhos de avanço contínuo. O presente artigo discorre sobre os protocolos de tratamento precoce e tardio para a correção da deficiência mandibular com o aparelho Herbst.The question as to what extent mandibular growth may be influenced by orthopedic appliances remains unanswered. However, it seems reasonable to believe that the use of continuous forces potentialize the anterior displacement of the mandible. The current paper describes the early and late protocols of treatment of the mandibular deficiency with the Herbst appliance.

  4. Matching form with content - an appliance for globalised second language learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Johnson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful computer-supported distance education requires that its enabling technologies are accessible and usable anywhere. They should work seamlessly inside and outside the information superhighway, wherever the target learners are located, without obtruding on the learning activity. It has long been recognised that the usability of interactive computer systems is inversely related to the visibility of the implementing technologies. Reducing the visibility of technology is especially challenging in the area of online language learning systems, which require high levels of interactivity and communication along multiple dimensions such as speaking, listening, reading and writing. In this article, the authors review the concept of invisibility as it applies to the design of interactive technologies and appliances. They describe a specialised appliance matched to the requirements for distance second language learning, and report on a successful multi-phase evaluation process, including initial field testing at a Thai open university.

  5. Molar Uprighting Using Mini-Screws after Distalization by the Pendulum Appliance: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Moradi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old Class II female patient was treated without tooth extraction. The upper first molars were distalized by the Pendulum appliance. After six months, the molars tipped significantly to the distal. To correct this side effect, we decided to upright the molars using skeletal anchorage. On each side, a mini-screw was inserted between first and second premolars in the buccal cortical plate. An auxiliary spring was placed between the mini-screw head and the molar buccal tube. The resultant moment made the first molar upright. In addition, the side effects of this mechanic, i.e. molar intrusion and molar buccal tipping, counteract the extrusion and medial movement caused by the Pendulum Appliance. The aim of this case report was to present an innovative method for molar uprighting using skeletal anchorage.

  6. Impacted incisors associated with supernumerary teeth treated with a modified Haas appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, Eduardo Franzotti; Marquezan, Mariana; Sant'Anna, Claudia Franzotti

    2012-12-01

    Tooth impaction involves factors such as lack of space in the alveolar process, trauma, ankylosis, and mechanical barriers such as abnormal frenum, supernumerary teeth, tumors, and local cysts. When impaction occurs in the anterior region, esthetics are compromised. This report describes the successful approach to treatment for a young boy who had 2 supernumerary teeth associated with impaction of the left central and lateral permanent incisors. Treatment consisted of extracting the supernumerary teeth and performing maxillary expansion with a modified Haas appliance to guide the left central incisor into its appropriate position. The teeth erupted spontaneously after maxillary expansion and an increase in space. A fixed edgewise appliance was placed incrementally to correct the maxillary anterior tooth positions and finish the treatment. Adequate esthetics and function were achieved. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mini-implant-borne Pendulum B appliance for maxillary molar distalisation: design and clinical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmes, Benedict; Katyal, Vandana; Drescher, Dieter

    2014-11-01

    A treatment objective of upper molar distalisation may often be required during the correction of a malocclusion. Distalisation is not only indicated for the management of Class II patients, but also for Class III surgery patients who require decompensation in the upper arch if upper incisor retrusion is needed. Unfortunately, most conventional intra-oral devices for non-compliance maxillary molar distalisation experience anchorage loss. A Pendulum type of appliance and a mini-implant-borne distalisation mechanism have been designed which can be inserted at chair-side, without a prior laboratory procedure and immediately after mini-implant placement. For re-activation purposes, a distal screw may be added to the Pendulum B appliance.

  8. Globalni izzivi v svetovni industriji bele tehnike = Global Challenges in the Domestic Appliances Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Gošnik

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available bal Challenges in the Domestic Appliances IndustryAbstract: The domestic appliances industry is a mature industry. Changes in the business environment such as political, law, cultural, social, ecological and technological influences have an effect on the future development of this industry. Challenges to producers in this industry are oriented towards the further globalisation of the business, managing processes, new product and innovations development, and towards establishing and empowerment of the product brands. Global trends in the use of some natural sources, technological break-through, fulfilment of the market and strong competition direct us towards new innovations which will in their development consider also the social and environmental aspect as well.

  9. Database Are Not Toasters: A Framework for Comparing Data Warehouse Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajman, Omer; Crolotte, Alain; Steinhoff, David; Nambiar, Raghunath Othayoth; Poess, Meikel

    The success of Business Intelligence (BI) applications depends on two factors, the ability to analyze data ever more quickly and the ability to handle ever increasing volumes of data. Data Warehouse (DW) and Data Mart (DM) installations that support BI applications have historically been built using traditional architectures either designed from the ground up or based on customized reference system designs. The advent of Data Warehouse Appliances (DA) brings packaged software and hardware solutions that address performance and scalability requirements for certain market segments. The differences between DAs and custom installations make direct comparisons between them impractical and suggest the need for a targeted DA benchmark. In this paper we review data warehouse appliances by surveying thirteen products offered today. We assess the common characteristics among them and propose a classification for DA offerings. We hope our results will help define a useful benchmark for DAs.

  10. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  11. Temperature control in refrigeration appliances. An Important food safety factor; Kylmaesaeilytyslaitteen laempoetilansaeaetoe. Taerkeae ruoan turvallisuustekijae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjomaa, T. [Work Efficiency Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    Critical stages from the point of view of the quality of foods stored refrigerated are refrigerated transportation and excessively warm shop furnishings. The consumer's own refrigeration appliance can also be a problem as the consumer has to adjust its temperature. Temperature control is done using rotating selections of electronically-functioning push-button type of selectors. The TTS Institute has conducted a study looking into the precision of temperature control in the case of seven freezer refrigerations.

  12. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Leandro Silva; Paiva, Saul Martins; Vieira-Andrade, Raquel Gonçalves; Pereira, Luciano José; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Letícia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance. Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5)], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6)], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8)] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1)] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ≤ 0.05). Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility.

  13. Cervical headgear vs pendulum appliance for the treatment of moderate skeletal Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossaz, Claude F; Byloff, Friedrich K; Kiliaridis, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 2 types of treatment for Class II malocclusion. One treatment required compliance by the patients, the other did not. The sample consisted of 60 children who were treated with either conventional cervical headgear combined with full fixed appliances (n = 30), or with a pendulum appliance followed by full fixed appliances (n = 30). At the start of treatment, the mean ages were 11 years 7 months for the headgear group and 11 years 6 months for the pendulum group. The total active treatment time was recorded for all patients, and lateral cephalograms were taken before treatment and after fixed appliance therapy. Angular, horizontal, and vertical changes were recorded to monitor the skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. The lengths of active treatment, the differences between the pretreatment and posttreatment data in both groups, and the differences in the therapeutic effects between the 2 groups were analyzed with the Student t test. The Pearson r correlation coefficient was applied to determine factors affecting the length of active treatment. Class II correction with headgear had more skeletal effect than with the pendulum. SNA angle reductions were 1.3 degrees in the headgear group and 0.3 degrees in the pendulum group The difference (1.0 degrees , P headgear group (difference 1.5 degrees , P headgear group (difference 1.6 mm, P <.05). No significant difference was found in molar extrusion between both types of treatment. The duration of active treatment was longer in the group that used the pendulum as the first phase (P <.005). The 4.6-month difference corresponded approximately to the length of pendulum wear (5.6 months).

  14. Skeletal effects induced by Maxillary Skeletal Expander (MSE) and Hyrax appliance in the midface

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarella, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skeletal changes induced by Maxillary Skeletal Expander (MSE) and Hyrax appliance in the midface with the use of Cone-Beam Computed Tomographic images. A novel methodology to study the skeletal changes was developed. Our hypothesis is that MSE and Hyrax result in a dissimilar expansion pattern and magnitude. Materials and Methods: A novel methodology was developed that included three main reference planes (maxillary sagittal plane, a...

  15. Smart Security System For Home Appliances Control Based On Internet Of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Su Zin Zin Win; Zaw Min Min Htun; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Technology is always evolves. Home security is essential for occupants convenience and protection. Security systems are being preferred over manual system. With the rapid increase in the number of users of internet over the past decade has made Internet a part and parcel of life and IoTs is the latest and emerging internet technology. Home Appliances Control of Smart Security System using IoTs uses computers or mobile devices to control basic home functions and features through internet from...

  16. Fabrication and Evaluation of a Noncompliant Molar Distalizing Appliance: Bonded Molar Distalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arab

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Attempts to treat class II malocclusions without extraction in non-compliant patients have led to utilization of intraoral molar distalizing appliances. The purpose of this study was to investigate dental and skeletal effects of Bonded Molar Distalizer (BMD which is a simple molar distalizing appliance.Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients (12 girls, four boys with bilateral half-cusp class II molar relationship, erupted permanent second molars and normal or vertical growth pattern were selected for bilateral distalization of maxillary molars via BMD. Thescrews were activated every other day, alternately. Lateral cephalograms and study models were obtained before treatment and after 11 weeks activation of the appliance.Results: Significant amounts of molar distalization, molar distal tipping and anchorage loss were observed. The mean maxillary first molar distal movement was 1.22±0.936 mm with a distal tipping of 2.97±3.74 degrees in 11 weeks. The rate of distal movement was0.48 mm per month. Reciprocal mesial movement of the first premolars was 2.26±1.12 mm with a mesial tipping of 4.25±3.12 degrees. Maxillary incisors moved 3.55±1.46 mm and tipped 9.87±5.03 degrees mesially. Lower anterior face height (LAFH decreased 1.28±1.36 mm.Conclusion: BMD is appropriate for distalizing maxillary molars, especially in patients with critical LAFH, although significant amounts of anchorage loss occur using this appliance.

  17. Discomfort associated with fixed orthodontic appliances: determinant factors and influence on quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Silva Marques

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the determinant factors of discomfort attributed to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance and the effect on the quality of life of adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Two hundred and seventy-two individuals aged between 9 and 18 years old, enrolled in public and private schools and undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants were randomly selected from a sample comprising 62,496 individuals of the same age group. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and an interview. Discomfort intensity and bio-psychosocial variables were assessed using the Oral Impact on Daily Performance questionnaire. Self-esteem was determined using the Global Negative Self-Evaluation questionnaire. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test and both simple and multiple Poisson regression analyses. RESULTS: Although most individuals did not present discomfort, there was a prevalence of 15.9% of impact on individuals' daily life exclusively due to the use of fixed orthodontic appliance . Age [PR: 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-8.5], speech impairment [PR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.6], poor oral hygiene [PR: 2.4 (95% CI: 1.2-4.8] and tooth mobility [PR: 3.9 (95% CI: 1.8-8.1] remained independently associated with a greater prevalence of discomfort (P ≤ 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Discomfort associated with the use of fixed orthodontic appliances exerted a negative influence on the quality of life of the adolescents comprising the present study. The determinants of this association were age, poor oral hygiene, speech impairment and tooth mobility.

  18. Research into Noise Generated by Domestic Appliances in the Anechoic Chamber

    OpenAIRE

    Agnė Žukauskienė; Raimondas Grubliauskas

    2012-01-01

    Loud noise has a negative impact on the entire body, especially on listening. We can hear daily noise everywhere – in the street, at work or at home. The Department of Environmental Protection of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University has adjusted an anechoic chamber adapted for suppressing sound. Under the above introduced conditions, 15 appliances (5 vacuum cleaners, 5 hair dryers and 5 shaving machines) have been tested. Equivalent sound pressure level of the vacuum cleaner has varied from...

  19. [The development of an electrosurgery appliance used in non-bleeding inferior conha cutting operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S; Wu, G; Miao, A

    1997-11-01

    It can be only a simple mechanic cutting by means of the traditional inferior concha scissor. Since the nose capacity is deep, narrow and rich in blood vessels, it is easy to bleed. We instruct a new type of non-bleeding nose operation appliance--is under the high frequency electric control, with light source and negative pressure abstracting installment. It has cutting, lighting, abstracting function. It dissolve the problems of pre and post operation bleeding with good effects.

  20. The Cultural Recreation of the Traditional Working and Living Appliances in Tibetan and Qiang Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Cen, Hua; Ma, Chuan Dong

    2014-01-01

    Confronting the contradiction of the global trend of cultural homogenization and the appeals for the independence of national culture, this paper put forwards the new design concept of “Green Humanity”. Guided by the “green humanity” philosophy, our research on the living and working appliances typical of Tibetan and Qiang people, and on the practice of the localization strategy of cultural recreation of Tibetan and Qiang culture would make our national culture more and more prosperous. It is...

  1. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead Evaluation Volume II - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report included the appendices for 1992-1993 Bonneville appliance efficiency program: showerhead evaluation. It consists of nine appendices, titled: Bonneville documents; overview of research projects; Puget Power and Light persistence study; hot-water flow analyses and assumptions documentation; regional end-use metering program; showerhead and faucet aerator performance assessment; Bonneville showerhead program distribution methods by participating utility; water- and energy-saving measure distribution methods literature review; REMP study load shape results.

  2. Eating habits of patients with cleft lip and palate terated with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocka, Magdalena; Cudziło, Dorota; Kawala, Beata; Kopczyński, Przemysław

    2014-01-01

    Health education, built on the basis of various models as a lifelong process, has a considerable impact on eating habits. Correct nutritional patterns are particularly important during the period of intense growth and adolescence. The need to observe dietary recommendations concerns healthy, as well as sick persons, especially those with chronic diseases. To-date the data on the dietary habits of patients with cleft lip and palate during orthodontic treatment have been scarce. The objective of the study was to determine the eating habits of patients with cleft lip and palate before and during orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance. The study covered 125 patients with cleft lip and palate, aged 14 to 31. The research tool was an own questionnaire assessing the dietary behaviour and oral hygiene habits during the treatment with a fixed orthodontic appliance. In the course of the orthodontic treatment with a fixed appliance, 79 patients (57.6%) did not change their eating patterns and 32 patients (24%) changed them to a moderate degree. The mean of 53 patients (42.7%) changed their hygienic habits considerably. The number of meals remained the same, however in the period when patients suffered pain after orthodontic adjustment appointments, the number of persons having 4-5 meals a day decreased by 32%. It is worth considering that no statistically significant changes were recorded as regards the habit of having sweet snacks and the insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables. Difficulties with correct oral hygiene were reported after the consumption of e.g. spinach (59.8%), cucumber (57.6%), berries (54.4%), meat (58.2%). Eating habits of a considerable percentage of patients with a cleft defect, before or during the treatment with a fixed appliance, do not comply with healthy nutrition recommendations. The dietary education of patients undergoing orthodontic treatment is necessary to ensure proper oral health and prevent diet-related illnesses.

  3. Influence of oral stabilization appliances in intra-articular pressure of the temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Guillermo; Thomas, Alejandro; Carmona, Joaquin; Acero, Julio; Vila, Carlos Navarro

    2014-07-01

    This study analyzed the intra-articular pressure in the upper compartment of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) under different functional conditions. The influence of stabilization appliances on intra-articular pressure was studied. Seventy-four joints from 64 patients (55 women and 9 men; mean age: 43.2 ± 11.86 years; range: 19-61 years) with TMJ disorders were examined. Only 50 joints passed the inclusion criteria. Intra-articular pressure was measured using a 21G needle inserted into the joint and connected to a pressure transducer. Pressure was measured with the jaw in the following positions: at rest, maximal mouth opening, clenching in maximal intercuspal position, and clenching with an oral interoclusal appliance. Fifty joints were included in the study (without blood reflux), mean pressure at rest was negative (-6.06 ± 4.55 mmHg); when the mouth was opened to its maximal position the pressure was lower (-26.09 ± 6.42 mmHg). Mean intra-articular pressure was higher in the maximal intercuspal position (58.56 ± 24.90 mmHg). When an interoclusal appliance device was fitted, mean intra-articular pressure reduced its value by 31.24%, which reached a mean value of 40.56 ± 18.84 mmHg (P<0.001). There were no significant differences in sex. The group over 45 years old had higher pressure values in maximal open mouth position than the group of patients under 45 years old (P<0.02). Interoclusal appliances can reduce pressure in the upper compartment of the TMJ and improve functional status of the joint.

  4. GE Appliance Park Louisville, KY Plant Wide Assessment Final Report October 25th, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandon Rao; Richard Urschel

    2007-10-25

    Used a team of experts to analyze and model major systems at a large industrial appliance manufacturer. During the data gathering stage, the team specifically looked for baselining the efficiency of the systems as well as developing short term and longer term efficiency projects. Electrical distribution, Compressed air generation and thermal heat recovery for the production facility and front office heating and cooling optimization were all baselined during the study.

  5. Characterization of greywater by appliance : pattern of discharge along the day

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, Cristina; Sampaio, Ana; Duarte, António A. L. Sampaio; Bentes,Isabel

    2011-01-01

    To improve water resources sustainability it is imperative to consider different approaches of water management, such as water reuse strategies. Greywater decentralised reuse seems to be more advantageous than total wastewater reuse, since it is less polluted and so, it is easier and cheaper to treat. To guarantee the success of a greywater reuse strategy it is necessary to know in detail the available flow by appliance and its variation along the day, as well as its quality. The diu...

  6. Treatment effects of occipitomental anchorage appliance of maxillary protraction combined with chincup traction in children with Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiang-Chien; Chang, Hong-Po; Chang, Hsin-Fu

    2007-05-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of untreated Class III control subjects. The OMA appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion in growing children. The treatment effects of this orthopedic appliance were considered to be from both skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. The skeletal effects were mainly obtained by stimulating forward growth of the Mx complex with negligible rotation of the Mx plane and restraining forward advancement of the mandible (Mn) with backward and downward rotation of the Mn plane. The observed dentoalveolar effects were mostly due to the labial tipping movement of the Mx incisors. Our results suggest that the OMA orthopedic appliance can correct the mesial jaw relationship and negative incisal over jet. This appliance is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with both midface deficiency and Mn prognathism in growing children.

  7. On the necessity of improving the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances in net-zero energy buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Endrit; Jusselme, Thomas

    2017-10-15

    There is now clear evidence regarding the extensive use of furniture and appliances in daily human life, but there is less evidence of their impact on the environment. Responding to this gap in knowledge, this study focuses on an assessment of the environmental impacts of furniture and appliances as used in highly energy efficient buildings. Their primary energy, non-renewable energy and global warming potential indicators have been assessed by extending the boundaries of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study beyond the building itself. In conclusion, we found that furniture and appliances were responsible for around 30% of greenhouse gas emissions and non-renewable energy consumption and 15% of primary energy consumption comparing to the overall impacts of the building. Since embodied impacts represent the largest values, the process for labelling the appliances' energy efficiency should encompass a life-cycle point of view, not just a usage point of view as the case currently. Among office appliances, computer equipment was ranked as the highest impacting element, especially laptops and monitors. As for domestic appliances, refrigerators and electric ovens had the biggest impacts. Concerning furniture, the greatest impacts were from office and kitchen cabinets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Esthetic effect of orthodontic appliances on a smiling face with and without a missing maxillary first premolar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Patrícia Medeiros; Lima, Carolina Santos; Lenza, Marcos Augusto; Faber, Jorge

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of orthodontic appliances and an extracted maxillary first premolar on the esthetic evaluation of a smiling face according to the perceptions of orthodontists and laypeople. Standardized oblique photographs of a young woman with a pleasing smile were taken. The photos were edited by using digital imaging software to produce 10 combinations of presence or absence of orthodontic appliances with either esthetic or metal brackets, rubber bands of different colors, and presence or absence of the maxillary first premolar. Two groups of 50 observers each, 1 of laypeople and the other of orthodontists, evaluated the images and assigned esthetic scores to the smiles according to a visual analog scale. The presence of orthodontic appliances and metal brackets, regardless of rubber band color, had no negative effect on the esthetic evaluation of the smile by either group. Appliances with esthetic brackets were significantly less pleasing for laypeople, whereas for orthodontists they did not affect the esthetic evaluation of the smile. The extraction space had a significantly negative effect on the evaluation of the smile, and only orthodontists thought that the appliance minimized its effect. The type of bracket used with the orthodontic appliances and a maxillary first premolar extraction space produced different esthetic perceptions in laypeople and orthodontists.

  9. [Efficacy of treatment with hard and soft occlusal appliance in TMD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littner, D; Perlman-Emodi, A; Vinocuor, E

    2004-07-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) include clinical disorders involving the masticatory muscles, the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and the adjacent structures. TMD was recognized as a main source for pains in the orofacial area, which are not caused from dental origin, and is defined by the American Academy of Orofascial Pain (AAOP) as a sub-group within the frame of musculoskeletal disorders. The main etiology for TMD has not been found yet. The customary treatments for this disorder include treatment with occlusal splints, physiotherapy, medicaments, behavioral-cognitive treatment, hypnosis, acupuncture and surgery that should be considered only if all conservative treatments were unsuccessful. Occlusal splint is the most common and efficient treatment for TMD patients proved by many studies with a successful rate of 70-90%. The following article reviews the different opinions in the treatment of TMD with special attention to hard and soft occlusal appliances. Based upon much research, and despite the many disagreements regarding its efficacy, the hard splint is a customary application which has the most successful outcome in patients who suffer from functional disorders of the masticatory system. The stabilization splint has an important benefit for being a non-penetrating and reversible appliance. However, despite this, the dentist should evaluate the joint or muscular problem, and seriously consider the various available treatments before deciding to use the appliance as a means of treatment.

  10. Treatment timing of MARA and fixed appliance therapy of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislanzoni, Luis Tomas Huanca; Baccetti, Tiziano; Toll, Douglas; Defraia, Efisio; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of timing on Mandibular Anterior Repositioning Appliance (MARA) and fixed appliance treatment of Class II malocclusion in a prospective clinical trial. The treated sample consisted of 51 consecutively treated patients at prepubertal (n = 21), pubertal (n = 15), and postpubertal (n = 15) stages of development. Control groups for the three treated groups were generated from growth data of untreated Class II subjects. Lateral cephalograms were digitized and superimposed via cephalometric software at T1 (pre-treatment) and T2 (after comprehensive treatment). The T1-T2 changes in the treated groups were compared to those in their corresponding control groups with Mann-Whitney tests with Bonferroni correction. Mandibular elongation was greater at the pubertal stage (Co-Gn +2.6 mm, with respect to controls). Headgear effect on the maxilla was greater in the pre-peak sample (Co-A -1.9 mm, with respect to controls). Dentoalveolar compensations (proclination of lower incisors, extrusion and mesialization of lower molars, and reduction in the overbite) were significant in the pre-peak and post-peak groups. Optimal timing for Class II treatment with MARA appliance is at the pubertal growth spurt, with enhanced mandibular skeletal changes and minimal dentoalveolar compensations.

  11. Effect of mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance on kinematic pattern in golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egret, C; Leroy, D; Loret, A; Chollet, D; Weber, J

    2002-02-01

    Experience has shown that repositioning the mandible may have an influence on the athletic performance. Many athletes with or without occlusal problems are now using mandibular orthopedic repositioning appliance (MORA) supposedly to optimize their performance. In golf, the players do not have any direct opponent and they have different clubs to reach various distances. Therefore, an automatic swing permits the uncertainty of the movement to be restricted. The aim of this study was to analyze if the use of the MORA could have an effect on the stability of the kinematic pattern in golf swing, connected to the capacity of the golfers to reproduce their swing from kinematic perspective. The measures of kinematic data have been established with the optoelectronic system VICON (Oxford's Metrix, Oxford, UK) with five cameras operating at 50 frames per second. Measurements of the speed of the ball at impact were obtained with a radar (Bridgestone HD.01, Science eye, USA). Six professional (current handicap ranging from 0 to 4) right-handed golfers participated in the study. Six MORA were made and adjusted to fit each player. Each golfer performed five swings without mouthpiece and five with the MORA. The results of this study show that there was no difference related to the MORA on kinematic pattern of the golf swing. Moreover, there were significant differences concerning the ball speed at the impact, among the two test conditions, with or without the appliance (p appliance.

  12. Vertical growth control during maxillary expansion using a bonded Hyrax appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marcelo Paranhos Pinto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME for the treatment of maxillary deficiency and posterior crossbite may induce changes in the vertical dimension. Expanders with occlusal splints have been developed to minimize unwanted vertical effects. OBJECTIVE: This preliminary study used cephalometri radiographs to evaluate the vertical effects of RME using a Hyrax appliance in children with maxillary deficiency. METHOD: Twenty-six patients (11 boys; mean age = 8 years and 5 months with maxillary deficiency and posterior crossbite were treated using a Hyrax appliance with an acrylic occlusal splint. Radiographs and cephalometric studies were performed before the beginning of the treatment (T1 and after RME active time (T2, at a mean interval of 7 months. Results were compared with normative values. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: At the end of treatment, there were no statistically significant changes, and measurements were similar to the normative values. Data showed that there were no significant effects on vertical growth, which suggests that appliances with occlusal splints may be used to correct transverse deficiencies regardless of the patient's growth pattern.

  13. Clinical evaluation of periodontal health during orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hănțoiu T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fixed orthodontic appliances make daily application of oral hygiene standard procedures more difficult and in time may lead to accumulation of oral biofilms and development of gingivitis and hyperplasia. The aim of the study is to evaluate the periodontal health expressed by clinical indices in patients under orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances, according to different oral hygene maintenance programs. Material and method: We performed a randomized prospective study on 60 patients with fixed orthodontic appliances (17-25 years of age devided in three study groups. The clnical indices recorded were: modified gingival index, plaque index and sulcular bleeding index. Statistical analysis or the results were carried out using Student t test. Results: The patients were randomly divided into three groups: group A-patients were instructed to use electric brush, water flosser and interdental brush, group B- electric brush, interdental brush and fluoride and group C- manual brushing and fluoride. Statistical comparison of the values of the indexes with the Student t test for independent samples showed statistically significant differences in all three groups of patients studied between initial and final values of all recorded clinical parameters. Conclusions: Fixed orthodontics do not induce periodontal disease if basic principles of oral hygiene are followed in compliant patients, which are correctly instructed to deal with real challenge, represented by complete elimination of debris and bacterial accumulation.

  14. Dental and skeletal components of Class II open bite treatment with a modified Thurow appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Baldi Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Due to the lack of studies that distinguish between dentoalveolar and basal changes caused by the Thurow appliance, this clinical study, carried out by the School of Dentistry - State University of São Paulo/Araraquara, aimed at assessing the dental and skeletal changes induced by modified Thurow appliance. METHODS: The sample included an experimental group comprising 13 subjects aged between 7 and 10 years old, with Class II malocclusion and anterior open bite, and a control group comprising 22 subjects similar in age, sex and mandibular plane angle. Maxillary/mandibular, horizontal/vertical, dental/skeletal movements (ANS, PNS, U1, U6, Co, Go, Pog, L1, L6 were assessed, based on 14 landmarks, 8 angles (S-N-ANS, SNA, PPA, S-N-Pog, SNB, MPA, PP/MPA, ANB and 3 linear measures (N-Me, ANS-Me, S-Go. RESULTS: Treatment caused significantly greater angle decrease between the palatal and the mandibular plane of the experimental group, primarily due to an increase in the palatal plane angle. ANB, SNA and S-N-ANS angles significantly decreased more in patients from the experimental group. PNS was superiorly remodeled. Lower face height (ANS-Me decreased in the experimental group and increased in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: The modified Thurow appliance controlled vertical and horizontal displacements of the maxilla, rotated the maxilla and improved open bite malocclusion, decreasing lower facial height.

  15. Influence of the banded Herbst appliance on dental changes in mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Paz Sampaio

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This prospective clinical study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the influence of the banded Herbst appliance on dental changes during the early treatment of Class II malocclusion. METHOD: The sample consisted of 15 prepubertal subjects (12 boys and 3 girls, initial age: 9 years and 6 months who were treated with the Herbst appliance. Treatment effects were compared with those of a Class II Division 1 group of 15 subjects (8 boys and 7 girls, mean initial age 9 years and 1 month, not treated orthodontically. Statistical analysis was performed using Student t-test with 5% significance level. RESULTS: The results showed that treatment with the banded Herbst appliance in the mixed dentition stage tended to upright maxillary incisors (mean: 4.14°. The maxillary molars were distalized and intruded significantly (mean 2.65 mm and 1.24 mm, respectively, the lower incisors slightly protruded anteriorly (mean 1.64 mm and the molars showed no significant changes in the horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, significant improvements were noted in overbite (1.26 mm, overjet (4.8 mm and molar relationship (12.08 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the upper dental arch were found to be greater than changes in the lower arch. Furthermore, mandibular anchorage loss was reduced due to the anchorage system used in the study.

  16. Household and caregiver characteristics and behaviours as predictors of unsafe exposure of children to paraffin appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, A; Govender, R; Hornsby, N; Swart, L

    2017-06-01

    This study examines adult safety knowledge and practices regarding the use of paraffin cooking appliances. The use of these is common in South Africa with injury risks that are poorly understood. This cross-sectional study was in an informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa, where children were reportedly at high risk for burns. This study sought to clarify relationships between key risks and developed individual and composite variables from theoretical constructs and operational definitions of risks for burns. Risks included Child Use of Paraffin Appliances, Child Proximity to Cooking, Risky Stove Use, Caregiver's Burn Treatment Knowledge, Children Locked in House, Children Alone in House. Number of children remains as in proof as this was not a composite scale. Child Proximity to Cooking was associated with more children in the home. Households where children were in greater proximity to cooking were 6 times more likely to be left alone at home, with caregivers with no education over 100 times more likely to lock their children at home. Children locked in were often from homes where caregivers used appliances unsafely. In settings with hazardous energy use, compressed household configurations, and families with multiple children, Risky Stove Use and the practice of locking children in the home may be catastrophic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in alveolar bone support induced by the Herbst appliance: a tomographic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Schwartz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study evaluated alveolar bone loss around mandibular incisors, induced by the Herbst appliance. Methods: The sample consisted of 23 patients (11 men, 12 women; mean age of 15.76 ± 1.75 years, Class II, Division 1 malocclusion, treated with the Herbst appliance. CBCT scans were obtained before treatment (T0 and after Herbst treatment (T1. Vertical alveolar bone level and alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors were assessed. Buccal (B, lingual (L and total (T bone thicknesses were assessed at crestal (1, midroot (2 and apical (3 levels of mandibular incisors. Student's t-test and Wilcoxon t-test were used to compare dependent samples in parametric and nonparametric cases, respectively. Pearson's and Spearman's rank correlation analyses were performed to determine the relationship of changes in alveolar bone thickness. Results were considered at a significance level of 5%. Results: Mandibular incisors showed no statistical significance for vertical alveolar bone level. Alveolar bone thickness of mandibular incisors significantly reduced after treatment at B1, B2, B3, T1 and significantly increased at L2. The magnitude of the statistically significant changes was less than 0.2 mm. The changes in alveolar bone thickness showed no statistical significance with incisor inclination degree. Conclusions: CBCT scans showed an association between the Herbst appliance and alveolar bone loss on the buccal surface of mandibular incisors; however, without clinical significance.

  18. Efficacy of modified pendulum appliance for the correction of class II malocclusion: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Koul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze the efficiency of pendulum appliance for distalizing maxillary first molar while decreasing the anchorage loss by banding first and second premolar and making them one unit. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 20 patients (mean age 13 ± 2 years who had skeletal Class I and Angle's Class II molar relation. Modified pendulum appliance was given to distalize maxillary first molar and to decrease the anchorage loss both first and second premolars were banded as a single unit by soldering a 19-gauge stainless steel wire. Then both skeletal and dental changes were measured on the pretreatment and posttreatment lateral cephalograms. Results: The maxillary molar was distalized, and a Class I molar relation was achieved in 3 ± 2 months. Maxillary first molar distalized by 4.48 mm in the region of dental crown by tipping distally an average of 8.5°. Both the premolars tipped distally significantly. Thus, by this modification, the anchor loss was minimized. Conclusion: It was concluded that the efficiency of pendulum appliance was increased by this modification, as the anchorage was increased, the space loss was minimized.

  19. A combination appliance for obstructive sleep apnea: the effectiveness of mandibular advancement and tongue retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dort, Leslie; Remmers, John

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine if subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea would experience increasing treatment effect when a tongue retention component was added to a mandibular repositioning appliance. Cohort study. Sleep clinic. Forty-four sequentially recruited patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. Subjects were sleep tested at 4 treatment stages of oral appliance therapy. The 4 stages were: 6-mm mandibular protrusion, 8-mm protrusion, 6-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb, and 8-mm protrusion with a tongue retention bulb. Forty-one of 44 subjects completed the protocol. There was a decrease in mean respiratory disturbance index from 33.5 events/h at baseline to 18.1 events/h at stage 4 (p = 0.001). Mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) decreased from 12.3 at baseline to 9.0 at stage 4 (p = 0.0001. A combined approach utilizing both mandibular protrusion and tongue retention can provide effective treatment for moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea. The addition of a tongue bulb may provide further treatment effect when mandibular protrusion is limited. Appliance designs that allow for convenient combination therapy need to be developed for this purpose.

  20. Class II malocclusion treatment with the Herbst appliance in patients after the growth peak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Castro Alvares

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate dentoskeletal effects in the treatment of Class II malocclusion performed with the Herbst appliance in patients at post-peak stage of growth. METHODS: The sample consisted of 16 patients with Class II malocclusion and average initial and final ages of 14.04 (ranging from 11.50 to 35.66 and 17.14 (ranging from 13.68 to 38.64 years, respectively, who were treated for an mean time of 2.52 years. Lateral cephalograms were obtained at treatment onset (T1 and completion (T2 to evaluate the effects of therapy. Initial dental casts were also used to evaluate the overjet and the anteroposterior severity of molar relationship at treatment onset. The cephalometric changes between initial and final stages were compared by means of the non-parametric Wilcoxon test. RESULTS: The results showed that the Herbst appliance did not promote significant changes in the maxillary component and the effective length of the mandible significantly increased without improving the maxillomandibular relationship. Changes in the maxillary and mandibular dentoalveolar components revealed that the maxillary incisors exhibited retrusion and lingual tipping, while the mandibular incisors presented increased protrusion and buccal tipping. The dental relationships exhibited significant improvements with the treatment. CONCLUSION: Based on the present results, it was concluded that the effects of treatment performed with the Herbst appliance in patients at post-peak stage of growth are predominantly of dentoalveolar nature.

  1. 1992-1993 Bonneville Appliance Efficiency Program: Showerhead evaluation. Volume I - report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) provides wholesale electric power to over 100 retail distribution utilities in the Pacific Northwest. Bonneville is faced with meeting growing loads from these utilities. It acquires conservation as one means of meeting this load growth. Bonneville has offered a variety of conservation programs since 1980. Efficient showerheads have been a feature in residential conservation programs ever since. Bonneville launched the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program to focus on water-heater energy conservation opportunities in 1992. The Residential Appliance Efficiency Program consists of two parts, a water-heater efficiency program, and a hot-water efficiency program. This report evaluates the savings and costs of the first two years of the showerhead portion of the Residential Appliance Efficiency Program (the showerhead program). Although it is not a formal evaluation of the program limited to implementation or a {open_quotes}process{close_quotes} evaluation, observations about program design and implementation are included as appropriate. Results of this evaluation are limited to program participants within the Bonneville service territory.

  2. Energy Efficiency of Electrical Appliances - Effects of Instruments and Measures; Energieeffizienz bei Elektrogeraeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, C.U.; Bush, E.; Gasser, S.; Lingenhel, S.; Nipkow, J.

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of an analysis made of the market for electrical appliances in Switzerland with the aim of understanding the instruments and measures needed to improve energy efficiency better. The paper reports on reviews made of previous studies that were made in Switzerland and Germany and on interviews made with important persons and institutions in this field. Eight basic findings are listed concerning market expansion, technical progress, user behaviour, efficiency, possibilities for intervention, market forces, efficient appliances as a niche market and the competence lacking in the energy-efficiency area. Twelve basic points to be considered in the implementation of an energy-efficiency strategy are discussed and a list of requirements to be fulfilled by politics is presented. The results of the analysis for various sectors and the recommendations made for an implementation organisation are presented in detail. The report is concluded with a extract from the data base on the energy consumption of electrical appliances.

  3. Clinical effects of fixed functional Herbst appliance in the treatment of class II/1 malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sagittal mandible deficiency is the most common cause of skeletal Class II malocclusion. Treatment objective is to stimulate sagittal mandible growth. Fixed functional Herbst appliance use is beneficial for shortening the time required for treatment and does not depend on patient compliance. Case outline. A 13-year-old girl was referred to the Clinic of Orthodontics, School of Dentistry in Belgrade following previous unsuccessful treatment of her skeletal Class II malocclusion using an activator. The patient's poor cooperation had led to failure of the treatment. Patient was subjected to the Herbst treatment for 6 months followed by fixed appliance for another 8 months. Lateral cephalograms before and after the treatment was performed. The remodelation of condylar and fossal articulation was assessed by superimposition of pre- and post-treatment temporomandibular joint tomograms. The promotion of oral hygiene and fluoride use was performed because orthodontic treatment carries a high caries risk and risk for periodontal disease. Skeletal and dental changes were observed after treatment (correction [Max+Mand]: molar relation 7 mm, overjet 8 mm, skeletal relation 5 mm, molars 2 mm, incisors 3 mm. Combination of Herbst and fixed appliances was effective in the treatment of dental and skeletal irregularities for a short period of time. Conclusion . In the retention period, 14 months after treatment, occlusal stability exists. Follow-up care in oral prevention is based on regular recalls at the dental office and supervision at home by the parents.

  4. Comparative evaluation of molar distalization therapy with erupted second molar: Segmented versus Quad Pendulum appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Cozzani, Mauro; Fontana, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    There are controversial opinions about the effect of erupted second molars on distalization of the first molars. Most of the distalizing devices are anchored on the first molars, without including second molars; so, differences between sequentially distalize maxillary molars (second molar followed by the first molar) or distalize second and first molars together are not clear. The aim of the study was to compare sequential versus simultaneous molar distalization therapy with erupted second molar using two different modified Pendulum appliances followed by fixed appliances. The treatment sample consisted of 35 class II malocclusion subjects, divided in two groups: group 1 consisted of 24 patients (13 males and 11 females) with a mean pre-treatment age of 12.9 years, treated with the Segmented Pendulum (SP) and fixed appliances; group 2 consisted of 11 patients (6 males and 5 females) with a mean pre-treatment age of 13.2 years, treated with the Quad Pendulum (QP) and fixed appliances. Lateral cephalograms were obtained before treatment (T1), at the end of distalization (T2), and at the end of orthodontic fixed appliance therapy (T3). A Student t test was used to identify significant between-group differences between T1 to T2, T2 to T3, and T1 to T3. QP and SP were equally effective in distalizing maxillary molars (3.5 and 4 mm, respectively) between T1 and T2; however, the maxillary first molar showed less distal tipping (4.6° vs. 9.6°) and more extrusion (1.1 vs. 0.2 mm) in the QP group than in the SP group, as well as the vertical facial dimension, which increased more in the QP group (1.2°) than in the SP group (0.7°). At T3, the QP group maintained greater increase in lower anterior facial height and molar extrusion and decrease in overbite than the SP group. Quad Pendulum seems to have greater increase in vertical dimension and molar extrusion than the Segmented Pendulum.

  5. Evaluation of home disinfection protocols for acrylic baseplates of removable orthodontic appliances: A randomized clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Enoki, Carla; Ito, Izabel Yoko; Matsumoto, Mirian Aiko Nakane; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2011-07-01

    In this randomized clinical trial, we investigated, using the microbial culture technique and scanning electron microscopy, the contamination of acrylic baseplates of removable orthodontic appliances by mutans streptococci (MS) and evaluated the efficacy of different home disinfection protocols with a 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate spray (Periogard, Colgate-Palmolive, São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil). Fifteen dental students were randomly enrolled in a 3-stage changeover system with a 1-week interval between each stage. The acrylic baseplates were worn full time except at meals to simulate the routine use of removable appliances under clinical conditions. Three 1-week home disinfection protocols were tested in all stages by a different group of students: protocol I, toothbrushing + baseplate brushing + sterile tap water spraying once a day; protocol II, toothbrushing + baseplate brushing + Periogard spraying on the seventh day after appliance placement; and protocol III, toothbrushing + baseplate brushing + Periogard spraying on the fourth and seventh days after appliance placement. After the first week, the volunteers received new baseplates, toothbrushes, and dentifrices, and the regimens were repeated 2 more times. At the end of each week, the baseplates had a randomized disinfection protocol and were sent for microbiologic analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to examine 3 acrylic baseplates representing each home protocol. The Friedman test (α = 0.05) compared the home protocols for the formation of MS colonies or biofilms on the acrylic surfaces. MS colonies or biofilms were found on all acrylic baseplates after protocol I. Protocols II and III reduced significantly (P 0.05) was observed between protocols II and III. The scanning electron microscope analysis confirmed the results of the microbiologic cultures. Disinfection of baseplates of removable orthodontic appliances by using 0.12% chlorhexidine spray once or twice a week reduced the

  6. Changes in soft tissue profile following the treatment using a Herbst appliance: A photographic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedeljković Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Aesthetics is the reason for most of the class II malocclusion patients to opt for orthodontic treatment. In order to regulate retrognathic profile Herbst appliance for anterior movement of the mandible can be a treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue profile changes following Herbst appliance therapy on before and after treatment photos, using the computer program. Methods. This investigation was performed on profile photographs of 20 class II patients (12 females and 8 males aged 18-23 years. Analysis of the changes in soft tissue facial structure relationships evident on the photographs before and after the Herbst appliance therapy was performed using Bentley Micro Station program. The first contour of the soft tissue profile was marked. The following reference lines were subsequently traced: Ricketts aesthetic E line and Juanita line. The area enclosed by these two lines included the nose, upper and lower lip, chin and free space in front of the lips. Using the computer program, the surfaces of the soft tissue structures and free space defined by the reference lines and profile contours were measured. Calculation of the relative proportion of surfaces was done for each photograph. The data obtained were then compared for each patient before and after the treatment. Skeletal and dentoalveolar treatment effects that support soft tissue changes were presented by the profile cephalometric parameters of sagital occlusion (SO analysis. Results. A reduction in the relative surface of the upper lip in males (p < 0.01 and females (p < 0.05 was shown by the pictures. The space occupied by the chin was reduced after the treatment for females only (p < 0.05. The relative surface of the nasal soft tissues, that was included in the reference space was increased (p < 0.01 in both genders. The relationship between the soft tissue and empty surface was changed in favor of the empty surface (p < 0.05 in

  7. Impact of Natural Gas Appliances on Pollutant Levels in California Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Nasim A.; Li, Jina; Singer, Brett C.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents results from the first year of a 2-year study, investigating associations of five air pollutants (CO, NO2, NOX, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) with the presence of natural gas appliances in California homes. From November 2011 to March 2012, pollutant concentration and occupant activity data were collected in 155 homes for 6-day periods. The sample population included both single-family (68%) and multi-family (32%) dwellings, with 87% having at least one gas appliance and 77% having an unvented gas cooking appliance. The geometric mean (GM) NO2 levels measured in the kitchen, bedroom and outside of homes were similar at values of 15, 12 and 11 ppb, respectively. In contrast, the GM NOx levels measured in the kitchen and bedroom of homes were much higher than levels measured outdoors, at levels of 42 and 41 ppb, compared to 19 ppb, respectively. Roughly 10% of sampled homes had 6-day average NO2 levels that exceeded the outdoor annual average limit set by the California Ambient Air Quality Standards (CAAQS) (30 ppb). The GMs of the highest 1-h and 8-h CO level measured in homes were 2.5 and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Four homes had a 1-h or 8-h concentration that exceeded the outdoor limits set by the CAAQS. The GM formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations measured in homes were 15 and 7 ppb, respectively. Roughly 95% of homes had average formaldehyde levels indoors that exceeded the Chronic Reference Exposure Level set by the California EPA (7 ppb). Concentrations of NO2 and NOx, and to a lesser extent CO were associated with use of gas appliances, particularly unvented gas cooking appliances. Based on first principles, it is expected that effective venting of cooking pollutant emissions at the source will lead to a reduction of pollutant concentrations. However, no statistical association was detected between kitchen exhaust fan use and pollutant concentrations in homes in this study where gas cooking occurred frequently. The lack of

  8. Changes in soft tissue profile following the treatment using a Herbst appliance--a photographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedeljković, Nenad; Cubrilo, Danka; Hadzi-Mihailović, Milos

    2014-01-01

    Aesthetics is the reason for most of the class II malocclusion patients to opt for orthodontic treatment. In order to regulate retrognathic profile Herbst appliance for anterior movement of the mandible can be a treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to determine the soft tissue profile changes following Herbst appliance therapy on before and after treatment photos, using the computer program. This investigation was performed on profile photographs of 20 class II patients (12 females and 8 males) aged 18-23 years. Analysis of the changes in soft tissue facial structure relationships evident on the photographs before and after the Herbst appliance therapy was performed using Bentley Micro Station program. The first contour of the soft tissue profile was marked. The following reference lines were subsequently traced: Ricketts aesthetic E line and Juanita line. The area enclosed by these two lines included the nose, upper and lower lip, chin and free space in front of the lips. Using the computer program, the surfaces of the soft tissue structures and free space defined by the reference lines and profile contours were measured. Calculation of the relative proportion of surfaces was done for each photograph. The data obtained were then compared for each patient before and after the treatment. Skeletal and dentoalveolar treatment effects that support soft tissue changes were presented by the profile cephalometric parameters of sagital occlusion (SO) analysis. A reduction in the relative surface of the upper lip in males (p space occupied by the chin was reduced after the treatment for females only (p space was increased (p < 0.01) in both genders. The relationship between the soft tissue and empty surface was changed in favor of the empty surface (p < 0.05) in females. No statistically significant differences were found between the males and the females, before or after the Herbst appliance therapy. The soft tissue changes were the consequence of skeletal and

  9. El primer texto relativo al salvamento acuático en España = The first text on aquatic lifesaving in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Ramírez Macías

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Subtítulo: Instrucción sobre el modo y medios de socorrer a los que se ahogaren, o hallaren en peligro, en el río de Sevilla (1773La finalidad de esta investigación es describir el contenido de la Instrucción sobre el modo y medios de socorrer a los que se ahogaren, o hallaren en peligro, en el río de Sevilla (1773. La introducción está dedicada a justificar y fundamentar la investigación, así como a caracterizar la fuente utilizada. En segundo lugar se contextualiza temporal y espacialmente el estudio. Posteriormente se muestran y analizan los resultados, que destacan por la organización de los profesionales implicados en el dispositivo de salvamento acuático y la distribución de funciones entre éstos. Al respecto hay que subrayar la figura de los llamados buzos, antecedentes directos de los socorristas acuáticos. Por último se exponen las conclusiones, entre las que destacan la necesidad de investigar otras fuentes primarias relacionadas, los escasos conocimientos que se tenían sobre maniobras propias del salvamento acuático y las mejorables condiciones laborales de los buzos.---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Subtitle: Instruction on the way and means of succorring those who are drowning, or in danger, in the river of Seville (1773The aim of this research is to describe the content of the Instrucción sobre el modo y medios de socorrer a los que se ahogaren, o hallaren en peligro, en el río de Sevilla (1773. The introduction is dedicated to its justification and foundation, as well as to describe the source used. Secondly, the research is contextualised, both in time and space. Subsequently, the results are shown and analysed; such results outstand by the organization of the professionals involved in lifesaving and the distribution of tasks among them. The divers’ role has to be emphasised as direct predecessors of lifeguards. Finally, the conclusions are presented, stressing

  10. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  11. A Study on the Future Issues Regarding the Small Home Appliance Recycling Law -Based on Comparison with the Other Recycling-Related Laws-

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 寛

    2014-01-01

    The Small Home Appliance Recycling Law was enacted in August 2012 and took effect in April 2013 for the purpose of collecting and recycling valuable metals included in used small home appliances such as mobile phones. This Law serves as a promotion scheme, which encourages parties concerned to join the system on a voluntary basis and implements recycling based on the current situation in each region under the cooperation among parties, unlike the Home Appliance Recycling Law enacted in 1998 t...

  12. Comparison of the initial orthodontic force systems produced by a new lingual bracket system and a straight-wire appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuck, Lars-Michael; Wiechmann, Dirk; Drescher, Dieter

    2005-09-01

    Over the last few years, lingual appliances have become an established orthodontic treatment technique. Many studies have concentrated on various esthetic aspects, on laboratory and clinical procedures, and on patient comfort and compliance. The orthodontic force systems of these appliances, however, have not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was thus to determine the forces and moments produced by a new lingual bracket system during the leveling phase of orthodontic treatment and to compare those with the corresponding force system of a labial straight-wire appliance. The intra-oral situation of ten patients undergoing orthodontic treatment was replicated in measurement casts fitted with lingual and labial brackets. Special care was taken to precisely reproduce each patient's interbracket geometry. We measured each tooth's force systems as generated by a leveling arch inserted into the lingual and labial brackets. The resulting force systems of both appliances were found to be quite similar with regard to the magnitude of most force and moment components. Only the first molars were subjected to considerably greater single forces with the lingual appliance. Tipping moments were found to be significantly smaller with the lingual technique, whereas the rotational moments were significantly smaller with the labial appliance. All in all we noted significant differences between the two techniques only in certain areas which upon closer examination were distributed over only a few tooth types. The initial force systems produced by the new lingual bracket system proved to be comparable with those delivered by a conventional straight-wire appliance. The actual levels of forces and moments, however, were found in certain cases to be too heavy with both techniques. We therefore recommend the development of leveling wires producing considerably lighter forces and moments.

  13. Dentoskeletal Effects of the Modified Tandem Appliance vs the Facemask Appliance in the Treatment of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion: A Single-center, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Amro H; Burhan, Ahmad S; Salma, Fadwa B; Nawaya, Fehmieh R

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of the modified tandem appliance (MTA) vs the facemask (FM) with rapid maxillary expansion. Thirty-two patients, aged 7 to 9 years were recruited. Eligibility criteria included skeletal class III malocclusion that resulted from the retrusion of the maxilla. Randomization was accomplished to divide the sample into two equal groups to be treated with either MTA or FM. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained before treatment and after 2 mm positive overjet was achieved. Intragroup comparisons were performed using paired-sample t-test, and intergroup comparisons were performed using two-sample t-test at the p ≤ 0.05 level. Thirty-two patients (16 in each group) were available for statistical analysis. The pretreatment variables of both groups were similar. Both treatment therapies showed similar significant increase in the SNA and ANB angles, accompanied by slight decrease in the SNB angle. The increase in the SN:GoMe angle, Bjork's sum, and the overjet were significantly greater in the FM group. The forward movement of upper dentition was similar in both groups. Although the lower incisors retrusion was significantly greater in the FM group than in the MTA group, the uprighting of the lower molars was significantly greater in the MTA group. Both appliances showed similar effects apart from less clockwise rotation of the mandible, less retrusion of the lower incisors, and greater uprighting of the lower molars in the MTA group. Both the MTA and the FM groups are effective in treating class III malocclusion. The MTA group is more efficient in controlling the clockwise rotation and gaining some space in the lower arch.

  14. Oral Appliance Therapy in Patients With Daytime Sleepiness and Snoring or Mild to Moderate Sleep Apnea: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Marie; Carlberg, Bo; Forsgren, Lars; Olsson, Tommy; Stenlund, Hans; Franklin, Karl A

    2015-08-01

    Oral appliances that move the mandible forward during sleep are suggested as treatment for mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea. To test whether an adjustable, custom-made oral appliance improves daytime sleepiness and quality of life in patients with daytime sleepiness and snoring or mild to moderate obstructive sleep apnea. Ninety-six patients with daytime sleepiness and an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) lower than 30 were included in a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel trial in Umeå, Sweden, from May 2007 through August 2011. Four months' intervention with an oral appliance or a placebo device. Daytime sleepiness was measured with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, and the Oxford Sleep Resistance (OSLER) test. Quality of life was assessed with the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) and the Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire (FOSQ). Secondary outcomes included the apnea-hypopnea index, headaches, symptoms of restless legs, and insomnia. Oral appliance therapy was not associated with improvements in daytime sleepiness from baseline to 4-month follow-up when compared with the placebo device; Epworth score >10: 53% at baseline to 24% at follow-up for the oral appliance group vs 54% at baseline to 40% at follow-up for the placebo device group, P = .11; median (IQR) for Karolinska score ≥7/wk: 10 (8 to 14) at baseline to 7 (4 to 9) at follow-up for the oral appliance group vs 12 (6 to 15) at baseline to 8 (5 to 12) at follow-up for the placebo device group, P = .11; mean between-group difference in OSLER test, -2.4 min (95% CI, -6.3 to 1.4). The mean between-group difference for the total FOSQ score was insignificant (-1.2 [95% CI, -2.5 to 0.1]). No domain of the SF-36 differed significantly between the groups. The AHI was below 5 in 49% of patients using the active appliance and in 11% using placebo, with an odds ratio of 7.8 (95% CI, 2.6-23.5) and a number needed to treat of 3. Snoring (P oral appliance

  15. Dentoskeletal changes induced by the Jasper jumper and the activator-headgear combination appliances followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Karina Jerônimo Rodrigues Santiago de; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Janson, Guilherme; Pereira, Suelen Cristina da Costa; Neves, Leniana Santos; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dentoskeletal changes of patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion treated with either the Jasper jumper appliance or the activator-headgear combination, both associated with fixed appliances. The sample comprised 72 subjects with Class II Division 1 malocclusion divided into 3 groups: group 1 included 25 subjects treated with fixed appliances and the force modules of the Jasper jumper at an initial mean age of 12.72 years, group 2 included 25 subjects treated with the activator-headgear combination followed by fixed appliances at an initial mean age of 11.07 years, and group 3 included 22 untreated subjects at an initial mean age of 12.67 years. Initial cephalometric characteristics and dentoskeletal changes were compared with analysis of variance. Both experimental groups had similar dentoskeletal changes: restrictive effect on the maxilla, clockwise mandibular rotation and a slight increase in anterior face height, retrusion of the maxillary incisors, distalization of the maxillary molars, protrusion of the mandibular incisors, extrusion of the mandibular molars, and significant improvements of the maxillomandibular relationship, overjet, overbite, and the molar relationship. The effects of the Jasper jumper and the activator-headgear combination followed by fixed orthodontic appliances were similar in Class II malocclusion treatment. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Temporomandibular disorders in growing patients after treatment of class II and III malocclusion with orthopaedic appliances: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Silva, Antonio; Carnevali-Arellano, Romano; Venegas-Aguilera, Matías; Tobar-Reyes, Julio; Palomino-Montenegro, Hernán

    2017-12-18

    To determine if the use of orthopaedic appliances in growing patients applied to correct Class II and III malocclusion is related to the development of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). A systematic review was conducted between 1960 and July 2017, based on electronic databases: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Scopus, EBSCOhost, Scielo, Lilacs and Bireme. Controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified. The articles were selected and analyzed by two authors independently. The quality of the evidence was determined according to the guidelines of the Cochrane Risk Bias Assessment Tool and the Cochrane Quality Study Guide. Seven articles were included, four CCTs and three RCTs. The studies were grouped according to malocclusion treatment in (a) class II appliances (n = 4) and (b) class III appliances (n = 3). The quality of evidence was low due to the high risk of bias, independent of the association reported. All studies concluded that the use of orthopaedic appliances would not contribute to the development of TMD. The quality of evidence available is insufficient to establish definitive conclusions, since the studies were very heterogeneous and presented a high risk of bias. However, it is suggested that the use of orthopaedic appliances to correct class II and III malocclusion in growing patients would not be considered as a risk factor for the development of TMD. High-quality RCTs are required to draw any definitive conclusions.

  17. Long-term skeletodental stability of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis: Tooth-borne vs hybrid distraction appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Julia N; King, John W; Robinson, Quinton C; Trojan, Terry M

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate and compare the long-term skeletodental stability of mandibular symphyseal distraction osteogenesis (MSDO) achieved with the use of tooth-borne vs. hybrid distraction appliances. Posttreatment and follow-up orthodontic records were collected for 33 patients. The 14 patients who underwent distraction with a tooth-borne appliance had a mean follow-up of 5.08 years. The 19 patients who underwent distraction with a hybrid appliance had a mean follow-up of 6.07 years. Records included intraoral photographs, study models, postero-anterior cephalometric radiographs, and lateral cephalometric radiographs. Total changes of 16 measurements were analyzed to compare patients who underwent the tooth-borne vs. the hybrid distraction. Both groups shared several similar and significant (P < .05) changes from posttreatment to follow-up records. Cast analysis showed a decrease in intercanine width and arch length and an increase in irregularity index. The postero-anterior cephalometric radiograph showed an increase in the width of the interincisal apices. The lateral cephalometric radiograph showed a decrease in the MP-L1 angle. The only statistically significant difference between the two appliances was the intercentral incisor contact point. Changes found are consistent with those found in untreated and orthodontically treated individuals over time. The long-term changes in the current patient sample can be determined to be expected and acceptable. MSDO is a viable treatment option with the use of either a hybrid or tooth-borne appliance.

  18. Insufficient evidence to confirm effectiveness of oral appliances in treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nigel A

    2007-01-01

    Searches were made using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia and SciELO (the Scientific Electronic Library Online). Studies chosen were randomised controlled trials (RCT) or quasi-RCT comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children of 15 years old or younger. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. A total of 384 trials were identified, of which only one, reporting results from a total of 23 patients, was suitable for inclusion in the review. Data provided in the published report did not answer all the questions from this review, but did answer some: the results presented favour treatment. At present there is not sufficient evidence to state that oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances are effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome in children. Oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances may be helpful in the treatment of children with craniofacial anomalies which are risk factors for apnoea.

  19. Nonsurgical treatment of hemifacial microsomia by therapeutic ultrasound and hybrid functional appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek El-Bialy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Tarek El-Bialy1, Ali Hasan2, Ahmad Janadas3, Tarik Albaghdadi41Division of Orthodontics, Department of Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2Division of Orthodontics, Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry; 3Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry; 4Division of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi ArabiaAim: Conventional treatment of patients with hemifacial microsomia involves orthognathic surgery and/or distraction osteogenesis of the mandible. Previous reports showed that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS enhances mandibular growth in growing rabbits and monkeys. In monkeys, LIPUS enhanced mandibular growth when combined with functional jaw orthopedic appliances. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate if LIPUS could enhance mandibular growth in children with hemifacial microsomia.Methods: Five children (age range 3–11 years with hemifacial microsomia were treated with hybrid jaw orthopedic functional appliances and treatment of the affected mandibular condyle by LIPUS for 20 minutes per day.Results: The results showed that after one year of treatment, significant improvement of the underdeveloped side of patients’ faces and mandibles was recognized both clinically and radiographically.Discussion: Although improvement took a longer time than did a surgical approach, optimizing this technique may achieve better results in a shorter treatment time. A randomized controlled clinical trial to investigate the effect of optimized LIPUS application or functional appliances in the treatment of hemifacial microsomia is warranted.Keywords: hemifacial microsomia, LIPUS, non-surgical treatment, children

  20. Assessing the standards of online oral hygiene instructions for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Willem A; Livas, Christos; Delli, Konstantina; Ren, Yijin

    2015-05-01

    The authors conducted this study to assess the quality of the information available on the Web about oral hygiene for patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. The authors entered the search terms "cleaning braces," "brushing braces," and "oral hygiene and braces" into Google, Yahoo, and Bing search engines. They analyzed Web sites satisfying the inclusion criteria from the first 20 hits of each search for accessibility, usability, and reliability by using the LIDA instrument; for readability by using the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) score; and for the completeness of oral hygiene instructions. Sixty-two Web sites met the inclusion criteria. The mean total LIDA score of 71.2 indicated the moderate quality of the design of the reviewed Web sites. The mean (standard deviation [SD]) values of LIDA scores for accessibility, usability, and reliability were 85.9 (7.0), 63.4 (16.1), and 48.0 (10.4), respectively. The mean (SD) FRE Score of 68.6 (9.7) applied to standard reading skills. The completeness of information (mean [SD] = 67.1 [27.8]) presented the highest variability. Overall, the authors found that the standards of online oral hygiene materials for orthodontic patients with fixed appliances exhibited modest scores. Readability appeared to be appropriate for young adolescents, whereas the comprehensiveness of the displayed information was highly variable. Further improvement of the infrastructure of electronic health information (that is, e-health) in orthodontics is necessary to meet patients' needs. Given the moderate quality of oral hygiene instruction available on the Web for patients with fixed appliances, orthodontic patients and caregivers should be cautious when browsing the Internet for relevant information. Dental professionals should refer patients to valid Web-based educational materials. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Maxillary molar distalization with the indirect Palatal miniscrew for Anchorage and Distalization Appliance (iPANDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Eduardo Yugo; Suzuki, Boonsiva

    2013-01-01

    Distalization of the maxillary molars is an important treatment option for the correction of Class II malocclusions. The purposes of this study were to introduce the clinical application of the indirect Palatal miniscrew Anchorage and Distalization Appliance (iPanda) and to describe the dental and skeletal effects obtained with this innovative appliance. Pretreatment (TO), post-distalization (T1), and posttreatment (T2) lateral cephalometric radiographs and dental casts of 20 consecutively treated adult patients (mean age 23.2 ± 4.7 years) with Class II molar relationship were analyzed. All patients were treated with the iPanda for maxillary molar distalization. The iPanda was anchored on a pair of midpalatal miniscrew implants to deliver the distalizing force to the maxillary first molars. The iPanda was the only appliance used during the distalization phase of treatment. A paired t test analysis was used to statistically assess the effects of treatment. A Class I molar relationship was obtained in a mean period of 3.2 ± 0.6 months. Cephalometric analysis demonstrated that the maxillary first molars were significantly distalized by an average 4.5 ± 1.5 mm (P mandibular plane was observed. Dental model analysis demonstrated an asymmetric pattern of distalization between right (4.5 ± 2.2 mm) and left (3.1 ± 2.1 mm) first molars. The transverse width of the dental arch was maintained. No significant rotation of the first molars was observed. This study demonstrated that the innovative iPanda is effective to bodily distalize the maxillary molars into a Class I molar relationship and to provide maximum anchorage.

  2. Torque differences due to the material variation of the orthodontic appliance: a finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon N. Papageorgiou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Torque of the maxillary incisors is crucial to occlusal relationship and esthetics and can be influenced by many factors. The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of the material of the orthodontic appliance (adhesive, bracket, ligature, and wire on tooth displacements and developed stresses/strains after torque application. Methods A three-dimensional upper right central incisor with its periodontal ligament (PDL and alveolus was modeled. A 0.018-in. slot discovery® (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany bracket with a rectangular 0.018 x 0.025-in. wire was generated. The orthodontic appliance varied in the material of its components: adhesive (composite resin or resin-modified glass ionomer cement, bracket (titanium, steel, or ceramic, wire (beta-titanium or steel, and ligature (elastomeric or steel. A total of 24 models were generated, and a palatal root torque of 5° was applied. Afterwards, crown and apex displacement, strains in the PDL, and stresses in the bracket were calculated and analyzed. Results The labial crown displacement and the palatal root displacement of the tooth were mainly influenced by the material of the wire (up to 150% variation, followed by the material of the bracket (up to 19% variation. The magnitude of strains developed in the PDL was primarily influenced by the material of the wire (up to 127% variation, followed by the material of the bracket (up to 30% variation and the ligature (up to 13% variation. Finally, stresses developed at the bracket were mainly influenced by the material of the wire (up to 118% variation and the bracket (up to 59% variation. Conclusions The material properties of the orthodontic appliance and all its components should be considered during torque application. However, these in silico results need to be validated in vivo before they can be clinically extrapolated.

  3. Torque differences due to the material variation of the orthodontic appliance: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Keilig, Ludger; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska; Eliades, Theodore; Bourauel, Christoph

    2017-12-01

    Torque of the maxillary incisors is crucial to occlusal relationship and esthetics and can be influenced by many factors. The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of the material of the orthodontic appliance (adhesive, bracket, ligature, and wire) on tooth displacements and developed stresses/strains after torque application. A three-dimensional upper right central incisor with its periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolus was modeled. A 0.018-in. slot discovery® (Dentaurum, Ispringen, Germany) bracket with a rectangular 0.018 x 0.025-in. wire was generated. The orthodontic appliance varied in the material of its components: adhesive (composite resin or resin-modified glass ionomer cement), bracket (titanium, steel, or ceramic), wire (beta-titanium or steel), and ligature (elastomeric or steel). A total of 24 models were generated, and a palatal root torque of 5° was applied. Afterwards, crown and apex displacement, strains in the PDL, and stresses in the bracket were calculated and analyzed. The labial crown displacement and the palatal root displacement of the tooth were mainly influenced by the material of the wire (up to 150% variation), followed by the material of the bracket (up to 19% variation). The magnitude of strains developed in the PDL was primarily influenced by the material of the wire (up to 127% variation), followed by the material of the bracket (up to 30% variation) and the ligature (up to 13% variation). Finally, stresses developed at the bracket were mainly influenced by the material of the wire (up to 118% variation) and the bracket (up to 59% variation). The material properties of the orthodontic appliance and all its components should be considered during torque application. However, these in silico results need to be validated in vivo before they can be clinically extrapolated.

  4. Orthodontics with Customized versus Noncustomized Appliances: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning, E W; Peerlings, R H J; Govers, J D M; Rischen, R J; Zinad, K; Bronkhorst, E M; Breuning, K H; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2017-12-01

    This randomized controlled trial aimed to evaluate the duration and outcome quality of orthodontic treatment with a customized fixed appliance system versus a noncustomized system. Patients ( n = 180) were randomized and received orthodontic treatment with the Insignia customized orthodontic system or the Damon Q noncustomized orthodontic system. The allocation sequence was concealed using identical, sequentially numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes. Patients with nonextraction treatment plans were treated by 2 equally experienced orthodontists. Pretreatment and posttreatment plaster casts were made for each patient, and the models were rated using the Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) score. Planning time, treatment duration, and numbers of loose brackets, visits, and complaints were recorded. The examined null hypothesis was that the customized appliance system was not associated with significantly ( P < 0.05) shorter treatment duration compared to a noncustomized appliance. We analyzed 85 patients in the customized group and 89 in the noncustomized group. Treatment duration was 1.29 ± 0.35 y in the customized group and 1.24 ± 0.37 y in the noncustomized group. In the customized group, the PAR score was 23.32 ± 9.15 pretreatment and 5.38 ± 3.75 posttreatment. In the noncustomized group, the PAR score was 21.84 ± 7.95 pretreatment and 5.93 ± 3.58 posttreatment. None of these outcomes significantly differed between groups. On the other hand, the orthodontist had a significant effect on treatment duration, quality of treatment outcome, and number of visits ( P < 0.05). A higher PAR score pretreatment was associated with increased treatment duration, posttreatment PAR, and number of visits ( P < 0.05). Compared to the noncustomized group, the customized group had more loose brackets, a longer planning time, and more complaints ( P < 0.05). The customized orthodontic system was not associated with significantly reduced treatment duration, and treatment quality was

  5. The impact of 8 weeks selected corrective exercises on neck pain, range of motion in the shoulder and neck of lifesaver women who suffering from forward head posture and myofascial pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody Tabatabaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research was studying the impact of 8 weeks selected corrective exercises on neck pain, range of motion in the shoulder and neck of lifesaver women who suffering from forward head posture and myofascial pain syndrome. Methods: The method of research is semi-experimental. The population consists of 30 lifesaver women who suffering from forward head posture and myofascial pain syndrome who they placed randomly in two groups of experimental (33±2.2 and control (33±2.5. Research plan was as the pre-test and post-test with control group. The exercise protocol was carried out by experimental groups for 8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, each session lasting 45 minutes. Studied variables include myofascial pain in the neck, shoulder and neck range of motion. The mean and standard deviation were used as descriptive statistics and in the section of inferential statistics analysis of covariance was used. Results: Results of research indicated that, the protocol on the reform exercise of neck pain (P=0.001, range of motion of shoulder joint (P=0.001 and neck range of motion (P=0.001 has significant difference. Conclusion: Therefore, lifesavers women can benefit from it as a training program to improve and prevent damage caused by head forward and myofascial pain syndrome.

  6. Dentoskeletal changes induced by the Jasper jumper and cervical headgear appliances followed by fixed orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, José Norberto; Rodrigues de Almeida, Renato; Rodrigues de Almeida, Marcio; de Oliveira, José Norberto

    2007-07-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this controlled clinical study was to compare the dentoskeletal effects of the Jasper jumper with those of cervical headgear, when both are used with edgewise appliances to correct Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Lateral cephalograms of 75 patients were divided into 3 groups of 25. The control group included untreated Class II children with an initial mean age of 11.82 years (range, 9.35-14.84 years); they were followed without treatment for a mean period of 1.95 years (range, 0.90-3.95 years). The Jasper jumper group had an initial mean age of 11.86 years (range, 9.45-14.94 years); they were treated for a mean period of 1.96 years (range, 0.93-3.98 years). The cervical headgear group had an initial mean age of 12.29 years (range, 9.95-15.24 years); they were treated for an average of 1.88 years (range, 0.95-3.95 years). Comparison of the initial measurements showed that the 3 groups were similar at pretreatment, thus allowing direct comparisons. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test were applied for comparison of the groups. Different appliances yielded specific effects on several components (skeletal and dentoalveolar) evaluated. Anterior maxillary growth was significantly restricted by the cervical headgear. Mandibular growth was similar in all 3 groups, although it was slightly greater in the Jasper jumper group. The experimental groups had similar improvements in maxillomandibular relationshipd. The pattern of craniofacial growth was not significantly different between groups. The most significant effect on the maxillary dentoalveolar component was retrusion of the maxillary incisors by the cervical headgear. The effects observed for the Jasper jumper group were primarily related to the mandibular dentoalveolar component, including labial tipping and protrusion of the mandibular incisors, and mesial movement and extrusion of the mandibular molars compared with the control group. The headgear appliance corrected the

  7. Treatment of Class II Malocclusion by Nonextraction Therapy using Microimplants and Pendex Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar S Alle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Class II cases is always challenging. Treatment modalities involve growth modulation, expansion of the maxillary arch or extraction of premolars and retraction. The patient compliance is key factor in success of the treatment. In the present article a male patient with Class II malocclusion was treated using a Pendex appliance to simultaneously expand the upper arch and distalize the molars. The maxillary anteriors were retracted using microimplants. The results were satisfactory. This approach can be used in patients with mild skeletal discrepancy and with slight increase in the gingival display.

  8. A comparison between customized clear and removable orthodontic appliances manufactured using RP and CNC techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorelli, Massimo; Gerbino, Salvatore; Giudice, Michele; Ausiello, Pietro

    2013-02-01

    Aim of the research is to compare the orthodontic appliances fabricated by using rapid prototyping (RP) systems, in particular 3D printers, with those manufactured by using computer numerical control (CNC) milling machines. 3D printing is today a well-accepted technology to fabricate orthodontic aligners by using the thermoforming process, instead the potential of CNC systems in dentistry have not yet been sufficiently explored. One patient, with mal-positioned maxillary central and lateral incisors, was initially selected. In the computer aided virtual planning was defined that, for the treatment, the patient needed to wear a series of 7 removable orthodontic appliances (ROA) over a duration of 21 weeks, with one appliance for every 3 weeks. A non-contact reverse engineering (RE) structured-light 3D scanner was used to create the 3D STL model of the impression of the patient's mouth. Numerical FEM simulations were performed varying the position of applied forces (discrete and continuous forces) on the same model, simulating, in this way, 3 models with slice thickness of 0.2 mm, 0.1 mm (RP staircase effect) and without slicing (ideal case). To define the areas of application of forces, two configuration "i" and "i-1" of the treatment were overlapped. 6 patients to which for three steps (3rd, 4th and 5th step) were made to wear aligners fabricated starting from physical models by 3D printing (3DP-ROA) and afterwards, for the next steps (6th, 7th and 8th step), aligners fabricated starting from physical models by CNC milling machine (CNC-ROA), were selected. For the 6 patients wearing the CNC-ROA, it was observed a best fitting of the aligner to the teeth and a more rapid teeth movement than the 3DP-ROA (2 weeks compared to 3 weeks for every appliance). FEM simulations showed a more uniform stress distribution for CNC-ROA than 3DP-ROA. In this research, 6 different case studies and CAD-FEM simulations showed that, to fabricate an efficient clear and removable

  9. Management of pseudo Class III malocclusion--synergistic approach with fixed and functional appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Tandon, Pradeep; Singh, Gyan P

    2013-01-01

    Class III malocclusion has been divided into two subtypes: skeletal and pseudo-Class III. A pseudo Class III malocclusion should be treated as early as possible to reduce the functional shift of the mandible and increase maxillary arch length. A case of pseudo-Class III malocclusion was presented here. A 11-year-old boy came with an anterior cross bite, the treatment was done with Fixed appliance (Roth prescription) and Reverse Twin block therapy. This case demonstrated that an anterior cross bite was corrected after 10 months of treatment.

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Oral Appliance vs. Auto Titrating Positive Airway Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    disease  that  prevents  oral  appliance  therapy  ( periodontal ...are  implicated  in  the   pathogenesis  of  a  variety  of  other  conditions  related  to  poor  autonomic...nervous  system  control.  (Moyer,  2001)    Cardiovascular   disease ,  hypertension,  stroke,  abnormal  glucose  

  11. Max Tech and Beyond: Maximizing Appliance and Equipment Efficiency by Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina

    2011-07-20

    It is well established that energy efficiency is most often the lowest cost approach to reducing national energy use and minimizing carbon emissions. National investments in energy efficiency to date have been highly cost-effective. The cumulative impacts (out to 2050) of residential energy efficiency standards are expected to have a benefit-to-cost ratio of 2.71:1. This project examined energy end-uses in the residential, commercial, and in some cases the industrial sectors. The scope is limited to appliances and equipment, and does not include building materials, building envelopes, and system designs. This scope is consistent with the scope of DOE's appliance standards program, although many products considered here are not currently subject to energy efficiency standards. How much energy could the United States save if the most efficient design options currently feasible were adopted universally? What design features could produce those savings? How would the savings from various technologies compare? With an eye toward identifying promising candidates and strategies for potential energy efficiency standards, the Max Tech and Beyond project aims to answer these questions. The analysis attempts to consolidate, in one document, the energy savings potential and design characteristics of best-on-market products, best-engineered products (i.e., hypothetical products produced using best-on-market components and technologies), and emerging technologies in research & development. As defined here, emerging technologies are fundamentally new and are as yet unproven in the market, although laboratory studies and/or emerging niche applications offer persuasive evidence of major energy-savings potential. The term 'max tech' is used to describe both best-engineered and emerging technologies (whichever appears to offer larger savings). Few best-on-market products currently qualify as max tech, since few apply all available best practices and components. The

  12. Treatment of a skeletal Class II malocclusion using fixed functional appliance with miniplate anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Unal, Tuba; Bayram, Mehmet; Candirli, Celal

    2014-01-01

    Based on our literature search, we found that the use of miniplate anchorage with Forsus fatigue-resistance device (FRD) has not yet been reported. Therefore, the aim of the present case report was to present the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class II malocclusion with mandibular retrusion using Forsus FRD with miniplate anchorage. Fixed appliances with 0.022-inch slots were attached to the maxillary teeth and after 8 months of the leveling and alignment of the upper arch, 0.019 × 0.02...

  13. Anteroposterior and Vertical Changes in Skeletal Class II Patients Treated With Modified Thurow Appliance

    OpenAIRE

    PITHON, Matheus Melo; Santos, Rogério Lacerda dos; Sampaio,Gêisa Aiane de Morais; Meneses, Izaura Helena Chaves de; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the post-treatment anteroposterior and vertical alterations in skeletal Class II malocclusion with different maxillary patterns in patients treated with modified Thurow appliance. Forty-five patients (22 girls and 23 boys) with skeletal Class II and angle SN.GoGn ≤ 35 and different maxillary patterns (n=15), as follows: retrusive (SNA84°) maxilla; mean age 9 years at pre-treatment (T1) and 9 years and 10 months at post-treatment (T2), were treated with mo...

  14. Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method.

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    Allahyar Geramy

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM analysis.Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal was were evaluated.The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively.The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model.

  15. Fixed versus Removable Appliance for Palatal Expansion; A 3D Analysis Using the Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramy, Allahyar; Shahroudi, Atefe Saffar

    2014-01-01

    Several appliances have been used for palatal expansion for treatment of posterior cross bite. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress induced in the apical and crestal alveolar bone and the pattern of tooth displacement following expansion via removable expansion plates or fixed-banded palatal expander using the finite element method (FEM) analysis. Two 3D FEM models were designed from a mesio-distal slice of the maxilla containing the upper first molars, their periodontium and alveolar bone. Two palatal expanders (removable and fixed) were modeled. The models were designed in SolidWorks 2006 and then transferred to ANSYS Workbench. The appliance halves were displaced 0.1 mm laterally. The von Mises stress in the apical, crestal, and PDL areas and also the vertical displacement of the cusps (palatal and buccal) was were evaluated. The total PDL stress was 0.40003 MPa in the removable appliance (RA) model and 4.88e-2 MPa in the fixed appliance (FA) model and the apical stress was 9.9e-2 and 1.17e-2 MPa, respectively. The crestal stress was 2.99e-1 MPa in RA and 7.62e-2 MPa in the FA. The stress in the cortical bone crest was 0.30327 and 7.9244e-2 MPa for RA and FA, respectively and 3.7271 and 7.4373e-2 MPa in crestal area of spongy bone, respectively. The vertical displacement of the buccal cusp and palatal cusp was 1.64e-2 and 5.90e-2 mm in RA and 1.05e-4 and 1.7e-4 mm in FA, respectively. The overall stress as well as apical and crestal stress in periodontium of anchor teeth was higher in RA than FA; RA elicited higher stress in both cortical and spongy bone. The vertical displacement of molar cusps was more in removable than fixed palatal expander model.

  16. Technical Appliance in E-Learning: Student’s Perception on the Usage of Online Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Sarah Mohd Johari; Issham Ismail; Rozhan Mohammed Idrus

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insights into student’s perception on the usage of technical appliances on online learning. The study took place in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) based on the sample of 1084 student s with the experiences of using E-learning Portal as one of the distance education academic programme. The students were surveyed on the participation needs based on respondent’s personal background, such as age, gender, ethnic groups, education streams and year-of-study....

  17. Assessment of the rate of premolar extraction space closure in the maxillary arch with the AcceleDent Aura appliance vs no appliance in adolescents: A single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Peter; Fisher, Elizabeth; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-arm parallel trial was to assess the effect of the AcceleDent Aura appliance (OrthoAccel Technologies, Houston, Tex) on the rate of maxillary premolar extraction space closure in adolescent patients. Forty Class II adolescents treated with full fixed appliances and maxillary premolar extractions participated in this randomized clinical trial. They were recruited in a private practice and treated by 1 clinician. Randomization was accomplished in blocks of 10 patients assigned to either a no-appliance group or the AcceleDent Aura appliance group with the allocations concealed in opaque, sealed envelopes. Both the operator and the outcome assessor were blinded; however, it was not feasible to blind the patients. Models were taken of the maxillary arch at the start of space closure and just before complete space closure. The space was measured parallel to the occlusal plane from the cusp tips of the teeth mesial and distal to the extraction spaces. There was no clinically (0.05 mm per month; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.24, 0.34) or statistically significant difference in the rate of space closure (P = 0.74). In both the univariable and multivariable analyses, the mean rate of tooth movement was slower by 0.13 mm per month (95% CI, -.26, .005) on the left side compared with the right side, but this was not statistically significant (P = 0.06). The AcceleDent Aura appliance had no effect on the rate of maxillary premolar extraction space closure. Only a few participants were considered to be good compliers with the appliance. However, the rate of space closure in the good compliers was similar to the overall group and did not appear to influence the result. This trial was not registered. The protocol was not published before trial commencement. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Coordinated Scheme of Under-Frequency Load Shedding with Intelligent Appliances in a Cyber Physical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The construction of a cyber physical system in a power grid provides more potential control strategies for the power grid. With the rapid employment of intelligent terminal equipment (e.g., smart meters and intelligent appliances in the environment of a smart grid, abundant dynamic response information could be introduced to support a secure and stable power system. Combining demand response technology with the traditional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS scheme, a new UFLS strategy-determining method involving intelligent appliances is put forward to achieve the coordinated control of quick response resources and the traditional control resources. Based on this method, intelligent appliances can be used to meet the regulatory requirements of system operation in advance and prevent significant frequency drop, thereby improving the flexibility and stability of the system. Time-domain simulation verifies the effectiveness of the scheme, which is able to mitigate frequency drop and reduce the amount of load shedding.

  19. Impact of a pediatric primary care office-based mock code program on physician and staff confidence to perform life-saving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toback, Seth L; Fiedor, Melinda; Kilpela, Brian; Reis, Evelyn Cohen

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies have described that pediatric offices are ill-prepared for medical emergencies. Pediatric "mock codes" have been utilized to increase the emergency preparedness of inpatient medical units for several decades. These practice drills have been shown to both increase practitioners' confidence and decrease anxiety during actual resuscitations. Although the use of mock codes is recommended in the outpatient setting, these benefits have yet to be demonstrated for office-based practitioners. We conducted this study to determine whether mock codes performed in pediatric primary care offices increase practitioner confidence to perform life-saving skills. Pediatric group practices participated in a clinical trial of an office-based, 2-step, emergency preparedness training. First, physicians and staffs attended a 1-hour didactic program which included staff education, office emergency protocols, emergency equipment and medications, and guidelines on instituting a mock code program. Second, each practice participated in a 10-15-minute mock code exercise. The drill was conducted by pediatric advanced life support instructors. After the code, a 30-minute feedback session was conducted which reviewed office coordination, individual skill performance, and approach to resuscitation. Each participating practice also received an infant manikin and a text complete with several mock codes scenarios written specifically for the pediatric primary care office. Evaluation of the intervention consisted of 2 components. (1) Pre- and postintervention completion of a self-administered survey assessed participants' comfort in emergency situations and confidence to perform specific life-saving skills, using an ordinal scale: 1 = "strongly agree" to 5 = "strongly disagree". (2) Practices were contacted by telephone 12 months after the training to determine whether they had implemented improvements in emergency preparedness, including instituting mock codes, preparing a written

  20. A comparison of the MARA and the AdvanSync functional appliances in the treatment of Class II malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S; Preston, Charles B; Moll, Eva-Maria; Dischinger, Terry

    2012-09-01

    To determine the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects produced by the MARA and the AdvanSync functional appliances in the treatment of growing patients with Class II malocclusion. A retrospective study was conducted using lateral cephalograms of patients consecutively treated with MARA (n  =  40) and AdvanSync (n  =  30) during their skeletal growth spurt as evaluated by the improved cervical vertebral maturation method. A comparison was made with 24 untreated Class II control subjects obtained from the University of Michigan growth study and matched with the experimental groups for skeletal age, sex, and craniofacial morphology. Cephalograms were taken at three time points: (T1) pretreatment, (T2) postfunctional appliance treatment, and (T3) fixed orthodontic treatment completion. Treatment changes were evaluated between the time points using 35 variables. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's post hoc test. At the postfunctional appliances' phase (T2-T1), both appliances showed significant increases in total mandibular length, ramus height, and anterior/posterior facial height. The AdvanSync resulted in significant restriction of maxillary growth, 1° more than MARA. This effect continued during the fixed orthodontic treatment stage (T3-T2). The net changes (T3-T1) revealed significant mandibular growth enhancement with MARA (+2.7mm) and significant headgear effect with AdvanSync. Both appliances caused 5° flaring in mandibular incisors as well as significant decreases in overjet and overbite. The treatment time for AdvanSync was 1 year less than MARA. The MARA and the AdvanSync resulted in normalization of the Class II malocclusion. The AdvanSync showed more headgear effect but less mandibular length enhancement than MARA did. Both appliances showed similar dentoalveolar changes.

  1. Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Teresa Cristina Barros; Cunha, Thays Crosara Abrahão; Moura-Guimaraes, Thais; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; Alves, Eduardo da Silva; Pantiga, Gilberto; Mello, Marco Tulio de; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-01-01

    There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments. Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9), oral appliance (n = 9) and physical exercise (n = 7). Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness. Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.

  2. Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Barros Schutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments. METHODS: Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9, oral appliance (n = 9 and physical exercise (n = 7. Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of a semi-finished occlusal appliance – a randomized, controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ficnar Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Painful temporomandibular disorders (TMDs are usually treated with physiotherapy, self-exercises, medication-based therapy and splint therapy. For splint therapy different types of splints are available. Therefore this randomized controlled study compared the effectiveness of a semi-finished occlusal appliance (SB with a laboratory-made occlusal appliance (SS in myofascial pain patients. Method The trial subjects allocated to the experimental groups with the (SB occlusal appliance and those provided with a laboratory-made occlusal appliance (SS did, in addition, receive conservative treatment (self-exercises, drug-based and manual therapy. The control group was given conservative therapy (CO only. Overall, a total of 63 patients participated in the study with each group consisting of 21 subjects. Results When the first follow-up examination took place (14 days after splint insertion mouth opening within the SB group was significantly enlarged. When the second examination was conducted (2.5 months after splint insertion mouth opening was significantly enlarged in both splint groups when compared with the initial value. In the control group, no significant enlargement of mouth opening was detected. At no point there was a significant reduction in the number of pressure-sensitive areas of the TMJ. On palpation of the masticatory muscles however, a significant reduction in the number of pressure-sensitive areas could be observed within the CO group and the SS group after 2.5 months. When comparing pain reduction (muscle/joint pain and mouth opening, no significant differences could be detected between the treatments. Conclusion The results suggest that TMD should be treated conservatively. In cases of restricted mouth opening, the additional use of occlusal appliances can eliminate the patient’s discomfort more quickly. In this context, the tested, semi-finished occlusal appliance appears to offer an immediately available

  4. Treatment outcome of short- and long-term appliance therapy in patients with TMD of myogenous origin and tension-type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, E C; Nilner, M

    2006-10-01

    The aim was to compare the short- and long-term effect of a stabilization appliance with a control appliance in myofascial pain patients suffering from episodic or chronic tension-type headache. Sixty patients (mean age 29 +/- 12 years) with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) of myogenous origin and headache were studied in this prospective controlled study. Seventy-seven per cent of the patients reported episodic and 23% chronic tension-type headache at the start of the study. The 60 patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group (stabilization appliance) or to a control group (control appliance). The patients were interviewed regarding symptoms of headache and myofascial pain and clinically examined for masticatory muscle tenderness. At the 10-week and the 6- and 12-month evaluations of appliance therapy, the treatment outcome of tension-type headache was studied. At the 10-week evaluation, 17 patients dropped-out from the control group by requesting another appliance and receiving a stabilization appliance. Another patient in the control group dropped out later during the trial. In an intent-to-treat analysis, significant differences in improvement of headache between treatment and control groups were found at the follow-ups. A 30% reduction of muscles tender to palpation correlated significantly to improvement of headache at all follow-ups. The stabilization appliance seems to have a positive effect on tension-type headache, both in a short- and in a long-term perspective in patients with TMD with pain of myogenous origin.

  5. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Snoring with Oral Appliance Therapy: An Update for 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramar, Kannan; Dort, Leslie C; Katz, Sheri G; Lettieri, Christopher J; Harrod, Christopher G; Thomas, Sherene M; Chervin, Ronald D

    2015-07-15

    Since the previous parameter and review paper publication on oral appliances (OAs) in 2006, the relevant scientific literature has grown considerably, particularly in relation to clinical outcomes. The purpose of this new guideline is to replace the previous and update recommendations for the use of OAs in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and snoring. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) and American Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine (AADSM) commissioned a seven-member task force. A systematic review of the literature was performed and a modified Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the quality of evidence. The task force developed recommendations and assigned strengths based on the quality of the evidence counterbalanced by an assessment of the relative benefit of the treatment versus the potential harms. The AASM and AADSM Board of Directors approved the final guideline recommendations. 1. We recommend that sleep physicians prescribe oral appliances, rather than no therapy, for adult patients who request treatment of primary snoring (without obstructive sleep apnea). (STANDARD) 2. When oral appliance therapy is prescribed by a sleep physician for an adult patient with obstructive sleep apnea, we suggest that a qualified dentist use a custom, titratable appliance over non-custom oral devices. (GUIDELINE) 3. We recommend that sleep physicians consider prescription of oral appliances, rather than no treatment, for adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are intolerant of CPAP therapy or prefer alternate therapy. (STANDARD) 4. We suggest that qualified dentists provide oversight—rather than no follow-up—of oral appliance therapy in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea, to survey for dental-related side effects or occlusal changes and reduce their incidence. (GUIDELINE) 5. We suggest that sleep physicians conduct follow-up sleep testing to improve or confirm

  6. Modified tandem traction bow appliance compared with facemask therapy in treating Class III malocclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortop, Tuba; Kaygisiz, Emine; Gencer, Deniz; Yuksel, Sema; Atalay, Zeynep

    2014-07-01

    To compare the effects of the modified tandem traction bow appliance (MTTBA) and the facemask in treating patients with Class III malocclusion. The material consisted of the pre-post treatment\\pre-post observation lateral cephalograms of 65 subjects with skeletal and dental Class III malocclusion. In the first group 21 patients (mean age: 10 years, 6 months) were treated with a Delaire-type facemask (FM). In the second group 22 patients treated (mean age: 10 years) with MTTBA. The remaining 22 children (mean age: 9 years, 7 months) were observed without treatment for 11 months. Increase in SNA, N-FH ⊥ A, and ANB angles were significantly greater in the treatment groups compared to the control group. However, ANB angle showed a significantly greater increase in the FM group (2.8 ± 0.30°) than in the MTTBA group (2.0 ± 0.18°). The overjet and molar relation increased significantly in both treatment groups, but in the FM group (5.2 ± 0.40 mm) increase in overjet was significantly greater than in the MTTBA group (4.0 ± 0.27 mm). Mesial movement of upper molar and incisor were found to be greater in the FM group compared to the modified TTBA group. Both appliances were found to be effective in the treatment of Class III malocclusion. Their skeletal and dental effects showed differences due to their design.

  7. Comparison of oral-health-related quality of life during treatment with headgear and functional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadkhoda, Shadi; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Shirazi, Mohsen

    2011-09-01

    Functional and headgear are two well-known approaches in the treatment of skeletal class II malocclusion in preadolescent children. Assessment of psycho-social impacts of wearing devices during the treatment period is central to enhancing the quality of healthcare services. This study aimed to compare oral-health-related quality of life in two groups consisting of children wearing headgear or functional appliances. We also compared these groups with a non-malocclusion group. The study population consisted of 187, 11- to 14-year-old children in three groups of functional (n = 67), headgear (n = 67) and non-malocclusion (n = 53). Children were asked to complete the translated version of the short form of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire. Total scores and subscale scores of the three clinical groups were compared through ANOVA. There was no significant difference in mean total scale score and subscale scores between functional and headgear groups (P > 0.05). Significant differences were found in both mean total and subscale scores between the malocclusion and non-malocclusion groups (P 0.05). The results of this study reveal that functional and headgear appliances do not differ in terms of impact on daily life during the treatment. Moreover, both groups have poorer OHQoL compared to malocclusion group. 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Skeletal and dental components of Class II correction with the bionator and removable headgear splint appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Renato Parsekian; da Rosa Martins, Joel Claudio; Martins, Lidia Parsekian; Buschang, Peter H

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to differentiate the dentoalveolar and skeletal effects to better understand orthodontic treatment. We evaluated the treatment changes associated with the bionator and the removable headgear splint (RHS). The sample comprised 51 consecutively treated Class II patients from 1 office who had all been successfully treated with either a bionator (n=17) or an RHS appliance (n=17). Class II patients waiting to start treatment later served as controls (n=17). A modified version of the Johnston pitchfork analysis was used to quantify the dentoalveolar and skeletal contributions to the anteroposterior correction at the levels of the molars and the incisors. Both appliances significantly improved anteroposterior molar relationships (2.15 mm for the bionator, 2.27 mm for the RHS), primarily by dentoalveolar modifications (1.49 and 2.36 mm for the bionator and the RHS, respectively), with greater maxillary molar distalization in the RHS group. Overjet relationships also improved significantly compared with the controls (3.11 and 2.12 mm for the bionator and the RHS, respectively), due primarily to retroclination of the maxillary incisors (2.2 and 2.38 mm for the bionator and the RHS, respectively). The differences between overall corrections and dentoalveolar modifications for both molar and overjet relationships were explained by skeletal responses, with the bionator group showing significantly greater anterior mandibular displacement than the RHS group. The bionator and the RHS effectively corrected the molar relationships and overjets of Class II patients primarily by dentoalveolar changes.

  9. Long-term changes in pharyngeal airway dimensions following activator-headgear and fixed appliance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänggi, Michael P; Teuscher, Ullrich M; Roos, Malgorzata; Peltomäki, Timo A

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the pharyngeal airway in growing children and adolescents and to compare these with a group of children who received activator-headgear Class II treatment. The sample consisted of 64 children (32 males and 32 females), 32 had a combined activator-headgear appliance for at least 9 months (study group) followed by fixed appliance therapy in most patients, while the other half received only minor orthodontic treatment (control group). Lateral cephalograms before treatment (T1, mean age 10.4 years), at the end of active treatment (T2, mean age 14.5 years), and at the long-term follow-up (T3, mean age 22.1 years) were traced and digitized. To reveal the influence of somatic growth, body height measurements were also taken into consideration. A two-sample t-test was applied in order to determine differences between the groups. At T1, the study group had a smaller pharynx length (P = 0.030) and a greater ANB angle (P headgear therapy has the potential to increase pharyngeal airway dimensions, such as the smallest distance between the tongue and the posterior pharyngeal wall or the pharyngeal area. Importantly, this increase seems to be maintained long term, up to 22 years on average in the present study. This benefit may result in a reduced risk of developing long-term impaired respiratory function.

  10. Various anchorage approaches in unilateral mandibular molar distalization using a fixed lingual arch appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero; Fritz, Ulrike; Diedrich, Peter

    2004-03-01

    Mean unilateral mandibular molar distalization of 3.33 +/- 1.28 mm was achieved in 20 patients (average age: 13 years, 1 month) by fitting an asymmetrically activated lingual arch appliance for an average treatment period of 4 months. Three different anchorage techniques were used: Anchorage was provided in seven patients by the lingual arm of the appliance alone, while another seven patients received additional sectional archwires, and another six patients sectional archwires and lip bumpers. Anchorage by means of the lingual arm alone proved to be insufficient to prevent labial tipping of the incisors. The mean protrusion and labial tipping recorded at the lower incisors was 7.67 degrees +/- 1.53 degrees and 2.64 +/- 0.48 mm respectively. The anchorage quality was enhanced and satisfactory stabilization achieved by additionally inserting a sectional archwire. In these cases the mean incisor protrusion and labial tipping was 1.75 degrees +/- 0.96 degree and 0.71 +/- 0.76 mm respectively and thus significantly lower (p lip bumper provided no further increase in anchorage quality (incisor protrusion 1.75 degrees +/- 2.87 degrees and 0.67 +/- 1.21 mm respectively). Fitting additional anchorage aids appears to have no direct impact on the extent and quality of molar distalization.

  11. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance markettransformation program design for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-02-28

    A simple replication of developed country applianceefficiency labels and standards is unlikely to be feasible in Ghana andmany other countries in Africa. Yet by creatively modifying the developedcountry appliance efficiency market transformation model, it should bepossible to achieve dramatic energy use reductions. As was true indeveloped countries in the previous two decades, refrigeration efficiencyimprovements provide the greatest energy savings potential in theresidential electricity sector in Ghana. Although Ghana, like manyAfrican countries may impose standards on imports since Ghana does nothave manufacturing facilities for appliances in country. This approachmay hurt some consumers who patronize a very diverse market of usedappliances imported from Europe. We discuss how meeting the challenges ofthe Ghanaian market will require modification of the usual energyefficiency labeling and standards paradigm. But once a refrigeratormarket transformation is accomplished in Ghana, we estimate an averageenergy savings potential of 550 kWh/refrigerator/year, and a monetarysavings of more than $35/refrigerator/year. We discuss how this modifiedrefrigerator efficiency market transformation may occur in the Ghanaiancontext. If successful, this market transformation is likely to be anexample for many other African countries.

  12. The assessment of energy efficiency of electric machines for domestic appliances drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the division of domestic appliances into categories connected with input power was presented. The authors discussed issues connected with energy efficiency of these devices. An example of such a device power consumption of which affects considerably on overall power consumption from the mains is a vacuum cleaner. Vacuum cleaners are used in almost all households and they were covered by the EU regulations which introduced limitations in power consumption from the mains. In the paper, the assessment of energy efficiency of classic electric motors for vacuum cleaners drive was presented. Results of practical tests of chosen vacuum cleaners were presented. The digital power meter was used to measure electric parameters of tested vacuum cleaners and the PC was used to collect measuring data. The assessment of input power influence on energy consumption and energy efficiency was conducted based on tests results. It was shown in conclusions that the one of development directions of domestic appliances, which can cause improvement of energy efficiency, are alternative technologies of electric machines with much higher efficiency i.e. energy-saving electric machines with electronic commutation.

  13. Smart Security System For Home Appliances Control Based On Internet Of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Zin Zin Win

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Technology is always evolves. Home security is essential for occupants convenience and protection. Security systems are being preferred over manual system. With the rapid increase in the number of users of internet over the past decade has made Internet a part and parcel of life and IoTs is the latest and emerging internet technology. Home Appliances Control of Smart Security System using IoTs uses computers or mobile devices to control basic home functions and features through internet from anywhere around the world. This security system differs from other system by allowing the user to operate the system from anywhere around the world through internet connection. With the implementation of Arduino Mega microcontroller as an Embedded device security system design was constructed with many sensors and web server database. The Arduino Ethernet shield is used to eliminate the use of a personal computer PC. The motion sensing circuit temperature and humidity sensing circuit smoke or gas sensing circuit door lock sensing circuit light onoff circuit were designed to be connected with Arduino Mega microcontroller and Ethernet shield. This system can monitor the temperature and humidity values and the state of some sensors for intruder detection. It can also control the electric appliances like lights and door at home. Real time result was displayed on web server page via the internet.

  14. Early treatment of Class III malocclusion with a tandem traction bow appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Basaveshwar Valgadde

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Since Class III malocclusion is progressive in nature, the facial growth of Class III malocclusion worsens with age. Class III malocclusion is associated with a deviation in the sagittal relationship of the maxilla and the mandible, characterized by a deficient maxilla, retrognathic mandible, or a combination of both. The early orthopedic treatment of Class III malocclusions, at the end of primary dentition or the beginning of mixed dentition, prior to growth spurt, allows the accomplishment of successful results, providing facial balance, modifying the maxillofacial growth and development, and in many instances, preventing a future surgical treatment by increasing the stability. Many treatment approaches can be found in the literature regarding orthopedic and orthodontic treatment of Class III malocclusion, including intra- and extra-oral appliances. The major problem with extraoral anchorage has been of patient compliance due to its physical appearance. The case report presents an intraoral modified tandem appliance for maxillary protraction that has been used clinically to achieve successful results without relying much on patient co-operation.

  15. The relationships between malocclusion, fixed orthodontic appliances and periodontal disease. A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastel, Jan; Quirynen, Marc; Teughels, Wim; Carels, Carine

    2007-11-01

    To review the literature on the periodontal implications of malocclusion and fixed orthodontic appliances. The PubMed database was searched for original articles on 'orthodontics and gingivitis/periodontology/plaque/ microbiology/histology', 'bracket and gingivitis/periodontology/plaque/microbiology/histology', 'crowding/spacing/overbite/overjet/open bite/crossbite traumatic occlusion and gingivitis/periodontology/plaque/microbiology/histology'. Only articles published between 1970 and 30 April 2007 were used. The search was augmented by screening the references cited in each paper for additional articles that might have been missed by the electronic search. Dental plaque is the primary cause of gingival inflammation and periodontitis. Conditions that encourage the growth and retention of dental plaque result in a localised gingivitis, which rarely progresses to periodontal disease. Only a few studies report attachment loss during orthodontic treatment. The contradictory findings on the impact of malocclusion and orthodontic appliances on periodontal health may be partly due to the selection of materials and differences in the research methods employed.

  16. Estimating the impact of the home appliances trade-in policy on WEEE management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuguang; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Zhuang, Xuning; Huang, Juwen; Liang, Honggen; Han, Yuebin

    2012-11-01

    The ever-increasing amount of waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) has become a global problem. In view of the deleterious effects of WEEE on the environment and the valuable materials that can be reused in them, many countries have focused their attention on the management of WEEE and the recovery technologies of WEEE. The Chinese government has been active in creating a legislative and institutional framework to realize WEEE recycling. In June 2009, Chinese government launched home appliances and electronics trade-in implementation solution. This paper elaborates the home appliances trade-in policy and its significant impact on the WEEE management. The trade-in policy is not only conducive to expanding the consumption demand and promoting the balance of domestic and overseas demand, but also favorable to improving the energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution. Under this policy, China has successfully established an effective WEEE recycling system, using the financial means and network design. Experiences gained from the trade-in policy have shown that management systems of WEEE need to be designed and implemented in a multi-stakeholder dialogue.

  17. Enforcement/certification program for appliance efficiency standards. Task II, report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-28

    The research and analysis program at Vitro Labs. in support of the appliance certification and enforcement program provides Vitro's recommended approach to appliance certification and enforcement (C/E). The approach established the C/E program framework, general criteria, and procedures for assuring a specified level of energy-efficiency performance for 13 categories of consumer products (furnaces, humidifiers, dehumidifiers, dishwashers, television, clothes washers, freezers, air conditioners, stoves, refrigerators, water heaters). Section 2 summarizes the recommended approach. Section 3 contains detailed evaluations and comparisons for four independent alternative approaches considered (minimal government intevention, strong certification control, strong enforcement audit, and mixed certification/enforcement). The fifth C/E approach (strong remedy/deterrent) involves the remedies available to the government should non-compliance be discovered and could affect the choice among the approaches, but this approach has not been evaluated. Section 4 summarizes the analysis methodology used to select the recommended approach. Additional information is provided in 6 appendices.

  18. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  19. Complex Characteristics of Multichannel Household Appliance Supply Chain with the Price Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the complex characteristics caused by the price competition in multichannel household appliance supply chains. We consider a two-level household appliance supply chain system consisting of a manufacturer with an Internet channel and a retailer with a traditional channel and an Internet channel. Each channel’s price-setting follows the bounded rational decision process in order to obtain the optimal profit or more market share. Considering that the price competition often leads to the demand and order fluctuation, we also investigate the bullwhip effect of the multichannel supply chains on the basis of the order-up-to-inventory policy. From the numerical simulation, we find a system in a chaotic state will suffer larger bullwhip effect than a stable system, and the manufacturer’s Internet channel is helpful to mitigate the bullwhip effect. Our results provide some useful managerial inspirations for the household manufacturer and retailers. Firstly, each channel should make their retail price with a suitable price adjustment speed in the stable region, and each time pricing cannot exceed the domain of attraction. Secondly, the manufacturer can adopt a more radical pricing strategy in their Internet channel to mitigate the bullwhip effect. Thirdly, the price adjustment should be reviewed and be appropriately reduced if the price adjustment is too large.

  20. Class II malocclusion treatment using Jasper Jumper appliance associated to intermaxillary elastics: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francyle Simões Herrera-Sanches

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Skeletal, dental and profile discrepancies can be amended by using functional orthodontic appliances. OBJECTIVE: This study is a report of the treatment of a patient, 11 years and 4 months old, with Class II, division 1, malocclusion, convex profile, protrusion of upper incisors, pronounced overjet and overbite, and mild crowding. METHODS: The patient was treated with a Jasper Jumper associated to fixed appliances for 6 months and Class II intermaxillary elastics (3/16in during the last 4 months. After debonding, a Hawley retainer was used during daytime and a modified Bionator for night use during one year. In the lower dental arch a bonded lingual retainer was used. This treatment combination improved the profile, as well as the overjet, overbite and molar relation. RESULTS: There was clockwise mandibular rotation and increase of lower anterior facial height. The lower incisors were protruded and extruded and the lower molars were extruded. The centric occlusal relation was checked and it was coincident to the maximum usual intercuspation. CONCLUSION: It was demonstrated that the Jasper Jumper is an efficient alternative to Class II malocclusion treatment, providing improvement in the facial profile, although the changes are more dentoalveolar than skeletal.

  1. Short-term skeletal and dental effects of the Xbow appliance as measured on lateral cephalograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mir, Carlos; Barnett, Gregory; Higgins, Duncan W; Heo, Giseon; Major, Paul W

    2009-12-01

    Our objective was to determine the short-term skeletal and dental effects of the Xbow appliance when compared with an equivalent untreated control group as measured on lateral cephalograms. A prospective sample of 69 consecutive Class II patients treated with only the Xbow appliance was compared with 30 historical Class II untreated controls. Standardized lateral cephalograms were used. Two patients from the treatment group did not complete treatment. The 2 groups appeared similar at pretreatment with the exception of the positions of the maxillary central incisor (2.9 mm more protruded in Xbow group), the mandibular incisor (1.7 mm more protruded with the Xbow group), and Point A (2.8 mm forward restriction in Xbow group). There were statistically significant differences for 9 of the 14 evaluated cephalometric variables when normal growth changes were factored out. Those differences favoring the Xbow for changes in the direction of Class II correction include SNA, ANB, L1-MP, L1 minus Pg, overjet, U6 minus A, L6 minus Pg, and A-OLp. Meanwhile, the control group showed a statistically significant decrease in the mandibular plane angle compared with the Xbow group. Skeletally, a diminution of maxillary protrusion without mandibular advancement and an increase of the vertical dimension were found. Dentally, overjet correction was accomplished by an increase in mandibular incisor protrusion without maxillary incisor movement. The maxillary molars were distalized whereas the mandibular molars were mesialized.

  2. Preventive effect of ozone on the development of white spot lesions during multibracket appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Otmar; Lussi, Adrian; Ruf, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    To test the null hypotheses: (1) there is no difference in the caries protective effect of ozone and Cervitec/Fluor Protector during multibracket (MB) appliance therapy, and (2) DIAGNOdent and quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) are not superior to a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions. Twenty right-handed patients with a very poor oral hygiene who required full MB appliance therapy were analyzed during 26 months. In a split-mouth-design, the four quadrants of each patient were either treated with ozone, a combination of Cervitec and Fluor Protector, or served as untreated controls. The visible plaque index (VPI) and white spot formation were analyzed clinically. DIAGNOdent and QLF were used for a quantitative assessment of white spot formation. The average VPI in all four dental arch quadrants amounted to 55.6% and was independent of the preventive measure undertaken. In the quadrants treated with Cervitec/Fluor Protector, only 0.7% of the areas developed new, clinically visible white spots. This was significantly (P Fluor Protector during MB therapy was superior to ozone, and a visual evaluation of initial caries lesions was superior to both DIAGNOdent and QLF.

  3. Men Purchase, Women Use: Coping with Domestic Electrical Appliances in Rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiujie

    Based on a field study in a village in the northern plain of China, this paper reviews three different types in how Han-Chinese rural people have coped with domestic electrical appliances during the last 40-odd years of electrification. The aim of this paper is to offer an ethnographic study of the complex relations between technology and social life in a Chinese rural setting and to explore the logic and dynamics whereby rural populations confront and integrate new technical products into their everyday life. This paper is divided into three main parts: following the introduction on the "everyday technology approach" and background information about the field site, the author next gives a brief historical description of the electrification process in rural China. The third part is dedicated to the ethnographic data concerning five appliances: electric light, water pump, TV, washing machine and water boiler-cooler. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues concerning appropriation of new technology in the wider background of society/economy/state and everyday habitus, questioning how well conventional oppositional dichotomies like female/male, masculinity/feminity serve as analytical frameworks.

  4. Smart meter deployment optimisation and its analysis for appliance load monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaharyar Khwaja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors study the problem of smart meter deployment optimisation for appliance load monitoring, that is, to monitor a number of devices without any ambiguity using the minimum number of low-cost smart meters. The importance of this problem is due to the fact that the number of meters should be reduced to decrease the deployment cost, improve reliability and decrease congestion. In this way, in future, smart meters can provide additional information about the type and number of distinct devices connected, besides their normal functionalities concerned with providing overall energy measurements and their communication. The authors present two exact smart meter deployment optimisation algorithms, one based on exhaustive search and the other based on efficient implementation of the exhaustive search. They formulate the problem mathematically and present computational complexity analysis of their algorithms. Simulation scenarios show that for a typical number of home appliances, the efficient search method is significantly faster compared to the exhaustive search and can provide the same optimal solution. The authors also show the dependency of their method on the distribution of the load pattern that can potentially be in a typical household.

  5. Failure investigation of soldered stainless steel orthodontic appliances exposed to artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahed, Anisa; Lachman, Nirusha; Knutsen, Robert D

    2007-07-01

    Globally in the field of Dental Technology, soldering continues to be the prevailing joining technique for removable orthodontic appliances. The strength of the soldered joint, however, is a growing concern to dental technicians since the commonly employed silver solder undergoes accelerated corrosion and ultimately influences the success of orthodontic appliances intraorally. The goal of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of exposure to artificial saliva on the mechanical strength of orthodontic silver-soldered stainless steel joints. One hundred (control group n=20; aged group n=80) soldered specimens were exposed to varying exposure times in Fusayama's artificial saliva. Tensile failure loads of the control and aged groups were measured. Failure modes were evaluated by examining the exposed surfaces, solder microstructure and the fracture morphology using a combination of light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). A marked decrease in tensile failure load of the joints was recorded after exposure to artificial saliva. Selective attack was identified on the aged solder surfaces, which was attributed to the micro-galvanic effect brought about by the preponderance of Cu-rich phases in the solder microstructure. The selective attack promoted decohesion at the solder/wire interface, thereby reducing the tensile failure load. This study helped to elucidate that an association between exposure periods and microstructure of soldered orthodontic joints exists and that their combined effects positively influence the tensile strengths of orthodontic soldered joints.

  6. Effects of dynamic-demand-control appliances on the power grid frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuisseu, E. B. Tchawou; Gomila, D.; Brunner, D.; Colet, P.

    2017-08-01

    Power grid frequency control is a demanding task requiring expensive idle power plants to adapt the supply to the fluctuating demand. An alternative approach is controlling the demand side in such a way that certain appliances modify their operation to adapt to the power availability. This is especially important to achieve a high penetration of renewable energy sources. A number of methods to manage the demand side have been proposed. In this work we focus on dynamic demand control (DDC), where smart appliances can delay their switchings depending on the frequency of the system. We introduce a simple model to study the effects of DDC on the frequency of the power grid. The model includes the power plant equations, a stochastic model for the demand that reproduces, adjusting a single parameter, the statistical properties of frequency fluctuations measured experimentally, and a generic DDC protocol. We find that DDC can reduce small and medium-size fluctuations but it can also increase the probability of observing large frequency peaks due to the necessity of recovering pending task. We also conclude that a deployment of DDC around 30-40% already allows a significant reduction of the fluctuations while keeping the number of pending tasks low.

  7. An Empirical Study of the Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Electric Appliances Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Łatuszyńska

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the impact of different factors on consumer buying behaviour. It analyses the relationship between several independent variables, such as cultural, social, personal, psychological and marketing mix factors, and consumer behaviour (as the dependent variable in the electric appliances market. The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting consumer preferences and behaviour in the electric appliances market in Iraq. The data employed to analyse the factors influencing consumers’ purchase decision-making processes were obtained through a questionnaire that was conducted in December 2011 in Basra, a city in southern Iraq. The major findings of the study indicated that, overall, the set of independent variables are weakly associated with the dependent variable. However, the in-depth analysis found that social factors, physical factors, and marketing mix elements are strongly associated with consumer buying behaviour. These analyses make it possible to discover consumer decision-making rules. The results may assist producers and retailers in understanding consumer behaviour and improving consumer satisfaction.

  8. Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Sema Atuğ Özcan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in the levels of interleukine-1 beta (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, malondialdehyde (MDA, nitric oxide (NO, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG in saliva and IL-1β, TNF-α, and NO in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF samples of patients with fixed orthodontic appliances. Material and Method. The subject population consisted of 50 volunteers who were in need of orthodontic treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances. GCF and saliva samples were obtained from all individuals before treatment, at 1st month of treatment and at 6th month of treatment. Periodontal clinical parameters were measured. Samples were investigated to detect IL-1β, TNF-α, and 8-OHdG levels using ELISA method and NO and MDA levels using spectrophotometric method. Results. Since IL-1β level detected in GCF at the 6th month of orthodontic treatment is statistically significant according to baseline (P<0.05, all other biochemical parameters detected both in saliva and in GCF did not show any significant change at any measurement periods. Conclusion. Orthodontic tooth movement and orthodontic materials used in orthodontic treatment do not lead to a change above the physiological limits that is suggestive of oxidative damage in both GCF and saliva.

  9. Facial-profile attractiveness changes in adult patients treated with the Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, J; Erbe, C; Pancherz, H; Ruf, S

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study was to compare facial profile attractiveness changes of adult patients treated with the Herbst appliance assessed by orthodontists and laypeople. The patient sample comprised 28 adult Herbst patients. Facial profile photographs of the patients were randomly divided into two evaluation sets (before T0, after treatment T1). Ten members of the Angle Society of Europe (orthodontists) and 10 dental students in their third semester (laymen) rated both sets of photographs using Visual Analog Scales (VAS) with an interval of 1 day between the ratings. On average, both orthodontists and students found an improvement in facial profile attractiveness through Herbst appliance treatment (VAS T1-T0 = 0.3 ± 1.9 cm). However, the interindividual perception of profile attractiveness varied greatly in the two rater groups. For both time periods (T0, T1), lower VAS ratings were given by students than by orthodontists. Herbst therapy in adult patients generally improves facial profile attractiveness. Students rated facial profiles more critically than orthodontists.

  10. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years... status within 3 years from the time of award. Grantee B then provides services to homeless veterans for a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery provisions. 61...

  11. 24 CFR 206.27 - Mortgage provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage provisions. 206.27 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.27 Mortgage provisions. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1) When...

  16. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  17. 28 CFR 512.21 - Copyright provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyright provisions. 512.21 Section 512... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.21 Copyright provisions. (a) An employee of the Bureau may not copyright... non-employee may copyright original materials developed as a result of research conducted under this...

  18. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  19. 40 CFR 192.42 - Substitute provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute provisions. 192.42 Section 192.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... § 192.42 Substitute provisions. The regulatory agency may, with the concurrence of EPA, substitute for...

  20. 38 CFR 8.29 - Policy provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy provisions. 8.29 Section 8.29 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE National Service Life Insurance Policy § 8.29 Policy provisions. Contracts of insurance authorized to be made in accordance with the...