WorldWideScience

Sample records for provisional employment wages

  1. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  2. Technology, Employment and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Addison, John T.; Teixeira, Paulino

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of technological change to changes in the structure of relative employment and wages. Even if the nature of demand-side forces is fairly clear – international trade being of secondary importance because of the modest size of the between-industry employment shifts – the identification of the fundamental causes of skill-biased technological change, the techniques involved, and the manner of their adoption by firms is not transparent. Accordingly the skill-bi...

  3. The Wage and Employment Dynamics of Minimum Wage Workers

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Even; David A. Macpherson

    2004-01-01

    This study uses 20 years of short panel data sets on minimum wage workers to examine the wage and employment dynamics of minimum wage workers. Compared to workers earning above the minimum wage, minimum wage workers differ substantially in several ways. First, minimum wage workers are much more likely to be new entrants and much more likely to exit the labor market. Second, changes in industry and occupation and access to job training are particularly important to improving the wages of minim...

  4. 20 CFR 616.10 - Reuse of employment and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of employment and wages. 616.10 Section 616.10 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INTERSTATE ARRANGEMENT FOR COMBINING EMPLOYMENT AND WAGES § 616.10 Reuse of employment and wages. Employment and wages...

  5. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  6. Entrepreneurial skills and wage employment

    OpenAIRE

    Kucel, Aleksander; Vilalta-Bufí, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Promotion of entrepreneurial skills among the population is often considered as an adequate policy to enhance job creation and economic growth. However, neither the definition of entrepreneurial skills, nor the costs and benefits of such a policy are clear. Our aim is to check whether the benefits of entrepreneurial skills extent beyond self-employment. We use a sample of higher education graduates from Spain, from the year 2000 interviewed in 2005 (REFLEX survey). We denote entrepreneurial s...

  7. Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David

    Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…

  8. The impact of minimum wage on female employment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Kawaguchi, Daiji; Yamada, Ken

    2004-01-01

    The statutory minimum wage in Japan is revised every year and increases by almost the same amount across prefectures, regardless of the disparity in the wage distribution across prefectures. Due to this feature of minimum wagesetting, the minimum wage cuts into the wage distribution deeply in rural Japan. We examine the impact of the minimum wage on employment, focus-ing on middle-aged women, who are known to be typical, low-wage workers in Japan. The results, based on a panel estimation, sug...

  9. Physician assistant wages and employment, 2000-2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quella, Alicia; Brock, Douglas M; Hooker, Roderick S

    2015-06-01

    This study sought to assess physician assistant (PA) wages, make comparisons with other healthcare professionals, and project their earnings to 2025. The Bureau of Labor Statistics PA employment datasets were probed, and 2013 wages were used to explore median wage differences between large employer categories and 14 years of historical data (2000-2013). Median wages of PAs, family physicians and general practitioners, pharmacists, registered nurses, advanced practice nurses, and physical therapists were compared. Linear regression was used to project the PA median wage to 2025. In 2013, the median hourly wage for a PA employed in a clinical role was $44.70. From 2000 to 2013, PA wages increased by 40% compared with the cumulative inflation rate of 35.3%. This suggests that demand exceeds supply, a finding consistent with similar clinicians such as family physicians. A predictive model suggests that PA employment opportunities and remuneration will remain high through 2025.

  10. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  11. The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...

  12. Employment Duration and Resistance to Wage Reductions : Experimental Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burda, M.; Güth, W.; Kirchsteiger, G.; Uhlig, H.F.H.V.S.

    1998-01-01

    One of the long-standing puzzles in economics is why wages do not fall sufficiently in recessions so as to avoid increases in unemployment. Put differently, if the competitive market wage declines, why don't employers simply force their employees to accept lower wages as well? As an alternative to

  13. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  14. Foreign ownership and its effects on employment and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brännlund, Runar; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Stage, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we study how foreign ownership of Swedish companies affects employment and wages. To study these effects, we specify a model based on the assumption that the Swedish labour market can be described as one where trade unions and employers bargain over employment and wages. Our...

  15. Payroll tax reduction in Brazil : Effects on employment and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R. Scherer (Clóvis)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis paper evaluates the effects of the elimination of a payroll tax on employment and wages in four manufacturing and service sectors in Brazil in early 2012. This tax, which accounted for 20 percent of the wage bill, was levied on employers and financed social security programmes. This

  16. Welfare Careers and Low Wage Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joe A.; Ferman, Louis A.

    A sample of 1010 low-wage workers in Detroit (stratified by sex and welfare status) were interviewed in 1969. Data were collected on background characteristics, labor market experiences, and work career histories. The data relate to sexism as an important determinant of income in low-wage groups (women earn less and have lower status jobs),…

  17. The Relative Power of Employment-to-Employment Reallocation and Unemployment Exits in Predicting Wage Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Postel-Vinay, F.; Moscarini, G.

    2017-01-01

    We study the cyclical comovement nominal wage growth (either monthly earnings or hourly wage rate) and labor market flows. We use microdata from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over 1996-2013 to purge composition effects in worker and job characteristics and to isolate the reallocative effect of Employer-to-Employer (EE) transitions. We find an "EE wage Phillips curve": wage inflation comoves positively with EE as strongly as with the employment rate. This correlation holds for...

  18. Individual Wealth, Reservation Wages and Transitions into Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between financial wealth, reservation wages and labour market transitions. According to the theory, higher levels of wealth will result in higher reservation wages and lower employment probabilities. We test for the validity of this assumption by

  19. Starting wages respond to employer's risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, P.; Hartog, J.; van Ophem, H

    2009-01-01

    Firms hiring fresh graduates face uncertainty on the future productivity of workers. Theory suggests that starting wages reflect this, with lower pay for greater uncertainty. We use the dispersion of exam grades within a field of education as an indicator of the unobserved heterogeneity that

  20. Globalisation, Employment, and Wage Rate: What Does Literature Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Yiping Zhu

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a literature review on the labor market outcome of international trade and outsourcing trends in developed countries, focusing on employment, wage rates, and wage dispersions. However, the literature offers ambiguous answers. International trade and outsourcing are examined not to be the determinant force of labour market movements. It tends to add to rising inequality and lowering the demand for low-skilled workers in Anglo-Saxon economies, while there is no clear-cut res...

  1. Manufacturing Employment and Wage Differentials After Structural Adjustment Reforms in Colombia: An Efficiency Wages Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Taborda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the structural reforms in Colombia one of the most important policy proposals was reducing rigidities in the labor market. A perspective to assess the results of such reforms is the analysis of the relationship between firm employment and wage differentials in manufacturing before and after the reforms. If the labor reforms reached the intended objective of making more flexible the labor market, the employment levels must change faster, along with the behavior of wages and other labor costs, given some characteristics of firms and the economy. This paper addresses this topic proposing a model of wage differential and employment growth and testing its propositions before and after the structural reforms and controlling for industry and firm characteristics. A first finding is the confirmation of the positive relationship proposed between intra-industry wage differential and employment. In the inter-industry wage differential estimation, we find heterogeneous responses depending on the industry and a reduction in the autonomous labor turnover.

  2. Microfinance, wage employment and housework: a gender analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1999-08-01

    This paper examines the loan-use pattern of women involved in wage employment and their benefits from such loans in Bangladesh. The effects of wage employment on gender relations and how these women balance loan use, wage employment, and housework were also explored. The study was conducted among women enrolled in the Ayesha Abed Foundation (AAF) of the Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) in Jamalpur district, central Bangladesh. The AAF was established to generate employment and income for poor rural women. Data were gathered through survey, interviews, and focus-group discussions. Findings revealed that women wage earners avail themselves of the BRAC loans for consumption, asset accumulation, land purchase, and other productive purposes. About 53% of their loans were used by others and only 34 out of 341 women in the sample actually used the loans themselves. The loans were repaid by sewing or subsistence work, mainly in the subcenters (52%), through income from rickshaw pulling by their husbands (24%), and by selling vegetables, eggs, or milk. Furthermore, findings showed that the household work of women wage earners is generally taken up by other women in the family and has resulted in more men taking part in household responsibilities. In conclusion, wage employment plays an important factor in the promotion of the economic and social empowerment of women. Economic empowerment is observed in the greater degree of control women have over the money they earn. Social empowerment is manifested in the expanding mobility of women, whereby they are able to interact with other women and generate support systems.

  3. Employer-sponsored health insurance and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Benjamin; Schwab, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    During prime working years, women have higher expected healthcare expenses than men. However, employees' insurance rates are not gender-rated in the employer-sponsored health insurance (ESI) market. Thus, women may experience lower wages in equilibrium from employers who offer health insurance to their employees. We show that female employees suffer a larger wage gap relative to men when they hold ESI: our results suggest this accounts for roughly 10% of the overall gender wage gap. For a full-time worker, this pay gap due to ESI is on the order of the expected difference in healthcare expenses between women and men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Do wage subsidies enhance employability? Evidence from Australian youth

    OpenAIRE

    James Richardson

    1998-01-01

    We examine a panel of unemployed Australian youth to investigate whether participation in a wage subsidy programme offers merely a temporary respite from unemployment, or whether there are longer-lasting positive employability effects. Controlling for selection bias using a bivariate probit analysis, we estimate the effect of participation in the Special Youth Employment Training Program on the probability of being employed in subsequent waves of the data, up to an average of 26 months after ...

  5. Did Falling Wages and Employment Increase U.S. Imprisonment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Bruce; Kleykamp, Meredith; Rosenfeld, Jake

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of wages and employment on men's prison admission rates in the United States from 1983 to 2001. Research on the effects of the labor market on incarceration usually examines national-or state-level data, but our analysis studies prison admission among black and white men in specific age-education groups. We find a…

  6. Job Spells, Employer Spells, and Wage Returns to Tenure

    OpenAIRE

    Devereux, Paul J.; Hart, Robert A.; Roberts, J. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We show that the distinction between job spells and employer spells matters for returns to tenure. Employer spells encompass between-job wage movements linked to promotions or demotions while job spells don't. Using a 1% sample of the British workforce over the period 1975-2010, we find that a significant proportion of the return to employer tenure arises due to job changes within employer spells. Conditional on tenure with employer, the return to job tenure is negative. This suggests that an...

  7. The Gender Wage Gap in Paid and Self-Employment in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristy Eastough; Miller, Paul W.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the gender wage gap in the highly regulated Australian labour market. It compares wage outcomes in the wage and salary sector with those for the self-employed. Comparisons with the United States are provided. The large gender pay gap in self-employment suggests that the aggregate gender wage differential will not be eliminated solely through wage determination for wage and salary earners. The greater gender wage gap in the self-employed sector may reflect li...

  8. Predicting gross wages of non-employed persons in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Bezeredi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the findings of a study aimed at building a model for predicting wages of non-employed persons in Croatia. The predictions will be used in the calculation of marginal effective tax rate at the extensive margin and in labour supply modelling. The database used is 2012 “EU statistics on income and living conditions”. The paper comprehensively explains the data source, variables, subgroups of employed and non-employed, and the results of the linear regression model, the Heckman selection model and the quantile regression model. The quality of predictions obtained by different models is compared and discussed.

  9. 76 FR 73509 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Wage and Hour Division 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology... Prevailing Wage Determinations AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Wage and Hour Division... effective date of the Wage Methodology for Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program Final Rule, 76...

  10. Low-Wage Maternal Employment and Parenting Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Bentler, Peter M.; Franke, Todd M.

    2009-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study investigated whether low-wage employment was associated with improved psychological and parenting outcomes in a sample of 178 single mothers who were employed and nonemployed current and former welfare recipients both before and subsequent to the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996. Participation in employment predicted fewer depressive symptoms and less negative parenting style over time. Employment at time 1 was associated with a reduced likelihood of receiving welfare in the interim between Time 1 and Time 2, less financial strain at Time 2, and (through these) a decrease in mothers’ depressive symptoms at Time 2. Fewer depressive symptoms at Time 2, in turn, predicted less negative parenting style, net of the mothers’ earlier demographic, mental health, and parenting characteristics. Mothers with higher educational attainment were more likely to be employed (and to earn more) at both time points. Implications of these findings for welfare policies are discussed. PMID:19275122

  11. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  12. Psychology Degrees: Employment, Wage, and Career Trajectory Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D W; Borden, Victor M H

    2011-07-01

    Psychology is a very popular undergraduate major. Examining wage data from a range of degree holders reveals much about the expected career trajectories of those with psychology degrees. First, regarding baccalaureates, psychology and other liberal arts graduates-compared with those from certain preprofessional and technical undergraduate programs-generally fall in relatively low tiers of salary levels at both starting and later career points. Salary levels among baccalaureate alumni groups correlate with averaged measures of salary satisfaction, repeated job seeking, and perceptions of underemployment. These patterns seem to stem from the specific occupational categories (job titles) entered by graduates in psychology compared with other graduates, calling into question the employability advantage of so-called generic liberal arts skills. Second, psychology master's degree holders also generally fall in a low tier of salary among their science, engineering, and health counterparts. Third, psychology college faculty (including instructors) fall in low tiers of salary compared with their colleagues from other academic fields. Such broadly based indications of the relative economic disadvantages of psychology degrees have implications for career counseling in the field. © The Author(s) 2011.

  13. Importing equality or exporting jobs? Competition and gender wage and employment differentials in US manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kongar, Ebru

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of increased import competition on gender wage and employment differentials in U.S. manufacturing over the period from 1976 to 1993. Increased import competition is expected to decrease the relative demand for workers in low-wage production occupations and the relative demand for women workers, given the high female share in these occupations. The findings support this hypothesis. Disproportionate job losses for women in low-wage production occupations was a...

  14. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In a recent paper, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I. & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2005). Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Portugal vs. Spain. "Economics of Education Review, 24"(2), 161-170] apply the generalized IV model of Hausman and Taylor to estimate education returns of wage earners…

  15. International trade and employment: trade partner country effects on jobs and wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fortanier, F.N.; Jaarsma, M.; Korvorst, M.

    2011-01-01

    Recent academic research has consistently identified trading firms - both exporters and importers - to be larger, and to pay higher wages than their non-trading counterparts. However, not all trade is equal: imports from low-wage countries may destroy employment, particularly among low-skilled

  16. Effects of the Minimum Wage on the Employment Status of Youths. An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Alison J.

    1991-01-01

    Using data from 1954-86, including the 1980s period of relative decline in the value of the minimum wage, a study found that a 10 percent increase in minimum wage reduced teen unemployment by less than 1 percent. In addition, no apparent effect on employment of adults aged 20-24 was found, and minimal differences appeared for sex and race. (SK)

  17. 76 FR 82116 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 RIN 1205-AB61 Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H- 2B Program; Delay of Effective Date; Impact on Prevailing Wage Determinations AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration, Wage and Hour Division, Labor. ACTION: Guidance. SUMMARY: The...

  18. Joint impacts of immigration on wages and employment: review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, S.; Nijkamp, P.; Poot, J.

    2010-12-01

    A burgeoning literature has emerged during the last two decades to assess the economic impacts of immigration on host countries. In this paper, we outline the quantitative approaches presented in the literature to estimate the impact of immigration on the labour market, particularly at the regional level. We then revisit the joint impacts of immigration on wages and employment using a meta-analytic approach. As a novel contribution to previous meta-analyses on labour market impacts, we use a simultaneous equations approach to the meta-analysis of wage and employment effects. Using 129 effect sizes, we find that the observed local wage and employment effects are very small indeed. Generally, the employment impact is more pronounced in Europe than in the United States. Controls for endogeneity show a somewhat more negative impact. Wage rigidity increases the magnitude of the employment impact on the native born. The demarcation of the local labour market in terms of geography and skills matters also.

  19. Why Globally GDP, Trade, Profits, Wages, Employment Decrease and Why Poverty Increases?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peter Štrukelj

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to propose a scientific explanation ofwhy GDP, trade, profits, wages and employment have been globallydecreasing and why poverty has been globally increasing betweenthe 2nd...

  20. Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-12-04

    Dec 4, 2012 ... Chronic shortages of labour inspectors and corruption can further subvert the best-intentioned law. The issues are particularly relevant as emerging and developing countries strive to achieve rapid economic growth that is socially inclusive. This has renewed interest in minimum wages policies. On one ...

  1. Employment and Wage assimilation of Male First Generation Immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...... for unobserved cohort and individual effects and panel selectivity due to missing wage information. The results show that immigrants assimilate partially to Danes, but the assimilation process differs between refugees and non-refugees....

  2. Employment and Wage Assimilation of Male First Generation Immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...... for unobserved cohort and individual effects and panel selectivity due to missing wage information. The results show that immigrants assimilate partially to Danes, but the assimilation process differs between refugees and non-refugees....

  3. Employment and Wage Assimilation of Male First Generation Immigrants in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2000-01-01

    Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects for unobserved cohort and individual effects and panel selectivity due to missing wage information. The results show that immigrants assimilate partially to Danes, but the assimilation process differ...

  4. Minimum Wage, Public Employment Offices and Unemployment Compensation: John R. Commons's View

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Vatiero

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of transaction as introduced by John R. Commons we willinvestigate the contractual and market remedies which labour law may implement to make ‘order’ in theemployer-employee relationship.In this view, one of the most important contractual remedies is the minimum wage. It demarks an inalienabledefault point under which wage bargaining can not drop. Unlike, employability represents the mostimportant concept in order to take into explicit account market dynamics. I...

  5. Employment and Wage Assimilation of Male First-generation immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...... for unobserved cohort and individual effects and panel selectivity due to missing wage information. The results show that immigrants assimilate partially to Danes, but the assimilation process differs between refugees and non-refugees....

  6. 75 FR 7293 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Workers in the United States: 2010 Adverse Effect Wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... employment of the foreign worker in such labor or services will not adversely affect the wages and working... wage-depressive impact the agricultural employment of nonimmigrant foreign workers may have on the... temporary employment of nonimmigrant foreign workers for agricultural employment under various admission...

  7. Effects of employer-sponsored health insurance costs on Social Security taxable wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtless, Gary; Milusheva, Sveta

    2013-01-01

    The increasing cost of employer contributions for employee health insurance reduces the share of compensation subject to the Social Security payroll tax. Rising insurance contributions can also have a more subtle effect on the Social Security tax base because they influence the distribution of money wages above and below the taxable maximum amount. This article uses the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to analyze trends in employer health insurance contributions and the distribution of those costs up and down the wage distribution. Our analysis shows that employer health insurance contributions increased faster than overall compensation during 1996-2008, but such contributions grew only slightly faster among workers earning less than the taxable maximum than they did among those earning more. Because employer health insurance contributions represent a much higher percentage of compensation below the taxable maximum, health insurance cost trends exerted a disproportionate downward pressure on money wages below the taxable maximum.

  8. 75 FR 61577 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... Process for Temporary Employment in Occupations other than Agriculture or Registered Nursing in the United... models of labor supply and demand, an increase in the wage rate represents an increased production cost to employers leading to a reduction in the demand for labor. Because production costs increase with...

  9. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Portugal Vs. Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mainar, I.; Montuenga-Gomez, V.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the returns to education in two Southern EU countries, Portugal and Spain, both characterized by a relatively high self-employment rate. The impact of education on both wage earners and the self-employed is analyzed by using a comparable data set coming from the European Community Household Panel during the period…

  10. Reasons for Low Part-Time Employment in Eastern Europe – Any Role for Low Wages?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerly Krillo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Eastern European countries are characterized by high wage inequalities and a relatively low proportion of labour force being employed on a part-time basis, yet there seem not be so far made any studies on the part time pay penalty. In this article we analyse whether there are any differences in the average wages of part-time and full-time employed in Estonia, a small Eastern European catching up economy. We use Estonian Labour Force Survey data from years 1997-2007; the part time wage gap is estimated by using Oaxaca-Blinder wage decompositions and propensity score matching. The results are quite different for males and females. For females the raw wage gap is in favour of part-timers. After taking into account various worker characteristics, the wage gap becomes even larger. For males the full-time raw premium exists, but it is to a large extent explained by the different labour market characteristics.

  11. The effect of prior healthcare employment on the wages of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Byung-Kwang; Kim, Minchul; Lin, Tzu-Chun; Sasaki, Tomoko; Ward, Debbie; Spetz, Joanne

    2016-08-19

    The proportion of registered nurses (RNs) with employment in health-related positions before their initial RN education has increased in the past two decades. Previous research found that prior health-related employment is positively associated with RN workforce supply, potentially due to the wage differences based on different career paths. This study's objective is to test the hypotheses that prior health-related employment is associated with differences in starting wages and with different rates of wage growth for experience as an RN. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis using the 2008 National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses (NSSRN) linked with county-level variables from the Area Health Resource File. We estimated a Heckman model where the second-stage equation's outcome variable was the logarithm of the RN hourly wage, accounting for the self-selection of working or not working as an RN (i.e., the first-stage equation's outcome variable). Key covariates included interaction terms between years of experience, experience squared, and six categories of prior health-related employment (manager, LPN/LVN, allied health, nursing aide, clerk, and all other healthcare positions). Additional covariates included demographics, weekly working hours, marital status, highest nursing degree, and county-level variables (e.g., unemployment rate). We estimated the marginal effect of experience on wage for each type of prior health-related employment, conducting separate analyses for RNs whose initial education was a Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) (unweighted N = 10,345/weighted N = 945,429), RNs whose initial education was an Associate degree (unweighted N = 13,791/weighted N = 1,296,809), and total population combining the former groups (unweighted N = 24,136/weighted N = 2,242,238). Prior health-related employment was associated with higher wages, with the strongest wage differences among BSN-educated RNs. Among BSN-educated RNs, previous

  12. The Effects of Import Competition on Employment and Wages in the Manufacturing Industry of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzin Emel Akkus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of import competition on employment and wages in the 18 sectors of the Turkish manufacturing industry using panel data methodology over the 2003-2011 period. The industry import unit value indexes are used in order to measure import competition for the industries. The estimation results of two stages squares method suggest that changes in import values have a significant effect on employment in the sectors of manufacturing industry. However, this study can not find a significant relationship between import competition and industry wages.

  13. The effect of unions on the distribution of wages of hospital-employed registered nurses in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spetz, Joanne; Ash, Michael; Konstantinidis, Charalampos; Herrera, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    We estimate the impact of unionisation on the wage structure of hospital-employed registered nurses in the USA. We examine whether unions have an effect on wage differences associated with race, gender, immigration status, education and experience, as well as whether there is less unexplained wage variation among unionised nurses. In the past decade, there has been resurgence in union activity in the health care industry in the USA, particularly in hospitals. Numerous studies have found that unions are associated with higher wages. Unions may also affect the structure of wages paid to workers, by compressing the wage structure and reducing unexplained variation in wages. Cross-sectional analysis of pooled secondary data from the United States Current Population Survey, 2003-2006. Multivariate regression analysis of factors that predict wages, with models derived from labour economics. There are no wage differences associated with gender, race or immigration status among unionised nurses, but there are wage penalties for black and immigrant nurses in the non-union sector. For the most part, the pay structures of the union and non-union sectors do not significantly differ. The wage penalty associated with diploma education for non-union nurses disappears among unionised nurses. Unionised nurses receive a lower return to experience, although the difference is not statistically significant. There is no evidence that unexplained variation in wages is lower among unionised nurses. While in theory unions may rationalise wage-setting and reduce wage dispersion, we found no evidence to support this hypothesis. The primary effect of hospital unions is to raise wages. Unionisation does not appear to have other important wage effects among hospital-employed nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Managing cancer and employment: Decisions and strategies used by breast cancer survivors employed in low-wage jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Nichols, Helen M; Ko, Jungyai; Tracy, J Kathleen; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2017-01-01

    Advances in breast cancer screening and treatment have led to an overall 5-year survival rate of 90%. Many of these cancer cases are diagnosed in working women. Few studies have explicitly examined the cancer-work interface, as experienced by low-wage earning women with breast cancer. This study uses in-depth, semistructured interviews with 24 low-wage breast cancer survivors to identify employment decisions and factors that influenced or enabled these decisions, and examine the individual strategies and workplace supports used to manage the cancer-work interface among a subset of women (n = 13) who continued to work. Future research areas and clinical implications are discussed.

  15. On the duality of employment and wages in the Garin - Lowry model

    OpenAIRE

    P C Emmi

    1983-01-01

    Previously undiscovered properties of the Garin - Lowry model are identified by presenting the model as a simple linear program. The primal program seeks a spatial allocation of employment which minimizes import requirements while satisfying basic-employment demand. The dual program seeks a spatial allocation of employee remuneration which maximizes the imputed value of basic employment while insuring that employee wages are not exceeded by the import costs of employee support. Thus a duality...

  16. Do wage subsidies for disabled workers reduce their non-employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Larsen, Mona; Thomsen, Lars Stage

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the potential of wage subsidy programs for reducing non-employment of the disabled by exploiting a reform of the Danish Flexjob scheme targeted towards employing the long-term (partially) disabled. Firms received a salary reimbursement for all employees granted a Flexjob. We examine....... A reduction in subsidies thus leads to a decrease in the hiring of the non-employed disabled....

  17. The Impact of Differential Payroll Tax Subsidies on Minimum Wage Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P Kramarz (Piotr); Th. Philippon

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we study the impact of changes of total labor costs on employment of low-wage workers in France in a period, 1990 to 1998, that saw sudden and large changes in these costs. We use longitudinal data from the French Labor Force survey (? enqu?te emploi ?) in order to

  18. Employer Engagement in British Secondary Education: Wage Earning Outcomes Experienced by Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anthony; Percy, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Since 2004, the devolved education systems of England, Scotland and Wales have introduced initiatives to increase contact between employers and young people, particularly aged 14-19, as a supplementary, co-curricular activity within mainstream education. The initiatives are motivated partly to increase wage-earning potential but studies to date…

  19. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Mainar, Inmaculada; Montuenga-Gomez, Victor M.

    2009-01-01

    This is a response to [Jordahl, H., Poutvaara, P., & Tuomala, J. (2009). Comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review" 28]. We acknowledge that econometrics have improved since the time our original paper was written, so that the choice of accurate instruments is now more…

  20. Education Returns of Wage Earners and Self-Employed Workers: Rejoinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordahl, Henrik; Poutvaara, Panu; Tuomala, Juha

    2009-01-01

    In their reply to our comment, Garcia-Mainar and Montuenga-Gomez [Garcia-Mainar, I., & Montuenga-Gomez, V. M. (2009). A response to the comment on education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers. "Economics of Education Review"] did not address our fundamental criticism that they have not provided the information…

  1. Employment and Wage Assimilation of Male First Generation Immigrants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Leif; Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Labour market assimilation of Danish first generation male immigrants is analysed based on two panel data sets covering the population of immigrants and 10% of the Danish population during 1984-1995. Wages and employment probabilities are estimated jointly in a random effects model which corrects...

  2. The employment and hours of work effects of the changing National Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Richard; Riley, Rebecca; Wilkinson, David,

    2009-01-01

    This report is about the employment impacts of National Minimum Wage (NMW) rises in the period 2001-2006. This was a period where the NMW rose substantially in excess of average earnings. \\ud \\ud The report presents results based on analysis of individual Labour Force Survey (LFS) data and Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) data together with local area analysis.\\ud \\ud The focus of the analysis is threefold. First, it investigates changes in wages as a response to increases in the NM...

  3. Wage employment and gender differences in work–family role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women are higher than men in their levels of work-family role conflict. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the employers of labour should organize organizational support system in terms of incentives, which could cushion the effect of work-family role conflict on the part of the workers. More so ...

  4. The Role of Transition, Increased Competition and Decentralized Wage Setting in Changing the Czech Wage Structure: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the Czech labor market, and its wage structure in particular, using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of (slightly) diminishing gender inequality, increased...... returns to human capital, especially to education. We investigate various hypotheses to explain that pattern. Moreover, we document a strong increase in within-firm wage dispersion and an only moderate increase in between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards...... a market economy, increased domestic and international competition and an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining to explain these patterns....

  5. Precarious employment associated with depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyu-Man; Chang, Jisoon; Won, Eunsoo; Lee, Min-Soo; Ham, Byung-Joo

    2017-08-15

    Precarious employment is one of the most important indicators of social disadvantage and is associated with poor mental health. This study aimed to investigate the association of precarious employment with depressive mood and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers, and the possible mediating or moderating effect of socioeconomic factors in the association between precarious work and mental health status. Data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V) conducted between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. Among the 24,173 participants, 6266 adult wage workers (3206 precarious and 3060 non-precarious workers) aged ≥19 years were included. Socioeconomic and health-related characteristics as well as depressive mood and suicidal ideation were investigated. Precarious employment was significantly associated with depressive mood in the logistic regression analyses adjusting for all potential confounding factors as covariates. The socioeconomic variables including age, gender, education level, marital status, household income, and occupation type were significantly related with depressive mood and suicidal ideation in adult wage workers. We also found that gender and household income had possible moderating effects on the association between precarious employment and suicidal ideation. Precarious work was associated with suicidal ideation only for male workers and worker with low or middle-lower income levels. Our study is based on a cross-sectional design, thus, we could not elucidate the causal relationship between the variables. Our study suggested that precarious employment plays a pivotal role in the mental health status of adult wage workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of 2001 Building Technology, state and community programs on United States employment and wage income

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MJ Scott; DJ Hostick; DB Elliott

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the potential economic impacts of its portfolio of programs on national employment and income. A special purpose version of the IMPLAN input-output model allied In Build is used in this study of all 38 BTS programs included in the FY2001 federal budget. Energy savings, investments, and impacts on U.S. national employment and wage income are reported by program for selected years to the year 2030. Energy savings from these programs have the potential of creating a total of nearly 332,000 jobs and about $5.3 billion in wage income (1995$) by the year 2030. Because the required investments to achieve these savings are capital intensive, the net effect after investment is 304,000 jobs and $5.0 billion.

  7. Contingency, Employment Intentions, and Retention of Vulnerable Low-Wage Workers: An Examination of Nursing Assistants in Nursing Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Janette S.; Morgan, Jennifer Craft; Marshall, Victor W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: While theories of job turnover generally assume a strong correlation between job satisfaction, intention, and retention, such models may be limited in explaining turnover of low-wage health care workers. Low-wage workers likely have a lower ability to act on their employment intentions or plans due to a lack of resources that…

  8. The effects on employment and wages when working mothers lose Medicaid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushey, Heather

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the importance of health insurance in promoting employment and wage growth for prime-age mothers. Many mothers on welfare and other low-income mothers are eligible for Medicaid, but as they move up the job ladder, they lose eligibility. Losing work supports limits mothers' ability to stay employed: mothers who make this transition into employer-provided health insurance are nine times more likely to stay employed than mothers who leave Medicaid without this benefit. However, few mothers make the transition from Medicaid to employer-provided health insurance--not because they lack employment but because they do not find jobs that offer health insurance. Between the beginning of 2002 and the end of 2003, 37.2 percent of those on Medicaid left the program, but fewer than a quarter (23.4 percent) of those had employer-provided health insurance.

  9. Underemployed women: an analysis of voluntary and involuntary part-time wage employment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Colette Muller

    2010-01-01

    Using nationally representative household survey data from 1995 to 2006, this paper explores heterogeneity among female part-time wage (salaried) workers in post-apartheid South Africa, specifically distinguishing between individuals who choose to work part-time and part-time workers who report wanting to work longer hours. As in studies of voluntary and involuntary part-time employment in other countries, the findings show that involuntary part-time workers in South Africa are outnumbered by...

  10. Effects of low-wage employment on family well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcel, T L; Menaghan, E G

    1997-01-01

    Assumptions about the processes that link a mother's employment to the development of her child must underlie expectations about how children may fare when their mothers move from welfare dependence into employment. This article explores the idea, mentioned in the research overview by Zaslow and Emig in this journal issue, that the working conditions such as wages, work hours, and task complexity that mothers experience on the job can influence their behavior as parents and shape the home environments they provide for their children. This article discusses the significance of home environments for children's intellectual and emotional development and considers how home surroundings change when mothers begin jobs that are more rewarding or less rewarding. The authors conclude that, while maternal employment is not necessarily harmful, if welfare recipients find only low-wage, stressful jobs, working may prove costly for both family and child well-being. The authors recommend that welfare-to-work programs devote attention to (1) assisting mothers to obtain more complex work at good wages, (2) helping mothers understand the role home environments play in shaping children's development, and (3) encouraging parents to make their children's home surroundings as positive as possible.

  11. 76 FR 73508 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Delay of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... `` one of the funds made available by this or any other Act for fiscal year 2012 may be used to implement... wage determinations for the H-2B nonimmigrant visa program for employment prior to January 1, 2012, the...

  12. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Youth Employment in Canada: A Panel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Terence

    2003-01-01

    Canadian panel data 1988-90 were used to compare estimates of minimum-wage effects based on a low-wage/high-worker sample and a low-wage-only sample. Minimum-wage effect for the latter is nearly zero. Different results for low-wage subgroups suggest a significant effect for those with longer low-wage histories. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  13. Who really pays for health insurance? The incidence of employer-provided health insurance with sticky nominal wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Benjamin D

    2005-03-01

    This paper addresses two seeming paradoxes in the realm of employer-provided health insurance: First, businesses consistently claim that they bear the burden of the insurance they provide for employees, despite theory and empirical evidence indicating that workers bear the full incidence. Second, benefit generosity and the percentage of premiums paid by employers have decreased in recent decades, despite the preferential tax treatment of employer-paid benefits relative to wages-trends unexplained by the standard incidence model. This paper offers a revised incidence model based on nominal wage rigidity, in an attempt to explain these paradoxes. The model predicts that when the nominal wage constraint binds, some of the burden of increasing insurance premiums will fall on firms, particularly small companies with low-wage employees. In response, firms will reduce employment, decrease benefit generosity, and require larger employee premium contributions. Using Current Population Survey data from 2000-2001, I find evidence for this kind of wage rigidity and its associated impact on the employment and premium contributions of low-wage insured workers during a period of rapid premium growth.

  14. El empleo y los salarios públicos en Colombia Employment and public wages in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrero Noel Antonio

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia la evolución y determinación del empleo y los salarios públicos en Colombia emtre 1970 y 1994, y busca establecer si sus comportamientos obedecieron a factores políticos o económicos. Para los años noventa, evalúa hasta que punto se cumplieron los objetivos de gobierno en cuanto a la reorientación del factor humano hacia las áreas donde se supone imprescindible la intervensión estatal, a la descentralización del empleo público y a la profesionalización de la planta de personal. También analiza el papel de los salarios públicos como instrumento para suavizar los ciclos de la economía y alcanzar el equilibrio en la finanzas públicas.This article studies the evolution and determination of employment and public wages in Colombia between 1970 and 1994, and seeks to establish if their behavior responded to political or economic factors. For the 1990s, it evaluates up to what point the government 'sobjectives were fulfilled with respect to the reorientation of thehuman factor towards the areas where state intervention is assumed tobe essential: the decentralization of public employment and the professionalization of its personnel. It also analyzes the role of pubic wages as an instrument for smoothing the cycles of the economyand achieving equilibrium in public finances.

  15. An investigation into the effect of type I and type II diabetes duration on employment and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Travis

    2013-12-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, the current study examines the effect of type I and type II diabetes on employment status and wages. The results suggest that both the probability of employment and wages are negatively related to the number of years since the initial diagnosis of diabetes. Moreover, the effect of diabetes duration on the probability of employment appears to be nonlinear, peaking around 16 years for females and 10 years for males. A similar negative effect on wages is found only in male diabetics. Finally, the results suggest that failure to distinguish between type I and type II diabetics may lead to some counterintuitive results. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Why Globally GDP, Trade, Profits, Wages, Employment Decrease and Why Poverty Increases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Štrukelj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to propose a scientific explanation ofwhy GDP, trade, profits, wages and employment have been globallydecreasing and why poverty has been globally increasing betweenthe 2nd quarter of 2008 and the 3rd quarter of 2009. I explainthese facts in a scientific manner, that is, by deriving thepresent state of the global economy (crisis from the principles ofthe present global economy (predominately organized in a capitalisticmanner. I therefore prove that the crisis necessarily followsfrom the way the present global economy functions. I arguethat the reason for the crisis is the fundamental contradiction betweenthe purpose of companies (increasing profits and necessaryways in which companies try to increase profits, and that theconsequences of this fundamental contradiction are triggered bya general lack of credits.

  17. Price Floors and Employer Preferences: Evidence from a Minimum Wage Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, John

    2017-01-01

    Minimum hourly wages were randomly imposed on firms posting job openings in an online labor market. A higher minimum wage raised the wages of hired workers substantially. However, there was some reduction in hiring and large reductions in hours-worked. Treated firms hired more productive workers, which can explain, in part, the reduction in hours-worked: with more productive workers, projects were completed in less time. At the conclusion of the experiment, the platform imposed a market-wide ...

  18. Labor Unions and the Distribution of Wages and Employment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, T. Paul; Mwabu, Germano

    1997-01-01

    Labor unions are an important economic and political force in South Africa. Inequality in wage rates is among the largest in the world in South Africa, with African and white workers receiving wages that differ by a factor of five. The complex role of unions in closing and creating this wage gap is assessed in this paper. Union membership among Africa male workers is shown to be associated in 1993 with their receiving wages that are 145 percent higher than comparable nonunion workers in the b...

  19. Improving low-wage, midsized employers' health promotion practices: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy A; Harris, Jeffrey R; Sopher, Carrie J; Kuniyuki, Alan; Ghosh, Donetta L; Henderson, Shelly; Martin, Diane P; Weaver, Marcia R; Williams, Barbara; Albano, Denise L; Meischke, Hendrika; Diehr, Paula; Lichiello, Patricia; Hammerback, Kristen E; Parks, Malcolm R; Forehand, Mark

    2012-08-01

    The Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide) offers evidence-based intervention strategies to prevent chronic disease. The American Cancer Society (ACS) and the University of Washington Health Promotion Research Center co-developed ACS Workplace Solutions (WPS) to improve workplaces' implementation of Community Guide strategies. To test the effectiveness of WPS for midsized employers in low-wage industries. Two-arm RCT; workplaces were randomized to receive WPS during the study (intervention group) or at the end of the study (delayed control group). Forty-eight midsized employers (100-999 workers) in King County WA. WPS provides employers one-on-one consulting with an ACS interventionist via three meetings at the workplace. The interventionist recommends best practices to adopt based on the workplace's current practices, provides implementation toolkits for the best practices the employer chooses to adopt, conducts a follow-up visit at 6 months, and provides technical assistance. Employers' implementation of 16 best practices (in the categories of insurance benefits, health-related policies, programs, tracking, and health communications) at baseline (June 2007-June 2008) and 15-month follow-up (October 2008-December 2009). Data were analyzed in 2010-2011. Intervention employers demonstrated greater improvement from baseline than control employers in two of the five best-practice categories; implementing policies (baseline scores: 39% program, 43% control; follow-up scores: 49% program, 45% control; p=0.013) and communications (baseline scores: 42% program, 44% control; follow-up scores: 76% program, 55% control; p=0.007). Total best-practice implementation improvement did not differ between study groups (baseline scores: 32% intervention, 37% control; follow-up scores: 39% intervention, 42% control; p=0.328). WPS improved employers' health-related policies and communications but did not improve insurance benefits design, programs, or tracking. Many

  20. Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…

  1. Do recruitment ties affect wages? An analysis using matched employer-employee data from Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer–employee dataset from Vietnam the authors find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job...

  2. Estimating workers' marginal valuation of employer health benefits: would insured workers prefer more health insurance or higher wages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royalty, Anne Beeson

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the cost of health insurance has been increasing much faster than wages. In the face of these rising costs, many employers will have to make difficult decisions about whether to cut back health benefits or to compensate workers with lower wages or lower wage growth. In this paper, we ask the question, "Which do workers value more -- one additional dollar's worth of health benefits or one more dollar in their pockets?" Using a new approach to obtaining estimates of insured workers' marginal valuation of health benefits this paper estimates how much, on average, employees value the marginal dollar paid by employers for their workers' health insurance. We find that insured workers value the marginal health premium dollar at significantly less than the marginal wage dollar. However, workers value insurance generosity very highly. The marginal dollar spent on health insurance that adds an additional dollar's worth of observable dimensions of plan generosity, such as lower deductibles or coverage of additional services, is valued at significantly more than one dollar.

  3. 20 CFR 404.1041 - Wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages. 404.1041 Section 404.1041 Employees...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Wages § 404.1041 Wages. (a) The term wages means remuneration paid to you as an employee for employment unless specifically excluded. Wages are...

  4. Minimum wage hikes and the wage growth of low-wage workers

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna K Swaffield

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of the British minimum wage on the wage growth of low-wage employees. Estimates of the probability of low-wage employees receiving positive wage growth have been significantly increased by the minimum wage upratings or hikes. However, whether the actual wage growth of these workers has been significantly raised or not depends crucially on the magnitude of the minimum wage hike considered. Findings are consistent with employ...

  5. A Minimum Wage can be Welfare-Improving and Employment-Enhancing

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Boadway; Katherine Cuff

    1999-01-01

    We examine whether minimum wages can fulfill a useful role as part of an optimal non-linear income tax scheme. In this setting, governments cannot observe household abilities, only their incomes. Redistributing according to income, the government is constrained by a set of incentive constraints. Firms, on the other hand, are able to identify abilities of workers. To exploit that, the government imposes a minimum wage. This will preclude firms from offering a job to anyone below the minimum wa...

  6. Happy Birthday, you're Fired! : The Effects of an Age-Dependent Minimum Wage on Youth Employment Flows in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabátek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of the age-dependent minimum wage on youth employment flow in the Netherlands. The Dutch minimum wage for workers aged 15-23 is defined as a step-wise increasing function of a worker's calendar age. At the aged of 23, workers become eligible for the "adult"

  7. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-3 - Wages paid through an agent, fiduciary, or other person on behalf of two or more employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... other person who also has the control, receipt, custody, or disposal of, or pays the wages payable by... employer. Hence, under either the percentage method or the wage bracket method the tax shall be determined... administrative work of the several companies. The central agency organization consists of a staff of clerks...

  8. Mortgage Debt and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, James

    2016-01-01

    Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth.......Different approaches to mortgage debt may impact wages, how homeowners engage with employers and welfare services, and economic growth....

  9. Gender Inequalities in Employment and Wage-earning among Economic Migrants in Chinese Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent trends show an unprecedented feminisation of migration in China, triggered by the increasing demand for cheap labour in big cities and the availability of women in the labour market. These trends corroborate the evidence that non-agricultural work and remittance from urban labour migrants have become the major sources of rural household income. Objective: This paper investigates the extent of gender inequalities in job participation and wage earning among internal labour migrants in China. We hypothesize that female migrants in cities are economically more disadvantaged than male migrants in the job market. Methods: We use data from the 2010 National Migrant Dynamics Monitoring Survey conducted in 106 cities representing all 31 provinces and geographic regions. The study applies the standard Heckman two-step Probit-OLS method to model job participation and wage-earning, separately for 59,225 males and 41,546 females aged 16-59 years, adjusting for demographic and social characteristics and potential selection effects. Results: Female migrants have much lower job-participation and wage-earning potential than male migrants. Male migrants earn 26Š higher hourly wages than their female counterparts. Decomposition analysis confirms potential gender discrimination, suggesting that 88Š of the gender difference in wages (or 12Š of female migrant wage is due to discriminatory treatment of female migrants in the Chinese job market. Migrants with rural hukou status have a smaller chance of participation in the job market and they earn lower wages than those with urban hukou, regardless of education advantage. Conclusions: There is evidence of significant female disadvantage among internal labour migrants in the job market in Chinese cities. Household registration by urban and rural areas, as controlled by the hukou status, partly explains the differing job participation and wage earning among female labour migrants in urban China

  10. Costs and benefits of employment transportation for low-wage workers: an assessment of job access public transportation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakuriah Vonu, Piyushimita; Persky, Joseph; Soot, Siim; Sriraj, P S

    2013-04-01

    This paper focuses on an evaluation of public transportation-based employment transportation (ET) services to transport low-wage workers to jobs in the US. We make an attempt to capture a more comprehensive range of intended and unintended outcomes of ET services than those traditionally considered in the case of public transportation services. Using primary data from 23 locations across the country, we present a framework to evaluate how transportation improvements, in interaction with labor markets, can affect users' short-run economic welfare, users' long-run human capital accumulation and non-users' short-run economic welfare. These services were partially funded by a specialized program - the Job Access and Reverse Commute (JARC) program - which was consolidated into larger transit funding programs by recent legislation. In the sites examined, we found that low wage users benefited from self-reported increased access to jobs, improvements in earnings potential, as well as from savings in transport cost and time. Simulations show the potential of users to accrue long-term worklife benefits. At the same time, users may have accrued changes in leisure time as a result of transitioning from unemployment to employment, and generated a range of societal impacts on three classes of non-users: the general tax-paying public, the general commuting public in the service operating area and other low-wage workers in local labor markets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Perceptions of employers and unemployed youth on the proposed youth employment wage subsidy incentive in South Africa: A KwaZulu-Natal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuyokazi N. Mtembu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa has high levels of unemployment and severe problem of youth unemployment. This implies that the country requires a comprehensive strategy to create more jobs for the youth. Policymaking is one of the strategies that have been introduced to encourage job creation for the youth. The youth wage subsidy is just one of the strategies proposed and this article unpacks what employers and unemployed youth say and think about this policy directive.Research purpose: The main aim of the study was to determine the perceptions of unemployed South African youth and employers on the proposed youth wage subsidy incentive scheme.Motivation for the study: Youth unemployment is a very important issue and the reality is that it is a concern of every government globally. South Africa is therefore not an exception as it is a country that has been experiencing high levels of youth unemployment for the last few decades. In an attempt to curb this pressing challenge of youth unemployment, a proposal to introduce a youth wage subsidy policy was made by government; (since its mention, this idea has been met with a lot of opposing opinions from those against it and applause from those who support it. This has motivated this study to probe the perceptions of the subsidy by those who will be affected by its provisions.Method: A triangulated research approach was adopted through the administration of survey questionnaires amongst the unemployed youth and semi-structured interviews with human resource managers and specialists. A sample of unemployed youth was drawn from selected communities within KwaZulu-Natal. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted with human resource managers and specialists at selected organisations to determine their perceptions of the proposed scheme and any benefits or limitations they believe it might have. Non-probability sampling was used to sample 100 respondents (N = 100, 90% of whom were unemployed youths

  12. An Empirical Study on the Effects of Family Background during Childhood and Non-cognitive Ability on Educational Attainment, Employment Status, and Wages (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    TODA Akihito; TSURU Kotaro; Kume, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the effects of family background during childhood and non-cognitive ability on future outcomes such as educational attainment, employment status, and wages. The results show that the home environment during childhood has a positive effect on educational attainment, but the effect weakens during the employment period. Those who were raised in homes with book collections enjoy higher wages. In terms of non-cognitive ability, a lack of tardiness during high school as a ...

  13. Overeducation and Employment Mismatch: Wage Penalties for College Degrees in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ihsuan; Malvin, Mathew; Simonson, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Overeducation and underemployment are of increasing national concern. Recent research estimates that 48% of workers are overeducated for their positions. The wage penalty for overeducation varies significantly across majors by gender. Using the American Community Survey (Ruggles et al., 2010), the authors examine the extent of overeducation among…

  14. The impact of Nordic countries' family friendly policies on employment, wages, and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Smith, Nina; Verner, Mette

    2008-01-01

    -friendly policies mainly directed towards giving mothers the right to be on long paid maternal leave have adverse effects on women's wages with consequences for gender equality. Indeed, extensive family-friendly schemes may even have created a `system-based glass ceiling' hindering women's career progression...

  15. 76 FR 3451 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-agricultural Employment H-2B Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... unemployment rates among specific groups of vulnerable low-wage workers: Youth, Hispanics, and African..., unemployment-related issues, the incorporation or continuation of special procedures in the H-2B program... conditions below the established minimum levels, citing examples of high unemployment rates in industries in...

  16. Are PhDs Winners or Losers? Wage Premiums for Doctoral Degrees in Private Sector Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    the economic incentives for this career path of recent Danish PhD graduates. Wage premiums associated with holding a PhD compared to a master’s degree are estimated by an program evaluation approach using regression on a matched sample. Income levels three years after receipt of the PhD degree are three...

  17. Employment fluctuations with downward wage rigidity: the role of moral hazard

    OpenAIRE

    James S. Costain; Jansen, Marcel

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the cyclical dynamics of Mortensen and Pissarides' (1994) model of job creation and destruction when workers' effort is not perfectly observable, as in Shapiro and Stiglitz (1984). An occasionally-binding no-shirking constraint truncates the real wage distribution from below, making firms' share of surplus weakly procyclical, and may thus amplify fluctuations in hiring. It may also cause a burst of inefficient firing at the onset of a recession, separating matches that no l...

  18. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared to...

  19. The Formal Sector Wage Premium and Firm Size for Self-employed Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bargain, Olivier; Badaoui, Eliane; Kwenda, Prudence; Strobl, Eric; Walsh, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model where formal sector firms pay tax and informal ones do not, but informal firms risk incurring the penalty associated with non-compliance. Workers may enter self-employment or search for jobs as employees. Workers with higher managerial skills will run larger firms while workers with lower will manage smaller firms and will be in self-employment only when they cannot find a salary job. For these workers self-employment is a secondary/informal form of employment. The Burdett ...

  20. Scaling cost-sharing to wages: how employers can reduce health spending and provide greater economic security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    In the employer-sponsored insurance market that covers most Americans; many workers are "underinsured." The evidence shows onerous out-of-pocket payments causing them to forgo needed care, miss work, and fall into bankruptcies and foreclosures. Nonetheless, many higher-paid workers are "overinsured": the evidence shows that in this domain, surplus insurance stimulates spending and price inflation without improving health. Employers can solve these problems together by scaling cost-sharing to wages. This reform would make insurance better protect against risk and guarantee access to care, while maintaining or even reducing insurance premiums. Yet, there are legal obstacles to scaled cost-sharing. The group-based nature of employer health insurance, reinforced by federal law, makes it difficult for scaling to be achieved through individual choices. The Affordable Care Act's (ACA) "essential coverage" mandate also caps cost-sharing even for wealthy workers that need no such cap. Additionally, there is a tax distortion in favor of highly paid workers purchasing healthcare through insurance rather than out-of-pocket. These problems are all surmountable. In particular, the ACA has expanded the applicability of an unenforced employee-benefits rule that prohibits "discrimination" in favor of highly compensated workers. A novel analysis shows that this statute gives the Internal Revenue Service the authority to require scaling and to thereby eliminate the current inequities and inefficiencies caused by the tax distortion. The promise is smarter insurance for over 150 million Americans.

  1. Labour Market Developments, Non-standard Employment and Low Wages in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leschke, Janine

    2014-01-01

    In terms of basic labour market developments and outcomes Germany is faring comparatively well. Indeed, against the European trend, Germany saw employment rates increasing and unemployment decreasing during the economic crisis. But since the deregulatory Hartz reforms of the early and mid-2000s, ...

  2. Reservation wages and starting wages

    OpenAIRE

    van Ophem, Hans; Hartog, Joop; Berkhout, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between reservation wage and accepted wage is virtually random, as search theory predicts. We also find that most information contained in the accepted wage is included in the reservation wage, as one would predi...

  3. Sequential provisional implant prosthodontics therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Ira D; Markovits, Stanley; Jansen, Curtis E; Reid, Patrick E; Schnader, Yale E; Shapiro, Herbert J

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication and long-term use of first- and second-stage provisional implant prostheses is critical to create a favorable prognosis for function and esthetics of a fixed-implant supported prosthesis. The fixed metal and acrylic resin cemented first-stage prosthesis, as reviewed in Part I, is needed for prevention of adjacent and opposing tooth movement, pressure on the implant site as well as protection to avoid micromovement of the freshly placed implant body. The second-stage prosthesis, reviewed in Part II, should be used following implant uncovering and abutment installation. The patient wears this provisional prosthesis until maturation of the bone and healing of soft tissues. The second-stage provisional prosthesis is also a fail-safe mechanism for possible early implant failures and also can be used with late failures and/or for the necessity to repair the definitive prosthesis. In addition, the screw-retained provisional prosthesis is used if and when an implant requires removal or other implants are to be placed as in a sequential approach. The creation and use of both first- and second-stage provisional prostheses involve a restorative dentist, dental technician, surgeon, and patient to work as a team. If the dentist alone cannot do diagnosis and treatment planning, surgery, and laboratory techniques, he or she needs help by employing the expertise of a surgeon and a laboratory technician. This team approach is essential for optimum results.

  4. Premium copayments and the trade-off between wages and employer-provided health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubotsky, Darren; Olson, Craig A

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates the trade-off between salary and health insurance costs using data on Illinois school teachers between 1991 and 2008 that allow us to address several common empirical challenges in this literature. Teachers paid about 17 percent of the cost of individual health insurance and about 46 percent of the cost of their family members' plans through premium contributions, but we find no evidence that teachers' salaries respond to changes in insurance costs. Consistent with a higher willingness to pay for insurance, we find that premium contributions are higher in districts that employ a higher-tenured workforce. We find no evidence that school districts respond to higher health insurance costs by reducing the number of teachers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Diabetes's 'health shock' to schooling and earnings: increased dropout rates and lower wages and employment in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Richards, Michael R

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing diabetes crisis, the nonmedical implications for young adults have gone virtually unexplored. We investigated the effects of diabetes on two key outcomes for this age group-schooling and earnings-and found that it delivers an increasingly common "health shock" to both. We identified effects in several measures of educational attainment, including a high school dropout rate that was six percentage points higher than among young adults without the disease. We also found lower employment and wages: A person with diabetes can conservatively expect to lose more than $160,000 over his or her working life, compared to a peer without the disease. For young adults with diabetes, having a parent with diabetes also leads to poorer outcomes than if one more parents do not have the disease-for example, reducing the likelihood of attending college by four to six percentage points, even after the child's health status is controlled for. These results highlight the urgency of attacking this growing health problem, as well as the need for measures such as in-school screening for whether diabetes's impact on individual learning and performance begins before the classic manifestations of clinical diabetes appear.

  6. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

      Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  7. Gradual collective wage bargaining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaere, S.; Luttens, R.I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative implementation of firm-level collective wage bargaining, where bargaining proceeds as a finite sequence of sessions between a firm and a union of variable size. We investigate the impact of such a 'gradual' union on the wage-employment contract in an economy with

  8. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  9. A Narrative Review of the Confluence of Breast Cancer and Low-wage Employment and Its Impact on Receipt of Guideline-recommended Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; Chambers, Mara D.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women in the United States, costing the healthcare system, employers, and society billions of dollars each year. Despite improvements in screening and treatment, significant breast cancer treatment and survivorship disparities exist among various groups of women. One variable that has not been explored extensively as a possible contributor to breast cancer treatment disparities is employment. This is concerning, given the changing economic and employment trends in the United States favoring low-wage employment. Currently, one-quarter to one-third of all US workers are considered to be working poor, and women are disproportionally represented in this group. Characteristics of low-wage work—limited paid time off, minimal health benefits, schedule inflexibility, and economic insecurity—may become even more significant in the event of a breast cancer diagnosis. To date, there has been limited research into how job conditions inherent to low-wage work may influence working poor survivors' receipt of guideline-recommended breast cancer treatment. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review was to critically examine the current literature to further our understanding of how employment context may impact treatment decisions and adherence—and therefore receipt of guideline-recommended care—among newly diagnosed, working poor breast cancer survivors. After undertaking a comprehensive review, we failed to identify any published literature that explicitly addressed low-wage employment and receipt of guideline-recommended breast cancer treatment. Four articles reported circumstances where women delayed, missed, or quit treatments due to work interference, or alternatively, developed strategies that allowed them to continue to work and obtain their breast cancer treatment concurrent with medical and economic challenges. An additional five articles, while focused on other cancer and employment outcomes, described the

  10. Wages in Benin. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Sena Alinsato, A.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Benin, conducted between the 15th and 19th of October 2012. The survey aimed to measure in detail the wages earned by Beninese workers, including the self-employed. In total 2,002 persons were interviewed

  11. 78 FR 24047 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program, Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... labor market determinations. 889 F.Supp.2d at 724-25. Oral argument is currently scheduled for May 2013... workers in occupations that require sophisticated skills and training receive higher wages based on those skills. Since the OES survey captures no information about actual skills or responsibilities of the...

  12. 20 CFR 404.452 - Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages; net earnings from self-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reports to Social Security Administration of...; and Nonpayments of Benefits § 404.452 Reports to Social Security Administration of earnings; wages...) Information required. If you are the beneficiary, your report should show your name, address, Social Security...

  13. Reservation wages and starting wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ophem, H.; Hartog, J.; Berkhout, P.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse a unique data set that combines reservation wage and actually paid wage for a large sample of Dutch recent higher education graduates. On average, accepted wages are almost 8% higher than reservation wages, but there is no fixed proportionality. We find that the difference between

  14. 75 FR 67662 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Extension of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-Agricultural Employment H- 2B Program; Extension of the Comment Period AGENCIES: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Proposed rule; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: On October 5, 2010, the Employment...-agricultural employment and the enforcement of the obligations applicable to employers of such nonimmigrant...

  15. 29 CFR 516.2 - Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and overtime provisions pursuant to section 6...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage and... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS RECORDS TO BE KEPT BY EMPLOYERS General Requirements § 516.2 Employees subject to minimum wage or minimum wage...

  16. New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…

  17. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...... administrative micro data we find that the elasticity of the wage-setting curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with an university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase...

  18. Wage discrimination and partial compliance with the minimum wage law

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-Ming Chang; Bhavneet Walia

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple model to characterize the discriminatory behavior of a non-complying firm in a minimum-wage economy. In the analysis, the violating firm pays one “favored†group of workers the statutory minimum and the other “non-favored†group of workers a sub-minimum. We find conditions under which law enforcement is ineffective in improving the between-group wage differentials. We show that an increase in the minimum wage raises the sub-minimum wage and employment of wor...

  19. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sarah; Taylor, Karl

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  20. Rising wage inequality, the decline of collective bargaining, and the gender wage gap

    OpenAIRE

    Antonczyk, Dirk; Fitzenberger, Bernd; Sommerfeld, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the increase in wage inequality, the decline in collective bargaining, and the development of the gender wage gap in West Germany between 2001 and 2006. Based on detailed linked employer-employee data, we show that wage inequality is rising strongly – driven not only by real wage increases at the top of the wage distribution, but also by real wage losses below the median. Coverage by collective wage bargaining plummets by 16.5 (19.1) percentage points for male (female)...

  1. Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences...

  2. Do recruitment ties affect wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Rand, John; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    This paper examines the extent to which recruitment ties affect individual wage outcomes in small and medium scale manufacturing firms. Based on a unique matched employer-employee dataset from Vietnam we find that there is a significant positive wage premium associated with obtaining a job through...... an informal contact, when controlling for standard determinants of wage compensation. Moreover, we show that the mechanism through which informal contacts affect wages depends on the type of recruitment tie used. The findings are robust across location, firm size categories and different worker types....

  3. Upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms and physical health related quality of life among women employed in poultry processing and other low-wage jobs in northeastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, C S; Lipscomb, H J

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) and diminished physical health related quality of life (PHRQoL) in a population of women, mostly African-American working in poultry processing and other low-wage jobs in rural northeastern North Carolina. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on baseline data of self-reported PHRQoL and musculoskeletal symptoms for 291 poultry processing workers and 299 community comparison women. Logarithmic binomial regression was performed to assess the relationship between moderate to severe MS on low PHRQoL. Prevalence of poor PHRQoL was 35.5% among poultry processing workers, and 14.7% among community comparison group. Moderate to severe upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were present in 34.4% of the poultry workers and 10.7% of the comparison group. After adjusting for age and other chronic conditions, moderate to severe musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with low PHRQoL in both groups. Although the observed effect was stronger among the comparison group (adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval): poultry workers = 1.89 (1.36, 2.64), community comparison = 4.26 (2.51, 7.24), the population attributable risk percent was similar (poultry workers = 28.9, community comparison = 31.3%)) due to the higher prevalence of moderate to severe symptoms in the poultry workers. Significant upper-extremity musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with poor PHRQoL among both groups of women employed in low-wage jobs. Nationwide, poultry work is over-represented by minorities and immigrants. Though challenging, we need to search for ways to improve the conditions of these women as a matter of social justice.

  4. Wage Setting in Democratic Labour Unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the wage setting of a democratic labour union. The union members differ with respect to their employment probabilities. The union wage only changes if the parameters of the median member change. An exogenous shock to revenue may increase the wage, even if labour demand...

  5. 76 FR 45667 - Wage Methodology for the Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment H-2B Program; Amendment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... performance of the welding is an incidental operation, depending on whether it is the practice in the area to treat welding as a separate occupation. Therefore, we do not believe that employers could easily select... affects a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety...

  6. 29 CFR 520.502 - What information must an application to employ student-learners at subminimum wages contain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., particularly, the processes in which the student-learner will be engaged when in training on the job; (b) A... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What information must an application to employ student... MESSENGERS, LEARNERS (INCLUDING STUDENT-LEARNERS), AND APPRENTICES Student-Learners § 520.502 What...

  7. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use detailed panel data covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides variation in the individual worker......, we also find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems....

  8. 29 CFR 783.45 - Deductions from wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deductions from wages. 783.45 Section 783.45 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Computation of Wages and Hours § 783.45 Deductions from wages. Where...

  9. 29 CFR 783.44 - Board and lodging as wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Board and lodging as wages. 783.44 Section 783.44 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... TO EMPLOYEES EMPLOYED AS SEAMEN Computation of Wages and Hours § 783.44 Board and lodging as wages...

  10. [Psychosocial risks, quality of employment, and workplace stress in Chilean wage-earning workers: a gender perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansoleaga, Elisa; Díaz, Ximena; Mauro, Amalia

    2016-07-21

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of work-related stress in Chile and its association with exposure to workplace psychosocial risks and quality of employment, considering gender differences. The cross-sectional study included a representative probabilistic national sample of 3,010 salaried workers (1,486 women and 1,524 men). Eighteen percent reported work-related stress (23.8% of women and 14.8% of men). People exposed to psychosocial risks had a higher probability of experiencing stress, and women were more likely to suffer stress than men. Women and men in precarious work showed increased likelihood of distress, compared to workers with less precarious jobs. However, women in precarious jobs were more likely to suffer stress than men in the same situation. The study concluded that women had more precarious jobs, experienced greater exposure to psychosocial risks, and suffered more stress than men. This is evidence of double discrimination (social and gender-based) in the Chilean labor market.

  11. Age and perceived stress independently influence daily blood pressure levels and variation among women employed in wage jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, G D; Bovbjerg, D H

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether age and perceived stress were independent factors affecting blood pressure variation associated with changing daily microenvironments among women employed outside the home. The subjects of this study were 91 women from the same workplace (age 33.8 +/- 8.5 years; range 18.2-49.3 years) who wore an ambulatory blood pressure monitor over the course of one workday. Blood pressure averages were calculated at work (11 am to 3 pm), home (6 pm to approximately 10 pm), and during sleep (approximately 10 pm to 6 am). The stressfulness of the work and home microenvironments was rated by self-report on a scale of 0 (low) to 10 (high). A repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to assess the cross-classified effects of perceived stress (work stressed [work > home stress; N = 41], home stressed [home > work stress; N = 39], and equally stressed [work = home stress; N = 11]) and age group (18.0-29.9 years, N = 31; 30-39.9 years, N = 34; 40-49.9 years, N = 26) on the blood pressure averages with daily environment as a within-subject factor and measures of body fat and menstrual phase as covariates. Work-stressed women had higher systolic blood pressure at work, home, and during sleep than home-stressed women (127 vs 119, P job-related stress, continues to have a significant effect on daily blood pressure variation. However, data also indicate that blood pressure measured during the day may not necessarily show a linear increase with age.

  12. Unemployment in Kenya: Some economic factors affecting wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article analyses the economic factors affecting wage employment in Kenya, where open unemployment fell from 15 per cent in 1998/1999 to 13 per cent in 2005/2006. As of 2005/2006, wage employment constituted 13 per cent of the total working population, which implies that doubling wage employment will absorb ...

  13. Wages during the crisis period in the context of their impact of the labor potential

    OpenAIRE

    H. Kulikov

    2011-01-01

    The paper evaluates the influence of the current economic crisis on wages, shadowing wages, employment, and the relationship between wages and productivity in the context of conservation and development of Ukraine's labor potential.

  14. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation in the indi......This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation...... in the individual worker's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. Consistent with predictions we find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems. However, the differences across wage-setting systems...

  15. Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert S.

    1975-01-01

    The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)

  16. Efficiency wages and bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Frank

    2005-01-01

    I argue that in contrast to the literature to date efficiency wage and bargaining solutions will typically be independent. If the bargained wage satisfies the efficiency wage constraint efficiency wages are irrelevant. If it does not, typically we have the efficiency wage solution and bargaining is irrelevant.

  17. Wage Leadership in Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    LEADERSHIP IN CONSTRUCTION Wage leadership is the theory that wage increases in one sector lead to imitative increases elsewhere. In this paper we...test this theory in a large industry where wage leadership is supposed to be dominant- construction. Alternate theories of wage determination (excess...demand, real wage bargaining) are also tested, along with %he efficacy of the 1971-73 wagecotls BACKGROUND The theory of wage leadership is an important

  18. Where the Minimum Wage Bites Hard: the Introduction of the UK National Minimum Wage to a Low Wage Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Machin; Alan Manning; Lupin Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Between 1993 and April 1999 there was no minimum wage in the United Kingdom (except in agriculture). In this paper we study the effects of the introduction of a National Minimum Wage (NMW) in April 1999 on one heavily affected sector, the residential care homes industry. This sector contains a large number of low paid workers and as such can be viewed as being very vulnerable to minimum wage legislation. We look at the impact on both wages and employment. Our results suggest that the minimum ...

  19. Do Immigrants Affect Firm-Specific Wages?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Munch, Jakob R.; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2012-01-01

    We propose and test a novel effect of immigration on wages. Existing studies have focused on the wage effects that result from changes in the aggregate labour supply in a competitive labour market. We argue that if labour markets are not fully competitive, immigrants might also affect wage...... formation at the most disaggregate level – the workplace. Using linked employer-employee data, we find that an increased use of low-skilled immigrant workers has a significantly negative effect on the wages of native workers at the workplace – also when controlling for potential endogeneity of the immigrant...

  20. Social networks and wage outcomes in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Folke; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between the use of informal contacts and wage outcomes using matched employer-employee data from small and medium firms in Vietnam. We find that obtaining a job through knowing another worker in the firm generally is positively associated with individual wages...

  1. 29 CFR 525.10 - Prevailing wage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services which only provide entry level wage data are not acceptable as sources for prevailing wage... OF WORKERS WITH DISABILITIES UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATES § 525.10 Prevailing wage rates. (a) A.... Such data may be obtained by surveying comparable firms in the area that employ primarily nondisabled...

  2. The Impact of Wages on the Probability of Completing an Apprenticeship or Traineeship. NCVER Monograph Series 04/2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmel, Tom; Mlotkowski, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The primary focus of this research is the impact of wages on the decision not to continue with an apprenticeship or traineeship. The approach taken is to model three wages relevant to apprentices and trainees: the wage during training; the expected wage in alternative employment; and, the expected wage on completion. The results of these models…

  3. Beyond conventional wage discrimination analysis: Assessing comprehensive wage distributions of males and females using structured additive distributional regression

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new comprehensive framework for analysing wage discrimination. This framework assesses wage discrimination on the grounds of conditional wage distributions (rather than just conditional means), regards the whole population (rather than just those in work) and employs a more general definition of work based on Margaret Reid's "third party criterion" (rather than a definition based on payment). Examining wage discrimination with respect to gender in Germany, we find ...

  4. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...

  5. Cyclicality of Wages and Union Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morin, Annaïg

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines how trade unions shape the volatility of wages over the business cycle. I present a dynamic stochastic model of the labor market that integrates two main features: search frictions and trade unions. Because of search frictions, each job match yields an economic surplus...... that is shared between the worker and the firm. Therefore, I can decompose the volatility of wages into two components: the volatility of the match surplus and the volatility of the worker share of the surplus. Starting from the unions' objective function, I show that under collective wage bargaining, the worker......: the union wage premium fluctuates counter-cyclically, and employment is more cyclical but less persistent when wages are collectively bargained....

  6. Multitasking and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Görlich, Dennis; Snower, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on how changes in the organization of work can help to understand increasing wage inequality. We present a theoretical model in which workers with a wider span of competence (higher level of multitasking) earn a wage premium. Since abilities and opportunities to expand the span of competence are distributed unequally among workers across and within education groups, our theory helps to explain (1) rising wage inequality between groups, and (2) rising wage inequality wit...

  7. Progressive Taxation, Wage Bargaining, and Endogenous Working Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup

    This paper analyses the impact of tax reforms that decrease income tax progression in an equilibrium search model with wage bargaining and endogenous individual working time. The working time is either bargained together with the hourly wage (case 1) or determined solely by workers after bargaining...... over the wage (case 2). In both cases reducing tax progression increases working time of employed and, more interestingly, increases unambiguously wages and unemployment. Wages and unemployment rise more and working time and production less in case 1 compared to case 2; probably making case 2 countries...

  8. Age, Wage and Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  9. 75 FR 37457 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... Lists the Following Information Title of Proposal: Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and...

  10. 75 FR 4099 - Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and Maintenance Wage Survey; Report of... adopt prevailing wage rates for maintenance laborers and mechanics, and to approve or refer to the U.S... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Maintenance Wage Rate Wage Recommendation and...

  11. The Type of Contract and Starting Wage and Wage Growth: The Evidence from New Graduates from Post-Secondary Schools in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Takuya Hasebe

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of a type of employment contract on starting wage and short-term wage growth. I estimate the differences in starting wage and wage growth patterns between temporary and permanent workers by using a dataset from the Netherlands. The data contain new graduates from post-secondary schools in the Netherlands. As in the continental European countries, the use of temporary employment is common in the Netherlands, especially among young workers. Those who just graduate...

  12. Weight and wages: fat versus lean paychecks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Norton, Edward C; Stearns, Sally C

    2009-05-01

    Past empirical work has shown a negative relationship between the body mass index (BMI) and wages in most cases. We improve on this work by allowing the marginal effect of non-linear BMI groups to vary by gender, age, and type of interpersonal relationships required in each occupation. We use the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (1982-1998). We find that the often-reported negative relationship between the BMI and wages is larger in occupations requiring interpersonal skills with presumably more social interactions. Also, the wage penalty increases as the respondents get older beyond their mid-twenties. We show that being overweight and obese penalizes the probability of employment across all race-gender subgroups except black women and men. Our results for the obesity-wage association can be explained by either consumers or employers having distaste for obese workers. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. A Critical Review of Waging in Indonesian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agusmidah Agusmidah

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is comprehensive look of waging in Indonesian law. Waging in employment still pose a problem. No details of the principle of fair and decent with the policies or the application of the rules of waging, always give rise to new issues and discourse. For the Government, to apply fair and decent wage does not merely make the norm on paper but should be able to guarantee the implementation of the norms in society. This paper uses the literature method with the concept approach. This article discover that the wage disputes can be avoided whereas industrial society interpret the wages in return for the sacrifice that has been given and is able to meet the needs of food, clothing and housing. Then it is not worth it if one party for their maximum benefit utilizing weakness of workers by making the waging system that ignores the principle of fair and decent.

  14. The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina

    Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....

  15. Male Pre and Post Tax Wage Inequality: A Six Country Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Looks at the pre- and post-tax wage distribution of prime age males in six countries, focusing on Australia. Analysis includes an examination of the impact of income taxes and employer and employee contributions on the wage distribution.

  16. Quantile regression analysis of body mass and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Meliyanni; Katayama, Hajime

    2012-05-01

    Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, we explore the relationship between body mass and wages. We use quantile regression to provide a broad description of the relationship across the wage distribution. We also allow the relationship to vary by the degree of social skills involved in different jobs. Our results find that for female workers body mass and wages are negatively correlated at all points in their wage distribution. The strength of the relationship is larger at higher-wage levels. For male workers, the relationship is relatively constant across wage distribution but heterogeneous across ethnic groups. When controlling for the endogeneity of body mass, we find that additional body mass has a negative causal impact on the wages of white females earning more than the median wages and of white males around the median wages. Among these workers, the wage penalties are larger for those employed in jobs that require extensive social skills. These findings may suggest that labor markets reward white workers for good physical shape differently, depending on the level of wages and the type of job a worker has. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  18. TEACHING PERSONNEL WAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Klyachko

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the principle focus in the Russian education system was placed upon raising teaching personnel wages, because these wages are linked to wages of the nursery-school teacher and teaching personnel of the extended education system. During the same year, the Center for Continuing Education Economics under the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration conducted a monitoring of teachers’ reaction to changes to their financial conditions. The monitoring-base...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3121(a)-2 - Wages; when paid and received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wages; when paid and received. 31.3121(a)-2... § 31.3121(a)-2 Wages; when paid and received. (a) In general, wages are received by an employee at the time that they are paid by the employer to the employee. Wages are paid by an employer at the time that...

  20. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Chen, Long-Hwa

    is concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over...... the business cycle. However, firms vary their skills requirements over the business cycle: our empirical analysis shows that, for a given wage offer, requirements are stricter in recessions and downturns. Separating between reasons for posting vacancies turned out important in explaining differences in vacancy...

  1. A large piece of a small pie: Minimum wages and unemployment benefits in an assignment model with search frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Gautier (Pieter); C.N. Teulings (Coen)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractMost empirical studies on the minimum wage find a spike at the minimum wage, compression of wage differentials at a large interval above the minimum wage and small employment losses. This paper offers a search model which is consistent with these facts. We consider a continuum of worker

  2. Skill composition : exploring a wage-based skill measure

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Øivind Anti; Raknerud, Arvid; Rybalka, Marina; Skjerpen, Terje

    2008-01-01

    This study explores a wage-based skill measure using information from a wage equation. Evidence from matched employer-employee data show that skill is attributable to variables other than educational length, for instance experience and type of education. Applying our wage-based skill measure to TFP growth analysis, the TFP growth decreases, indicating that more of the change in value-added is picked up by our skill measure than when using a purely education-based skill measure.

  3. 29 CFR 1620.12 - Wage “rate.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage ârate.â 1620.12 Section 1620.12 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.12 Wage “rate.” (a) The term wage “rate,” as used in the EPA, refers to the standard or measure by which an...

  4. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? 520.200 Section 520.200... lower than the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? Section 14(a) of..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners (including...

  5. Import, Offshoring and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Maitra, Madhura

    Offshoring firms are found to pay higher average wages than purely domestic firms. We provide a unifying empirical approach by capturing the different channels through which offshoring may explain this wage difference: (i) due to change in the composition of workers (skill composition effect) (ii......) because all existing workers get higher pay (rent sharing effect). Using Danish worker-firm data we explain how much each channel contributes to higher wages. To estimate the causal effect of offshoring on wages we use China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001 - and the soon after boom in Chinese...... exports - as positive exogenous shocks to the incentive to offshore to China. Both skill composition and rent sharing effects are found to be important in explaining the resultant gain in wages. We also show that the firm’s timing in the offshoring process determines the relative importance of a channel...

  6. Wages and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Ommeren, Jos N. van; Pilegaard, Ninette

    2011-01-01

    We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. For the range of commuting distances where...... income tax reductions associated with commuting do not apply, one kilometre increase in commuting distance induces a wage increase of about 0.42%, suggesting an hourly compensation of about half of the hourly net wage. Our findings are consistent with wage bargaining theory and suggest a bargaining power...... parameter of about 0.50. Due to the experimental setup we are able to exclude many competing explanations of the wage-distance relationship....

  7. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...... multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either...

  8. Low Wage Mobility in Denmark, Germany and the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deding, Mette

    In this working paper, mobility out of low wage employment in Denmark, Germany, and the United States is studied. Data used for the analysis are the Danish Longitudinal Database – a representative sample of the Danish population, and the PSID-GSOEP Equivalent File Data. Mobility is analysed...... as the transition out of low wage in 1993 and 1995 respectively, conditional on low wage in 1992. The econometric model takes selection into low wage in 1992 into account, and results clearly state the importance. At the aggregate level, mobility patterns are similar in Denmark and Germany, while mobility...

  9. 29 CFR 525.21 - Lowering of wage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lowering of wage rates. 525.21 Section 525.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT... which would affect the productivity of the worker with a disability or which would result in the...

  10. Community College Enrollment, College Major, and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Andrew M.; Leigh, Duane E.

    2000-01-01

    Independent cross-sections developed using National Longitudinal Survey data reveal a decrease in the gender wage gap from 1989-1994 due to fewer differences in tenure and full-time employment. Disaggregating education by two- and four-year providers and college major accounts for 8.5-11% of the narrower wage gap for the period. (SK)

  11. The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James

    2008-01-01

    Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…

  12. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    and region. But temps already suffer from a marked wage decline before entering the temporary help sector. Nevertheless, temporary agency employment does not leave a long lasting scar. Three quarters after leaving the sector, temps no longer suffer from a wage penalty. A recent change in the law set a high...

  13. Job-to-Job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    In this paper, we measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. Using the Danish matched employer-employee data, we reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixedeffects wage regression. To estimate firm fixed effects, we exp...

  14. Job-to-job Transitions, Sorting, and Wage Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinkins, David; Morin, Annaïg

    We measure the contribution of match quality to the wage growth experienced by job movers. We reject the exogenous mobility assumption needed to estimate a standard fixed-effects wage regression in the Danish matched employer-employee data. We exploit the sub-sample of workers hired from unemploy...

  15. Six months into Myanmar's minimum wage: Reflecting on progress ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-25

    Apr 25, 2016 ... Employment and Growth. ​Six months ago, the Government of Myanmar established a national minimum wage, expecting that it would stimulate investment in the garment industry. The new wage, 3,600 Kyat (3 US$) a day, is as much as 4.5 times more than unskilled entry-level workers were earning.

  16. Six months into Myanmar's minimum wage: Reflecting on progress ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. ​Six months ago, the Government of Myanmar established a national minimum wage, expecting that it would stimulate investment in the garment industry. The new wage, 3,600 Kyat (3 US$) a day, is as much as 4.5 times more than unskilled entry-level workers were earning. Half a year later, ...

  17. Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The estimates suggest that a 10% increase in the real minimum wage leads employment in the formal sector to fall by approximately 1% in Costa Rica, 3% in Nicaragua and 10% in El Salvador. KEY CHOICES. Evidence suggests that minimum wages are not an efficient way to reduce poverty in Central American countries.

  18. Worker and Firm Heterogeneity in Wage Growth: An AKM approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates a wage growth equation containing human capital variables known from the traditional Mincerian wage equation with year, worker and firm fixed effects included as well. The paper thus contributes further to the large empirical literature on unobserved heterogeneity following...... the work of Abowd, Kramarz, and Margolis (1999). Our main contribution is to extend the analysis from wage levels to wage growth. The specification enables us to estimate the individual specific and firm specific fixed effects and their degree of explanation on wage growth. The analysis is conducted using...... Danish longitudinal matched employer-employee data from 1980 to 2006. We find that the worker fixed effect dominates both the firm fixed effect and the effect of the observed covariates. Worker effects are estimated to explain seven to twelve per cent of the variance in wage growth while firm effects...

  19. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    I develop a stylized partial on-the-job equilibrium search model which incorporate a spatial dimension. Workers reside on a circle and can move at a cost. Each point on the circle has a wage distribution. Implications about wages and job mobility are drawn from the model and tested on Danish...... matched employer-employee data. The model predictions hold true. I find that workers working farther away from their residence earn higher wages. When a worker is making a job-to-job transition where he changes workplace location he experiences a higher wage change than a worker making a job-to-job...... transition without changing workplace location. However, workers making a job-to-job transition which makes the workplace location closer to the residence experiences a wage drop. Furthermore, low wage workers and workers with high transportation costs are more likely to make job-to-job transitions, but also...

  20. Wage differentials between college graduates with and without learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Verbeek, Roelant L

    2002-01-01

    Wage differential studies examining legally protected groups typically focus on gender or racial differences. Legislation also fully protects individuals with learning disabilities (LD). This article is the first to decompose wage differentials between adults with and without LD. An original data set of college graduates with documented LD was constructed, and these individuals were compared to a control group from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Our results show that much of the observed lower wages for individuals with LD is due to differences in productivity characteristics. However, there is an unexplained portion of the wage gap that could possibly be considered wage discrimination against individuals with LD. This possibility seems smaller due to the fact that the subsample of the employers who knew of the employee's learning disabilities did not appear to pay significantly lower wages to these individuals. Alternative hypotheses are discussed, as are sample-specific issues.

  1. Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Alan B.

    2001-01-01

    Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)

  2. COMMENTS ON THE INTERDEPENDENCE BETWEEN THE MINIMUM WAGE, PRICES AND OTHER TYPES OF WAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona GHITA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the times, the minimum wage is regarded as main instrument of poverty diminishment. From the experience of developed countries it results that the increase of the minimum wage must carefully be determined so as not to trigger negative effects on employment, and not to exceed the one of the average wage. The International Monetary Fund has shown concern with respect to the consequences of increasing minimum wage, indicating that even agreeing with social programmes, the significant increase of the minimum wage above the level of labour productivity increase shall hinder the deflation process ad the Romanian economic competitiveness and that would affect, finally, more population categories with lowest incomes. The paper researches, in its first part, the relation between the minimum wage, the average wage and the level of inflation from the theoretical viewpoint, and in the second a statistical analysis is performed with respect to the evolution of these indicators and the relationship between them in Romania for the period after 1990.

  3. 20 CFR 404.1059 - Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. 404.1059 Section 404.1059 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL...-Employment Income Wages § 404.1059 Deemed wages for certain individuals interned during World War II. (a) In...

  4. Continuous Training and Wages: An Empirical Analysis Using a Comparison-Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlitz, Katja

    2011-01-01

    Using German linked employer-employee data, this paper investigates the short-term impact of on-the-job training on wages. The applied estimation approach was first introduced by Leuven and Oosterbeek (2008). Wages of employees who intended to participate in training but did not do so because of a random event are compared to wages of training…

  5. High Skills, High Wages. Washington's Comprehensive Plan for Workforce Training and Education, 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Workforce Training and Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    In Washington, urban centers enjoy rising wages and low employment; rural areas have stagnating wages and high unemployment. Most family-wage job opportunities are in occupations that require some postsecondary education but not a four-year degree. The shortage is most severe in the supply of skilled workers with vocational training. Technology…

  6. Job Mobility and Wage Mobility of High- and Low-Paid Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, D.; Fouarge, D.; Muffels, R.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that voluntary job-to-job changes have a positive effect on wage growth. This paper argues that the impact of a job change on wage mobility depends on the position in the wage distribution. Using panel data from the UK and Germany, we show that a change of employer results into a

  7. Job mobility and wage mobility of high-and low-paid workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, Dimitris; Fouarge, Didier; Muffels, Ruud; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that voluntary job-to-job changes have a positive effect on wage growth. This paper argues that the impact of a job change on wage mobility depends on the position in the wage distribution. Using panel date from the UK and Germany, we show that a change of employer results into a

  8. Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…

  9. 29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...

  10. Implementation Of The Local Minimum Wage In Malang City (A Case Study in Malang City 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhea Candra Dewi Candra Dewi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wage system in a framework of how wages set and defined in order to improve the welfare of worker. The Indonesian government attempt to set a minimum wage in accordance with the eligibility standard of living. The study intend to analize the policy of Local Minimum Wage in Malang City in 2014, its implementation and constraining factors of those Local Minimum Wages. The research uses interactive model analysis as introduced by Miles and Hubermann [6] that consist of data collection, data reduction, data display, and conclusion. Constraining factors seen at the respond given by relevant actors to the policy such as employer organizations, worker unions, wage councils, and local government. Firstly, company as employer organization does not use wage scale system as suggested by the policy. Secondly, lack of communication forum between company and worker union sounds very high. Thirdly, inability of small and big companies to pay minimum standard wages. Lastly, disagreement and different opinion about wage scale applied between local wage council, employer organization and workers union that often occurs in tripartite communication forum.     Keywords: Employers Organization, Local Minimum Wage, Local Wage Council, Policy Implementation, Tripartite Communication forum, Workers Union.

  11. Retail jobs in the Netherlands: low pay in a context of long-term wage moderation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Salverda, W.; Tijdens, K.

    2009-01-01

    Wage moderation has been at the heart of the Netherlands' model of socio-economic governance since the 1980s. Low-paid employment has grown significantly, lower wages being constrained by declining minimum wages. Lagging incomes and consumption have depressed demand in retail, whose workforce -

  12. VSRR Provisional Drug Overdose Death Counts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains provisional counts for drug overdose deaths based on a current flow of mortality data in the National Vital Statistics System. National...

  13. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Kristensen, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-off between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. We use the vignettes method to estimate individuals' willingness......-to-pay for fringe benefits and job amenities. We find negative wage-fringe trade-offs, considerable heterogeneity in willingness-to-pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting....

  14. Wages or Fringes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Kristensen, Nicolai

    The two key predictions of hedonic wage theory are that there is a trade-o¤ between wages and nonmonetary rewards and that the latter can be used as a sorting device by firms to attract and retain the kind of employees they desire. Empirical analysis of these topics are scarce as they require...... negative wage-fringe trade-offs, con-siderable heterogeneity in willingness to pay for fringe benefits, and signs of sorting. The findings imply that personnel economics models can be applied also to the analysis of nonmonetary rewards....

  15. Specialization, Outsourcing and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rose Skaksen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    arising from an increase in the extent of the market for intermediate goods, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsurcing affect wages as predicted......This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. By using a simple theoretical model, we argue that, if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains...

  16. Rigidity of Nominal Wages of Non-Production Workers in Industrial Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Sulistiyono

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Excess supply of labor leads to low the levels of nominal wages received by workers. The amount of minimum wage rate exceeds the market wage rate. The determination of minimum wage is a factor manifested in the institutional and regulatory Provincial Minimum Wage or a District Minimum Wage. Unfortunately, it has made nominal wages  difficult to drop below the minimum wage level. High or low level of nominal wages are associated with worker productivity. Further, nominal wages are rigid to go down. If they have increased, they can not be dropped in the future even though the company's performance is declined. Knowing that condition, in designing the remuneration system, an employer should pay attention to the rigidity of nominal wages, so that when  company's performance declines, the company will not be interfered because of the wages burden.  Furthermore, unions and government should consider the rigidity impact of nominal wages that go down. Thus, when macroeconomic conditions deteriorate and company's performance drops, the company will not go bankrupt due to high labor costs. If the company goes bankrupt, the workers will loose their jobs as a result of employment termination, while the government will face the unemployment problem. 

  17. Gender, Motivation, Experience and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Swaffield

    2000-01-01

    Using data from the British Household Panel Survey, 1991-97 this paper investigates the structure of the female wage equation and the gender wage differential. The discriminatory portion of the gender wage differential is overstated by over 40% when inadequate measures of female labour market experience are included in the wage equation. The degree of labour market motivation, aspirations and constraints are found to have a significant impact on the female wage. Moreover, the impact of time o...

  18. Estimating Gender Wage Gaps: A Data Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Judith A.; Thornton, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    In the authors' 2011 "JEE" article, "Estimating Gender Wage Gaps," they described an interesting class project that allowed students to estimate the current gender earnings gap for recent college graduates using data from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE). Unfortunately, since 2012, NACE no longer…

  19. Specialization, outsourcing and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. We argue that if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains arising from an increase in the division ...... of labor, domestic outsourcing tends to increase wages for both unskilled and skilled labor. We use a panel data set of workers in Danish manufacturing industries to show that domestic and foreign outsourcing affect wages as predicted.......This paper studies the impact of outsourcing on individual wages. In contrast to the standard approach in the literature, we focus on domestic outsourcing as well as foreign outsourcing. We argue that if outsourcing is associated with specialization gains arising from an increase in the division...

  20. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

    does not sufficiently control for the underlying correlation, but additional control for the size of the change of production indicates that subsidized labour to some extent substitutes non-subsidized labour. But the substitution depends on the applied econometric specification, i.e. a cumulative logit...

  1. Public sector wages

    OpenAIRE

    B. Eugène

    2011-01-01

    Remuneration paid by public administrations in Belgium amounted to one-quarter of their primary expenditure in 2010. Because current conditions call for fiscal consolidation, it is important to examine whether this component of spending could be a source of budget savings, including by adjusting wages. The article focuses principally on wage gaps between the public sector and the private sector. The authors are especially interested in the situation in Belgium as compared with those of nine o...

  2. Minimum wages as a barrier to entry: Evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmann, Ronald; Bauer, Thomas K.; Kröger, Hanna

    2012-01-01

    This study analyses employers' support for the introduction of industry-specific minimum wages as a cost-raising strategy in order to deter market entry. Using a unique data set consisting of 800 firms in the German service sector, we find some evidence that high-productivity employers support minimum wages. We further show that minimum wage support is higher in industries and regions with low barriers to entry. This is particularly the case in East Germany, where the perceived threat of low-...

  3. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  4. Wage Effects of Trade Reform with Endogenous Worker Mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Pravin Krishna; Poole, Jennifer P.; Mine Zeynep Senses

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we use a linked employer-employee database from Brazil to evaluate the wage effects of trade reform. With an aggregate (firm-level) analysis of this question, we find that a decline in trade protection is associated with an increase in average wages in exporting firms relative to domestic firms, consistent with earlier studies. However, using disaggregated, employer-employee level data, and allowing for the endogenous assignment of workers to firms due to match-specific product...

  5. 26 CFR 1.1402(d)-1 - Employee and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee and wages. 1.1402(d)-1 Section 1.1402... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(d)-1 Employee and wages. For the purpose of the tax on self-employment income, the term “employee” and the term “wages” shall have the same...

  6. The fixed/detachable implant provisional prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibirka, R M; Linebaugh, M L

    1997-06-01

    Interim modification and management of a complete denture following surgical uncovering of dental implants can be time-intensive and may fail to provide adequate patient benefit until the definitive prosthesis can be completed. Inadequate interim management can result in functional and tissue difficulties. Modification of the conventional complete denture to a fixed/detachable provisional prosthesis in a one-stage procedure provides the patient an opportunity to experience a fixed prosthesis. The incorporation of fixed, provisional cylinders to the existing denture base using autopolymerizing acrylic resin with a closed-mouth technique is described. The peripheral regions are reduced and the distal extension shortened to resemble a fixed/detachable prosthesis. This conversion technique can provide patient satisfaction and comfort until delivery of the definitive prosthesis. Esthetic concerns, home care problems, or patient difficulties with the provisional prosthesis can be rectified in the final prosthesis.

  7. Interpreting Minimum Wage Effects on Wage Distributions: A Cautionary Tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Flinn

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWhile it is tempting to infer the welfare effects of minimum wage changes from empirical observations on pre- and post-change wage distributions, in this exercise we have attempted to point out the hazards of doing so. We have focused on wage distributions in this paper, but this

  8. Wages in Rwanda. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Mbassana, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Rwanda, conducted between the 27th of October and the 3rd of December 2012. The survey aimed to measure in detail the wages earned by Rwandan workers. In total 2,074 persons were interviewed in towns in

  9. Rural hospital wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Ann M.

    1989-01-01

    Average fiscal year 1982 wages from 2,302 rural American hospitals were used to test for a gradient descending from hospitals in counties adjacent to metropolitan areas to those not adjacent. Considerable variation in the ratios of adjacent to nonadjacent averages existed. No statistically significant difference was found, however. Of greater importance in explaining relative wages within States were occupational mix, mix of part-time and full-time workers, case mix, presence of medical residencies, and location in a high-rent county within the State. Medicare already adjusts payments for only two of these variables. PMID:10313454

  10. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbardella, Angelica; Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country's economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990-2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990-2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States.

  11. Economic development and wage inequality: A complex system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Pietronero, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Adapting methods from complex system analysis, this paper analyzes the features of the complex relationship between wage inequality and the development and industrialization of a country. Development is understood as a combination of a monetary index, GDP per capita, and a recently introduced measure of a country’s economic complexity: Fitness. Initially the paper looks at wage inequality on a global scale, over the time period 1990–2008. Our empirical results show that globally the movement of wage inequality along with the ongoing industrialization of countries has followed a longitudinally persistent pattern comparable to the one theorized by Kuznets in the fifties: countries with an average level of development suffer the highest levels of wage inequality. Next, the study narrows its focus on wage inequality within the United States. By using data on wages and employment in the approximately 3100 US counties over the time interval 1990–2014, it generalizes the Fitness-Complexity metric for geographic units and industrial sectors, and then investigates wage inequality between NAICS industries. The empirical time and scale dependencies are consistent with a relation between wage inequality and development driven by institutional factors comparing countries, and by change in the structural compositions of sectors in a homogeneous institutional environment, such as the counties of the United States. PMID:28926577

  12. Age, wage, and job placement: older women's experiences entering the retail sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Miller, Ellen G; Lambert, Susan J; Henly, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    Older women seeking employment often find opportunities limited to low-wage jobs, such as those in retail. We report findings about job placement and starting wages for hourly workers hired at a women's apparel retailer from August 2006 to December 2009. We examine competing hypotheses regarding the role of age in explaining women's job placement and starting wages. Although newly hired women age 55+ earn higher wages and are placed in higher-quality jobs than the youngest women (ages 18-22), they are less likely to be placed in better-quality jobs than their midlife counterparts. Overall, wage differences are largely explained by job quality.

  13. Qualifications, Discrimination, or Assimilation? An Extended Framework for Analysing Immigrant Wage Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    In this paper, we analyze immigrant wage gaps and propose an extension of the traditional wage decomposition technique, which is a synthesis from two strains of literature on ethnic/immigrant wage differences, namely the 'assimilation literature' and the 'discrimination literature'. We estimate...... separate wage equations for natives and a number of immigrant groups using panel data sample selection models. Based on the estimations, we find that the immigrant wage gap is caused by a lack of qualifications and incomplete assimilation, and that a large fraction of that gap would disappear if only...... immigrants could find employment and thus accumulate work experience....

  14. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations. In...

  15. VSRR - Provisional monthly number of live births by state

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly provisional counts of births are provided by state of residence (50 states, District of...

  16. VSRR - Provisional monthly number of deaths by state

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly provisional counts of deaths and infant deaths are provided by state of residence (50 states,...

  17. Bacterial adhesion of porphyromonas gingivalis on provisional fixed prosthetic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Zortuk

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion : The quantity of bacterial adhesion and surface roughness differed among the assessed provisional fixed prosthodontic materials. The light-polymerized provisional material Revotek LC had rougher surface and more bacterial adhesion compared with the others.

  18. Program participation, labor force dynamics, and accepted wage rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skipper, Lars

    2008-01-01

    transition rate from unemployment to employment upon completion. Most programs, therefore, increase the expected duration of unemployment spells. However, we find that the training undertaken while unemployed successfully increases the expected duration of subsequent spells of employment for many...... subpopulations. These longer spells of employment come at a cost of lower accepted hourly wage rates...

  19. Wage differentials among Appalachian sawmills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. Wolf

    1977-01-01

    Wage differences among Appalachian sawmills were investigated, using multiple-regression analysis. Wages and fringe benefits were found to vary with type of product sawed, education of the work force, distance to urban areas, general wage levels, and use of collective-bargaining agreements between management and labor.

  20. Wages and Skills Utilization: Effect of Broad Skills and Generic Skills on Wages in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Catherine R.; Ng, Michael Chi Man; Sung, Johnny; Loke, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Many people go for training to upgrade their skills which is hoped to pave the way for better pay. But what are the kinds of skills that really affect wages? Employers have emphasized the value of generic skills such as interpersonal and communication skills, teamwork and problem solving. Does possession of these skills translate to at least the…

  1. Generalized provisional seed zones for native plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Bower; J. Bradley St.Clair; Vicky. Erickson

    2014-01-01

    Deploying well-adapted and ecologically appropriate plant materials is a core component of successful restoration projects. We have developed generalized provisional seed zones that can be applied to any plant species in the United States to help guide seed movement. These seed zones are based on the intersection of high-resolution climatic data for winter minimum...

  2. INTERACTIVE NAME PLACEMENT FOR PROVISIONAL MAPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Thomas C.

    1983-01-01

    Computer generation and placement of map type has been refined into a production mode at Mid-Continent Mapping Center (MCMC) for USGS 1:24,000- and 1:25,000-scale Provisional maps. The map collar program is written in FORTRAN using batch processing that allows the program to work in the background.

  3. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for infant mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of infant mortality (deaths of infants under 1 year per 1,000 live births), neonatal mortality (deaths of infants aged 0-27 days per 1,000 live...

  4. 34 CFR 34.22 - Employer responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer responsibilities. 34.22 Section 34.22 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 34.22 Employer... from the debtor's wages for each pay period until the employer receives our notification to discontinue...

  5. Job creation and destruction, worker reallocation and wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belzil, Christian

    1997-01-01

    Using Danish firm level data on employment dynamics merged with individual records on all workers in a given firm, various measures of employment and worker reallocation used in the macroeconomics literature are incorporated in a wage equation framework. The effects of job creation/destruction an......Using Danish firm level data on employment dynamics merged with individual records on all workers in a given firm, various measures of employment and worker reallocation used in the macroeconomics literature are incorporated in a wage equation framework. The effects of job creation....../destruction and worker rellocation are estimated using standard panel data techniques. Brief results will go here!!!...

  6. Wages and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulalic, Ismir; Ommeren, Jos N. van; Pilegaard, Ninette

    2011-01-01

    We examine the causal effect of commuting distance on workers' wages in a quasi-natural experiments setting using information on all workers in Denmark. We account for endogeneity of distance by using changes in distance that are due to firms’ relocations. For the range of commuting distances whe...

  7. Body composition and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Roy; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-07-01

    This paper examines the relationship between body composition and wages in the United States. We develop measures of body composition--body fat (BF) and fat-free mass (FFM)--using data on bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) that are available in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III and estimate wage models for respondents in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Previous research uses body size or BMI as measures of obesity despite a growing concern that they do not distinguish between body fat and fat-free body mass or adequately control for non-homogeneity inside the human body. Therefore, measures presented in this paper represent a useful alternative to BMI-based proxies of obesity. Our results indicate that BF is associated with decreased wages for both males and females among whites and blacks. We also present evidence suggesting that FFM is associated with increased wages. We show that these results are not the artifacts of unobserved heterogeneity. Finally, our findings are robust to numerous specification checks and to a large number of alternative BIA prediction equations from which the body composition measures are derived. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Many papers have documented a wage premium in foreign-owned and large firms. However, there is very little formal theory in the literature and empirical analyses are typically not based on hypotheses which are rigorously derived from theory. This paper contributes to the theory-empirics gap by de...

  9. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Schjerning, Bertel; R. Markusen, James

    2013-01-01

    Three types of theories have been used to explain the wage premium in foreign firms: the theories of heterogeneous workers, heterogeneous learning, and heterogeneous firms. We set up a model that explicitly encompasses two of these theories, and that can illustrate the third. This unifying framew...

  10. Wage Dispersion, Public Sector Wages and the Stagnating Danish Gender Wage Gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Oaxaca, Ronald L.; Smith, Nina

    1998-01-01

    , the impact of the changing wage structure between the public and private sectors is investigated. The analysis is based on the Juhn-Murphy-Pierce decomposition applied to a pooled wage regression model. The equivalence between the former and the Oaxaca-Ransom generalized wage decomposition is established...

  11. 29 CFR 520.403 - What information is required when applying for authority to pay less than the minimum wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pay less than the minimum wage? 520.403 Section 520.403 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT UNDER SPECIAL CERTIFICATE OF... than the minimum wage? (a) A separate application must be made for each plant or establishment...

  12. Employment and Unemployment in Lagos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Fapohunda (Olanrewaju)

    1977-01-01

    textabstractWage-earning employment was non-existent in Nigeria before the advent of the white man and the British administration. The average Nigerian engaged in subsistence agriculture or some cottage industry like weaving, pottery or carving. The first wage earners in Nigeria were probably the

  13. 20 CFR 655.731 - What is the first LCA requirement, regarding wages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the first LCA requirement, regarding... Specialty Occupations § 655.731 What is the first LCA requirement, regarding wages? An employer seeking to... wage requirement. The first LCA requirement shall be satisfied when the employer signs Form ETA 9035 or...

  14. Education, Signaling, and Wage Inequality in a Dynamic Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yuki, Kazuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Many empirical works suggest that education has a positive effect on earnings not only because it raises human capital but also because it functions as a signal when employers have incomplete information on employees' skills. The signaling role could have important consequences on the dynamics of education, wages, and wage distribution when there exist intergenerational linkages in educational decisions. This paper examines the dynamic effects in an economy where education has the dual r...

  15. The Potential Effects of Minimum Wage Changes on Naval Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Management and Budget , Paperwork Reduction Project (0704-0188) Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE March 2017 3...Others believe that an increase in minimum wage would hurt employees and employers. A Congressional Budget Office report estimated that the proposed...minimum wage laws with their decision in the case of West Coast Hotel Company v. Parrish where they found in favor of Elsie Parrish. This case called

  16. Decomposition of gender wage differentials among Portuguese top management jobs

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Vale Mendes

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies gender wage differentials among top managers in the Portuguese economy. The objective is to investigate whether men and women within the same occupational group, with relatively high levels of human capital, and who are evaluated basically on their performance, are treated unequally in relation to pay. The Oaxaca wage differential decomposition method is used, relying on 1999 micro data gathered by the Portuguese Ministry of Social Security and Employment. The main findings...

  17. Performance-related pay and gender wage differences

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Mari; Kauhanen, Antti

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of performance-related pay (PRP) on gender wage differences using Finnish linked employer-employee panel data. Controlling for unobserved person and firm effects, we find that bonuses increase women's earnings slightly less than men's, but the economic significance of the difference is negligible. Piece rates and reward rates, however, tend to increase gender wage differentials. Thus, the nature of a performance related pay plan is important for gauging the impact of PRP o...

  18. Job Satisfaction and Co-worker Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kristensen, Nicolai; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    This paper uses matched employer-employee panel data to show that individual job satisfaction is higher when other workers in the same establishment are better-paid. This runs contrary to a large literature which has found evidence of income comparisons in subjective well-being. We argue that the......This paper uses matched employer-employee panel data to show that individual job satisfaction is higher when other workers in the same establishment are better-paid. This runs contrary to a large literature which has found evidence of income comparisons in subjective well-being. We argue...... that the difference hinges on the nature of the reference group. We here use co-workers. Their wages not only induce jealousy, but also provide a signal about the worker's own future earnings. Our positive estimated coefficient on others' wages shows that this positive future earnings signal outweighs any negative...

  19. Efficiency wages, unemployment and international factor movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, B

    1998-09-01

    "This paper examines the implications of unemployment resulting from efficiency wages for international factor movements in a standard Heckscher-Ohlin model where the relative size of the endowments of skilled and unskilled workers and the efficiency wage induced unemployment level in the unskilled labour market are simultaneously determined given the population, supply of capital and its distribution in the economy.... It is shown that the optimum labour inflow in the market with domestic distortion and the optimum capital inflow are always positive because they reduce the severity of distortion by raising employment and income for the residents. The income and employment of foreigners also increase. Under this situation the optimum labour or capital outflow on the other hand is always zero. These conclusions directly contradict the result obtained for international factor movements in the presence of exogenously determined unemployment." excerpt

  20. A Different Class of Care: the Benefits Crisis and Low-Wage Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Trina

    When compared to other developed nations, the United States fares poorly with regard to benefits for workers. While the situation is grim for most U.S. workers, it is worse for low-wage workers. Data show a significant benefits gap between low-wage and high-wage in terms of flexible work arrangements (FWAs), paid leave, pensions, and employer-sponsored health-care insurance, among other things. This gap exists notwithstanding the fact that FWAs and employment benefits produce positive returns for employees, employers, and society in general. Despite these returns, this Article contends that employers will be loath to extend FWAs and greater employment benefits to low-wage workers due to (1) concerns about costs, (2) a surplus of low-wage workers in the labor market, (3) negative perceptions of the skill of low-wage workers and the value of low-wage work, (4) other class-based stereotypes and biases, and (5) structural impediments in some low-wage jobs. Given the decline of unions and limited legislative action to date, the Article maintains that low-wage workers are in a "different class of care" with little hope for meaningful change on the horizon.

  1. Gender, race & the veteran wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on the wages of direct care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughman, Reagan A; Smith, Kristin

    2010-05-01

    Despite growing demand for nursing and home health care as the US population ages, compensation levels in the low-skill nursing labor market that provides the bulk of long-term care remain quite low. The challenge facing providers of long-term care is that Medicaid reimbursement rates for nursing home and home health care severely restrict the wage growth that is necessary to attract workers, resulting in high turnover and labor shortages. Almost half of US states have responded by enacting "pass-through" provisions in their Medicaid programs, channeling additional long-term care funding directly to compensation of lower-skill nursing workers. We test the effect of Medicaid wage pass-through programs on hourly wages for direct care workers. We estimate several specifications of wage models using employment data from the 1996 and 2001 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for nursing, home health, and personal care aides. The effect of pass-through programs is identified by an indicator variable for states with programs; 20 states adopted pass-throughs during the sample period. Workers in states with pass-through programs earn as much as 12% more per hour than workers in other states after those programs are implemented. Medicaid wage pass-through programs appear to be a viable policy option for raising compensation levels of direct care workers, with an eye toward improving recruitment and retention in long-term care settings.

  3. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment. Exceptions...

  4. Rural Hospital Wages and the Area Wage Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Kathleen; Slifkin, Rebecca T.; Howard, Hilda A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined data on hospital hourly wages and the prospective payment system (PPS) wage index from 1990 to 1997, to determine if incremental changes to the index have improved its precision and equity as a regional cost adjuster. The differential between average rural and urban PPS hourly wages has declined by almost one-fourth over the 8-year study period. Nearly one-half of the decrease is attributable to regulatory and reporting changes in the annual hospital wage survey. Patterns of within-market wage variation across rural-urban continuum codes identify three separate sub-markets within the State-level aggregates defining rural labor markets. Geographic reclassification decisions appear to eliminate one of the three. Remaining systematic within-market rural wage differences work to the reimbursement advantage of hospitals in the smaller and more isolated communities. PMID:12545604

  5. On the robustness of minimum wage effects: geographically-disparate trends and job growth equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Addison, John T; Blackburn, McKinley L; Cotti, Chad D

    2015-01-01

    ... minima on employment growth. This paper investigates whether such considerations call into question findings of statistically insignificant employment effects reported in the literature for an archetypal low-wage sector in the United States...

  6. Low-Wage Counties Face Locational Disadvantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Robert; Cromartie, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Small populations and remoteness are the most salient features of low-wage counties. These locational attributes coincide with fewer high-wage jobs, yet low wages within industries define low-wage counties more than industry composition. Although adults in low-wage counties have less education and labor force participation overall, the role played…

  7. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  8. 5 CFR 551.311 - Subminimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subminimum wage. 551.311 Section 551.311... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Subminimum Wage § 551.311 Subminimum wage. An agency... minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act. ...

  9. The Minimum Wage Spike in the Search Economy with Wage-Posting

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya Y. Shelkova

    2009-01-01

    Empirical wage and wage offer distributions exhibit substantial clustering in economies with a mandated minimum wage, the phenomenon knows as the minimum wage spike, as well as wage dispersion. Existing search-theoretic literature does not replicate both of the empirical phenomena simultaneously. This paper attempts to reconcile the two under assumptions of wage-posting, urn-ball matching and firm productive heterogeneity. A non-degenerate minimum wage spike and wage dispersion are obtained w...

  10. Labour-market institutions and the dispersion of wage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Checchi, D.

    Considering the contribution of the distribution of individual wages and earnings to that of household incomes we find two separate literatures that should be brought together, and bring ‘new institutions’ into play. Growing female employment, rising dual-earnership and part-time employment

  11. Labor Market Institutions and the Dispersion of Wage Earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salverda, W.; Checchi, D.; Atkinson, A.B.; Bourguignon, F.

    2015-01-01

    Considering the contribution of the distribution of individual wages and earnings to that of household incomes we find two separate literatures that should be brought together, and bring “new institutions” into play. Growing female employment, rising dual-earnership and part-time employment

  12. The wages of trust - The case of child minders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielers, R

    In this paper it is argued that the assumptions of the neoclassical and wage efficiency models do not adequately explain the governance structure of employment relationships. Trust may be a constituent element of at least some employment relationships, e.g, those of child minders. According to the

  13. Wage differentials in Jordan: effects on integrated labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Share, M A

    1987-06-01

    The emigration of Jordanian workers has benefited the country by reducing the scale of unemployment that existed in the 1960s and early 1970s. In addition, workers' remittances have had a favorable effect on the Jordanian balance of payments and contributed to increases in wage rates and demands for labor. Any shortages of labor resulting from the emigration flow appear to have been offset by the importation of workers from neighboring countries. A sample survey encompassing 495 foreign workers in Jordan and 518 Jordanian workers indicates that immigrant workers' wages are below those of Jordanian workers and considerably below the wages that Jordanian workers earn abroad. The average monthly wage for the Jordanians in the sample was JD 193.03 compared to JD 132.93 for the immigrants--a 45% difference. Over half of the immigrants surveyed earned under JD 99/month, while only 26% of the Jordanian workers were in this low income category. In part this wage differential is caused by the high proportions of immigrant workers employed in the clerical and unskilled occupational groups, where they are paid only half the wages earned by Jordanians engaged in the same occupations. A similar differential was observed in the average amount of monthly remittances to home countries: in 1982, Jordanians working abroad remitted an average of JD 77.5/worker compared with JD 59/worker remitted by foreign workers employed in Jordan. On balance, it appears that Jordan is a net gainer from the process of labor import and export.

  14. 20 CFR 404.1247 - When to report wages-for wages paid prior to 1987.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When to report wages-for wages paid prior to... Report Wages and Contributions-for Wages Paid Prior to 1987 § 404.1247 When to report wages—for wages paid prior to 1987. A State shall report wages for the calendar year in which they were actually paid...

  15. The new labor market: immigrants and wages after IRCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J A; Massey, D S

    1999-05-01

    We examine the effect of the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) on migrants' wages using data gathered in 39 Mexican communities and their U.S. destination areas. We examine changes in the determinants of wages before and after the passage of IRCA, as well as the effects of its massive legalization program. Migrants' wages deteriorated steadily between 1970 and 1995, but IRCA did not foment discrimination against Mexican workers per se. Rather, it appears to have encouraged greater discrimination against undocumented migrants, with employers passing the costs and risks of unauthorized hiring on to the workers. Although available data do not permit us to eliminate competing explanations entirely, limited controls suggest that the post-IRCA wage penalty against undocumented migrants did not stem from an expansion of the immigrant labor supply, an increase in the use of labor subcontracting, or a deterioration of the U.S. labor market.

  16. Increased Sorting and Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of firms' wage structures using a linked employer-employee dataset, which has longitudinal information for firms and covers a large fraction of the Czech labor market during the period 1998-2006. We first look at the evolution of individual wage determination...... and find evidence of slightly increasing returns to human capital and diminishing gender inequality. We then document sharp increases in both within-firm and between-firm inequality. We investigate various hypotheses to explain these patterns: increased domestic and international competition......, an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining, skill biased technological change and a changing educational composition of the workforce. We find some support for that all these factors have contributed to the changes in the Czech wage structure, and that increased sorting is strongly associated with the observed...

  17. Controlling the Public Wage Bill in Portugal: The Case of University Professors

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo M. Pereira; Rui Manuel Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Public wages are a large share of the public budget in Portugal and, therefore, hiring freezes are a central feature of the efforts to control the public deficit. The system of public career advancement, however, may lead to increases in the wage bill even in the presence of hiring freezes. We estimate this wage drift effect in the case of university professors. We use a logit analysis with 1999 census data to identify the determinants of career advancement, to estimate the employment distrib...

  18. The Effects of Changes in the Foreign Worker Quota on the Native Workers under Efficiency Wages

    OpenAIRE

    島田, 章

    2005-01-01

    Assuming a small open economy where wages are determined by the efficiency wage hypothesis, we investigate how the changes in the foreign worker quota affect native worker employment, wage and expected lifetime utility. For this purpose, we assume that the foreign worker quota is smaller than the number of foreign workers who are willing to migrate to the small open economy. We also assume that the per capita effective labor force of native workers is larger than that offoreign workers. We sh...

  19. Effects of Intensifying Labor Market Programs on Post-Unemployment Wages: Evidence From a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    employer-employee and public transfer register data up to 2008 enabling us to analyze exact labor market transitions and jobs of the participants. Men in one of the counties experienced significant higher probability of earning higher short and long term wages after treatment. Treated men in the other...... county encountered a higher probability of earning lower wages than non-treated in the short term. Women saw small positive or zero effects on wages....

  20. Ageing, productivity and wages in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlberg, Bernhard; Freund, Inga; Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Prskawetz, Alexia

    2013-06-01

    Current demographic developments in industrialized countries and their consequences for workforce ageing challenge the sustainability of intergenerational transfers and economic growth. A shrinking share of the young workforce will have to support a growing share of elderly, non-working people. Therefore, the productivity of the workforce is central to a sustainable economic future. Using a new matched employer-employee panel dataset for Austrian firms for the period 2002-2005, we study the relationship between the age structure of employees, labour productivity and wages. These data allow us to account, simultaneously, for both socio-demographic characteristics of employees and firm heterogeneity, in order to explain labour productivity and earnings. Our results indicate that firm productivity is not negatively related to the share of older employees it employs. We also find no evidence for overpayment of older employees. Our results do not show any association between wages and the share of older employees. Furthermore, we find a negative relationship between the share of young employees and labour productivity as well as wages, which is more prevalent in the industry and construction sector.

  1. Wages in Guinea. WageIndicator survey 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.; Ngeh Tingum, E.; Diallo, H.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face survey on wages and working conditions in Guinea, conducted between the 13th of September and 2nd of October 2012. In total 1,962 persons were interviewed, the majority in urban areas. More male than female workers were

  2. Interindustry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Judith; Wolff, Edward N.

    1995-01-01

    Wages of female workers differ significantly by industry. The average woman earns about 65% as much as the average man; 12%-22% of the gap is explained by differences in patterns of interindustry wage differentials and 15%-19% by differences in gender distribution of workers. Combined industry effects explain about one-third of the gender wage…

  3. A provisional fixed partial denture for an implant prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Paul A; Kim, Eunghwan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a technique for fabricating an esthetic provisional restoration on multiple implants. Fabricating a provisional restoration allows the dentist to make a replica of the desired restoration. The incisal edge can be placed for esthetics and function in the new provisional restoration, allowing patients to evaluate comfort and test their ability to speak with the contour of the provisional restoration. Patients can evaluate both the ease of cleaning the restoration and how tissue esthetics can be duplicated to their satisfaction. By adding acrylic resin to or removing it from the provisional, the dentist can easily change the restoration until the patient is satisfied with the esthetic and functional result. This technique will allow the dentist to fabricate the provisional prosthesis quickly, while the patient is in the chair.

  4. Leadership Skills and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Peter; Weinberger, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    American business is devoting a growing share of resources to identifying and developing a worker characteristic called ³leadership skill². Is there such a thing, and is it rewarded in labor markets? Using the Project Talent, NLS72 and High School and Beyond datasets, we show that men who occupied leadership positions in high school earn more as adults, even when cognitive skills are held constant. The pure leadership-wage effect varies, depending on definitions and time period, from four ...

  5. Fixed and removable provisional options for patients undergoing implant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sang-Choon; Shetty, Saphal; Froum, Stuart; Elian, Nicolas; Tarnow, Dennis

    2007-11-01

    The provisional phase of treatment can be the most challenging aspect of implant dentistry. The techniques available today include removable, tooth-supported, and implant-retained provisional restorations. The selection of the type of provisional prosthesis should be based on esthetic demands, functional requirements, duration, and ease of fabrication. This article includes a review of 118 articles from peer-reviewed journals published in English from January 1986 to February 2007. This review was performed using MEDLINE. The indications, advantages, and disadvantages of the various provisional restorations are discussed.

  6. Phillips and Wage Curves: Empirical Evidence from Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edo Omerčević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical examination of the existence and characteristics of the Phillips curve and the wage curve in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The findings indicate that there is no evidence of the existence of the short-term Phillips curve. Instead, the data suggests that in the short-term an increase in inflation leads to an increase in unemployment. The estimated wage curves indicate that only increases in real payment increase employment. The conclusion of this study is that increases in inflation might have a negative short-term impact on the level of employment in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  7. What hides behind the fixed-term contracts wage gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Silvério, Filipe José Brás

    2015-01-01

    In Portugal, about 20% of full-time workers are employed under a fixed-term contract. Using a rich longitudinal matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, with more than 20 million observations and covering the 2002-2012 period, we confirm the common idea that fixed-term contracts are not desirable when compared to permanent ones, by estimating a conditional wage gap of -1.7 log points. Then, we evaluate the sources of that wage penalty by combining a three way high-dimensional fixed ...

  8. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

      In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital....... Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly...

  9. Changes in Wage Inequality in the Czech republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the change in the wage structure using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. We find evidence of slightly diminishing gender inequality and increasing returns to human capital....... Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and between-firm dispersion. We investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition, an increasingly...

  10. Wage inflation and worker uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Mark E. Schweitzer

    1997-01-01

    Compares two possible explanations of why pay increases continue to be moderate in a vigorous labor market--workers' uncertainty about their jobs and human resource managers' wage-setting behavior--and looks at how each explanation matches the evidence on the timing of inflation and wage changes.

  11. Wage Increases Moderate in 1981.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackley, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, most wage series rose more slowly in 1981, with much of the slowdown in the fourth quarter; when adjusted for inflation, they showed declines, although the wage-price gap was narrower. (Author/CT)

  12. Globalization, Roundaboutness, and Relative Wages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); K. Grier; D.R. Nelson

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe depart from the trade and wages literature and its emphasis on North-South trade, examining North-North by developing the basic linkages between trade-based integration and relative wages in an Ethier-type division of labor model. Using this model we identify a formal relationship

  13. Wage Mobility Patterns in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlopoulos, D.

    2007-01-01

    Wage mobility is in the heart of economic research and political debate on the future of the European labour markets. This study deals with substantial and methodological issues concerning wage mobility. It fits in the tradition of labour economists that are particularly interested in measuring the

  14. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecchio Nerina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Methods Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. Results The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Conclusions Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  15. Differences in wage rates for males and females in the health sector: a consideration of unpaid overtime to decompose the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Nerina; Scuffham, Paul A; Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2013-02-25

    In Australia a persistent and sizable gender wage gap exists. In recent years this gap has been steadily widening. The negative impact of gender wage differentials is the disincentive to work more hours. This implies a substantial cost on the Australian health sector. This study aimed to identify the magnitude of gender wage differentials within the health sector. The investigation accounts for unpaid overtime. Given the limited availability of information, little empirical evidence exists that accounts for unpaid overtime. Information was collected from a sample of 10,066 Australian full-time employees within the health sector. Initially, ordinary least-squares regression was used to identify the gender wage gap when unpaid overtime was included and then excluded from the model. The sample was also stratified by gender and then by occupation to allow for comparisons. Later the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method was employed to identify and quantify the contribution of individual endowments to wage differentials between males and females. The analyses of data revealed a gender wage gap that varied across occupations. The inclusion of unpaid overtime in the analysis led to a slight reduction in the wage differential. The results showed an adjusted wage gap of 16.7%. Unpaid overtime made a significant but small contribution to wage differentials. Being female remained the major contributing factor to the wage gap. Given that wage differentials provide a disincentive to work more hours, serious attempts to deal with the skilled labour shortage in the health sector need to address the gender wage gap.

  16. 34 CFR 675.24 - Establishment of wage rate under FWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., an institution shall compute FWS compensation on an hourly wage basis for actual time on the job. An institution may not pay a student a salary, commission, or fee. (2) An institution may not count fringe benefits as part of the wage rate. (3) An institution may pay a graduate student it employs a salary or an...

  17. From VET School to the Labour Market in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Expected versus Actual Wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovic, Nina; Oruc, Nermin

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the differences between expected and actual wages of VET students and graduates. It uses a survey of VET students enrolled in schools in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and data about employed VET graduates from the Labour Force Survey. The model of determinants of wages, expected or actual, estimated separately on each dataset,…

  18. 20 CFR 655.10 - Determination of prevailing wage for temporary labor certification purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... component of the BLS Occupational Employment Statistics Survey (OES) shall be used to determine the... job opportunity is covered by professional sports league rules or regulations, the wage set forth in... professional sports league's rules or regulations, the NPC will consider wage information provided by the...

  19. 77 FR 74347 - Prevailing Rate Systems; Abolishment of the Washington, DC, Special Wage Schedule for Printing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... Printing Positions AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S... (FWS) special wage schedule for printing and lithographic positions. Printing and lithographic... fund FWS wage schedule. This change is necessary because Federal employment in printing and...

  20. 29 CFR 1620.10 - Meaning of “wages.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Meaning of “wages.” Under the EPA, the term “wages” generally includes all payments made to an employee as..., whether paid periodically or deferred until a later date, and whether called wages, salary, profit sharing... employment. “Wages” as used in the EPA (the purpose of which is to assure men and women equal remuneration...

  1. 29 CFR 1620.19 - Equality of wages-application of the principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equality of wages-application of the principle. 1620.19 Section 1620.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.19 Equality of wages—application of the principle. Equal wages must be paid...

  2. Trade, jobs, and wages: Does exporting matter for the poor in South ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Trade, jobs, and wages: Does exporting matter for the poor in South Africa? Hélène Mayrand and Edgard Rodriguez. GGP One-pager series. Toward inclusive growth. In today's globalized world, exporting is one of the key policy strategies to promote employment and higher wages in developing countries. Liberalization of ...

  3. The impact of the minimum wage on the wage distribution: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Pelek, Selin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of the minimum wage on the entire wage distribution. More specifically, we address the issue of wage inequality by taking into account the potential distributional outcomes of the minimum wage legislation. We decompose the wage differences and the changes in the wage inequality before and after the sizeable minimum wage increase in 2004 following the methodology introduced by DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996). We use a non-parametric reweighting appro...

  4. From living wage to living hours – the Nordic version of the working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    , the article demonstrates how the increasing use of part-time and Sunday work since the crisis interacts with the increasing shares of young workers and migrant workers. The analysis focuses on retail and hotels/restaurants, which employ the majority of low-wage service workers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.......The development of service economies in the Western world has led to a debate on the quality of new service jobs as many are low-wage jobs with poor working conditions and career opportunities. Although the incidence of low-wage service work is somewhat lower in the Nordic countries than elsewhere...... in low-wage service work in the private sector of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The concept of living hours is used to explain developments in low-wage service jobs that are not explained by the concept of a living wage. On the basis of cross-sectional data from the European Labour Force Survey...

  5. Gender Equality in the Labour Market: Women and Men Wage Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Grybaitė, Virginija

    2006-01-01

    Earnings are the fundamental determinant of economic welfare for employed individuals, as well as of the potential gain to market employment for those not currently employed. Earnings are important as a social indicator specifically in relation to gender equality. Ten years after the Beijing conference the gender wage gap still exists in the EU labour market. This paper gives a brief review of economic theories and different approaches to explain the wage gap problem and importance of legisla...

  6. Arbeitsmarktwirkungen der Mindestlohneinführung im Bauhauptgewerbe (Labour market effects of the minimum wage introduction in the main construction sector)

    OpenAIRE

    Apel, Helmut; Bachmann, Ronald; Bender, Stefan; vom Berge, Philipp; Fertig, Michael; Frings, Hanna; König, Marion; Möller, Joachim; Paloyo, Alfredo; Schaffner, Sandra; Tamm, Marcus; Umkehrer, Matthias; Wolter, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    "On January 1st, 1997, minimum wages were introduced in the German main construction sector. We examine the effects of this wage regulation on various aspects of the labour market of this sector, particularly the effects on wages and employment. In East Germany, at the time of its introduction, the minimum wage was more strongly binding than in West Germany. Furthermore, the wages of a large fraction of the construction workforce in East Germany are close to the minimum wage, which is not the...

  7. Association of Wage With Employee Participation in Health Assessments and Biometric Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Bruce W; Addy, Carol

    2017-01-01

    To understand differences in health risk assessment (HRA) and biometric screening participation rates among benefits-enrolled employees in association with wage category. Cross-sectional analysis of employee eligibility file and health benefits (wellness and claims) data. Data from self-insured employers participating in the RightOpt private exchange (Conduent HR Services) during 2014. Active employees from 4 companies continuously enrolled in health insurance for which wage data were available. Measures included HRA and biometric screening participation rates and wage status, with employee age, sex, employer, job tenure, household income, geographic location, and health benefits deductible as a percentage of total wages serving as covariates. Employees were separated into 5 groups based on wage status. Logistic regression analysis incorporated other measures as covariates to adjust for differences between groups, with HRA and biometric screening participation rates determined as binary outcomes. Participation rates for HRA and biometric screening were 90% and 87%, respectively, in the highest wage category, decreasing to 67% and 60%, respectively, among the lowest wage category. Employee wage status is associated with significant differences in HRA and biometric participation rates. Generalizing the results generated by modest participation in these offerings to entire populations may risk misinterpretation of results based on variable participation rates across wage categories.

  8. Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Goudie, Rosalind; Sutton, Matt; Gravelle, Hugh; Elliott, Robert; Hole, Arne Risa; Ma, Ada; Sibbald, Bonnie; Skåtun, Diane

    2011-02-01

    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of £97,500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was £51 per h. Net income and wages depended on gender, experience, list size, partnership size, whether or not the GP worked in a dispensing practice, whether they were salaried of self-employed, whether they worked in a practice with a nationally or locally negotiated contract, and the characteristics of the local population (proportion from ethnic minorities, rurality, and income deprivation). The findings have implications for pay discrimination by GP gender and ethnicity, GP preferences for partnership size, incentives for competition for patients, and compensating differentials for local population characteristics. They also shed light on the attractiveness to GPs in England of locally negotiated (personal medical services) versus nationally negotiated (general medical services) contracts.

  9. Ageing, productivity and wages in Austria☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlberg, Bernhard; Freund, Inga; Crespo Cuaresma, Jesús; Prskawetz, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    Current demographic developments in industrialized countries and their consequences for workforce ageing challenge the sustainability of intergenerational transfers and economic growth. A shrinking share of the young workforce will have to support a growing share of elderly, non-working people. Therefore, the productivity of the workforce is central to a sustainable economic future. Using a new matched employer–employee panel dataset for Austrian firms for the period 2002–2005, we study the relationship between the age structure of employees, labour productivity and wages. These data allow us to account, simultaneously, for both socio-demographic characteristics of employees and firm heterogeneity, in order to explain labour productivity and earnings. Our results indicate that firm productivity is not negatively related to the share of older employees it employs. We also find no evidence for overpayment of older employees. Our results do not show any association between wages and the share of older employees. Furthermore, we find a negative relationship between the share of young employees and labour productivity as well as wages, which is more prevalent in the industry and construction sector. PMID:23734070

  10. The Employment Status of Army Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    used to model labor force participation is to estimate a reduced-form labor supply model , including variables related to the wife’s potential market wage...or not in the labor force) may be that reservation wages are higher than wage offers. Unlike the model of whether a woman is employed, in this case it...each outcome. Unlike regression models , all other variables are not held constant. 48 Table 10 labor Force Outccmes for Army Spouses: Probit

  11. Change in Wage Inequality in the Czech Republic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola; Warzynski, Frederic

    In this paper, we look at the evolution of the Czech labor market, and its wage structure in particular, using a linked employer-employee dataset covering a large fraction of the Czech labor market over the period 1998-2006. Estimating conventional earnings equations we find evidence of diminishing...... gender inequality, decreased returns to human capital, especially to education. Moreover, exploiting the linked employer-employee character of the data set, we document changes in within-firm wage dispersion and short-term variations around a constant level of between-firm dispersion. Next, we...... investigate various hypotheses related to transition towards a market economy, increased domestic and international competition and an increasingly decentralized wage bargaining to explain these patterns. We find some support for that the three mechanisms - increased international competition, further...

  12. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan

    2012-12-01

    Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages-the largest category within income-are risk factors. We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25-65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25-44 and 45-65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25-44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables-obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities-were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25-30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25-44 years. The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25-44 years.

  13. 76 FR 14679 - Prevailing Wage Rates for Construction Occupations on Guam for Purposes of the H-2B Temporary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... temporary, nonagricultural workers from abroad may petition for such workers under the H-2B nonimmigrant... employment will adversely affect the wages and working conditions of similarly employed U.S. workers (i.e... market test on Guam is a determination whether the wages and working conditions offered to U.S. workers...

  14. Do Students Expect Compensation for Wage Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweri, Juerg; Hartog, Joop; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2011-01-01

    We use a unique data set about the wage distribution that Swiss students expect for themselves ex ante, deriving parametric and non-parametric measures to capture expected wage risk. These wage risk measures are unfettered by heterogeneity which handicapped the use of actual market wage dispersion as risk measure in earlier studies. Students in…

  15. 29 CFR 779.17 - Wage and wage payments to tipped employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage and wage payments to tipped employees. 779.17 Section 779.17 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES General Some Basic Definitions § 779.17 Wage and wage...

  16. 29 CFR 4.168 - Wage payments-deductions from wages paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wage payments-deductions from wages paid. 4.168 Section 4... Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.168 Wage payments—deductions from wages paid. (a) The wage requirements of the Act will not be met where unauthorized deductions, rebates, or refunds reduce...

  17. Compensating wage differentials and the impact of health insurance in the public sector on wages and hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Paige; Chernew, Michael

    2014-12-01

    This paper examines the trade-off between wages and employer spending on health insurance for public sector workers, and the relationship between coverage and hours worked. Our primary approach compares trends in wages and hours for public employees with and without state/local government provided health insurance using individual-level micro-data from the 1992-2011 CPS. To adjust for differences between insured and uninsured public sector employees, we create a matched sample based on an employee's propensity to receive health insurance. We assess the relationship between state contribution to the health plan premium, state-level healthcare spending, and the wages and hours of state and local government employees. We find modest reductions in wages are associated with having employer-sponsored health insurance (ESHI), although this effect is not precisely measured. The reduction in wages associated with having ESHI is larger among non-unionized workers. Further, we find little evidence that provision of health insurance increases hours worked. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. 2012 Provisional classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Cimmino, Marco A; Kremers, Hilal Maradit

    2012-01-01

    % and specificity to 81%. According to these provisional classification criteria, patients ≥50 years old presenting with bilateral shoulder pain, not better explained by an alternative pathology, can be classified as having PMR in the presence of morning stiffness >45 minutes, elevated C-reactive protein and......The objective of this study was to develop European League Against Rheumatism/American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR). Candidate criteria were evaluated in a 6-month prospective cohort study of 125 patients with new-onset PMR and 169 non......-PMR comparison subjects with conditions mimicking PMR. A scoring algorithm was developed based on morning stiffness >45 minutes (2 points), hip pain/limited range of motion (1 point), absence of rheumatoid factor and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibody (2 points), and absence of peripheral joint pain (1 point...

  19. A multisector model of efficiency wages

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The pattern of effort and wages is derived in a multisector efficiency wage model. Firms choose effort endogenously. Easily monitored or low-turnover jobs have high effort and may have low wages in equilibrium. Empirical wage differentials from a measure of supervision are smaller than observed industry differentials that have been attributed to efficiency wage models and are closer to those predicted by the model. Workers can search for and avail of on-the-job offers. If sectors grow at diff...

  20. The Motivation Effect of Active Labor Market Policy on Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Johannes; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Tranæs, Torben

    This paper analyzes the motivation effect of activation programs on wages and employment. We utilize a reform of the Danish UI system in 1998 that reduced the period of unconditional benefits and thereby created exogenous variation in the probability of people entering a mandatory activation prog...

  1. The Dispersion of Employees' Wage Increases and Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Christian; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    does not induce any monetary incentives. Evidence from unique Danish linked employer employee data shows that large dispersion of wage growth within firms is generally connected with low firm performance. The results are mainly driven by white collar rather than blue collar workers....

  2. Active Labor Market Programs and Reservation Wages: Its a Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    Using a randomized controlled trial, this paper shows that positive earnings effects of labor market programs might be driven by an employment and/or a wage effect. The findings of this paper suggest that treated individuals in a high-intense scheme are more prone to have lowered short- term...

  3. Health and wages: evidence on men and women in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Strauss, J

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the impact of 4 health measures on wages of urban workers in Brazil. Data are obtained from the 1974-75 Estudo Nacional da Despesa Familiar among a sample population over 14 years old for wages earned by respondents 15-50 years old. The 4 health measures include height, body mass index (weight divided by height squared), per capita calorie intake, and per capita protein intake. Findings indicate that health measures significantly affected wages, even after accounting for endogeneity. Taller men and women earned more, even after controlling for education and other health measures. Body mass index affected only men's wages. The effect of height was larger for men. Body mass index had a larger impact on wages among persons with low levels of education. Nutrient intake affected wages of men and women in the market sector. More protein had the greatest return at high levels of intake, depending upon calorie intake, mass, and height. Height was a strong predictor of wages for self-employed men only. Body mass index affected the wages of only self-employed men with little or no education. Neither protein or caloric intake significantly affected wages of the self-employed. Models controlled for selection into the labor market and the choice between market and self-employment sectors in the estimated hazard rates based on multinomial logits, according to Heckman (1974) and Lee (1983). It is assumed that relative food prices and nonlabor income had no direct effect on wages. Findings suggest that health produces a substantial return in the formal sector of Brazilian labor markets.

  4. Wages, Amenities and Negative Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waisman, Gisela; Larsen, Birthe

    We exploit the regional variation in negative attitudes towards immigrants to Sweden in order to analyse the consequences of the attitudes on immigrants welfare. We find that attitudes towards immigrants are of importance: they both affect their labour market outcomes and their quality of life. W...... interpret the negative effect on wages as evidence of labour market discrimination. We estimate the welfare effects of negative attitudes, through their wage and local amenities, for immigrants with different levels of skills, origin, gender and age....

  5. Wages and Higher Education Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Eleftheriou, Konstantinos; Athanasiou, George; Petrakis, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    The paper develops a model for the screening mechanism for higher education, within an adverse selection framework. Specifically it examines the effect of wage earned by high school graduates on higher education participation. The model pinpoints a positive relation between the “high school” wage and the number of candidates entered in higher education with positive influences on the quality of selection mechanism. An empirical examination is conducted, using U.S. data, in order to investigat...

  6. The Wage-Price Setting Behavior: Comparing The Evidence from EU28 and EMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriatik Hoxha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The consensus of empirical evidence on the wage and price relationship reveals that causal relationships are difficult to identify. Moreover, elements other than wages, prices and productivity have significant impact in determining the wage-price setting equilibrium. Application of VECM analysis in the wage-price relationship for EU28 and EMU over the period 2000:Q1–2014:Q4 implies that there is statistically robust evidence of long-run cointegration relationship between wages and prices. Additionally, the estimated values of cointegration coefficients provide strong evidence in favor of hypothesis that assumption of near-rational behavior in the wage-price relationship is valid in case of EU28, whereas that of rational expectations is valid in case of EMU. Specifically, the evidence suggests that wage setters have under-adjusted for inflation as probably in their view the costs of such behavior were low. This can serve as an argument that wage and price setters have unconditionally accepted the strict rigor of monetary policy authorities. Such behavior can also be attributed to labor market flexibility which is a central element in determining the overall economic performance. In principle, wage moderations induced by a flexible labor market should improve and/or restore the international competitiveness and result in more output and employment in EU28 and EMU.

  7. 75 FR 22846 - Norgren Automation Solutions, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Norgren Automation Solutions, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Syron Engineering Erie Engineering and Automation Division, A... Adjustment Assistance on January 29, 2010, applicable to workers of Norgren Automation Solutions, Erie...

  8. EMPLOYMENT ABSORPTION IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY: YOGYAKARTA CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Indra Putri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment has been a main problem in economic development, especially in developing countries. Unemployment stems from the inability of the economy to absorb the growing labor force. This paper investigates factors influencing absorbtion of labor in Yogyakarta manufacturing industries. Variables hypothesized to affect the absorbtion are wage, labor productivity, non-wage spending, and output of production. It collects data from Indonesia Centre Bureau of Statistics, and uses panel data regression, namely common effect approach, to estimate the model. Employing Eviews software package, it finds that wage, labor productivity, and output production significantly influence labor absorption. However, non-wage spending does not significantly influence the absorption.Keywords: Labor absorption, wage, labor productivity, non-wage spendingJEL classification numbers: J01, J23, J24

  9. Legal Status and Wage Disparities for Mexican Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Matthew; Greenman, Emily; Farkas, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs a unique method of imputing the legal status of Mexican immigrants in the 1996-1999 and 2001-2003 panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to provide new evidence of the role of legal authorization in the U.S. on workers’ wages. Using growth curve techniques, we estimate wage trajectories for four groups: documented Mexican immigrants, undocumented Mexican immigrants, U.S-born Mexican Americans, and native non-Latino whites. Our estimates reveal a 17 percent...

  10. Reassessing the Wage Penalty for Temps in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke

    As a consequence of the rapid growth of temporary agency employment in Germany, the debate on the poor working conditions of temps, specifically their remuneration, has intensified recently. Using administrative data, the paper shows that the wage gap for German temp workers is rather large and v...... change in the law set a high incentive for temporary help agencies to pay their workers according to a sectoral collective agreement. Surprisingly, the unionization of the sector could not bring the widening wage gap to a halt....

  11. Can the Introduction of a Minimum Wage in FYR Macedonia Decrease the Gender Wage Gap?

    OpenAIRE

    Angel-Urdinola, Diego F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper relies on a simple framework to understand the gender wage gap in Macedonia, and simulates how the gender wage gap would behave after the introduction of a minimum wage. First, it presents a new - albeit simple - decomposition of the wage gap into three factors: (i) a wage level factor, which measures the extent to which the gender gap is driven by differences in wage levels amo...

  12. An Uncertain Wage Contract Model with Adverse Selection and Moral Hazard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan Wang

    2014-01-01

    it can be characterized as an uncertain variable. Moreover, the employee's effort is unobservable to the employer, and the employee can select her effort level to maximize her utility. Thus, an uncertain wage contract model with adverse selection and moral hazard is established to maximize the employer's expected profit. And the model analysis mainly focuses on the equivalent form of the proposed wage contract model and the optimal solution to this form. The optimal solution indicates that both the employee's effort level and the wage increase with the employee's ability. Lastly, a numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  13. International Product Market Integration, Rents and Wage Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    International product market integration enhances both export possibilities through easier access to foreign markets, but also the import threat arising from foreign firms penetrating into the domestic market. These mechanisms affect wage formation and employment creation through many channels...... including product market rents and the possibility that jobs may be relocated across national labour markets. Possibilities and threats, however, will not in general be uniformly distributed across firms and therefore groups in the labour market. These issues are explored in a Ricardian trade model...... with imperfect competition, heterogeneity in the labour market, and decentralized wage-bargaining. The Paper analyses how product market integration affects wage formation, and identifies characteristics of winners and losers in the integration process....

  14. Housework, children, and women's wages across racial-ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Heather Macpherson

    2014-07-01

    Motherhood affects women's household labor and paid employment, but little previous research has explored the extent to which hours of housework may explain per child wage penalties or differences in such penalties across racial-ethnic groups. In this paper, I use longitudinal Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) data to examine how variations in household labor affect the motherhood penalty for White, Black, and Hispanic women. In doing so, I first assess how children affect hours of household labor across these groups and then explore the extent to which this household labor mediates the relationship between children and wages for these women. I find that household labor explains a portion of the motherhood penalty for White women, who experience the most dramatic increases in household labor with additional children. Black and Hispanic women experience slight increases in housework with additional children, but neither children nor housework affects their already low wages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "The Impact of Working while Enrolled in College on Wages"

    OpenAIRE

    Wade Nelson, Owen Wade Nelson Jr

    2013-01-01

    Those students who work while enrolled in college are investing in their human capital, and therefore, corporations looking to employ new workers entering the labor market may favor these types of students, and create incentives for non-working students to seek employment. Using NLSY97 data, this paper finds that working while enrolled in college decreases the wages one receives. Therefore, students who are not working while enrolled in school may have higher grades and graduate more freq...

  16. Decomposing the Wage Losses of Displaced Workers: The Role of the Reallocation of Workers into Firms and Job Titles

    OpenAIRE

    Raposo, Pedro; Portugal, Pedro; Carneiro, Anabela

    2015-01-01

    Using an unusually rich matched employer-employee-job title data set for Portugal, this paper evaluates the sources of wage losses of workers displaced due to firm closure based on the comparison of workers' wages differentials before and after displacement. Potential wage losses of displaced workers can be related to firm, job title, and match heterogeneity in the pre- and post-displacement jobs. In this vein, we estimate a three-way high-dimensional fixed effects regression model that enabl...

  17. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for selected birth indicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of selected reproductive indicators. Estimates are presented for: general fertility rates, age-specific birth rates, total and low risk...

  18. VSRR - Quarterly provisional estimates for selected indicators of mortality

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Provisional estimates of death rates. Estimates are presented for each of the 15 leading causes of death plus estimates for deaths attributed to drug overdose, falls...

  19. Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288

  20. Are low wages risk factors for hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Socio-economic status (SES) is strongly correlated with hypertension. But SES has several components, including income and correlations in cross-sectional data need not imply SES is a risk factor. This study investigates whether wages—the largest category within income—are risk factors. Methods: We analysed longitudinal, nationally representative US data from four waves (1999, 2001, 2003 and 2005) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. The overall sample was restricted to employed persons age 25–65 years, n = 17 295. Separate subsamples were constructed of persons within two age groups (25–44 and 45–65 years) and genders. Hypertension incidence was self-reported based on physician diagnosis. Our study was prospective since data from three base years (1999, 2001, 2003) were used to predict newly diagnosed hypertension for three subsequent years (2001, 2003, 2005). In separate analyses, data from the first base year were used to predict time-to-reporting hypertension. Logistic regressions with random effects and Cox proportional hazards regressions were run. Results: Negative and strongly statistically significant correlations between wages and hypertension were found both in logistic and Cox regressions, especially for subsamples containing the younger age group (25–44 years) and women. Correlations were stronger when three health variables—obesity, subjective measures of health and number of co-morbidities—were excluded from regressions. Doubling the wage was associated with 25–30% lower chances of hypertension for persons aged 25–44 years. Conclusions: The strongest evidence for low wages being risk factors for hypertension among working people were for women and persons aged 25–44 years. PMID:22262559

  1. Manufacturing real wages in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia López V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the recent evolution and determinants of real wages in Mexico’s manufacturing sector, using theories based on the assumption of imperfect competition both in the product and in the labour markets, especially wage-bargain theory, insider-outsider and mark-up models. We show evidence that the Mexican labour market does not behave as a traditional competitive market. The proposed explanation for this fact is that some workers benefit from advantages when compared with others, so that they can get a greater share of the proceedings of the productive process. Also, we find that changes in the degree of competition in the market for output influence the behaviour of real wages.

  2. Are There Long-Run Effects of the Minimum Wage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    An empirical consensus suggests that there are small employment effects of minimum wage increases. This paper argues that these are short-run elasticities. Long-run elasticities, which may differ from short-run elasticities, are policy relevant. This paper develops a dynamic industry equilibrium model of labor demand. The model makes two points. First, long-run regressions have been misinterpreted because even if the short- and long-run employment elasticities differ, standard methods would not detect a difference using US variation. Second, the model offers a reconciliation of the small estimated short-run employment effects with the commonly found pass-through of minimum wage increases to product prices. PMID:25937790

  3. Occupational Experience, Mobility, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Fane

    In this paper we present how occupational tenure relates to wage growth and occupational mobility in Danish data. We show that the Danish data produces qualitatively similar results as found in U.S. data with respect to an increase in average wages when experience in an occupation increases. In a...... also is true for workers switching occupation and rm. After ve years of experience in an occupation the average probability of switching any type of occupation, including occupation and rm switches, has fallen from 25% to 12%....

  4. Wage Tendency in Albania; The Reaction to the Global Economic and Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imelda Sejdini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wage of both public and private sectors is a very important source of incomes for most of the population in Albania. The importance of public sector wage policy exceeds the sector's actual share of total employment, because the level of wages in this sector is, to a certain extent, a point of reference for wages in the private sector, too. During the first transition years the wages of a great number of the employees, whose enterprises had stopped being operational, were practically a form of social support. The data for this paper are gathered from all the surveys done on wages during transition from the public sources and the institute of statistics. From these data results that the wages have increased recurrently, first of all to counter the inflationary effects and to provide a better remuneration to the employees in both sector, despite the global financial crisis. This is due to the lack of full integration in the global markets. In this paper we discuss about the wage tendency in Albania as a country in further development, exposed to the risks of the global financial crisis, and the reaction to the difficulties encountered while the country is preparing for the EU integration.

  5. The Wage Determination Process in Turkey: An Empirical Analysis in Kaleckian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Başak Gül AKTAKAS

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orthodox economists generally think about labor market that the price stability and low unemployment cannot be achieved at the same time. In this sense, the Orthodox argument discusses that a decline in the aggregate demand will decrease the money wages and real wages proportionally, and increase the volume of employment. Michal Kalecki denies such a wage policy which is consistently determined by this idea. Wages reflect the price-money wage relation in real terms. Prices set in regard to the degree of monopoly. In this context, it is assumed real wages is determined depending upon the degree of monopoly, labor productivity and price of import goods. According to Kalecki, Orthodoxian view which relates a decrease in real wages with an increase in production based on increasing marginal cost assumption and Kalecki does not accept this perspective. Kaleckian PostKeynesian labor market will be theoretically discussed and the determination process of the real wage will be empirically analyzed for Turkish economy over the period 1989:1 to 2012:4.

  6. Training and minimum wages: first evidence from the introduction of the minimum wage in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bellmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We analyze the short-run impact of the introduction of the new statutory minimum wage in Germany on further training at the workplace level. Applying difference-in-difference methods to data from the IAB Establishment Panel, we do not find a reduction in the training incidence but a slight reduction in the intensity of training at treated establishments. Effect heterogeneities reveal that the negative impact is mostly driven by employer-financed training. On the worker level, we observe a reduction of training for medium- and high-skilled employees but no significant effects on the training of low-skilled employees.

  7. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Georgia"

    OpenAIRE

    Khitarishvili, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates gender wage differentials in Georgia between 2000 and 2004. Using ordinary least squares, we find that the gender wage gap in Georgia is substantially higher than in other transition countries. Correcting for sample selection bias using the Heckman approach further increases the gender wage gap. The Blinder Oaxaca decomposition results suggest that most of the wage gap remains unexplained. The explained portion of the gap is almost entirely attributed to industrial variab...

  8. The Early Career Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Napari

    2006-01-01

    In Finland the gender wage gap increases significantly during the first 10 years after labor market entry accounting most of the life-time increase in the gender wage gap. This paper focuses on the early career gender wage differences among university graduates and considers several explanations for the gender wage gap based on the human capital theory, job mobility and labor market segregation. Gender differences in the accumulation of experience and in the type of education explain about 16...

  9. Age, wage and productivity in Dutch manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Stoeldraijer, L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous empirical studies on the effect of age on productivity and wages find contradicting results. Some studies find that if workers grow older there is an increasing gap between productivity and wages, i.e. wages increase with age while productivity does not or does not increase at the same

  10. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  11. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  12. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  13. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  14. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  15. Waging Peace in Our Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantieri, Linda; Patti, Janet

    1996-01-01

    Describes a program that seeks to change the values and culture of the school by combining the teaching of social and emotional skills with training in conflict resolution and diversity issues. Provides examples of how to "wage peace" in the schools and gives examples of advancements made through program efforts. (RJM)

  16. Finding Wage and Salary Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Suzanne M.; Petruzzi, Heidi Ann

    1995-01-01

    Identifies sources for assisting patrons with occupational and industrial wage queries. Discusses books, vocational guides, indexes, trade associations, trade unions, commercial services, government publications and agencies, journals, universities and research centers, and online sources, and also provides a list of sources. (AEF)

  17. Dualization as destiny? The political economy of the German minimum wage reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, Paul; Starke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    analysis, and qualitative interviews, shows how earlier dualizing reforms led to unintended negative feedback effects: First, public opinion reacted negatively to increasing inequality in the years preceding the introduction of the minimum wage. Second, a remarkable shift is found among trade unions toward...... support of a minimum wage, even in manufacturing. Although the threat of low-wage competition and flexibilization did play a role, trade union solidarity was at least as important. Those endogenous dynamics came together in a self-undermining process unfolding over a relatively short period of time....... Potential alternative explanations are explored, including classical partisan politics, party competition, and employer preferences....

  18. How wages compare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James

    2016-09-28

    In the autumn, the NHS Pay Review Body (RB) will take evidence from government, employers and nurses' unions. It will then deliberate before making recommendations on what should be a pay rise in April 2017. But as NHS nurses know only too well, this supposedly independent system has been compromised by top down pay freezes initiated by the Westminster government as part of its 'austerity' measures.

  19. Monetary policy and wage bargaining in the EMU: restrictive ECB policies, high unemployment, nominal wage restraint and inflation above the target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckhard Hein

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the effects of monetary policy and wage bargaining on employment andinflation in the European Monetary Union (EMU, the first step sees development of a Post-Keynesian competitive claims model of inflation with endogenous money. In this model the NAIRU is considered to be a short-run limit to employment enforced by independent and conservative central banks. In the long run, however, the NAIRU will follow actual unemployment and is therefore also dependent on the forces determining aggregate demand, including monetary policies. But the NAIRU may also be reduced through effectively co-ordinated wage bargaining, as has been shown by institutional political economists. Applying these considerations to the economic performance of the EMU, different scenarios determined by wage bargainingcoordination and the European Central Bank's (ECB monetary policies are developed. It is shown that the first phase of the EMU was dominated by uncoordinated wage bargaining across the EMU and an "anti-growth-bias" of theECB. Thus the euro area was plagued with nominal wage restraint, highunemployment and inflation above the ECB target. Economic performance will improve if the ECB abandons its asymmetric monetary strategy. This may be facilitated by a higher degree of effective wage bargaining co-ordination across the EMU.

  20. Employee benefits or wage increase?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper comes from a survey done during the years 2007–2009. It focused on employee satisfaction with the provision of employee benefits. The research included 21 companies, 7 companies were from the engineering sector, 7 companies from the food industry, 3 companies represented the budgetary sphere, 3 companies the services sector and one company operates in pharmaceutical industry.The questionnaire survey consisted of 14 questions, including 5 identification-questions. The paper presents results of the questions on dealing with employees’ awareness of employee benefits and on choosing between employees’ preferences of wage increase or increase in value of benefits provided.Employees are informed about all options of providing employee benefits. Only in 3 cases employees stated dissatisfaction with information. This answer was related with the responses to the second monitored question. Employees of these companies preferred pay increases before benefits’ increases. There was no effect of gender of the respondents, neither the influence of the sector of operation, in the preference of increases in wages or in benefits. Exceptions were the employees of companies operating in the financial sector, who preferred employee benefits before a wage increase. It was found that employees of companies who participated in research in 2009, preferred wage increases before the extension of employee benefits, although the value of the net wage increase is lower than the monetary value of benefits increase.The paper is a part of solution of the research plan MSM 6215648904 The Czech economy in the process of integration and globalization, and the development of agricultural sector and the sector of services under the new conditions of the integrated European market.

  1. Estimating the effects of wages on obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, DaeHwan; Leigh, John Paul

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the effects of wages on obesity and body mass. Data on household heads, aged 20 to 65 years, with full-time jobs, were drawn from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics for 2003 to 2007. The Panel Study of Income Dynamics is a nationally representative sample. Instrumental variables (IV) for wages were created using knowledge of computer software and state legal minimum wages. Least squares (linear regression) with corrected standard errors were used to estimate the equations. Statistical tests revealed both instruments were strong and tests for over-identifying restrictions were favorable. Wages were found to be predictive (P low wages increase obesity prevalence and body mass.

  2. Education and Wages of Vocational Training Graduates

    OpenAIRE

    González Betancor, Sara M.; C. Delia Dávila Quintana; José A. Gil Jurado

    2005-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain individual variation in wages by estimating different wage equations. The study has two goals: first, to analyze the effect of years of schooling on the wages of vocational training graduates using a more precise measure for schooling than that commonly used in wage equations; and second, to analyze the effect on these wages of the match or mismatch between the knowledge and the skills acquired in the schooling and the needs of the job. The analysis shows that k...

  3. Understanding the City Size Wage Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum-Snow, Nathaniel; Pavan, Ronni

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we decompose city size wage premia into various components. We base these decompositions on an estimated on-the-job search model that incorporates latent ability, search frictions, firm-worker match quality, human capital accumulation and endogenous migration between large, medium and small cities. Counterfactual simulations of the model indicate that variation in returns to experience and differences in wage intercepts across location type are the most important mechanisms contributing to observed city size wage premia. Variation in returns to experience is more important for generating wage premia between large and small locations while differences in wage intercepts are more important for generating wage premia betwen medium and small locations. Sorting on unobserved ability within education group and differences in labor market search frictions and distributions of firm-worker match quality contribute little to observed city size wage premia. These conclusions hold for separate samples of high school and college graduates.

  4. Adaptability of SMEs in production sector in Chiang Mai to the 300 Baht wage policy

    OpenAIRE

    Panupon Khemtit; Voravidh Chareonloet

    2013-01-01

    The study of analysis of factors affecting the adaptive capacity of SME entrepreneurs in production sector in Chiang Mai province towards the 300 baht aims to examine the adaptive capacity levels of entrepreneurs towards minimum wage policy and also aims to investigate the factors affected by the minimum wage policy. The research instrument is questionnaire collected from 400 SME entrepreneurs in Chiang Mai. Ordered Logit model and Marginal Effect have been employed to analyze the factors aff...

  5. LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY, REAL WAGES AND UNEMPLOYMENT: AN APPLICATION OF BOUNDS TEST APPROACH FOR TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Hacer Simay Karaalp-Orhan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between labour productivity, average real wages, and the unemployment rate by employing the bounds testing procedure within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) modeling approach and applies Toda-Yamamoto causality test for the period 2007:01−2016:04. The results indicate that real wages and unemployment have a significant and positive long-run impact on labour productivity. While a long-run wage–productivity elasticity of 0.97 supports the efficie...

  6. Employment as a Price or a Prize of Equality: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Barth

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To put Scandinavian employment in perspective, we ask whether wage compression hampers employment rates, or not. We answer by reviewing the most important theoretical arguments and the most informative regularities across countries with different wage distributions. The pattern seems to be that countries with compressed wage distributions tend to have higher employment, and countries with higher wage inequality tend to have lower employment. This also holds when we consider the rate of labor force participation. In line with the theoretical arguments, coordination in wage bargaining seems to contribute to both employment expansion and wage compression. There is a clear positive correlation between coordination and employment even when we control for inequality, country, and year-specific effects.

  7. New Workplace Practices and the Gender Wage Gap:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    We estimate the effect of introducing new workplace practices on the gender gap in wages in the manufacturing sector. We use a unique 1999 survey on work and compensation practices of Danish private sector firms merged to a large matched employer-employee database. Self-managed teams, project org...... reduced with the use of quality control circles. All in all, however, the new economy is not the great equalizer....

  8. Nonlinear Wage Responses to Internal and External Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Kåre

    2002-01-01

    The paper tests whether or not the effects on sectoral wages of internal and external factors depend upon the sector’s relative wage position. The key hypothesis is that workers in low—wage sectors are more concerned with relative wages than workers in high wage sectors. To test the hypothesis, we make use of panel data and formulate a smooth transition regression model including relative wages as the transition variable. The empirical results provide strong evidence of nonlinear wage respons...

  9. Technology and the use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusevska, Biljana; Dereban, Nikola; Popovska, Mirjana; Nikolovska, Julijana; Radojkova Nikolovska, Vеrа; Zabokova Bilbilova, Efka; Mijoska, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Acrylics are compounds polymerized from monomers of acrylic, metacrylic acid or acrylonitrates. The purpose of this paper is to present the technology and use of acrylics for provisional dentine protection in the practice of dental prosthodontics. For this reason, we followed 120 clinical cases from the everyday clinical practice, divided into 4 groups of 30 patients who needed prosthetic reconstruction. The first group included cases in which we applied celluloid crowns for dentine protection, for the second group we used acrylic teeth from a set of teeth for complete dentures; in the third and fourth groups the fabrication was done with the system of an impression matrix and the acrylic resin block technique respectively. In all the examined patients, the gingival index by Silness and Loe and the vitality of the dental pulp were verified clinically, after preparation and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown. The value for dental sensitivity measured after preparation was 2.59, and 8 days after the placement of the provisional crown it bwas 3.1. From these results we can conclude that after the 8th day from the placement of the provisional crown, there was an adaptation period, characterized by a decrease in the painful sensations. The value of the Silness and Loe gingival index measured after the preparation was 1.34, and 8 days from the placement of the provisional crown was 0.94. The results inclined us to the fact that the provisional acrylic crowns facilitated the reparation of the periodontal tissue.

  10. La ejecución provisional de las sentencias

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Álvarez,Óscar

    2008-01-01

    Dentro de la corriente reformista del proceso civil en Chile, un lugar importante debería estar ocupado por la figura de la ejecución provisional de las sentencias judiciales, como una manifestación del derecho a la tutela judicial efectiva y un instrumento para el acortamiento de los tiempos en el proceso. El presente artículo contiene un examen teórico a la figura de la ejecución provisional, y establece las reglas técnicas de su configuración legal. También analiza los aislados casos de ta...

  11. Real and Money Wage Rates

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Dunlop

    1998-01-01

    In the General Theory, John Maynard Keynes held money and real wage rates move in opposite directions. In expansion, prices increase faster because of increasing costs and a rise in the proportion of product going to profits. Neoclassical economists held similarly. Money illusion of workers supported their common view. The author's 1938 article rather showed a procyclical pattern, significant to macroeconomic models of the economy. Contemporary literature with new elements of compensation and...

  12. LABOUR PRODUCTIVITY, REAL WAGES AND UNEMPLOYMENT: AN APPLICATION OF BOUNDS TEST APPROACH FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Simay Karaalp-Orhan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between labour productivity, average real wages, and the unemployment rate by employing the bounds testing procedure within an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL modeling approach and applies Toda-Yamamoto causality test for the period 2007:01−2016:04. The results indicate that real wages and unemployment have a significant and positive long-run impact on labour productivity. While a long-run wage–productivity elasticity of 0.97 supports the efficiency wage theorem and the unemployment-productivity elasticity of 0.53 indicates that workers increase efforts to secure jobs. Therefore, a rise in real wages and unemployment may induce higher productivity by raising the costs and probability of job loss, respectively, which implies rigidity in Turkish labour market.Furthermore, the causality tests provide evidence for the effect of a high and persistent unemployment rate on the Turkish economy, where unemployment affected both labour productivity and real wages. While a bi-directional causality was found between labour productivity and unemployment, a unilateral causality was observed between unemployment and real wages. Unemployment causes real wages, but there is no evidence of reversal causation.

  13. Undocumented Migration and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Gentsch, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    Prior work has documented the remarkable decline in the real wages of Mexican immigrant workers in the United States over the past several decades. Although some of this trend might be attributable to the changing characteristics of the migrants themselves, we argue that a more important change was the circumstances under within Mexican immigrants competed for jobs in the United States. After 1986 a growing share of Mexican immigrants were undocumented, discrimination against them was mandated by federal law, and enforcement efforts rose in intensity. We combined data from the Mexican Migration Project with independent estimates of the percentage undocumented among Mexicans living in the United States to estimate a series of regression models to test this hypothesis. Controlling for individual characteristics helps to explain the decline in the wages of immigrants, but does not eliminate the trend, which is only explained fully when the percentage undocumented is added to the model. A key date is 1986, confirmed by a Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition analysis, when undocumented hiring was criminalized and undocumented migration revived after IRCA's legalization programs ended. As the percentage undocumented rose to new heights in the face of employer sanctions, immigrant wages fell below what we would have observed under the former policy regime. Using newly available data from Warren and Warren (2013), we examined how variation in the percentage undocumented by state and year from 1990 through 2009 affected immigrant wages and confirmed a strong negative effect, but the addition of an interaction term to the model indicated that the negative effect was confined largely to undocumented migrants, whose wage penalty rose from 8% to 18% as the percentage undocumented rose from its observed minimum to maximum.

  14. DAILY WAGES COMPARISON FOR WAGE EMPLOYEES IN THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SECTORS IN PALESTINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed SALAMA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the daily wages of employees in the public and private sectors in Palestine. Based on the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS labour force survey, the author used a paired samples t-test to examine the difference in wages among the public sector, private sector, and Israel and the settlements between 2000 and 2015. The results show that the maximum wages are among the workers who work in Israel and the settlements. The wages in the public sector have become slightly higher than the wages in the private sector since 2005. The daily wages of wage employees in Israel and the settlements are significantly different from the public and private sectors. The employees’ daily wages in public and private sectors are strongly correlated, but there is no significant difference between the two sectors in the West Bank. Regarding Gaza strip, the correlation is moderate and there is a significant difference between the two sectors.

  15. 75 FR 22630 - Vital Signs Minnesota, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Vital Signs Minnesota, Inc., Including Workers Whose Unemployment... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on October 1, 2009, applicable to workers of Vital Signs Minnesota... that workers separated from employment at Vital Signs Minnesota, Inc. had their wages reported under a...

  16. 20 CFR 655.1113 - Element III-What does “facility wage rate” mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Element III-What does âfacility wage rateâ... OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES What Requirements Must a Facility Meet to Employ H-1C Nonimmigrant Workers as Registered Nurses? § 655.1113 Element III—What does...

  17. Is Self-employment Really a Bad Experience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Malkow-Møller, Nikolaj

    2011-01-01

    We use propensity score matching methods to quantify the effects of past self-employment experience on subsequent earnings in dependent employment using data on the population of Danish men observed between 1990 and 1996. Our results generally confirm existing studies in that we find that a spell...... of self-employment is associated with lower hourly wages compared to workers who were consecutively wage-employed. We also show, however, that this effect disappears—and even becomes positive in some settings—for formerly self-employed who find dependent employment in the same sector as their self......-employment sector. Hence, the on average negative effect of self-employment is rather caused by sector switching than by the self-employment experience per se. Moreover, formerly self-employed who either enjoyed a high income or hired at least one worker during their self-employment spell receive wages...

  18. Manufacturing Employment and Wage Differentials After Structural Adjustment Reforms in Colombia: An Efficiency Wages Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Taborda

    2011-01-01

    las características de las firmas y de la economía. Este documento aborda este tema proponiendo un modelo de diferenciales salariales y crecimiento de empleo, y prueba esta relación entre los períodos de reforma, controlando por características de la industria y el empleo. Un resultado es la confirmación de una relación positiva entre el diferencial de salario intra¿industrial y el cambio en el empleo neto. Para el diferencial salarial inter-industrial, se encuentran respuestas heterogéneas dependiendo de la industria y una reducción en la rotación laboral autónoma.

  19. Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Remco H. Oostendorp

    2009-01-01

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for a number of country studies. The author provides a cross-country study of the impact of globalization on the occupational gender wage gap, based on the rarely used but most far-ranging survey of wages around ...

  20. Human Capital and Wages in Exporting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Skaksen, Jan Rose

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the link between a firms education level, export performance and wages of its workers. We argue that firms may escape intence competition in international markets by using high skilled workers to differentiate their products. This story is consistent with our empirical results....... an export wage premium, but it accrues to workers in firms with high skill intensities.Keywords: Exports, Wages, Human Capital, Rent Sharing, Matched Worker-Firm DataJEL Classification: J30, F10, I20...

  1. Occlusal wear of provisional implant-supported restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, Hendrik J.; Kleverlaan, Cornelis J.; Werner, Arie; Feilzer, Albert J.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    BACKGROUND: Implant-supported provisional restorations should be resistant to occlusal wear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate three-body wear of three indirect laboratory composite resins, five chair side bis-acryl resin-based materials, and two chair side

  2. Evaluation of Vertical Marginal Adaptation of Provisional Crowns by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry,. King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E‑mail: malrifaiy@hotmail.com. How to cite this article: Al Rifaiy MQ. Evaluation of vertical marginal adaptation of provisional crowns by digital microscope. Niger J Clin Pract. 2017 ...

  3. Convenience of providing employee benefits compared to increase of gross wages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Duda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Using tax allowances when providing contributions for life insurance, pension insurance and food, employers significantly decrease their costs in comparison with the traditional increase of wages of employees (the saves range in several hundreds of crowns per one employee. These benefits are more profitable than increase of wages for employees, as well. The paper analyses and mathematically reasons these financial benefits, and compares advantages of employee benefits and wage increase.A disadvantage for employees is that these financial means (contributions for pension and life insurance can not be immediately used for their needs, and are bound with the negotiated types of insurance. This is, perhaps, also the reason why employees of selected firms preferred wage increase before employee-benefits. The above-mentioned employee benefits can become an important factor of stabilisation of current employees, or acquiring new, needed employees. The paper briefly characterises these employee benefits.

  4. Vacancy Duration, Wage Offers, and Job Requirements - Pre-Match Data Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Long Hwa; Eriksson, Tor Viking

    is concerned with how vacancy durations vary with firms' minimum wage offers and minimum job requirements (regarding education, skills, age, gender and earlier work experience). The empirical analysis is based on ten employer surveys carried out by the DGBAS on Taiwan during the period 1996-2006. We estimate...... logistic discrete hazard models with a rich set of job and firm characteristics as explanatory variables. The results show that vacancies associated with higher wage offers take, ceteris paribus, longer to be filled. The impact of firms' wage offers and credential requirements does not vary over...... the business cycle. However, firms vary their skills requirements over the business cycle: our empirical analysis shows that, for a given wage offer, requirements are stricter in recessions and downturns. Separating between reasons for posting vacancies turned out important in explaining differences in vacancy...

  5. Do more health insurance options lead to higher wages? Evidence from states extending dependent coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillender, Marcus

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about how health insurance affects labor market decisions for young adults. This is despite the fact that expanding coverage for people in their early 20s is an important component of the Affordable Care Act. This paper studies how having an outside source of health insurance affects wages by using variation in health insurance access that comes from states extending dependent coverage to young adults. Using American Community Survey and Census data, I find evidence that extending health insurance to young adults raises their wages. The increases in wages can be explained by increases in human capital and the increased flexibility in the labor market that comes from people no longer having to rely on their own employers for health insurance. The estimates from this paper suggest the Affordable Care Act will lead to wage increases for young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The nonlinear link between height and wages in Germany, 1985-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübler, Olaf

    2009-07-01

    Based on data of the German Socio-Economic Panel, this article investigates the relationship between height and wages by gender. Unlike previous investigations, which have been limited to an examination of linear effects, this one finds that height influences on wages are curvilinear, and more so for men than for women. More specifically, it finds that women who are shorter than average and men who are somewhat taller than average, but not among the tallest, enjoy significant wage advantages. Furthermore, using Blinder's decomposition to determine two components of wage differences, we find that these differences can be partitioned into an endowment component and unexplained influences (discrimination). There is a difference between the public and private sectors and between men and women as to the degree of the latter effect. This investigation supports the hypothesis that short and very tall men employed in the private sector are disadvantaged the most. The outcome for women is less robust than for men.

  7. Premium growth and its effect on employer-sponsored insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vistnes, Jessica; Selden, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    We use variation in premium inflation and general inflation across geographic areas to identify the effects of downward nominal wage rigidity on employers' health insurance decisions. Using employer level data from the 2000 to 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, we examine the effect of premium growth on the likelihood that an employer offers insurance, eligibility rates among employees, continuous measures of employee premium contributions for both single and family coverage, and deductibles. We find that small, low-wage employers are less likely to offer health insurance in response to increased premium inflation, and if they do offer coverage they increase employee contributions and deductible levels. In contrast, larger, low-wage employers maintain their offers of coverage, but reduce eligibility for such coverage. They also increase employee contributions for single and family coverage, but not deductibles. Among high-wage employers, all but the largest increase deductibles in response to cost pressures.

  8. Note from the editor: [Wages and employment, disintegration or transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, J.

    2015-01-01

    In his From the editor, Jan Cremers (AIAS) writes: ‘In recent months not only the European legislator but also the ECJ seem to have realised what negative effects blunt economic reasoning can have on the functioning of the Posting of Workers Directive. In a Finnish case of Polish workers being

  9. Emotional labor demands and compensating wage differentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glomb, Theresa M; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Rotundo, Maria

    2004-08-01

    The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level. Theories describing the expected effects of job demands and working conditions on wages are described. Results suggest that higher levels of emotional labor demands are associated with lower wage rates for jobs low in cognitive demands and with higher wage rates for jobs high in cognitive demands. Implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA

  10. Low-Wage Work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2008-01-01

    of collective bargaining help regulate working conditions in the absence of strong government regulation. Denmark's rate of low-wage work-8.5 percent-is the lowest of the five countries under analysis. In Low-Wage Work in Denmark, a team of Danish researchers combines comprehensive national registry data...... not stay in low-wage jobs for long. Many go on to higher paying jobs, while a significant minority ends up relying temporarily on income support and benefits sustained by one of the highest tax rates in the world.  Low-Wage Work in Denmark provides an insightful look at the particularities of the Danish...

  11. Return to experience and initial wage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.L.; Vejlin, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to non-parametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationship...... between return to experience and unobservable individual ability is negative when conditioning on educational attainment, while the relationship between return to experience and educational attainment is positive. We link our findings to three main theories of wage growth, namely search, unobserved...

  12. Return to Experience and Initial Wage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to nonparametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationship...... between return to experience and unobservable individual ability is negative when conditioning on educational attainment while the relationship between return to experience and educational attainment is positive. We link our finding to two main theories of wage growth, namely search and human capital. We...

  13. Effect of provisional cements on shear bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Tak, Onjen; Secilmis, Asli; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three provisional cements and two cleaning techniques on the final bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers. The occlusal third of the crowns of forty molar teeth were sectioned and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Dentin surfaces were polished and specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). Provisional restorations were fabricated and two provisional restorations were cemented onto each tooth. Restorations were fixed with one of three different provisional cements: eugenol-free provisional cement (Cavex), calcium hydroxide (Dycal), and light-cured provisional cement (Tempond Clear). Provisional restorations were removed with either a dental explorer and air-water spray, or a cleaning bur (Opticlean). In the control group, provisional restorations were not used on the surfaces of specimens. IPS Empress 2 ceramic discs were luted with a dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F). Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey's HSD and Dunnett tests. Surfaces were examined by scanning electronic microscopy. Significant differences were found between the control group and both the light-cured provisional cement groups and the eugenol-free provisional cement-cleaning bur group (Pprovisional cement showed the lowest bond strength values. Selection of the provisional cement is an important factor in the ultimate bond strength of the final restoration. Calcium hydroxide provisional cement and cleaning with a dental explorer are advisable.

  14. Efficiency Wages : Signals or Incentives? An Empirical Study of the Relationship between Wage and Commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlau, P.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Efficiency wage theories argue that firms induce their employees to work in a more disciplined way by paying high wages. Two basic mechanisms have been pointed out in economics about how these wage premia motivate employees. The incentives-driven ‘shirking model’ implies that employees who have a

  15. The economics of employer versus individual mandates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, A B; Reinhardt, U E

    This paper reviews the economic implications of employer and individual health insurance mandates. Although the cost of meeting an employer mandate is nominally paid by employers, in the long run much of the cost may be shifted backward to employees in the form of lower wages. We also compare the consequences of hypothetical employer and individual health insurance mandates for families with different income levels. Depending on their structure, an employer mandate may be more or less progressive than an individual mandate.

  16. Offshoring Jobs? Multinationals and U.S. Manufacturing Employment

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Harrison; Margaret McMillan

    2011-01-01

    Using firm-level data collected by the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, we estimate the impact on U.S. manufacturing employment of changes in foreign affiliate wages. We show that the motive for offshoring and, consequently, the location of offshore activity, significantly affects the impact of offshoring on parent employment. In general, offshoring to low-wage countries substitutes for domestic employment. However, for firms that do significantly different tasks at home and abroad, foreign ...

  17. The effects of savings on reservation wages and search effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the interrelations among wealth, reservation wages and search effort. A theoretical job search model predicts wealth to affect reservation wages positively, and search effort negatively. Subsequently, reduced form equations for reservation wages and search intensity take these

  18. Does More Mean Less? The Male/Female Wage Gap and the Proportion of Females at the Establishment Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reilly, Kevin T.; Wirjanto, Tony S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the proportionof females in the establishment on the male/female wage gap and the effectiveness of an affirmaive action program in reducing this gap. A unique data set makes this paper possible since it has information on both individuals and the establishments...... they work for. The paper documents a significant difference in the sex composition of the establishments in which males and females work. Further, it is shown that the proportion of females in the establishment is negatively related to the wages of both males and females and accounts for 26 percent...... of the gap in log wages between men and women. Due to an inadequacy of the traditional method of decomposing wages when examining an affirmative action program, a new method of decomposition is developed: the characteristic wage decomposition. The results suggest that an employment equity program will reduce...

  19. Higher education, wages, and polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta

    2015-01-01

    The earnings gap between people with a college degree and those with no education beyond high school has been growing since the late 1970s. Since 2000, however, the gap has grown more for those who have earned a post-graduate degree as well. The divergence between workers with college degrees and those with graduate degrees may be one manifestation of rising labor market polarization, which benefits those earning the highest and the lowest wages relatively more than those in the middle of the...

  20. Intersectionopoly: A Simulation of the Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paino, Maria; May, Matthew; Burrington, Lori A.; Becker, Jacob H.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a simulation activity designed to teach students about the wage gap. The wage gap is an important topic in many sociology classrooms, but it can be difficult to convey the accumulated disadvantage experienced by women and racial/ethnic minorities to students using in-class discussions, lectures, or assigned readings alone.…

  1. Wage Discrimination against Handicapped Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William G.; Lambrinos, James

    1985-01-01

    The extent of discrimination against handicapped men and women is estimated in this article. Observed wage differentials are corrected for selectivity bias. Results indicate that almost one-third of the wage differential for men and close to one-half for women can be attributed to discrimination. Handicapped women are also subjected to sex…

  2. The Effect of Overskilling Dynamics on Wages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas; Mahuteau, Stephane; Sloane, Peter; Wei, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    We use a random-effects dynamic probit model to estimate the effect of overskilling dynamics on wages. We find that overskilling mismatch is common and more likely among those who have been overskilled in the past. It is also highly persistent, in a manner that is inversely related to educational level. Yet, the wages of university graduates are…

  3. Innovation and wage polarisation in European industries

    OpenAIRE

    Croci Angelini, Elisabetta; Farina, Francesco; Pianta, Mario

    2008-01-01

    By linking different innovation indicators and education to the polarisation of wages by skill level within industries, the paper aims to find out the importance of sectoral structure: industry analysis analysis of levels of polarisation (not change) so to test the relevance of technology and educational factors in polarisation of wages

  4. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Pytlikova, Mariola

    differential. Both white and blue collar workers as well as skilled and unskilled employees obtain a foreign ownership wage premium. Foreign ownership premia are more prevalent in older and less technologically advanced firms. Joint estimation of productivity and wage equations show that, controlling for human...

  5. Foreign Ownership Wage Premia in Emerging Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Pytlikova, Mariola

    2011-01-01

    differential. Both white and blue collar workers as well as skilled and unskilled employees obtain a foreign ownership wage premium. Foreign ownership premia are more prevalent in older and less technologically advanced firms. Joint estimation of productivity and wage equations show that, controlling for human...

  6. Educational Mismatch and Wages: A Panel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas K.

    2002-01-01

    Using a large German Socioeconomic Panel data set for the period 1984-98, investigates the wage effects of two different measures of educational mismatch, overeducation and undereducation, when controlling for unobserved heterogeneity. Finds that wages differences between overeducated and undereducated workers totally disappear in most cases.…

  7. Gender Wage Disparities among the Highly Educated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Dan A.; Haviland, Amelia M.; Sanders, Seth G.; Taylor, Lowell J.

    2008-01-01

    We examine gender wage disparities for four groups of college-educated women--black, Hispanic, Asian, and non-Hispanic white--using the National Survey of College Graduates. Raw log wage gaps, relative to non-Hispanic white male counterparts, generally exceed -0.30. Estimated gaps decline to between -0.08 and -0.19 in nonparametric analyses that…

  8. Efficiency Wages and the Business Cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a simple efficiency wage model to explain the transmission from exogenous productivity shocks to levels of economic activity. Higher real wages and rising unemployment induce workers to increase their effort. The disciplining effect of unemployment on the effort level has an

  9. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  10. The Wage Curve in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Albæk, K.; Asplund, R.

    This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value for research......This report focusses on wage formation in the Nordic countries with a special attention to the effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level. The book gives a comprehensive and comparable study of this topic in the five Nordic countries which may be of great value...... for researchers or civil servants with a deeper interest in labour market problems. The main result from this study is that the wage formation at the regional level is rather inflexible in the short run in all five Nordic countries, with no effect from changes in local unemployment on the local wage level...... regions in the long run. One explanation put forward for this slow speed of regional wage adjustment is the rather centralized bargaining system on the labour market in the Nordic countries. Wages are set according to the average unemployment rate for the economy as a whole, and differences in regional...

  11. 24 CFR 574.655 - Wage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wage rates. 574.655 Section 574.655 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF... COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Other Federal Requirements § 574.655 Wage...

  12. Results-based Rewards - Leveraging Wage Increases?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregn, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    A good seven years ago, as a part of a large-scale pay reform, the Danish public sector introduced results-based rewards (RBR), i.e. a pay component awarded for achieving or exceeding targets set in advance. RBR represent a possibility for combining wage-earners interests in higher wages with a g...

  13. Determinants of general practitioners' wages in England.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morris, S.; Goudie, R.; Sutton, M.; Gravelle, H.; Elliott, R.; Hole, A.R.; Ma, A.; Sibbald, B.S.; Skatun, D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the determinants of annual net income and wages (net income/hours) of general practitioners (GPs) using data for 2271 GPs in England recorded during Autumn 2008. The average GP had an annual net income of pound97,500 and worked 43 h per week. The mean wage was pound51 per h. Net income

  14. Wage Adjustment Practices and the Link between Price and Wages: Survey Evidence from Colombian Firms *

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Iregui

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores firms’ wage adjustment practices in the Colombian formal labor market; specifically, the timing and frequency of wage increases, as well as the link between wage and price changes. We use a survey of 1,305 firms belonging to all economic sectors. The results show that most firms adjust base wages annually, increases were concentrated around observed inflation and none of the firms cut wages. Moreover, factors associated with the performance of firms and workers alike are the main determinants of wage adjustments. The link between wages and price changes is stronger in sectors where labor costs represent a higher share of total costs and in firms operating in sectors with higher labor productivity.

  15. The Czech Wage Distribution and the Minimum Wage Impacts: the Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Duspivová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A well-fi tting wage distribution is a crucial precondition for economic modeling of the labour market processes.In the fi rst part, this paper provides the evidence that – as for wages in the Czech Republic – the most oft enused log-normal distribution failed and the best-fi tting one is the Dagum distribution. Th en we investigatethe role of wage distribution in the process of the economic modeling. By way of an example of the minimumwage impacts on the Czech labour market, we examine the response of Meyer and Wise’s (1983 model to theDagum and log-normal distributions. Th e results suggest that the wage distribution has important implicationsfor the eff ects of the minimum wage on the shape of the lower tail of the measured wage distribution andis thus an important feature for interpreting the eff ects of minimum wages.

  16. Smith’s theory of wages and its impact on the theory of wages in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Adam Smith has not accepted subsistence theory of wages as an explanation of wages. He can be marked not only as a founder of wages-fund theory, but also of the bargaining theory of wages. Wage-fund doctrine dominated the next hundred years of English economics. Besides, Smith’s explanation of the differentials in wage rates among occupations were accepted by his successors for a century. That was the first step into direction of human capital theory.

  17. Should I stay or should I go? The impact of working time and wages on retention in the health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Stephanie; de Vries, Daniel H; Tijdens, Kea G

    2014-04-23

    Turnover in the health workforce is a concern as it is costly and detrimental to organizational performance and quality of care. Most studies have focused on the influence of individual and organizational factors on an employee's intention to quit. Inspired by the observation that providing care is based on the duration of practices, tasks and processes (issues of time) rather than exchange values (wages), this paper focuses on the influence of working-time characteristics and wages on an employee's intention to stay. Using data from the WageIndicator web survey (N = 5,323), three logistic regression models were used to estimate health care employee's intention to stay for Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. The first model includes working-time characteristics controlling for a set of sociodemographic variables, job categories, promotion and organization-related characteristics. The second model tests the impact of wage-related characteristics. The third model includes both working-time- and wage-related aspects. Model 1 reveals that working-time-related factors significantly affect intention to stay across all countries. In particular, working part-time hours, overtime and a long commuting time decrease the intention to stay with the same employer. The analysis also shows that job dissatisfaction is a strong predictor for the intention to leave, next to being a woman, being moderately or well educated, and being promoted in the current organization. In Model 2, wage-related characteristics demonstrate that employees with a low wage or low wage satisfaction are less likely to express an intention to stay. The effect of wage satisfaction is not surprising; it confirms that besides a high wage, wage satisfaction is essential. When considering all factors in Model 3, all effects remain significant, indicating that attention to working and commuting times can complement attention to wages and wage satisfaction to increase employees' intention to stay. These

  18. Should I stay or should I go? The impact of working time and wages on retention in the health workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Turnover in the health workforce is a concern as it is costly and detrimental to organizational performance and quality of care. Most studies have focused on the influence of individual and organizational factors on an employee’s intention to quit. Inspired by the observation that providing care is based on the duration of practices, tasks and processes (issues of time) rather than exchange values (wages), this paper focuses on the influence of working-time characteristics and wages on an employee’s intention to stay. Methods Using data from the WageIndicator web survey (N = 5,323), three logistic regression models were used to estimate health care employee’s intention to stay for Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. The first model includes working-time characteristics controlling for a set of sociodemographic variables, job categories, promotion and organization-related characteristics. The second model tests the impact of wage-related characteristics. The third model includes both working-time- and wage-related aspects. Results Model 1 reveals that working-time-related factors significantly affect intention to stay across all countries. In particular, working part-time hours, overtime and a long commuting time decrease the intention to stay with the same employer. The analysis also shows that job dissatisfaction is a strong predictor for the intention to leave, next to being a woman, being moderately or well educated, and being promoted in the current organization. In Model 2, wage-related characteristics demonstrate that employees with a low wage or low wage satisfaction are less likely to express an intention to stay. The effect of wage satisfaction is not surprising; it confirms that besides a high wage, wage satisfaction is essential. When considering all factors in Model 3, all effects remain significant, indicating that attention to working and commuting times can complement attention to wages and wage satisfaction to increase

  19. WAGE FLEXIBILITY IN THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TECULESCU Silviu Alexandru

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper follows to offer the most efficient solutions for the attainment by Romania of the economic development level associated to the Western European countries. It proposes the division of the flexibility of labour market in three components, namely: internal flexibility, external flexibility and wage flexibility. The analysis performed within the present study will emphasize the wage flexibility. Wage flexibility can be classified in four components: a plans of individual and group incentives; b plans of assigning wages out of productivity; c plans of distribution of profits and, respectively, d plans of suggestions. The labour market flexibility, in general, and especially the wage flexibility contributes to the increase of employee motivation at the workplace, aspect which leeds to the growth of labour productivity, through this one being put the bases of the medium- and long-term economic development.

  20. 26 CFR 1.6052-2 - Statements to be furnished employees with respect to wages paid in the form of group-term life...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... respect to wages paid in the form of group-term life insurance. 1.6052-2 Section 1.6052-2 Internal Revenue... Information Returns § 1.6052-2 Statements to be furnished employees with respect to wages paid in the form of group-term life insurance. (a) Requirement. Every employer filing a return under section 6052(a) and § 1...

  1. Redesign of a fixture mount to be used as an impression coping and a provisional abutment as well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Hsuan-Chen Chang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: An integrated fixture mount/impression coping/ temporary abutment can provide many advantages for immediate loading of dental implants, such as simpler procedure, less chair time, cost reduction, and comfort for the patients. Materials and Methods: A newly designed dental implant fixture mount (DIFMA can be used as an impression coping for taking an immediate impression. An immediate load provisional prosthesis can then be fabricated shortly after implant placement to immediately load the implants. This fixture mount can also serve as a temporary abutment for immediate chair-side fabrication of provisional prosthesis. Two clinical cases are presented. Results: A clinical case utilizing the fixture mount abutment (DIFMA/implant assembly is presented. The precision of fitting between the impression copings and implants is secured with this system. The chair time for taking an immediate impression is greatly reduced. Less cost for the restoration is provided and patient comfort is delivered. Conclusions: More patient satisfaction can be conferred by employing the fixture mount in the process of immediate impression taking and as an immediate provisional abutment.

  2. Effect of dentin adhesives used as sealers and provisional cementation on bond strength of a resin cement to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffi, Nicoletta; Sadek, Fernanda; Monticelli, Francesca; Goracci, Cecilia; Grandini, Simone; Davidson, Carel; Tay, Franklin R; Ferrari, Marco

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of dentin adhesives employed as resin sealers and provisional cementation on the bond strengths of a resin cement to dentin. A two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Excite DSC--Group 1) and two-step self-etch adhesive (AdheSE--Group 2) were applied to exposed dentin surfaces prepared from human molars (N=4). Water was used instead of a resin sealer in control Groups 3 and 4. A eugenol-free provisional cement (except for Group 4) was applied to the treated surfaces. After storing in distilled water for 1 week, the provisional cement was removed and cylindrical composite blocks were luted with a resin cement (Variolink II). 0.9 x 0.9 mm sticks were produced from these luted specimens for microtensile bond testing and SEM examination. One-way ANOVA revealed that neither the resin sealer nor the temporary eugenol-free cement had a negative effect on the final bond strength (P> 0.05). Mixed failures were predominantly identified from SEM.

  3. Bacterial leakage of provisional restorative materials used in endodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Gary R; Loucks, Carina A; Reavley, Brenton A

    2010-04-01

    To test the bacterial sealing ability of commonly used provisional endodontic restorative materials. This study investigated Cavit (3M ESPE), Ketac (3M ESPE), DuoTemp (Coltane/Whaledent), and a combination technique using Ketac and Cavit. One hundred molars were randomly selected and then mounted in an apparatus that isolated the crown portion of the tooth. Provisional restorative materials were placed in an open access following manufacturer guidelines. Streptococcus mutans was applied to the samples, and results were tabulated over the course of 4 weeks. Cavit and DuoTemp performed the best, and Ketac performed the worst. After 14 days, however, all materials leaked in over half of the samples. No material can be recommended as superior in providing a reliable seal after 14 days.

  4. The peasantariat and politics: migration, wage labor, and agriculture in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, J

    1984-01-01

    This article examines Botswana's wage labor migration in terms of 2 reigning theories: 1) as a dichotomy between traditional and modern society, with workers viewing agriculture as an alternative to more desirable wage employment; or 2) as a subordination of colonial society to capitalist society, with workers drawn from the resulting underdeveloped and impoverished areas and divorced from their agricultural potential. Approximately 90% of Botswanan households have a wage worker; less than 1/4 of households rely on the agricultural economy alone. 80% of the population works in agriculture in some way, but agriculture contributes only 35% of total rural income. Over 50% of households are below the poverty level, and most must rely on a variety of income sources for subsistence. 68% of rural households (Botswana is 84% rural) have absent wage earners while 45% have 1 or more wage earners present. Absent wage earners work mainly in unskilled and semi-skilled jobs in Botswanan towns (44%) and villages (22%), and lands and cattlepost locations (5%) in South African mines (19%), and other jobs in South Africa (8%). Individuals with low socioeconomic status tend to migrate to South Africa; those with higher status move to Botswanan towns. Working for wages has become customary for most Botswanans. This article undermines conventional development theories by showing the close interweaving of the modern and traditional societies, and arguing that traditional retention of communal land rights and cattle ownership served the capitalistic system by becoming the basis for wage earning; previous income source (agriculture) did not disappear, but their use was altered. South African mining returns to the Botswanan government since 1965 largely benefited a growing petty-bourgeois class and marginally improved the life styles of the peasant labor class. Botswana's development depends on the relationship between the peripherial laboring class and the dominating petty-bourgeois and

  5. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    OpenAIRE

    Meenal Nitin Gulve; Nitin Dilip Gulve

    2013-01-01

    Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a pa...

  6. Immediately Loaded Intraorally Welded Complete-Arch Maxillary Provisional Prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albiero, Alberto Maria; Benato, Renato; Fincato, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Guided implant surgery is not completely accurate when using computer-designed stereolithographic surgical guides. Complications are frequently reported when combining computer-guided flapless surgery with an immediately loaded prefabricated prosthesis. Achieving passive fit of a prefabricated prosthesis on the inserted implants the same day of the surgery can be difficult. The aim of this report is to show a new treatment approach to immediately loaded implants inserted with computer-guided surgery using an intraoral welded full-arch provisional prosthesis.

  7. In vitro color stability of provisional restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Jalali

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tea on provisional restorative materials. Setting and Design: This study was designed to measure the degree of color change of three acrylic resin provisional materials, before and after immersion in artificial saliva and artificial saliva-tea solution for 2 and 4 weeks. Materials and Methods : Three types of acrylic provisional materials (duralay, tempron, acropars TRP, were studied. Twenty disks (20±0.1 mm by 2±0.05 mm were fabricated from each material. Specimens were polished with acrylic bur using pumice and diamond polishing paste. Base line color was measured using a spectrophotometer. Ten disks were stored in artificial saliva and 10 were stored in a solution of artificial saliva and tea at room temperature. Color measurements were made after 2 and 4 weeks of immersion. Statistical analysis used: Differences in color changes were compared by two way ANOVA, across the six groups, followed by a Turkey-Kramer′s multiple comparison test. Results: For specimens immersed in artificial saliva, the color change of methyl methacrylate materials; duralay (ΔE=4.94 and tempron (ΔE=6.54, was significantly more than butyl methacrylate material; acropars (ΔE=4.10. After immersion in an artificial saliva- tea solution, tempron exhibited less color change (ΔE=8.50 compared to duralay (ΔE=10.93 and acropars (ΔE=15.64. Conclusion: Color stability of methyl methacrylate is higher than butyl methacrylates so if provisional materials are used for extended periods of time; tempron is preferred.

  8. Illness related wage and productivity losses: Valuing 'presenteeism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam

    2015-12-01

    One source of productivity loss due to illness is the reduced "quantity" or "quality" of labor input while working, often referred to as presenteeism. Illness-related presenteeism has been found to be potentially more costly than absenteeism. To value presenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy for marginal productivity at the firm level. However, wage may not equal marginal productivity in some scenarios. One instance is when a job involves team production and perfect substitutes for workers are not readily available. Using a Canadian linked employer-employee survey (2001-2005), we test whether relative wage equals relative marginal productivity among team workers and non-team workers with different frequencies of presenteeism (reduction at work due to illness). For the pooled cross-sectional estimates (2001, 2003, 2005) we obtain 13,755 observations with 6842 unique workplaces. There are 6490 observations for the first differences estimates from the odd years and 5263 observations for the first differences estimates from 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004. We find that in both small and large firms, team workers with frequent reductions at work are less productive but earn similarly compared with non-team workers without reductions. We also find that in small firms, workers with occasional work reductions are more productive than workers without reductions, but the reverse is true in large firms. The study findings partially support the literature stating that productivity loss resulting from employee presenteeism could exceed wages if team work is involved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Provisional implants for immediate restoration of partially edentulous jaws: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krennmair, Gerald; Krainhöfner, Martin; Weinländer, Michael; Piehslinger, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of provisional implants, which can provide patients with provisional fixed partial dentures during the healing time of augmentation procedures and/or during the osseointegration period of definitive implants until delivery of the definitive prosthesis. Thirty-one patients were consecutively included in the study. Eighteen patients (group A, primary simultaneous group) were initially treated simultaneously with provisional and definitive implants and provided with 18 interim fixed partial dentures. Thirteen patients (group B) received provisional implants in a staggered procedure. In the first stage of group B patients (augmentation phase), provisional implants were placed to bridge the augmentation phase and for anchoring 13 interim fixed partial dentures. In the second stage (secondary simultaneous group), patients of group B received provisional implants to bridge the osseointegration phase for simultaneously placed definitive implants by further use of 13 interim fixed partial dentures. All patients were followed from provisional implant and definitive implant placement to delivery of the definitive prosthesis. Loss of provisional implants and interim fixed partial dentures was noted, and stability of provisional implants was evaluated using the Periotest device. The procedures of immediate rehabilitation with fixed partial dentures using provisional implants were subjectively rated by patients with regard to satisfaction, treatment period, and acceptance. In 31 patients, 44 provisional fixed partial dentures were supported by 98 provisional implants. No provisional implant loss in group A or group B-second stage was observed. Only 3 (3%) provisional implants were lost in group B-first stage during the augmentation phase. Incidence (90.8% versus 9.2%) and stability (Periotest values: 8.6 +/- 3.9 versus 4.8 +/- 2.7) of provisional implants differed significantly between maxilla and mandible (P fixed partial dentures

  10. Analysis of the Romanian employment rate. A panel data approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa APARASCHIVEI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evolution of the employment rate in Romania. I employ a panel data approach, considering the 42 counties, in order to explore the relationship between labour productivity, average earnings, investments and employment. The results reveal a positive impact of the average wage and gross investments and a negative impact of the labour productivity on employment rate.

  11. Gender-based wage differentials among registered dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Prudence; Taylor, Maxine; Daher, Noha

    2007-01-01

    The debate on compensation equity is broad-based, addressing many organizational, personal, and outcome factors. Central to compensation philosophy is the issue of gender equity. Health care, like many other industries, remains fraught with gender inequity in compensation. This inequity is partially explained by choice of practice area. However, much remains unexplained. Health care is a female-dominated industry with most of the women working in the allied health professions (eg, nurses, dietitians, etc). Registered dietitians (RD) may experience wage discrimination, similar to registered nurses, but prior to the present study, the assumption was not tested. Using data from the first comprehensive study of RD compensation, we examined gender equity in total cash compensation to RDs. Data were collected on total cash compensation, and questions focused on career progression and work outcomes. For purposes of our study, we analyzed data on 5,477 full-time RDs. Ninety-six percent were women, the median age was 43, and median total cash compensation for RDs employed in the position for at least 1 year was $45,500.00. Women earned $45,285.00 and men earned $50,250.00. A median wage gap of $4,965.00 between women and men was observed. Variability in total cash compensation to women was best explained by size of budget, years of experience, work setting, and educational level. Variability for men was explained by size of budget, years of experience, educational level, and employer status. Conclusions suggest that given the wage discrimination that female RDs experience, work organizations should evaluate their pay plans to monitor pay equity. Factors that women can manage to receive compensation that is equal to that of the men include size of budgets they manage, years of experience in the field, employer status, work setting, and educational level attained. Findings are useful for career advisers, human resource specialists, compensation specialists, supervisors, RDs

  12. Effect of Provisional Cements on Shear Bond Strength of Porcelain Laminate Veneers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Tak, Onjen; Secilmis, Asli; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three provisional cements and two cleaning techniques on the final bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers. Methods: The occlusal third of the crowns of forty molar teeth were sectioned and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Dentin surfaces were polished and specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). Provisional restorations were fabricated and two provisional restorations were cemented onto each tooth. Restorations were fixed with one of three different provisional cements: eugenol-free provisional cement (Cavex), calcium hydroxide (Dycal), and light-cured provisional cement (Tempond Clear). Provisional restorations were removed with either a dental explorer and air-water spray, or a cleaning bur (Opticlean). In the control group, provisional restorations were not used on the surfaces of specimens. IPS Empress 2 ceramic discs were luted with a dual-cured resin cement (Panavia F). Shear bond strength was measured using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey’s HSD and Dunnett tests. Surfaces were examined by scanning electronic microscopy. Results: Significant differences were found between the control group and both the light-cured provisional cement groups and the eugenol-free provisional cement-cleaning bur group (P<.05). Groups that had received light-cured provisional cement showed the lowest bond strength values. Conclusions: Selection of the provisional cement is an important factor in the ultimate bond strength of the final restoration. Calcium hydroxide provisional cement and cleaning with a dental explorer are advisable. PMID:21912495

  13. 26 CFR 31.6413(a)-1 - Repayment or reimbursement by employer of tax erroneously collected from employee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... or reimbursement by employer of tax erroneously collected from employee. (a) Federal Insurance... attaches to wages or compensation paid by the employer to the employee prior to the expiration of the... wages were paid, the employer shall repay or reimburse the employee in the amount of the overcollection...

  14. An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary test provides evidence of correlation between minimum wage and investment, thereby allowing for an examination of the wage-growth relationship. Four equations are used to determine the relationship between minimum wage and economic growth. The results from the simple regression of minimum wage ...

  15. 29 CFR 531.59 - The tip wage credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The tip wage credit. 531.59 Section 531.59 Labor... § 531.59 The tip wage credit. In determining compliance with the wage payment requirements of the Act... such employee in the workweek for which the wage payment is made. This credit is in addition to any...

  16. Rank Regressions, Wage Distributions, and the Gender Gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Nicole M.; Lemieux, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Current Population Survey data from 1979 and 1991 were used to decompose changes in the gender wage gap into three components: skill distribution, wage structure, and improvements in women's position. Relative wage gains by women may have been a source of increasing wage inequality among men. (SK)

  17. Minimum Wages, Technological Progress and Loss of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    1998-01-01

    productive sector and in the antiquated sector, respectively. In this framework, the implications of a shock with a minimum wage law is compared to the implications when wages are perfectly flexible. The economic variables considered are short-term and long-term unemployment, wages and wage disparity...

  18. 48 CFR 52.222-16 - Approval of Wage Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of Wage Rates. 52....222-16 Approval of Wage Rates. As prescribed in 22.407(b), insert the following clause: Approval of Wage Rates (FEB 1988) All straight time wage rates, and overtime rates based thereon, for laborers and...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3301-4 - When wages are paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When wages are paid. 31.3301-4 Section 31.3301... Unemployment Tax Act (Chapter 23, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.3301-4 When wages are paid. Wages are paid when actually or constructively paid. Wages are constructively paid when they are credited to the...

  20. 26 CFR 31.3401(a)-2 - Exclusions from wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusions from wages. 31.3401(a)-2 Section 31... Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3401(a)-2 Exclusions from wages. (a) In general. (1) The term “wages... specifically excepted from wages under section 3401(a). (2) The exception attaches to the remuneration for...

  1. Tax reform for low-wage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipel, M M

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the recent implementation of work-oriented antipoverty programs, more welfare recipients can be expected to be working in low-wage jobs. With these jobs there is little hope that these workers' incomes will rise above the poverty level. One way to help support these low-wage workers is through tax reform. Although low-wage workers pay little or no federal tax, they still pay high payroll and local taxes. To help such workers keep more of their earnings, refundable taxes like earned income tax credit and child refund taxes should be expanded, and sales taxes on food should be eliminated.

  2. The Effect of Overskilling Dynamics on Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Mavromaras, Kostas G.; Mahuteau, Stéphane; Sloane, Peter J.; Wei, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    We use a random effects dynamic probit model to estimate the effect of overskilling dynamics on wages. We find that overskilling mismatch is common and more likely among those who have been overskilled in the past. It is also highly persistent, in a manner that is inversely related to educational level. Yet, the wages of university graduates are reduced more by past overskilling, than for any other education level. A possible reason for this wage effect is that graduates tend to be in better-...

  3. Wage and Labor Union in Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Pipit Pitriyan; Adiatma Y.M Siregar

    2012-01-01

    The presence of Labor Unions is expected to provide a higher bargaining power for its members so that the rights of workers can be better acknowledged. In Indonesia, presently, the role of unions is more highlighted in the determination of the minimum wage. This study aims to estimate the the role of labor union on wage determination of Indonesia’s labor intensive manufacturing sector and whether wage differentials occurs among labor union member/non-member of Indonesia’s labor intensive manu...

  4. Employment Effects of educational measures for work-injured people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Henning Bjerregaard; Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Høgelund, Jan

    Vocational rehabilitation in the form of education is the cornerstone of governmental rehabilitation programs for the work-disabled in many countries. Merging a 2004 Danish survey to register information from the Danish National Board of Industrial Injuries, we assess the employment effects...... employers a partial wage subsidy for disabled workers’ wages, by distinguishing between education effects of a return to wage-subsidized work versus a return to ordinary work. Unlike previous studies, we find a positive impact of educational measures on the probability of returning to work for the work...

  5. Real wages in Australia and Canada, 1870-1913

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greasley, David; Madsen, Jakob Brøchner; Oxley, Les

    2000-01-01

    Australia's and Canada's real wage experiences between 1870 and 1913 were distinctive. Faster productivity growth underpinned Canada's overtaking of Australia's wage levels. The globalization forces of migration and trade also shaped their comparative wages, principally by reducing wage growth...... in Canada. Immigration increased slightly Australia's real wages, but reduced wage levels in Canada, and tempered there the beneficial effects of rising productivity and improving terms of trade. In contrast, wage earners' share of national income rose after 1890 in Australia, with the productivity slowdown...... hitting chiefly rents and profits. Distributional shifts favouring wage earners in Australia, and the depressing effects of mass immigration on wages in Canada, limited Canada's wage lead before 1914, despite her faster productivity growth...

  6. 5 CFR 532.261 - Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory schedules for leader and supervisory wage employees in the Puerto Rico wage area. 532.261 Section... RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.261 Special wage schedules for leader and supervisory...

  7. Wages, wage violations, and pesticide safety experienced by migrant farmworkers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Erin; Nguyen, Ha T; Isom, Scott; Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Arcury, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed.

  8. WAGES, WAGE VIOLATIONS, AND PESTICIDE SAFETY EXPERIENCED BY MIGRANT FARMWORKERS IN NORTH CAROLINA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROBINSON, ERIN; NGUYEN, HA T.; ISOM, SCOTT; QUANDT, SARA A.; GRZYWACZ, JOSEPH G.; CHEN, HAIYING; ARCURY, THOMAS A.

    2012-01-01

    Farmworkers have the potential to receive wages that fail to meet minimum wage standards. This analysis describes wages and minimum wage violations among farmworkers, and it determines associations of wage violations with personal characteristics and pesticide safety regulation violations. Data are from a cross-sectional survey of 300 eastern North Carolina farmworkers conducted in June through August, 2009. Most farmworkers (90.0%) were paid by the hour, but 11.7 percent received piece-rate pay. Wage violations were prevalent among farmworkers: 18.3 percent of all farmworkers, 45.3 percent of farmworkers without H-2A visas, and 3.6 percent of farmworkers with H-2A visas experienced wage violations. Most farmworkers experienced numerous pesticide safety violations. Personal characteristics were not associated with wage violations among farmworkers without H-2A visas, but some pesticide safety violations were associated with wage violations. The association of violations indicates that some growers generally violate regulations. Greater enforcement of all regulations is needed. PMID:21733804

  9. The Next Challenge: Advancement of Low-Skilled, Low-Wage Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Jerry

    2004-01-01

    With the series "Advancement for Low-Wage Workers," Jobs for the Future seeks to elevate discussion of this critical issue within and outside the workforce field. These occasional papers address public policy and on-the-ground practice. "The Next Challenge," the series introduction, argues for placing not just employment, but also advancement at…

  10. 78 FR 61390 - Philips Lighting, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Paid Under Philips Lightolier, Genlyte Group...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Employment and Training Administration Philips Lighting, Including Workers Whose Wages Were Paid Under... workers of Philips Lighting, Philips Lightolier Division, including on-site leased workers from Adecco... lighting fixtures. Following the issuance of the certification, the Department received information that...

  11. Gender Wage Gap : A Semi-Parametric Approach With Sample Selection Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, M.; Mussida, C.

    2010-01-01

    Sizeable gender differences in employment rates are observed in many countries. Sample selection into the workforce might therefore be a relevant issue when estimating gender wage gaps. This paper proposes a new semi-parametric estimator of densities in the presence of covariates which incorporates

  12. The Persistence of Overskilling and Its Effects on Wages. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavromaras, Kostas; Mahuteau, Stephane; Sloane, Peter; Wei, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Overskilling is the phenomenon whereby a worker's skills are underutilised in his or her job. Overskilled workers are employed, but they are underutilised and mismatched, in that their skills and abilities are not a good match with the requirements of the job. Overskilling can lead to decreased wages and job satisfaction, which suggests that the…

  13. Why Did Early Industrial Capitalists Suggest Minimum Wages and Social Insurance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    of Aachen (Prussian Rhineprovince) suggested to implement collective labour rules regulating working hours and wages. In the 1860s – 20 years before Bismarck – they proposed a mandatory pension system with equal contributions of employers and employees; they suggested labour conflict resolution by joint...

  14. Wages, Training, and Job Turnover in a Search-Matching Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we extend a job search-matching model with firm-specific investments in training developed by Mortensen (1998) to allow for different offer arrival rates in employment and unemployment. The model by Mortensen changes the original wage posting model (Burdett and Mortensen, 1998) in two...

  15. The Within-Job Motherhood Wage Penalty in Norway, 1979-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Trond; Penner, Andrew M.; Hogsnes, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The motherhood wage penalty is a substantial obstacle to progress in gender equality at work. Using matched employer-employee data from Norway (1979-1996, N = 236,857 individuals, N = 1,027,462 individual-years), a country with public policies that promote combining family and career, we investigate (a) whether the penalty arises from differential…

  16. Cohort Effects in Promotions and Wages: Evidence from Sweden and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Illoong; Meyersson Milgrom, Eva; Hwang, Seiwoon

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the long-term effects of the business cycle on workers' future promotions and wages. Using the Swedish employer-employee matched data, we find that a cohort of workers entering the labor market during a boom gets promoted faster and reaches higher ranks. This procyclical promotion cohort effect persists even after controlling…

  17. The Trend over Time of the GenderWage Gap in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussida, C.; Picchio, M.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse gender wage inequalities in Italy in the mid-1990s and in the mid-2000s. In this period important labour market developments occurred: institutional changes have loosened the use of flexible and atypical contracts; the female employment rates and educational levels have substantially

  18. Wage determination and discrimination among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J F

    1979-09-01

    In this study, the determinants of the wage rates of a large sample of individuals aged 58 to 63 are first analyzed. Second, an explanation for the large discrepancies existing between the average wage rates earned by whites and nonwhites and by men and women is attempted. Human capital and geographic variables were found to be important wage determinants. Education, vocational training, years of job tenure, health, region of residence and local cost of living were significant explanators, especially for whites. Differences in these variables, however, cannot completely explain the wage differentials that exist by race and sex. There is a large unexplained component (especially in the male-female comparison) offering evidence of race and sex discrimination among older workers. In the case of sex discrimination, much of the problem appears to be occupational segregation--the crowding of women into low paying industries and occupations.

  19. Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)

  20. Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Remco H. Oostendorp

    There are several theoretical reasons why globalization will have a narrowing as well as a widening effect on the gender wage gap, but little is known about the actual impact, except for some country studies...

  1. Fertility timing, wages, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, M L; Bloom, D E; Neumark, D

    1993-02-01

    This theoretical model posits that women who delay child bearing will be more likely to invest in human capital (training that enhances productivity but is costly). This investment is conditioned by a greater discount rate than an economy-wide growth rate of wages for non-human capital investor women. The aim of the model is to present a more unified view of relationships between wages and fertility timing identified in earlier research. The empirical analyses, using ordinary least squares techniques, was based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, 1968-82 annually, for a sample of 1817 White working women aged 28-38 in 1982. Data were available for wages, education, work experience, age, number of children, and the percentage in occupations (manager, professional, administrative, service, and blue collar). First wages of women not in school and without a first birth were obtained for 991 women in the sample. Descriptive statistics revealed that the average early wage of late child bearers was 37% higher than the average early wage of early child bearers and 43% higher for 1982 wages. Childless women, compared to early child bearers, experienced a growth in wages from 31-38%. The assumptions in the theoretical model were 1) that all women were equally productive in the labor market in the beginning; 2) that women bore only one child; 3) that women worked continuously for a period of time, except for time out for child bearing; 4) that all women had the option of investing in one type of human capital, which cost the same for all women; 5) that the only source of income was the woman's own earnings; and 6) that a woman's lifetime utility was a function of the present value of her lifetime income and the intervening time period for child birth. Differences in education, experience, tenure, and wages were strongly associated with differences in fertility timing. The results revealed that wages were higher for delayed child bearers, primarily

  2. Random social networks, unemployment and wage inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannides, Y.M.; Soetevent, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical studies of labor markets show that social contacts are an important source of job-related information. At the same time, wage differences among workers may be explained only in part by differences in individual background characteristics. Such findings motivate our model in which differences in "social connectedness" among otherwise identical workers result in wage inequality and differences in unemployment rates. The model of this paper allows for heterogeneity in the number of con...

  3. Effect of Provisional Cements on Shear Bond Strength of Porcelain Laminate Veneers

    OpenAIRE

    Altintas, Subutay Han; Tak, Onjen; Secilmis, Asli; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of three provisional cements and two cleaning techniques on the final bond strength of porcelain laminate veneers. Methods: The occlusal third of the crowns of forty molar teeth were sectioned and embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. Dentin surfaces were polished and specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). Provisional restorations were fabricated and two provisional restorations were cemented onto each to...

  4. Provisional drivers' perceptions of the impact of displaying P plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lyndel; Scott-Parker, Bridie; Darvell, Millie; Watson, Barry

    2017-11-17

    P plates (or decals) identify a driver's license status to other road users. They are a compulsory part of the graduated driver licensing system in Queensland, Australia, for drivers on a P1 (provisional 1) or P2 (provisional 2) license. This study explored the perceptions of young drivers regarding the display of P plates (decals) in Queensland, Australia. In this study, 226 young drivers with a provisional (intermediate/restricted) license completed a 30-min online survey between October 2013 and June 2014. t Tests were used to compare the opinions of people who displayed their plates nearly always with those who displayed them less frequently. Participants approved of the requirement to display P plates with 69% of those on a P1 license and 79% on a P2 license supporting the condition to display P1 (red) plates. Participants on a P1 license (62%) and a P2 license (68%) also approved the requirement to display P2 (green) plates. However, young drivers also perceived that the display of P plates (measured from 1 = never to 5 = nearly all the time) enabled newly licensed drivers to be targeted by police and other drivers (those who do not always display P plates: M = 3.72, SD = 0.94; those who nearly always display P plates: M = 3.43, SD = 1.09). The study findings suggest that participants who nearly always display their P plates are more likely to report that having to display their plates resulted in them driving more carefully.

  5. Competitive Employment for People with Autism: Correlates of Successful Closure in Competitive and Supported Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, James; Yang, Nancy K.

    2005-01-01

    Differences in rates of case closure, case service cost, hours worked per week, and weekly wage between customers with autism closed successfully in competitive employment and supported employment were found using the Rehabilitation Service Administration national database of 2001. Using logistic regression, customer demographic variables related…

  6. Part-time wage penalties in Europe: A matter of selection or segregation?

    OpenAIRE

    Eleonora Matteazzi; Ariane Pailhé; Anne Solaz

    2012-01-01

    Different profiles of female participation and part-time employment can be observed within Europe. The aim of this paper is to estimate whether there still exists a wage penalty for part-time workers in four European countries (i.e. Austria, Italy, Poland, and the United Kingdom) after the introduction of Council Directive 97/81/EC concerning the Framework Agreement on part-time work and aiming at eliminate any form of discrimination against part-time workers. Full-time hourly wages exceed pa...

  7. Effects of wages on smoking decisions of current and past smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Leigh, J Paul

    2015-08-01

    We used longitudinal data and instrumental variables (IVs) in a prospective design to test for the causal effects of wages on smoking prevalence among current and past smokers. Nationally representative U.S. data were drawn from the 1999-2009 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Our overall sample was restricted to full time employed persons, aged 21-65 years. We excluded part time workers and youths because smoking and wage correlations would be complicated by labor supply decisions. We excluded adult never smokers because people rarely begin smoking after the age of 20 years. IVs were created with state-level minimum wages and unionization rates. We analyzed subsamples of men, women, the less educated, the more educated, quitters, and backsliders. Validity and strength of instruments within the IV analysis were conducted with the Sargan-Hansen J statistic and F tests. We found some evidence that low wages lead to more smoking in the overall sample and substantial evidence for men, persons with high school educations or less (wages lead to 5.5 and 4.6 percentage point decreases in smoking for men and the less educated; they also increased the average chance of quitting among base-year smokers from 17.0% to 20.4%. Statistical tests suggested that IVs were strong and valid in most samples. Subjects' other family income, including spouses' wages, was entered as a control variable. Increases in an individual's wages, independent of other income, decreased the prevalence of smoking among current and past smokers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Direct support workforce supporting individuals with IDD: current wages, benefits, and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Matthew D; Hewitt, Amy; Nord, Derek; Hepperlen, Renee

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Direct support professionals (DSPs) and frontline supervisors (FLSs) play an integral role in the lives of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) and are often the individuals directly responsible for assisting people with IDD to live and fully participate in their communities. These two groups of workers have typically been employed at lower wages with limited access to fringe benefits, contributing to high rates of turnover compared to a similarly skilled worker in the United States. This article summarizes findings and is the first investigation in several years to systematically examine the wages, fringe benefits, and stability of the DSP and FLS workforces supporting individuals with IDD. Findings suggest that a typical DSP may expect to earn about $11.25 per hour, while FLSs may expect wages of about $15.45 hourly. Of concern, however, is that fringe benefit provision was quite limited in this sample. Implications, including relation to past reports of DSP workforce development, are discussed.

  9. Wages in the food chain in Burundi: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; Ndereyahaga, R.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force conducted between the 7th of April and the 29th of April 2013 in all provinces of Burundi. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 52% were men, 48% women and 43% were under 30 years of

  10. Wages in the food chain in South Sudan: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besamusca, J.; Tijdens, K.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in South Sudan, conducted between the 1st of June and the 19th of July 2013 in the southern and eastern regions of South Sudan. In total 1,329 persons were interviewed; 71% were men, 29% women and 37% were

  11. Wages in the food chain in Ethiopia: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; Asteraye, N.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Ethiopia, conducted between the 2rd of March and the 20th of May 2013 in all provinces of Ethiopia. In total 2,126 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 48% were under 30 years of age. The

  12. Wages in the food chain in Mozambique: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey of the labour force, conducted between the 27th of May and the 1st of June 2013 in all provinces of Mozambique. In total 1,679 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 43% were under 30 years

  13. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and the Gender Wage Gap: An Identification Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrace, William C.; Oaxaca, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    States that a method for estimating gender wage gaps by industry yields estimates that vary according to arbitrary choice of omitted reference groups. Suggests alternative methods not susceptible to this problem that can be applied to other contexts, such as racial, union/nonunion, and immigrant/native wage differences. (SK)

  14. 75 FR 16000 - Temporary Employment of Foreign Workers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Employment and Training Administration 20 CFR Part 655 Temporary Employment of Foreign Workers in the United..., for which an employer desires to employ nonimmigrant foreign workers, and (ii) whether the employment... unless the employment of the foreign worker in the job opportunity will not adversely affect the wages or...

  15. Devaluation, crowding or skill specificity? Exploring the mechanisms behind the lower wages in female professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Anne; Magnusson, Charlotta

    2013-07-01

    A conspicuous finding in research on the gender wage gap is that wages are related to the percentage females in an occupation (percent F). Three mechanisms have been suggested to explain this relationship: a devaluation of women's work, a crowding of women into a limited number of occupations, and a female disadvantage in the accumulation of specific human capital. In this analysis, based on data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey of 2000 (n=2915), we distinguish between these mechanisms using measures of devaluation (Treiman's prestige scale), crowding (employee dependence on current employer) and specific human capital (on-the-job training). The results show that all the indicators are related to percent F, but not in a linear fashion, and that the percent F-effect on wages is overstated and misspecified. Female-dominated occupations stand out with lower wages than both male-dominated and gender-integrated occupations and this is not explained by any of our measures. Thus, if the hypotheses on segregation and wages should be sustained, they must be further specified and new measures must be found to prove their worth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gender, Parenthood and Wage Differences: The Importance of Time-Consuming Job Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Charlotta; Nermo, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Using data from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (2000, 2010), we investigate how the gender wage gap varies with occupational prestige and family status and also examine the extent to which this gap is explained by time-consuming working conditions. In addition, we investigate whether there is an association between parenthood, job characteristics and wage (as differentiated by gender). The analyses indicate that there are gender differences regarding prestige-based pay-offs among parents that are partly explained by fathers' greater access to employment characterized by time-consuming conditions. Separate analyses for men and women demonstrate the presence of a marriage wage premium for both genders, although only men have a parenthood wage premium. This fatherhood premium is however only present in high-prestigious occupations. Compared with childless men, fathers are also more advantaged in terms of access to jobs with time-consuming working conditions, but the wage gap between fathers and childless men is not explained by differences in access to such working conditions.

  17. Wage Differentials between Heat-Exposure Risk and No Heat-Exposure Risk Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the wage differential between groups of workers who are exposed to heat and those who are not. Workers in the heat-exposure risk group are defined as workers who work in conditions that cause them to spend more than 25% of their work hours at high temperatures. To analyze the wage differential, the Blinder-Oaxaca and Juhn-Murphy-Pierce methods were applied to Korea Working Condition Survey data. The results show that the no heat-exposure risk group received higher wages. In most cases, this can be interpreted as the endowment effect of human capital. As a price effect that lowers the endowment effect, the compensating differential for the heat-exposure risk group was found to be 1%. Moreover, education level, work experience, and employment status counteracted the compensating differentials for heat-exposure risks. A comparison of data sets from 2011 and 2014 shows that the increasing wage gap between the two groups was not caused by systematic social discrimination factors. This study suggests that wage differential factors can be modified for thermal environmental risks that will change working conditions as the impact of climate change increases.

  18. Income Tax on Wages and Factors Affecting their Tax Evasion - the Case of Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Shkendije Demalijaj Ukaj

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the factors causing tax evasion on income from wages in Kosovo, who have contributed to revenue shortfall at a satisfactory level for government also affects the welfare of the employees when they will reach retirement age because Kosovo has organized pension system in a way that accounts for the Employed Individual pensions are means each pays and collects about themselves for retirement income. For this reason, the Employed who are not involved in the informal economy a...

  19. Fast food prices, obesity, and the minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotti, Chad; Tefft, Nathan

    2013-03-01

    Recent proposals argue that a fast food tax may be an effective policy lever for reducing population weight. Although there is growing evidence for a negative association between fast food prices and weight among adolescents, less is known about adults. That any measured relationship to date is causal is unclear because there has been no attempt to separate variation in prices on the demand side from that on the supply side. We argue that the minimum wage is an exogenous source of variation in fast food prices, conditional on income and employment. In two-stage least-squares analyses, we find little evidence that fast food price changes affect adult BMI or obesity prevalence. Results are robust to including controls for area and time fixed effects, area time trends, demographic characteristics, substitute prices, numbers of establishments and employment in related industries, and other potentially related factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Workplace exposure to nanoparticles and the application of provisional nanoreference values in times of uncertain risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Broekhuizen, P; van Broekhuizen, F.; Cornelissen, R.; Reijnders, L.

    2012-01-01

    Nano reference values (NRVs) for occupational use of nanomaterials were tested as provisional substitute for Occupational Exposure Limits (OELs). NRVs can be used as provisional limit values until Health-Based OELs or derived no-effect levels (DNEL) become available. NRVs were defined for 8 h

  1. Provisional Admission Practices: Blending Access and Support to Facilitate Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Andrew Howard; Clinedinst, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This report examines provisional admission as an initiative that can expand four-year college access and success for students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Provisional admission policies and programs enable students to enroll at an institution under specific conditions. Students are often required to meet certain academic…

  2. 76 FR 61042 - Modification of Regulations Regarding the Practice of Accepting Bonds During the Provisional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Practice of Accepting Bonds During the Provisional Measures Period in Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... importers directly responsible for the payment of AD and CVD duties. DATES: This Final Rule is effective... practice of accepting bonds during the provisional measures period in AD and CVD investigations. See...

  3. Fabrication of a screw-retained fixed provisional prosthesis supported by dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kökat, Ali Murat; Akça, Kivanç

    2004-03-01

    Screw-retained provisional implant-supported prostheses may have advantages over cement-retained prostheses in certain situations. This article describes a technique for fabrication of screw-retained provisional acrylic resin implant-supported prostheses from the modified metal components provided with the implant.

  4. Indirect implant-supported fixed provisional restoration in the esthetic zone: fabrication technique and treatment workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Alexander; Schuler, Ralf; Goto, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    Treatment objectives of an implant-supported fixed provisional restoration include shaping/preservation of the gingival soft tissue contour, functional and esthetic substitution of the missing dentition during postsurgical healing, and definitive prosthesis fabrication stages. Fixed provisional restoration can also serve as an esthetic and functional blueprint in the fabrication of the definitive restoration. Despite its common use and important indications, limited information is available on the various aspects of the provisional fabrication and treatment. This article presents a production technique and treatment workflow of a laboratory-fabricated, screw-retained fixed provisional restoration. Provisional restoration is fabricated using layering technique and internal stain characterization. The soft tissue profile of the working cast is modified according to the coronal contour of the diagnostic wax-up. Upon delivery, the provisional contour is reevaluated and modified as necessary. The developed emergence profile of the provisional restoration is transferred to the master cast via customized impression copings. Laboratory-fabricated implant-supported provisional restorations allow the esthetic and functional substitution of the missing dentition and the shaping of the soft tissue profile, and can act as a blueprint in the fabrication of definitive restorations.

  5. 78 FR 36571 - North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Provisional Official...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... Official Protraction Diagrams in the Pacific Ocean, Hawaiian Islands Description/Date NF04-08 (Kaua'i... with this publication two NAD 83-based OCS Provisional OPDs that represent the Island of Oahu and... Title 43, Code of Federal Regulations, has created provisional versions of the basic record used for the...

  6. Employment and Growth | Page 22 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Employment and Growth. Language English. Read more about Libérer le potentiel des économies rurales en Afrique grâce à la croissance verte. Language French. Read more about Unleashing the Potential of African Rural Economies through Green Growth. Language English. Read more about Minimum Wage ...

  7. Early versus delayed, provisional eptifibatide in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugliano, Robert P; White, Jennifer A; Bode, Christoph; Armstrong, Paul W; Montalescot, Gilles; Lewis, Basil S; van 't Hof, Arnoud; Berdan, Lisa G; Lee, Kerry L; Strony, John T; Hildemann, Steven; Veltri, Enrico; Van de Werf, Frans; Braunwald, Eugene; Harrington, Robert A; Califf, Robert M; Newby, L Kristin

    2009-05-21

    Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors are indicated in patients with acute coronary syndromes who are undergoing an invasive procedure. The optimal timing of the initiation of such therapy is unknown. We compared a strategy of early, routine administration of eptifibatide with delayed, provisional administration in 9492 patients who had acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation and who were assigned to an invasive strategy. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either early eptifibatide (two boluses, each containing 180 microg per kilogram of body weight, administered 10 minutes apart, and a standard infusion > or = 12 hours before angiography) or a matching placebo infusion with provisional use of eptifibatide after angiography (delayed eptifibatide). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, recurrent ischemia requiring urgent revascularization, or the occurrence of a thrombotic complication during percutaneous coronary intervention that required bolus therapy opposite to the initial study-group assignment ("thrombotic bailout") at 96 hours. The key secondary end point was a composite of death or myocardial infarction within the first 30 days. Key safety end points were bleeding and the need for transfusion within the first 120 hours after randomization. The primary end point occurred in 9.3% of patients in the early-eptifibatide group and in 10.0% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.06; P=0.23). At 30 days, the rate of death or myocardial infarction was 11.2% in the early-eptifibatide group, as compared with 12.3% in the delayed-eptifibatide group (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.01; P=0.08). Patients in the early-eptifibatide group had significantly higher rates of bleeding and red-cell transfusion. There was no significant difference between the two groups in rates of severe bleeding or nonhemorrhagic serious adverse events. In patients who had acute

  8. VSRR - Provisional monthly and 12-month ending number of live births, deaths and infant deaths: United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsrr/provisional-tables.htm Monthly and 12 month-ending provisional counts of births, deaths and infant deaths are provided for the...

  9. Wage Inequality and the Location of Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrokhi, Farid; Jinkins, David

    In cross-sectional American census data, we document that isolated cities tend to have less wage inequality. To explain this correlation and other correlations between population and wages, we build an equilibrium empirical model that incorporates high and low-skill labor, costly trade, and both...... agglomeration and congestion forces. The model bridges the gap between the spatial inequality literature which abstracts from geography, and the economic geography literature which abstracts from inequality. We find that geographical location explains 9.2% of observed variation in wage inequality across...... American cities. In counterfactual experiments, we find that reductions in domestic trade costs benefit all American workers and decrease welfare inequality. We also examine the effects on inequality and welfare of both regional and national skill-biased technology shocks. We find that in larger cities...

  10. Home Ownership, Job Duration, and Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negativ...... effect of home ownership on the unemployment risk and a positive impact on wages. These results are robust to different strategies for correcting for the possible endogeneity of the home owner variable......We investigate the impact of home ownership on individual job mobility and wages in Denmark. We find that home ownership has a negative impact on job-to-job mobility both in terms of transition into new local jobs and new jobs outside the local labour market. In addition, there is a clear negative...

  11. Office of Child Support and Enforcement (OCSE) State Wage Alerts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The OCSE State Wage Alert is a quarterly match which detects SSI overpayments by identifying unreported wage and unemployment data provided to the Office of Child...

  12. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Wage inequality and team production: an experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartling, B.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous survey studies report that human resource managers curb wage inequality with the intent to avoid detrimental effects on workers' morale. However, there exists little controlled empirical evidence demonstrating that horizontal social comparisons and wage inequality have adverse effects on

  14. Simulation Analysis of the Effects of Increased Foreign Ownership on Wage Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merita Zulfiu Alili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition countries have, in general, experienced an increase in labour market inequality during and after the initial transition period. Theory and empirical studies analysing the causes and mechanisms of increasing inequality in transition economies identify globalisation, skilled-biased technological change, differences in access to schooling, the pattern and level of unemployment and institutions as important factors. Foreign direct investment (FDI has increased significantly in transition economies during the transition period and has been considered to be an important channel for the diffusion of new technology, managerial skills and new knowledge. As a result of technological and management expertise FDI may raise the level of wages in the host economies, improve working conditions and increase employment, though little previous research has focused on these effects in transition economies. Using the GINI coefficient as the measure of wage inequality a simulation analysis indicates that the net effects of FDI on wage inequality will depend in part on country specific factors, namely how large are the differences in skilled and unskilled wages, the skill-intensity of employment in foreign-owned firms compared to domestic ones and the relative size of the foreign-owned sector.

  15. Human Capital Heterogeneity: University Choice and Wages

    OpenAIRE

    Navon, Guy

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of post-secondary education on wages in Israel. The focus is on the impact of university choice on individual wages controlling for the degree acquired and the area of study. Although the raw data indicate that universities command a different return to education, the paper shows that this is due to the selection of more able individuals to particular universities and not to differences in the quality of education offered. The paper is based on a unique data set...

  16. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence.

  17. Product market integration, rents and wage inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Sørensen, Allan

    Globalization in the form of product market integration affects labour markets and produces winners and losers. While there are aggregate gains, it is in general ambiguous how inequality is affected. We explore this issue in a Ricardian model and show that it depends on the balance between...... "protection" and "specialization" rents. In particular, wage inequality among similar workers (residual wage inequality) may be U-shaped, at first decreasing and then increasing in the process of product market integration. Consequently, there may be gains in both the efficiency and the equity dimension until...

  18. Relative Wage Effects of German Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Christoph M

    1994-01-01

    In contrast to the United States or the United Kingdom where union status is generally tied to the job, the typical unionized worker in Germany is a member of an industry union and there is no direct institutional link between union membership and the worker's wage. Using micro data from the period 1978--88, this paper demonstrates the absence of relative union wage effects in the traditional sense. Union membership is an indicator for the labour force attachment of female workers, however. T...

  19. Provisional Crown Dislodgement during Scuba Diving: A Case of Barotrauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenal Nitin Gulve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in ambient pressure, for example, during flying, diving, or hyperbaric oxygen therapy, can lead to barotrauma. Although it may seem that this issue was neglected in dental education and research in recent decades, familiarity with and understanding of these facts may be of importance for dental practitioners. We report the case of a patient who experienced barotrauma involving dislodgement of a provisional crown during scuba diving. Patients who are exposed to pressure changes as a part of their jobs or hobbies and their dentists should know the causes of barotrauma. In addition, the clinician must be aware of the possible influence of pressure changes on the retention of dental components.

  20. Effects of Health on Wages of Australian Men

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Cai

    2007-01-01

    As a form of human capital health like education determines individuals’ productivity and thus wage rates. While there are numerous overseas studies that examine the effect of health on wages, research on this issue using Australian data is scarce. This paper uses the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey to investigate the effect of health on the wages of working-age Australian men. A simultaneous equation model of health and wages is estimated to account for endo...

  1. Wage curves for Spain evidence from the family budget survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sanromà, Esteve; Ramos Lobo, Raúl

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the existence of a wage curve for Spain. To quantify this relationship for the Spanish economy, we used individual data from the EPF 1990-1991. The results show the presence of a wage curve with an elasticity of -0.13. The availability of very detailed information on wages and unemployment has also shown that less protected labour market groups - young workers, manual workers and building sector workers- have a higher elasticity of wages to local unemployment. These ...

  2. The Effects of Job Evaluation Systems on Wage Effects of Education and Over-education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, A.; Allen, J.

    2009-01-01

    Unions are held responsible for various wage effects, such as higher wages and wage compression. In this paper we investigate another possible union effect on wages: are the actions of unions responsible for the observed relation between required education and wages? It is well known that wages are

  3. Trend of Average Wages as Indicator of Hypothetical Money Illusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Daszkowski

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The definition of wage in Poland not before 1998 includes any value of social security contribution. Changed definition creates higher level of reported wages, but was expected not to influence the take home pay. Nevertheless, the trend of average wages, after a short period, has returned to its previous line. Such effect is explained in the term of money illusion.

  4. Education, Educational Mismatch, and Wage Inequality: Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budria, Santiago; Moro-Egido, Ana I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the connection between education and wage inequality in Spain for the period 1994-2001. Drawing on quantile regression, we describe the conditional wage distribution of different populations groups. We find that higher education is associated with higher wage dispersion. A contribution of the paper is that we explicitly…

  5. 29 CFR 510.20 - Wage surveys in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. 510.20 Section 510.20 Labor... RICO Classification of Industries § 510.20 Wage surveys in Puerto Rico. (a) The legislative history to... qualify for an extended minimum wage phase-in, the government of Puerto Rico would be required to furnish...

  6. The Gender Wage Gap by Education in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mussida, C.; Picchio, M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies the gender wage gap by educational attainment in Italy using the 1994–2001 ECHP data. We estimate wage distributions in the presence of covariates and sample selection separately for highly and low educated men and women. Then, we decompose the gender wage gap across all

  7. Wage Differentials between Women and Men in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, LIsbeth; Deding, Mette

    In this working paper we present the first male/female analysis carried out on new wage statistical data from Statistics Denmark. The purpose of the analysis is to uncover factors of importance to the differences of men’s and women’s hourly wages and furthermore to make up any wage differential...

  8. 48 CFR 22.1007 - Requirement to obtain wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Amended 22.1007 Requirement to obtain wage determinations. The contracting officer shall obtain wage... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement to obtain wage determinations. 22.1007 Section 22.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION...

  9. Wage structure and the incentive effects of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, C.; van Praag, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their incentive effects within one firm. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. We furthermore show that a promotion

  10. Wage structure and the incentive effect of promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herpen, M.; Cools, K.; van Praag, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies wage structure characteristics and their consequent incentive effects empirically. Based on personnel records and an employee survey, we provide evidence that wages are attached to jobs and that promotions play a dominant role as a wage determinant. Our findings indicate

  11. Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…

  12. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  13. 29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...

  14. Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark, David; Wascher, William

    2003-01-01

    Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…

  15. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  16. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials and Job Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krause, M.U.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the relationship between job flows and wages in the U.S. manufacturing sector, where wage differentials for seemingly identical workers and job reallocation rates are shown to be negatively correlated across 3-digit industries.High wage industries have the lowest turnover of jobs,

  17. 29 CFR 500.81 - Payment of wages when due.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of wages when due. 500.81 Section 500.81 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION Worker Protections Wages and Payroll Standards § 500.81 Payment of...

  18. 42 CFR 413.231 - Adjustment for wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustment for wages. 413.231 Section 413.231... Disease (ESRD) Services and Organ Procurement Costs § 413.231 Adjustment for wages. (a) CMS adjusts the labor-related portion of the base rate to account for geographic differences in the area wage levels...

  19. 17 CFR 256.920 - Salaries and wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salaries and wages. 256.920... COMPANY ACT OF 1935 2. Expense § 256.920 Salaries and wages. (a) This account shall include salaries, wages, bonuses and other consideration for services, with the exception of director's fees paid directly...

  20. 26 CFR 509.113 - Government wages, salaries, and pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government wages, salaries, and pensions. 509...) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.113 Government wages, salaries, and pensions. (a) General. Under Article XI of the convention any wage, salary, or similar compensation, or any...