WorldWideScience

Sample records for provisions effective date

  1. 77 FR 37283 - General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... directors of each Farm Credit System institution to adopt an operational and strategic business plan to... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 618 RIN 3052-AC66 General Provisions; Operating and Strategic Business Planning; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective...

  2. 76 FR 45181 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Delay of Effective Date for Certain Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... for not only online advertising but also print advertising so that consumers receive consistent... same effective date to print advertising so that consumers do not see different advertising displays in... January 24, 2012 for requirements pertaining to full fare advertising. The effective date remains August...

  3. 26 CFR 801.8 - Effective/applicability dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective/applicability dates. 801.8 Section 801.8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INTERNAL... REVENUE SERVICE § 801.8 Effective/applicability dates. The provisions of §§ 801.1 through 801.7 apply on...

  4. 31 CFR 596.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1362-7 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) INCOME TAXES Small Business Corporations and Their Shareholders § 1.1362-7 Effective dates. (a) In... consideration the statute; its legislative history; the provisions of §§ 18.1362-1 through 18.1362-5 (see 26 CFR... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective dates. 1.1362-7 Section 1.1362-7...

  6. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  7. 46 CFR 308.552 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 308.552 Section 308.552 Shipping... Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.552 Effective date. This subpart shall be effective as and when the... commerce of the United States cannot be obtained on reasonable terms and conditions from companies...

  8. 12 CFR 563g.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 563g.6 Section 563g.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.6 Effective date. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (d) of this section, an offering circular filed by a...

  9. 16 CFR 314.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 314.5 Section 314.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.5 Effective date. (a) Each financial institution subject to the...

  10. 17 CFR 248.128 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 248.128 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a) Effective date. This subpart is effective September 10, 2009. (b) Mandatory compliance date. Compliance with this... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date, compliance...

  11. 76 FR 70064 - Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Update to Information on the Effective Date of Atlantic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... provisions, and only after ESA Section 7 consultation is completed. Notice of the effective date will be.... 110912579-1627-01] RIN 0648-BB43 Atlantic Highly Migratory Species; Update to Information on the Effective.... SUMMARY: NMFS is updating the anticipated effective date of smoothhound shark management measures...

  12. 39 CFR 20.2 - Effective date of the International Mail Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of the International Mail Manual. 20.2 Section 20.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE INTERNATIONAL MAIL INTERNATIONAL POSTAL SERVICE § 20.2 Effective date of the International Mail Manual. The provisions of the International Mail...

  13. 76 FR 77053 - Proposed Collection; Income, Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates, etc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... Reform Act of 1984. The regulations affect qualified employee benefit plans, welfare benefit funds, and... gift taxes; effective dates and other issues arising under the employee benefit provisions of the tax..., Excise, and Estate and Gift Taxes Effective Dates and Other Issues Arising Under the Employee Benefit...

  14. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage increases...

  15. 29 CFR 1910.98 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1910.98 Section 1910.98 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... section, if any standard in 41 CFR part 50-204, other than a national consensus standard incorporated by...

  16. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  17. 50 CFR 216.212 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.212 Effective dates...

  18. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  19. 12 CFR 41.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 41.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective... an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if the bank receives such information prior to...

  20. 16 CFR 680.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a... part shall not prohibit you from using eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to...

  1. 12 CFR 571.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.28 Effective date, compliance date, and... receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive such information prior to...

  2. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  3. 21 CFR 864.3 - Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates of requirement for premarket approval. 864.3 Section 864.3 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES General Provisions § 864.3 Effective...

  4. 2 CFR 230.40 - Effective date of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 230.40 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST... provisions of this part are effective August 31, 2005. Implementation shall be phased in by incorporating the... implementation, or a delay in implementation of individual provisions, is also permitted by mutual agreement...

  5. A conceptual framework to assess effectiveness in wheelchair provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepan C. Kamaraj

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe.

  6. 17 CFR 248.18 - Effective date; transition rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Safeguarding Personal Information Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 248.18 Effective date; transition... customers on the compliance date. By July 1, 2001, you must have provided an initial notice, as required by § 248.4, to consumers who are your customers on July 1, 2001. (2) Example. You provide an initial notice...

  7. 12 CFR 717.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  8. 12 CFR 334.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  9. A conceptual framework to assess effectiveness in wheelchair provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Bray, Nathan; Rispin, Karen; Kankipati, Padmaja; Pearlman, Jonathan; Borg, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, inadequate wheelchair provision has forced many people with disabilities to be trapped in a cycle of poverty and deprivation, limiting their ability to access education, work and social facilities. This issue is in part because of the lack of collaboration among various stakeholders who need to work together to design, manufacture and deliver such assistive mobility devices. This in turn has led to inadequate evidence about intervention effectiveness, disability prevalence and subsequent costeffectiveness that would help facilitate appropriate provision and support for people with disabilities. In this paper, we describe a novel conceptual framework that can be tested across the globe to study and evaluate the effectiveness of wheelchair provision. The Comparative Effectiveness Research Subcommittee (CER-SC), consisting of the authors of this article, housed within the Evidence-Based Practice Working Group (EBP-WG) of the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP), conducted a scoping review of scientific literature and standard practices used during wheelchair service provision. The literature review was followed by a series of discussion groups. The three iterations of the conceptual framework are described in this manuscript. We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe.

  10. 44 CFR 19.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 19.100 Purpose and effective date. The... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and effective date. 19.100 Section 19.100 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY...

  11. 12 CFR 308.158 - Filing papers and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing papers and effective date. 308.158 Section 308.158 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE... Section 19 of the FDIA § 308.158 Filing papers and effective date. (a) Filing with the regional office...

  12. 26 CFR 1.383-0 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.383-0 Section 1.383-0 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Insolvency Reorganizations § 1.383-0 Effective date. (a) The regulations under section 383 (other...

  13. 26 CFR 1.846-4 - Effective/applicability date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective/applicability date. 1.846-4 Section 1.846-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.846-4 Effective/applicability date. (a) In general...

  14. 26 CFR 1.846-4T - Effective dates (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective dates (temporary). 1.846-4T Section 1.846-4T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Other Insurance Companies § 1.846-4T Effective dates (temporary). (a) [Reserved...

  15. 26 CFR 1.547-7 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.547-7 Effective date. The deduction for deficiency dividends, in computing personal holding company tax for any taxable year, is allowable only with respect to... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Effective date. 1.547-7 Section 1.547-7 Internal...

  16. 32 CFR 48.502 - Effective date of annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of annuity. 48.502 Section 48.502... RETIRED SERVICEMAN'S FAMILY PROTECTION PLAN Annuity § 48.502 Effective date of annuity. All annuities..., except that no annuity shall accrue or be paid for the month in which entitlement to that annuity...

  17. 5 CFR 831.701 - Effective dates of annuities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective dates of annuities. 831.701... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Computation of Annuities § 831.701 Effective dates of annuities. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, an annuity of an employee or Member commences...

  18. 40 CFR 745.81 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sampling technician without accreditation from EPA under § 745.225. Training programs may apply for..., § 745.81 was amended by revising paragraph (a)(4), effective July 6, 2010. For the convenience of the...

  19. 40 CFR 62.3652 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROMULGATION OF STATE PLANS FOR DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Indiana Metals, Acid Gases, Organic... effective December 1, 2008. [73 FR 56983, Oct. 1, 2008] Control of Air Emissions From Existing Commercial...

  20. A conceptual framework to assess effectiveness in wheelchair provision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kankipati, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Background Currently, inadequate wheelchair provision has forced many people with disabilities to be trapped in a cycle of poverty and deprivation, limiting their ability to access education, work and social facilities. This issue is in part because of the lack of collaboration among various stakeholders who need to work together to design, manufacture and deliver such assistive mobility devices. This in turn has led to inadequate evidence about intervention effectiveness, disability prevalence and subsequent costeffectiveness that would help facilitate appropriate provision and support for people with disabilities. Objectives In this paper, we describe a novel conceptual framework that can be tested across the globe to study and evaluate the effectiveness of wheelchair provision. Method The Comparative Effectiveness Research Subcommittee (CER-SC), consisting of the authors of this article, housed within the Evidence-Based Practice Working Group (EBP-WG) of the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP), conducted a scoping review of scientific literature and standard practices used during wheelchair service provision. The literature review was followed by a series of discussion groups. Results The three iterations of the conceptual framework are described in this manuscript. Conclusion We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe. PMID:28936421

  1. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date; reopening of administrative record. Food and Drug Administration, HHS. Final rule; delay of effective date; reopening of administrative record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is delaying until October 1, 2001, the effective date and reopening the administrative record to receive additional comments regarding certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). The other provisions of the final rule become effective on December 4, 2000. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA) and the FDA Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). FDA is delaying the effective date for certain requirements relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record. FDA is also delaying the effective date of another requirement that would prohibit blood centers functioning as "health care entities" to act as wholesale distributors of blood derivatives. The agency is taking this action to address numerous concerns about the provisions raised by affected parties.

  2. Provision of Effectiveness of University Education on the Market Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Nikolai; Usenko, Lyudmila; Ivanova, Olga; Kostoglodova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and determine the effectiveness of university education on the economy of various countries. Design/methodology/approach: To determine the necessity and expedience of making provision for the effectiveness of university education on the market economy, this work uses the method of regression and…

  3. 29 CFR 36.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 36.100 Purpose and effective date. The... any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, whether or not such program...

  4. 10 CFR 5.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.100 Purpose and effective date. The purpose of these... or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, whether or not such program or activity is...

  5. 7 CFR 15a.1 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FROM FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 15a.1 Purpose and effective date. The purpose of this... education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, whether or not such program or...

  6. The effect of irradiation on date palm pollen grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M M; Alajaily, F R [The National Academy for Scientific Research Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation of male date palm is very important in date palm culture, it is very well known that the source of pollen has its influence on fruit set, physical and chemical characters of the fruits. Date pollen was collected from previously studied male date palm trees. The pollen was subjected to the following irradiation treatments: 0,5, 10, 20, 40, 80 krad. The irradiated pollen was treated with acetocarmine and its viability was studied under the light microscope. No differences were observed between the treated pollen and the control. The pollen was germinated on agar, sucrose and boric acid media in an incubator at 27 degree C for hours. Germination count under the light microscope indicated that there were no significant differences between 5, 10, 20 krad treatments and the control, but the high doses reduced the germination percentage. The irradiated pollen used to pollinate date palm trees and the effect of metaxynia was studied. 3 tabs.

  7. 26 CFR 1.860-5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... real estate investments trusts. Section 859 (as in effect before the enactment of the Revenue Act of... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date. 1.860-5 Section 1.860-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME...

  8. 26 CFR 48.4161(b)-5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Sporting Goods § 48.4161(b)-5 Effective date. The taxes imposed by section 4161(b) are effective with respect to sales made on and after January 1, 1975. ...

  9. 50 CFR 222.403 - Duration of selection; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to make the rule effective without a 30-day delay. ... rule for five years, without need for NMFS to include the fishery in the intervening proposed annual... 30-day delay in effective date for implementing observer coverage will follow the annual notification...

  10. 48 CFR 9904.404-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.404-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.404-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  11. 48 CFR 9904.406-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.406-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.406-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  12. 48 CFR 9904.409-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.409-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.409-63 Effective date. (a) This Standard is effective...

  13. 48 CFR 9904.408-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.408-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.408-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  14. 48 CFR 9904.405-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.405-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.405-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  15. 48 CFR 9904.403-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.403-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.403-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  16. 48 CFR 9904.407-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.407-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.407-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  17. 48 CFR 9904.401-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.401-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.401-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  18. 48 CFR 9904.402-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-63 Section 9904.402-63 Federal Acquisition Regulations System COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS BOARD, OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET PROCUREMENT PRACTICES AND COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS 9904.402-63 Effective date. This Standard is effective as of...

  19. 20 CFR 410.687a - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....686a, 410.686b, 410.686c, 410.686d, and 410.686e, shall be effective upon publication in the Federal... rendered in connection with those claims for which a fee has not been fully paid before this effective date, notwithstanding the fact that fee contracts for such services may have been entered into, or services rendered...

  20. 41 CFR 50-203.22 - Effective date of determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 203-RULES OF PRACTICE Minimum Wage Determinations Under the Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act § 50-203.22 Effective date of determinations. Any minimum wage determination issued as a result of hearings held under this subpart shall take effect not less...

  1. 78 FR 45051 - Unincorporated Business Entities; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... under State law for certain business activities. In accordance with the law, the effective date of the...) institutions' use of unincorporated business entities (UBEs) organized under State law for certain business... business entities, such as unincorporated business trusts, organized under State law. The final rule does...

  2. 20 CFR 726.5 - Effective date of insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date of insurance coverage. 726.5 Section 726.5 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, AS AMENDED BLACK LUNG BENEFITS; REQUIREMENTS FOR COAL MINE OPERATOR...

  3. Effects of seed collecting date and storage duration on seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of seed collecting dates (5 to 6 times from mid-November to early January, 10 days intervals) and seed storage duration (4, 8, and 12 months) at room temperature on seed germination of four Artemisia species (Artemisia sieberi, A. diffusa, A. kupetdaghensis, and A.

  4. 41 CFR 101-4.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 101-4.100 Purpose and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose and effective date. 101-4.100 Section 101-4.100 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1494-2 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Transfers to Avoid Income Tax § 1.1494-2 Effective date. Chapter 5 (section 1491 and following) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 and the regulations prescribed thereunder apply with respect...

  6. 42 CFR 435.965 - Delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay of effective date. 435.965 Section 435.965 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... describing a good faith effort to come into compliance with the requirements of section 1137 of the Act and...

  7. 30 CFR 62.100 - Purpose and scope; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH REGULATIONS OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.100 Purpose and scope; effective date. The purpose of these standards is to prevent the occurrence and reduce the progression of occupational noise-induced hearing loss among miners. This part sets forth mandatory health standards for each surface and...

  8. 16 CFR 1025.57 - Effective date of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date of order. 1025.57 Section 1025.57 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR... of the statutory period for court review specified in Section 5(c) of the Federal Trade Commission...

  9. Disinfestation of Date Fruits by Gamma Radiation and Its Effect on the Nutritional Contents of Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.A.; Boshra, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Hassan, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation dis infestations of Siwa date fruits seems to be a very promising method. Considerations of the health safety of irradiated date fruits involve nutritional contents has been investigated by chemical analysis. The dose of 400 and 1000 Gy were lethal for the different stages of oases date moth, Ephestia calidella. Dates are a good source of iron and potassium, they also contain calcium, magnesium, copper and other minerals. The radiation dose 1000 Gy had mostly affected the carbohydrates content, some minerals as Fe, Ca and Na partially changed by the treatment. Protein and vitamin contents were slightly affected

  10. Medicaid program; premiums and cost sharing. Final rule; delay of effective date and reopening of comment period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-27

    This action temporarily delays the effective date of the November 25, 2008 final rule entitled, Medicaid Program; Premiums and Cost Sharing" (73 FR 71828) until December 31, 2009. In addition, this action reopens the comment period on the policies set out in the November 25, 2008 final rule, and specifically solicits comments on the effect of certain provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  11. Equitable service provision for inclusive education and effective early intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, K M

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.

  12. 77 FR 61513 - Voluntary Licensing of Amateur Rocket Operations; Correction; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ...; Delay of Effective Date AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Direct final rule; correction; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: This action delays the effective date for a direct final rule... adverse comments to this rule, and delays the effective date to allow time for adequate analysis and a...

  13. 76 FR 65999 - Effective Date for Swap Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    .... Category 1 covers statutory provisions which by their express terms require rulemaking to implement... amended by title VII of the Dodd-Frank Act that reference one or more terms regarding entities or... provisions specifically relate to such referenced terms and do not require a rulemaking. The second part...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1928 - Effect of the alien non-payment provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of the alien non-payment provision... the alien non-payment provision. An agreement may provide that a person entitled to benefits under... party to the agreement, regardless of the alien non-payment provision (see § 404.460). ...

  15. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on sugars from Iraqi dates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaddou, H; Al-Hakim, M; Mhaisen, M D [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.

    1981-01-01

    The possibility of using gamma-irradiation for date preservation had been considered as an alternative method to fumigation. Two varieties of Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Sayer) had been used in the study, and three doses of 50, 100 and 150 krads. A combination of treatments of heat plus irradiation were also applied and tests were conducted at three maturation stages. Gas chromatographic analysis was used to fractionate sugars from dates after converting to their TMS - ether derivatives. No qualitative or quantitative changes were observed in sugar components in either Zahdi or Sayer dates within the doses used in the experiments.

  17. 48 CFR 9904.410-63 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... objectives which were in existence prior to the date on which the business unit must first allocate costs in... business unit may use the method described below for transition from the use of a cost of sales or sales... objectives which arise under contracts entered into on or after the date on which the business unit must...

  18. 17 CFR 9.12 - Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ACTIONS Notice and Effective Date of Disciplinary Action or Access Denial Action § 9.12 Effective date of disciplinary or access denial action. (a) Effective date. Any disciplinary or access denial action taken by an... cause a disciplinary action to become effective prior to that time if: (1) As authorized by § 8.25 of...

  19. 18 CFR 284.287 - Implementation and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OTHER REGULATIONS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND... J, a pipeline must file revised tariff sheets incorporating the provisions of this subpart J. (b) A...

  20. 12 CFR 546.2 - Procedure; effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) The transaction involves a transfer in the context of a mutual holding company reorganization under...) Such other provisions, agreements, or understandings as relate to the combination. (c) Prior written... that prescribed under applicable law. Approval of a merger automatically cancels the Federal charter of...

  1. 12 CFR 222.1 - Purpose, scope, and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... branches, Federal Agencies, and insured State branches of foreign banks), commercial lending companies... agency to issue a regulation or to take other action to implement the applicable provision of the FACT...) Section 115, concerning truncation of the social security number in a consumer report; (iv) Section 151(a...

  2. 76 FR 42508 - Effective Date for Swap Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... the General Counsel, or Steven Kane, Consultant, 202-418-5911, [email protected] , Office of the Chief...., letter dated July 1, 2011, from R. Michael Sweeney, Jr., Hunton & Williams, on behalf of the Working...

  3. 78 FR 6025 - Electronic Fund Transfers (Regulation E) Temporary Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... issuing this final rule to delay the February 7, 2013, effective date of final rules published by the... establish any requirements but rather delays the effective date of the 2012 Final Rule pending the... delay of the 2012 Final Rule's effective date would generally benefit remittance transfer providers by...

  4. 76 FR 26948 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ...] Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting AGENCY: U.S... INFORMATION CONTACT: Richard L. Miller, Small Business Job's Act Tour-Office of Government Contracting and..., concerning the Small Business Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government that announced a...

  5. Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-29

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), known as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. On August 21, 2017, HHS solicited comments on further delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule to July 1, 2018 (82 FR 39553). HHS proposed this action to allow a more deliberate process of considering alternative and supplemental regulatory provisions and to allow for sufficient time for additional rulemaking. After consideration of the comments received on the proposed rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017, final rule, to July 1, 2018.

  6. IAEA Response and Assistance Network. Date Effective: 1 January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This publication is a tool for (1) supporting the provision of international assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, (2) cooperation between States, their competent authorities and the IAEA, and (3) harmonization of response capabilities of States offering assistance under the Response and Assistance Network (RANET). The publication may also assist competent authorities and other response organizations in their efforts to establish and/or maintain their own response capabilities.

  7. 26 CFR 1.141-16 - Effective dates for qualified private activity bond provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State... methods permitted in § 1.142-2(e)(2), an issuer may treat bonds with the longest maturities (determined on...

  8. The effects of shadow removal on across-date settlement type classification of quickbird images

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luus, FPS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available QuickBird imagery acquired on separate dates may have significant differences in viewing- and illumination geometries, which can negatively impact across-date settlement type classification accuracy. The effect of cast shadows on classification...

  9. EFFECT OF DATE OF PLANTING ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    KEY WORDS: Date of Planting, Performance, Groundnut, haulm, yield, grain yield. ... Adamawa State, groundnuts have the highest tonnage among the legumes cultivated and ranks ... germination because of moisture stress) and such planting continues till the ..... variations in temperature and solar radiation intercepted.

  10. 29 CFR 5.22 - Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits provisions. 5.22... Fringe Benefits Provisions of the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.22 Effect of the Davis-Bacon fringe benefits... paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 1.2 of this subtitle. The fringe benefits amendments enlarge the scope of this...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VII Appendix VII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... VII to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Surface Disposed Prohibited Hazardous Wastes Table 1—Effective...

  12. 78 FR 33690 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ...-0008] RIN 0563-AC35 Common Crop Insurance Regulations; Pecan Crop Insurance Provisions; Correction... FR 13454-13460). The regulation pertains to the insurance of Pecans. DATES: Effective Date: June 5...: [[Page 33691

  13. The addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2017-04-01

    Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. 10 CFR 431.156 - Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. 431.156 Section 431.156 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM... Standards § 431.156 Energy and water conservation standards and effective dates. Each commercial clothes...

  15. 41 CFR 101-39.102-2 - Effective date of determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.102-2 Effective date of determination. Unless a longer time is... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effective date of...

  16. 77 FR 39387 - Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC60 Loan Policies and Operations; Lending and Leasing Limits and Risk Management; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date. SUMMARY: The Farm Credit Administration (FCA or Agency), through the FCA Board (Board...

  17. Age-Sensitive Effect of Adolescent Dating Experience on Delinquency and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ryang Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a developmental perspective and focuses on examining whether the impact of adolescent dating is age-sensitive. Dating at earlier ages is hypothesized to have a stronger effect on adolescent criminal behavior or substance use, but the effect would be weaker as one ages. The data obtained from the National Longitudinal Survey of…

  18. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 268 - LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes VIII Appendix VIII to Part 268 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... to Part 268—LDR Effective Dates of Injected Prohibited Hazardous Wastes National Capacity LDR...

  19. 76 FR 42470 - Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 614 RIN 3052-AC62 Loan Policies and Operations; Loan Purchases From FDIC; Effective Date AGENCY: Farm Credit Administration. ACTION: Notice of effective date... rule under part 614 on May 25, 2011 (76 FR 30246) amending our regulations on loan policies and...

  20. 40 CFR 96.24 - Effective date of initial NOX Budget permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date of initial NOX Budget... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Permits § 96.24 Effective date of initial NOX Budget permit. The initial NOX Budget permit...

  1. 42 CFR 488.440 - Civil money penalties: Effective date and duration of penalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil money penalties: Effective date and duration... Civil money penalties: Effective date and duration of penalty. (a)(1) The per day civil money penalty... by CMS or the State. (2) A civil money penalty for each instance of noncompliance is imposed in a...

  2. IAEA Response and Assistance Network. Date Effective: 1 September 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Parties to the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') have undertaken to cooperate between themselves and with the IAEA to facilitate the timely provision of assistance in the case of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, in order to mitigate its consequences. In September 2000, the General Conference of the IAEA, in resolution GC(44)/RES/16, encouraged Member States ''to implement instruments for improving their response, in particular their contribution to international response, to nuclear and radiological emergencies'' as well as ''to participate actively in the process of strengthening international, national and regional capabilities for responding to nuclear and radiological emergencies and to make those capabilities more consistent and coherent''. As part of the IAEA's strategy for supporting the practical implementation of the Assistance Convention, in 2000 the IAEA Secretariat established a global Emergency Response Network (ERNET) of teams suitably qualified to respond to nuclear or radiological emergencies rapidly and, in principle, on a regional basis. The IAEA Secretariat published IAEA Emergency Response Network - ERNET (EPR-ERNET) in 2000, which set out the criteria and requirements to be met by members of the network. An updated edition was published in 2002. The Second Meeting of the Representatives of Competent Authorities Identified under the Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency, held in Vienna in June 2003, recommended that the IAEA Secretariat convene a Technical Meeting to formulate recommendations aimed at improving participation in the network. Participants in a Technical Meeting held in March 2004 developed a new concept for the network and a completely new draft of the publication. In July 2005, the Third Meeting of Competent Authorities

  3. 49 CFR 25.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 25.100 Purpose and effective... basis of sex in any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, whether or not...

  4. 10 CFR 1042.100 - Purpose and effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 1042.100 Purpose and effective... basis of sex in any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, whether or not...

  5. The moderating effect of social support from a dating partner on the association between dating violence victimization and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Seavey, Amanda E; Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Fite, Paula J; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-04-01

    Dating violence victimization is associated with decreased relationship satisfaction and increased mental health symptomatology. Yet, violent dating relationships often remain intact across time, even when the aggression fails to cease. Thus, research is needed to determine the factors that reduce the negative impact of victimization. One factor may be that abusive dating partners are perceived as supportive by their partners, serving to reduce the negative impact of victimization. The current study sought to examine whether perceived support (i.e., perceptions of support) and capitalization support (i.e., perceptions of support for positive events) moderated and reduced the impact of dating violence victimization on decreased relationship satisfaction and increased depressive symptoms. Using a sample of females in dating relationships (N = 253), results provided partial support for our hypotheses. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Effect of Date Extract on Growth of Mutans Streptococci, the Most Important Factor of Dental Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sayyedi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective:Dental caries is perhaps the most common bacterial infections in humans and Streptococcus Mutans is one of the most important factors in dental caries. Research has shown that some kind foods have an inhibitory effect on cariogenic factors of Mutans streptococci. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus Mutans. Methods & Materials: This experimental study was down at faculty of medicine, Yasuj university of medical sciences with collaborative of microbiology department of Shiraz university of medical sciences in 2005. In an In-vitro study, effect of date extract on growth of Mutans Streptococci was surveyed .After collecting of Streptococcus Mutans from dental caries those were cultured in different medium of date fruit, extract of date fruit and syrup of date with different concentrations. Results: Following 24 hours, Streptococcus mutans was grown in less concentration of date mediums and its grown was inhibited in more concentrations. Conclusion: With respect of inhibitory effect of date extract on growth of Streptococcus mutans,it might be introduced that date as a source of food has a preventive effect on dental caries.

  7. Strong and nonlinear effects of fragmentation on ecosystem service provision at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G. E.; Bennett, Elena M.; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Human actions, such as converting natural land cover to agricultural or urban land, result in the loss and fragmentation of natural habitat, with important consequences for the provision of ecosystem services. Such habitat loss is especially important for services that are supplied by fragments of natural land cover and that depend on flows of organisms, matter, or people across the landscape to produce benefits, such as pollination, pest regulation, recreation and cultural services. However, our quantitative knowledge about precisely how different patterns of landscape fragmentation might affect the provision of these types of services is limited. We used a simple, spatially explicit model to evaluate the potential impact of natural land cover loss and fragmentation on the provision of hypothetical ecosystem services. Based on current literature, we assumed that fragments of natural land cover provide ecosystem services to the area surrounding them in a distance-dependent manner such that ecosystem service flow depended on proximity to fragments. We modeled seven different patterns of natural land cover loss across landscapes that varied in the overall level of landscape fragmentation. Our model predicts that natural land cover loss will have strong and unimodal effects on ecosystem service provision, with clear thresholds indicating rapid loss of service provision beyond critical levels of natural land cover loss. It also predicts the presence of a tradeoff between maximizing ecosystem service provision and conserving natural land cover, and a mismatch between ecosystem service provision at landscape versus finer spatial scales. Importantly, the pattern of landscape fragmentation mitigated or intensified these tradeoffs and mismatches. Our model suggests that managing patterns of natural land cover loss and fragmentation could help influence the provision of multiple ecosystem services and manage tradeoffs and synergies between services across different human

  8. Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L )

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullatif Alkhateeb

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date sy...

  9. Interpersonal style moderates the effect of dating violence on symptoms of anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalch, Matthew M; Lannert, Brittany K; Hopwood, Christopher J; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2013-11-01

    Over a quarter of young women have experienced some form of violence within a dating relationship. The experience of dating violence is associated with problems in psychological functioning, including symptoms of anxiety and depression. However, not all women who experience dating violence exhibit anxious or depressive symptoms. One factor that may influence symptom expression is interpersonal style. In this study, we examined the main and moderating effects of dimensions of interpersonal style (dominance and warmth) on the association between dating violence and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Warmth exhibited a main effect on anxious and depressive symptoms over and above the effects of dating violence and other life stressors. Dominance moderated the association between dating violence and anxious and depressive symptoms. When levels of dating violence were high, women with higher levels of dominance reported fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression than women with lower dominance. These results indicated that whereas high warmth was associated with fewer symptoms of psychopathology generally, high dominance was a buffer against the effect of dating violence on symptoms more specifically. Directions for future research are discussed.

  10. Effect of sugar replacement with date paste and date syrup on texture and sensory quality of kesari (traditional Indian dessert)

    OpenAIRE

    Annamalai Manickvasagan; Chandini S Kumar; Zaher H Al-Attabi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a popular Indian dessert, kesari, was reformulated by substituting refined sugar at various levels (0%=control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) with date past and syrup, and changes in instrumental texture profile, L*a*b* colour values and sensory properties were determined.  The hardness of date syrup kesari was higher than that of date paste kesari. However, there were no differences in hardness among various levels of replacement.  There were no differences between syrup vs paste pr...

  11. Updating OSHA standards based on national consensus standards. final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-14

    OSHA is confirming the effective date of its direct final rule that revises a number of standards for general industry that refer to national consensus standards. The direct final rule states that it would become effective on March 13, 2008 unless OSHA receives significant adverse comment on these revisions by January 14, 2008. OSHA received no adverse comments by that date and, therefore, is confirming that the rule will become effective on March 13, 2008.

  12. Extraction solvent’s effect on biogas production from mixtures of date seed and wastewater sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeef Wameed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of extraction solvent on biogas production from mixtures of date (Phoenix dactylifera seed and wastewater treatment sludge. Date palm seed is a locally produced waste which is used in different useful purposes. Date seed is rich in proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and have the potential for biogas enhancement. In this study, three extraction solvents, hexane, ethyl acetate and Ethanol:water (1:1, were used on two types of date seeds (locally known as Khalas and Khudari. Date seed powder of size 0.425 – 0.6 mm after extraction was mixed with wastewater treatment sludge at dry date seed/dry sludge solids ratios of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%. The study showed a direct relationship between biogas production and ratio of date seeds/wastewater sludge in the mixture. Furthermore, the results confirmed that the quantity of biogas produced from samples containing raw date seed was almost same as the quantity produced from samples containing date seed after extraction. The results revealed that the used extraction solvents had no effect on biogas production

  13. The operations and effectiveness of public and private provision of solid waste collection services in Kampala

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katusiimeh, M.W.; Mol, A.P.J.; Burger, C.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares the operations and discusses the effectiveness of public and private sector provision of solid waste collection in Kampala, Uganda. Household data suggest that the private sector is more effective than the public sector. Private sector companies provide services like container

  14. Data-driven directions for effective footwear provision for the high-risk diabetic foot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, M. L. J.; de Haart, M.; Waaijman, R.; Dahmen, R.; Berendsen, H.; Nollet, F.; Bus, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Custom-made footwear is used to offload the diabetic foot to prevent plantar foot ulcers. This prospective study evaluates the offloading effects of modifying custom-made footwear and aims to provide data-driven directions for the provision of effectively offloading footwear in clinical practice.

  15. Date fruit consumption at term: Effect on length of gestation, labour and delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, Nuguelis; Mohd Nahwari, Siti Hayati; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Hassan, Jamiyah

    2017-07-01

    Labour induction and augmentation with Prostaglandin and Oxytocin are well established as standard practice worldwide. They are safe when used judiciously, but may be associated with maternal and neonatal morbidities. Other safer alternatives have been studied including dates consumption during late pregnancy with various outcomes. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the effect of date fruit consumption during late pregnancy on the onset of labour and need for induction or augmentation of labour. A total of 154 nulliparous women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy were randomly allocated to either dates-consumer (77) or control group (77). The women in the dates-consumer group had significantly less need for augmentation of labour and longer intervention to delivery interval. There was no significant difference in the onset of spontaneous labour. Dates consumption reduces the need for labour augmentation but does not expedite the onset of labour. Impact statement • Dates fruit consumption during late pregnancy has been shown to positively affect the outcome of labour and delivery. In this study, date consumption reduced the need for labour augmentation with oxytocin but did not expedite the onset of labour. Therefore, dates consumption in late pregnancy is a safe supplement to be considered as it reduced the need for labour intervention without any adverse effect on the mother and child. This further supports the finding of earlier studies.

  16. Effective information provision to rural dwellers in the era of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rural dwellers in Nigeria make up the larger proportion of the people whose information needs are not sufficiently met even though they contribute meaningfully to national development. The failure of the Nigerian public libraries to effectively perform its roles as a local gate way to knowledge and the layman's university has ...

  17. Empowering change: The effects of energy provision on individual aspirations in slum communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Priti; Chaturvedi, Sankalp; George, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of energy provision in influencing the social aspirations of people living in slums. We examine factors that influence the shift in aspirations in five slum settlements using data from 500 interviews conducted in serviced and non-serviced slums from the state of Gujarat in India. The non-serviced slums did not have access to basic services namely water, sanitation, energy, roads, solid waste and rainwater management. We find empirical evidence which suggests that when basic infrastructure provisions are met, slum dwellers shift their focus from lower order aspirations to the higher order aspirations like health, education, housing and land ownership. We argue that energy provision enhances productivity and enables slum dwellers to shift their aspirations upwards. Furthermore, we test the effect of work days lost due to illness on the relationship between higher order aspirations and aspirations for energy provision. When provision of energy is low, higher work day loss dampens higher order aspirations. For policy makers, this study highlights the critical link between the infrastructure services preferred by slum dwellers and their social aspirations for growth. - Highlights: ► We examine the role of energy provision in influencing social aspirations of people living in slums. ► 500 household interviews conducted in five Indian slum settlements used for the analysis. ► Shift in slum dwellers aspirations from non-serviced to serviced conditions examined using Herzberg’s theory. ► Link between energy provision and higher order aspirations established through a regression model. ► Policy recommendation is to encourage investment in infrastructure services as a driver for development.

  18. Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbès, Fatma; Besbes, Souhail; Brahim, Bchir; Kchaou, Wissal; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe

    2013-08-01

    The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100  and at "60  in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100  significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60 . A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed.

  19. A feasibility study to assess the effectiveness of safe dates for teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W; Waterhouse, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the adapted Safe Dates curriculum as an intervention for pregnant and/or parenting teens to prevent teen dating violence (TDV). This pre-/posttest, single-sample study provided a means to assess the effectiveness of an adapted Safe Dates curriculum for teen mothers. The adapted Safe Dates curriculum was implemented in three schools designed for the unique needs of teens who are pregnant and/or parenting. The final sample of 41 teen participants, with a mean age of 16.27, completed 80% of the curriculum and two of the three assessments. Most of the teens were pregnant during participation in the curriculum, and six had infants between age 1 and 3 months. The teen mothers completed the pretest, participated in the 10-session adapted Safe Dates curriculum, and completed the posttest at the end of the program and 1 month after program completion. The pre/posttest was adapted from the Safe Dates curriculum-specific evaluation instrument. Senior, undergraduate nursing students were trained in and implemented the curriculum. Participation in the adapted Safe Dates program yielded significant differences in the areas of responses to anger, gender stereotyping, awareness of resources for perpetrators and victims, and psychological violence perpetration. This adapted program may be effective in changing selected outcomes. The implementation of a larger scale, experimental/control group study may demonstrate the program's efficacy at reducing the incidence of TDV among teen mothers. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987; Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992; policies, requirements, and administrative procedures; delay of effective date. Final rule; delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is further delaying, until December 1, 2006, the effective date of certain requirements of a final rule published in the Federal Register of December 3, 1999 (64 FR 67720). In the Federal Register of May 3, 2000 (65 FR 25639), the agency delayed until October 1, 2001, the effective date of certain requirements in the final rule relating to wholesale distribution of prescription drugs by distributors that are not authorized distributors of record, and distribution of blood derivatives by entities that meet the definition of a "health care entity" in the final rule. The agency further delayed the effective date of these requirements in three subsequent Federal Register notices. Most recently, in the Federal Register of January 31, 2003 (68 FR 4912), FDA delayed the effective date until April 1, 2004. This action further delays the effective date of these requirements until December 1, 2006. The final rule implements the Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987 (PDMA), as modified by the Prescription Drug Amendments of 1992 (PDA), and the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 (the Modernization Act). The agency is taking this action to address concerns about the requirements in the final rule raised by affected parties. As explained in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section, FDA is working with stakeholders through its counterfeit drug initiative to facilitate widespread, voluntary adoption of track and trace technologies that will generate a de facto electronic pedigree, including prior transaction history back to the original manufacturer, as a routine course of business. If this technology is widely adopted, it is expected to help fulfill the pedigree requirements of the PDMA and obviate or resolve many of the concerns that have been raised with respect to the final rule by ensuring that an electronic pedigree travels with a drug product at all times. Therefore, it is necessary to delay the effective date of Sec

  1. Effects of the provisions of the corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmak, M. R.

    The effects of the provisions of the existing corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions are analyzed. It is shown that the provisions of a tax code do not discriminate against investment in solar technologies if the present value of depreciation and interest expense tax deductions over the relevant decision period is equal to the present value of actual capital expenses. However, on the basis of a quantitative analyses, it is concluded that the existing corporate income tax code does discriminate against solar investments for the majority of corporations, although the 25 percent tax credit available to businesses for solar investments is sufficient to alleviate the distortion in most cases. In contrast, the provisions of the existing personal income tax code favor solar investments over investments in less capital intensive energy generating units, as the interest paid on loads used to finance solar investments made by individuals is tax deductible, while conventional fuel expenses are not deductible.

  2. Safety effects of infrastructural provisions for cyclists and moped-riders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welleman, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    Some comments are given on PB 26128. Both in the Netherlands and in Denmark research has been done into the safety effects of infrastructural provisions, namely cycle tracks and cycle lanes. The research has mostly been done using before and after studies, based on statistical analysis of number of

  3. The Effect of Indigenous Politics on English Language Provision in New Zealand's Maori Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rata, Elizabeth; Tamati, Tauwehe

    2013-01-01

    An ambivalence characterising the provision of English language instruction in New Zealand's Maori schools is traced to the establishment of the schools in the recent period of biculturalism and retribalisation, and to the role of the schools in indigenous ideology. The article discusses the effects of the ambivalence on English language provision…

  4. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180 ± 3.7 kg of body

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the sugar and protein composition of Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auda, H.; Khalaf, Z.; Mirjan, J.

    1978-01-01

    Completely ripened date fruits of several Iraqi varieties were irradiated with 30, 70, 100, 270 and 500krad of gamma irradiation and stored at a temperature of 25-35 0 C in wooden boxes or in plastic bags. At various intervals samples were taken and analysed by paper-chromatography, gas-chromatography and spectrophotometry for quantitative and qualitative changes in carbohydrates. The results showed no effect of gamma irradiation on reducing sugar and major carbohydrate components. The formation of malonaldehyde under gamma irradiation of dates and solid standard sugars was also studied up to 500krad. The results showed no formation of malonaldehyde in irradiated date samples as well as standard sugars. Gamma irradiation showed no effect on the protein content of dates. However, storage showed some reduction in the protein content of both unirradiated and irradiated samples. (author)

  6. State child health; revisions to the regulations implementing the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Interim final rule with comment period; revisions, delay of effective date, and technical amendments to final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-25

    Title XXI authorizes the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) to assist State efforts to initiate and expand the provision of child health assistance to uninsured, low-income children. On January 11, 2001 we published a final rule in the Federal Register to implement SCHIP that has not gone into effect. This interim final rule further delays the effective date, revises certain provisions and solicits public comment, and makes technical corrections and clarifications to the January 2001 final rule based on further review of the comments received and applicable law. Only the provisions set forth in this document have changed. All other provisions set forth in the January 2001 final rule will be implemented without change.

  7. Effect of sugar replacement with date paste and date syrup on texture and sensory quality of kesari (traditional Indian dessert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamalai Manickvasagan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a popular Indian dessert, kesari, was reformulated by substituting refined sugar at various levels (0%=control, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% with date past and syrup, and changes in instrumental texture profile, L*a*b* colour values and sensory properties were determined.  The hardness of date syrup kesari was higher than that of date paste kesari. However, there were no differences in hardness among various levels of replacement.  There were no differences between syrup vs paste products or among various levels of replacements in cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess, adhesiveness and chewiness of kesari.  The developed kesari scored 5.5 to 7.5 on a 9 level hedonic scale (like slightly-like moderately in all sensory attributes.  Replacement of sugar at 75% and 100% levels, significantly lowered the scores for most of the sensory attributes.  Around 50% of the panellist in informed sensory, selected 50% replaced products (paste or syrup as their first choice.

  8. Effect of Sowing Date on Some Agronomic Characteristics and Seed Yield of Winter Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ganbari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of sowing dates on yield, yield components and some agronomic characteristics of four winter wheat cultivars and also their phenological changes, a factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications was carried out at the Agriculture Research Station of Ardabil (Iran during 2009 growing season. First factor consisted of four wheat cultivars (Azar2, Sabalan, Sardari and Zagros and second factor consisted of four sowing dates (1st, 10th, 20th and 30th of September. The results showed that sowing date had significant effect on the number of spikes, the number of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight, germination percentage, days to spike appearance, days to ripening, growing degree days, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The highest and lowest seed yields of wheat were obtained from sowing date of the September the first (4616 kg/ha and sowing date of September 30th (2197 kg/ha respectively. Delaying planting decreased the number of spikes per m2 and 1000-seed weight. Cultivars had significant effect on all of the traits measured, except leaf number, fertile and non-fertilie tillers. The highest and the lowest seed yields were obtained from Sabalan (4750 kg/ha and Zagros (2757 kg/ha cultivars respectively. Interaction of sowing date and cultivar were significant on all of traits measured, except stem height, the leaf number, the number of spikes, 1000-seed weight and seed yield (P

  9. Effect of Planting Date on Physiological and MorphologicalCharacteristics of Four Canola Cultivars in Yasouj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Fallah Heki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the physiological and morphological characteristics of canola cultivars at different planting dates, an experiment was carried out in 2008-2009 at the Agriculture Research Station of Yasouj. A factorial with Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications was conducted. Four planting dates (September 12, September 22, October 2 and October 12 and four cultivars (Zarfam, Okapi, Elite and SLM-046 were used in this study. Results showed that cultivars and planting dates had significant effects on more characteristics. In addition, interaction of planting date and cultivar was significant on plant height, height to lowest silique, number of branches, growth indices and grain yield. Zarfam and Elite cultivars had lower initial fluorescence (Fo and higher maximum fluorescence (Fm and photochemical capacity of photosystem II (Fv/Fm than Okapi and SLM-046 cultivars. Elite cultivar at September 12 planting date had the highest plant height (173 cm and height to lowest silique (87.5 cm and Okapi cultivar at October 12 planting date showed the lowest plant height (91 cm and height to lowest silique (43.7 cm. At September 12 planting date, Elite cultivar had the greatest leaf area index (5.21 and grain yield (5231 kg/ha. At other planting dates, Zarfam cultivar because of priority in leaf area index, crop growth rate and total dry matter have the greatest grain yield than other cultivars. In general, seems at September 12 planting date, Elite cultivar and for delayed sowing, Zarfam cultivar had better reaction than other cultivars.

  10. The direct effect of ultrasound on the extraction of date syrup and its micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entezari, M H; Hagh Nazary, S; Haddad Khodaparast, M H

    2004-09-01

    In the date syrup industry, date fruits are mixed with a suitable amount of water at a temperature greater than 50 degrees C for about 1 h. This condition is not sufficient for killing the micro-organisms present in the fruit. In addition, Overheating for a long time can damages nutritious materials and also changes the final product's color. Ultrasound was applied for improving the quantity and quality of the extraction, and also to overcome the health problem. In this research, the following variables were examined: date fruit/water ratio, ultrasonic intensity and temperature. The results showed that sonication under the proper conditions can lead to a higher extraction in a shorter time with a better physical quality of the product. Most importantly, the sonication significantly decreased the microbial count in comparison to the classical method. This study also confirmed the presence of anti-microbial substances in date fruit, and that ultrasonic waves can accelerate their effects.

  11. The stimulative effect of an unconditional block grant on the decentralized provision of care

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Kattenberg; Wouter Vermeulen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of central government grants on decentralized health care provision is of crucial importance for the design of grant systems, yet empirical evidence on the prevalence of flypaper effects in this domain is rare. We study the decentralization of home care in the Netherlands and exploit the gradual introduction of formula-based equalization to identify the effect of exogenous changes in an unconditional block grant on local expenditure and utilization. A one euro increas...

  12. 77 FR 60040 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...: Employment and Training Administration, Labor. ACTION: Final rule; delay of effective date. SUMMARY: The... necessary in light of the November Appropriations Act to delay the effective date of the Wage Rule in order..., Sec. 101(a), the Department must again delay the effective date of the Wage Rule to prevent the...

  13. Early partner choices of immigrants : The effect of preferences, opportunities and parents on dating a native

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zantvliet, P.I.; Kalmijn, M.; Verbakel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the partner choices of immigrant adolescents who are involved in a romantic relationship. We formulate hypotheses about the effect of immigrants' preferences, parental influence and structural effects of the school and neighbourhood on the likelihood of dating a native partner

  14. Early partner choices of immigrants: The effect of preferences, opportunities and parents on dating a native

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zantvliet, P.I.; Kalmijn, M.; Verbakel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the partner choices of immigrant adolescents who are involved in a romantic relationship. We formulate hypotheses about the effect of immigrants' preferences, parental influence and structural effects of the school and neighbourhood on the likelihood of dating a native partner

  15. Early Partner Choices of Immigrants: The Effect of Preferences, Opportunities and Parents on Dating a Native

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandvliet, P.I.; Kalmijn, M.; Verbakel, E.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the partner choices of immigrant adolescents who are involved in a romantic relationship. We formulate hypotheses about the effect of immigrants' preferences, parental influence and structural effects of the school and neighbourhood on the likelihood of dating a native partner

  16. 19 CFR 113.26 - Effective dates of bonds and riders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effective on the effective date identified on the Customs Bond, Customs Form 301. (d) Riders for name change of principal, address change, and addition of trade names and unincorporated divisions of a corporate principal. Riders for a name change of principal, address change, and addition of trade names and...

  17. Plant Density Effect in Different Planting Dates on Growth Indices, Yield and

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Azizi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the appropriate plant density in different planting dates for sweet corn cultivar KSC403su, an experiment was conducted using a randomized complete block design in split plot lay out with three replications at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute in Karaj in 2006. Three planting dates (22 May, 5 June and 22 June were assigned as main plots and three plant densities (65000, 75000 and 85000 plants per hectare were considered as sub plots. Effect of planting date on row/ear, 1000 kernels weight, biological yield and harvest index was significant at 1% probability level and it was significant at 5% probability level for kernels/ear row and grain yield. All traits decreased with postponement of planting date to 5 June except for row/ear, kernels/row and grain yield. More delay in planting from 22 May to 22 June caused that grain yield was decreased significantly about 32.5% (from 14.45 to 9.78 ton/ha. Effect of plant density was significant at 1% probability level for all the traits. All of the traits decreased significantly with increasing plant density except for biological yield. The highest grain yield was resulted from 65000 plants per hectare density (14.20 ton/ha. Interaction effect of planting date and plant density was significant at 5% probability level for biological yield and harvest index but it wasn’t significant for the other traits. Growth indices decreased with delay in planting date and increasing plant density. Only leaf area index increased in more plant densities. From the results of this experiment it might be resulted that appropriate planting date to produce the highest grain yield is 22 May to 5 June for sweet corn cultivar KSC403su and also the highest grain yield can obtain from 65000 plants per hectare density.

  18. Application of Selective Algorithm for Effective Resource Provisioning in Cloud Computing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, Mayanka; Mishra, Atul

    2014-01-01

    Modern day continued demand for resource hungry services and applications in IT sector has led to development of Cloud computing. Cloud computing environment involves high cost infrastructure on one hand and need high scale computational resources on the other hand. These resources need to be provisioned (allocation and scheduling) to the end users in most efficient manner so that the tremendous capabilities of cloud are utilized effectively and efficiently. In this paper we discuss a selecti...

  19. Effect of planting dates on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chureerat Satjipanon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of planting dates on seed yield and quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, during May 2003 to February 2004. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Experimental treatments consisted of four planting dates spaced at about 30-day intervals from 23 May to 23 August 2003.The results revealed that planting date had a significant effect on seed yields and pure germinable seed yields (PGSY of S. guianensis CIAT 184. Plots planted on 23 July produced the highest seed yield and PGSY of 630 and 601 kg/ha, respectively followed by plots planted on 23 June and 23 May (514 and 501; 443 and 421 kg/ha, respectively. Plots planted on 23 August produced the lowest seed yield and PGSY of 269 and 262 kg/ha, respectively. There were no significant differences in seed purity percentage, germination percentage and 1000-seed weight among planting dates. Based on this research, it was concluded that late- July was the optimum planting date for S. guianensis CIAT 184 cultivation for seed production in Northeast Thailand.

  20. The Effects of Relationship Education on Adolescent Traditional Gender Role Attitudes and Dating Violence Acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Whittaker

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined change in adolescents’ traditional gender role attitudes and dating violence acceptance following completion of a relationship education program. Using data from a larger study evaluating the effects of relationship education for adolescents, beliefs and attitudes were assessed among a diverse sample of 627 youth. Gender differences in changes from pre- to post-test were also examined. Results of repeated measures MANCOVAs revealed a time X gender interaction effect for change in traditional gender role attitudes following relationship education. A significant decrease in traditional gender role attitudes was found for both boys and girls following relationship education, with a steeper decline in traditional gender role attitudes for boys than girls over time. Although there were no significant changes in dating violence acceptance, change in traditional gender role attitudes was correlated with change in dating violence acceptance, such that moving toward more egalitarian attitudes was associated with a decrease in acceptance of dating aggression/violence. Overall, results suggest that adolescents’ attitudes about gender roles and dating violence are open to change when provided relationship education, and changes in these beliefs are linked. Findings from this study have implications for promoting healthy relationships among youth.

  1. Effect of Planting Date and Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Phenology and Physiological Indices of Peanuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. is an annual herbaceous plant in Fabaceae which grown in tropical to temperate regions worldwide for extracting its seed oil and nut consumption. Select the optimum planting date is one of the most important agricultural techniques that comply with the seed yield is maximized . For instance, delay planting date can reduce the number of fertile nodes and the number of pods per plant. The delay in planting date reduces total dry matter (TDM, leaf area index (LAI, crop growth rate (CGR and yield in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.. Daneshian et al., (2008 reported that the delay in planting date reduced sunflower (Helianthus annuus yield due to high temperatures in early growth which shortened flowering time and reduced solar radiation. On the other hand, due to increase importance of environmental issues has been attending biofertilizers to replace chemical fertilizers. Biofertilizers has formed by beneficial bacteria and fungi that each of them are produced for a specific purpose, such as nitrogen fixation, release of phosphate, potassium and iron ions of insoluble compound. The use of nitrogen fertilizer with slow-releasing ability stimulated shoot growth in soybean (Glycine max and be created more LAI in the reproductive process, particularly during grain filling stage and finally increased seed yield . Therefore, this study was conducted in order to evaluate the interaction of biological and chemical fertilizers in the purpose of achieving sustainable agriculture with emphasis of the effects of various planting dates on physiological parameters and growth of peanut in Hamadan. Materials and Methods In order to investigate the effects of planting date on important physiological indices of peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L. under the influence of biological and chemical fertilizers. A field experiment was conducted in the research farm of Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan during 2013 growing season. This study was

  2. Effects of planting date and plant density on crop growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of planting date (season) and plant density (32, 48 or 64 plants m-2) on growth of cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum (Indicum group)) were investigated in six greenhouse experiments, applying the expolinear growth equation. Final plant fresh and dry mass and number of flowers per plant

  3. The Effects of Premarital Heterosexual and Homosexual Experience on Dating and Marriage Desirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Jacoby, Arthur P.

    1989-01-01

    Surveyed 365 college students to investigate their attitudes toward the effects of past sexual behavior, both heterosexual and homosexual, on one's acceptability as a dating or marriage partner. Results showed that both men and women prefer partners without previous coital or oral heterosexual experience, and both strongly rejected those with any…

  4. 45 CFR 99.33 - Effective date of Assistant Secretary's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date of Assistant Secretary's decision. 99.33 Section 99.33 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE FOR HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Posthearing Procedures, Decisions § 99.33...

  5. 10 CFR 431.97 - Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency standards and their effective dates. 431.97 Section 431.97 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps Energy Efficiency...

  6. 78 FR 66841 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1240 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY... turtle eggs and live turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to remove procedures for...

  7. 26 CFR 1.860A-1 - Effective dates and transition rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and ending before January 1, 1990. (2) Tax avoidance rules—(i) Transfers of certain residual interests... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860A-1 Effective dates and transition... inclusions accrue in an amount sufficient to satisfy the taxes on the excess inclusions. (iii) Residual...

  8. 77 FR 20817 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... the proposed rate reduction by Puget Sound Energy, Inc. Puget Sound Energy, Inc., 138 FERC ] 61,236... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-46-000] Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date On March 30, 2012, the...

  9. Effect of Graded Levels of Dates Dietary Fiber on Weight Gain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of graded levels of dates dietary fiber on diabetes mellitus induced by streptozotocin (STZ) in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Methodology: Rats were divided into eight groups, among which four groups (Groups 1-4) were normal and the other four groups were ...

  10. 41 CFR 302-2.4 - What is my effective transfer or appointment date?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is my effective transfer or appointment date? 302-2.4 Section 302-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-EMPLOYEES ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS General...

  11. 38 CFR 3.713 - Effective dates of improved pension elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates of improved pension elections. 3.713 Section 3.713 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Concurrent...

  12. Effects of sowing date on the growth and yield of maize cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Full Length Research Paper. Effects of sowing date on the ... days (GDD) and was the highest for seed yield and all yield components. The plant sown on 5th ... volume and weight), while plant development refers to processes related to cell ...

  13. 76 FR 77670 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-AV88 Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... final rule for the establishment of a research area within the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary on...

  14. 77 FR 53769 - Receipts-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Flexibility Act of 1980, as amended. The NRC is increasing its receipts-based, small business size standard from $6.5 million to $7 million to conform to the standard set by the Small Business Administration...-Based, Small Business Size Standard; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory...

  15. 76 FR 78145 - Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...] RIN 2105-AD92 Enhancing Airline Passenger Protections: Limited Extension of Effect Date for Full Fare Price Advertising AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... regarding the time period for compliance with a portion of the full fare and other advertising requirements...

  16. 78 FR 38027 - ISO New England Inc.; Notice of Initiation of Proceeding and Refund Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL13-72-000] ISO New England... III.A.15 of Appendix A of ISO New England Inc.'s existing tariff. Dominion Energy Marketing, Inc. and ISO New England Inc., 143 FERC ] 61,233 (2013). The refund effective date in Docket No. EL13-72-000...

  17. Effect of HF leaching on {sup 14}C dates of pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goslar, Tomasz, E-mail: goslar@radiocarbon.pl [Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland); Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory, ul. Rubiez 46, 61-612 Poznan (Poland); Kozlowski, Janusz [Institute of Archaeology, Jagiellonian University, ul. Golebia 11, 30-007 Krakow (Poland); Szmyt, Marzena [Institute for Eastern Studies, Adam Mickiewicz University, ul. 28 Czerwca 1956 nr 198, 61-486 Poznan (Poland); Czernik, Justyna [Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory, ul. Rubiez 46, 61-612 Poznan (Poland)

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents the experiments with {sup 14}C dating of two potsherds, which contained carbon dispersed rather homogeneously in their clay fabric. After AAA treatment, the potsherds still appeared to be contaminated with young carbon, presumably connected with humic acids. To make removal of humic acids more effective, we treated the sherds with HF acid of different concentration. The {sup 14}C results obtained demonstrate that HF treatment indeed helps to remove humic contaminants, but it also mobilizes carbon bound to raw clay, which may make {sup 14}C dates too old. We conclude therefore, that using a simple combination of HF and AAA treatment seems insufficient in reliable {sup 14}C dating of carbon homogeneously dispersed in the volume of potsherds.

  18. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  19. Standards applicable to owners and operators of hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities; liability coverage requirements--Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule and notice of extension of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-13

    The effective date for qualifications of insurers providing liability insurance used to satisfy liability coverage requirements applicable to owners or operators of hazardous waste management facilities, as such requirements are included in 40 CFR Parts 264 and 265, is extended from July 15, 1982, to October 16, 1982. The effective date for the rest of the liability coverage requirements remains July 15, 1982. This extension is being provided to allow 6 months between the date of promulgation and the effective date for the insurer qualification provision, in accordance with Section 3010(b) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended. During the period between July 15 and October 16, 1982, owners or operators may use certificates of insurance or policy endorsements that do not certify to the qualifications of the insurer.

  20. Hard water and old food. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating of food residues on pottery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Philippsen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the problem of the freshwater reservoir effect in the radiocarbon dating of different sample materials, in particular food crusts on pottery. Charred food residue can be used to directly date of the use of the pottery. However, this material is highly complex, which can lead to various dating errors.  

  1. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on the perpetration of dating violence across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2015-03-01

    Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of dating violence, tested whether collective efficacy mediated these relationships, and determined if the effects varied by the sex of the adolescent. Adolescent data are from a multi-wave longitudinal study from grades 8 to 12; neighborhood data were collected from parents' interviews and U.S. Census data. Multilevel growth curve models were conducted with 3,218 students; the sample was 50% male, 41% White, 50% Black, and 9% other race/ethnicity. In models examining risky neighborhood variables one at a time, and controlling for potential individual-level confounders, the sex of the adolescent interacted with economic disadvantage, residential instability, and physical disorder; these risky neighborhood characteristics increased risk for girls' but not boys' perpetrating of dating violence. In full models with all of the risky neighborhood variables, the sex of the adolescent continued to interact with neighborhood economic disadvantage; living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods increased girls' but not boys' risk for dating violence across all ages. No other risky neighborhood effects were found for boys or girls. Collective efficacy did not mediate the relationships between other neighborhood characteristics and the outcome. These findings suggest that dating violence prevention strategies for girls should consider the contexts in which they live rather than only targeting changes in their individual characteristics.

  2. Effects of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer and sowing dates on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    korosh ehteramian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the optimal level of nitrogen fertilizer and planting date for cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. planting in Kooshkak region located in Doroodzan Dam Areas which represents a typical semiarid region. This research was carried out in the fall and winter 2000 and using a factorial experiment with two factors based on completely randomized block design with nitrogen fertilizer at three rates (0, 30, and 60 kg N ha-1 and sowing date (Nov. 6th, Dec. 21th, Feb. 6th, and March 6th in four replications. The effects of different nitrogen rates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and number of seed per umbrella, but it was not significant on number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield, seed yield and harvest index. The effects of sowing dates were significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant; 1000-seed weight, biological yield and seed yield; but it was not significant on plant height and harvest index. The interaction of nitrogen rates and sowing dates were significant on plant height, number of umbrella per plant and seed yield, but it was not significant on number of seeds per umbrella, number of seeds per plant, 1000-seed weight, biological yield and harvest index. It was concluded that for obtaining the high cumin yield, application of 30 kg N ha-1 and the late planting date (February 6th and March 6th due to probable winter cold, are recommended for this region.

  3. Study on effective provision of nuclear risk information over the internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro

    2005-01-01

    'Risk information navigator (http://ricotti,jnc.go.jp/risknavi/)', an internet tool for arousing interest in risks and improving risk literacy, has been developed as the contents for the official website of Techno Community Square 'RICOTTI' (http://ricotti,jnc.go.jp/) at TOKAI village. This report discusses the effective provision of nuclear risk information toward foreigners who use English in Japan in order to improve their risk literacy. The contents are attached to this report with the CD-R media. (author)

  4. The effects of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, lipids and lipoproteins in diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is an important problem amongst human and animals. In veterinary medicine too, diabetes mellitus occurs in many animals particularly household pets. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the effect of date consumption on serumic levels of glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and HDL in rats suffering from experimental diabetes mellitus. Thirty male wistar rats with the age of 8 weeks and mean body weight of 200±20 gr were selected and divided into 5 groups so that there were 6 rats per group. The groups consisted of day one healthy control, final day healthy control, healthy treatment consuming date, diabetic treatment consuming date and diabetic control group. Diabetic treatment and control groups received 100 mg/kg of alloxan subcutaneously to create experimental diabetes. The two healthy control groups also received equal amounts of normal saline solution subcutaneously. The injections were repeated a week later in all groups. After observing the diabetes symptoms including polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria and hyperglycemia in groups that were given alloxan, feeding of healthy and diabetic treatment groups with equal ratio of date and pellet was initiated. Final day healthy control group and diabetic control group were fed only with pellet. The groups were fed for 10 days following the start of diabetes symptoms. Blood samples were collected from all groups on day 10. Evaluation of the serumic levels of glucose, cholesterol and LDL revealed statistically significant increase in diabetic control group in comparison with the healthy control groups and also in healthy and  diabetic treatment groups consuming date as compared with diabetic control and healthy groups (p

  5. Rural hospital ownership: medical service provision, market mix, and spillover effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Jill R; Nichols, Austin

    2011-10-01

    To test whether nonprofit, for-profit, or government hospital ownership affects medical service provision in rural hospital markets, either directly or through the spillover effects of ownership mix. Data are from the American Hospital Association, U.S. Census, CMS Healthcare Cost Report Information System and Prospective Payment System Minimum Data File, and primary data collection for geographic coordinates. The sample includes all nonfederal, general medical, and surgical hospitals located outside of metropolitan statistical areas and within the continental United States from 1988 to 2005. We estimate multivariate regression models to examine the effects of (1) hospital ownership and (2) hospital ownership mix within rural hospital markets on profitable versus unprofitable medical service offerings. Rural nonprofit hospitals are more likely than for-profit hospitals to offer unprofitable services, many of which are underprovided services. Nonprofits respond less than for-profits to changes in service profitability. Nonprofits with more for-profit competitors offer more profitable services and fewer unprofitable services than those with fewer for-profit competitors. Rural hospital ownership affects medical service provision at the hospital and market levels. Nonprofit hospital regulation should reflect both the direct and spillover effects of ownership. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Development of a cost-effectiveness analysis of leafy green marketing agreement irrigation water provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Pouliot, Sébastien; Wang, Tong; Jay-Russell, Michele T

    2014-06-01

    An analysis of the effectiveness of meeting the irrigation water provisions of the Leafy Green Marketing Agreement (LGMA) relative to its costs provides an approach to evaluating the cost-effectiveness of good agricultural practices that uses available data. A case example for lettuce is used to evaluate data requirements and provide a methodological example to determine the cost-effectiveness of the LGMA water quality provision. Both cost and field data on pathogen or indicator bacterial levels are difficult and expensive to obtain prospectively. Therefore, methods to use existing field and experimental data are required. Based on data from current literature and experimental studies, we calculate a cost-efficiency ratio that expresses the reduction in E. coli concentration per dollar expenditure on testing of irrigation water. With appropriate data, the same type of analysis can be extended to soil amendments and other practices and to evaluation of public benefits of practices used in production. Careful use of existing and experimental data can lead to evaluation of an expanded set of practices.

  7. New Evidence on Employment Effects of Informal Care Provision in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziej, Ingo W K; Reichert, Arndt R; Schmitz, Hendrik

    2018-02-22

    To estimate how labor force participation is affected when adult children provide informal care to their parents. Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe from 2004 to 2013. To offset the problem of endogeneity, we exploit the availability of other potential caregivers within the family as predictors of the probability to provide care for a dependent parent. Contrary to most previous studies, the dataset covers the whole working-age population in the majority of European countries. Individuals explicitly had to opt for or against the provision of care to their care-dependent parents, which allows us to more precisely estimate the effect of caregiving on labor force participation. Results reveal a negative causal effect that indicates that informal care provision reduces labor force participation by 14.0 percentage points (95 percent CI: -0.307, 0.026). Point estimates suggest that the effect is larger for men; however, this gender difference is not significantly different from zero at conventional levels. Results apply to individuals whose consideration in long-term care policy is highly relevant, that is, children whose willingness to provide informal care to their parents is altered by available alternatives of family caregivers. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  9. Chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liritzis, Y

    1987-10-15

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of /sup 137/Cs, /sup 134/Cs, /sup 106/Ru and /sup 144/Ce (with t/sub 1/2/ greater than or equal to 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied.

  10. Settlement-date Accounting for Equity Share Options - Conceptual Validity and Numerical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund

    -date accounting are fully conceptually valid. They represent measurements of one partner group's share of total equity with effect for another group's share of total equity and income: the shareholders' part. Partially, this equity and income sharing model is already the basis for existing accounting standards......This paper demonstrates that settlement-date accounting for equity share options can be seen as an accounting method which implements a shareholder focused residually rewarded partners' equity view. This equity view represents a simple, natural extension of the shareholder proprietary view....... It implicates an equity and income sharing model for accounting which is characterized by specification of both shareholders' and non-shareholders' parts of total equity and income. When using this equity and income sharing model, the remeasurements of equity share option obligations made by settlement...

  11. The Chernobyl fallout in Greece and its effects on the dating of archaeological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liritzis, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of the fallout from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl have been monitored at various sites in Greece. Here we present the first estimates of gamma dose rates, an essential parameter in the dating of archaeological materials by thermoluminescence (TL) and ESR methods. The dose rates are derived from the long-lived radionuclides of 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 106 Ru and 144 Ce (with t 1/2 ≥ 1 yr). The present dose rates vary between 30 and 60 mrad/yr, but maximum values of around 811 mrad/yr have also been recorded, for ground-surface exposures. These dose rate values must be regarded as very significant to TL and ESR dating of samples from now on and a correction factor should be applied. (orig.)

  12. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in 'Hass' avocado during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Zheng, Yusheng; Khuong, Toan; Lovatt, Carol J

    2012-11-15

    The effect of harvest date on nutritional compounds and antioxidant activity (AOC) in avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit during storage was determined. The fruits were harvested at seven different dates and ripened at 25 °C following 21 or 35 days of cold storage. The results indicated that the phenolic and glutathione contents were increased and the ascorbic acid content was not significantly different in early harvested fruit (January to March), and the phenolic, ascorbic acid and glutathione contents were increased slightly and then decreased on late harvested fruit (April to June). Similar trends were observed in the changes of AOC. Furthermore, AOC in early harvested fruit after storage for 35 days was much higher than that in late harvested fruit after storage for 21 days. Therefore, avocado can be harvested earlier for economic benefits according to the market and can keep high nutritional value for human health benefits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Provision of Information Regarding Infertility Treatment Strategies on Anxiety Level of Infertile Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Hamdieh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility may have many emotional and psychological implications on infertilecouples. So far, different methods for reducing anxiety in infertile couples have been evaluated. Thegoal of this study is to evaluate the effect of provision of information regarding infertility treatmentto infertile couples on their anxiety levels.Materials and Methods: This study was conducted as a before and after clinical trial. Forty-twoindividuals were considered as cases and 40 as controls. In order to evaluate anxiety and depressionin participants, the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire was used. Theintervention group received information about infertility treatment through a two hour face-to-facemeeting and was provided with a brochure. Anxiety level was assessed at the time of admission,immediately after the session and two weeks later. Assessment was performed twice for the controlgroup; once at the time of admission and secondly, two weeks later.Results: Our results show that receiving information about infertility treatment significantlydecreases anxiety among infertile couples two weeks post-training. This decline does not have asignificant correlation with age, sex, education level of the couple, and neither with the durationnor the cause of infertility. Providing information does not have any significant effect on the rate ofdepression among couples.Conclusion: It is recommended that provision of information regarding infertility treatmentmethods should be considered as a means of decreasing anxiety among infertile couples who referto infertility treatment centers.

  14. Labeling and effectiveness testing; sunscreen drug products for over-the-counter human use; delay of compliance dates. Final rule; delay of compliance dates; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is delaying the compliance dates for the final rule for over-the-counter (OTC) sunscreen drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 2011 (76 FR 35620). The final rule establishes labeling and effectiveness testing for certain OTC sunscreen products containing specified active ingredients and marketed without approved applications. It also amends labeling claims that are not currently supported by data and lifts the previously-published delay of implementation of the Drug Facts labeling requirements for OTC sunscreens. The 2011 final rule's compliance dates are being delayed because information received after publication of the 2011 final rule indicates that full implementation of the 2011 final rule's requirements for all affected products will require an additional 6 months. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  15. Different goods, different effects: Exploring the roles of generalized trust in public goods provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Kim

    -product situation (whether to buy organic food or not). This design provides a possibility to detect whether any effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior or due to altruistic motives among trusters. The results show that generalized trust enhances recycling significantly whereas it only has a very......This paper tests the hypothesis that generalized trust helps solve large-n collective action problems in a rationalistic framework. A rigors test is employed in that the hypothesis is tested in two different choice situations; a pure public good situation (whether to recycle or not) and a joint...... week positive effect on organic food consumption. Hence, generalized trust only affects public good provision when a collective action problem is present. The analyses thus sustain the hypothesis. It is furthermore concluded that the effect of generalized trust is due to strategic behavior...

  16. Probability-Based Design Criteria of the ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects Provisions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chock, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mitigation of tsunami risk requires a combination of emergency preparedness for evacuation in addition to providing structural resilience of critical facilities, infrastructure, and key resources necessary for immediate response and economic and social recovery. Critical facilities would include emergency response, medical, tsunami refuges and shelters, ports and harbors, lifelines, transportation, telecommunications, power, financial institutions, and major industrial/commercial facilities. The Tsunami Loads and Effects Subcommittee of the ASCE/SEI 7 Standards Committee is developing a proposed new Chapter 6 - Tsunami Loads and Effects for the 2016 edition of the ASCE 7 Standard. ASCE 7 provides the minimum design loads and requirements for structures subject to building codes such as the International Building Code utilized in the USA. In this paper we will provide a review emphasizing the intent of these new code provisions and explain the design methodology. The ASCE 7 provisions for Tsunami Loads and Effects enables a set of analysis and design methodologies that are consistent with performance-based engineering based on probabilistic criteria. . The ASCE 7 Tsunami Loads and Effects chapter will be initially applicable only to the states of Alaska, Washington, Oregon, California, and Hawaii. Ground shaking effects and subsidence from a preceding local offshore Maximum Considered Earthquake will also be considered prior to tsunami arrival for Alaska and states in the Pacific Northwest regions governed by nearby offshore subduction earthquakes. For national tsunami design provisions to achieve a consistent reliability standard of structural performance for community resilience, a new generation of tsunami inundation hazard maps for design is required. The lesson of recent tsunami is that historical records alone do not provide a sufficient measure of the potential heights of future tsunamis. Engineering design must consider the occurrence of events greater than

  17. Effect of sowing date on biometrical features of Hamburg parsley plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gruszecki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between sowing date and the biometrics features of the roots and leaves of parsley. Seeds of parsley cultivars ‘Berlińska PNE’ and ‘Cukrowa’ were sown in 5 times in 2004 year: 5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September, 17 November and 12 April 2005. Plants were harvested then the average root diameter was greater than 20 mm. Due to harvest time dependence of the size of the root, was no effect of sowing date on the diameter and the weight of gained parsley roots. Shorter roots and the lower coefficient of shape produced plants that sprouted before winter (5 July, 25 August, 5 and 15 September. The highest number of leaves produced by plants sowing on 5 July and 17 November, and the lowest – by plants sowing on 25 August and 12 April. The lowest length of leaves were found in plants obtained from sowing on 5 July (20.8 cm, it was more than twice shorter than in plants from different dates of sowing. The largest weight of leaves had the plants from sowing on 5 and 15 September or 17 November. Those plants are also characterized by a smaller root/shoot weight ratio. Tested cultivars differ in the length and coefficient of shape of the root and root/shoot weight ratio.

  18. Effect of gamma rays on fruit storage of some date palm cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Salhy, F.T.A.

    1998-01-01

    This investigation wa conducted on two date groups: Semi-dry date (Amry cultivar) and dry date (Sackoti and Bartamoda cultivars) dates, at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), in Cairo, during two successive seasons, 1992 and 1993. The aim of this study is to find out the best alternative method for improving fruit quality as well as prolonging the marketable period of date fruits. Semi-dry date (Amry) fruits were obtained from El-Kourain region, brought from Aswan Governorate. Two hundred and twenty kilograms of fruits from each date group were collected to be used for the different postharvest experiments

  19. Effect of planting date on yield of wheat genotypes in Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, Z.; Hussain, I.

    2010-01-01

    Due to reduction in tillering period and increased risk of hot weather during grain filling, late planting results in linear reduction in wheat grain yield. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of planting dates on growth and yield of different wheat genotypes in Sindh. The trial was laid out in RCBD with split plot arrangement having four replications during 2000-01 and 2001-02 at Sakrand, Sindh. Four sowing dates i.e. November 1 and 15, December 1 and 15 were in main plots, whereas six wheat genotypes (V-7001, V-7002, V-7004, MPT-6, Abadgar-93, and Anmol-91) were in sub plots. Because of better tillering, plant growth, growth period, number of grain per unit area and grain weight, November 15 planted wheat had maximum grain yield of 5904 kg ha/sup -1/, followed by November 1 and December 1 which gave 5302 and 4948 kg ha/sup -1 /respectively. Wheat planted on December 15 resulted in minimum grain yield of 4756 kg ha/sup -1/. Wheat genotype, V-7002 had significantly (P<0.05) higher grain yield of 5578 kg ha/sup -1/ in comparison with other genotypes. Whereas genotype MPT-6 had grain yield of 5366 kg ha-1 that was also significantly higher than other genotypes. However, V-7004 had minimum grain yield of 4716 kg ha/sup -1/ in comparison with other genotypes. While evaluating performance of different genotypes on different sowing dates, V-7002 resulted in maximum yield on November 15 and late planting. On the other hand, V-7004 had lower yield on all planting dates. Results from the study revealed that maximum grain yield could be achieved with wheat planted in first fortnight of November and any delay in wheat planting might reduce wheat yield. (author)

  20. Study on the Effect of Calcium and Potassium Spray on Date Bunch Fading Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Shekofteh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date bunch fading disorder has been one of the most important problems, which caused economic damage to date plantation area of Iran. It has been first reported on Mozafti cultivar in Kahnuj area, Kerman province. It has often been observed on soft and mid ripening cultivars such as Mozafti, Mordaseng and Kalote. Furthermore, it usually appears on Mozafti cultivar when fruits change from Khalal to Rutab stage. The most important symptoms of this disorder are sudden wilting of fruits and necrotic strips on the upper surface of the main bunch stalk. Incidence and development of these symptoms increase by high temperature, low relative humidity, and hot and dry wind. Several research studies have been carried out on this disorder so far, but the only research about the effect of nutrition on disorder was performed by Rosta (2003. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of calcium and potassium spray on date bunch fading and some traits of date fruit in Rigan region, Kerman province. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block designs with three replicates in Rigan located in east south of Kerman province, Iran, in 2012. Treatments were: T1: control, T2: spray of calcium nitrate at the concentration of 5 ppm, T3: spray of potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm, and T4: combined spray of calcium nitrate and potassium sulfate at the concentration of 5 ppm. Treatments were applied at Kimri, Hobabok and Khalal stages. Sampling was performed from 3 date palms (3 bunches from each date palm were selected randomly at the second date harvest. Totally, the traits of 200 fruits were measured in each date palm. The traits measured in the present study were: fruit length, fruit diameter, fruit weight, stone weight, stone diameter, and bunch fading percentage. Results and Discussions: According to the data of variance analysis, treatments had a significant effect on wet fruit

  1. Disentangling the effects of date, individual, and territory quality on the seasonal decline in fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pärt, Tomas; Knape, Jonas; Low, Matthew; Öberg, Meit; Arlt, Debora

    2017-08-01

    The seasonal timing of reproduction is a major fitness factor in many organisms. Commonly, individual fitness declines with time in the breeding season. We investigated three suggested but rarely tested hypotheses for this seasonal fitness decline: (1) time per se (date hypothesis), (2) late breeders are of lower quality than early ones (individual quality hypothesis), and (3) late breeders are breeding at poorer territories than early breeders (territory quality hypothesis). We used Bayesian variance component analyses to examine reproductive output (breeding success, number fledged, and number of recruits) from repeated observations of female Northern Wheatears (Oenanthe oenanthe) and individual territories from a 20-yr population study. The major part of the observed seasonal decline in reproductive output seemed to be driven by date-related effects, whereas female age and territory type (i.e., known indicators of temporary quality) contributed to a smaller degree. Other, persistent effects linked to individual and territory identity did not show any clear patterns on the seasonal decline in reproductive output. To better disentangle the quality effects (persistent and temporary) of individual and territory from effects caused by the deterioration of the environment we suggest a protocol combining experimental manipulation of breeding time with a variance-covariance partitioning method used here. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Predicting date rape perceptions: the effects of gender, gender role attitudes, and victim resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine A; McCloskey, Kathy A

    2013-08-01

    The effects of participant gender and victim resistance on date rape perceptions have been inconsistent. Participant gender role attitudes may contribute to these inconsistencies. We found women with traditional gender role attitudes were least likely to agree that the perpetrator was guilty of rape. Participants were less convinced of the perpetrator's guilt when the victim resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically, and participants with traditional gender role attitudes were less convinced of the negative impact on the victim when she resisted verbally than when she resisted verbally and physically. Perhaps previous inconsistencies resulted from varying proportions of men and women with traditional versus liberal gender role attitudes in the samples.

  3. EFFECT OF SOWING DATE AND WEED CONTROL METHOD ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF SOYBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Akter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sowing date and weed management play a significant role in determining soybean growth, development and seed yield. Results showed that different sowing date and weed control methods had significant effect on relative weed density, weed biomass, weed control efficiency, plant height, dry weight plant-1 and seed yield of soybean. Among the infested weed species in the experimental field the dominant weeds were Lindernia procumbens (44.78%, Echinochloa colonum (26.39% and Cynodon dactylon (16.30%. The results also revealed that early sowing (2 January brought about the highest seed yield (2.17 t ha-1 and sowing delay (1 February resulted in the lowest yield (1.64 t ha-1. Two times hand weeding (20 and 40 DAS controlled the weeds most effectively and led to highest seed yield (2.23 t ha-1 which was statistically similar (2.19 t ha-1 with herbicide application. Combination effect showed that the highest seed yield (2.50 t ha-1 was obtained from 2 January sowing when the crop was weeded by hand at 20 and 40 DAS.

  4. Effectiveness of "shifting boundaries" teen dating violence prevention program for subgroups of middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Stein, Nan D

    2015-02-01

    We examine whether the Shifting Boundaries (SB) intervention, a primary intervention to prevent youth dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), is differentially effective for girls compared with boys or for youth with a history of DV/H experiences. We randomly assigned SB to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes to receive a classroom, building, combined, or neither intervention. The SB classroom intervention included six sessions emphasizing the laws/consequences of DV/H, establishing boundaries and safe relationships. The SB schoolwide/building intervention included the use of school-based restraining orders, greater faculty/security presence in unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. At 6 months after intervention, the SB building-level intervention was associated with significant reductions in the frequency of sexual harassment (SH) perpetration and victimization; the prevalence and frequency of sexual dating violence victimization; and the frequency of total dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also had one anomalous finding that the interventions were associated with an increase in the prevalence of SH victimization. These results were consistent for girls and boys, and those with or without a history of DV/H, with the one exception for those exposed to the SB building condition who had earlier reported perpetrating SH had a significantly lower frequency of perpetrating SH at the follow-up than those without such a history. SB can provide effective universal prevention of middle school DV/H experiences, regardless of students' prior exposure histories, and for boys and girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Emergency notification and assistance technical operations manual. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    prompt provision of information and assistance can be an important element for helping to mitigate the consequences. ENATOM will be reissued every two years. Any important amendments between editions will be made through Information Bulletins. This edition will enter into effect on 1 December 2000, before which the detailed procedures and checklists at the IAEA Headquarters will be updated and tested

  6. Responding to financial pressures. The effect of managed care on hospitals' provision of charity care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Núria

    2013-06-01

    Healthcare financing and insurance is changing everywhere. We want to understand the impact that financial pressures can have for the uninsured in advanced economies. To do so we focus on analyzing the effect of the introduction in the US of managed care and the big rise in financial pressures that it implied. Traditionally, in the US safety net hospitals have financed their provision of unfunded care through a complex system of cross-subsidies. Our hypothesis is that financial pressures undermine the ability of a hospital to cross-subsidize and challenges their survival. We focus on the impact of price pressures and cost-controlling mechanisms imposed by managed care. We find that financial pressures imposed by managed care disproportionately affect the closure of safety net hospitals. Moreover, amongst those hospitals that remain open, in areas where managed care penetration increases the most, they react by closing the health services most commonly used by the uninsured.

  7. Towards an effective partnership policy for improving urban low-income housing provision in Nigeria: New institutional economics perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job Taiwo Gbadegesin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent critique against the past urban housing provision strategies in Nigeria was that the low-income groups are marginalised. It then led to the adoption of public private partnership (PPP initiative with a view to pursuing the broad goal of housing-for-all in Nigeria. Most recent studies have however criticised the effectiveness of the existing PPP practice in the housing provision structure without providing a pragmatic suggestion towards an effective framework for improvement. It thus raised the question; what are the main causes of ineffectiveness of existing PPP in housing provision and how can an effective PPP policy framework for urban low-income housing be achieved in Nigeria? This study utilised the concepts of new institutional economics (NIE - a theoretical and methodological underpinning for multi-actors’ policy matters. Using qualitative data from structured interview and credible literature sources, findings indicate that uncertainties in land accessibility, high transaction costs and the developers’ high profit agenda, are the major causes of PPP ineffectiveness for housing provision, which are also attributed to lack of a specific PPP policy that recognises all income groups and their roles on housing provision. End-users suggested that government could have a negotiation with land owners and building materials dealers to address the housing problem. In conclusion, it is established in this study that adoption of all-inclusive conceptual approach described within the context of NIE thought can facilitate an effective planning for urban low-income housing in Nigeria.

  8. The Effects of Divorced Mothers' Dating Behaviors and Sexual Attitudes on the Sexual Attitudes and Behaviors of Their Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitbeck, Les B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of effects of mothers' dating behaviors on adolescents' sexuality using reports from a sample of adolescents and their divorced mothers. Suggests mothers' dating behaviors directly influenced sexual behavior of males and indirectly influenced sexuality of females. Mothers' sexual permissiveness influenced daughters' sexual…

  9. Effect of variety and harvest date on nutritive value and ruminal degradability of ensiled maize ears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terler, Georg; Gruber, Leonhard; Knaus, Wilhelm Friedrich

    2017-10-01

    The nutritive value of whole crop forage maize is influenced by the proportion of ears and stover in the whole crop and by the nutrient composition and digestibility characteristics of the plant parts. An experiment investigating the impact of variety, harvest date and year on the nutritive value of ensiled maize ears was carried out in three consecutive years (2007, 2008 and 2010). Nine different maize varieties were harvested at three different maturity stages (50, 55 and 60% dry matter (DM) content in the ears). After harvest, ears and stover were ensiled separately and afterwards nutrient composition and ruminal nutrient degradability (organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC)) were analysed. Variety had a significant influence on content of CP and effective ruminal degradability (ED) of OM at low passage rates, whereas ED of CP and NFC was not affected by variety. In contrast, harvest date and year significantly influenced nutrient composition and ruminal degradability of ensiled maize ears. The content of NFC increased and the content of fibre components as well as ED of OM, CP and NFC declined with processing maturity of the maize plants. At a passage rate of 5% h -1 , ED of OM declined from 75.9% to 68.4%, ED of CP from 82.5% to 73.8% and ED of NFC from 88.0% to 82.3% between the early and late harvest date. The results of this study indicate that the nutrient composition and ruminal degradability of ensiled maize ears are affected mainly by maturity stage at harvest and by year, whereas variety has only little influence.

  10. Data-driven directions for effective footwear provision for the high-risk diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, M L J; de Haart, M; Waaijman, R; Dahmen, R; Berendsen, H; Nollet, F; Bus, S A

    2015-06-01

    Custom-made footwear is used to offload the diabetic foot to prevent plantar foot ulcers. This prospective study evaluates the offloading effects of modifying custom-made footwear and aims to provide data-driven directions for the provision of effectively offloading footwear in clinical practice. Eighty-five people with diabetic neuropathy and a recently healed plantar foot ulcer, who participated in a clinical trial on footwear effectiveness, had their custom-made footwear evaluated with in-shoe plantar pressure measurements at three-monthly intervals. Footwear was modified when peak pressure was ≥ 200 kPa. The effect of single and combined footwear modifications on in-shoe peak pressure at these high-pressure target locations was assessed. All footwear modifications significantly reduced peak pressure at the target locations compared with pre-modification levels (range -6.7% to -24.0%, P diabetic neuropathy and a recently healed plantar foot ulcer, significant offloading can be achieved at high-risk foot regions by modifying custom-made footwear. These results provide data-driven directions for the design and evaluation of custom-made footwear for high-risk people with diabetes, and essentially mean that each shoe prescribed should incorporate those design features that effectively offload the foot. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  11. Interaction Effects of Planting Date and Weed Competition on Yield and Yield Components of Three white Bean Cultivars in Semirom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yadavi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Unsuitable planting and weed competition are the most important factors that greatly reduce the yield of bean. In order to study the effect of planting date on yield and yield components of three white bean cultivars in weed infest and weed free condition a factorial experiment with randomized complete block design and three replications was carried out at Semirom in 2009. The treatments were planting date (May10, May 25 and June 9 and white bean cultivars (Shekofa, Pak and Daneshkade and two levels of weed infestation (weedy and weed free. Results showed that planting date, weed competition and cultivars had significant effects on yield and yield components of white bean. The 30-day delay in planting date reduced the number of pods per plant, seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield of white bean cultivars, 22.5, 18, 20.1 and 22.5 percent respectively. Also weed competition, reduced the number of seeds per pod, 100 seed weight and biological yield respectively by 13.5, 5.7 and 27.1 percent. Result of planting date and weed competition interaction effects indicated that the weed competition decreased grain yield (53% in third planting date more than others and delay in planting date was companion with increasing weed density and dry weight in flowering stage of bean. Also Shekofa cultivar had highest grain yield (3379 kg/ha at the first planting date and weed free condition.

  12. Effects of Cognitive Distortions on the Link Between Dating Violence Exposure and Substance Problems in Clinically Hospitalized Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Adam Bryant; Williams, Caitlin; Day, Catherine; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether cognitive distortions (e.g., cognitive errors; negative views of self, world, and future) influence the association between dating violence and problematic substance use behaviors in a sample of psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents. Participants included 155 adolescents, aged 13-17 years, who had initiated dating. Adolescents completed measures of dating violence, substance-related problems (alcohol and marijuana), and cognitive distortions. Logistic regressions were conducted to examine the direct and interactive effects of dating violence exposure and cognitive distortions on likelihood of recent problematic substance use. Results suggested a main effect of dating violence on problematic alcohol and other drug use as well as an interactive effect of dating violence and cognitive distortions. Specifically, the relationship between dating violence and odds of substance-related problems was higher among those with greater (vs. fewer) cognitive distortions. Study results suggest the need for careful screening of cognitive distortions among adolescent dating violence victims, particularly those in mental health treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A latent transition model of the effects of a teen dating violence prevention initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Miller, Shari; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah

    2015-02-01

    Patterns of physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) perpetration, victimization, and related behaviors were examined with data from the evaluation of the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships initiative, a dating violence primary prevention program targeting middle school students. Latent class and latent transition models were used to estimate distinct patterns of TDV and related behaviors of bullying and sexual harassment in seventh grade students at baseline and to estimate transition probabilities from one pattern of behavior to another at the 1-year follow-up. Intervention effects were estimated by conditioning transitions on exposure to Start Strong. Latent class analyses suggested four classes best captured patterns of these interrelated behaviors. Classes were characterized by elevated perpetration and victimization on most behaviors (the multiproblem class), bullying perpetration/victimization and sexual harassment victimization (the bully-harassment victimization class), bullying perpetration/victimization and psychological TDV victimization (bully-psychological victimization), and experience of bully victimization (bully victimization). Latent transition models indicated greater stability of class membership in the comparison group. Intervention students were less likely to transition to the most problematic pattern and more likely to transition to the least problem class. Although Start Strong has not been found to significantly change TDV, alternative evaluation models may find important differences. Latent transition analysis models suggest positive intervention impact, especially for the transitions at the most and the least positive end of the spectrum. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  15. Effects of cultivar and grazing initiation date on fall-grown oat for replacement dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Esser, N M; Cavadini, J S

    2015-09-01

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise for extending the grazing season in Wisconsin, but the optimum date for initiating grazing has not been evaluated. Our objectives for this project were (1) to assess the pasture productivity and nutritive value of 2 oat cultivars [Ogle and ForagePlus (OG and FP, respectively)] with late-September (EG) or mid-October (LG) grazing initiation dates; and (2) to evaluate growth performance by heifers grazing these oat forages compared with heifers reared in confinement (CON). A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were assigned to 10 research groups (8 heifers/group). Mean initial body weight was 509±40.5 kg in 2013 and 517±30.2 kg in 2014. Heifer groups were assigned to specific pastures arranged as a 2×2 factorial of oat cultivars and grazing initiation dates. Grazing heifer groups were allowed to strip-graze oat pastures for 6 h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Main effects of oat cultivar and sampling date interacted for forage characteristics in 2013, but not in 2014. During 2013, oat forage mass increased until early November before declining in response to freezing weather conditions, thereby exhibiting linear and quadratic effects of sampling date, regardless of oat cultivar. Similar trends over time were observed in 2014. For 2013, the maximum forage mass was 5,329 and 5,046 kg/ha for FP and OG, respectively, whereas the mean maximum forage mass for 2014 was 4,806 kg/ha. ForagePlus did not reach the boot stage of growth during either year of the trial; OG matured more rapidly, reaching the late-heading stage during 2013, but exhibited only minor maturity differences from FP in 2014. For 2013, average daily gain for CON did not differ from grazing heifer groups (overall mean=0.63 kg/d); however, average daily gain from FP was greater than OG (0.68 vs. 0.57 kg/d), and greater from EG compared with LG (0.82 vs. 0.43 kg/d). For 2013, advantages in

  16. Effect of sowing date and plant density on grain and flower yield of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad javad seghatol eslami

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal herb whose dried flower heads are used to heal wounds. In order to study the effects of sowing dates and plant density on grain and flower yield of pot marigold, an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Center of Islamic Azad University, Birjand Branch in 2005. Three sowing dates (30 March, 14 April and 30 April and three plant densities (plant distances on row were 10, 20 and 30 centimeters were compared in a split- plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Seed and flower yields were significantly different at planting dates and plant densities. Sowing date had significant effects on flower and seed harvest index. The latest sowing dates had the highest flower and seed harvest index. Plant density had not significant effect on flower harvest index, but the effect on seed harvest index, was significant. In total our result showed that the first sowing date with 25 plants/m2 had the highest grain and flower yield. Keywords: Marigold, sowing date, plant density, medicinal plant.

  17. IAEA emergency response network ERNET. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    The Parties to the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency have undertaken to co-operate among themselves and with the IAEA in facilitating the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, and in minimizing the consequences and in protecting life, property and the environment from the effects of any radioactive releases. As part of the IAEA strategy for supporting such co-operation, the Secretariat of the IAEA is establishing a global Emergency Response Network (ERNET) of teams suitably qualified to respond rapidly, on a regional basis, to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies. This manual sets out the criteria and requirements to be met by ERNET teams. It is intended for use by institutions in Member States in developing, applying and maintaining their emergency response capabilities and in implementing quality assurance programmes within the context of ERNET. The manual is worded on the assumption that a State Competent Authority designated as the body responsible for reacting to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies which occur outside the jurisdiction of that State will be the State Contact Point for receiving requests for assistance from the IAEA under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

  18. IAEA emergency response network ERNET. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Parties to the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency have undertaken to co-operate among themselves and with the IAEA in facilitating the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, and in minimizing the consequences and in protecting life, property and the environment from the effects of any radioactive releases. As part of the IAEA strategy for supporting such co-operation, the Secretariat of the IAEA is establishing a global Emergency Response Network (ERNET) of teams suitably qualified to respond rapidly, on a regional basis, to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies. This manual sets out the criteria and requirements to be met by ERNET teams. It is intended for use by institutions in Member States in developing, applying and maintaining their emergency response capabilities and in implementing quality assurance programmes within the context of ERNET. The manual is worded on the assumption that a State Competent Authority designated as the body responsible for reacting to nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies which occur outside the jurisdiction of that State will be the State Contact Point for receiving requests for assistance from the IAEA under the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency

  19. Interstellar Reddening Effect on the Age Dating of Population II Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ortolani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The age measurement of the stellar halo component of the Galaxy is based mainly on the comparison of the main sequence turn-off luminosity of the globular cluster (GC stars with theoretical isochrones. The standard procedure includes a vertical shift, in order to account for the distance and extinction to the cluster, and a horizontal one, to compensate the reddening. However, the photometry is typically performed with broad-band filters where the shape of the stellar spectra introduces a shift of the effective wavelength response of the system, dependent on the effective temperature (or color index of the star. The result is an increasing distortion—actually a rotation and a progressive compression with the temperature—of the color-magnitude diagrams relatively to the standard unreddened isochrones, with increasing reddening. This effect is usually negligible for reddening E ( B - V on the order of or smaller than 0.15, but it can be quite relevant at larger extinction values. While the ratio of the absorption to the reddening is widely discussed in the literature, the importance of the latter effect is often overlooked. In this contribution, we present isochron simulations and discuss the expected effects on age dating of high-reddening globular clusters.

  20. Assessing the Effect of Planting Date on Safflower Cultivars Growth and Seed Yield in Rafsanjan Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Khatib

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of appropriate cultivar and planting date is the most important principles of agronomy; therefore, the aim of the present study was to consider the growth indices of different safflower cultivars and their relationships with seed yield. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted as factorial in randomized block design with four replicates included three planting dates (4 April, 25 April and 16 May and four safflower cultivars (411, Sina, Local Esfahan and Sofeh. The maximum leaf area index (2.33 obtained in the first planting date that it was not significantly different with the second planting date but it decreased up to 70% in the third planting date. In the first planting date, the maximum LAI obtained for Local Esfahan and 411 cultivars. Maximum total dry matter was 124.2 g m-2 for the first planting date that it decreased up to 31 and 78% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date Sina and Local Esfahan cultivars had the higher dry matter. Maximum crop growth rate for the first planting date was 38.84 g m-2d-1 that it decreased up to 41 and 66% in the second and third planting dates, respectively. In this planting date, the highest total dry matter obtained for the Local Esfahan cultivar. The results showed that the maximum value of seed yield dedicated to 411 and Local Esfahan cultivars that it had the high correlation with maximum total dry matter. In respect to the present study, it is suggested to use 411 or Local Esfahan cultivars in the first planting date.

  1. Medical devices: reports of corrections and removals; delay of effective data--FDA. Direct final rule; delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published in the Federal Register of August 7, 1998 (63 FR 42229), a direct final rule. The direct final rule notified the public of FDA's intention to amend the regulations that govern reports of corrections and removals of medical devices to eliminate the requirement for distributors to make such reports. This document delays the effective date of the direct final rule.

  2. Towards Scalable Cost-Effective Service and Survivability Provisioning in Ultra High Speed Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bin Wang

    2006-12-01

    Optical transport networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) are considered to be the most appropriate choice for future Internet backbone. On the other hand, future DOE networks are expected to have the ability to dynamically provision on-demand survivable services to suit the needs of various high performance scientific applications and remote collaboration. Since a failure in aWDMnetwork such as a cable cut may result in a tremendous amount of data loss, efficient protection of data transport in WDM networks is therefore essential. As the backbone network is moving towards GMPLS/WDM optical networks, the unique requirement to support DOE’s science mission results in challenging issues that are not directly addressed by existing networking techniques and methodologies. The objectives of this project were to develop cost effective protection and restoration mechanisms based on dedicated path, shared path, preconfigured cycle (p-cycle), and so on, to deal with single failure, dual failure, and shared risk link group (SRLG) failure, under different traffic and resource requirement models; to devise efficient service provisioning algorithms that deal with application specific network resource requirements for both unicast and multicast; to study various aspects of traffic grooming in WDM ring and mesh networks to derive cost effective solutions while meeting application resource and QoS requirements; to design various diverse routing and multi-constrained routing algorithms, considering different traffic models and failure models, for protection and restoration, as well as for service provisioning; to propose and study new optical burst switched architectures and mechanisms for effectively supporting dynamic services; and to integrate research with graduate and undergraduate education. All objectives have been successfully met. This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this project. The impact of the project manifests in many aspects: First

  3. Effectiveness and efficiency of improving HIV service provision for key populations in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveHIV in Nicaragua is concentrated among key populations (KPs – men who have sex with men, female sex workers and female transgender – in whom prevalence is 600-4 000 times higher than the general population. The USAID PrevenSida Project is aimed at increasing healthy behavior among KPs and people with HIV and improving testing, counseling, and continuity of prevention and treatment by building capacity and improving performance of non-governmental organizations (NGOs providing services to KPs. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of PrevenSida’s activities. MethodsThis retrospective observational evaluation used individuals in KPs covered by NGOs receiving assistance from PrevenSida from 2012 to 2014. Cost-effectiveness analysis compared PrevenSida’s intervention with business-as-usual. Model inputs were generated from epidemiological modeling and PrevenSida’s records.ResultsBy 2014, 24 NGOs received grants and technical assistance from PrevenSida with 72 955 people in KPs served at $11.32/person ($9.39 to $16.55/person depending on region. The estimated incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $50 700/HIV case averted or $2 600/Disability-adjusted Life Year (DALY averted (95% CI: $1 000-$99 000 and $50-$5 100, respectively.ConclusionPrevenSida distributed about $600 000 in grants and used $230 000 to support 24 NGOs in 2014. Cost-effectiveness from the program perspective compared to no program was slightly over half of GDP per capita per DALY averted, considered highly cost-effective by WHO criteria. Cost and efficiency varied by region, reflecting the number of people in KPs receiving services. Cost-sharing by NGOs improved cost-effectiveness from the program perspective and likely promotes sustainability. Focused interventions for KP service provision organizations can be acceptably efficient in this setting.

  4. Thermal activation and radiation quenching effects in pre-dose dating of porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weida; Xia Junding

    2005-01-01

    The pre-dose technique is very useful for thermoluminescence dating of porcelain. It incorporates two characteristics in the porcelain dating, i.e. thermal activation and radiation quenching. Two methods, activation method and quenching method, for evaluation of paleodose were introduced. The results show that activation method and quenching method one suitable for dating of lower limit age (less than 100 years B.P.) and upper limit age (greater than 1000 years B.P.), respectively. When both methods are co-used, the dating will be more accurate. (authors)

  5. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a radiation emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which the the European Commission, through the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are full Parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States and international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature are documented in the IAEA's Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). In addition to the IEComm arrangements and pursuant to the obligations placed on the IAEA by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), whose purpose is to coordinate the arrangements of the relevant international organizations for preparing for and responding to radiation incidents or emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments (including, for example, the WHO International Health Regulations 2005) - functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response in this context. Moreover, some regional organizations/bodies (e.g. the

  6. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 July 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a radiation emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which the the European Commission, through the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) are full Parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States and international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature are documented in the IAEA's Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). In addition to the IEComm arrangements and pursuant to the obligations placed on the IAEA by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE), whose purpose is to coordinate the arrangements of the relevant international organizations for preparing for and responding to radiation incidents or emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments (including, for example, the WHO International Health Regulations 2005) - functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response in this context. Moreover, some regional organizations/bodies (e.g. the

  7. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berends, H.; van den Borne, J. J G C; Røjen, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion......The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body...... of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [15N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW-0.75·d-1). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea...

  8. The Effect of Information Provision on Public Consensus about Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryugina, Tatyana; Shurchkov, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Despite over 20 years of research and scientific consensus on the topic, climate change continues to be a politically polarizing issue. We conducted a survey experiment to test whether providing the public with information on the exact extent of scientific agreement about the occurrence and causes of climate change affects respondents' own beliefs and bridges the divide between conservatives and liberals. First, we show that the public significantly underestimated the extent of the scientific consensus. We then find that those given concrete information about scientists' views were more likely to report believing that climate change was already underway and that it was caused by humans. However, their beliefs about the necessity of making policy decisions and their willingness to donate money to combat climate change were not affected. Information provision affected liberals, moderates, and conservatives similarly, implying that the gap in beliefs between liberals and conservatives is not likely to be bridged by information treatments similar to the one we study. Finally, we conducted a 6-month follow-up with respondents to see if the treatment effect persisted; the results were statistically inconclusive.

  9. The Effect of Information Provision on Public Consensus about Climate Change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Deryugina

    Full Text Available Despite over 20 years of research and scientific consensus on the topic, climate change continues to be a politically polarizing issue. We conducted a survey experiment to test whether providing the public with information on the exact extent of scientific agreement about the occurrence and causes of climate change affects respondents' own beliefs and bridges the divide between conservatives and liberals. First, we show that the public significantly underestimated the extent of the scientific consensus. We then find that those given concrete information about scientists' views were more likely to report believing that climate change was already underway and that it was caused by humans. However, their beliefs about the necessity of making policy decisions and their willingness to donate money to combat climate change were not affected. Information provision affected liberals, moderates, and conservatives similarly, implying that the gap in beliefs between liberals and conservatives is not likely to be bridged by information treatments similar to the one we study. Finally, we conducted a 6-month follow-up with respondents to see if the treatment effect persisted; the results were statistically inconclusive.

  10. 26 CFR 1.1271-0 - Original issue discount; effective date; table of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Code. (g) Basis adjustment. (h) Debt instruments denominated in a currency other than the U.S. dollar... instruments issued for money. (1) Issue price. (2) Issue date. (b) Publicly traded debt instruments issued for property. (1) Issue price. (2) Issue date. (c) Debt instruments issued for publicly traded property. (1...

  11. Effects of different levels of date pits in broilers' feed contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .com

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... contaminated with aflatoxin B1 on broilers' performance and carcass ... reduce mycotoxin in animal diets, different physical, chemical and ..... observed in the present study has been reported also by. Kubena et al. (1997). ... Chemical composition of date pits and reproductive hormonal status of rats fed date ...

  12. Radiocarbon dating uncertainties and their effects on studies of the past

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappell, J.

    1982-01-01

    The handling of sets of age results and their errors for hypothesis testing is discussed. The paper focusses on radiocarbon dating but most of the principles apply to other dating methods, although some formulae will be different. One conclusion is that the conventional age error should be enlarged to allow for past variations of 14 C level in the atmosphere

  13. Effects of attractiveness and social status on dating desire in heterosexual adolescents: An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ha, P.T.; Overbeek, G.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined to what extent adolescent dating desire is based on attractiveness and social status of a potential short-term partner. Further, we tested whether self-perceived mate value moderated the relationship between dating desire and attractiveness of a potential partner. Data

  14. Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations. Date Effective: 1 January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this Plan is to describe the inter-agency framework for preparedness for and response to a radiation5 incident or emergency irrespective of its cause. In particular, its objectives are: 1. To provide a common understanding of the emergency preparedness and response roles and responsibilities, objectives, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any relevant inter-agency arrangements; 2. To provide an overall concept of operations between the international organizations based on the emergency response objectives, responsibilities, authorities, capabilities and arrangements of each participating international organization, and any existing inter-agency arrangements, in order to facilitate a timely, effective and co-ordinated response; 3. To facilitate development of agreements among the participating international organizations on practical issues, if appropriate; 4. To provide a common understanding of the process for improving and changing the inter-agency response arrangements; 5. To provide a common understanding of roles and responsibilities of the participating international organizations with respect to: international standards, supporting national capabilities through provision of guidance and training, relevant research, emergency exercises and other preparedness considerations; 6. To guide the managers in each participating organization who need to ensure that all appropriate arrangements are given the necessary support within their organization; 7. To facilitate the well founded development, maintenance and training of plans and procedures for each organization; 8. To draw the attention of personnel in States and international organizations6 to these arrangements and to facilitate the development of compatible arrangements, if appropriate. The Joint Plan describes the arrangements of the participating international organizations7 for responding to a radiation incident or emergency

  15. Simulating the effect of emex australis densities and sowing dates on agronomic traits of wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, R.N.; Tanveer, A.; Ali, A.; Zaheer, Z.A.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction in yield and quality of wheat is major problem caused by the delayed sowing and interference of weeds. The effects of sowing dates (Nov 8, Nov 16, and Nov 24) and Emex australis Steinh. density (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 plants per pot) on growth and yield of wheat were evaluated over two seasons (2005-06, 2006-07). The statistical analysis of data exhibited non-significant effect of weed density on number of days taken to initiate flowering by E. australis. Highest values for E. australis plant height, dry biomass, number of seed per plant and seed weight were recorded by sowing wheat on November 8, at E. australis density of one plant per pot in both years. Maximum number of spike bearing tillers per pot, plant height, number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight and grain yield were observed in November 8, sowing with zero E. australis density and minimum values for these parameters were recorded in late sowing ( November 24) at maximum weed density of 4 plants per pot. Early sowing ( Nov. 8) and weed free pots increased wheat grain yield compared to later sowings (Nov. 16 and Nov. 24) and higher weed density. (author)

  16. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  18. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  20. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Daily Associations Between Alcohol Consumption and Dating Violence Perpetration Among Men and Women: Effects of Self-Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Gulati, Natasha K; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol intoxication has been associated with dating violence perpetration, defined here as psychological and/or physical violence occurring between young adult dating partners. However, little is known about how the individual variability in the level of alcohol intoxication would influence dating violence perpetration and how sex and self-regulation might influence this association. College-aged men and women (N = 146) from a large southwestern U.S. university completed background questionnaires, including the Brief Self-Control Scale, to assess self-regulation and then reported their dating violence perpetration and alcohol consumption using a 90-day Timeline Followback assessment. Their average estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and their daily deviation from this average were calculated for each of the 90 days to examine the between- and within-person effects of alcohol consumption, respectively. Results of a two-level generalized estimating equation suggest that increases in daily eBAC were associated with an increased likelihood of perpetrating dating violence; however, this association was stronger for those who had a low average eBAC compared with those who had a high average eBAC. For those who had a low average eBAC, higher self-regulation was associated with a lower probability of perpetrating dating violence, whereas among those with a high average eBAC, self-regulation was not associated with dating violence perpetration. Sex did not moderate the association between eBAC and dating violence perpetration. Findings highlight the importance of self-regulation in dating violence perpetration-particularly for those with low average eBACs-and the need for varied intervention strategies, depending on one's typical drinking pattern.

  2. Effect of dates of closing cut on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramphrai Namsilee

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this field research was to investigate the effect of dates of closing cut on seed yield and seed quality of Stylosanthes guianensis CIAT 184 at Khon Kaen Animal Nutrition Research and Development Center, during May 2003 to February 2004. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Experimental treatments consisted of five dates of closing cut spaced at about 14-day intervals (27 August, 10 September, 24 September, 8 October 2003 and uncut.The results showed that date of closing cut had a significant effect on seed yields and pure germinable seed yields (PGSY of S. guianensis CIAT 184. Plots closed on 10 September produced the highest seed yield and PGSY (P<0.05 of 564 and 553 kg/ha, followed by plots closed on 24 September and 27 August (422 and 406; 405 and 391 kg/ha. Uncut plots produced low yield and plots closed on 8 October produced the lowest seed yield and PGSY (401 and 388; 365 and 356 kg/ha. There were no significant differences in seed purity percentage, germination percentage and 1000-seed weight among treatments. Among the dates of closing cut studied, forage DM yield and CP yield were subsequently increased as date of closing cut was delayed. Based on this research, it was concluded that early-September was the optimum date of closing cut for S. guianensis CIAT 184 cultivation for seed production in Northeast Thailand.

  3. Effect of sowing date on grain quality of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IVHAA) while minerals; iron and zinc were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. Significant site by variety by sowing date interactions at P < 0.05 level of probability were obtained for protein, iron and zinc content of sorghum ...

  4. Effects of sowing date and plant density on morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahmani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of sowing date and plant density on the morphological triats, yield and yield components of sweet corn (Zea mays L. var SC. 403 an experiment was conducted at the Khorasan Razavi Agricultural Research and Natural Resources Center, Mashhad, Iran during 2008. This experiment was carried out as split plot based on RCBD with four replications. The sowing date (14th June, 3th July and 24th July and plant densities (66600, 83300 and 111000 plants.ha-1 were arranged in main and sub plots, respectively. The results showed significant differences between different sowing dates for plant height, ear height, and no. of leaves/plant, no. of leaves above ear, stem diameter, dehusked ear yield, can grains yield, no. of grain rows/ear, ear length, ear diameter, kernel depth, no. of ear.plant-1, 1000 kernel weight, ear harvest index and plant harvest index. The highest and the lowest can grains yield with 18.27 and 0.930 ton ha-1 was belonged to 14th June and 24th July sowing date, respectively. Although, delay in sowing date, led to decrease of growth period and also decrease of temperature can lead to improper transfer of photosynthetic materials and cause to grains yield decrease. The plant density had significant effects on husked ear yield, dehusked ear yield and forage yield. The highest can grains yield was harvested from the highest plant density (8.862 t.ha-1 and the lowest can grains yield derived from the lowest plant density (66600 plants.ha-1 with 7.692 t.ha-1. Finally, the interaction of sowing date and plant density was significant only for harvest index. Therefore, the sowing date 14th June and the highest plant density (111000 plants.ha-1, is recommended for summer sowing date of sweet corn in Mashhad with maximum and better can grains production.

  5. Retirement Date Effects on Saving Bahavior: The Case of Non-Separable Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Aylit Tina Romm

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate that the magnitude of the reaction of saving behavior to a change in the anticipated retirement date is largely determined by the degree to which utility is additively separable in consumption and leisure. We show that the relative decrease in saving in response to a later anticipated retirement date is larger when preferences are non-separable in consumption and leisure, and the cross-derivative of the utility function is negative, than when preferences are separ...

  6. Calculation of the effective environmental dose rate for ESR and luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, B.J.

    2001-01-01

    The determination of the age of a sample using luminescence and ESR dating techniques requires knowledge of the sample's average effective environmental dose rate due to natural radiation sources (alpha, beta, gamma, and cosmic), and age estimates can never be more accurate than the estimate of this dose rate. The estimation process is often complicated by spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in the distribution of natural radiation sources. This paper discusses applications of radiation physics in modelling the effects of these inhomogeneities to ensure accurate estimation of the average dose rate for the sample. For natural alpha, beta, and gamma sources, 'dose point kernels' are employed in calculations using an assumed model for the spatial and temporal dependence of source concentrations. These three types of radiation have rather different penetration properties, with their typical effective ranges being multiples of 10 micrometre, 1 mm, and 100 mm respectively. For each type of radiation, applications are discussed where spatial inhomogeneity in the distribution of sources around and in a sample has a serious effect on the average dose rate to the sample. In some cases, (e.g. gamma dose estimation in 'lumpy' environments) lack of detailed knowledge precludes accurate modelling of the site for a particular sample, but useful statistical information can still be obtained. Temporal variation of radioactive source concentrations is usually coupled with spatial effects and can arise from processes such as parent-daughter disequilibrium, uptake or leaching of sources, or variation in burial depth or water saturation. Again, calculations based non a known or assumed history can be employed to obtain a time-averaged dose rate for a sample. The accuracy with which these calculations can reflect the true environmental dose rate is limited principally by the reliability of the model assumed, which in turn depends on the state of knowledge of the site and its history

  7. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N

  8. Public good provision and public bad prevention: The effect of framing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods/bads is presented. Alternatively, the situation is presented as the provision of a public good or the prevention of a public bad. From a strategic point of view, these presentations are equivalent. In early

  9. 76 FR 16703 - Small Business Jobs Act Tour: Selected Provisions Having an Effect on Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... entrepreneurs and small business owners. The new law also contained numerous provisions to help enhance small... the President in April 2010 to identify ways in which to increase small business participation in the... lending policy, processing, and oversight. Room 3--EXPORTING Discussion of new exporting tools: increased...

  10. Perceived Effectiveness of Weekly Announcements in Provision of Learning Support to Sociology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Sadia

    2015-01-01

    Announcements are considered as important source in provision of academic support to the students. Announcements assist students to get information about the university learning mechanisms, courses and other time management skills, which may help them to make their learning smooth and pleasant. In this context present study documents the perceived…

  11. True Love: Effectiveness of a School-Based Program to Reduce Dating Violence Among Adolescents in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Rubi, Sandra G; Saavedra-Avendano, Biani; Piras, Claudia; Van Buren, S Janae; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem in Mexico. National survey data estimated 76 % of Mexican youth have been victims of psychological aggression in their relationships; 15.5 % have experienced physical violence; and 16.5 % of women have been the victims of sexual violence. Female adolescents perpetrate physical violence more frequently than males, while perpetration between genders of other types of violence is unclear. Furthermore, poor, marginalized youth are at a higher risk for experiencing dating violence. "Amor… pero del Bueno" (True Love) was piloted in two urban, low-income high schools in Mexico City to prevent dating violence. The intervention consisted of school-level and individual-level components delivered over 16 weeks covering topics on gender roles, dating violence, sexual rights, and strategies for coping with dating violence. The short-term impact was assessed quasi-experimentally, using matching techniques and fixed-effects models. A sample of 885 students (381 students exposed to the classroom-based curriculum of the individual-level component (SCC, IL-1) and 540 exposed only to the school climate component (SCC)) was evaluated for the following: changes in dating violence behaviors (psychological, physical and sexual), beliefs related to gender norms, knowledge, and skills for preventing dating violence. We found a 58 % (p violence, respectively, among SCC, IL-1 males compared to males exposed only to the SCC component. We also found a significant reduction in beliefs and attitudes justifying sexism and violence in dating relationships among SCC, IL-1 females (6 %; p < 0.05) and males (7 %; p < 0.05).

  12. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  13. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  14. Aspirations, education and inequality in England: insights from the Effective Provision of Pre-school, Primary and Secondary Education Project

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, William; Sammons, Pam; Siraj, Iram; Sylva, Kathy; Melhuish, Edward; Taggart, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Educational and occupational aspirations have become an important reference point in policy debates about educational inequality. Low aspirations are presented as a major barrier to closing educational attainment gaps and increasing levels of social mobility. Our paper contributes to this on-going debate by presenting data on the educational aspirations of students from the Effective Provision of Pre-School, Primary and Secondary Education Project in England. We analyse factors that help pred...

  15. Medicare and Medicaid programs; salary equivalency guidelines for physical therapy, respiratory therapy, speech language pathology, and occupational therapy services; revised effective date and technical correction--HCFA. Final rule; delay of effective date and correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-31

    This document delays the effective date of the final rule on salary equivalency guidelines, published in the Federal Register (63 FR 5106) on January 30, 1998, from April 1, 1998 to April 10, 1998. In addition, we are making a technical correction in the preamble to the January 30, 1998 final rule.

  16. The effect of the number of potential dating partners on standards for an ideal partner.

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Amanda

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was designed to fill the gap in research concerning the relationship between decision making and mate choice. It aimed to discover how the number of online dating profiles one is presented with changed their sense of an ideal partner. 122 students between the ages of 18 and 27 were assigned to one of three conditions. One group of participants looked at 4 personal profiles on a real-life online dating website, one group looked at 24 profiles and another looked a...

  17. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  18. Effects of Eurycoma longifolia provision on blood sugar level, cholesterols, and uric acid of Etawa Crossbreed Goat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratomo, Hurip

    2018-05-01

    Previous research on male white rat with provision of Eurycoma longifolia until the 3rd days has increased significantly on the formation of final spermatid from spermatozoon, and testosterone, and increase activity of pituitary cell producing the LH hormone. However, these researches yet studied on possibility of side effects caused by provision of Eurycoma longifolia for 6 days on male EC goat. The research aims to measure the effect of Eurycoma longifolia on the levels of: 1). Blood sugar, 2). Cholesterols, and 3). Uric acid of Male Etawa Crossbreed (EC) goat. This research was conducted through two treatment groups, namely : 1). Control group (provision of aquadest) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days, 2) Eurycoma longifolia group with a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight (bb) for 1 day, 3 days, and 6 days. Measurements on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid level were conducted in the 1st, 2nd and 6th days. The obtained data were analyzed using Duncan test with confidence level by 95% (α=0,05) comparing the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid measured from the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days with the same compound level measured from the Eurycoma longifolia treatment group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. The result obtained there were no significant changes on the sugar blood, cholesterol and uric acid levels between all Eurycoma longifolia treatment groups compared to the control group in the 1st, 3rd and 6th days. Thus, the Eurycoma longifolia provision until in the 6th day did not provide any negative side effects and can be applied in the Etawa crossbreed goat farm.

  19. Study of associative effects of date palm leaves mixed with Aristida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The description of the fermentation profile of in vitro gas production showed that Sandoval model was poor and not appropriate for the characteristic varieties of arid and semi-arid areas in Algeria and the multiple regression models revealed a good linear regression for both mixtures. Keywords: Date palm leaves, forage, ...

  20. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  1. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance of calves born to dams with different calving dates and calving intervals. Early calving dams produced calves with the lowest birth weights, the highest actual weaning weights and the highest pre-breeding heifer weights. The higher weaning weights of early ...

  2. Effects of sowing date and nutsedge removal time on plant growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity can be increased to a considerate extent through the improvement of management practices alone, particularly sowing time with appropriate weed control. The objective of this study was to identify the growth and yield performance of tef as affected by cultural manipulation of date of sowing and weed removal ...

  3. Evaluation of date kernel oils and their effects on wheat flour characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsakr, A. S.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Date kernels constitute about 13% of the whole date fruit, and cotain moderate amounts of oils with relatively high caloric values. Agwa soft and Aprimi dry date kernel oils were used in this work. Results showed that Aprimi date kernel oils have high levels of both caproic acid and stearic acid of 23.04 and 18.40% respectively, while Agwa kernel oils have high levels of caprylic acid and capric acid of 22.31 and 12.20%. Moreover Agwa oils achieved higher amounts of unsaponifiable matters, sterols and tocopherols. The addition of soft and dry date kernel oils did not improve the wheat flour strength but raised its resistance to extensibility.

    Las pepitas de dátiles constituyen alrededor del 13% del fruto entero, y contienen cantidades moderadas de aceite con valores calóricos relativamente altos. En este trabajo se han utilizado aceites de pepitas de dátiles Agwa blandas y Aprimi secas. Los resultados mostraron que los aceites de pepitas de dátiles Aprimi tienen altos niveles de ácidos caproico y esteárico, 23’04 y 18'40% respectivamente, mientras que los aceites de pepitas Agwa tienen niveles altos de ácidos caprílico y cáprico, 22'31 y 12'20%. Por otra parte los aceites Agwa alcanzaron valores elevados de materia insaponificable, esteroles y tocoferoles. La adición de aceites de pepitas de dátiles secas y blandas no mejoró el poder de la harina de trigo pero incrementó su resistencia a la extensibilidad.

  4. Medicare and Medicaid programs; physicians' referrals to health care entities with which they have financial relationships: partial delay of effective date. Interim final rule with comment period; partial delay in effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-03

    This interim final rule with comment period delays for 1 year the effective date of the last sentence of 42 CFR 411.354(d)(1). Section 411.354(d)(1) was promulgated in the final rule entitled "Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Physicians' Referrals to Health Care Entities With Which They Have Financial Relationships," published in the Federal Register on January 4, 2001 (66 FR 856). A 1-year delay in the effective date of the last sentence in Section 411.354(d)(1) will give Department officials the opportunity to reconsider the definition of compensation that is "set in advance" as it relates to percentage compensation methodologies in order to avoid unnecessarily disrupting existing contractual arrangements for physician services. Accordingly, the last sentence of Section 411.354(d)(1), which would have become effective January 4, 2002, will not become effective until January 6,2003.

  5. The effect of lime pre-treatments of date palm leaves on delignification and in vitro rumen degradability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorbani, M.; Ahmadi, F.; Rajaee Rad, A.; Zamiri, M.J.; Cone, J.W.; Polikarpov, I.

    2017-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of lime pre-treatment on the chemical composition and in vitro rumen degradability of date palm leaves (DPL). Lime pre-treatments, with or without oxygen supply, were applied for 1, 2 and 3 weeks at 25 and 40 °C. Lime was neutralized by the

  6. 17 CFR 230.488 - Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination transactions. 230.488 Section... REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Investment Companies; Business Development Companies § 230.488 Effective date of registration statements relating to securities to be issued in certain business combination...

  7. 77 FR 22186 - Removal of Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc Definitions; Delay of Effective Date and Reopening of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ...: Direct final rule; delay of effective date and reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: This action delays... possible to do so without incurring expense or delay. The agency may change this rule in light of the...-0019; Amdt. No. 1-67] RIN 2120-AK03 Removal of Category IIIa, IIIb, and IIIc Definitions; Delay of...

  8. 77 FR 13496 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be publicly... watersheds of the Florida waters covered by this rule, or who rely on, depend upon, influence, or contribute... uses of Florida's waters, which are a critical part of the State's economy. III. Revised Effective Date...

  9. 77 FR 39949 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be... Florida waters covered by this rule, or who rely on, depend upon, influence, or contribute to the water..., which are a critical part of the State's economy. III. Revised Effective Date A. Rationale for Extending...

  10. Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network; final rule revision of comment period and effective dates--HRSA. Extension of comment period and delay of effective date for the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    This document sets forth the revisions required by the Fiscal Year 1998 Supplemental Appropriations Act, Public Law 105-174, signed into law by the President on May 1, 1998. Section 4002 of that Act states that public comments on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Final Rule are permitted until August 31, 1998, and that the OPTN rule will not become effective before October 1, 1998. This document is provided to notify the public about these provisions and to make corresponding changes to the regulation.

  11. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  12. The effect of dust on the chemical and microbiological qualities of the date palm fruits from Bushehr-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Delkhah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm cultivation has a long history in Bushehr province. Throughout the recent decade the dusts, in addition to direct harmful effects on humans, have adverse effects on health of the population living in this area. The infestation of pests in the southern province of Bushehr has groves. Due to the importance of dates in this area, the total ash and acid insoluble ash as indexes for assessing of chemical pollution and also, mold and yeast as indicators for microbial contamination were evaluated. Recently in a number of dates packaging industries, washing the products after the harvest is done. In current study, the effects of rinsing to decrease the dust pollution on date palm along with, the time effect on the quality and durability of washed and un-washed dates were investigated. Materials and Methods: Overall, 48 washed and un-washed dates were sampled from traditional and technologically advanced packaging industries, equally, and were confirmed according to ISIRI methods. Results: The Averages of total and acid insoluble ashes in washed date samples were:1.05±0.14 and 3.32±0.32%, and for un-washed samples were 1.36±0.27 and 4.59±1.64 percent, respectively. In all date samples were presented the yeast, however, their means were lower than the maximum limit (1×104 CFU. Also, all date samples were moldy. The Mean percentage of total ash samples in un-rinsed and rinsed dates were approximately, 1.84 and 1.33 times more than the maximum permissible limit, respectively. The mean of acid insoluble ash in all samples (100%, and 98% of total ash were higher than acceptable levels (p<0.05. The results revealed that the average percentage difference between the two groups were transpicuous, while this difference was not significant (p=0.13. Under the similar conditions, the average amount of yeast in washed date samples, were significantly different (p<0.05 and more than un-wash samples. The Mold levels in un-rinsed and

  13. Effect of ultrasound on lactic acid production by Lactobacillus strains in date (Phoenix dactylifera var. Kabkab) syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Mousavi Khaneghah, Amin; Saraiva, Jorge A; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Barba, Francisco J; Mota, Maria J

    2018-03-01

    Date syrup is rich in fermentable sugars and may be used as a substrate for different microbial fermentations, including lactic acid fermentation processes. The beneficial effects of ultrasounds (US) on bioprocesses have been reported for several microorganisms, due to the enhancement of cell growth, as well as improvements in yields and productivities. Therefore, US treatments (30 kHz, 100 W, 10-30 min) were applied to two lactobacilli (Lactobacillus helveticus PTCC 1332 and Lactobacillus acidophilus PTCC 1643), during fermentation using date syrup as substrate. The effects on lactic acid fermentation were evaluated by analyzing cell growth (dry cell weight and viable cell count), substrate consumption (quantification of glucose and fructose), and product formation (quantification of lactic acid) over time. The effects of US were also evaluated on cell membrane permeability. Both lactobacilli were able to grow well on date syrup without the need for addition of further ingredients. The US effects were highly dependent on treatment duration: treatments of 10- and 20-min stimulated lactobacilli growth, while the treatment extension to 30 min negatively affected cell growth. Similarly, the 10- and 20-min treatments increased sugar consumption and lactic acid production, contrarily to the 30-min treatment. All US treatments increased cell membrane permeability, with a more pronounced effect at more extended treatments. The results of this work showed that application of appropriate US treatments could be a useful tool for stimulation of lactic acid production from date syrup, as well as for other fermentative processes that use date syrup as substrate.

  14. Effect of Different Levels of Surplus Date on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Hosseini Vashan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four 26-wk-old white Hy-Line layers (W-36 were fed commercial diets containing 0, 1.5, 3 and 5% surplus date for three period of 28 days each to study the effects of dietary surplus date on hen performance (egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ‘FCR’ and body weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density. The yolk of eggs extracted and cholesterol content were determined on one egg of each replicate hens in each period. Blood samples were collected in non-heparin zed tubes from six hens in each treatment through brachial vein at the end of experiment. Serum was separated after 8-10 hrs and was stored at – 20 oC for subsequent analysis. Hen performance (egg production, egg mass, feed intake, FCR and weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05; However in all traits, the control group had numerically lower value, except egg weight that was significantly increased with supplementation of surplus date in diet. The dietary surplus date did not significantly affect egg cholesterol, ND and IBD titre, but the serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in hens fed diets contained 5% surplus date. This study suggested that the surplus date may be used up to 5% in the diet of laying hens to reduce blood cholesterol without any significant adverse effect on performance.

  15. The effect of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on bolting of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yinxin; Cheng, Zhihui; Meng, Huanwen; Liu, Hanqiang; Wu, Cuinan; Khan, Abdul Rehman

    2013-10-07

    Bolting reduces the quality and commercial yield of Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) in production. However, seed production is directly dependent on flower induction and bolting. The Welsh onion belongs to the green plant vernalisation type, specific seedling characteristics and sufficient accumulated time at low temperature are indispensible for the completion of its vernalisation process. Only if these conditions for vernalisation are fulfilled, the plants will bolt in the following year. The present investigation evaluated the effects of cultivar, sowing date and transplant location in field on the bolting of Welsh onion at the Horticultural Farm of the College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shannxi Province, China in two succeeding production years: 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. A strip split plot layout within a randomised complete block design with three replications was used. The results revealed that all three factors (cultivar, sowing date and transplant location) and their interaction had significant effects on the initiation and final rate of bolting observed by 30 April. The earliest bolting date (14 February, 2011 and 15 February, 2012) and the highest bolting rate (100% in 2011 and 62% in 2012) occurred when the JinGuan cultivar was sown on 20 August and transplanted in a plastic tunnel, whereas the latest date and lowest rate (no bolting observed until 30 April) of bolting occurred when the XiaHei cultivar was sown on 29 September and transplanted in an open field. These results suggest that we can control bolting in Welsh onion production by choosing an appropriate cultivar, sowing date and transplant location. Choosing a late bolting cultivar, such as cultivar XiaHei, sowing around October, and transplanting in the open field can significantly delay bolting, while a sowing date in late August should be selected for seed production, and the seedlings should be transplanted in a plastic tunnel to accelerate development of the

  16. Effect of storage duration on some physical properties of date palm (cv. Stamaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisa Hazbavi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the date fruits are processed traditionally in Iran. It becomes imperative to characterize the fruits with a view of understanding the properties that may affect the design of machines to handle their processing. The objectives of this study were to find the basic physical properties of date fruit at different storage time. Some physical properties of the Iranian Stamaran date variety were measured at the tamr stage of maturity for pitted dates during 6 months storage (25 °C of temperature and 75% of humidity. The results showed that length of the samples decreased by 8.31% from 39.21 to 35.95 mm, and no significant change for width and thickness. Mean mass and volume of the fruit did not change significantly. The projected area along length (PL did not change significantly, but projected areas along width (PW and along thickness (PT decreased by 4.26% from 647.41 to 619.8, and 8.32% from 666.89 to 611.43 mm2, respectively. The fruit density, bulk density, porosity and sphericity did not change significantly. The geometric mean diameter and surface area decreased by 5.01%, from 25.53 to 24.25 mm, and 9.57%, from 2049.3 to 1853.1 mm2, respectively. The mean coefficients of static friction increased significantly from 0.36 to 0.38, 0.33 to 0.35 and 0.42 to 0.45 on steel, galvanized iron, and plywood, respectively.

  17. Irrigation, Planting Date And Intra-Row Spacing Effects On Soybean Grown Under Dry Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل; Khalifa, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars (Glycine maxima (L) Merr.) differing in maturity period, leaf size and stem height were sown five times at fortnight intervals during the rainy season at four intra—row spacings under supplementary irrigation at one site and under rainfed conditions at another site in the central rainlands of Sudan. Cultivars responded differently to the system of production. Sowing date and moisture availability were the main factors controlling soybean production. The late maturing cul...

  18. Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaranayake Lilani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public-private partnerships (PPP could be effective in scaling up services. We estimated cost and cost-effectiveness of different PPP arrangements in the provision of tuberculosis (TB treatment, and the financing required for the different models from the perspective of the provincial TB programme, provider, and the patient. Methods Two different models of TB provider partnerships are evaluated, relative to sole public provision: public-private workplace (PWP and public-private non-government (PNP. Cost and effectiveness data were collected at six sites providing directly observed treatment (DOT. Effectiveness for a 12-month cohort of new sputum positive patients was measured using cure and treatment success rates. Provider and patient costs were estimated, and analysed according to sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness is estimated from the perspective of the provider, patient and society in terms of the cost per TB case cured and cost per case successfully treated. Results Cost per case cured was significantly lower in PNP (US $354–446, and comparable between PWP (US $788–979 and public sites (US $700–1000. PPP models could significantly reduce costs to the patient by 64–100%. Relative to pure public sector provision and financing, expansion of PPPs could reduce government financing required per TB patient treated from $609–690 to $130–139 in PNP and $36–46 in PWP. Conclusion There is a strong economic case for expanding PPP in TB treatment and potentially for other types of health services. Where PPPs are tailored to target groups and supported by the public sector, scaling up of effective services could occur at much lower cost than solely relying on public sector models.

  19. Experimental studies on effect of Date Seed Ash (DSA) on strength properties of cement sand mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunarani, G. I.; Chakkravarthy, S. P.

    2017-07-01

    The need for alternative material for the cement is arising and being compromised by many engineering researchers. However, the growing demand and surging prices of raw materials challenges the constructional field. India, being one of the largest agricultural economy, produces a quantitative volume of agro-waste that is being dumped. In the conventional concrete production, coarse aggregate (CA) plays an important filler material. The initial study on date seed as a replacement for CA was not successful. This study primarily focuses on Date seed ash as a replacement material for ordinary Portland cement. OPC was replaced by Date Palm Seed Ash (DPSA) in the ratio up to 10% in terms of 2% interval. The main objective of this paper was to study the variation of strength properties of mortar by DPSA in specified ratio along with curing period of 3,7,14 and 28 days. The stress strain behavior has indicated a significant improvement. The overall results indicated the increase in replacing ratio, decreases the strength properties. However the physical, chemical and mechanical properties increased gradually in strength in minimal ratio.

  20. Effects of attractiveness and status in dating desire in homosexual and heterosexual men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Thao; van den Berg, Judith E M; Engels, Rutger C M E; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna

    2012-06-01

    The present study examined partner preferences of homosexual and heterosexual men and woman, focusing on attractiveness and status. Homosexual (N=591 men; M age=28.87 years, SD=10.21; N=249 women; M age=33.36 years, SD=13.12) and heterosexual participants (N=346 men; M age=39.74 years, SD=14.26; N=400 women; M age=35.93 years, SD=13.72) rated the importance of attractiveness and social status of potential partners and then, in a vignette test, expressed their desire to date hypothetical potential partners based on photographs that varied in attractiveness and status-related profiles. With ratings, heterosexual men valued attractiveness the most, followed by homosexual men, heterosexual women, and homosexual women. Heterosexual women rated social status as most important. When status profiles were manipulated and accompanied with photographs of faces, the pattern of differences between homosexuals and heterosexuals supported the self-reported results. Overall, homosexual men and women have similar mate preferences to heterosexual men and women by showing more dating desire for attractive and high social status persons. Compared to attractiveness, status played a smaller role in dating desire.

  1. Radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos R, L.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation. This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories. This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. (Author)

  2. Effect of Cultivars and Planting Date on Yield, Oil Content, and Fatty Acid Profile of Flax Varieties (Linum usitatissimum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Andrea Gallardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of cultivars and planting date on flax fatty acid profile, seed yield, and oil content, an assay with seven cultivars (Baikal, Prointa Lucero, Prointa Ceibal, Panambí INTA, Curundú INTA, Carapé INTA, and Tape INTA was carried out at Parana Agricultural Experimental Station, Argentina. Significant differences among cultivars were found for content of palmitic (5–7 g/100 g, stearic (5–8 g/100 g, linoleic (13–19 g/100 g, saturated (11–15 g/100 g, and unsaturated acids (92–96 g/100 g within the seven cultivars. The best seed yields were observed in Prointa Lucero and Carapé INTA varieties (2091.50 kg·ha−1 and 2183.34 kg·ha−1, respectively in the first planting date and in Carapé INTA and Prointa Lucero (1667 kg·ha−1 and 1886 kg·ha−1, respectively in the second planting date. A delayed planting date had a negative effect on seed yield (1950 kg·ha−1 and 1516 kg·ha−1 and oil content (845 kg·ha−1 and 644 kg·ha−1 but did not affect oil composition.

  3. Effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) cutting date and planting density on weed suppression in Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, J Bradley; Chase, Carlene; Treadwell, Danielle; Koenig, Rosie; Cho, Alyssa; Morales-Payan, Jose Pable; Murphy, Tim; Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    A field study was conducted in 2008 and 2009 at the USDA, ARS, Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit in Griffin, GA, to investigate weed suppression by sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L). The objectives were to (1) evaluate the effects of apical meristem removal (AMR) at three dates [5, 6, and 7 wks after planting (WAP) on May 14, 2008 and May 21, 2009] and (2) assess the impact of seeding rates (11, 28, and 45 kg ha(-1)) on weed biomass reduction. Weed species were identified at 4, 8, and 12 wks after sunn hemp planting. Sunn hemp cutting date had no significant effect on weed suppression in 2008 but significant differences for grass weeds at 4, 8, and 12 WAP and for yellow nutsedge at 8 and 12 WAP did occur when compared to the control in 2009. In comparison to the sunn hemp-free control plot in 2009, all three seeding rates had reduced grass weed dry weights at 4, 8, and 12 WAP. The total mass of yellow nutsedge when grown with sunn hemp was reduced compared to the total mass of yellow nutsedge grown in the weedy check for all seeding rates at 8 and 12 WAP. Lower grass weed biomass was observed by 12 WAP for cutting dates and seeding rates during 2008 and 2009. Sunn hemp cutting date and seeding rate reduced branch numbers in both years. The reduction in sunn hemp seeding rates revealed a decrease in weed populations.

  4. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the international organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    prompt provision of information and assistance. This document is the fourth edition of the Joint Plan. The third edition was co-sponsored by the European Commission, EUROPOL, FAO, IAEA, INTERPOL, OCHA, OECD/NEA, OOSA, PAHO, UNEP, WHO and WMO in co-operation with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The present edition is additionally co-sponsored by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and in co-operation with United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). The Joint Plan does not prescribe arrangements between the participating organizations, but describes a common understanding of how each organization acts during a response and in making preparedness arrangements. It describes the arrangements as envisaged from 1 December 2006, by which time each participating organization needs to have initiated the steps necessary for harmonizing its own response plans and arrangements with the 2006 edition. The subsequent edition is envisaged for release in December 2008. Although a controlled distribution list is maintained for the Joint Plan and any amendments, it is not restricted in its availability. An up-to-date version is maintained on the IAEA's public web site under http://www-ns.iaea.org/tech-areas/emergency/inter-liaison.htm

  5. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  6. The effects of radiation damage accumulation and annealing on fission-track dating of titanite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enkelmann, Eva; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2005-01-01

    Fission-track dating of titanite is hindered by the fact that track etching is anisotropic in fresh titanites and becomes isotropic with increasing radiation damage. Independent age determinations with the population method are problematic due to different track counting efficiencies (Q) for ρ s in unannealed and ρ i in annealed titanite. Independent age determinations with the external detector method depend on correction factors for the track registration geometries (G = 0.5), counting efficiencies (Q) and range deficit (R = 1.38); however, Q is unaffected by annealing. It was attempted to determine GQR through calculation, direct experiment and on the basis of age standards. The direct experiment involves measurements of the ratio of the induced-track densities in titanite and a co-irradiated external detector. The track densities in the internal titanite surfaces could not be measured but the results for the external surfaces confirm that this approach leads to a significant overestimation of GQR, due to prior annealing. The GQR-values determined on the basis of age standards are consistent with that obtained by calculation assuming that Q ∼ 1, although there is no experimental confirmation for this fact apart from their isotropic etching characteristics. The fact that identical GQR-factors were obtained on standards of different age and uranium content suggests that a single GQR-value is appropriate for dating titanites within a broad range of radiation damage. In terms of the ζ-calibration this implies that a single ζ-factor is also suitable for dating different titanites. These findings suggest that other factors besides the accumulation of alpha-recoil damage, such as a phase transition, could be co-responsible for the different etching characteristics of annealed and unannealed titanites

  7. The Effect of Planting Date on the Growth and Yield of Indigo (Indigofera tinctoria L. in Shahrood Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ansori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A suitable planting date is an important management tool to determine the best match between phenological stages of plant growth with the environmental factors affecting them. Indigo is known for the natural blue colors obtained from the leaflets and branches of this herb. In addition to indigo dyes, it has been used medicinally to purify the liver, reduce inflammation and fever and to alleviate pain. Determining the proper sowing time for the sowing indigo plant is highly important that should be based on the climate of each region separately. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of sowing date on growth and biological yield of indigo plant in Shahrood region. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out on randomized complete block design with three replications in the experimental field of the University of Shahrood, Iran, in 2011. Treatments were three planting dates (18 June, 3 and 18 July. Plant density was 50 plants per square meter. The distance between the plants on and between the rows was 10 and 20 cm, respectively. Sampling was conducted in six-stages (every 15 days randomly in 0.25 m2. Equation 1 was used to calculate the growth rate. CGR = (Equation 1 Y = (Equation 2 In this equation, W1: dry weight in the first sampling, W2: dry weight in the second sampling, SA: sampling area (m-2, t1: first sampling time, t2: is the second sampling time. To do this, three parameters sigmoid function [Eq. 2], were fitted to dry matter accumulation variation during the season (Equation 2: In the equation 2: Y is the cumulative dry matter content at any time (x of growing season, b: is the slope of increasing and xo is the time (in degree days of reaching to 50% dry matter accumulation. Gaussian function parameter [Eq. 3] was fitted to the crop growth rate data variation: Y = (Equation 3 GDD (Equation 4 In equation 3: Y value is crop growth rate at any time (x of growing season, b: is the slope of

  8. Effect of 222Rn emanation from crystals on their 206Pb/238U age dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, Paulo M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The escape of radon from certain minerals with high uranium is of particular interest to those concerned with the determination of ages of rocks, minerals and tectonic events. To the extent that radon escapes, these minerals are not closed systems from the thermodynamic point of view and, more particularly, from the geochronological point of view. This investigation aimed to determine the radon escape from zircon crystals and how this fit into the severe isotopic constraints of the concordia dating model. To evaluate the consequences of radon loss on 238 U/ 206 Pb age dating methods, 20 zircon concentrates were analyzed. The observed range of relative percentage of radon loss was of 0.2-12 % and correlations with weathering of the crystals with natural alpha dose and with U-Pb age discordances were found. These correlations indicate relationships between the amount of lattice damage by radiation, the radon leakage out of the crystal and Pb mobility. Some of the stochastic complexities in specific age determinations are also discussed. (author)

  9. Effect of Planting Date on Cold Tolerance of Winter and Spring Barley Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Eivazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate cold tolerance of twenty barley genotypes under field conditions, an experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design at 3 sowing dates of October 5, November 5, and December 5 in Saatlu Agricultural Research Station, West Azarbaijan, Iran, during 2010-11 seasons. Also, another experiment was conducted on the same genotypes based on a completely randomized design under greenhouse conditions. in wich Cold stress was applied up to -25°C at two, four and six leaf development stages. LT50, ion leakage and dry matter were measured and apex photographed. Field experiment results showed the lowest significant differences at p≤0.05 between different levels of sowing date, genotype, and interaction between them for plant height, spike/m2, kernel per spike, 1000-kernel weight, grain yield and total dry matter. Genotypes of winter growth type had higher grain yield (4250kg/ha than those with spring growth type (4190kg/ha. There were significant differences for ion leakage and dry matter at 4 and 6 leaf development stages under greenhouse conditions. Genotype 1 (winter growth type with lowest values of range and standard deviation for grain yield, total dry matter and LT50 = -38 °C showed a relatively low ion leakage. In contrast, genotypes 5, 10 and 14 (spring growth type were identified sensitive to cold stress due to having more values of range, standard deviation for grain yield and total dry matter, LT50 = -18 to -27 °C and ion leakage from 25 to 33µS/m. Regression analysis showed 1000-kernel weight and total dry matter to remain at final model. Cluster analysis indicated that genotypes 2, 18, 1, 17 and 19 were superior genotypes. In principal component analysis, four components showed 80% of total variations, and the first component with 26% of variation was an important yield component for improving grain yield of barley genotypes. In conclusion, grain yields of winter and spring barley genotypes were

  10. Combined effects of climate and land-use change on the provision of ecosystem services in rice agro-ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerwisch, Fanny; Václavík, Tomáš; von Bloh, Werner; Vetter, Tobias; Thonicke, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    Irrigated rice croplands are among the world’s most important agro-ecosystems. They provide food for more than 3.5 billion people and a range of other ecosystem services (ESS). However, the sustainability of rice agro-ecosystems is threatened by continuing climate and land-use changes. To estimate their combined effects on a bundle of ESS, we applied the vegetation and hydrology model LPJmL to seven study areas in the Philippines and Vietnam. We quantified future changes in the provision of four essential ESS (carbon storage, carbon sequestration, provision of irrigation water and rice production) under two climate scenarios (until 2100) and three site-specific land-use scenarios (until 2030), and examined the synergies and trade-offs in ESS responses to these drivers. Our results show that not all services can be provided in the same amounts in the future. In the Philippines and Vietnam the projections estimated a decrease in rice yields (by approximately 30%) and in carbon storage (by 15%) and sequestration (by 12%) towards the end of the century under the current land-use pattern. In contrast, the amount of available irrigation water was projected to increase in all scenarios by 10%-20%. However, the results also indicate that land-use change may partially offset the negative climate impacts in regions where cropland expansion is possible, although only at the expense of natural vegetation. When analysing the interactions between ESS, we found consistent synergies between rice production and carbon storage and trade-offs between carbon storage and provision of irrigation water under most scenarios. Our results show that not only the effects of climate and land-use change alone but also the interaction between ESS have to be considered to allow sustainable management of rice agro-ecosystems under global change.

  11. Bruce NGS a loss of flow analysis for effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, W.; Jiang, Y.; Kwee, M.; Xue, J.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of defence-in-depth is applied to CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor designs and operations to provide series of levels of defence to prevent accidents progressing and to provide protection for reactor and public safety. The level 2 defence-in-depth provisions are designed to detect and intercept deviation from normal operation in order to prevent anticipated operating occurrences (AOOs) from escalating to accident conditions, and to return the plant to a state of normal operations, according to the Canada Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulatory document RD-337. Historically, safety analysis has focused on the effectiveness of level 3 defence-in-depth provisions in accident conditions, and the effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth has not been assessed. In this study, the effectiveness of Level 2 defence-in-depth is assessed for loss of flow (LOF) events for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) A reactors. The level 2 defence-in-depth in Bruce NGS A design is identified to be the stepback function of reactor regulating system (RRS). The behavior of RRS stepback following the initiation of loss of flow event is simulated using RFSP/TUF/RRS - em coupled code. The behavior of full system and single channel is simulated and assessed against the acceptance criteria - fitness for service of systems, structures and components (SSCs). (author)

  12. Bruce NGS a loss of flow analysis for effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth provisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, W. [AMEC NSS, Toronto, ON (Canada); Jiang, Y.; Kwee, M.; Xue, J. [Bruce Power, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    The concept of defence-in-depth is applied to CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactor designs and operations to provide series of levels of defence to prevent accidents progressing and to provide protection for reactor and public safety. The level 2 defence-in-depth provisions are designed to detect and intercept deviation from normal operation in order to prevent anticipated operating occurrences (AOOs) from escalating to accident conditions, and to return the plant to a state of normal operations, according to the Canada Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulatory document RD-337. Historically, safety analysis has focused on the effectiveness of level 3 defence-in-depth provisions in accident conditions, and the effectiveness of level 2 defence-in-depth has not been assessed. In this study, the effectiveness of Level 2 defence-in-depth is assessed for loss of flow (LOF) events for Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) A reactors. The level 2 defence-in-depth in Bruce NGS A design is identified to be the stepback function of reactor regulating system (RRS). The behavior of RRS stepback following the initiation of loss of flow event is simulated using RFSP/TUF/RRS{sub -}em coupled code. The behavior of full system and single channel is simulated and assessed against the acceptance criteria - fitness for service of systems, structures and components (SSCs). (author)

  13. Effect of pre-dose irradiation in the quartz and its use for archaelogical dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukimitu, K.

    1985-01-01

    The technique of pre-dose for dating ceramics, using the thermoluminescent properties of quartz is presented. The behavior of thermoluminescent (TL) sensitivity of the 110 0 C peak of Brazilian quartz, in its geologic state, submitted to thermal treatments from 600 to 900 0 C, is studied. The samples were tritured for separating the quartz crystals from clay. The quartz grains were submitted to leaching with chloric acid solution followed by leaching with running water. The samples were irradiated in laboratory, with gamma radiation using Co-60 and Cs-137 sources, for calibration. A sensitivity enhancement rate of 2% per rad was observed for samples annealed at 900 0 C, was observed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. 340B Drug Pricing Program Ceiling Price and Manufacturer Civil Monetary Penalties Regulation. Final rule; further delay of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-19

    The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) administers section 340B of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA), referred to as the "340B Drug Pricing Program" or the "340B Program." HRSA published a final rule on January 5, 2017, that set forth the calculation of the ceiling price and application of civil monetary penalties. The final rule applied to all drug manufacturers that are required to make their drugs available to covered entities under the 340B Program. In accordance with a January 20, 2017, memorandum from the Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff, entitled "Regulatory Freeze Pending Review," HRSA issued an interim final rule that delayed the effective date of the final rule published in the Federal Register (82 FR 1210, (January 5, 2017)) to May 22, 2017. HHS invited commenters to provide their views on whether a longer delay of the effective date to October 1, 2017, would be more appropriate. After consideration of the comments received on the interim final rule, HHS is delaying the effective date of the January 5, 2017 final rule, to October 1, 2017.

  15. Effects of Sowing Date and Limited Irrigation on Yield and Yield Components of Five Rainfed Wheat Varieties in Maragheh Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Tavakkoli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effects of sowing date (SD and single irrigation (SI amounts on yield and yield components of rainfed wheat varieties, a field experiment was conducted as split-split plots arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications during 2002-2004 at main station of Dryland Agricultural Research Institute in Maragheh, Iran. Treatments included three sowing dates (early, normal and late, three levels of single irrigation (rainfed, 50 mm and 100 mm only at planting time and five wheat varieties (three numbered lines, Azar2 and double-cross Shahi. Results revealed that interactions of SD, SI and wheat varieties were significant for grain yield, number of kernels per spike and water productivity (P≤0.01. Single irrigation at normal planting time increased grain yield, straw, biomass, harvest index, and water productivity. Grain yield and water productivity were increased by 131% and 84.8%, respectively. Single irrigation at late planting time was not significant on agronomic traits and produced low water productivity. Regarding the reaction of wheat to planting date and single irrigation, results showed that normal single irrigation can improve yield, yield components and water productivity index. The effectiveness of single irrigation under dryland conditions can be observed in all wheat cultivars. Although this effectiveness on yield and yield components is observable, but it is necessary to select the time of irrigation properly.

  16. Effects of dating errors on nonparametric trend analyses of speleothem time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mudelsee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental problem in paleoclimatology is to take fully into account the various error sources when examining proxy records with quantitative methods of statistical time series analysis. Records from dated climate archives such as speleothems add extra uncertainty from the age determination to the other sources that consist in measurement and proxy errors. This paper examines three stalagmite time series of oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O from two caves in western Germany, the series AH-1 from the Atta Cave and the series Bu1 and Bu4 from the Bunker Cave. These records carry regional information about past changes in winter precipitation and temperature. U/Th and radiocarbon dating reveals that they cover the later part of the Holocene, the past 8.6 thousand years (ka. We analyse centennial- to millennial-scale climate trends by means of nonparametric Gasser–Müller kernel regression. Error bands around fitted trend curves are determined by combining (1 block bootstrap resampling to preserve noise properties (shape, autocorrelation of the δ18O residuals and (2 timescale simulations (models StalAge and iscam. The timescale error influences on centennial- to millennial-scale trend estimation are not excessively large. We find a "mid-Holocene climate double-swing", from warm to cold to warm winter conditions (6.5 ka to 6.0 ka to 5.1 ka, with warm–cold amplitudes of around 0.5‰ δ18O; this finding is documented by all three records with high confidence. We also quantify the Medieval Warm Period (MWP, the Little Ice Age (LIA and the current warmth. Our analyses cannot unequivocally support the conclusion that current regional winter climate is warmer than that during the MWP.

  17. The effects of the Israeli siege on health provision in the Gaza Strip: a qualitative and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ron J

    2018-02-21

    Siege, a process of political domination aimed at isolating an entire population, is a unique threat to health-care provision. The aim of this study was to qualitatively examine the effects of the Israeli siege on the practices and systems that underlie health in the Gaza Strip. Data were from participant observation between 2009 and 2017, including 20 interviews with doctors and health administrators in non-governmental organisations (NGO), government, and UN sectors. All participants were provided with a description of the study and provided written consent to participate. The study was approved through the Human Subjects Review process at Bucknell University and the University of Washington. The data were analysed using a critical political economic framework, based on the concepts of primitive accumulation, accumulation by dispossession, surplus populations, and de-development. These analytical frames are further developed to interpret neoliberal trends in health-care systems organising and financing as they apply in the distorted social and economic context of siege. The elimination of political sovereignty through the twin processes of occupation and siege are the primary impediments to the successful promotion of public health in the Gaza Strip. Findings indicate that siege impinges on effective health-care provision by withholding materials and resources and undermining the health care at a systems level. These strains pose considerable threats to health care, within the ministry of health and among other entities in the Gaza Strip that deliver care. Gazan society is divested of the underpinnings necessary for a well functioning sovereign health-care infrastructure. Instead of a self-governing, independent system, this analysis reveals a system that is comprised of captive clients who are entirely dependent on Israel, international bodies, and the aid industry for goods and services, with no means of independent development. The siege represents a

  18. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mindfulness training programme in schools compared with normal school provision (MYRIAD): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyken, Willem; Nuthall, Elizabeth; Byford, Sarah; Crane, Catherine; Dalgleish, Tim; Ford, Tamsin; Greenberg, Mark T; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Viner, Russell M; Williams, J Mark G

    2017-04-26

    Mindfulness-based approaches for adults are effective at enhancing mental health, but few controlled trials have evaluated their effectiveness or cost-effectiveness for young people. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a mindfulness training (MT) programme to enhance mental health, wellbeing and social-emotional behavioural functioning in adolescence. To address this aim, the design will be a superiority, cluster randomised controlled, parallel-group trial in which schools offering social and emotional provision in line with good practice (Formby et al., Personal, Social, Health and Economic (PSHE) Education: A mapping study of the prevalent models of delivery and their effectiveness, 2010; OFSTED, Not Yet Good Enough: Personal, Social, Health and Economic Education in schools, 2013) will be randomised to either continue this provision (control) or include MT in this provision (intervention). The study will recruit and randomise 76 schools (clusters) and 5700 school students aged 12 to 14 years, followed up for 2 years. The study will contribute to establishing if MT is an effective and cost-effective approach to promoting mental health in adolescence. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials, identifier: ISRCTN86619085 . Registered on 3 June 2016.

  19. Emergency notification and assistance technical operations manual. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 February 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a large number of States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full parties. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, States that are IAEA Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations, and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). ENATOM was first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States have since then regularly received updates to the manual. In 2000, a complete revision of ENATOM was reissued as EPR-ENATOM (2000) to reflect technological developments, changes in operational concepts, views on standards in the area of emergency preparedness and response, and Member States' expectations. Since then ENATOM has been reviewed and reissued biennially in line with the review cycle of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (the 'Joint Plan'). Since the last edition of ENATOM in 2004, several factors have warranted some modifications to

  20. Ultrafiltration and thermal processing effects on Maillard reaction products and biological properties of date palm sap syrups (Phoenix dactylifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Krichen, Fatma; Mansour, Riadh Ben; Mokni, Abir; Sila, Assad; Bougatef, Ali; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2018-08-01

    The effect of ultrafiltration process and temperature concentration on MRPs content and antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties of date palm sap syrups were investigated. MRPs were analyzed by HPLC. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by reducing power and DPPH free radical and H 2 O 2 scavenging activities. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method. In vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. Date sap syrups displayed strong antioxidant activities which are correlated 5HMF and 2F contents. In addition, concentration at 100 °C, unlike ultrafiltration process, enhanced significantly the antioxidant activities sap syrups and total phenolic contents. The antimicrobial activities showed marked activity against S. enterica, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes with an inhibition zone of 21, 34, 27 and 34 mm respectively. Cytotoxicity assays showed that sap syrups can inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell lines at high concentration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Genetic Architecture of Main Effect QTL for Heading Date in European Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eZanke

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A genome-wide association study (GWAS for heading date (HD was performed with a panel of 358 European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. varieties and 14 spring wheat varieties through the phenotypic evaluation of HD in field tests in eight environments. Genotyping data consisted of 770 mapped microsatellite loci and 7934 mapped SNP markers derived from the 90K iSelect wheat chip. Best linear unbiased estimations (BLUEs were calculated across all trials and ranged from 142.5 to 159.6 days after the 1st of January with an average value of 151.4 days. Considering only associations with a –log10 (P-value ≥3.0, a total of 340 SSR and 2983 SNP marker-trait associations (MTAs were detected. After Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, a total of 72 SSR and 438 SNP marker-trait associations remained significant. Highly significant MTAs were detected for the photoperiodism gene Ppd-D1, which was genotyped in all varieties. Consistent associations were found on all chromosomes with the highest number of MTAs on chromosome 5B. Linear regression showed a clear dependence of the HD score BLUEs on the number of favourable alleles (decreasing HD and unfavourable alleles (increasing HD per variety meaning that genotypes with a higher number of favourable or a low number of unfavourable alleles showed lower HD and therefore flowered earlier. For the vernalization gene Vrn-A2 co-locating MTAs on chromosome 5A, as well as for the photoperiodism genes Ppd-A1 and Ppd-B1 on chromosomes 2A and 2B were detected. After the construction of an integrated map of the SSR and SNP markers and by exploiting the synteny to sequenced species, such as rice and Brachypodium distachyon, we were able to demonstrate that a marker locus on wheat chromosome 5BL with homology to the rice photoperiodism gene Hd6 played a significant role in the determination of the heading date in wheat.

  2. The Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera Juice on Haemoglobin Level An Experimental Study in Iron Supplemented Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Try Himawan Zen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been more research on the iron supplementation. Date juice has been shown to be rich in iron. It has been reported to increase the hemoglobin level in rats. Few studies has been conducted on the effect of date juice on the hemoglobin level in male white Wistar rats fed low iron diet.This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of (Phoenix dactylifera juice on haemoglobin level in iron supplemented rats. In this experimental study using post test control group design, 24 male white Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. G-I served as the control group (standard diet and aquadest. G II was given the low Fe diet and aquadest for 21 d. G-III,IV were given the low fe diet and aquadest plus date juice at the concentration of 50%, 100% respectively. The treatment was given for 14 days. Spectrophotometer was used to assess the haemoglobin level of rats. One way anova followed by Post Hoc LSD was applied for the data analysis. Mean of hemoglobin (g/dl level for the four groups were 12,03, 7.72, 9.25, 10.35 respectively. Test resulted in p<0.05. Post Hoc LSD test resulted in a significant different between K-I and G-II, G-III, G-IV ;G-II and G-III, G-IV ;G-III and G-IV. In conclusion, date juice increases the haemoglobin level in male white rats fed on the low fe diet.

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on some embryonic stages of two stored-date insect species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M S.H.; Ouda, N A; Lamooza, S B; Al-Hassany, I A [Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Baghdad. Nuclear Research Inst.

    1974-01-01

    The saw-toothed grain beetle, Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.), and the fig moth, Ephestia (Cadra) cautella /Walker/ are good representatives of the insects that infest dates and other foodstuffs causing annually a considerable damage. These two insects differ from each other in many aspects and essentially in that the beetle possesses monocentric chromosomes while the moth has chromosomes with diffuse centromeres. Therefore the mechanism of their response to radiation is expected to be quite different at certain developmental stages where mitotic and/or meiotic divisions are involved. Different age-groups, at 12-h intervals, of eggs of both species, irradiated with 10 krad of gamma radiation from /sup 60/Co showed a differential radiosensitivity which decreased as the egg age increased. The hatchability of irradiated eggs of the two species significantly increased in a direct relation to the age in hours. However, Ephestia eggs showed a higher radioresistance in the present test than Oryzaephilus eggs. This resistance to gamma radiation might be due to the peculiar mechanism of irradiated chromosomes with diffuse centromeres during mitosis. It is concluded that in order to find the proper recommended dose for disinfestation and sterilization purposes, refined studies on the response of embryonic and other developmental stages of different insect species to radiation should be thoroughly carried out.

  4. "Sharing One's Destiny": Effects of austerity on migrant health provisioning in the Mediterranean borderlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Megan A

    2017-08-01

    Italy has been on the frontlines of the European Union's "migration crisis," intercepting hundreds of thousands of migrants and asylum-seekers at sea and on its shores. Yet it has lacked adequate resources to ensure humane reception, as other forms of welfare state provisioning have also been rolled back through recent and ongoing austerity measures enforced by the EU and the IMF. While Italians face fewer employment opportunities, lower pensions, and higher taxes, migrants of precarious legal status and asylum-seekers struggle to navigate the weakened bureaucratic apparatus of the Italian state, including the health system. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in the Italian provinces of Lazio and Sicily in early 2014 and 2016, this article documents the imbricated economic and health struggles of Italian citizens and noncitizens, and alludes to lived experiences of and community responses to economic austerity characterizing much of the Mediterranean borderlands. I argue that marginalization by the state of both citizens and noncitizens in this setting undergirds some of the local and community responses to economic austerity. Moreover, I suggest that contemporary struggles in this geopolitical context intersect in important ways with the repercussions of austerity legacies that have contributed to widespread displacement in neighboring regions and subsequent migration into the EU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Emergency notification and assistance technical operations manual. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing their consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a large number of States (Section 1.7), the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full parties. The arrangements between the IAEA, States that are IAEA Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations, and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). In 2000, a complete revision of ENATOM, with all relevant sections updated, withdrawn or replaced with new material, was reissued as EPR-ENATOM (2000) to reflect new technological developments, operational concepts, views on standards in the area of emergency preparedness and response, and Member States' expectations. A separate publication, EPR-JPLAN (2000), the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (Joint Plan'), described a common understanding of how each of six co-sponsoring international organizations will act during a response and in making preparedness arrangements. It is intended that the ENATOM is reviewed and reissued biennially in line with the review cycle of the Joint Plan. Since the

  6. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates...

  7. Integrated effect of crop sowing date and herbicide stress on fitness of Bromus diandrus Roth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García, A.L.; Royo-Esnal, A.; Torra, J.; Recasens, J.

    2015-07-01

    Bromus diandrus Roth is a common weed species that has increased in no-tillage dry-land cereal fields in NE Spain because of the limited control options. The fitness response of plants with different emergence times (ETs) and its influence on demography has huge implications in weed management. With this subject, three ETs (F1, F2 and F3) of B. diandrus were established through three crop-sowing dates (D1, Oct.; D2, Nov.; D3, Dec.) for each of the three years in a barley-wheat-wheat rotation. In barley, the herbicides applied were not specific for B. diandrus, whereas in wheat the specific herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium was applied. Plant density after treatments and fitness characteristics were estimated for each weed ET. Weed density decreased for later ETs and fitness was density-dependent, showing significantly higher values when a non-specific herbicide was applied, except in number of caryopses per spikelet. The increasing fitness shown by plants with later ETs and the linear relationships of vegetative biomass vs reproductive biomass and fecundity were disrupted by the herbicide mesosulfuron-methyl plus iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium. Plants that had survived this herbicide when wheat was growing had lower values for all the characteristics analysed. After three seasons, as a consequence of decreasing seed recruitment, a practical depletion of the B. diandrus population was achieved in F2 and F3 (<2.8 and <1 plants/m2, respectively) but not in F1 (60.5 plants/m2). This study shows the importance of delayed crop sowing to optimize the control of B. diandrus in cereal fields with no tillage. (Author)

  8. Assessing the direct and indirect effects of food provisioning and nutrient enrichment on wildlife infectious disease dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitello, David J; Allman, Brent E; Morozumi, Connor; Rohr, Jason R

    2018-05-05

    Anthropogenic resource supplementation can shape wildlife disease directly by altering the traits and densities of hosts and parasites or indirectly by stimulating prey, competitor or predator species. We first assess the direct epidemiological consequences of supplementation, highlighting the similarities and differences between food provisioning and two widespread forms of nutrient input: agricultural fertilization and aquatic nutrient enrichment. We then review an aquatic disease system and a general model to assess whether predator and competitor species can enhance or overturn the direct effects of enrichment. All forms of supplementation can directly affect epidemics by increasing host population size or altering parasite production within hosts, but food provisioning is most likely to aggregate hosts and increase parasite transmission. However, if predators or competitors increase in response to supplementation, they could alter resource-fuelled outbreaks in focal hosts. We recommend identifying the traits of hosts, parasites or interacting species that best predict epidemiological responses to supplementation and evaluating the relative importance of these direct and indirect mechanisms. Theory and experiments should examine the timing of behavioural, physiological and demographic changes for realistic, variable scenarios of supplementation. A more integrative view of resource supplementation and wildlife disease could yield broadly applicable disease management strategies.This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  9. Effect of particle size and concentration on the mechanical properties of polyester/date palm seed particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alewo Opuada AMEH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of cellulosic materials as reinforcement in composites can greatly enhance their properties. The thrust of this study was to investigate the effect of date palm seed particle on the properties of reinforced polyester. Unsaturated polyester resin was reinforced with date palm seed particles of 0.5, 2.0 and 2.8mm particle sizes using variable particle loadings of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25wt%. The composites obtained were subjected to various types of mechanical and physical tests in order to assess their performance. The optimum tensile strength of 16.7619N/mm2 and elastic modulus of 343.8N/mm2 were attained at 15wt% and 10wt% loading (using 0.5mm particles respectively and percent water absorption was found to be least for 0.5mm particle size. The hardness was enhanced to the maximum of 74 HRF (Rockwell Hardness Factor by 2mm particle size at 25wt% loading. Pure unsaturated polyester resin recorded tensile strength of 17.5959N/mm2, elastic modulus of 316.7N/mm2 and hardness of 33.5 HRF. The results indicated that the use of date palm seed particles as reinforcement can enhance the properties of polyester composites.

  10. Effect of gum tragacanth on rheological and physical properties of a flavored milk drink made with date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkaran, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Asadi, Gholam Hassan; Nejad, Reza Azizi; Balaghi, Sima

    2013-08-01

    Date syrup as a nutritional additive and safe alternative to added sugar is one of the best choices for milk flavoring. In this study, a flavored milk beverage was formulated using date syrup for flavoring the product and gum tragacanth to obtain an acceptable mouth feel. Steady shear and dynamic oscillatory rheological properties of the samples contained 3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%, wt/wt) of 2 types of gum tragacanth (Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus rahensis) which at 3°C, were studied. Particle size distribution and colorimetric assays were determined by laser diffractometry and using reflection spectrometer, respectively. Sensory analysis was performed with 25 semitrained panelists, using a 5-point hedonic scale. The results showed that viscoelastic properties, flow behavior parameters, particle size, and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*, where L* represents lightness, a* represents the redness/greenness quality of the color, and b* represents the yellowness and blueness quality of the colors) were significantly affected by the concentration of the gum tragacanth and the severity of this effect was influenced by the type of gum. The use of appropriate type and concentration of gum tragacanth in date milk formulation can improve the texture and mouth feel by affecting on particle size and the flow behavior of this product. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of edible co-polymers coatings using γ-irradiation on Hyani date fruit behavior during marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dein, Asmaa Ezz; Khozemy, Ehab E; Farag, Serag A; Abd El-Hamed, N; Dosoukey, I M

    2018-05-24

    The present work introduces a preparation of coating fruits film from natural biodegradable materials with evaluation of its efficiency in keeping the quality of fresh date fruits. Triple blend (Tb) which involved PVA, chitosan (Cs) and tannic (TA) acids was studied in preservation of Rutab (Hyani) date. Antimicrobial characters besides decay of fruits during a cold storage were determined. The blend solutions were exposed to the γ-irradiation (5.0 to 20 kGy) before casting or use. The effects of polymer composition and irradiation dose on the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. The obtained results showed that γ-irradiation and the addition of tannic acid (TA) increased the mechanical properties of the films and the shelf-life of Rutab (Hyani) date during the marketing period (12 ± 2 °C, 98%, RH) from one week to one month of marketing period for consumers with accepted freshness and quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  13. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012 (Chinese Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the … prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  14. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012 (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  15. Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication. Date Effective: 1 June 2012 (Arabic Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions. The arrangements provided between the IAEA, the IAEA's Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations (herein referred to as international organizations), and other States for facilitating the implementation of these Conventions - specifically concerning those articles that are operational in nature - are documented in the present Operations Manual for Incident and Emergency Communication (IEComm). IEComm is the successor to the previous Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM), first issued on 18 January 1989. Member States, Parties to the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, relevant international organizations and other States, have since then regularly received updates to the manual. This manual covers the communication protocols for Contact Points identified under the Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, as well as the protocol for users of the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). Since the last edition of ENATOM, several factors have warranted some modifications to the existing arrangements: changes due to lessons identified from experience in exchanging information during incidents and emergencies, responding to requests for information and assistance during nuclear and radiological incidents and emergencies in the past few

  16. Effect of Planting Date and Maturity Group on Soybean Yield Response to Injury by Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, J L; Buntin, G D; Roberts, P M

    2016-02-01

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.), is an invasive member of the family Plataspidae originating from Asia. Since its discovery in Georgia in 2009, its distribution has increased to 13 southern and eastern states. In the United States, M. cribraria is bivoltine and has two primary developmental hosts, kudzu and soybean. Here, we evaluated the yield response of soybean to M. cribraria feeding injury in relation to planting date and soybean maturity group. The study contained four replicated trials in Griffin, Tifton, and Midville, GA, in 2012 and 2013. Four planting dates from April to July, served as the whole plot of a split-plot design with maturity group five and seven soybean and insecticide (lambda-cyhalothrin) randomized within planting date. Egg masses, nymphs, and adults were enumerated weekly to biweekly until soybean reached maturity. Two generations were observed in April and May plantings, but only one generation was evident in June and July soybean plantings. Insecticide-protected plots had consistently higher yields than unprotected plots. Grain yield was greatest in the May planting and lowest in the July planting. Season-long feeding by M. cribraria reduced grain yield in April, May, and June plantings but not in the July planting. Maturity group and planting date had significant effects on yield components in most comparisons. This study indicated that early-planted soybean are at greater risk of yield loss from M. cribraria injury compared with later-planted soybean. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The dual effect of vegetation green-up date and strong wind on the return period of spring dust storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jieling; Li, Ning; Zhang, Zhengtao; Chen, Xi

    2017-08-15

    Vegetation phenology changes have been widely applied in the disaster risk assessments of the spring dust storms, and vegetation green-up date shifts have a strong influence on dust storms. However, the effect of earlier vegetation green-up dates due to climate warming on the evaluation of dust storms return periods remains an important, but poorly understood issue. In this study, we evaluate the spring dust storm return period (February to June) in Inner Mongolia, Northern China, using 165 observations of severe spring dust storm events from 16 weather stations, and regional vegetation green-up dates as an integrated factor from NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), covering a period from 1982 to 2007, by building the bivariate Copula model. We found that the joint return period showed better fitting results than without considering the integrated factor when the actual dust storm return period is longer than 2years. Also, for extremely severe dust storm events, the gap between simulation result and actual return period can be narrowed up to 0.4888years by using integrated factor. Furthermore, the risk map based on the return period results shows that the Mandula, Zhurihe, Sunitezuoqi, Narenbaolige stations are identified as high risk areas. In this study area, land surface is extensively covered by grasses and shrubs, vegetation green-up date can play a significant role in restraining spring dust storm outbreaks. Therefore, we suggest that Copula method can become a useful tool for joint return period evaluation and risk analysis of severe dust storms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of the It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real Program on Dating Violence in Ethnic-Minority Middle School Youths: A Group Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Christine M.; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Tortolero, Susan R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. Methods. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Results. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior. PMID:24922162

  19. Effects of the It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real program on dating violence in ethnic-minority middle school youths: a group randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Tortolero, Susan R

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior.

  20. Physiological effects of tourism and associated food provisioning in an endangered iguana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Charles R.; Hines, Kirsten N.; Zachariah, Trevor T.; Perez-Heydrich, Caro; Iverson, John B.; Buckner, Sandra D.; Halach, Shelley C.; Lattin, Christine R.; Romero, L. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Deliberately feeding wildlife is an increasingly popular tourism-related activity despite a limited understanding of long-term impacts on the species being fed. As a result, tourist behaviours that may have adverse impacts on imperiled species have often been encouraged without the necessary evaluation or oversight. Here, we report the responses of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) to human-visitation pressure and associated food provisioning. We compared a variety of blood chemistry parameters of iguanas subjected to supplemental feeding at popular tourist destinations with iguanas occurring on islands where supplemental feeding does not take place. We demonstrate that male and female iguanas inhabiting tourist-visited islands where supplemental feeding occurs do not differ in body condition or baseline stress and stress response (determined by corticosterone levels) compared with iguanas from non-visited islands. Both males and females from tourist-visited sites experienced a greater incidence of endoparasitic infection and atypical loose faeces. Indicators of dietary nutrition, including glucose, potassium, and uric acid values, also differed for both sexes from tourist-visited and unvisited islands. Male iguanas from visited islands differed significantly from those on non-visited islands in calcium, cholesterol, cobalt, copper, magnesium, packed cell volume, selenium, and triglyceride concentrations, whereas female iguanas from visited islands differed significantly in ionized calcium. Although the interpretation of these differences is challenging, chronic biochemical stressors could compromise individual health over time or decrease survivorship during periods of environmental stress. We suggest protocols that can be adopted throughout the region to ensure that supplemental feeding has fewer impacts on these long-lived iguanas. PMID:27293616

  1. Physiological effects of tourism and associated food provisioning in an endangered iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Charles R; Hines, Kirsten N; Zachariah, Trevor T; Perez-Heydrich, Caro; Iverson, John B; Buckner, Sandra D; Halach, Shelley C; Lattin, Christine R; Romero, L Michael

    2013-01-01

    Deliberately feeding wildlife is an increasingly popular tourism-related activity despite a limited understanding of long-term impacts on the species being fed. As a result, tourist behaviours that may have adverse impacts on imperiled species have often been encouraged without the necessary evaluation or oversight. Here, we report the responses of Northern Bahamian Rock Iguanas (Cyclura cychlura) to human-visitation pressure and associated food provisioning. We compared a variety of blood chemistry parameters of iguanas subjected to supplemental feeding at popular tourist destinations with iguanas occurring on islands where supplemental feeding does not take place. We demonstrate that male and female iguanas inhabiting tourist-visited islands where supplemental feeding occurs do not differ in body condition or baseline stress and stress response (determined by corticosterone levels) compared with iguanas from non-visited islands. Both males and females from tourist-visited sites experienced a greater incidence of endoparasitic infection and atypical loose faeces. Indicators of dietary nutrition, including glucose, potassium, and uric acid values, also differed for both sexes from tourist-visited and unvisited islands. Male iguanas from visited islands differed significantly from those on non-visited islands in calcium, cholesterol, cobalt, copper, magnesium, packed cell volume, selenium, and triglyceride concentrations, whereas female iguanas from visited islands differed significantly in ionized calcium. Although the interpretation of these differences is challenging, chronic biochemical stressors could compromise individual health over time or decrease survivorship during periods of environmental stress. We suggest protocols that can be adopted throughout the region to ensure that supplemental feeding has fewer impacts on these long-lived iguanas.

  2. Assessing the effects of pharmacists' perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and turnover intention on provision of medication information at community pharmacies in Lithuania: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbonas, Gvidas; Kubilienė, Loreta; Kubilius, Raimondas; Urbonienė, Aušra

    2015-03-01

    As a member of a pharmacy organization, a pharmacist is not only bound to fulfill his/her professional obligations but is also affected by different personal and organizational factors that may influence his/her behavior and, consequently, the quality of the services he/she provides to patients. The main purpose of the research was to test a hypothesized model of the relationships among several organizational variables, and to investigate whether any of these variables affects the service of provision of medication information at community pharmacies. During the survey, pharmacists working at community pharmacies in Lithuania were asked to express their opinions on the community pharmacies at which they worked and to reflect on their actions when providing information on medicines to their patients. The statistical data were analyzed by applying a structural equation modeling technique to test the hypothesized model of the relationships among the variables of Perceived Organizational Support, Organizational Commitment, Turnover Intention, and Provision of Medication Information. The final model revealed that Organizational Commitment had a positive direct effect on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.27) and a negative direct effect (standardized estimate = -0.66) on Turnover Intention. Organizational Commitment mediated the indirect effects of Perceived Organizational Support on Turnover Intention (standardized estimate = -0.48) and on Provision of Medication Information (standardized estimate = 0.20). Pharmacists' Turnover Intention had no significant effect on Provision of Medication Information. Community pharmacies may be viewed as encouraging, to some extent, the service of provision of medication information. Pharmacists who felt higher levels of support from their organizations also expressed, to a certain extent, higher commitment to their organizations by providing more consistent medication information to patients. However, the

  3. Effects of input structural dates for displacements and internal forces of structures in case of earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoergyi, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of uncertainties in the modulus of elasticity of the constructional material, soil stiffness and the mass of structure on models corresponding to two typical structures in the Paks Nuclear Power Plant. The structure has been modelled as a beam model, and in computation of soil springs, a stiff foundation has been taken into account. Analyses show that masses must be taken into account as correctly as possible, but the effects of soil stiffness are sharply different with flexible and rigid structures. This effect in the case of flexible buildings is less important than in the case of rigid-box-like structures. (author)

  4. The effect of closing date on the performance of beef weaners ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Table 1 Nitrogen application for D. eriantha and A. macrum pastures used in the experiment. ..... Natal town and regional planning report, Volume 19. ... The effect of form and level of nitrogen fertilization on the yield of Digitaria eriantha. Steud.

  5. Determination of alpha effectiveness in ESR dating using nuclear accelerator techniques: methods and energy dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    An important parameter in calculating the environmental dose rate for electron spin resonance (ESR) age estimates is the relative effectiveness of alpha and gamma radiation. A small research accelerator is used as a source of alpha particles of various pre-selected energies, corresponding to those found in the environment, to determine the effectiveness of alpha radiation of different energies. Preparation of sample targets is discussed, including the use of absolute ethanol, thorough etching and deposition by centrifuge. Preliminary results show that the alpha/gamma effectiveness ratio, k, depends on the energy of the incident alpha and must therefore be expressed in terms of a reference energy. The effectiveness of an alpha particle in causing ESR damage is found to vary linearly with its range or path length, not with its energy, a fact which must be considered when calculating effective dose-rates from environmental radionuclide concentrations. Failure to do so may lead to serious systematic errors in the effective alpha contribution to environmental dose-rates and consequently in age estimates. (author)

  6. Developmental contexts and sporting success: birth date and birthplace effects in national hockey league draftees 2000-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Joseph; Logan, A Jane

    2007-08-01

    To examine relative age and birth place effects in hockey players drafted to play in the National Hockey League (NHL) between 2000 and 2005 and determine whether these factors influenced when players were chosen in the draft. 1013 North American draftees were evaluated from the official NHL website, which provided birthplace, date of birth and selection order in the draft. Population size was collected from Canadian and American census information. Athletes were divided into four quartiles on the basis of selection date to define age cohorts in hockey. Data between the Canadian and American players were also compared to see if the optimal city sizes differed between the two nations. Relative age and birthplace effects were found, although the optimal city size found was dissimilar to that found in previous studies. Further, there were inconsistencies between the Canadian and American data. Contextual factors such as relative age and size of birthplace have a significant effect on likelihood of being selected in the NHL draft.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nevada. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nevada.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Texas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Texas.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Mexico. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Mexico.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Ohio. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Ohio.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Mississippi. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Mississippi.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Tennessee. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Tennessee.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Minnesota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Minnesota.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Louisiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Louisiana.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maryland. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maryland.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  11. 29 CFR 697.2 - Industry wage rates and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... classifications in which such employee is engaged. Industry Minimum wage EffectiveOctober 3, 2005 EffectiveOctober...) Classification A 4.09 4.09 4.09 (2) Classification B 3.92 3.92 3.92 (3) Classification C 3.88 3.88 3.88 (e...) Finance and Insurance 3.99 3.99 3.99 (k) Ship Maintenance 3.34 3.42 3.51 (l) Hotel 2.86 2.93 3.00 (m) Tour...

  12. 75 FR 3163 - Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Program-Basic Entitlement; Effective Date of Induction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... is retroactively inducted into a rehabilitation program, VA may authorize payment of tuition, fees... aggregate, or by the private sector, of $100 million or more (adjusted annually for inflation) in any year. This final rule will have no such effect on State, local, and Tribal governments, or on the private...

  13. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence : The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested

  14. 77 FR 75780 - Nondisplacement of Qualified Workers Under Service Contracts; Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... Council (FARC) to amend the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to provide for the inclusion of the... subject to the Order (FARC Final Rule). The Department of Labor Final Rule provided that it would not be effective until the FARC issued the FARC Final Rule, and that as a result, the Department of Labor would...

  15. Quinoa in Morocco - effect of sowing dates on development and yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Quinoa is a highly nutritious food product, being cultivated for several thousand years in South America, and it is recently introduced in Morocco and showed a high potential of adaptation in Morocco. A field study was carried out in the south of Morocco in order to investigate the effects of sow...

  16. Study of associative effects of date palm leaves mixed with Aristida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    si

    2016-10-26

    Oct 26, 2016 ... The model included the principal effects of single substrate and ... protein content of the herbaceous rangeland vegetation .... Total Phenols (TP): The phenolic compounds analysis was carried ... gas production technique is a simulation of food degradation by the ..... not a significant influencing factor.

  17. The Initiation of Dating in Adolescence: The Effect of Parental Divorce. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Katya; Mills, Melinda; Veenstra, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effect of parental divorce on the time it took adolescents to initiate their first romantic relationships. Individual differences in temperament and pubertal development and the age of the adolescent at the time of divorce were also taken into account. Hypotheses were tested using event history analysis with a sample of…

  18. Effects of different levels of date pits in broilers' feed contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .com

    2014-01-01

    Jan 1, 2014 ... of aflatoxins in humans and animals has been demon- strated (Shames, 2005). ... information about the use of this by-product in poultry diets is available (El ..... Effect of T-2 toxin, zeolite and Mycosorb on ntioxidant systems of ...

  19. Effects of Planting Dates, Irrigation Management and Cover Crops on Growth and Yield of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Saffron as a winter active plant with low water requirement is the most strategic medicinal plant in arid and semi-arid parts of Iran. This slow-growing plant has narrow leaves and no aerial stem, hence weeds can be overcome it. Moreover, because of its root and canopy structure an important part of different resources is not used by this low input crop. Therefore, the use of associated crops could be an effective way for increasing resources use efficiencies (Koocheki et al., 2016. Appropriate corm planting date is another important factor that affects saffron growth and yield. Results of some studies show that late spring is the best time for corm planting (Ghasemi-Rooshnavand, 2009; Koocheki et al., 2016. In addition, irrigation management has been evaluated in some studies, but irrigation immediately after corm planting has not been investigated previously. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irrigation management, planting date and the use of some companion crops on flowering of saffron during two growth cycles. Materials and methods This experiment was carried out as a split-split plot experiment based on a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications at Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in 2009-2011. Experimental factors included: planting date of saffron as main factor (first of June, first of August and first of October, 2009, the irrigation management as sub factor (irrigation and no irrigation after each planting date and the companion crops as sub-sub factor [Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum, Bitter vetch (Lathyrus sativus and control. Corm planting was done in 10×25 cm distances with 12 cm depth. In the second year irrigation was done again in the plots which were irrigated after planting in the first year at the same previous dates. Companion crops were sown after first flower picking (November, 2009, then their residue were returned to the soil in

  20. VA Dental Insurance Program--federalism. Direct final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) published a direct final rule in the Federal Register on October 22, 2013, amending its regulations related to the VA Dental Insurance Program (VADIP), a pilot program to offer premium-based dental insurance to enrolled veterans and certain survivors and dependents of veterans. Specifically, this rule adds language to clarify the limited preemptive effect of certain criteria in the VADIP regulations. VA received no comments concerning this rule or its companion substantially identical proposed rule published in the Federal Register on October 23, 2013. This document confirms that the direct final rule became effective on December 23, 2013. In a companion document in this issue of the Federal Register, we are withdrawing as unnecessary the proposed rule.

  1. The effect of species, planting date, and management of cover crops on weed community in hybrid sunflower (Helianthus annuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolandi Amoughein

    2016-02-01

    .: Results of the study indicated that the interaction between cover crop and planting date on density and dry weight of bindweed was significant at probability level of 5% and 1%, respectively. The best condition of reduced density of bindweed was related to the time of using rye cover crop where reduced Field bindweed density to 64% compared to control (without cover crop, no weeding. Date of simultaneous planting of cover crop, reduced bindweed density from mean 15/7% plant.m-2 to 11/62 plant.m-2, compared to 45 days after sunflower planting. Hasannejad and Alizadeh, (2005 reported that rye significantly controlled the weeds of redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, knotgrass, russian thistle and field bindweed compared to controls with no cover crop. All three cover crops had significant effect on reducing the dry weight of bindweed. Cover crops showed the potential to reduce density and total dry weight of weeds compared to no control weeds and increase the plant yield. In a study, the density and dry weight of field bindweed in treated living rye and dead rye reduced 100% and 85% respectively (Samadani & Montazeri, 2009. Density and dry weightof Pale bugloss (Anchusa italica Retz: The interaction (cover crop × planting date on pale bugloss density and dry weight was meaningful in probability level of 1%.All three cover crops with simultaneous planting date showed lowest density of pale bugloss. Rye with proper ground cover in the beginning of season, and due to the long-term preservation of residues in the ground level, inhibited germination and growth of weeds for longer times. Results of the studies by (Abdollahyan Noghaby et al., 2011 on sugar beet showed that the effects of planting cover crops of triticale, wheat, rye and barley, between rows where sugar beet planted, to control weeds population would be the same as when herbicide used to control these weeds. Density and dry weight ofRussian thistle (Salsola kali L.: Results indicated that the interaction effect

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Jersey. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 New Jersey State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Jersey.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Hampshire. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2010 New Hampshire State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Hampshire.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  5. Short communication: Limit feeding dairy heifers: effect of feed bunk space and provision of a low-nutritive feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Kitts, B L; Devries, T J

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral effects of providing limit-fed dairy heifers an increased amount of feed bunk space compared with recommended feed bunk allowance, and to determine if the effects of provision of extra bunk space would be comparable to those seen when limit-fed heifers are provided a low-nutritive feedstuff. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (381.1 ± 44.8 d of age, 417.3 ± 47.9 kg), divided into groups of 4, were exposed to each of 3 treatments using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods. The treatments were (1) 0.68 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.68), (2) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.34), and (3) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer with an additional 0.34 m of feed bunk space available for free-choice straw (TMR-S). The total mixed ration was fed once daily at a restricted level (1.83% of body weight) and contained (dry matter basis) 19.9% alfalfa/grass haylage, 20.1% corn silage, 49.6% high-moisture corn, and 10.4% protein supplement. Group dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. Behavior at the feed bunk was recorded for the last 4 d of each treatment period. Due to the provision of straw, DMI was highest on the TMR-S treatment compared with the other treatments (9.4 vs. 7.8 kg/d). Heifers spent the most time feeding when on the TMR-S treatment (147.7 min/d), with no difference in feeding time between the limit-fed TMR treatments (64.5 min/d). Within the TMR-S treatment, feeding time on the straw was 76.9 min/d; thus, the rate of consumption of only the TMR was similar across all treatments. Unrewarded time at the feed bunk (when no feed was present) did not differ between treatments. Heifers did not differ in competitive behavior when on the limit-fed TMR treatments (13.1 displacements/heifer per day). However, while on the TMR-S treatment, heifers displaced each other more frequently (23.8 displacements/heifer per day) than while on the other 2 treatments. Overall, results suggest that neither

  6. Effect of irradiation on the pH for 11 commercial salad dressings near expiration date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Sabato, Susy F.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for salad dressings has evolved significantly in recent years and has become a frequent option in the meal. The pH values for salad dressings are low, precisely because they are emulsions acidified by adding ingredients, such as, acetic acid and / or citric acid and preservatives like benzoic acid and / or sorbic those provide an environment unfavorable to the growth of many microorganisms. However, the deterioration of such products occur as a result of growth of lactobacilli, bacilli, yeasts, once damaged, can present loss of taste and dark spots on the surface as an indication of yeast colony formation. Whereas, the positive effects of gamma irradiation on food, such as improved safety and stability of food products on shelves, the pH is a key factor for assessing not only the conservation, but also to the quality. The aim of this study was to reassess the effects of radiation on the pH of 9 varieties of commercial salad dressing after 6 months of storage, near the expiration of samples validity. The samples were acquired on the market of Sao Paulo and subjected to low doses of radiation at irradiator Multipurpose IPEN / CNEN-SP. The irradiated samples were compared to control. Statistical analyzes were performed using the program Graph Pad 5 and adopting a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). (author)

  7. Effect of irradiation on the pH for 11 commercial salad dressings near expiration date

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagretti, Juliana M.A.; Fabbri, Adriana D.T.; Hirashima, Fabiana K.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Sabato, Susy F., E-mail: jusagretti@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The demand for salad dressings has evolved significantly in recent years and has become a frequent option in the meal. The pH values for salad dressings are low, precisely because they are emulsions acidified by adding ingredients, such as, acetic acid and / or citric acid and preservatives like benzoic acid and / or sorbic those provide an environment unfavorable to the growth of many microorganisms. However, the deterioration of such products occur as a result of growth of lactobacilli, bacilli, yeasts, once damaged, can present loss of taste and dark spots on the surface as an indication of yeast colony formation. Whereas, the positive effects of gamma irradiation on food, such as improved safety and stability of food products on shelves, the pH is a key factor for assessing not only the conservation, but also to the quality. The aim of this study was to reassess the effects of radiation on the pH of 9 varieties of commercial salad dressing after 6 months of storage, near the expiration of samples validity. The samples were acquired on the market of Sao Paulo and subjected to low doses of radiation at irradiator Multipurpose IPEN / CNEN-SP. The irradiated samples were compared to control. Statistical analyzes were performed using the program Graph Pad 5 and adopting a significance level of 5% (p <0.05). (author)

  8. [Effect of aeration on composting of date palm residues contaminated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroune, K; Bouakka, M; Hakkou, A

    2005-01-01

    Composting of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) residues contaminated with Fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis, causal agent of the vascular wilt (Bayoud) of the date palm, has been achieved. The effect of the aeration of the piles by manual turning has been studied. The maintenance of an adequate humidity of 60%-70%, necessary to the good progress of the composting process, required the contribution of 11.4 L of water/kg of the dried residues. The evolution of the temperatures in the three piles presents the same phases. A latency phase, followed after 2-3 d of composting by a thermophilic phase, which lasts about 24 d, where the temperature remains elevated between 50 and 70 degrees C. Then a cooling phase that takes about 15 d, during which the temperatures fall to values between 25 and 35 degrees C, near room temperature. Fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis is eliminated completely during the thermophilic phase of composting, and increasing frequencies of turning accelerate its disappearance to a certain extent. On the other hand, pH remained steady and relatively basic oscillating between 8.2 and 8.7. Ninety percent (90%) of the the date palm residues are composed exclusively of organic matters. The total nitrogen represents only 0.4%. The contribution of manure decreases the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from 115 to 48 in the initial mixture. After 80 d of composting and according to the frequency of return up, there is a reduction of the granulometry of the substratum, the C/N ratio (from 29% to 44%), the organic matter (from 15% to 23%), the total volume (from 25% to 35%), and of the dry weight of the swaths (from 16% to 24%). On the other hand there is an increase in total nitrogen rate (from 20% to 40%) and in the mineral matter (from 23% to 35%).

  9. History of radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, W F [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  10. Prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning provision for Australian community aged care clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Karen Margaret; Carter, Rachel Zoe; Sellars, Marcus William; Lewis, Virginia; Sutton, Elizabeth Anne

    2017-12-01

    Conduct a prospective comparative effectiveness cohort study comparing two models of advance care planning (ACP) provision in community aged care: ACP conducted by the client's case manager (CM) ('Facilitator') and ACP conducted by an external ACP service ('Referral') over a 6-month period. This Australian study involved CMs and their clients. Eligible CM were English speaking, ≥18 years, had expected availability for the trial and worked ≥3 days per week. CMs were recruited via their organisations, sequentially allocated to a group and received education based on the group allocation. They were expected to initiate ACP with all clients and to facilitate ACP or refer for ACP. Outcomes were quantity of new ACP conversations and quantity and quality of new advance care directives (ACDs). 30 CMs (16 Facilitator, 14 Referral) completed the study; all 784 client's files (427 Facilitator, 357 Referral) were audited. ACP was initiated with 508 (65%) clients (293 Facilitator, 215 Referral; p<0.05); 89 (18%) of these (53 Facilitator, 36 Referral) and 41 (46%) (13 Facilitator, 28 Referral; p<0.005) completed ACDs. Most ACDs (71%) were of poor quality/not valid. A further 167 clients (facilitator 124; referral 43; p<0.005) reported ACP was in progress at study completion. While there were some differences, overall, models achieved similar outcomes. ACP was initiated with 65% of clients. However, fewer clients completed ACP, there was low numbers of ACDs and document quality was generally poor. The findings raise questions for future implementation and research into community ACP provision. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Mediation of seed provisioning in the transmission of environmental maternal effects in Maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zas, R; Cendán, C; Sampedro, L

    2013-09-01

    Although maternal environmental effects are increasingly recognized as an important source of phenotypic variation with relevant impacts in evolutionary processes, their relevance in long-lived plants such as pine trees is largely unknown. Here, we used a powerful sample size and a strong quantitative genetic approach to analyse the sources of variation of early seedling performance and to identify seed mass (SM)-dependent and -independent maternal environmental effects in Maritime pine. We measured SM of 8924 individual seeds collected from 10 genotypes clonally replicated in two environments of contrasting quality (favourable and stressful), and we measured seedling growth rate and biomass allocation to roots and shoots. SM was extremely variable (up to 14-fold) and strongly determined by the maternal environment and the genotype of the mother tree. The favourable maternal environment led to larger cones, larger seeds and reduced SM variability. The maternal environment also determined the offspring phenotype, with seedlings coming from the favourable environment being 35% larger and with greater root/shoot ratio. Transgenerational plasticity appears, thus, to be a relevant source of phenotypic variation in the early performance of this pine species. Seed provisioning explained most of the effect of the maternal environment on seedling total biomass. Environmental maternal effects on seedling biomass allocation were, however, determined through SM-independent mechanisms, suggesting that other epigenetic regulation channels may be involved.

  12. Effects of user fee exemptions on the provision and use of maternal health services: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Laurel E; Makinen, Marty; Madhavan, Supriya; Conlon, Claudia M

    2013-12-01

    User fee removal has been put forward as an approach to increasing priority health service utilization, reducing impoverishment, and ultimately reducing maternal and neonatal mortality. However, user fees are a source of facility revenue in many low-income countries, often used for purchasing drugs and supplies and paying incentives to health workers. This paper reviews evidence on the effects of user fee exemptions on maternal health service utilization, service provision, and outcomes, including both supply-side and demand-side effects. We reviewed 19 peer-reviewed research articles addressing user fee exemptions and maternal health services or outcomes published since 1990. Studies were identified through a USAID-commissioned call for evidence, key word search, and screening process. Teams of reviewers assigned criteria-based quality scores to each paper and prepared structured narrative reviews. The grade of the evidence was found to be relatively weak, mainly from short-term, non-controlled studies. The introduction of user fee exemptions appears to have resulted in increased rates of facility-based deliveries and caesarean sections in some contexts. Impacts on maternal and neonatal mortality have not been conclusively demonstrated; exemptions for delivery care may contribute to modest reductions in institutional maternal mortality but the evidence is very weak. User fee exemptions were found to have negative, neutral, or inconclusive effects on availability of inputs, provider motivation, and quality of services. The extent to which user fee revenue lost by facilities is replaced can directly affect service provision and may have unintended consequences for provider motivation. Few studies have looked at the equity effects of fee removal, despite clear evidence that fees disproportionately burden the poor. This review highlights potential and documented benefits (increased use of maternity services) as well as risks (decreased provider motivation and quality

  13. Effect of tillage and planting date on seasonal abundance and diversity of predacious ground beetles in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R B; Parajulee, M N

    2010-01-01

    A 2-year field study was conducted in the southern High Plains region of Texas to evaluate the effect of tillage system and cotton planting date window on seasonal abundance and activity patterns of predacious ground beetles. The experiment was deployed in a split-plot randomized block design with tillage as the main-plot factor and planting date as the subplot factor. There were two levels for each factor. The two tillage systems were conservation tillage (30% or more of the soil surface is covered with crop residue) and conventional tillage. The two cotton planting date window treatments were early May (normal planting) and early June (late planting). Five prevailing predacious ground beetles, Cicindela sexguttata F., Calosoma scrutator Drees, Pasimachus spp., Pterostichus spp., and Megacephala Carolina L. (Coleoptera: Carabidae), were monitored using pitfall traps at 2-week intervals from June 2002 to October 2003. The highest total number of ground beetles (6/trap) was observed on 9 July 2003. Cicindela sexguttata was the dominant ground dwelling predacious beetle among the five species. A significant difference between the two tillage systems was observed in the abundances of Pterostichus spp. and C. sexguttata. In 2002. significantly more Pterostichus spp. were recorded from conventional plots (0.27/trap) than were recorded from conservation tillage plots (0.05/trap). Significantly more C. sexguttata were recorded in 2003 from conservation plots (3.77/trap) than were recorded from conventional tillage plots (1.04/trap). There was a significant interaction between year and tillage treatments. However, there was no significant difference in the abundances of M. Carolina and Pasimachus spp. between the two tillage practices in either of the two years. M. Carolina numbers were significantly higher in late-planted cotton compared with those observed in normal-planted cotton. However, planting date window had no significant influence on the activity patterns of the

  14. Effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing the provision of nicotine dependence treatment in inpatient psychiatric facilities: an implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wye, Paula M; Stockings, Emily A; Bowman, Jenny A; Oldmeadow, Chris; Wiggers, John H

    2017-02-07

    Despite clinical practice guidelines recommending the routine provision of nicotine dependence treatment to smokers in inpatient psychiatric facilities, the prevalence of such treatment provision is low. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment to patients in inpatient psychiatric facilities. We undertook an interrupted time series analysis of nicotine dependence treatment provision before, during and after a clinical practice change intervention to increase clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment for all hospital discharges (aged >18 years, N = 4175) over a 19 month period in two inpatient adult psychiatric facilities in New South Wales, Australia. The clinical practice change intervention comprised six key strategies: leadership and consensus, enabling systems and procedures, training and education, information and resources, audit and feedback and an on-site practice change support officer. Systematic medical record audit and segmented logistic regression was used to determine differences in proportions for each nicotine dependence treatment outcome measure between the 'pre', 'during' and 'post-intervention' periods. The prevalence of all five outcome measures increased significantly between the pre and post-intervention periods, including clinician recorded: assessment of patient smoking status (36.43 to 51.95%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.39, 99% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.23 to 4.66); assessment of patient nicotine dependence status (4.74 to 11.04%; AOR = 109.67, 99% CI: 35.35 to 340.22); provision of brief advice to quit (0.85 to 8.81%; AOR = 97.43, 99% CI: 31.03 to 306.30); provision of nicotine replacement therapy (8.06 to 26.25%; AOR = 19.59, 99% CI: 8.17 to 46.94); and provision of nicotine dependence treatment on discharge (8.82 to 13.45%, AOR = 12.36; 99% CI: 6.08 to 25

  15. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  16. Cell viability effects and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tunisian date syrup (Rub El Tamer) polyphenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaouadi, Karima; Raboudi, Faten; Estevan, Carmen; Barrajón, Enrique; Vilanova, Eugenio; Hamdaoui, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

    2011-01-12

    The aqueous-acetone polyphenolic extract of the traditionally derived date syrup, known as "Rub El Tamer", was analyzed using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. The phenolic content of the extract was 394.53 ± 1.13 mg per 100 g of syrup with caffeoylsinapylquinic acid as the most abundant compound (72.23%). The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activities as evaluated using the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The extract antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains showed that Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive bacteria with MBC in the range of 0.5-0.05 mg/mL. Furthermore, in the presence of the syrup extract (8.18-131 μg/mL), the Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and the 3T3 fibroblast cell lines showed dissimilar reduction of viability suggesting a higher cytotoxic effect against tumorigenic cells. Our results provide new insights into date syrup characterization which should stimulate further studies of this hot desert resource.

  17. Double Crowding-Out Effects of Means-Tested Public Provision for Long-Term Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Courbage

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Publicly provided long-term care (LTC insurance with means-tested benefits is suspected to crowd out either private saving or informal care. This contribution predicts crowding-out effects for both private saving and informal care for policy measures designed to relieve the public purse from LTC expenditure such as more stringent means testing and increased taxation of inheritance. These effects result from the interaction of a parent who decides on the amount of saving in retirement and a caregiver who decides on the effort devoted to informal care which lowers the probability of admission to a nursing home. Double crowding-out effects are also found to be the consequence of exogenous influences, notably a higher opportunity cost of caregiving.

  18. Hybrid resource provisioning for clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Graham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Flexible resource provisioning, the assignment of virtual machines (VMs) to physical machine, is a key requirement for cloud computing. To achieve 'provisioning elasticity', the cloud needs to manage its available resources on demand. A-priori, static, VM provisioning introduces no runtime overhead but fails to deal with unanticipated changes in resource demands. Dynamic provisioning addresses this problem but introduces runtime overhead. To reduce VM management overhead so more useful work can be done and to also avoid sub-optimal provisioning we propose a hybrid approach that combines static and dynamic provisioning. The idea is to adapt a good initial static placement of VMs in response to evolving load characteristics, using live migration, as long as the overhead of doing so is low and the effectiveness is high. When this is no longer so, we trigger a revised static placement. (Thus, we are essentially applying local multi-objective optimization to tune a global optimization with reduced overhead.) This approach requires a complicated migration decision algorithm based on current and predicted:future workloads, power consumptions and memory usage in the host machines as well as network burst characteristics for the various possible VM multiplexings (combinations of VMs on a host). A further challenge is to identify those characteristics of the dynamic provisioning that should trigger static re-provisioning.

  19. Effectiveness of Special Nursery Provision for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Osborne, Lisa A.; Corness, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The effectiveness of three local authority early teaching interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was studied. Thirty-three children (2:6 to 4:0 years old) received one of three early teaching interventions: a 1:1 home-based programme, and two different forms of special nursery placement. Measures from the…

  20. Effect of production system, supermarket and purchase date on the vitamin D content of eggs at retail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Kliem, Kirsty E; Lovegrove, Julie A; Givens, D I

    2017-04-15

    The vitamin D content of eggs from three retail outlets was measured over five months to examine the effects of production system (organic vs. free range vs. indoor), supermarket and purchase date on the concentration of vitamin D 3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 . Results demonstrated a higher vitamin D 3 concentration in free range (57.2±3.1μg/kg) and organic (57.2±3.2μg/kg) compared with indoor (40.2±3.1μg/kg) (Psupermarket for both forms of vitamin D may relate to some incorrect labelling. Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 was higher (P<0.05) in July and September than in August . The results indicate variations in vitamin D concentrations in eggs from different sources, thus highlighting the importance of accurate labelling. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Planting Date and Weed Control Methods on Yield and Agronomic Traits of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. in Khoy Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akbari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of planting dates and weed control methods on yield and agronomic traits of sunflower was investigated. A factorial experiment based on a complete randomized blocks design with four replications was conducted in 2009. Treatments consisted of three planting date (April 4th, May5th and Juns5th and five weed control methods, Trifluralin (2 Lit/ha + Fokus (1.5 Lit/ha, Trifluralin+Nabu-s (3Lit/ha, Trifluralin, Hand weeding and without control. Results indicated that planting dates and weed control methods significantly affected head diameter, 100 grain weight, seed number per head and grain yield. Harvest index and oil percent was affected only by planting dates. The highest grain yield (630.1 g/m2, was produced in the second planting date (May 5 by using Trifluralin+Fokus. Delaying sowing date (after May 5 significantly decreased grain yield. The most important weeds in the experimental site were common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album, field bind weed (Convolvulus arvensis, bastard cabbage (Rapistrum rugosum, flower-of-an-hour (Hibiscus trionum, cockspur grass (Echinochloa colorum and green bristle grass (Setaria verticillata. It was observed that the dry matter weight sharply varied in all weed species in different planting dates, that is, in the 4th April the dry matter production of common lambsquarter and bastard cabbage, in June 5th planting date were maximum. Dry matter of broad leaf and narrow leaf weeds in the date of May 5th was lower than the other two planting dates. The interaction of planting date ×control methods on head diameter, seed number per head, grain yield and weeds dry matter was significant.

  2. Effects of Mentoring Speed Dating as an Innovative Matching Tool in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guse, Jennifer; Schweigert, Eva; Kulms, Gerhild; Heinen, Ines; Martens, Claudia; Guse, Andreas H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Choosing the right mentor is crucial for effective mentorship. Yet, many medical students have difficulties finding a suitable mentor. Thus we developed mentoring speed dating (MSD) as a promising matching tool to connect students and faculty mentors successfully. The purpose of this study was to explore mentees’ and mentors’ experience with MSD and investigate the impact of MSD on the perceived mentorship quality and continuance of the mentoring relationship. Methods The authors completed a mixed methods study at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany, between June 2011 and March 2014. They conducted four focus groups with mentees and mentors who participated in a mentoring speed dating event and analyzed transcripts using conventional content analysis with inductive categorizing. In addition, three mentoring cohorts (two matched via MSD, one matched via conventional online profiles) were surveyed on mentorship satisfaction and the 1-year continuance of their mentorship was monitored. Fifteen mentees and fifteen mentors participated in the focus groups. The authors identified several themes such as short and long term benefits of MSD and fulfillment of expectations. Benefits included finding out about the personal connection, matching expectations, providing an efficient overview of candidates. The survey was completed by 93 students (n = 29 without MSD; n = 64 with MSD). Independent t-tests and multivariate analysis of variance were used to analyze the impact of MSD on student’s mentorship satisfaction. Results There were significant differences in responses to the items “Commitment of mentor” (p = .019) and “Constructive feedback” (p = .038) among the students who attended MSD and the students without MSD. After one year far more mentoring relationships existed among those mentees who participated in MSD in comparison to the “no MSD group”. Conclusion MSD is a valuable matching tool with beneficial effects on the

  3. Effects of Gainsharing Provisions on the Selection of a Discount Rate for a Defined Benefit Pension Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Rietz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of gainsharing provisions on the selection of a discount rate for a defined benefit pension plan. The paper uses a traditional actuarial approach of discounting liabilities using the expected return of the associated pension fund. A stochastic Excel model was developed to simulate the effect of varying investment returns on a pension fund with four asset classes. Lognormal distributions were fitted to historical returns of two of the asset classes; large company stocks and long-term government bonds. A third lognormal distribution was designed to represent the investment returns of alternative investments, such as real estate and private equity. The fourth asset class represented short term cash investments and that return was held constant. The following variables were analyzed to determine their relative impact of gainsharing on the selection of a discount rate: hurdle rate, percentage of gainsharing, actuarial asset method smoothing period, and variations in asset allocation. A 50% gainsharing feature can reduce the discount rate for a defined benefit pension plan from 0.5% to more than 2.5%, depending on the gainsharing design and asset allocation.

  4. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  5. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Planting Date on Reducing Growth Period of Spring Safflower Cultivars in Tabriz Cold and Semi-arid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pasban Eslam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower is a plant adaptable to areas with limited rainfall during winter and spring and dry air at flowering, seed filling and maturity stages, and tolerant to water deficit. The positive correlation coefficient observed between safflower seed yield with precipitation and low air temperature during seed germination to flowering and flowering to seed maturity. Furthermore, precipitation and low temperature during flowering to seed maturity significantly increased seed oil percentage. Therefore, it seems that, by adjusting the planting time can be adapted phenological stages of plant with appropriate weather conditions. The aims of this research were study the possibility reducing the growth period of safflower spring varieties with maintaining performance through delay in planting time, evaluate seed and oil yields at different planting times, and identify the best varieties for cold and semi-arid areas. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted at the East Azarbaijan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (46°2¢E, 37°58¢N, 1347 m a.s.l. during 2014-2015 growing season. According to Koppen climatic classification system, the area climate is semi-arid and cold. This study was carried out as factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were four planting dates (30 March, 9, 19 and 29 April and three safflower spring cultivars (Sina, Soffeh and Goldasht. Plant spacing between rows was 24 cm and final plant density was 70 plant per m2. Each plot consisted of 6 rows in 5 meters. Plants were harvested on the 11th and 14th of August in the first and second years of experiment, respectively. At the harvest time, in order to control boarder effects, plants from the sides of each plot were removed. Measured traits were plant height, capitulum diameter, seed yield, capitula number per plant, seed number per capitulum and 1000-seed weight. Ten plants in each plot

  7. Genotype-by-sowing date interaction effects on cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of dera ismail khan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, K.; Khan, S.; Ayatullah, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton is a major export commodity of Pakistan. It is affected by variable environmental conditions throughout the country which limits its production. A 2-year field study was conducted in 2012 and 2013 at Cotton Research Station, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan to evaluate the effects of six sowing dates on yield and quality attributes of four cotton genotypes. The experiments were laid out in split-plot within a randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots treatments were six sowing dates, namely March 20, April 4, April 19, May 4, May 19, and June 3 while subplots treatments were four approved transgenic varieties of cotton (CIM-598, CIM-599, CIM-602, and Ali Akber-703). Results revealed that earlier planting produced more vegetative growth rather than lint yield while late planting induced flowering and boll formation when temperature was much cold that adversely affected cotton yield and quality. The results further indicate that the genotype CIM-599 scored first rank in number of bolls plant-1, boll weight, seed cotton yield, ginning out turn, fiber length, fiber strength, fiber fineness, and fiber uniformity when sown on April 19. CIM-598 was the next suitable genotype after CIM-599 which produced higher yield and quality traits in April 19 sowing. Earlier and later sowing than April 19 resulted in lower cotton yield and quality characters due to unfavorable environmental conditions and shorter growth period, respectively. Thus it is concluded that the genotype, CIM-599 sown on April 19 suits well to the study area and had the potential to optimize cotton yield and quality in irrigated condition of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. (author)

  8. Effects of cutting date, outdoor storage conditions, and splitting on survival of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in firewood logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrice, Toby R; Haack, Robert A

    2006-06-01

    The emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is an exotic pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in North America. We conducted studies in Michigan to evaluate how different tree cutting dates, outdoor storage conditions, and splitting affected A. planipennis survival in firewood logs. In 2002-2003, we cut logs from A. planipennis-infested ash trees each month, from July to October, and stored half of the logs in shade and half in full sun. In 2003-2004, we tested logs cut July-December; stored in sun versus shade; tarped versus untarped; and whole logs versus split logs. For both years, A. planipennis successfully emerged the summer after cutting from logs that represented all treatments and all cutting dates tested. Adult emergence density was significantly lower in logs cut in July and August. In 2003-2004, A. planipennis adult length was significantly shorter, and percentage of mortality was significantly higher for logs cut in August compared with later months. Emergence density was significantly lower for split logs compared with whole logs for all cutting months except for December. There was no significant difference in adult emergence density between logs stored in full sun versus shade in 2002-2003. In 2003-2004, untarped logs in full sun or shade had significantly lower adult emergence densities than tarped logs in the sun or shade. In conclusion, emergence, survival, and size of A. planipennis was significantly reduced if logs were cut early during larval development (July or August); splitting logs and storing them untarped in full sun or shade further reduced adult emergence. No treatment was 100% effective in preventing adult emergence.

  9. Setting a date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Glenis.

    1987-01-01

    Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned. (UK)

  10. The effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorious L. in Rokh plateau .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyd fazel fazeli kakhaki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of sowing date and plant density on yield and yield components of safflower ( Carthamus tinctorious as well as evaluating the possibility of the second sowing of the plant in Torbat Heidariyeh , a field experiment was conducted in Rokh, Cold Season Cereal Research Station 2005 . The experiment was conducted in split plot arrangement in complete randomized block design with four replications . Main plots were sowing date in five levels including 9 April, 10 May, 31 May, 20 June, 11 July and sub plots were plant density in three levels including 300000, 400000, 500000 plants per hectar. Some charactristics such as the number of capitulum per square meter, seed number in capitulum, seed weight, harvest index and seed yeild was evaluated.The highest seed yield was obtained in first sowing date in 3347 kg/ha and a delay in sowing date resulted a decrease in yield. The cold weather in (05/11/2005 caused flower fertility not accured, consequently, sowing was not successful . Results showed that the effect of sowing date on yield depends on the number of capitulum per unit area and the number of grains per capitulum. These two characteristics in th first sowing date in respect of the other dates were higher. The effect of density on yield was significant resulted on yield increase due to capitulum increase in unit area. As a result, the first sowing date with the highest density is recommended. However, The third and fourth sowing date can be considered as the second planting in a sequeational cropping system .

  11. Foraging habitat quality constrains effectiveness of artificial nest-site provisioning in reversing population declines in a colonial cavity nester.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Catry

    Full Text Available Among birds, breeding numbers are mainly limited by two resources of major importance: food supply and nest-site availability. Here, we investigated how differences in land-use and nest-site availability affected the foraging behaviour, breeding success and population trends of the colonial cavity-dependent lesser kestrel Falco naumanni inhabiting two protected areas. Both areas were provided with artificial nests to increase nest-site availability. The first area is a pseudo-steppe characterized by traditional extensive cereal cultivation, whereas the second area is a previous agricultural zone now abandoned or replaced by forested areas. In both areas, lesser kestrels selected extensive agricultural habitats, such as fallows and cereal fields, and avoided scrubland and forests. In the second area, tracked birds from one colony travelled significantly farther distances (6.2 km ± 1.7 vs. 1.8 km ± 0.4 and 1.9 km ± 0.6 and had significant larger foraging-ranges (144 km(2 vs. 18.8 and 14.8 km(2 when compared to the birds of two colonies in the extensive agricultural area. Longer foraging trips were reflected in lower chick feeding rates, lower fledging success and reduced chick fitness. Availability and occupation of artificial nests was high in both areas but population followed opposite trends, with a positive increment recorded exclusively in the first area with a large proportion of agricultural areas. Progressive habitat loss around the studied colony in the second area (suitable habitat decreased from 32% in 1990 to only 7% in 2002 is likely the main driver of the recorded population decline and suggests that the effectiveness of bird species conservation based on nest-site provisioning is highly constrained by habitat quality in the surrounding areas. Therefore, the conservation of cavity-dependent species may be enhanced firstly by finding the best areas of remaining habitat and secondly by increasing the carrying capacity of high

  12. "You Owe Me": Effects of Date Cost, Who Pays, Participant Gender, and Rape Myth Beliefs on Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basow, Susan A.; Minieri, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Sexual social exchange theory was applied to perceptions of a date rape by manipulating the cost of the date and who paid in vignettes presented to 188 U.S. college students, who then rated the characters' sexual expectations, blame, responsibility, and rape justifiability. Findings from this between-participant design partially supported…

  13. Dating raised bogs : New aspects of AMS C-14 wiggle matching, a reservoir effect and climatic change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilian, MR; VanDerPlicht, J; VanGeel, B; Geel, B. van

    1995-01-01

    High resolution AMS dating of Holocene raised bog deposits (Engbertsdijksvenen, The Netherlands) shows natural C-14 variations (wiggles) which can be matched with the dendrochronological calibration curve. Comparison of our results with other, conventionally dated peat cores and the Delta(14)C

  14. The effect of restricted milk feeding through conventional or step-down methods with or without forage provision in starter feed on performance of Holstein bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, D; Khorvash, M; Ghasemi, E; Mahdavi, A H; Moshiri, B; Mirzaei, M; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to examine whether step-down (STP) milk feeding method together with forage provision would improve performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites, and structural growth of calves. Holstein bull calves ( = 40) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments were 1) conventional (COV) milk feeding without forage provision (COV-NF), 2) COV milk feeding with forage provision, 3) STP milk feeding without forage provision, and 4) STP milk feeding with forage provision. Calves in the COV method ( = 20) received 5.5 L/d milk until d 56 of age followed by 2 L/d milk from d 56 to 59 of age. Calves in the STP method ( = 20) received 7 L/d milk until d 35, 4 L/d milk from d 35 to 48, and 2 L/d milk from d 50 to 59 of age. All the calves received the starter ration from d 3 of the study until d 74 of age. Forage-supplemented calves ( = 10/milk feeding method) received 15% alfalfa hay mixed with finely ground starter as a total mixed ration. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age and remained in the study until d 74. Regardless of the milk feeding method, the final BW (92.54 vs. 83.14 kg/d), starter intake (0.90 vs. 0.65 kg/d), total DMI (1.43 vs. 1.17 kg/d), and ADG (0.73 vs. 0.60 kg/d) were greater ( calves than those that received no forage during the preweaning, postweaning, and overall periods. Milk feeding method had no effect on ruminal pH, total VFA, acetate, or acetate:propionate ratio as well as body measurements. Ruminal pH and the molar proportions of acetate were greater ( calves than those that received no forage during the pre- and postweaning periods. Regardless of forage provision, STP methods increased ( feeding methods and forage provision with respect to BW, DMI, G:F, apparent nutrient digestibility (DM, OM, and CP), and body measurements. The interaction of milk feeding method and forage provision was significant

  15. Effects of Water Provision and Hydration on Cognitive Function among Primary-School Pupils in Zambia: A Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Trinies

    Full Text Available There is a well-established link between hydration and improved cognitive performance among adults, with evidence of similar findings among children. No trials have investigated the impact of water provision on cognitive performance among schoolchildren in hot and arid low-resource settings. We conducted a randomized-controlled trial in five schools with limited water access in Chipata district in Eastern province, Zambia, to assess the efficacy of water provision on cognition. Pupils in grades 3-6 were randomly assigned to either receive a bottle of drinking water that they could refill throughout the day (water group, n = 149 or only have access to drinking water that was normally available at the school (control group, n = 143. Hydration was assessed in the morning before provision of water and in the afternoon through urine specific gravity (Usg measured with a portable refractometer. In the afternoon we administered six cognitive tests to assess short-term memory, concentration, visual attention, and visual motor skills. Morning prevalence of dehydration, defined as Usg≥1.020, was 42%. Afternoon dehydration increased to 67% among the control arm and dropped to 10% among the intervention arm. We did not find that provision of water or hydration impacted cognitive test scores, although there were suggestive relationships between both water provision and hydration and increased scores on tests measuring visual attention. We identified key improvements to the study design that are warranted to further investigate this relationship.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01924546.

  16. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  17. Therapeutic effects of date fruits (Phoenix dactylifera) in the prevention of diseases via modulation of anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Aly, Salah M; Ali, Habeeb; Babiker, Ali Y; Srikar, Sauda; Khan, Amjad A

    2014-01-01

    The current mode of treatment of various diseases based on synthetic drugs is expensive, alters genetic and metabolic pathways and also shows adverse side effects. Thus, safe and effective approach is needed to prevent the diseases development and progression. In this vista, Natural products are good remedy in the treatment/management of diseases and they are affordable and effective without any adverse effects. Dates are main fruit in the Arabian Peninsula and are considered to be one of the most significant commercial crops and also have been documented in Holy Quran and modern scientific literatures. Earlier studies have shown that constituents of dates act as potent antioxidant, anti-tumour as well as anti-inflammatory, provide a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases cure. In this review, dates fruits has medicinal value are summarized in terms of therapeutic implications in the diseases control through anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour and ant-diabetic effect.

  18. Effect of Nitrogen Foliar Application on Canola Yield (Brassica napus L. and Nitrogen Efficiency across Different Sowing Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Doori

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Between oil seeds, from the quality, quantity and nutrition index point of view, canola has the top level . Because of the solubility of N fertilizers, the time of urea application, is very important and one of the main reasons of the reduction in N application efficiency is utilization of urea in an inappropriate time. By precisely foliar application of nitrogen, the efficiency of nitrogen transformation to the grain will be very high because in this method the leaf is considered the main organ of nitrogen uptake and a low amount of absorbed nitrogen was transferred to the root and entered the soil. The more division of N application in growth stages and in accordance with plant need and foliar application result in increasing nitrogen use efficiency. The delay in sowing will result in the reduction of yield and this is due to low LAI, and thus low radiation absorb in vegetable phase and shorter reproductive phase with high temperature in flowering and subsequent stages that result in low prolific silique and make disorder in transferring stored material to grain. In this experiment using N foliar application to decrease the adverse effect of delay in sowing is objective. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted in 2013-2014 in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resource University of Khuzestan. Experiment was conducted as split plots in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications. In this experiment sowing date]optimum sowing (27 November, 17 December and late sowing (30 December [were assigned to main plots and several time of N-foliar application with 5 percent density from urea (20 liter per ha, ]TO (control, T1 (foliar N application in rosette stage, T2 (foliar N application in budding stage, T3 (foliar N application in flowering stage[ were placed in sub-plots in randomized way. Fertilizing was based on the results of soil examination. Therefore, 162 kg ha-1 of pure nitrogen (from resource urea in the way

  19. Obsidian dating prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Developments in the nuclear industry have shown that some of the problems related to the glassification of waste for long term storage are centred on the rate of glass weathering in various repositories. Long term weathering of artificial glasses is paralleled by the archaeological problem of determining hydration rates in obsidian artefacts as a means of dating their manufacture. Figures available for sites in Papua New Guinea indicate that the weathering rate is sufficiently fast to render conventional hydration measurement completely unreliable. This follows from the range of calculated surface reduction rates which range between .0002μ to .004μ per year depending on the site's location and the obsidian source. Hydration rates for key Papua New Guinea obsidians have been determined from long term experimental laboratory exposure and these are used to evaluate the age of obsidians from selected archaeological sites. By adopting a strategy of measuring hydration in concealed fissures both the weathering rate and the dating of the Papua New Guinea obsidians have been successfully achieved. The dissolution rates of natural obsidians could be useful in considering weathering rates for artificial glasses. An improved system for calculating the annual effective hydration temperature is presented which gives a better control of micro-environmental temperature in its crucial rate determining role. The combined result of these developments gives obsidian hydration dating an enhanced capacity to be a useful and independent dating system

  20. 5 CFR 890.806 - When can former spouses change enrollment or reenroll and what are the effective dates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... satisfactory proof of eligibility within 60 days after the date of divorce, the enrollment may be made... reenroll in the FEHB Program for any reason other than an involuntary loss of coverage, may do so during...

  1. Effects of physical form of starter and forage provision to young calves on blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, H; Mahdavi, A H; Riasi, A; Ghorbani, G R; Oskoueian, E; Khan, M A; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of physical form of starter feed and forage provision on the performance, blood metabolites, liver composition and intestinal morphology of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 52; body weight = 41.5 ± 2.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 13 per treatment) to one of the following four treatments: (i) ground starter feed (GS; mean particle size = 0.72 mm in diameter), (ii) textured starter feed (TS; mean particle size = 3.61 mm in diameter, including steam-flaked corn and barley), (iii) pelleted starter feed (PS; mean particle size = 4.53 mm in diameter) and (iv) ground starter feed with chopped alfalfa hay (GS + AH; mean particle size = 1.02 mm in diameter). The calves fed GS + AH diets had greater (p intake, final body weight and average daily gain compared with the other groups, while GS and TS groups both had greater (p intake than the PS group. Feed efficiency was found to be better (p calves fed GS + AH had the highest blood concentrations of total protein, globulin, triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), T3 : T4 ratio (p calves fed GS + AH exhibited a greater muscle layer thickness (p calves. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. The effect of family and peer communication on college students' communication with dating partners about HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Heather L; Segrin, Chris

    2004-01-01

    As family and peers are primary socializing agents in the lives of young adults, a social learning based model of communication about HIV/AIDS among dating partners was developed and tested, examining the role of interactions with family and peers in this type of communication. Specifically, the model describes relationships between general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with parents, peers, and dating partners. Participants were 153 young adult couples who completed measures of their communication practices, as well as their communication with family and peers. Communication practices in the family of origin appear to influence both general communication and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Communication practices with peers influenced general communication, communication about sexuality, and communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners. Participants and their dating partners exhibited relative agreement about their general communication practices and their communication about HIV/AIDS, but showed less agreement in reports of their communication about sexuality. Implications for understanding the role of family and peer interactions in communication about HIV/AIDS with dating partners are discussed.

  3. Substitution of Sugar with Dates Powder and Dates Syrup in Cookies Making

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Alsenaien; R.A. Alamer; Zhen-Xing Tang; S.A. Albahrani; M.A. Al-Ghannam; S.M. Aleid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of dates powder and dates syrup as a sugar substitution, on the physical properties and sensory attributes of cookies were studied. An increase in firmness and moisture content of cookies supplemented with dates was obtained. The diameter and spread ratio of cookies showed a decrease with increasing levels of date powder or date syrup. Partial replacement of sugar with date powder or date syrup produced cookies with more dark and red color. Sensory evaluation result...

  4. 17 CFR 230.486 - Effective date of post-effective amendments and registration statements filed by certain closed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... protection of investors, may declare an amendment or registration statement filed under this paragraph (a..., having due regard to the public interest and the protection of investors. (2) The Commission may, in the... (b) of this section and shall not otherwise affect any post-effective amendment or registration...

  5. 17 CFR 230.485 - Effective date of post-effective amendments filed by certain registered investment companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Commission, having due regard to the public interest and the protection of investors, may declare an... investors. (2) The Commission may, in the manner and under the circumstances set forth in this paragraph (c...-effective amendment pursuant to paragraph (b) of this section and shall not otherwise affect any post...

  6. Institutional Disparities in the Cost Effectiveness of GCE A-Level Provision: A Multi-Level Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, A.

    1995-01-01

    Reanalyzes H. Thomas's 1980s data, which used teaching group as the unit of analysis and illuminated some institutional disparities in provision of General Certificate of Education (GCE) A-levels. Uses multilevel analysis to focus on individual students in a hierarchical framework. Among the study institutions, school sixth forms appear less…

  7. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  8. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  9. Key state legislative provisions on purchasing alliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K

    1994-01-01

    In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.

  10. Plumage condition, body weight, mortality, and zootechnical performances: the effects of linings and litter provision in furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was designed to determine the effect of litter provision and lining in nests and pecking and scratching areas on health and zootechnical performances. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf versus plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks) was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. Zootechnical performances (laying rate, egg weight, and feed intake) were unaffected by PSA lining or by nest lining. The use of artificial turf mats in the PSA resulted in less feather loss than rubber mats, especially on breast and cloaca/vent areas. No consequences were observed on BW or mortality. However, the use of plastic mesh in nests was seen to increase mortality in comparison with artificial turf mats, without affecting plumage condition and BW. Although wheat bran provision did not influence feed intake and laying rate, litter provision did result in slightly higher mean egg weight. Moreover, BW tended to be lower when litter was distributed in cages, and neck and breast plumage condition improved. The distribution of litter was not seen to have any effect on mortality. The provision of litter and the lining of the PSA and nests to improve the welfare of caged laying hens have an effect on mortality, plumage quality, and some zootechnical performances. These results show the importance of choosing the most suitable linings and litter to obtain the best possible compromise between the ethological needs of laying hens, zootechnical performance, and animal health.

  11. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years from the date of award of a capital grant, the grant recipient has withdrawn from the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Program); does not establish the project for which the grant was made...

  12. Let's (Not) Talk about Sex: The Effect of Information Provision on Gender Differences in Performance under Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Nagore Iriberri; Pedro Rey-Biel

    2011-01-01

    We study how gender differences in performance under competition are affected by the provision of information regarding rival’s gender and/or differences in relative ability. In a laboratory experiment, we use two tasks that differ regarding perceptions about which gender outperforms the other. We observe women’s underperformance only under two conditions: 1) tasks are perceived as favoring men and 2) rivals’ gender is explicitly mentioned. This result can be explained by stereotype-threat be...

  13. Progress in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, R.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The article concerns radiocarbon dating, the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry. Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Sediment dating in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method

  15. Effect of artificial accelerated aging on the optical properties and monomeric conversion of composites used after expiration date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Mundim, Fabricio Mariano; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri; Puppin Rontani, Regina Maria; Consani, Simonides

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how artificial accelerated aging (AAA) affected color stability (ΔE), opacity (ΔOP), and degree of conversion (DOC) for 3 composite materials (Tetric Ceram, Tetric Ceram HB, and Tetric Flow) used both 180 days before and 180 days after their expiration dates. To evaluate the materials' optical properties, 10 specimens of each composite-5 prior to expiration and 5 after the materials' expiration date-were made in a teflon matrix. After polishing, the specimens were submitted to initial color and opacity readings and submitted to AAA for 384 hours; at that point, new readings were taken to determine ΔE and ΔOP. To evaluate monomeric conversion evaluation, 6 specimens from each composite and expiration date-3 prior to AAA and 3 after-were submitted to DOC analysis. Results of the 2-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's tests (P 0.05). The expired Tetric Flow had the highest DOC values (71.42% ± 4.21) before AAA, significantly different than that of the other composites (P > 0.05). It was concluded that both expiration date and AAA affected the properties of the composites tested.

  16. Meeting expectations: The effects of expectations on self-esteem following the construction of a dating profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Dian A.

    2016-01-01

    Online daters may be aware that online chat can extend their opportunities for making a desirable impression on potential dates in comparison to meeting a potential partner face-to-face. This anticipation of a subsequent interaction may already impact the impression individuals expect to make

  17. Dating of rock art and the effect of human activity on vegetation: The complementary use of archaeological and scientific methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, Kari Loe; Lødøen, Trond Klungseth

    2017-07-01

    One of the main aims of Scandinavian rock art research in recent years has been to identify the culture or society responsible for the imagery. This is of mutual importance, as studies of material culture can shed light on the rock art, while the iconography can be used to understand the contemporary material remains. A major challenge however, has been to determine the exact age of the images, as there are no direct dating materials. In order to overcome this challenge archaeological excavations and palynological analyses have been carried out at Vingen in Western Norway, one of Scandinavia's largest rock art areas. The archaeological and palynological data achieved, as well as loss-on-ignition are independent means for the dating of human activity. Since these methods provided similar results, an indirect connection to the rock art production activity may be inferred. Dates from archaeological contexts indicate a peak of activity between 6900 and 6300 cal. BP, with a potential start 7350 cal. BP and a culmination 6100 cal. BP. Palynological data from three different types of basins have documented forest disturbance in the same time period. Local vegetation reconstructions using the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm has proved useful to identify anthropogenic-induced land cover changes in the Mesolithic period and a marked reforestation at the transition to the Neolithic period. The applied methods have helped to considerably improve our understanding of past activity and the environment, and demonstrates the potential of archaeological excavations and palynological studies for dating of rock art.

  18. The Effects of Dating Violence, Substance Use and Risky Sexual Behavior among a Diverse Sample of Illinois Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Crown, Laurel; Gibbons, Maya A.; Vines, Linda N.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between dating violence, forced sexual intercourse (FSI), and four measures of sexual risk taking (i.e., age at first sex, number of recent (within the last three months) sex partners, alcohol/drug use at last sex, and condom use at last sex) among a sample of 1124 ethnically diverse sexually active adolescents…

  19. The effects of possible contamination on the radiocarbon dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls I : Castor oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, KL; van der Plicht, J; Cryer, FH; Doudna, G; Cross, FM; Strugnell, J; Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Cryer, Frederick H.; Cross, Frank M.

    2001-01-01

    Some fragments of the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts were contaminated with castor oil in the late 1950s. We have conducted experiments in order to establish if the AAA pretreatment cleaning procedures conducted on Dead Sea Scroll manuscript samples in the last two dating series (Bonani et al. 1992;

  20. Effect of Process Variables, Adsorption Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies of Hexavalent Chromium Removal from Aqueous Solution by Date Seeds and its Activated Carbon by ZnCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar K. Theydan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of hexavalent chromium by preparing activated carbon from date seeds with zinc chloride as chemical activator and granular date seeds was studied in a batch system. The characteristics of date seeds and prepared activated carbon (ZAC were determined and found to have a surface area 500.01 m2/g and 1050.01 m2/g , respectively and iodine number of 485.78 mg/g and 1012.91 mg/g, respectively. The effects of PH value (2-12, initial sorbate concentration(50-450mg/L, adsorbent weight (0.004-0.036g and contact time (30-150 min on the adsorption process were studied . For Cr(VI adsorption on ZAC, at 120 min time contact, pH solution 2 and 0.02 adsorbent weight will achieve an amount of 35.6 mg/g adsorbed . While when use date seeds as adsorbent , conditions of 3 solution pH, 0.02 absorbent weight , and 120 contact time gave 26.49 mg/g adsorbed amount. Using both Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models were explain the dsorption isotherms. It declare that the Sips model fits well with the experimental data with a maximum Cr( VI adsorption capacity for (ZAC and granular date stone 233.493 and 208.055 mg/g, respectively . The kinetics data which obtained at different initial Cr(VI concentrations were examined by using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intra-particle diffusion models . The result gained showed that the second-order model was only describing well the empirical kinetics data of both (ZAC and granular date seeds. It was noticed that the granular date seeds has adsorption performance lower than the (ZAC.

  1. The effects of cultivation on the organic matter of total soil and in the different soil particle size separates using radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.

    1982-07-01

    The effects of cultivation on the organic matter and nutrients in the total soil and in five particle size separates were studied through chemical analyses and radiocarbon dating. Samples were taken from the A and B horizons of an uncultivated field and of fields cultivated during 5,60 and 90 years which had never received treatment with fertilizers. (M.A.) [pt

  2. 40 CFR 51.917 - What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September 17...

  3. 77 FR 31683 - Notice of Effective Date of Modifications to a Rule of Origin of the United States-Australia Free...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Rule of Origin of the United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of effective date for goods of Australia of certain modifications to a product-specific rule of origin under the United States-Australia Free Trade Agreement (USAFTA...

  4. Parenting in Direct Provision: Parents' Perspectives Regarding Stresses and Supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbu, Helen Uchechukwu; Brady, Bernadine; Kinlen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The Irish direct provision system for asylum seekers is acknowledged as providing a very challenging and exclusionary living environment for adults and children. To date, there has been little research focused specifically on the ways in which the direct provision environment impacts on the parenting role. This qualitative study explores the…

  5. The relationship of sport participation to provision of sports facilities and socioeconomic status: a geographical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, Rochelle M; Harvey, Jack; Charity, Melanie J; Casey, Meghan; Westerbeek, Hans; Payne, Warren R

    2017-06-01

    Ecological models have been applied to investigate multiple domains influencing physical activity behaviour, including individual, social, organisational, community, environmental and policy factors. With regard to the built environment, research to date has been limited to small geographical areas and/or small samples of participants. This study examined the geographical association between provision of sport facilities and participation in sport across an entire Australian state, using objective total enumerations of both, for a group of sports, with adjustment for the effect of socioeconomic status (SES). De-identified membership registration data were obtained from state sport governing bodies of four popular team sports. Associations between participation rate, facility provision rate and SES were investigated using correlation and regression methods. Participation rate was positively associated with provision of facilities, although this was complicated by SES and region effects. The non-metropolitan region generally had higher participation rates and better provision of facilities than the metropolitan region. Better provision of sports facilities is generally associated with increased sport participation, but SES and region are also contributing factors. Implications for public health: Community-level analysis of the population, sport participation and provision of facilities should be used to inform decisions of investments in sports facilities. © 2017 The Authors.

  6. The effect of organic fertilizers and different sowing dates on yield and yield components of flower and grain of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezvani moghaddam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to find out suitable organic fertilizers for elimination of chemical fertilizers usage and the optimum sowing date in Pot Marigold cultivation, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2007 growing season. For this purpose a split plot experiment based on completely randomized block design with three replications was used. The main factor consist of four different fertilizers (50 kg.ha-1 N, 40 t.ha-1 Cow manure, 20 t.ha-1 Compost fertilizer and 10 t.ha-1 Hen manure beside control (without fertilizer and three sowing dates (10th April, 1th May and 21th May were allocated as sub factor. The results showed that the length time of emergence to budding, budding to flowering and flowering to ripening decreased by delay in sowing date, significantly. By delay in sowing date, plant height and dry matter also decreased because of reduction of vegetative growing duration. The various fertilizers had not significant effect on developmental stages and morphological characteristics of Pot Marigold. Nitrogen fertilizer and Hen manure in compare of other treatments had significantly (p≤0.05 higher level in number of inflorescences, yield of inflorescences, yield of petal and seed yield. Thus, Hen manure can be a suitable replacement of chemical fertilizers in Pot Marigold cultivation. The various sowing dates showed significant effect on the most measured characteristics of seed and inflorescences yield components of Pot Marigold. The highest of all studied characteristics were obtained in 10th April and 1th May than 21th May sowing dates.

  7. Effect of sowing dates and different irrigation regimes on morphological characteristics and grain yield of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. (cultivar 3279 ILC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of different sowing dates and different irrigation regimes on morphological characteristics and grain yield of chickpea (cultivar 3279 ILC (Cicer arietinum L., an experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research-Education Station of Shahid Rejaee, Neyshaboor during 2001-2002. Four irrigation regimes (without irrigation, one time irrigation (at early flowering, two times irrigation (at early flowering and 50% flowering and control (irrigation every 10 days and Four sowing dates early planting (autumn, Entezari, and late planting (spring and delayed were compared in a spilt plot layout based on randomized complete block design with four replications per treatment. The results showed that all chickpea plants with delayed sowing date on combination of without irrigation, one time irrigation (at early flowering and two times irrigation (at early flowering and 50% flowering were dead. By delaying sowing date, duration between the time of starting flowering and maturity became shorter. Plant height, distance of the first pod from earth surface, distance between nods, number of nods per plant, number of stems per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods with one, two and with no seed per plant, number of seeds per plant, seed weight per plant, 100 seed weight and grain yield were increased when the number of irrigation increased. By increasing the growing season, plant height, distance of the first pod from earth surface, number of nods per plant, number of stems per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods with two and without seeds per plant, number of seeds per plant and seed weight per plant were increased. The autumn sowing date had the highest and the spring date had the lowest grain yield. The highest plant height, number of nods per plant, number of stems per plant, number of pods per plant, number of pods with one and with no seed per plant, number of seeds per plant and grain yield were obtained at

  8. Effects of Planting Date and Plant Density on Physiological Indices, Quantity and Quality Traits of Two Varieties of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sepehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. is originated from North West Africa and Mediterranean area, is a medicinal plant used for several purposes. It is an annual herb or short-lived perennial from the Asteraceae family with yellow or orange flowers. The Marigold has been used as a traditional medicine and food dye, but is currently used as an anti-inflammatory and wound healer. It is grown for drug, obtained from the flowers. The flowers blossom during summer three or more times per year. The essential oil of yellow or orange petals of Calendula officinalis L. is one of the important yield components which is used for food and medicine. Moreover, the seed has an oil content of 5-20 %. Seed oil could be used as a binder in paints, coating and cosmetics. Growth, development and production of medicinal plants, as well as other plants are affected by genetic and agronomic factors. Planting date and plant density are two most important factors that can affect yield and yield components. Planting date affects the quantity and quality of secondary metabolites of medicinal plants. The optimum sowing date and plant density can improve the light and temperature absorption and other factors during the growing season. The positive effects of optimal planting date and plant density has been described by a number of researchers. The Plant population is dependent on the plant characters, growth period, time and method of cultivation. Also, the suitable sowing date has advantages for maximum production. Early sowing in the spring causes weakly establishment of plant and late planting date shortens growth period and simultaneous flowering period due to high temperature in summer. In this study, the effects of plant density and planting date on physiological indices, quantity and quality of two varieties of spare and compact marigold has been evaluated. Materials and Methods In order to determine the effects of planting date and plant density on

  9. Effect of meteorological factors on the development of lentil stemphylium blight at different sowing dates in rampur, chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subash Subedi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Stemphylium species are pathogenic to a number of crops under broad geography and diverse environments. Stemphylium blight of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik caused by Stemphylium botryosum Walr is becoming a serious emerging threat to lentil cultivation and become widespread throughout major legume growing areas in Nepal. Lentil was sown in different dates to observed incidence and severity of stemphylium blight in Rampur, Chitwan during two consecutive years 2012-2014. Lentil seeds sown up to middle of November escaped the disease severity and also resulted higher yield compared to other dates. Disease severity increased with the advancement of sowing date from November 1 to December 21 with decreased yields. The trends of disease development were similar in both years. The maximum and minimum temperatures, total rainfall and sunshine hour ranging from 22.42-24.23°C (mean 23.32°C, 4.12-13.00°C(mean 8.56°C, 9.6-30.5mm (mean 24.85mm and 200.05-309.85 hour (mean 254.95 hour respectively were favorable for disease development. A multiple linear regression model with temperature, rainfall and sunshine hours was developed to predict stemphylium blight disease severity on lentil plants.

  10. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  11. Study of Sowing Date and Seed Priming Effect on Seed Yield, Its Components and Some of Agronomic and Qualitative Properties of Two Spring Canola Cultivars in Hamedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohagheghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the effect of planting date, cultivar and seed priming on yield, yield components, oil and protein content of seeds of two spring canola cultivars a field experiment was conducted in Bu-Ali Sina University in 2012. The experiment was factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Factors consisted of sowing dates (14 and 24th March and 3rd April, seed priming treatments (no-primed, primed with water and zinc sulfate solution and two canola cultivars (Hayola401 and RGS003. The evaluated traits were number of pod per plant, number of seed per pod, 1000 seeds weight, plant height, oil and protein percentage, yields of seed, oil and biologic and harvest index. The results showed that delay in sowing, except of seed protein percentage, decreased all traits. Seed priming could increase traits of plant height, 1000 seed weight, number of seed per pod, oil percentage and yield and protein percentage in all sowing dates. Seed priming with zinc sulfate solution and water increased the number of pod per plant 16.1 and 10.5 percent, respectively compared to no-primed treatment. The highest seed number per pod was achieved through the priming with water and zinc sulfate solution with an average of 14.3, in the first sowing date for Hayola401 cultivar. Priming with water, especially in the third sowing date increased oil yield by 56 percent in RGS003 cultivar in comparison with its no-primed treatment. Also priming with zinc sulfate and water, increased the harvest index 5.04 and 3.7% respectively compared to no-primed treatment. In general in the case of delay in sowing date in spring rapeseed cultivars especially for RGS003, primed seed preferably with zinc sulfate improves the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the production.

  12. Negative effects of climate warming on maize yield are reversed by the changing of sowing date and cultivar selection in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijuan; Hubbard, Kenneth G; Lin, Xiaomao; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-11-01

    Northeast China (NEC) accounts for about 30% of the nation's maize production in China. In the past three decades, maize yields in NEC have increased under changes in climate, cultivar selection and crop management. It is important to investigate the contribution of these changing factors to the historical yield increases to improve our understanding of how we can ensure increased yields in the future. In this study, we use phenology observations at six sites from 1981 to 2007 to detect trends in sowing dates and length of maize growing period, and then combine these observations with in situ temperature data to determine the trends of thermal time in the maize growing period, as a measure of changes in maize cultivars. The area in the vicinity of these six sites accounts for 30% of NEC's total maize production. The agricultural production systems simulator, APSIM-Maize model, was used to separate the impacts of changes in climate, sowing dates and thermal time requirements on maize phenology and yields. In NEC, sowing dates trended earlier in four of six sites and maturity dates trended later by 4-21 days. Therefore, the period from sowing to maturity ranged from 2 to 38 days longer in 2007 than it was in 1981. Our results indicate that climate trends alone would have led to a negative impact on maize. However, results from the adaptation assessments indicate that earlier sowing dates increased yields by up to 4%, and adoption of longer season cultivars caused a substantial increase in yield ranging from 13% to 38% over the past 27 years. Therefore, earlier sowing dates and introduction of cultivars with higher thermal time requirements in NEC have overcome the negative effects of climate change and turned what would have otherwise been a loss into a significant increase in maize yield. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The effectiveness of an intervention in increasing community health clinician provision of preventive care: a study protocol of a non-randomised, multiple-baseline trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwaine Kathleen M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary behavioural risks for the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in developed countries are tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity. Evidence, guidelines and policies support routine clinician delivery of care to prevent these risks within primary care settings. Despite the potential afforded by community health services for the delivery of such preventive care, the limited evidence available suggests it is provided at suboptimal levels. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic practice change intervention in increasing clinician's routine provision of preventive care across a network of community health services. Methods/Design A multiple baseline study will be conducted involving all 56 community health facilities in a single health district in New South Wales, Australia. The facilities will be allocated to one of three administratively-defined groups. A 12 month practice change intervention will be implemented in all facilities in each group to facilitate clinician risk assessment of eligible clients, and clinician provision of brief advice and referral to those identified as being 'at risk'. The intervention will be implemented in a non-random sequence across the three facility groups. Repeated, cross-sectional measurement of clinician provision of preventive care for four individual risks (smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity will occur continuously for all three facility groups for 54 months via telephone interviews. The interviews will be conducted with randomly selected clients who have visited a community health facility in the last two weeks. Data collection will commence 12 months prior to the implementation of the intervention in the first group, and continue for six months following the completion of the intervention in the last group. As a secondary source of data, telephone interviews will be undertaken

  14. Design provisions for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Design provisions for safety of nuclear power plants are based on a well balanced concept: the public is protected against a release of radioactive material by multiple barriers. These barriers are protected according to a 'defence-in-depth' principle. The reactor safety concept is primarily aimed at the prevention of accidents, especially fuel damage. Additionally, measures for consequence limitation are provided in order to prevent a severe release of radioactivity to the environment. However, it is difficult to judge the overall effectiveness of such devices. In a comprehensive safety analysis it has to be shown that the protection systems and safeguards work with sufficient reliability in the event of an accident. For the reliability assessment deterministic criteria (single failure, redundancy, fail-safe, demand for diversity) play an important role. Increasing efforts have been made to assess reliability quantitatively by means of probabilistic methods. It is now usual to perform reliability analyses of essential systems of nuclear power plants in the course of licensing procedures. As an additional level of emergency measures for a further reduction of hazards a reasonable amount of accident information has to be transferred. Operational experience may be considered as an important feedback to the design of plant safety features. Operator training has to include, besides skill in performing of operating procedures, the training of a flexible response to different accident situations. Experience has shown that the design provisions for safety could prevent dangerous release of the radioactive material to the environment after an accident has occurred. For future developments of reactor safety, extensive analyses of operating experience are of great importance. The main goal should be to enhance the reliability of measures for accident prevention, which prevent the core from meltdown or other damages

  15. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the international organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions assigned to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a number of States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). The manual is intended for use primarily by contact points as identified in the Conventions. Pursuant to the obligations placed on it by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (IACRNA)2, whose purpose is to co-ordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for preparing for and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments - general functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response. Moreover, some regional organizations (e.g. the European Union) are party to legally binding treaties and have

  16. NMR-Based Metabolomic Study on Isatis tinctoria: Comparison of Different Accessions, Harvesting Dates, and the Effect of Repeated Harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; Kostidis, Sarantos; Schäfer, Hartmut; De Mieri, Maria; Spraul, Manfred; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-05-22

    Isatis tinctoria is an ancient dye and medicinal plant with potent anti-inflammatory and antiallergic properties. Metabolic differences were investigated by NMR spectroscopy of accessions from different origins that were grown under identical conditions on experimental plots. For these accessions, metabolite profiles at different harvesting dates were analyzed, and single and repeatedly harvested plants were compared. Leaf samples were shock-frozen in liquid N2 immediately after being harvested, freeze-dried, and cryomilled prior to extraction. Extracts were prepared by pressurized liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and 70% aqueous methanol. NMR spectra were analyzed using a combination of different methods of multivariate data analysis such as principal component analysis (PCA), canonical analysis (CA), and k-nearest neighbor concept (k-NN). Accessions and harvesting dates were well separated in the PCA/CA/k-NN analysis in both extracts. Pairwise statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) revealed unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, carbohydrates, indole derivatives, isoprenoids, phenylpropanoids, and minor aromatic compounds as the cause of these differences. In addition, the metabolite profile was affected by the repeated harvest regime, causing a decrease of 1,5-anhydroglucitol, sucrose, unsaturated fatty acids, porphyrins, isoprenoids, and a flavonoid.

  17. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the International Organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions allocated to it under these Conventions, to which the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions which are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). This manual describes the conceptual link between the IAEA, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations, States which are IAEA Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, and other States under the terms of the two Conventions. The ENATOM is intended for use primarily by Contact Points as defined in the Convention

  18. Effectiveness of an intervention in increasing the provision of preventive care by community mental health services: a non-randomized, multiple baseline implementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlem, Kate M; Bowman, Jenny; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula M; Barker, Daniel; McElwaine, Kathleen M; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth M; McElduff, Patrick; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2016-04-02

    Relative to the general population, people with a mental illness are more likely to have modifiable chronic disease health risk behaviours. Care to reduce such risks is not routinely provided by community mental health clinicians. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing the provision of preventive care by such clinicians addressing four chronic disease risk behaviours. A multiple baseline trial was undertaken in two groups of community mental health services in New South Wales, Australia (2011-2014). A 12-month practice change intervention was sequentially implemented in each group. Outcome data were collected continuously via telephone interviews with a random sample of clients over a 3-year period, from 6 months pre-intervention in the first group, to 6 months post intervention in the second group. Outcomes were client-reported receipt of assessment, advice and referral for tobacco smoking, harmful alcohol consumption, inadequate fruit and/or vegetable consumption and inadequate physical activity and for the four behaviours combined. Logistic regression analyses examined change in client-reported receipt of care. There was an increase in assessment for all risks combined following the intervention (18 to 29 %; OR 3.55, p = 0.002: n = 805 at baseline, 982 at follow-up). No significant change in assessment, advice or referral for each individual risk was found. The intervention had a limited effect on increasing the provision of preventive care. Further research is required to determine how to increase the provision of preventive care in community mental health services. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12613000693729.

  19. Evaluation of the effects of mulch on optimum sowing date and irrigation management of zero till wheat in central Punjab, India using APSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Balwinder-Singh,; Humphreys, E.; Gaydon, D.S.; Eberbach, P.L.

    2016-01-01

    Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of s...

  20. Limitation of multi-elemental fingerprinting of wheat grains: Effect of cultivar, sowing date, and nutrient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suarez-Tapia, Alfonso; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.; Christensen, Bent Tolstrup

    2017-01-01

    Multi-element fingerprinting demonstrates some potential for tracing the origin of agricultural products but not for discriminating among crop cultivars and nutrient management (source, rate). With principal component analysis (PCA) and univariate statistics, we examined 19 elements in grains from...... two winter wheat cultivars (Hereford, Mariboss) grown with different rates of animal manure (AM) or mineral fertilisers (NPK) in a long-term field experiment and two sowing dates (early, timely). Nitrogen, Cd and Mn related to NPK, and Mo and Na to AM. Barium, Fe, and P reflected nutrient rate......; these elements increased with nutrient rate regardless of source. Unmanured grains were enriched in Cu. Mariboss was characterized by higher concentrations of Sr, Ba and Sc compared to Hereford with Sr in grain as the main separator. Univariate statistics showed higher concentrations of N, P, Mg, Ba, Cu, Mo...

  1. Effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components on mutant-cum-hybrid lines of bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Dahot, M.U.; Laghari, K.A.; Naqvi, M.H.; Markhand, G.S.; Mangrio, S.M.; Mirbahar, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-one stable wheat mutant lines along with four check varieties viz., Sarsabz, Kiran-95, T.J.83 and Khirman were evaluated under normal and late sowing dates. The observations were recorded on phenological, morphological and meteorological parameters. Higher yield and improvement in various yield components were recorded at normal sowing as compared to late sowing. Six mutant lines showed superiority in yield than check varieties at normal sowings while three mutants produced more yield than check varieties except Sarsabz at late sowings. At normal sowing eleven mutant lines matured earlier than all check varieties including short duration variety T.J-83 whereas two mutant lines were earlier than Sarsabz and Kiran-95 and thirteen than T.J-83 and Khirman. (author)

  2. Effect of Sowing Date and Sulfur on Yield, Oil Content and Grain Nitrogen of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. in Autumn Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Safara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays oilseed crops are considered as the second most important sources of energy in the diet. In this regard, cultivation of oilseed crops such as safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. is important due to quality of oil seed and medicinal properties. Different planting dates leads to adaptation of vegetative and reproductive growth of plant to temperature, day-length and various solar radiations and as a result affects plant’s development phase and yield. With delayed planting date , temperature and day length increases and development phase will accelerate. In this condition the crop yield will reduce due to crop growth and developmental period will shorten. Sulfur is an essential element for plant nutrition and its role is greater than Phosphorus. Using sulfur increases the heads per plant and grain yield. In order to investigate the effect of sulfur fertilizer under heat stress condition at the terminal growth stages and its role in reducing the negative effects of high temperature stress on safflower, this research was performed. Materials and Methods In order to study effect of planting date and sulfur manure on yield components, nitrogen and oil percent in safflower, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in as split plot arrangement at Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khuzestan during 2013-2014. The experimental treatments consisted of four planting dates of 30 November, 21 December, 22 January and 1st February were randomly placed in main plots and four levels of sulfur of 0, 200, 400 and 600 kg ha-1 performed randomly in subplots, Sulfur fertilizer was corporated to soil one week before each planting date. Harvest was performed from the mid-May to early-June, during physiological maturity. To measure the yield on maturity time after the removal of margins, Safflower plants were harvested from one m2 unit area. Nitrogen percent was determined

  3. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the international organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions allocated to it under these Conventions, to which, in addition to a number of States, the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions that are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). The manual is intended for use primarily by Contact Points as identified in the Conventions. Pursuant to the obligations placed on it by the Conventions, the IAEA regularly convenes the Inter-Agency Committee on Response to Nuclear Accidents (lACRNA), whose purpose is to co-ordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations ('international organizations') for preparing for and responding to nuclear or radiological emergencies. Although the Conventions assign specific response functions and responsibilities to the IAEA and the Parties, various international organizations have - by virtue of their statutory functions or of related legal instruments - general functions and responsibilities that encompass aspects of preparedness and response. Moreover, some regional organizations (e.g. the European Union) are party to legally binding treaties and have

  4. IAEA response assistance network. Incident and Emergency Centre. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 May 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    This publication is intended to serve as a tool for supporting the provision of international assistance in the case of nuclear or radiological incident or emergency, cooperation between States, their Competent Authorities and the IAEA, and harmonization of response capabilities of States offering assistance. The publication is issued under the authority of the Director General of the IAEA: (1) under the auspices of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the Assistance Convention) [1], to promote, facilitate and support cooperation between States Parties to coordinate and/or provide assistance to a State Party and/or Member State; and (2) in the case of an incident or emergency, as statutory functions, to provide for the application of its safety standards, upon request by a Member State, and to act as an intermediary for the purposes of securing the performance of services or the supplying of materials, equipment or facilities by one Member State for another. The publication sets out the following: a) the RANET concept and the organizational structure for providing assistance; b) functions, responsibilities and activities within the RANET; c) the RANET response operations and arrangements needed for preparedness; and d) the prerequisites for RANET membership and conditions of registration. The RANET is divided into four sections. After the introduction in Section 1, the RANET concept, objectives and scope are described in Section 2. Section 3 presents the concept of operations of the RANET and Section 4 describes expected tasks, capabilities and resources. In addition, EPR-RANET (2006) has three supporting documents, which are issued separately, as follows: 1. Assistance Action Plans with samples of Assistance Action Plans for providing international assistance. 2. Registry with the details of the registry and instructions on how to register national assistance capabilities for the RANET. 3. Technical Guidelines

  5. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    by measuring the residual 14 C concentration in organic samples, it is possible to calculate the time elapsed since the material was originally formed. Ages up to about 50 000 before present (BP) can be determined by radiocarbon dating. Calibration curves determined with high precision for all of the Holocene by radiocarbon measurements on tree ring samples, which are independently and precisely dated by dendrochronology, are used to correct for variations of 14 C production rate in the atmosphere due to geomagnetic and heliomagnetic effects and global variations in the parameters of the carbon cycle

  6. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  7. The Effect of Sowing Date and Plant Density on Yield and Yield Components of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. under Jiroft Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Parsa Motlagh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Details of the mutual effect with the agronomic factors, genetic and climatic conditions should be identified to crop a plant in a new area. The purpose of sowing date determination is to find the desired planting time as environmental factors at the time that is suitable for growing, seedling and plant’s survival and resume of growth and development and the plant does not meet unfavorable conditions. The plant density is the most important influencing factors on the development and production of medicinal plants and is an important factor in achieving optimal performance. This research has been conducted for determination of best sowing date and intra row Roselle cultivation in Jiroft area. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of plant density and sowing date on yield, yield components and some of morphological traits on Rosellee (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and also determine the optimum intra-row spacing and sowing date in order to obtain better yield in Jiroft environment conditions. Materials and Methods The field experiment was split plot in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications in agricultural research field (Long. 57°44´ E., Lat. 28°40´ N., Alt. 650 m of Jiroft University at 2013-2014 growing season. Main plots were sowing date at five levels of 11th and 30th March, 14th April, 5th and 22th May and intra-rows were spaced of 100, 75 and 50 cm as sub plot. Each plot was 3×6 m. The spacing was 1 m between sub-plots, 2 m between main plots and replications. Traits such as plant height, the number of branches, the number of bolls per plant, boll dry weight of plant, sepal yield, seed yield, biomass yield, seed harvest index, and sepal harvest index were measured. Plants were harvested on 1th December, 2014. An area equivalent to 2 × 3 square meters from the center of each plot was harvested by removing the effect of marginal plants from the soil surface to measure the yield of sepal

  8. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  9. Effects of forage provision to dairy calves on growth performance and rumen fermentation: A meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, M; Mirzaei, M; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Ghaffari, M H

    2017-02-01

    A meta-analysis of the potential effect of forage provision on growth performance and rumen fermentation of dairy calves was conducted using published data from the literature (1998-2016). Meta-regression was used to evaluate the effects of different forage levels, forage sources, forage offering methods, physical forms of starter, and grain sources on the heterogeneity of the results. We considered 27 studies that reported the effects of forage provision to dairy calves. Estimated effect sizes of forage were calculated on starter feed intake, average daily gain (ADG), feed efficiency (FE), body weight (BW), and rumen fermentation parameters. Intake of starter feed, ADG, BW, ruminal pH, and rumen molar proportion of acetate increased when supplementing forage but FE decreased. Heterogeneity (the amount of variation among studies) was significant for intake of starter feed, ADG, FE, final BW, and rumen fermentation parameters. Improving overall starter feed intake was greater in calves offered alfalfa hay compared with those offered other types of forages. During the milk feeding and overall periods, improving ADG was greater for calves fed a high level of forage (>10% in dry matter) compared with those fed a low level of forage (≤10% in dry matter) diets. The advantages reported in weight gain at a high level of forage could be due to increased gut fill. Improving overall ADG was lower for calves offered forages with textured starter feed compared with ground starter feed. The meta-regression analysis revealed that changes associated with forage provision affect FE differently for various forage sources and forage offering methods during the milk-feeding period. Forage sources also modulated the effect of feeding forage on ruminal pH during the milk-feeding period. In conclusion, forage has the potential to affect starter feed intake and performance of dairy calves, but its effects depend on source, level, and method of forage feeding and physical form of starter

  10. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  11. Irradiation of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  12. Effect of strong-column weak-beam design provision on the seismic fragility of RC frame buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, Mitesh; Singh, Yogendra; Lang, Dominik H.

    2018-04-01

    Incremental dynamic analyses are conducted for a suite of low- and mid-rise reinforced-concrete special moment-resisting frame buildings. Buildings non-conforming and conforming to the strong-column weak-beam (SCWB) design criterion are considered. These buildings are designed for the two most severe seismic zones in India (i.e., zone IV and zone V) following the provisions of Indian Standards. It is observed that buildings non-conforming to the SCWB design criterion lead to an undesirable column failure collapse mechanism. Although yielding of columns cannot be avoided, even for buildings conforming to a SCWB ratio of 1.4, the observed collapse mechanism changes to a beam failure mechanism. This change in collapse mechanism leads to a significant increase in the building's global ductility capacity, and thereby in collapse capacity. The fragility analysis study of the considered buildings suggests that considering the SCWB design criterion leads to a significant reduction in collapse probability, particularly in the case of mid-rise buildings.

  13. Effect of fast neutrons and gamma rays treatments on heading date, plant height and tiller number in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arain, M.A.

    1978-01-01

    Homogeneous seeds of six varieties of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (2n = 6x = 42) were treated with fast neutrons and gamma rays. The irradiated seeds along with respective controls were grown in field plots during 1973-74 and heating date, plant height and tiller number studied. Varieties used in the present study varied significantly (P >=0.01) for all the characters. Treatment mean squares were highly significant for plant height and tillers per plant; whereas, the varieties x treatments interaction mean squares were significant only for plant height (P >= 0.05). Irradiated treatments exhibited significant reductions in plant height and tiller number than respective controls. However, heading was delayed among the irradiated material when compared with respective controls. Reduction in plant height was more pronounced after the treatments of gamma rays than the fast neutrons. The maximum and minimum shifts in mean values of these characters were observed in 20 kR (gamma rays) and Nf 300 RADS (fast neutrons) treatments, respectively. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the effects of mulch on optimum sowing date and irrigation management of zero till wheat in central Punjab, India using APSIM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balwinder-Singh; Humphreys, E; Gaydon, D S; Eberbach, P L

    2016-10-01

    Machinery for sowing wheat directly into rice residues has become more common in the rice-wheat systems of the north-west Indo-Gangetic Plains of South Asia, with increasing numbers of farmers now potentially able to access the benefits of residue retention. However, surface residue retention affects soil water and temperature dynamics, thus the optimum sowing date and irrigation management for a mulched crop may vary from those of a traditional non-mulched crop. Furthermore, the effects of sowing date and irrigation management are likely to vary with soil type and seasonal conditions. Therefore, a simulation study was conducted using the APSIM model and 40 years of weather data to evaluate the effects of mulch, sowing date and irrigation management and their interactions on wheat grain yield, irrigation requirement (I) and water productivity with respect to irrigation (WP I ) and evapotranspiration (WP ET ). The results suggest that the optimum wheat sowing date in central Punjab depends on both soil type and the presence or absence of mulch. On the sandy loam, with irrigation scheduled at 50% soil water deficit (SWD), the optimum sowing date was late October to early November for maximising yield, WP I and WP ET . On the clay loam, the optimum date was about one week later. The effect of mulch on yield varied with seasonal conditions and sowing date. With irrigation at 50% SWD, mulching of wheat sown at the optimum time increased average yield by up to 0.5 t ha -1 . The beneficial effect of mulch on yield increased to averages of 1.2-1.3 t ha -1 as sowing was advanced to 15 October. With irrigation at 50% SWD and 7 November sowing, mulch reduced the number of irrigations by one in almost 50% of years, a reduction of about 50 mm on the sandy loam and 60 mm on the clay loam. The reduction in irrigation amount was mainly due to reduced soil evaporation. Mulch reduced irrigation requirement by more as sowing was delayed, more so on the sandy loam than the clay

  15. Effect of EI-treatment in relation to physiological and biochemical traits in rice: delay in germination and its recovery with provision of glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, M.; Hasegawa, H.; Hori, S.

    1975-01-01

    Rice seeds treated with 0.2 to 1.2 v/v % of ethyleneimine (EI) demonstrated increasingly delayed germination concomitant with increasing dose. At the time of germination, the release of storage products was slightly inhibited at lower doses and completely reduced at higher doses. With increasing time after germination the development of shoot length, content of reducing sugar and free amino acid, and synthesis of nucleic acid and protein in treated seeds, showed the same response pattern as the control, although at reduced levels in the treated seeds. Consequently, it is interpreted that the delay of germination is due to physiological dormancy, i.e. impaired release of dormancy which would normally yield active forms of enzymes. When treated seeds were cultured in [ 14 C]-glucose medium, the specific activity of [ 14 C]-glucose was higher in late-germinating seeds than in early-germinating seeds. Furthermore, the provision of glucose prevented the delay of germination, resulting in about a 10% increase in germination rate (survival rate), and yet had no effect on subsequent growth. Finally, it is concluded that the damage resulting in delayed germination and reduction of survival differs from the damage leading to inhibition of subsequent growth in that the former can be compensated for by provision of glucose while the latter cannot. (author)

  16. Effects of different forage sources as a free-choice provision on the performance, nutrient digestibility, selected blood metabolites and structural growth of Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, B; Foroozandeh, A D; Shakeri, P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different forage sources on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood metabolites of dairy calves. Individually housed calves (n = 40; body weight = 41.2 ± 3.5 kg) were randomly allocated (n = 10 calves per treatment: five males and five females) to one of the following four treatments: (i) starter without forage provision (CON), (ii) starter plus chopped alfalfa hay (AH), (iii) starter plus chopped wheat straw (WS) and 4) starter plus dried sugar beet pulp (BP) flakes. Calves fed AH diets had lowest (p Digestibility of NDF and ADF was greater (p digestibility of DM and OM than those fed CON diets and similar to those fed AH and WS diets. Calves in the AH treatment had greater (p digestibility than CON, but similar to WS and BP calves. Blood beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration was lower in forage-offered calves than CON one. Body measurements (with the exception of body barrel) did not differ across treatments. It was concluded that BP improves final body weight, ADG and nutrient digestibility of calves than starter without forage provision during weaning transition. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Effects of Centralizing Acute Stroke Services on Stroke Care Provision in Two Large Metropolitan Areas in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Hoffman, Alex; Hunter, Rachael M.; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Perry, Catherine; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony G.; Turner, Simon J.; Tyrrell, Pippa J.; Wolfe, Charles D.A.; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— In 2010, Greater Manchester and London centralized acute stroke care into hyperacute units (Greater Manchester=3, London=8), with additional units providing ongoing specialist stroke care nearer patients’ homes. Greater Manchester patients presenting within 4 hours of symptom onset were eligible for hyperacute unit admission; all London patients were eligible. Research indicates that postcentralization, only London’s stroke mortality fell significantly more than elsewhere in England. This article attempts to explain this difference by analyzing how centralization affects provision of evidence-based clinical interventions. Methods— Controlled before and after analysis was conducted, using national audit data covering Greater Manchester, London, and a noncentralized urban comparator (38 623 adult stroke patients, April 2008 to December 2012). Likelihood of receiving all interventions measured reliably in pre- and postcentralization audits (brain scan; stroke unit admission; receiving antiplatelet; physiotherapist, nutrition, and swallow assessments) was calculated, adjusting for age, sex, stroke-type, consciousness, and whether stroke occurred in-hospital. Results— Postcentralization, likelihood of receiving interventions increased in all areas. London patients were overall significantly more likely to receive interventions, for example, brain scan within 3 hours: Greater Manchester=65.2% (95% confidence interval=64.3–66.2); London=72.1% (71.4–72.8); comparator=55.5% (54.8–56.3). Hyperacute units were significantly more likely to provide interventions, but fewer Greater Manchester patients were admitted to these (Greater Manchester=39%; London=93%). Differences resulted from contrasting hyperacute unit referral criteria and how reliably they were followed. Conclusions— Centralized systems admitting all stroke patients to hyperacute units, as in London, are significantly more likely to provide evidence-based clinical

  18. Long-term effects of climate and land cover change on freshwater provision in the tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, A.; Vanacker, V.; Brisson, E.; Mora, D.; Balthazar, V.

    2015-06-01

    Andean headwater catchments play a pivotal role to supply fresh water for downstream water users. However, few long-term studies exist on the relative importance of climate change and direct anthropogenic perturbations on flow regimes. In this paper, we assess multi-decadal change in freshwater provision based on long time series (1974-2008) of hydrometeorological data and land cover reconstructions for a 282 km2 catchment located in the tropical Andes. Three main land cover change trajectories can be distinguished: (1) rapid decline of native vegetation in montane forest and páramo ecosystems in ~1/5 or 20% of the catchment area, (2) expansion of agricultural land by 14% of the catchment area, (3) afforestation of 12% of native páramo grasslands with exotic tree species in recent years. Given the strong temporal variability of precipitation and streamflow data related to El Niño-Southern Oscillation, we use empirical mode decomposition techniques to detrend the time series. The long-term increasing trend in rainfall is remarkably different from the observed changes in streamflow that exhibit a decreasing trend. Hence, observed changes in streamflow are not the result of long-term climate change but very likely result from direct anthropogenic disturbances after land cover change. Partial water budgets for montane cloud forest and páramo ecosystems suggest that the strongest changes in evaporative water losses are observed in páramo ecosystems, where progressive colonization and afforestation of high alpine grasslands leads to a strong increase in transpiration losses.

  19. S K Date

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Date. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 97-101 Magnetic Materials. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems · P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date · More Details Abstract ...

  20. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  1. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  2. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  3. Modelling the effect of temperature, water activity and carbon dioxide on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata isolated from fresh date fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belbahi, A; Leguerinel, I; Méot, J-M; Loiseau, G; Madani, K; Bohuon, P

    2016-12-01

    To quantify and model the combined effects of temperature (T) (10-40°C), water activity (a w ) (0·993-0·818) and CO 2 concentration (9·4-55·1%, v/v) on the growth rate of Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternata that cause spoilage during the storage and packaging of dates. The effects of environmental factors were studied using the γ-concept. Cardinal models were used to quantify the effect of studied environmental factors on the growth rates. Firstly, the cardinal parameters were estimated independently from experiments carried out on potato dextrose agar using a monofactorial design. Secondly, model performance evaluation was conducted on pasteurized date paste. The boundary between growth and no-growth was predicted using a deterministic approach. Aspergillus niger displayed a faster growth rate and higher tolerance to low a w than Al. alternata, which in turn proved more resistant to CO 2 concentration. Minimal cardinal parameters of T and a w were lower than those reported in the literature. The combination of the a w and CO 2 effects significantly affected As. niger and Al. alternata growth. The γ-concept model overestimated growth rates, however, it is optimistic and provides somewhat conservative predictions. The developed model provides a decision support tool for the choice of the date fruit conservation mode (refrigeration, drying, modified atmospheric packaging or their combination) using T, a w and CO 2 as environmental factors. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaney, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  5. Teaching Groups as Foci for Evaluating Performance in Cost-Effectiveness of GCE Advanced Level Provision: Some Practical Methodological Innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Antony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes subject teaching-group effectiveness in English and Welsh General Certification of Education (GCE) Advanced Level prior to a linking to resources; suggests cross-classified multilevel models with weighted random effects for disentangling student, group, and teacher effects; finds that teacher effects are considerable, but cannot find…

  6. Effect of the Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law on alcohol screening and intervention in trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilello, Larry M; Donato, Anthony; Nolan, Susan; Mackin, Robert E; Liebich, Franesa; Hoyt, David B; LaBrie, Richard A

    2005-09-01

    Alcohol screening and intervention in trauma centers are widely recommended. The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) exists in most states, and allows insurers to refuse payment for treatment of injuries in patients with a positive alcohol or drug test. This article analyzed the UPPL's impact on screening and reimbursement, measured the knowledge of legislators about substance use problems in trauma centers, and determined their opinions about substance use-related exclusions in insurance contracts for trauma care. A nationwide survey of members of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma was conducted. A separate survey of legislators who are members of the Senate, House, or Assembly and serve in some leadership role on committees responsible for insurance in their state was also performed. Ninety-eight trauma surgeon and 56 legislator questionnaires were analyzed. Surgeons' familiarity with the UPPL was limited; only 13% believed they practiced in a UPPL state, but 70% actually did. Despite lack of knowledge of the statute, 24% reported an alcohol- or drug-related insurance denial in the past 6 months. This appeared to affect screening practices; the majority of surgeons (51.5%) do not routinely measure blood alcohol concentration, even though over 91% believe blood alcohol concentration testing is important. Most (82%) indicated that if there were no insurance barriers, they would be willing to establish a brief alcohol intervention program in their center. Legislators were aware of the impact of substance use on trauma centers. They overwhelmingly agreed (89%) that alcohol problems are treatable, and 80% believed it is a good idea to offer counseling in trauma centers. As with surgeons, the majority (53%) were not sure whether the UPPL existed in their state, but they favored prohibiting alcohol-related exclusions by a 2:1 ratio, with strong bipartisan support. The study documents strong support for screening and intervention

  7. Food provisioning and parental status in songbirds: can occupancy models be used to estimate nesting performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Catherine Corbani

    Full Text Available Indirect methods to estimate parental status, such as the observation of parental provisioning, have been problematic due to potential biases associated with imperfect detection. We developed a method to evaluate parental status based on a novel combination of parental provisioning observations and hierarchical modeling. In the summers of 2009 to 2011, we surveyed 393 sites, each on three to four consecutive days at Forêt Montmorency, Québec, Canada. We assessed parental status of 2331 adult songbirds based on parental food provisioning. To account for imperfect detection of parental status, we applied MacKenzie et al.'s (2002 two-state hierarchical model to obtain unbiased estimates of the proportion of sites with successfully nesting birds, and the proportion of adults with offspring. To obtain an independent evaluation of detection probability, we monitored 16 active nests in 2010 and conducted parental provisioning observations away from them. The probability of detecting food provisioning was 0.31 when using nest monitoring, a value within the 0.11 to 0.38 range that was estimated by two-state models. The proportion of adults or sites with broods approached 0.90 and varied depending on date during the sampling season and year, exemplifying the role of eastern boreal forests as highly productive nesting grounds for songbirds. This study offers a simple and effective sampling design for studying avian reproductive performance that could be implemented in national surveys such as breeding bird atlases.

  8. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  9. Regulatory Review: Delay of Effective Dates of Final Rules Subject to the Administration's January 20, 2001, Memorandum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rezendes, Victor

    2002-01-01

    ... taken effect.Citing the desire to ensure that the President s appointees have the opportunity to review any new or pending regulations, on January 20,,2001,Assistant to the President and Chief of Staff...

  10. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  11. Methods of dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatty, B

    1986-04-01

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  12. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  13. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  14. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  15. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  16. NAIP 2013 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  17. NAIP 2011 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2011 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  18. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  19. 78 FR 68364 - Payment for Home Health Services and Hospice Care to Non-VA Providers; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... providers of home health services and hospice care. The preamble of that final rule stated the effective... 17.56, applicable to non-VA home health services and hospice care. Section 17.56 provides, among... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AN98 Payment for Home Health Services and...

  20. Planting date and seeding rate effects on sunn hemp biomass and nitrogen production for a winter cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N) quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a subsequent rye (Secale cereale L.) wi...

  1. No Relative Age Effect in the Birth Dates of Award-Winning Athletes in Male Professional Team Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Paul R.; Williams, A. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Athletes born early within an annual youth age-group selection year are probably more likely to be selected for sports teams and talent development programs than those born later in that year. Overrepresentation of these relatively older athletes in youth and adult sport is known as the relative age effect (RAE). RAEs were found in these popular…

  2. RANET technical guidelines: Interim technical guidelines for national assistance capabilities. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    The publication is issued as an attachment to EPR-RANET (2006) and has the same status. It provides administrative and technical guidelines for National Assistance Capabilities and enters into effect on 1 January 2007. Additional technical guidelines are under development by assistance work group under international Action Plan for Strengthening the International Preparedness and Response System for Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies. As these are finalised they will be included in this document

  3. Effects of seeding date and seeding rate on yield, proximate composition and total tannins content of two Kabuli chickpea cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ruggeri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted in open field to assess the effect of seeding season and density on the yield, the chemical composition and the accumulation of total tannins in grains of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivars (Pascià and Sultano. Environmental conditions and genetic factors considerably affected grain yield, nutrient and total tannins content of chickpea seeds, giving a considerable range in its qualitative characteristics. Results confirmed cultivar selection as a central factor when a late autumn-early winter sowing is performed. In effect, a more marked resistance to Ascochyta blight (AB of Sultano, allowed better agronomic performances when favourable-to-AB climatic conditions occur. Winter sowing appeared to be the best choice in the Mediterranean environment when cultivating to maximise the grain yield (+19%. Spring sowing improved crude protein (+10% and crude fibre (+8% content, whereas it did not significantly affect the accumulation of anti-nutrients compounds such as total tannins. The most appropriate seeding rate was 70 seeds m–2, considering that plant density had relatively little effect on the parameters studied.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for the District of Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in the District of Columbia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2013 Washington DC Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in the District of Columbia.

  5. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  6. Effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe; Besbes, Souhail; Masmoudi, Manel

    2016-07-15

    This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50 °C respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50s(-1)). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Cow Manure, Ammonium Sulfate and Potassium Sulfate on Physico-Chemical Indices of Fruit and Leaf of Mazafati Date (Phoenix Dactylifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aryakia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the most important fruit species grown in Iran. This plant is mainly grown in the south of the country, where pH of soil is high, resulting in poor nutrient uptake. Furthermore, because of high yield and annual pruning of date palm, large amounts of macro and micronutrients are removed from soil. So, annual fertilizing should be applied for good performance. Research shows that use of manure alone or in combination with mineral fertilizers improves physico-chemical indices of fruits and leaves of palm trees. Regarding to high nutrition dependency of date palm, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of different fertilizers on physico-chemical indices of its leaf and fruit. The main objectives of this study were thus to evaluate the effect of cow manure, ammonium sulfate and potassium sulfate on physico-chemical indices in fruit and leaf of Mazafati date. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in bam zone, Kerman, Iran, in 2011- 2012. The area was located at 28°53′40′′N latitude, 58°37′18′′E longitude and 1050 m above sea level. A factorial experiment in a randomized complete block design was performed during month of March. Factors included ammonium sulfate (0, 500 and 1000 g/tree, potassium sulfate (0, 750 and 1500 g/tree accompanied by cow manure (5 kg/tree. For leaf and fruit analysis, sampling was performed during month of June. Physico-chemical indices including nitrogen, potassium, iron, chlorophyll a, b and total, carotenoid, fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, TSS and TSS/TA were evaluated. Chlorophyll was measured by using the method of Lichtenthaler (1987. Total soluble solid (TSS was measured by using refractometer. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software and the treatment means were separated by Duncan’s multiple range tests. Results and Discussion: Results showed that because of supplying nitrogen, sulfur and potassium and their

  8. The Effect of Sowing Date and Nitrogen fertilizer on Growth, Essential Oil and Essential Oil Compounds of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare under Shoushtar Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Farhoudi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, the phytochemical constituents of medicinal plants have received much attention due to their potential use in nutraceuticals and drug industries. Spices and herbs are part of daily food intake across many regions of the world. They have been used as natural sources of flavorings and preservatives. Recently the use of medicinal plants and their derived products in the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry has seen rapid development in recent years. As the other crops, the increase in seed and active ingredient yield of medicinal herbs is influenced by genetic and environmental parameters. Although genetic factors play a significant role in the development of the essential oil of medicinal plants, should also be aware of the role of climatic factors and crops in the field. Therefore, medicinal plants dry matter production and its essential oils are controlled by environmental factors, conditions, sowing date, planting? fertilizing and harvesting time. Researches indicated stated that nitrogenous fertilization and sowing time increased yield by increasing hydrocarbon production owing to the development of shoots and the expansion of carbon-absorbing surface. Therefore to determine the effective N-fertilization level and plant sowing date for Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare an experiment was carried out to increase the yield of anthodium flowers and content of essential oil. Materials and Methods Field experiment was carried out at the research farm of Islamic Azad University, Shoushtar branch (Shoushtar located in the north of Khouzestan, in Iran during 2010-2011. The experiment was conducted on a split plot design based on randomized completely block design with three replications. The plant sowing date (November, 6 and 22 and UreaTM fertilizer (%46 (100, 125 and 150 kg ha-1 allocated to main plot and sub plot, respectively. For identification of components, Agilent gas chromatography model 6890 N, equipped with MSD model 5973 N

  9. Effect of Basal Medium, Explants Size and Density on the In Vitro Proliferation and Growth of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. Cultivar ‘16-bis’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouaad Amine MAZRI

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of basal medium, explant size and density on shoot multiplication, growth, rooting and acclimatization of date palm cv. ‘16-bis’ was evaluated. Bud clusters of different sizes (2, 3, 4 and 5 buds per cluster were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 clusters on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS, woody plant medium (WPM and Nitsch medium (NM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L 2-naphthoxyacetic acid and 0.5 mg/L kinetin for three months (multiplication phase. Separated shoots of different sizes (<3 cm; 3 to 4.5 cm and 4.5 to 6 cm were cultured at density of 1, 2, 3 and 4 shoots on hormone free MS medium, WPM or NM for three months (Elongation-rooting phase. The proliferation and development of shoots were affected by the basal medium, explant size and density. The optimal shoot proliferation (18.1 was observed when 4 buds clusters were cultured at the density of 2 clusters per jar in MS medium. Separated shoots of 4.5 to 6 cm length exhibited the optimal in vitro development in terms of leaf length and greening, and root number and length when cultured on MS medium. In addition, these shoots reached the highest acclimation frequency with 80%. Our results would be utilized for an efficient propagation of plantlets of cv. ‘16-bis’, a selected date palm cultivar resistant to the bayoud disease.

  10. Safe and Effective Schooling for All Students: Putting into Practice the Disciplinary Provisions of the 1997 IDEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Robert A.; Butler, C. J.; Walker-Bolton, Irene; Tonelson, Stephen W.; Quinn, Mary M.; Fox, James J.

    2003-01-01

    Virginia's statewide plan of educator preparation in functional behavioral assessment, as required under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, is described. The step-by-step training process facilitated positive academic and nonacademic outcomes for all students. Preliminary data support the effectiveness of both the content and…

  11. Informational provision as the factor of effective cooperation between the subject and object in the system of business management

    OpenAIRE

    Netreba, I.

    2009-01-01

    The article reveals: ITsignificance for providing of effective communications in business management system; approach analysis for specification of such categories as "economic information", "information support", "information management system"; classification of economic information; reasons for introduction of integrated automation systems into management.

  12. Effects of loose housing and the provision of alternative nesting material on peri-partum sow behaviour and piglet survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolhuis, J.E.; Raats-van den Boogaard, A.M.E.; Hoofs, A.I.J.; Soede, N.M.

    2018-01-01

    Sows are strongly motivated to perform nestbuilding behaviour before parturition. This behaviour is often restricted in commercial systems due to confinement of the sow and lack of suitable nesting material to be used on slatted floors. This study aimed to investigate effects of loose vs. crated

  13. Effects of fall and spring seeding date and other agronomic factors on infestations of root maggots, Delia spp. (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, L M; Clayton, G W; Harker, K N; O'Donovan, J T; Stevenson, F C

    2006-10-01

    Several agronomic benefits can result from fall seeding of canola (Brassica spp.), but extensive research data are lacking on the potential impact of this practice on infestations of root maggots (Delia spp.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), which are major pests of the crop in western Canada. Field experiments making up 13 location by year combinations were conducted in central Alberta, Canada, from 1998 to 2001 to determine the effect of fall versus spring seeding of canola on root maggot damage. Depending on the experiment, interactions with seeding rate, seed treatment, timing of weed removal, and canola species (cultivar) also were investigated. Root maggot damage declined with an increase in seeding rate for plots seeded in May but not in fall or April. Susceptibility to infestation was greater for plants of Brassica rapa L. than Brassica napus L., but seed treatment had no effect on damage by these pests. Combined analysis using data from all experiment by location by year combinations indicated that seeding date had no significant effect on root maggot damage. The extended emergence of Delia spp. adults, which spans the appearance of crop stages vulnerable to oviposition regardless of seeding date, prevented reduced root maggot attack. Covariance analysis demonstrated the importance of increasing seeding rate for reducing root maggot infestations, a practice that can be especially beneficial for May-seeded canola when growing conditions limit the ability of plants to compensate for root maggot damage. Results determined with the small plot studies described here should be validated in larger plots or on a commercial field scale, but both the combined and covariance analyses indicate that seeding canola in fall does not predispose plants to greater damage by larval root maggots than seeding in spring.

  14. Provisions on waiting periods in international investment protection treaties and their impact on the jurisdiction of arbitral tribunals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đundić Petar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Provisions on so-called waiting periods in international investment protection treaties give an investor from one contracting state an opportunity to initiate arbitration against the host state provided that the time designated by the treaty from the date on which the dispute arose has elapsed. The aim of those provisions is to enable parties to the dispute to use this time for consultations and attempt to reach a negotiated settlement. The paper analyzes the attitude of contemporary arbitral practice towards the legal nature and effect of those provisions on tribunals' jurisdiction in investment disputes. The analysis shows gradual and clear shift of position taken by the tribunals in cases in which claimants did not comply with waiting periods. Because arbitral tribunals today are more resolved to penalize premature submission of the dispute to arbitration than they were one decade ago, in the future one can expect much more cautious conduct of potential claimants in this regard.

  15. Union of the potential academic science and leading specialized universities for provision of the underground space effective development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartanov Aleksandr Zarairovich

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research: providing of enabling environment through the use of underground subsurface resources for the purposes of civil construction is the main trend of the modern development of society. Large-scale development of the megacities subsoils and urban-industrial agglomerations faces significant threats caused by the risks of the consequences of techno-genic impact on the rock massif of urbanized areas, which requires the use of special construction geotechnologies and construction specialists of appropriate qualifications. Objectives: for efficient development of underground space, it is necessary to solve problems at the junction of construction and mining sciences with the formation of a modern system of scientific and methodological support for the training of personnel in this field. It is necessary to use the scientific, educational, innovative and intellectual potential of academic science and national research universities most fully and effectively. Materials and methods: proceeding from the necessity of convergence of science and education, with the goal of integrating efforts and improving the efficiency of scientific research and educational activities aimed at the Russian mining and construction industry effective development providing, the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering and the Institute for Complex Development of Mineral Resources of the Russian Academy of Sciences created the basic department “Development of Underground Spaces”. Results and conclusions: the conducted complex of organizational and management measures, taking into account the potential of leading scientific and educational schools, has made it possible to form the basis for the development of the competencies of future engineers-constructors and highly qualified personnel (masters, candidates and doctors of sciences in the field of construction geo-technologies, which will be responsible for effective and safe development of megacities

  16. Improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of date plum, persimmon and mulberry on UVB-induced skin damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Won; Cho, Byoung Ok; Che, Denis Nchang; Shin, Jae Young; Fang, Chong Zhou; Jang, Seon Il [Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate the improvement effect of gamma-irradiated complex leaf extract of Date Plum, Persimmon and Mulberry (γ-DPME) on UVB induced skin damage. The samples were gamma irradiated at doses of 10 kGy. γ-DPME treatment tended to decrease UVB-induced immune cell infiltration and erthyderma index than the groups treated with non-gamma-irradiated DPME (n-DPME) and L-ascobic acid (AA). In addition, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased skin thickness, melanin index and mast cell infiltration in UVB-irradiated skin. Moreover, γ-DPME treatment significantly decreased the compound 48/80-induced scratching behavior and immune cell infiltration than n-DPME group. These results show that gamma irradiation can be used to increase the physiological activities of DPME.

  17. A review of the nutritional needs of Meals on Wheels consumers and factors associated with the provision of an effective meals on wheels service-an Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassie, J; Smart, C; Roberts, D C

    2000-04-01

    A review of the literature was undertaken to identify the nutritional needs of elderly MOW consumers and factors affecting the ability of existing programs to meet those needs. The focus was on the Australian experience but drawing on the world literature. Keyword search of English language based computer databases of the medical and health literature. Several studies suggest the nutritional intake of MOW consumers is below recommended levels, although the risk of nutritional deficiency has not always been identified. The literature indicates the effectiveness of Meals on Wheels programs are affected by a range of issues including the appropriateness of nutritional standards, menu selection, portion control, level of consumption and customer satisfaction. The literature recommends control of time and temperatures associated with food handling procedures, along with education of providers and customers, to assist in the provision of a safe food supply. Meals on Wheels is an important service, providing meals to housebound consumers. While the effectiveness of such programs is dependent on a range of variables, the nutritional impact of the service and the standard of food hygiene are fundamental assessment criteria. This work was supported by a grant from the NSW Meals on Wheels Association, Australia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 275-280

  18. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  19. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  20. Effects of fish farm waste on Posidonia oceanica meadows: Synthesis and provision of monitoring and management tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmer, Marianne [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)], E-mail: holmer@biology.sdu.dk; Argyrou, Marina [Marine Environment Division, Department of Fisheries and Marine Research, Ministry of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Environment, 101 Bethleem Street, 1416 Nicosia (Cyprus); Dalsgaard, Tage [Department of Marine Ecology, National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University, Vejlsovej 25, P.O. Box 314, DK-8600 Silkeborg (Denmark); Danovaro, Roberto [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Diaz-Almela, Elena; Duarte, Carlos M. [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Frederiksen, Morten [Institute of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Grau, Antoni [Direccio General de Pesca, Conselleria d' Agricultura i Pesca, Govern de les Illes Balears, Foners 10, 07006 Palma de Mallorca (Illes Balears) (Spain); Karakassis, Ioannis [Marine Ecology Laboratory, Biology Department, University of Crete, Heraklion, 71409 Crete (Greece); Marba, Nuria [IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB), Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles (Illes Balears) (Spain); Mirto, Simone [Institute for the Marine Coastal Environment, National Council of Research, Spianata S. Raineri, 86, 98122 Messina (Italy); Perez, Marta [Departament d' Ecologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Av. Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Pusceddu, Antonio [Department of Marine Science, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Tsapakis, Manolis [Institute of Oceanography, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. Box 2214, GR 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    This paper provides a synthesis of the EU project MedVeg addressing the fate of nutrients released from fish farming in the Mediterranean with particular focus on the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica habitat. The objectives were to identify the main drivers of seagrass decline linked to fish farming and to provide sensitive indicators of environmental change, which can be used for monitoring purposes. The sedimentation of waste particles in the farm vicinities emerges as the main driver of benthic deterioration, such as accumulation of organic matter, sediment anoxia as well as seagrass decline. The effects of fish farming on P. oceanica meadows are diverse and complex and detected through various metrics and indicators. A safety distance of 400 m is suggested for management of P. oceanica near fish farms followed by establishment of permanent seagrass plots revisited annually for monitoring the health of the meadows.