Sample records for provision vulnerable due

  1. Increasing the provision of mental health care for vulnerable, disaster-affected people in Bangladesh (United States)


    Background Bangladesh has the highest natural disaster mortality rate in the world, with over half a million people lost to disaster events since 1970. Most of these people have died during floods or cyclones, both of which are likely to become more frequent due to global climate change. To date, the government’s post-disaster response strategy has focused, increasingly effectively, on the physical needs of survivors, through the provision of shelter, food and medical care. However, the serious and widespread mental health consequences of natural disasters in Bangladesh have not yet received the attention that they deserve. This Debate article proposes a practical model that will facilitate the provision of comprehensive and effective post-disaster mental health services for vulnerable Bangladeshis on a sustainable basis. Discussion A series of socially determined factors render the women and the poor of Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to dying in natural disasters; and, for those who survive, to suffering from some sort of disaster-related mental health illness. For women, this is largely due to the enforced gender separation, or purdah, that they endure; while for the poor, it is the fact that they are, by definition, only able to afford to live in the most climatically dangerous, and under-served parts of the country. Although the disasters themselves are brought by nature, therefore, social determinants increase the vulnerability of particular groups to mental illness as a result of them. While deeply entrenched, these determinants are at least partially amenable to change through policy and action. Summary In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the World Health Organisation developed a framework for providing mental health and psychosocial support after major disasters, which, we argue, could be adapted to Bangladeshi post-cyclone and post-flood contexts. The framework is community-based, it includes both medical and non-clinical components, and it

  2. Increasing the provision of mental health care for vulnerable, disaster-affected people in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Nahar, Nazmun; Blomstedt, Yulia; Wu, Beidi; Kandarina, Istiti; Trisnantoro, Laksono; Kinsman, John


    Bangladesh has the highest natural disaster mortality rate in the world, with over half a million people lost to disaster events since 1970. Most of these people have died during floods or cyclones, both of which are likely to become more frequent due to global climate change. To date, the government's post-disaster response strategy has focused, increasingly effectively, on the physical needs of survivors, through the provision of shelter, food and medical care. However, the serious and widespread mental health consequences of natural disasters in Bangladesh have not yet received the attention that they deserve. This Debate article proposes a practical model that will facilitate the provision of comprehensive and effective post-disaster mental health services for vulnerable Bangladeshis on a sustainable basis. A series of socially determined factors render the women and the poor of Bangladesh particularly vulnerable to dying in natural disasters; and, for those who survive, to suffering from some sort of disaster-related mental health illness. For women, this is largely due to the enforced gender separation, or purdah, that they endure; while for the poor, it is the fact that they are, by definition, only able to afford to live in the most climatically dangerous, and under-served parts of the country. Although the disasters themselves are brought by nature, therefore, social determinants increase the vulnerability of particular groups to mental illness as a result of them. While deeply entrenched, these determinants are at least partially amenable to change through policy and action. In response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the World Health Organisation developed a framework for providing mental health and psychosocial support after major disasters, which, we argue, could be adapted to Bangladeshi post-cyclone and post-flood contexts. The framework is community-based, it includes both medical and non-clinical components, and it could be adapted so that women

  3. Reducing physical vulnerability of residents and risks due to disasters

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    May 10, 2011 ... As a result, Lima is one of the most vulnerable cities in Latin America: its inhabitants are at constant physical, environmental, and social risk. The left bank of ... In the Caribbean region, the combination of increased imports of processed foods and limited consumption of healthy foods, such as fresh fruit and.

  4. Vulnerabilities of macrophytes distribution due to climate change (United States)

    Hossain, Kaizar; Yadav, Sarita; Quaik, Shlrene; Pant, Gaurav; Maruthi, A. Y.; Ismail, Norli


    The rise in the earth's surface and water temperature is part of the effect of climatic change that has been observed for the last decade. The rates of climate change are unprecedented, and biological responses to these changes have also been prominent in all levels of species, communities and ecosystems. Aquatic-terrestrial ecotones are vulnerable to climate change, and degradation of the emergent aquatic macrophyte zone would have contributed severe ecological consequences for freshwater, wetland and terrestrial ecosystems. Most researches on climate change effects on biodiversity are contemplating on the terrestrial realm, and considerable changes in terrestrial biodiversity and species' distributions have been detected in response to climate change. This is unfortunate, given the importance of aquatic systems for providing ecosystem goods and services. Thus, if researchers were able to identify early-warning indicators of anthropogenic environmental changes on aquatic species, communities and ecosystems, it would certainly help to manage and conserve these systems in a sustainable way. One of such early-warning indicators concerns the expansion of emergent macrophytes in aquatic-terrestrial ecotones. Hence, this review highlights the impact of climatic changes towards aquatic macrophytes and their possible environmental implications.

  5. Vulnerability (United States)

    Taback, I.


    The discussion of vulnerability begins with a description of some of the electrical characteristics of fibers before definiting how vulnerability calculations are done. The vulnerability results secured to date are presented. The discussion touches on post exposure vulnerability. After a description of some shock hazard work now underway, the discussion leads into a description of the planned effort and some preliminary conclusions are presented.

  6. Niger's Delta vulnerability to river floods due to sea level rise (United States)

    Musa, Z. N.; Popescu, I.; Mynett, A.


    An evaluation of vulnerability to sea level rise is undertaken for the Niger delta based on 17 physical, social and human influence indicators of exposure, susceptibility and resilience. The assessment used GIS techniques to evaluate and analyse the indicators and the index of coastal vulnerability to floods, if sea level rise conditions are occurring. Each indicator value is based on data extracted from various sources including remote sensing, measured historical data series and literature search. Further indicators are ranked on a scale from 1 to 5 representing "very low" to "very high" vulnerability, based on their values. These ranks are used to determine a similar rank for the defined coastal vulnerability index (CVSLRI). Results indicate that 42.2% of the Niger delta is highly vulnerable to sea level rise; such areas been characterized by low slopes, low topography, high mean wave heights, and unconfined aquifers. Moreover the analysis of social and human influences on the environment indicate high vulnerability to sea level rise due to its ranking for type of aquifer, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, population growth, sediment supply and groundwater consumption. Such results may help decision makers during planning, to take proper adaptive measures for reducing Niger Delta's vulnerability, as well as increasing the resilience to potential future floods.

  7. The Niger Delta's vulnerability to river floods due to sea level rise (United States)

    Musa, Z. N.; Popescu, I.; Mynett, A.


    An evaluation of vulnerability to sea level rise is undertaken for the Niger Delta based on 17 physical, social and human influence indicators of exposure, susceptibility and resilience. The assessment used geographic information systems (GIS) techniques to evaluate and analyse the indicators and the index of coastal vulnerability to floods, if sea level rise conditions are occurring. Each indicator value is based on data extracted from various sources, including remote sensing, measured historical data series and a literature search. Further on, indicators are ranked on a scale from 1 to 5 representing "very low" to "very high" vulnerability, based on their values. These ranks are used to determine a similar rank for the defined coastal vulnerability index (CVSLRI). Results indicate that 42.6% of the Niger Delta is highly vulnerable to sea level rise, such areas being characterised by low slopes, low topography, high mean wave heights, and unconfined aquifers. Moreover, the analysis of social and human influences on the environment indicate high vulnerability to sea level rise due to its ranking for type of aquifer, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, population growth, sediment supply and groundwater consumption. Such results may help decision makers during planning to take proper adaptive measures for reducing the Niger Delta's vulnerability, as well as increasing the resilience to potential future floods.

  8. Indicators for Tracking European Vulnerabilities to the Risks of Infectious Disease Transmission due to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Suk


    Full Text Available A wide range of infectious diseases may change their geographic range, seasonality and incidence due to climate change, but there is limited research exploring health vulnerabilities to climate change. In order to address this gap, pan-European vulnerability indices were developed for 2035 and 2055, based upon the definition vulnerability = impact/adaptive capacity. Future impacts were projected based upon changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, whilst adaptive capacity was developed from the results of a previous pan-European study. The results were plotted via ArcGISTM to EU regional (NUTS2 levels for 2035 and 2055 and ranked according to quintiles. The models demonstrate regional variations with respect to projected climate-related infectious disease challenges that they will face, and with respect to projected vulnerabilities after accounting for regional adaptive capacities. Regions with higher adaptive capacities, such as in Scandinavia and central Europe, will likely be better able to offset any climate change impacts and are thus generally less vulnerable than areas with lower adaptive capacities. The indices developed here provide public health planners with information to guide prioritisation of activities aimed at strengthening regional preparedness for the health impacts of climate change. There are, however, many limitations and uncertainties when modeling health vulnerabilities. To further advance the field, the importance of variables such as coping capacity and governance should be better accounted for, and there is the need to systematically collect and analyse the interlinkages between the numerous and ever-expanding environmental, socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiologic datasets so as to promote the public health capacity to detect, forecast, and prepare for the health threats due to climate change.

  9. Indicators for tracking European vulnerabilities to the risks of infectious disease transmission due to climate change. (United States)

    Suk, Jonathan E; Ebi, Kristie L; Vose, David; Wint, Willy; Alexander, Neil; Mintiens, Koen; Semenza, Jan C


    A wide range of infectious diseases may change their geographic range, seasonality and incidence due to climate change, but there is limited research exploring health vulnerabilities to climate change. In order to address this gap, pan-European vulnerability indices were developed for 2035 and 2055, based upon the definition vulnerability = impact/adaptive capacity. Future impacts were projected based upon changes in temperature and precipitation patterns, whilst adaptive capacity was developed from the results of a previous pan-European study. The results were plotted via ArcGISTM to EU regional (NUTS2) levels for 2035 and 2055 and ranked according to quintiles. The models demonstrate regional variations with respect to projected climate-related infectious disease challenges that they will face, and with respect to projected vulnerabilities after accounting for regional adaptive capacities. Regions with higher adaptive capacities, such as in Scandinavia and central Europe, will likely be better able to offset any climate change impacts and are thus generally less vulnerable than areas with lower adaptive capacities. The indices developed here provide public health planners with information to guide prioritisation of activities aimed at strengthening regional preparedness for the health impacts of climate change. There are, however, many limitations and uncertainties when modeling health vulnerabilities. To further advance the field, the importance of variables such as coping capacity and governance should be better accounted for, and there is the need to systematically collect and analyse the interlinkages between the numerous and ever-expanding environmental, socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiologic datasets so as to promote the public health capacity to detect, forecast, and prepare for the health threats due to climate change.

  10. Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Issa, Sahar; van der Molen, Irna; Stel, Nora


    This chapter reviews the literature on vulnerability. Together with Chapter 3, that offers a literature review specifically focused on resilience, it lays the conceptual foundations for the empirical chapters in this edited volume. Vulnerability symbolizes the susceptibility of a certain system to

  11. vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Jian-Bo


    quantitatively evaluate individual vulnerability. However it cannot be applied to evaluate software risk directly and some metrics of CVSS are hard to assess. To overcome these shortcomings, this paper presents a novel method, which combines the CVSS base score with market share and software patches, to quantitatively evaluate the software risk. It is based on CVSS and includes three indicators: Absolute Severity Value (ASV, Relative Severity Value (RSV and Severity Value Variation Rate (SVVR. Experimental results indicate that by using these indicators, the method can quantitatively describe the risk level of software systems, and thus strengthen software security.

  12. Vulnerability of boreal zone for increased nitrogen loading due to climate change (United States)

    Rankinen, Katri; Holmberg, Maria


    The observed rapid warming of the boreal zone that has been observed in Finland (0.14 °C by decade) is expected to continue ( Also precipitation is assumed to increase in future. These changes may increase nitrogen (N) loading from terrestrial environments to water bodies by accelerating soil organic matter decay and by increasing runoff. Nitrogen is limiting nutrient in the Baltic Sea but also in some lakes, so increased loading may increase eutrophication. Further, high nitrate levels in drinking water may cause methaemoglobin anemia for humans, and nitrate is also connected to increased risk of diabetes and cancer. Thus EU has set upper limits to nitrate concentration in drinking water. MONIMET (LIFE12 ENV/FI/000409) is a project about Climate Change Indicators and Vulnerability of Boreal Zone. We simulated N loading from two boreal catchments to the receiving waters by the dynamic, catchment scale model INCA in different climate change and land use change scenarios. We calculated land use specific N loading values for these two well monitored catchments that belong to the LTER (The Long Term Ecological Research) monitoring network. We upscaled the results to the larger river basin, combining them with the information on drinking water supply to assess the vulnerability. Specific emphasis was paid on nitrate concentrations in soil water and groundwater. In general, land use change has higher influence on N loading than increase in precipitation and temperature alone. Peak runoff will sift from snow melting peak in April to late autumn and winter. Growing season will become longer allowing more efficient vegetation uptake of nutrients. Small groundwater aquifers and private wells in the middle of agricultural fields will be in the risk of increased N concentrations, if agricultural N loading increases due to changes in agricultural patterns and land use change.

  13. Tailored stakeholder products help provide a vulnerability and adaptation assessment of Greek forests due to climate change (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Christos; Karali, Anna; Roussos, Anargyros


    Greece, being part of the eastern Mediterranean basin, is an area particularly vulnerable to climate change and associated forest fire risk. The aim of this study is to assess the vulnerability of Greek forests to fire risk occurrence and identify potential adaptation options within the context of climate change through continuous interaction with local stakeholders. To address their needs, the following tools for the provision of climate information services were developed: 1. An application providing fire risk forecasts for the following 3 days ( was developed from NOA to address the needs of short term fire planners. 2. A web-based application providing long term fire risk and other fire related indices changes due to climate change (time horizon up to 2050 and 2100) was developed in collaboration with the WWF Greece office to address the needs of long term fire policy makers ( 3. An educational tool was built in order to complement the two web-based tools and to further expand knowledge in fire risk modeling to address the needs for in-depth training. In particular, the second product provided the necessary information to assess the exposure to forest fires. To this aim, maps depicting the days with elevated fire risk (FWI>30) both for the control (1961-1990) and the near future period (2021-2050) were created by the web-application. FWI is a daily index that provides numerical ratings of relative fire potential based solely on weather observations. The meteorological inputs to the FWI System are daily noon values of temperature, air relative humidity, 10m wind speed and precipitation during the previous 24 hours. It was found that eastern lowlands are more exposed to fire risk followed by eastern high elevation areas, for both the control and near future period. The next step towards vulnerability assessment was to address sensitivity, ie the human-environmental conditions that

  14. Socio-ecological Vulnerability of Smallholders due to Climate Change in Mountains: Agroforestry as an Adaptation Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Rajiv


    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess the socioecological vulnerability of smallholders through an index of Tehri Garhwal Himalaya. The index provides a realistic approach to recognize the contributions of social and ecological factors for household welfare vulnerability to climate change. The approach puts forward various indices for each component of vulnerability to climate change - exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity including two more indices: one for overall impact under the exposure of climate change and another for overall vulnerability. The five indices were proposed to assess the vulnerability status of with and without agroforestry practicing households in Himalayan region. These indices are based on 35 indicators (8 for exposure; 12 for sensitivity, 15 for adaptive capacity, selected through inductive approaches. A questionnaire for households was designed for the above aim and was administered to 121 heads of households through face-toface interviews with 77 households practicing agroforestry and 44 without agroforestry. The questionnaire dealt the general household information, and indicators of the vulnerability including the issues related to agroforestry. The results highlight slightly higher adaptive capacity of agroforestry practicing households due to specific contribution of agroforestry. The low contribution of agroforestry among smallholders was due to small land holding. The study also results that remoteness, specific issues of smallholders’ such as poverty, education and employment are responsible for the present condition. In particular this study clearly shows that poverty is the key driver for vulnerability. All of these issues can be addressed if future programs and policies, include and implement regulations to remedy attributive factors. This paper may be applicable to other mountainous regions providing insights for effective adaptation strategies to climate change.

  15. Territorial Vulnerability Assessment Supporting Risk Managing Coastal Areas Due to Tsunami Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leandro Barros


    Full Text Available Portugal’s coastline extends 1187 km. It is characterized by social, economic and physical conditions that differentiate it from the rest of the territory, including population density, location of infrastructure and support of tourism activities. Therefore, it has a significant exposure if a tsunami occurs. Six coastal study sites with varying characteristics were selected for evaluation in this paper, including two core beach-use areas, two residential areas and two industrial areas. These sites are located in the municipalities of Figueira da Foz, Setúbal and Vila do Bispo. The analysis began with the calculation of the potential tsunami inundation area for each site using the 1755 Lisbon tsunami. Next, a methodology distinguished by its multidimensional character was applied to assess local vulnerability to tsunamis. This methodology assesses vulnerabilities associated with morphological, structural, social and tax factors. These four vulnerability components were combined to obtain a Composite Vulnerability Index (CVI, which enabled us to identify the most vulnerable areas and to determine the distinguishing characteristics of each area.

  16. 40 CFR 86.445-2006 - What temporary provisions address hardship due to unusual circumstances? (United States)


    ...) Your corporate name and trademark. (3) Engine displacement (in liters) and model year of the engine or... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES Emission Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions...

  17. A screening methodology for the identification and ranking of infrastructure vulnerabilities due to terrorism. (United States)

    Apostolakis, George E; Lemon, Douglas M


    The extreme importance of critical infrastructures to modern society is widely recognized. These infrastructures are complex and interdependent. Protecting the critical infrastructures from terrorism presents an enormous challenge. Recognizing that society cannot afford the costs associated with absolute protection, it is necessary to identify and prioritize the vulnerabilities in these infrastructures. This article presents a methodology for the identification and prioritization of vulnerabilities in infrastructures. We model the infrastructures as interconnected digraphs and employ graph theory to identify the candidate vulnerable scenarios. These scenarios are screened for the susceptibility of their elements to a terrorist attack, and a prioritized list of vulnerabilities is produced. The prioritization methodology is based on multiattribute utility theory. The impact of losing infrastructure services is evaluated using a value tree that reflects the perceptions and values of the decisionmaker and the relevant stakeholders. These results, which are conditional on a specified threat, are provided to the decisionmaker for use in risk management. The methodology is illustrated through the presentation of a portion of the analysis conducted on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  18. Global patterns in the vulnerability of ecosystems to vegetation shifts due to climate change (United States)

    Patrick Gonzalez; Ronald P. Neilson; James M. Lenihan; Raymond J. Drapek


    Climate change threatens to shift vegetation, disrupting ecosystems and damaging human well-being. Field observations in boreal, temperate and tropical ecosystems have detected biome changes in the 20th century, yet a lack of spatial data on vulnerability hinders organizations that manage natural resources from identifying priority areas for adaptation measures. We...

  19. Evaluation of Vulnerable Zones in Puerto Vallarta due to a Local Tsunami (United States)

    Trejo, E.; Nuñez Cornu, F. J., II; Ortiz, M.


    Based in the high possibility of occurrence of a tsunamigenic earthquake of magnitude 8.0Mw offshore from the northern coast of Jalisco and Bahía de Banderas, Mexico. The vulnerability of Puerto Vallarta to a direct flood hazard associated to the tsunami is evaluated. Assuming a simplified model of the seismic source a numerical method is used to calculate the tsunami run-up and the extent of flooding in Puerto Vallarta area. Floods heights and arrival times in the first ten hours after the earthquake and flood boundaries in different watersheds were estimated. This method was previously testing, modeling the October 9, 1995, Jalisco Earthquake and Tsunami, the results obtained were similar to the field observations and testimonies performed in 20 sites along 100 km on the coast of Jalisco, related to the height and flood extension reached during the tsunami. To estimate the vulnerability the following variables were considered: distribution of population density, population by age or physical limitation, housing characteristics, level of education, cost of goods in the affected area, location of key facilities, cost of cleaning the affected area, and change of land use policy in the Puerto Vallarta area. The study indicates that the vulnerability is very high in the Salado basin, and high in the Pitillal and Mascota-Ameca basins.

  20. 40 CFR 1068.245 - What temporary provisions address hardship due to unusual circumstances? (United States)


    ... CONTROL INFORMATION”. (2) Your corporate name and trademark. (3) Engine displacement (in liters or cubic... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS...? (a) After considering the circumstances, we may permit you to introduce into U.S. commerce engines...

  1. DprE1 Is a Vulnerable Tuberculosis Drug Target Due to Its Cell Wall Localization. (United States)

    Brecik, Miroslav; Centárová, Ivana; Mukherjee, Raju; Kolly, Gaëlle S; Huszár, Stanislav; Bobovská, Adela; Kilacsková, Emöke; Mokošová, Veronika; Svetlíková, Zuzana; Šarkan, Michal; Neres, João; Korduláková, Jana; Cole, Stewart T; Mikušová, Katarína


    The flavo-enzyme DprE1 catalyzes a key epimerization step in the decaprenyl-phosphoryl d-arabinose (DPA) pathway, which is essential for mycobacterial cell wall biogenesis and targeted by several new tuberculosis drug candidates. Here, using differential radiolabeling with DPA precursors and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy, we disclose the unexpected extracytoplasmic localization of DprE1 and periplasmic synthesis of DPA. Collectively, this explains the vulnerability of DprE1 and the remarkable potency of the best inhibitors.

  2. Suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare due to expected enrollee turnover among private insurers. (United States)

    Herring, Bradley


    Many preventive healthcare procedures are widely recognized as cost-effective but have relatively low utilization rates in the US. Because preventive care is a present-period investment with a future-period expected financial return, enrollee turnover among private insurers lowers the expected return of this investment. In this paper, I present a simple theoretical model to illustrate the suboptimal provision of preventive healthcare that results from insurers 'free riding' off of the provision from others. I also provide an empirical test of this hypothesis using data from the Community Tracking Study's Household Survey. I use lagged market-level measures of employment-induced insurer turnover to identify variation in insurers' expectations and test for the effect of turnover on several different measures of medical utilization. As expected, I find that turnover has a significantly negative effect on the utilization of preventive services and has no effect on the utilization of acute services used as a control. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Groundwater resources vulnerability due to melting glaciers in the Talgar alluvian fan, northern Tien-Shan (United States)

    Saks, Tomas; Timuhins, Andrejs; Sennikovs, Juris; Ibraimov, Vitaliy; Sotnikov, Evgeniy; Salybekova, Valentina; Rahimov, Timur; Popovs, Konrads


    Alluvial fans on the mountain slopes in Central Asia are an important source of the groundwater, due to there capacity of storing large quantities of the fresh groundwater and due to the fact that most urban centres are situated in the mountainous terrain or along mountain slopes. The groundwater resources in the alluvial fans are replenished by the infiltration from the rivers, which drain the mountain catchments and by infiltration from the precipitation, and released on there lower reaches as a series of seasonal springs or infiltrated into the lower lying aquifers. The rivers with there catchments in the mountainous terrain are fed by the precipitation (with the peak in May-June due to snow melt) and glacier melt. The glacier meltwater constitutes up to 90% of the river runoff in July-August, due to peak in glacier melt and low precipitation, providing much needed freshwater for agriculture in the dry season. In this study an attempt to quantify the importance of the glacier meltwater on the groundwater resources through groundwater modelling in the Talgar alluvial fan, Ili-Alatau mountain range has been performed. The results suggest that glacier meltwater is a substantial portion of the groundwater resources in the Talgar alluvial fan, with up to 30m drop of the groundwater level, if the glaciers disappear, endangering existing groundwater supply. The transient simulations suggest that disappearance of the glaciers and highly variable annual precipitation would result in highly fluctuating groundwater levels, as well as disappearance of most of the springs at the foot of the alluvial fan. These results are especially relevant for the northern Tien-Shan, where glaciers have been rapidly retreating over last 50 years, and some of the glaciers could disappear in next decades.

  4. Investigation of Diesel Fuel Fire Vulnerability Parameters in Armored Personnel Carriers due to Ballistic Penetration (United States)


    VIEW. (SPEC27.A) 10 The fuel was either cooled with an immersion coil refrigeration unit or heated with an electric immersion heater . The air...false floor plate was easily put out. by a fire extinguisher as in Test No. 1 or was suffocated due to the door closure as in Test Nos. 2 and 3. A...extinguished with dry powder-type fire extinguish- ers, but were easily suffocated by closing the rear- door. The reduction in the bulk temperature of the

  5. A spatial analysis of integrated risk: vulnerability of ecosystem services provisioning to different hazards in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pártl, Adam; Vačkář, David; Loučková, Blanka; Lorencová, Eliška


    Roč. 89, č. 3 (2017), s. 1185-1204 ISSN 0921-030X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MV(CZ) VG2012201591 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Ecosystems * Ecosystem services * Czech Republic * Integrated risk assessment * Vulnerability * GIS Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.833, year: 2016

  6. Analyzing Flood Vulnerability Due to Sea Level Rise Using K-Means Clustering: Implications for Regional Flood Mitigation Planning (United States)

    Hummel, M.; Wood, N. J.; Stacey, M. T.; Schweikert, A.; Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.


    The threat of tidal flooding in coastal regions is exacerbated by sea level rise (SLR), which can lead to more frequent and persistent nuisance flooding and permanent inundation of low-lying areas. When coupled with extreme storm events, SLR also increases the extent and depth of flooding due to storm surges. To mitigate these impacts, bayfront communities are considering a variety of options for shoreline protection, including restoration of natural features such as wetlands and hardening of the shoreline using levees and sea walls. These shoreline modifications can produce changes in the tidal dynamics in a basin, either by increasing dissipation of tidal energy or enhancing tidal amplification [1]. As a result, actions taken by individual communities not only impact local inundation, but can also have implications for flooding on a regional scale. However, regional collaboration is lacking in flood mitigation planning, which is often done on a community-by-community basis. This can lead to redundancy in planning efforts and can also have adverse effects on communities that are not included in discussions about shoreline infrastructure improvements. Using flooding extent outputs from a hydrodynamic model of San Francisco Bay, we performed a K-means clustering analysis to identify similarities between 65 bayfront communities in terms of the spatial, demographic, and economic characteristics of their vulnerable assets for a suite of SLR and storm scenarios. Our clustering analysis identifies communities with similar vulnerabilities and allows for more effective collaboration and decision-making at a regional level by encouraging comparable communities to work together and pool resources to find effective adaptation strategies as flooding becomes more frequent and severe. [1] Holleman RC, Stacey MT (2014) Coupling of sea level rise, tidal amplification, and inundation. Journal of Physical Oceanography 44:1439-1455.

  7. Operationalisation of physical vulnerability to natural hazards: Vulnerability curves versus vulnerability indicators (United States)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria


    Physical vulnerability to natural hazards is often presented as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss (vulnerability or fragility curves). However, a considerable amount of studies argue that physical vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, the focus is on the comparison between the two methods and the provision of recommendations for improved operationalisation and assessment of physical vulnerability. The comparison is illustrated through a case study in South Tyrol. The two methods have been applied at the same study area that suffered significant damages due to a debris flow event in 1987. A vulnerability curve has been developed for the buildings that suffered damages, as well as a database including physical vulnerability indicators for the same set of buildings. The comparison of the results highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods showing that they should complement rather than oppose each other.

  8. Measuring total mercury due to small-scale gold mining activities to determine community vulnerability in Cihonje, Central Java, Indonesia. (United States)

    Sari, Mega M; Inoue, Takanobu; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Yokota, Kuriko


    This research is comparative study of gold mining and non-gold mining areas, using four community vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability indicators are exposure degree, contamination rate, chronic, and acute toxicity. Each indicator used different samples, such as wastewater from gold mining process, river water from Tajum river, human hair samples, and health questionnaire. This research used cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry to determine total mercury concentration. The result showed that concentration of total mercury was 2,420 times than the maximum content of mercury permitted in wastewater based on the Indonesian regulation. Moreover, the mercury concentration in river water reached 685 ng/l, exceeding the quality threshold standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). The mercury concentration in hair samples obtained from the people living in the research location was considered to identify the health quality level of the people or as a chronic toxicity indicator. The highest mercury concentration--i.e. 17 ng/mg, was found in the gold mining respondents. Therefore, based on the total mercury concentration in the four indicators, the community in the gold mining area were more vulnerable to mercury than communities in non-gold mining areas. It was concluded that the community in gold mining area was more vulnerable to mercury contamination than the community in non-gold mining area.

  9. Health related vulnerability due to chronic diseases: Impact on clinical services across emergency shelters in mass disasters (United States)

    Koleva, Yordanka Nikolova

    Chronic diseases are increasingly recognized as major contributors to the global burden of disease. Individuals with chronic disease are particularly vulnerable during mass emergencies as they may suffer an interruption in their therapeutic programs, leading to life-threatening conditions and complications. Based on the individual and community risk factors framework, three categories are defined as the most vulnerable to extreme natural events: physically, psychologically, and socially vulnerable. Complex emergencies that occurred in the recent decade have provided evidence that these groups suffer more pronounced effects than others. Individuals seeking community support during emergencies have been predominantly medically dependent, elderly, children, people with chronic health conditions, and lower socioeconomic status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of health-related vulnerability on shelter operations, and to estimate the burden of chronic disease on community resources following catastrophic events. A comprehensive survey data collection conducted by the United States Public Health Service in 2005 was used to evaluate clinical services for populations with health conditions accommodated by Louisiana temporary disaster shelters. Correlation and multiple regression analyses determined the relationship between shelter characteristics and the factors predicting shelters' needs for short-term assistance. Significant predictors were identified in all three explored domains: structural shelter characteristics (sponsor, interpreter needed); clinical characteristics (access to health providers, clinic on site, staff had no days off); population characteristics (census, compromised mental health alone, or in combination with chronic conditions and diseases with epidemic potential). Shelters sponsored by faith-based organizations were less likely to be in risk of rapid resource depletion. Shelters with large census demonstrated association with

  10. Mais Médicos program: provision of medical doctors in rural, remote and socially vulnerable areas of Brazil, 2013-2014. (United States)

    Pereira, Lucélia L; Santos, Leonor M P; Santos, Wallace; Oliveira, Aimê; Rattner, Daphne


    The Mais Médicos program was introduced in 2013 with the aim of reducing the shortage of doctors in priority regions and diminishing regional inequalities in health. One of the strategies has been to offer 3-year contracts for doctors to work in primary healthcare services in small towns, inland, rural, remote, and socially vulnerable areas. This report describes the program's implementation and the allocation of doctors to these target areas in 2014. To describe the provision of doctors in the first year of implementation, we compared the doctor-to-population ratio in the 5570 municipalities of Brazil before and after the program, based on the Federal Board of Medicine database (2013), and the official dataset provided by the Ministry of Health (2014). In its first public call (July 2013) 3511 municipalities joined the Mais Médicos program, requesting a total of 15 460 doctors; although the program prioritizes the recruitment of Brazilians, only 1096 nationals enrolled and were hired, together with 522 foreign doctors. As a consequence, an international cooperation agreement was set in place to recruit Cuban doctors. In 12 months the program recruited 14 462 doctors: 79.0% Cubans, 15.9% Brazilians and 5.1% of other nationalities, covering 93.5% of the doctors demanded; they were assigned to all the 3785 municipalities enrolled. The study reveals a major decrease in the number of municipalities with fewer than 0.1 doctors per thousand inhabitants, which dropped from 374 in 2013 to 95 in 2014 (75% reduction). Of the total, 294 doctors were sent to work in the country's 34 Indigenous Health Districts (100% coverage) and 3390 doctors were deployed in municipalities containing certified rural maroon communities (formed centuries ago by runaway slaves). After 1 year of implementation, the municipalities with maroon communities with less than 0.1 doctors per thousand inhabitants were reduced by 87% in the poorest north region. More than 30% of municipalities with

  11. Vulnerability of Rosickyite as a Potential Martian Biosignature Due to Microbially Mediated Response to Protracted Environmental Stress (United States)

    Archer, R.


    Abstract: The discovery of the presence of a potential microbially mediated biosignature (rosickyite) from Bad Water Basin, California, by Douglas and Yang [1] invited the proposal that rosickyite may be stable over geological timescales and if found on Mars, indicate past life. Isotopic δ13C and δ15N profiles, and pH pore water analysis from the same 2002 microbial mat as Douglas and Yang (ibid) indicated bulk primary production consistent with nitrogen fixation in the upper canopy driving downcore biogeochemistry. We resampled this same location thirteen (13) years later to test the hypothesis of rosickyite as a robust biosignature over the decadal scale [2] detectable by bulk powder XRD and to again examine both the δ13C and δ15N stable isotope profile and pore water pH. In contrast to findings of 2002, XRD results from 2015 failed to find evidence of rosickyite bulk powder XRD signals. Likewise, 2015 δ13C and δ15N stable isotope results, together with pH and together with new δ34S results indicated a shift in metabolic regimes towards net denitrification and, we hypothesized, net dissolution of previously present rosickyte associated with carbon burial. Mass mortality was ruled out after determining a total community viability >90%. Implications for these results are two-fold. The first implication is that terrestrial Mars analogues are dynamic systems warranting continuous sampling over changing stressors such as periods of protracted drought [3] and, were ancient microbial communities present on Mars, such assemblages of microbes and minerals would likely have been tightly coupled and conditionally vulnerable to similar diagenesis and false negative results. References: [1] Douglas, S. et al. (2002) Geol., 30, 1151-1154. [2] Archer R. et al. AGU EOS Proc.(2002) [3] Aiger, E. et. al., Circle of Blue, 11, (2014), 1344- 1345.

  12. Vulnerable Genders, Vulnerable Loves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleicher, Marianne


    This chapter analyses religious reflections on vulnerable genders and vulnerable loves from the Hebrew Bible to early Rabbinic literature. It is based on theories by inter alia Donna Haraway on complex identities, Turner and Maryanski on love as a prerequisite for survival, Michel Foucault...... on gathering knowledge and its often unpremeditated effect of recognition and inclusion, and Judith Butler on cultural intelligibility and subversion from within. With these theories as a departing point for the analysis, the chapter links the vulnerability of complex identities with the vulnerability...... of cultures which leads to the overall understanding that culture can accommodate complex identities associated with individual and cultural vulnerability as long as the overall survival of the culture is not threatened. This understanding questions the feasibility of the ethical position of thinkers...

  13. Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi (Kanazawa Medical Univ., Ishikawa (Japan)); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji (Chiba Univ. (Japan))


    To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

  14. Vulnerable Plaque (United States)

    ... Center > Vulnerable Plaque Menu Topics Topics FAQs Vulnerable Plaque Article Info En español Swelling (inflammation) is your ... aging, including coronary artery disease . What is vulnerable plaque? For many years, doctors have thought that the ...

  15. The potential vulnerability of the Namib and Nama Aquifers due to low recharge levels in the area surrounding the Naukluft Mountains, SW Namibia (United States)

    Kambinda, Winnie N.; Mapani, Benjamin


    The Naukluft Mountains in the Namib Desert are a high rainfall-high discharge area. It sees increased stream-, spring-flow as well as waterfalls during the rainy season. The mountains are a major resource for additional recharge to the Namib and Nama aquifers that are adjacent to the mountains. This paper aimed to highlight the potential vulnerability of the aquifers that surround the Naukluft Mountain area; if the strategic importance of the Naukluft Karst Aquifer (NKA) for bulk water supply becomes necessary. Chloride Mass Balance Method (CMBM) was applied to estimate rainfall available for recharge as well as actual recharge thereof. This was applied using chloride concentration in precipitation, borehole and spring samples collected from the study area. Groundwater flow patterns were mapped from hydraulic head values. A 2D digital elevation model was developed using Arc-GIS. Results highlighted the influence of the NKA on regional groundwater flow. This paper found that groundwater flow was controlled by structural dip and elevation. Groundwater was observed to flow predominantly from the NKA to the south west towards the Namib Aquifer in two distinct flow patterns that separate at the center of the NKA. A distinct groundwater divide was defined between the two flow patterns. A minor flow pattern from the northern parts of the NKA to the north east towards the Nama Aquifer was validated. Due to the substantial water losses, the NKA is not a typical karst aquifer. While the project area receives an average rainfall of 170.36 mm/a, it was estimated that 1-14.24% (maximum 24.43 mm/a) rainfall was available for recharge to the NKA. Actual recharge to the NKA was estimated to be less than 1-18.21% (maximum 4.45 mm/a) reflecting the vast losses incurred by the NKA via discharge. This paper concluded that groundwater resources of the NKA were potentially finite. The possibility of developing the aquifer for bulk water supply would therefore drastically lower recharge

  16. Dynamic Vulnerability of Karst Systems: a Concept to understand qualitative and quantitative Aspects of Karst springs due to Changes in Groundwater Recharge (United States)

    Huggenberger, P.; Butscher, C.; Epting, J.; Auckenthaler, A.


    Karst groundwater resources represent valuable water resources, which may be affected by different types of pollution and changes of groundwater recharge by climate change. In many parts of Europe, it has been predicted that record-breaking heat waves, such as the one experienced in 2003 and 2015, will become more frequent. At the same time, even as summers become drier, the incidence of severe precipitation events could increase. What is the influence such changes to the quantitative and qualitative aspects of Karst groundwater systems? A factor to be considered in conjunction with groundwater quality is the vulnerability of the resource, which is defined as the sensitivity of a groundwater system to pollution. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to the sensitivity to pollution when considering only natural, geogenic conditions without the effects of human activities such as contaminant release. Intrinsic vulnerability depends on the recharge conditions, which are dependent on the surface and subsurface structure and on precipitation and evaporation patterns. The latter are highly time dependent. Therefore, our groundwater vulnerability concept also includes dynamic aspects of the system, the variations of spatial and temporal components. We present results of combined monitoring and modelling experiments of several types of Karst systems in the Tabular and the Folded Jura of NW Switzerland. The recharge, conduit flow, diffuse flow(RCD) rainfall-discharge model "RCD-seasonal" was used to simulate the discharge and substance concentration of several spring. This lumped parameter model include: the recharge system (soil and epikarst system), the conduit flow system, and the diffuse flow system. The numerically derived Dynamic Vulnerability Index (DVI) can indicate qualitative changes of spring water with sufficient accuracy to be used for drinking water management. In addition, the results obtained from the test sites indicate a decrease in short-lived contaminants in

  17. Ogroženost zaradi naravnih procesov kot strukturni element slovenskih pokrajin = Human vulnerability due to natural processes as a constituent element of slovenian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Natek


    Full Text Available The study of natural hazards since the 1950s is considered as one of the mostimportant contributions of physical geography to the application of geographicalknowledge in Slovenia. The threat of destructive natural events and significantdegree of vulnerability are constituent parts of every cultural landscape, and canbe recognized as immediate effects of natural processes, as practical countermeasuresto prevent damages, as keeping off the most hazardous areas and, also,as unsuitable acts or wrong interventions into the geographical space. These elementsare presented as important topics of geographical research in the nearfuture, together with the study of subjective, personal, perception of vulnerabilitydue to natural hazards, which is one of the key starting-points for future dealingwith areas, where the potentially damaging or dangerous natural processes are inaction.

  18. Frailty and Social Vulnerability. (United States)

    Andrew, Melissa K


    Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to health. Intrinsic factors are familiar topics in health research and include medical conditions, medications, genetics and frailty, while extrinsic factors stem from social and physical environments. This chapter builds on others in this volume, in which a deficit accumulation approach to frailty has been described. The concept of social vulnerability is presented. Social vulnerability stems from the accumulation of multiple and varied social problems and has bidirectional importance as a risk factor for poor health outcomes and as a pragmatic consideration for health care provision and planning. Importantly, the social factors that contribute to overall social vulnerability come into play at different levels of influence (individual, family and friends, peer groups, institutions and society at large). A social ecology perspective is discussed as a useful framework for considering social vulnerability, as it allows for attention to each of these levels of influence. Tying together what we currently understand about frailty (in medical and basic science models) and social vulnerability, the scaling potential of deficit accumulation is discussed, given that deficit accumulation can be understood to occur at many levels, from the (sub-)cellular level to tissues, organisms/complex systems and societies. 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Vulnerability in Agriculture


    Znaor, Darko


    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  20. Prevention of siderophore- mediated gut-derived sepsis due to P. aeruginosa can be achieved without iron provision by maintaining local phosphate abundance: role of pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerdes Svetlana


    Full Text Available Abstract Background During extreme physiological stress, the intestinal tract can be transformed into a harsh environment characterized by regio- spatial alterations in oxygen, pH, and phosphate concentration. When the human intestine is exposed to extreme medical interventions, the normal flora becomes replaced by pathogenic species whose virulence can be triggered by various physico-chemical cues leading to lethal sepsis. We previously demonstrated that phosphate depletion develops in the mouse intestine following surgical injury and triggers intestinal P. aeruginosa to express a lethal phenotype that can be prevented by oral phosphate ([Pi] supplementation. Results In this study we examined the role of pH in the protective effect of [Pi] supplementation as it has been shown to be increased in the distal gut following surgical injury. Surgically injured mice drinking 25 mM [Pi] at pH 7.5 and intestinally inoculated with P. aeruginosa had increased mortality compared to mice drinking 25 mM [Pi] at pH 6.0 (p C. elegans. Transcriptional analysis of P. aeruginosa demonstrated enhanced expression of various genes involved in media alkalization at pH 6.0 and a global increase in the expression of all iron-related genes at pH 7.5. Maintaining the pH at 6.0 via phosphate supplementation led to significant attenuation of iron-related genes as demonstrated by microarray and confirmed by QRT-PCR analyses. Conclusion Taken together, these data demonstrate that increase in pH in distal intestine of physiologically stressed host colonized by P. aeruginosa can lead to the expression of siderophore-related virulence in bacteria that can be prevented without providing iron by maintaining local phosphate abundance at pH 6.0. This finding is particularly important as provision of exogenous iron has been shown to have untoward effects when administered to critically ill and septic patients. Given that phosphate, pH, and iron are near universal cues that dictate

  1. Redistributing vulnerabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens; Padmawati, Retna Siwi


    It is widely accepted that the social distribution of vulnerability in a given society may turn hazardous events into disasters. This distributional approach draws attention to continuities that explain catastrophes by virtue of the workings of society prior to the event. In this paper, we draw...... attention to the social processes whereby vulnerability is modified and renegotiated during the post-disaster period where resources for disaster alleviation and reconstruction enter local communities. Specifically, we explore the social dynamics of house damage classification in the wake of the 2006...... Central Java earthquake, and we explore relations between citizens and the state during post-disaster house reconstruction. We argue that disastrous outcomes of catastrophic events do not follow pre-existing fault lines of vulnerability in a simple or predictable manner, and that the social process...

  2. Assessing vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P.


    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the

  3. Vulnerability assessment of vegetation types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonas, Z


    Full Text Available on the potential loss of natural habitat due to habitat transformation and degradation processes, which will threaten the biodiversity of the area. In this assessment, two classes of vulnerability are referred to as land use vulnerability and degradation...

  4. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut


    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  5. Assessing vulnerability


    Hellmuth, M.; Kabat, P


    It is in the shantytowns and rural villages of the Third World that floods and droughts strike hardest and deepest. Vulnerability to the vagaries of climate depends not only on location, but, crucially, on the capacity of the victims to cope with the impacts of extreme weather. So, where are the people most at risk from the effects of climate variability and climate change? It is not an easy question to answer. How can we compare the hazards facing the inhabitants of a small island as the sea...

  6. Energy vulnerability relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, B.R.; Boesen, J.L.


    The US consumption of crude oil resources has been a steadily growing indicator of the vitality and strength of the US economy. At the same time import diversity has also been a rapidly developing dimension of the import picture. In the early 1970`s, embargoes of crude oil from Organization of Producing and Exporting Countries (OPEC) created economic and political havoc due to a significant lack of diversity and a unique set of economic, political and domestic regulatory circumstances. The continued rise of imports has again led to concerns over the security of our crude oil resource but threats to this system must be considered in light of the diversity and current setting of imported oil. This report develops several important issues concerning vulnerability to the disruption of oil imports: (1) The Middle East is not the major supplier of oil to the United States, (2) The US is not vulnerable to having its entire import stream disrupted, (3) Even in stable countries, there exist vulnerabilities to disruption of the export stream of oil, (4) Vulnerability reduction requires a focus on international solutions, and (5) DOE program and policy development must reflect the requirements of the diverse supply. Does this increasing proportion of imported oil create a {open_quotes}dependence{close_quotes}? Does this increasing proportion of imported oil present a vulnerability to {open_quotes}price shocks{close_quotes} and the tremendous dislocations experienced during the 1970`s? Finally, what is the vulnerability of supply disruptions from the current sources of imported oil? If oil is considered to be a finite, rapidly depleting resource, then the answers to these questions must be {open_quotes}yes.{close_quotes} However, if the supply of oil is expanding, and not limited, then dependence is relative to regional supply sources.

  7. Moment Contribution Capacity of Tendon Prestressed Partial on Concrete Beam-column Joint Interior According to Provisions ACI 318-2008 Chapter Due to Cyclic Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astawa Made Dharma


    Full Text Available This research designed a partial prestressed concrete beam-column with reinforced concrete interior joint, using square columns of 400/400 mm, reinforcement 6 D16 + 4D13, section beam 250/400 mm, tensile reinforcement 5 D13, compression reinforcement 3 D13 + 2 strand tendon D12,7 mm , and joint without plastic hinge, then tested in laboratory with lateral cyclic loads on peak column, static axial load 1120 kN on the centre column, to get the tendon capacity to assume positive and negative bending moments due to lateral load, according to provisions of ACI 318-2008 part (c. Test results showed that the moment tendon contribution on beam section, in the tensile area, the positive and negative moment both on the left side or the right side column are all qualified ( 25 %. As for the negative moment, either left or right side column are all qualified (4.0. Although the contribution of positive moment capacity tendon in compression areas does not qualify, in overall, the reliability and ductility of the structure qualify.

  8. Applicability of vulnerability maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L.J.; Gosk, E. (Geological Survey of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    A number of aspects to vulnerability maps are discussed: the vulnerability concept, mapping purposes, possible users, and applicability of vulnerability maps. Problems associated with general-type vulnerability mapping, including large-scale maps, universal pollutant, and universal pollution scenario are also discussed. An alternative approach to vulnerability assessment - specific vulnerability mapping for limited areas, specific pollutant, and predefined pollution scenario - is suggested. A simplification of the vulnerability concept is proposed in order to make vulnerability mapping more objective and by this means more comparable. An extension of the vulnerability concept to the rest of the hydrogeological cycle (lakes, rivers, and the sea) is proposed. Some recommendations regarding future activities are given.

  9. Memory Vulnerability Diagnosis for Binary Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Feng-Yi


    Full Text Available Vulnerability diagnosis is important for program security analysis. It is a further step to understand the vulnerability after it is detected, as well as a preparatory step for vulnerability repair or exploitation. This paper mainly analyses the inner theories of major memory vulnerabilities and the threats of them. And then suggests some methods to diagnose several types of memory vulnerabilities for the binary programs, which is a difficult task due to the lack of source code. The diagnosis methods target at buffer overflow, use after free (UAF and format string vulnerabilities. We carried out some tests on the Linux platform to validate the effectiveness of the diagnosis methods. It is proved that the methods can judge the type of the vulnerability given a binary program.

  10. [Aging and becoming vulnerable]. (United States)

    Monod, Stéfanie; Sautebin, Annelore


    "The vulnerable are those whose autonomy, dignity and integrity are capable of being threatened". Based on this ethical definition of vulnerability, four risk factors of vulnerability might be identified among elderly persons, and are described in this article: the functional limitation, the loss of autonomy, the social precariousness and the restriction of access to medical care. A clinical case of elderly abuse is presented to illustrate vulnerability. Finally, some recommendations to lower the risk of vulnerability in elderly persons are proposed.

  11. Vulnerability of schools to floods in Nyando River catchment, Kenya. (United States)

    Ochola, Samuel O; Eitel, Bernhard; Olago, Daniel O


    This paper assesses the vulnerability of schools to floods in the Nyando River catchment (3,600 km(2)) in western Kenya and identifies measures needed to reduce this vulnerability. It surveys 130 schools in the lower reaches, where flooding is a recurrent phenomenon. Of the primary schools assessed, 40% were vulnerable, 48% were marginally vulnerable and 12% were not vulnerable. Of the secondary schools, 8% were vulnerable, 73% were marginally vulnerable and 19% were not vulnerable. Vulnerability to floods is due to a lack of funds, poor building standards, local topography, soil types and inadequate drainage. The Constituencies Development Fund (CDF), established in 2003, provides financial support to cover school construction and reconstruction costs; CDF Committees are expected to adopt school building standards. In an effort to promote safe and resilient construction and retrofitting to withstand floods, this paper presents vulnerability reduction strategies and recommendations for incorporating minimum standards in the on-going Primary School Infrastructure Programme Design.

  12. What Does Vulnerability Mean? (United States)

    Parley, Fiona F


    Protection of those deemed vulnerable has received increasing attention since 2000. This article reports on care staff views of vulnerability using original data from a research study (Parley. "Vulnerability and abuse: an exploration of views of care staff working with people who have learning disabilities," PhD Thesis, 2007) in which care staff…

  13. Assessing Urban Rail Transit Systems Vulnerability: Metrics vs. Interdiction Models


    Starita, Stefano; Esposito Amideo, Annunziata; Scaparra, Maria Paola


    Urban rail transit systems are highly vulnerable to a variety of disruptions, including accidental failures, natural disasters and terrorist attacks. Due to the crucial role that railway infrastructures play in economic development, productivity and social well-being of communities, evaluating their vulnerability and identifying their most critical components is of paramount importance. Two main approaches can be deployed to assess transport infrastructure vulnerabilities: vulnerability metri...

  14. Computer vulnerability risk analysis.



    The discussions presented in this dissertation have been undertaken in answer to the need for securing the intellectual assets stored on computer systems. Computer vulnerabilities and their influence on computer systems and the intellectual assets they possess are the main focus of this research. In an effort to portray the influence of vulnerabilities on a computer system, a method for assigning a measure of risk to individual vulnerabilities is proposed. This measure of risk, in turn, gives...

  15. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time. (United States)

    Hopper, Thomas; Meixler, Marcia S


    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  16. Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability at the Local Level: A Case Study on the Dniester River Basin (Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Corobov


    Full Text Available Vulnerability to climate change of the Moldavian part of the Dniester river was assessed as the function of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of its basin’s natural and socioeconomic systems. As a spatial “scale” of the assessment, Moldova’s administrative-territorial units (ATUs were selected. The exposure assessment was based on the climatic analysis of baseline (1971–2000 temperature and precipitation and projections of their changes in 2021–2050, separately for cold and warm periods. The sensitivity assessment included physiographical and socioeconomic characteristics, described by a set of specific indicators. The adaptive capacity was expressed by general economic and agricultural indicators, taking into consideration the medical provision and housing conditions. Through a ranking approach, the relative vulnerability of each ATU was calculated by summing its sensitivity and adaptive capacity ranks; the latter were obtained as combinations of their primary indicator ranks, arranged in an increasing and decreasing order, respectively. Due to lack of sound knowledge on these components' importance in overall assessment of vulnerability, their weights were taken as conventionally equal. Mapping of vulnerability revealed that ATUs neighboring to municipalities are the most vulnerable and need special attention in climate change adaptation. The basin’s “hotspots” were discussed with public participation.

  17. Smoking among vulnerable populations in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Kilibarda


    Smoking rates are exceptionally high among vulnerable populations in all age groups, among males and females. There is a concern that smoking prevention and cessation are not prioritized for these populations and ignoring tobacco use in these populations will worsen their already vulnerable health and social position due to the long-term health effects of smoking. Development and implementation of tailored individual and social network-level interventions are needed.

  18. Perceptions of Deaf Youth about Their Vulnerability to Sexual and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceptions of Deaf Youth about Their Vulnerability to Sexual and Reproductive Health Problems in Masvingo District, Zimbabwe. ... The study recommends that the government may adopt a human-rights approach to the provision of sexual and reproductive health services to ensure universal access information and ...

  19. Groundwater vulnerability mapping of Qatar aquifers (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa


    Qatar is one of the most arid countries in the world with limited water resources. With little rainfall and no surface water, groundwater is the only natural source of fresh water in the country. Whilst the country relies mainly on desalination of seawater to secure water supply, groundwater has extensively been used for irrigation over the last three decades, which caused adverse environmental impact. Vulnerability assessment is a widely used tool for groundwater protection and land-use management. Aquifers in Qatar are carbonate with lots of fractures, depressions and cavities. Karst aquifers are generally more vulnerable to contamination than other aquifers as any anthropogenic-sourced contaminant, especially above a highly fractured zone, can infiltrate quickly into the aquifer and spread over a wide area. The vulnerability assessment method presented in this study is based on two approaches: DRASTIC and EPIK, within the framework of Geographical Information System (GIS). Results of this study show that DRASTIC vulnerability method suits Qatar hydrogeological settings more than EPIK. The produced vulnerability map using DRASTIC shows coastal and karst areas have the highest vulnerability class. The southern part of the country is located in the low vulnerability class due to occurrence of shale formation within aquifer media, which averts downward movement of contaminants.

  20. County Population Vulnerability (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This layer summarizes the social vulnerability index for populations within each county in the United States at scales 1:3m and below. It answers the question...

  1. Selective vulnerability in brain hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Diemer, Nils Henrik


    Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis......Neuropathology, selective vulnerability, brain hypoxia, vascular factors, excitotoxicity, ion homeostasis...

  2. Groundwater Pollution and Vulnerability Assessment. (United States)

    Kurwadkar, Sudarshan


    Groundwater is a critical resource that serve as a source of drinking water to large human population and, provide long-term water for irrigation purposes. In recent years; however, this precious resource being increasingly threatened, due to natural and anthropogenic activities. A variety of contaminants of emerging concern such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products, perfluorinated compounds, endocrine disruptors, and biological agents detected in the groundwater sources of both developing and developed nations. In this review paper, various studies have been included that documented instances of groundwater pollution and vulnerability to emerging contaminants of concern, pesticides, heavy metals, and leaching potential of various organic and inorganic contaminants from poorly managed residual waste products (biosolids, landfills, latrines, and septic tanks etc.). Understanding vulnerability of groundwater to pollution is critical to maintain the integrity of groundwater. A section on managed artificial recharge studies is included to highlight the sustainable approaches to groundwater conservation, replenishment and sustainability. This review paper is the synthesis of studies published in last one year that either documented the pollution problems or evaluated the vulnerability of groundwater pollution.

  3. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann


    aggregate these ideas into a framework of disaster displacement vulnerability that distinguishes between three main aspects of disaster displacement. Disaster displacement can be considered in terms of the number of displaced people and the length of that displacement. However, the literature emphasizes that the severity of disaster displacement can not be measured completely in quantitative terms. Thus, we include a measure representing people who are trapped and unable to leave their homes due to mobility, resources or for other reasons. Finally the third main aspect considers the difficulties that are associated with displacement and reflects the difference between the experiences of those who are displaced into safe and supportive environments as compared to those whose only alternate shelter is dangerous and inadequate for their needs. Finally, we apply the framework to demonstrate a methodology to estimate vulnerability to disaster displacement. Using data from the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Social and Economic Vulnerability sub-National Database, we generate an index to measure the vulnerability of Japanese prefectures to the dimensions of displacement included in the framework. References Yonitani, M. (2014). Global Estimates 2014: People displaced by disasters.

  4. Vulnerable road users.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A group of road users can be defined as ‘vulnerable’ in a number of ways, such as by the amount of protection in traffic (e.g. pedestrians and cyclists) or by the amount of task capability (e.g. the young and the elderly). Vulnerable road users do not usually have a protective 'shell', and also the

  5. Maintaining dignity in vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente


    to understand the meaning of the narrated text. Results. The meaning of maintaining dignity was constituted in a sense of vulnerability to the self, and elucidated in three major interrelated themes: Being involved as a human being, being involved as the person one is and strives to become, and being involved...

  6. Food fraud vulnerability and its key factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van Saskia M.; Huisman, Wim; Luning, Pieternel A.


    Background Food fraud prevention and fraud vulnerability reduction are the first steps to combat food fraud and require a recurrent effort throughout the food supply chain. Due to the intentional nature of fraud, it requires different tactics than the common food safety approaches. However,

  7. Specific vulnerability of substantia nigra compacta neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, M.P.; Giovanni, G.; Di Matteo, V.; Esposito, E.


    The specific loss of substantia nigra compacta (SNc) neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been the main driving force in initiating research efforts to unravel the apparent SNc-specific vulnerability. Initially, metabolic constraints due to high dopamine turnover have been the main focus in the

  8. Mangrove vulnerability index using GIS (United States)

    Yunus, Mohd Zulkifli Mohd; Ahmad, Fatimah Shafinaz; Ibrahim, Nuremira


    Climate change, particularly its associated sea level rise, is major threat to mangrove coastal areas, and it is essential to develop ways to reduce vulnerability through strategic management planning. Environmental vulnerability can be understood as a function of exposure to impacts and the sensitivity and adaptive capacity of ecological systems towards environmental tensors. Mangrove vulnerability ranking using up to 14 parameters found in study area, which is in Pulau Kukup and Sg Pulai, where 1 is low vulnerability and 5 is very high vulnerability. Mangrove Vulnerability Index (MVI) is divided into 3 main categories Physical Mangrove Index (PMI), Biological Mangrove Index (BMI) and Hazard Mangrove Index (HMI).

  9. Analysis of child poverty and vulnerability in Zambia | Moonga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability is increasingly becoming synonymous with poverty in the social policy literature. There are three age-groups that are more likely to be vulnerable and in poverty at any given time although with variations. These are children, adults with children and the elderly. This study focused on the children due to their ...

  10. Assessment of farm households' vulnerability to climate change in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change is currently an emerging problem in Nigeria. The Niger Delta region presents some vulnerability due to activities of some oil companies. This study provides an assessment of farm households' perception of climate change and vulnerability in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The data were obtained form ...

  11. Beyond 'vulnerable groups': contexts and dynamics of vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarowsky, C.; Haddad, S.; Nguyen, V.K.


    This paper reviews approaches to vulnerability in public health, introducing a series of 10 papers addressing vulnerability in health in Africa. We understand vulnerability as simultaneously a condition and a process. Social inequalities are manifest in and exacerbate three key dimensions of

  12. Students' vulnerability in educational research. (United States)

    Sykes, L M; Dullabh, H


    Dental teaching institutions in South Africa recently implemented "learner-centred" curricula and expected educators to alter their teaching styles accordingly, but perhaps without providing adequate training in this paedagogical philosophy. At the same time, the lecturers were required to conduct evidence-based research to evaluate the outcomes. Thus, clinicians/lecturers also became researchers, using their own students or student material for assessment purposes. Previously, this form of educational research, which was carried out in normal academic settings, was not subject to review by Institutional Review Boards (IRB). However, concerns have risen that learners may be a vulnerable population due to their position in the academic institution, and the power and knowledge differentials that exist between them and the lecturer/researcher. This raises ethical concerns regarding their autonomy and ability to provide free, voluntary, informed consent to be research participants. This paper questions whether educational research may lead to student vulnerability, and proposes some recommendations for educators and institutions involved in educational research.

  13. Dynamics of immune system vulnerabilities (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.

    The adaptive immune system can be viewed as a complex system, which adapts, over time, to reflect the history of infections experienced by the organism. Understanding its operation requires viewing it in terms of tradeoffs under constraints and evolutionary history. It typically displays "robust, yet fragile" behavior, meaning common tasks are robust to small changes but novel threats or changes in environment can have dire consequences. In this dissertation we use mechanistic models to study several biological processes: the immune response, the homeostasis of cells in the lymphatic system, and the process that normally prevents autoreactive cells from entering the lymphatic system. Using these models we then study the effects of these processes interacting. We show that the mechanisms that regulate the numbers of cells in the immune system, in conjunction with the immune response, can act to suppress autoreactive cells from proliferating, thus showing quantitatively how pathogenic infections can suppress autoimmune disease. We also show that over long periods of time this same effect can thin the repertoire of cells that defend against novel threats, leading to an age correlated vulnerability. This vulnerability is shown to be a consequence of system dynamics, not due to degradation of immune system components with age. Finally, modeling a specific tolerance mechanism that normally prevents autoimmune disease, in conjunction with models of the immune response and homeostasis we look at the consequences of the immune system mistakenly incorporating pathogenic molecules into its tolerizing mechanisms. The signature of this dynamic matches closely that of the dengue virus system.

  14. Probabilistic modeling of vulnerability of road infrastructures to floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uzielli Marco


    Full Text Available Factors which contribute to the vulnerability of physical elements such as road infrastructures to a natural hazard such as a flood event are pervaded by uncertainty due to the complexity of the hazard, of the vulnerable infrastructure and of their physical interaction. In the context of risk management efforts, it is conceptually correct to explicitly address this uncertainty and to parameterize the criticality of the vulnerable element and, consequently, an explicit target degree of conservatism and reliability in risk assessment and mitigation strategies. This paper illustrates the results of the probabilistic characterization of the vulnerability of road infrastructures to flood events for two areas in South-Eastern Norway. Flood intensity and road vulnerability serve as inputs to an analytical model, which expresses the latter as a function of the former with respect to a user-set level of probability of exceedance. Deterministic and probabilistic vulnerability estimates are compared quantitatively, and the results are assessed and analyzed critically.

  15. VT - Vermont Social Vulnerability Index (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when responding to or recovering from threats to public health. The Vermont Social Vulnerability Index...

  16. Measuring Road Network Vulnerability with Sensitivity Analysis (United States)

    Jun-qiang, Leng; Long-hai, Yang; Liu, Wei-yi; Zhao, Lin


    This paper focuses on the development of a method for road network vulnerability analysis, from the perspective of capacity degradation, which seeks to identify the critical infrastructures in the road network and the operational performance of the whole traffic system. This research involves defining the traffic utility index and modeling vulnerability of road segment, route, OD (Origin Destination) pair and road network. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis method is utilized to calculate the change of traffic utility index due to capacity degradation. This method, compared to traditional traffic assignment, can improve calculation efficiency and make the application of vulnerability analysis to large actual road network possible. Finally, all the above models and calculation method is applied to actual road network evaluation to verify its efficiency and utility. This approach can be used as a decision-supporting tool for evaluating the performance of road network and identifying critical infrastructures in transportation planning and management, especially in the resource allocation for mitigation and recovery. PMID:28125706

  17. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch


    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  18. Vulnerability survival analysis: a novel approach to vulnerability management (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Sullivan, John; Cybenko, George


    Computer security vulnerabilities span across large, enterprise networks and have to be mitigated by security engineers on a routine basis. Presently, security engineers will assess their "risk posture" through quantifying the number of vulnerabilities with a high Common Vulnerability Severity Score (CVSS). Yet, little to no attention is given to the length of time by which vulnerabilities persist and survive on the network. In this paper, we review a novel approach to quantifying the length of time a vulnerability persists on the network, its time-to-death, and predictors of lower vulnerability survival rates. Our contribution is unique in that we apply the cox proportional hazards regression model to real data from an operational IT environment. This paper provides a mathematical overview of the theory behind survival analysis methods, a description of our vulnerability data, and an interpretation of the results.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karamouz


    Full Text Available Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people’s life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time

  20. Mapping Regional Drought Vulnerability: a Case Study (United States)

    Karamouz, M.; Zeynolabedin, A.; Olyaei, M. A.


    Drought is among the natural disaster that causes damages and affects many people's life in many part of the world including in Iran. Recently, some factors such as climate variability and the impact of climate change have influenced drought frequency and intensity in many parts of the world. Drought can be divided into four categories of meteorological, hydrological, agricultural and social-economic. In meteorological the important feature is lack of rainfall. In hydrological drought river flows and dam storage are considered. Lack of soil moisture is the key factor in agricultural droughts while in social-economic type of drought the relation between supply and demand and social-economic damages due to water deficiency is studied. While the first three types relates to the lack of some hydrological characteristics, social-economic type of drought is actually the consequence of other types expressed in monetary values. Many indices are used in assessing drought; each has its own advantages and disadvantages and can be used for specific types of drought. Therefore knowing the types of drought can provide a better understanding of shortages and their characteristics. Drought vulnerability is a concept which shows the likelihood of damages from hazard in a particular place by focusing on the system status prior to the disaster. Drought vulnerability has been viewed as a potential for losses in the region due to water deficiency at the time of drought. In this study the application of vulnerability concept in drought management in East Azarbaijan province in Iran is investigated by providing vulnerability maps which demonstrates spatial characteristics of drought vulnerability. In the first step, certain governing parameters in drought analysis such as precipitation, temperature, land use, topography, solar radiation and ground water elevation have been investigated in the region. They are described in details and calculated in suitable time series. Vulnerabilities

  1. Demarcation of coastal vulnerability line along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajai; Baba, M.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ratheesh, R.; Kurian, N.P.; Hameed, S.; Sundar, D.

    been considered. Changes along the shoreline are considered as net impact of dynamic coastal processes and are mapped using multidate satellite data. Vulnerability due to coastal erosion has been assessed based on rate of coastal erosion. Coastal...

  2. Third sector primary care for vulnerable populations. (United States)

    Crampton, P; Dowell, A; Woodward, A


    This paper aims to describe and explain the development of third sector primary care organisations in New Zealand. The third sector is the non-government, non-profit sector. International literature suggests that this sector fulfils an important role in democratic societies with market-based economies, providing services otherwise neglected by the government and private for-profit sectors. Third sector organisations provided a range of social services throughout New Zealand's colonial history. However, it was not until the 1980s that third sector organisations providing comprehensive primary medical and related services started having a significant presence in New Zealand. In 1994 a range of union health centres, tribally based Mäori health providers, and community-based primary care providers established a formal network -- Health Care Aotearoa. While not representing all third sector primary care providers in New Zealand, Health Care Aotearoa was the best-developed example of a grouping of third sector primary care organisations. Member organisations served populations that were largely non-European and lived in deprived areas, and tended to adopt population approaches to funding and provision of services. The development of Health Care Aotearoa has been consistent with international experience of third sector involvement -- there were perceived "failures" in government policies for funding primary care and private sector responses to these policies, resulting in lack of universal funding and provision of primary care and continuing patient co-payments. The principal policy implication concerns the role of the third sector in providing primary care services for vulnerable populations as a partial alternative to universal funding and provision of primary care. Such an alternative may be convenient for proponents of reduced state involvement in funding and provision of health care, but may not be desirable from the point of view of equity and social cohesion

  3. Assessing Vulnerability to Drought on a pan-European scale (United States)

    Urquijo, Julia; De Stefano, Lucia; González-Tánago, Itziar; Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin


    During the past decade, a number of theoretical frameworks have been defined within the Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change communities to assess drought vulnerability at different scales, sectors, socio-political contexts, and geo-climatic conditions. However, there is still little consensus around the criteria, dimensions and factors used in these assessments; and none of them has been applied at a pan-European scale. This is due to a triple complexity. Firstly, drought as a natural hazard is a complex phenomenon due to the difficulty of determining its onset and its multiscale, multifaceted and dynamic nature. Secondly, there is an on-going debate regarding the concept of vulnerability and its constitutive elements, together with an important diversity of theoretical approaches to assess it. Finally, Europe's diversity in bioclimatic conditions, national water use practice and water use policies adds a challenging characteristic for working on pan-European scale. This work addresses the challenge of defining a methodological approach to the assessment of vulnerability factors to drought at a pan-European scale. For this purpose, we first review existing conceptual frameworks as well as of past initiatives for drought vulnerability assessment. The literature review showed that the high complexity of drought vulnerability assessment requires a clear definition of the concept of vulnerability and the associated terms, and that, before undertaking any assessment, it is necessary to clearly define the "vulnerable unit" i.e. replying to the questions 'whose vulnerability is being assessed?' and 'vulnerability to what type of impact?'. In this context, this work proposes the application of a factor-based approach, consisting in the analysis of significant factors that influence vulnerability in the context of specific situations of potential vulnerability. Those situations are framed within the specific drought characteristics of four different geoclimatic macro

  4. Advance provision of oral contraceptives to family planning clients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: In sub-Saharan Africa, many family planning programmes do not encourage advance provision of oral contraceptives to clients who must wait until menses to initiate pill use. Since some resistance to advance provision of pills is due to provider fears that the practice may be harmful, we conducted a study in Kenya ...

  5. A due

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    to acknowledge the excellence of these two scholars by a double Festschrift, "A due". Both have been working at the Music Department of the University of Copenhagen and have collaborated with The Royal Library on various projects. This publication contains contributions from 44 colleagues, who thus - in topics...

  6. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... setting a competitive framework for local development. Rural municipalities are challenged due to demographic changes and population decline and consequently need to adjust municipal services. In this respect it is stressed that service provision need be linked to strategic planning based on urban...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  7. Comparison of four Vulnerability Approaches to Mapping of Shallow Aquifers of Eastern Dahomey Basin of Nigeria (United States)

    Oke, Saheed; Vermeulen, Danie


    This study presents the outcome of mapping the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin of southwestern Nigeria vulnerability studies. The basin is a coastal transboundary aquifer extending from eastern Ghana to southwestern Nigeria. The study aimed to examine the most suitable method for mapping the basin shallow aquifers by comparing the results of four different vulnerability approaches. This is most important due to differences in vulnerability assessment parameters, approaches and results derived from most vulnerability methods on a particular aquifer. The methodology involves using vulnerability techniques that assess the intrinsic properties of the aquifer. Two methods from travel time approach (AVI and RTt) and index approach (DRASTIC and PI) were employed in the mapping of the basin. The results show the AVI has the least mapping parameters with 75% of the basin classified as very high vulnerability and 25% with high vulnerability. The DRASTIC mapping shows 18% as low vulnerability, 61% as moderate vulnerability and 21% reveal high vulnerability. Mapping with the PI method which has highest parameters shows 66% of the aquifer as low vulnerability and 34% reveal moderate vulnerability. The RTt method shows 18% as very high vulnerability, 8% as high vulnerability, 64% as moderate vulnerability and 10% reveal very low vulnerability. Further analysis involving correlation plots shows the highest correlation of 62% between the RTt and DRASTIC method than within any others methods. The analysis shows that the PI method is the mildest of all the vulnerability methods while the AVI method is the strictest of the methods considered in this vulnerability mapping. The significance of using four different approaches to the mapping of the shallow aquifers of the eastern Dahomey Basin will guide in the recommendation of the best vulnerability method for subsequent future assessment of this and other shallow aquifers. Keywords: Aquifer vulnerability, Dahomey Basin

  8. [Homicides and social vulnerability]. (United States)

    Tavares, Ricardo; Catalan, Valeria Dutra Batista; Romano, Pedro Machado de Melo; Melo, Elza Machado


    The goal of this study was to analyze the spatial distribution of homicide rates (H) according to the social vulnerability index (SVI) and the quality of urban life index (QUL) in Betim, State of Minas Gerais, from 2006 to 2011. Descriptive analysis was performed using Moran's spatial correlation analysis, and the H, SVI and QUL spatial analyses. During this period there were 1,383 deaths, mostly of males (91.9%), aged 15-24 years (46.9%), brown/black (76.9%), with secondary education (51.1%), and single (83.9%). No spatial autocorrelation was revealed, indicating that the distribution of homicide rates is random; the same occurred with the SVI and the QUL index. Taken together, however, the H, SVI and QUL index overlapped, which was analyzed using different theories of crime, such as those addressing socioeconomic issues, arms of drugs dealing and Durkheim's and Habermas' theories, namely anomie and colonization of the lifeworld. social vulnerability and homicide are associated from both empirical and theoretical perspectives.

  9. Assessing flash flood vulnerability using a multi-vulnerability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagiorgos Konstantinos


    Full Text Available In the framework of flood risk assessment, while the understanding of hazard and exposure has significantly improved over the last years, knowledge on vulnerability remains one of the challenges. Current approaches in vulnerability research are characterised by a division between social scientists and natural scientists. In order to close this gap, we present an approach that combines information on physical and social vulnerability in order to merge information on the susceptibility of elements at risk and society. With respect to physical vulnerability, the study is based on local-scale vulnerability models using nonlinear regression approaches. Modified Weibull distributions were fit to the data in order to represent the relationship between process magnitude and degree of loss. With respect to social vulnerability we conducted a door-to-door survey which resulted in particular insights on flood risk awareness and resilience strategies of exposed communities. In general, both physical and social vulnerability were low in comparison with other European studies, which may result from (a specific building regulations in the four Mediterranean test sites as well as general design principles leading to low structural susceptibility of elements at risk, and (b relatively low social vulnerability of citizens exposed. As a result it is shown that a combination of different perspectives of vulnerability will lead to a better understanding of exposure and capacities in flood risk management.

  10. LAVA: Large scale Automated Vulnerability Addition (United States)


    our focus to Linux open- source software written in C, due to the availability of source code and source rewriting tools. As we detail later, a similar...program, and the bugs created would be realistic in the sense that one could imagine them resulting from a programmer forgetting to correctly guard some...inject and validate buffer overflow vulnerabilities in Linux C source code. 1) Compile a version of the target program which has been instrumented with


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Adrian ŞORCARU


    Full Text Available The study focuses on analyzing and mapping 8 indicators considered to best reflect the demographic vulnerability in Tecuci Plain in the year 2010 and proposes a model of aggregation which finally allows us to distinguish three major types of demographic vulnerability (low, medium and high. Mapping the final values also shows significant disparities in the territorial administrative units that broadly overlap the plain, the most vulnerable being Tecuci city and the peripheral communes, towards Vrancea and Vaslui Counties.

  12. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project


    Jake Kouns


    This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB) project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability co...

  13. Open Source Vulnerability Database Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake Kouns


    Full Text Available This article introduces the Open Source Vulnerability Database (OSVDB project which manages a global collection of computer security vulnerabilities, available for free use by the information security community. This collection contains information on known security weaknesses in operating systems, software products, protocols, hardware devices, and other infrastructure elements of information technology. The OSVDB project is intended to be the centralized global open source vulnerability collection on the Internet.

  14. Common Control System Vulnerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trent Nelson


    The Control Systems Security Program and other programs within the Idaho National Laboratory have discovered a vulnerability common to control systems in all sectors that allows an attacker to penetrate most control systems, spoof the operator, and gain full control of targeted system elements. This vulnerability has been identified on several systems that have been evaluated at INL, and in each case a 100% success rate of completing the attack paths that lead to full system compromise was observed. Since these systems are employed in multiple critical infrastructure sectors, this vulnerability is deemed common to control systems in all sectors. Modern control systems architectures can be considered analogous to today's information networks, and as such are usually approached by attackers using a common attack methodology to penetrate deeper and deeper into the network. This approach often is composed of several phases, including gaining access to the control network, reconnaissance, profiling of vulnerabilities, launching attacks, escalating privilege, maintaining access, and obscuring or removing information that indicates that an intruder was on the system. With irrefutable proof that an external attack can lead to a compromise of a computing resource on the organization's business local area network (LAN), access to the control network is usually considered the first phase in the attack plan. Once the attacker gains access to the control network through direct connections and/or the business LAN, the second phase of reconnaissance begins with traffic analysis within the control domain. Thus, the communications between the workstations and the field device controllers can be monitored and evaluated, allowing an attacker to capture, analyze, and evaluate the commands sent among the control equipment. Through manipulation of the communication protocols of control systems (a process generally referred to as ''reverse engineering''), an

  15. Analyses Of Two End-User Software Vulnerability Exposure Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason L. Wright; Miles McQueen; Lawrence Wellman


    The risk due to software vulnerabilities will not be completely resolved in the near future. Instead, putting reliable vulnerability measures into the hands of end-users so that informed decisions can be made regarding the relative security exposure incurred by choosing one software package over another is of importance. To that end, we propose two new security metrics, average active vulnerabilities (AAV) and vulnerability free days (VFD). These metrics capture both the speed with which new vulnerabilities are reported to vendors and the rate at which software vendors fix them. We then examine how the metrics are computed using currently available datasets and demonstrate their estimation in a simulation experiment using four different browsers as a case study. Finally, we discuss how the metrics may be used by the various stakeholders of software and to software usage decisions.

  16. Assessment of Vulnerability to Coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California. (United States)

    Shriber, Jennifer; Conlon, Kathryn C; Benedict, Kaitlin; McCotter, Orion Z; Bell, Jesse E


    Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States, particularly Arizona and California. Its incidence has increased, potentially due in part to the effects of changing climatic variables on fungal growth and spore dissemination. This study aims to quantify the county-level vulnerability to coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California and to assess the relationships between population vulnerability and climate variability. The variables representing exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity were combined to calculate county level vulnerability indices. Three methods were used: (1) principal components analysis; (2) quartile weighting; and (3) percentile weighting. Two sets of indices, "unsupervised" and "supervised", were created. Each index was correlated with coccidioidomycosis incidence data from 2000-2014. The supervised percentile index had the highest correlation; it was then correlated with variability measures for temperature, precipitation, and drought. The supervised percentile index was significantly correlated ( p vulnerable counties and provides support for the hypothesis that population vulnerability to coccidioidomycosis is associated with climate variability.

  17. Flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure in Cork, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruijn Karin M.


    Full Text Available Recent flood events in Ireland and particularly in County Cork have caused significant disruption to health service provisions, interruption of water and power supplies, and damage to roads and other transportation infrastructure, affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people over a prolonged period of weeks. These events clearly reveal- the vulnerability of the critical infrastructure to flooding and the dependence of society on critical infrastructure. In order to reduce the flood vulnerability and increase the resilience of the critical infrastructure networks in the future, detailed evidence-based analysis and assessment is essential. To this end a case study has been carried out on Cork City which analyses this vulnerability as it was in 2009, and as it is currently, and identifies adaptation options to reduce the future vulnerability of critical infrastructure to flooding and to build a more resilient society. This paper describes the storyline approach and CIrcle tool and their application to Cork City which focused on the analysis of the flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure and the impacts of failure of the infrastructure for other critical functions and on society.

  18. Quantitative Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security for Distribution Automation Systems


    Xiaming Ye; Junhua Zhao; Yan Zhang; Fushuan Wen


    The distribution automation system (DAS) is vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the widespread use of terminal devices and standard communication protocols. On account of the cost of defense, it is impossible to ensure the security of every device in the DAS. Given this background, a novel quantitative vulnerability assessment model of cyber security for DAS is developed in this paper. In the assessment model, the potential physical consequences of cyber-attacks are analyzed from two levels: t...

  19. Mapping social-ecological vulnerability to inform local decision making. (United States)

    Thiault, Lauric; Marshall, Paul; Gelcich, Stefan; Collin, Antoine; Chlous, Frédérique; Claudet, Joachim


    An overarching challenge of natural resource management and biodiversity conservation is that relationships between people and nature are difficult to integrate into tools that can effectively guide decision making. Social-ecological vulnerability offers a valuable framework for identifying and understanding important social-ecological linkages, and the implications of dependencies and other feedback loops in the system. Unfortunately, its implementation at local scales has hitherto been limited due at least in part to the lack of operational tools for spatial representation of social-ecological vulnerability. We developed a method to map social-ecological vulnerability based on information on human-nature dependencies and ecosystem services at local scales. We applied our method to the small-scale fishery of Moorea, French Polynesia, by combining spatially explicit indicators of exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of both the resource (i.e., vulnerability of reef fish assemblages to fishing) and resource users (i.e., vulnerability of fishing households to the loss of fishing opportunity). Our results revealed that both social and ecological vulnerabilities varied considerably through space and highlighted areas where sources of vulnerability were high for both social and ecological subsystems (i.e., social-ecological vulnerability hotspots) and thus of high priority for management intervention. Our approach can be used to inform decisions about where biodiversity conservation strategies are likely to be more effective and how social impacts from policy decisions can be minimized. It provides a new perspective on human-nature linkages that can help guide sustainability management at local scales; delivers insights distinct from those provided by emphasis on a single vulnerability component (e.g., exposure); and demonstrates the feasibility and value of operationalizing the social-ecological vulnerability framework for policy, planning, and participatory

  20. Development of a heat vulnerability index for New York State. (United States)

    Nayak, S G; Shrestha, S; Kinney, P L; Ross, Z; Sheridan, S C; Pantea, C I; Hsu, W H; Muscatiello, N; Hwang, S A


    The frequency and intensity of extreme heat events are increasing in New York State (NYS) and have been linked with increased heat-related morbidity and mortality. But these effects are not uniform across the state and can vary across large regions due to regional sociodemographic and environmental factors which impact an individual's response or adaptive capacity to heat and in turn contribute to vulnerability among certain populations. We developed a heat vulnerability index (HVI) to identify heat-vulnerable populations and regions in NYS. Census tract level environmental and sociodemographic heat-vulnerability variables were used to develop the HVI to identify heat-vulnerable populations and areas. Variables were identified from a comprehensive literature review and climate-health research in NYS. We obtained data from 2010 US Census Bureau and 2011 National Land Cover Database. We used principal component analysis to reduce correlated variables to fewer uncorrelated components, and then calculated the cumulative HVI for each census tract by summing up the scores across the components. The HVI was then mapped across NYS (excluding New York City) to display spatial vulnerability. The prevalence rates of heat stress were compared across HVI score categories. Thirteen variables were reduced to four meaningful components representing 1) social/language vulnerability; 2) socioeconomic vulnerability; 3) environmental/urban vulnerability; and 4) elderly/ social isolation. Vulnerability to heat varied spatially in NYS with the HVI showing that metropolitan areas were most vulnerable, with language barriers and socioeconomic disadvantage contributing to the most vulnerability. Reliability of the HVI was supported by preliminary results where higher rates of heat stress were collocated in the regions with the highest HVI. The NYS HVI showed spatial variability in heat vulnerability across the state. Mapping the HVI allows quick identification of regions in NYS that could

  1. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linas Jočys


    .... It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop...

  2. Vulnerability Identification Errors in Security Risk Assessments


    Taubenberger, Stefan


    At present, companies rely on information technology systems to achieve their business objectives, making them vulnerable to cybersecurity threats. Information security risk assessments help organisations to identify their risks and vulnerabilities. An accurate identification of risks and vulnerabilities is a challenge, because the input data is uncertain. So-called ’vulnerability identification errors‘ can occur if false positive vulnerabilities are identified, or if vulnerabilities remain u...

  3. Poverty and Vulnerability - An Interdisciplinary Approach


    Makoka, Donald; Kaplan, Marcus


    This paper describes the concepts of poverty and vulnerability as well as the interconnections and differences between them using an interdisciplinary approach. While poverty is a static concept, vulnerability has a forward-looking dimension. We, therefore, review the methodologies that different disciplines use to measure poverty and vulnerability. In particular, the differences between vulnerability to natural disasters, vulnerability to climate change, as well as vulnerability to poverty a...

  4. Assessment of social vulnerability to natural hazards in Nepal (United States)

    Gautam, Dipendra


    This paper investigates district-wide social vulnerability to natural hazards in Nepal. Disasters such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, epidemics, and droughts are common in Nepal. Every year thousands of people are killed and huge economic and environmental losses occur in Nepal due to various natural hazards. Although natural hazards are well recognized, quantitative and qualitative social vulnerability mapping has not existed until now in Nepal. This study aims to quantify the social vulnerability on a local scale, considering all 75 districts using the available census. To perform district-level vulnerability mapping, 13 variables were selected and aggregated indexes were plotted in an ArcGIS environment. The sum of results shows that only 4 districts in Nepal have a very low social vulnerability index whereas 46 districts (61 %) are at moderate to high social vulnerability levels. Vulnerability mapping highlights the immediate need for decentralized frameworks to tackle natural hazards in district level; additionally, the results of this study can contribute to preparedness, planning and resource management, inter-district coordination, contingency planning, and public awareness efforts.

  5. Vulnerability of forest vegetation to anthropogenic climate change in China. (United States)

    Wan, Ji-Zhong; Wang, Chun-Jing; Qu, Hong; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang


    China has large areas of forest vegetation that are critical to biodiversity and carbon storage. It is important to assess vulnerability of forest vegetation to anthropogenic climate change in China because it may change the distributions and species compositions of forest vegetation. Based on the equilibrium assumption of forest communities across different spatial and temporal scales, we used species distribution modelling coupled with endemics-area relationship to assess the vulnerability of 204 forest communities across 16 vegetation types under different climate change scenarios in China. By mapping the vulnerability of forest vegetation to climate change, we determined that 78.9% and 61.8% of forest vegetation should be relatively stable in the low and high concentration scenarios, respectively. There were large vulnerable areas of forest vegetation under anthropogenic climate change in northeastern and southwestern China. The vegetation of subtropical mixed broadleaf evergreen and deciduous forest, cold-temperate and temperate mountains needleleaf forest, and temperate mixed needleleaf and broadleaf deciduous forest types were the most vulnerable under climate change. Furthermore, the vulnerability of forest vegetation may increase due to high greenhouse gas concentrations. Given our estimates of forest vegetation vulnerability to anthropogenic climate change, it is critical that we ensure long-term monitoring of forest vegetation responses to future climate change to assess our projections against observations. We need to better integrate projected changes of temperature and precipitation into climate-adaptive conservation strategies for forest vegetation in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Groundwater vulnerability to pollution mapping of Ranchi district using GIS. (United States)

    Krishna, R; Iqbal, J; Gorai, A K; Pathak, G; Tuluri, F; Tchounwou, P B


    Groundwater pollution due to anthropogenic activities is one of the major environmental problems in urban and industrial areas. The present study demonstrates the integrated approach with GIS and DRASTIC model to derive a groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model considers the seven hydrogeological factors [Depth to water table ( D ), net recharge ( R ), aquifer media ( A ), soil media ( S ), topography or slope ( T ), impact of vadose zone ( I ) and hydraulic Conductivity( C )] for generating the groundwater vulnerability to pollution map. The model was applied for assessing the groundwater vulnerability to pollution in Ranchi district, Jharkhand, India. The model was validated by comparing the model output (vulnerability indices) with the observed nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the study area. The reason behind the selection of nitrate is that the major sources of nitrate in groundwater are anthropogenic in nature. Groundwater samples were collected from 30 wells/tube wells distributed in the study area. The samples were analyzed in the laboratory for measuring the nitrate concentrations in groundwater. A sensitivity analysis of the integrated model was performed to evaluate the influence of single parameters on groundwater vulnerability index. New weights were computed for each input parameters to understand the influence of individual hydrogeological factors in vulnerability indices in the study area. Aquifer vulnerability maps generated in this study can be used for environmental planning and groundwater management.

  7. VT - Vermont Heat Vulnerability Index (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This map shows: The overall vulnerability of each town to heat related illness. This index is a composite of the following themes: Population Theme, Socioeconomic...

  8. Network Vulnerability and Risk Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alward, Randy G; Carley, Kathleen M; Madsen, Fredrik; Taylor, Vincent K; Vandenberghe, Grant


    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information...

  9. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Social vulnerability refers to the resilience of communities when confronted by external stresses on human health, stresses such as natural or human-caused...

  10. Quantifying Information Leak Vulnerabilities


    Heusser, Jonathan; Malacaria, Pasquale


    Leakage of confidential information represents a serious security risk. Despite a number of novel, theoretical advances, it has been unclear if and how quantitative approaches to measuring leakage of confidential information could be applied to substantial, real-world programs. This is mostly due to the high complexity of computing precise leakage quantities. In this paper, we introduce a technique which makes it possible to decide if a program conforms to a quantitative policy which scales t...

  11. Quantitative Vulnerability Assessment of Cyber Security for Distribution Automation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaming Ye


    Full Text Available The distribution automation system (DAS is vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the widespread use of terminal devices and standard communication protocols. On account of the cost of defense, it is impossible to ensure the security of every device in the DAS. Given this background, a novel quantitative vulnerability assessment model of cyber security for DAS is developed in this paper. In the assessment model, the potential physical consequences of cyber-attacks are analyzed from two levels: terminal device level and control center server level. Then, the attack process is modeled based on game theory and the relationships among different vulnerabilities are analyzed by introducing a vulnerability adjacency matrix. Finally, the application process of the proposed methodology is illustrated through a case study based on bus 2 of the Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS. The results demonstrate the reasonability and effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  12. Vulnerability assessment in avalanche hazardous areas (United States)

    Frigo, B.; De Biagi, V.; Chiaia, B.


    Until a few decades ago, damages and human losses related to the avalanche risk represented only a small part of the destructive effects produced each year by natural events. Nowadays, on the contrary, the situation has considerably changed due to growing of the built-up areas and human presence in the mountain environment: this fact increases the current avalanche risk and puts snow avalanches and hydro-geological risks (floods, landslides, rock falls, etc…) at the same importance level. To mitigate the effects, Authorities provide both specific policies for urban development and mountain land use and simple but reliable methodologies to define the avalanche risk. As is well known, risk can be defined as the product of three factors: the environmental danger P (probability that a given phenomenon with its catastrophic intensity occurs in a specific area and time), the vulnerability V (degree of loss of one or more elements by a natural phenomenon of a known magnitude) and the exposure E (measure of the exposed value for each vulnerable element). A novel approach for the evaluation of the "Vulnerability factor" of a new or existing building under avalanche hazard by considering its structural (materials, strength and robustness, etc…) and architectural (shape, exposure, etc…) peculiarities is presented. A real avalanche event occurred in December, 2008 in Aosta Valley, which caused the total collapse of a building is taken as an example for tesing the effectiveness of the proposed risk assessment. By means of photographical analysis on undamaged parts, local surveys and debris arrangement, the impact pressure and the collapse dynamics are back-analyzed. The results are commented and comparisons between the damages and Vulnerability factor are made.

  13. Spatial vulnerability units - expert-based spatial modelling of socio-economic vulnerability in the Salzach catchment, Austria (United States)

    Kienberger, S.; Lang, S.; Zeil, P.


    The assessment of vulnerability has moved to centre-stage of the debate between different scientific disciplines related to climate change and disaster risk management. Composed by a combination of social, economical, physical and environmental factors the assessment implies combining different domains as well as quantitative with qualitative data and makes it therefore a challenge to identify an integrated metric for vulnerability. In this paper we define vulnerability in the context of climate change, targeting the hazard "flood". The developed methodology is being tested in the Salzach river catchment in Austria, which is largely prone to floods. The proposed methodology allows the spatial quantification of vulnerability and the identification of vulnerability units. These units build upon the geon concept which acts as a framework for the regionalization of continuous spatial information according to defined parameters of homogeneity. Using geons, we are capable of transforming singular domains of information on specific systemic components to policy-relevant, conditioned information. Considering the fact that vulnerability is not directly measurable and due to its complex dimension and social construction an expert-based approach has been chosen. Established methodologies such as Multicriteria Decision Analysis, Delphi exercises and regionalization approaches are being integrated. The method not only enables the assessment of vulnerability independent from administrative boundaries, but also applies an aggregation mode which reflects homogenous vulnerability units. This supports decision makers to reflect on complex issues such as vulnerability. Next to that, the advantage is to decompose the units to their underlying domains. Feedback from disaster management experts indicates that the approach helps to improve the design of measures aimed at strengthening preparedness and mitigation. From this point of view, we reach a step closer towards validation of the

  14. Modelling farm vulnerability to flooding: A step toward vulnerability mitigation policies appraisal (United States)

    Brémond, P.; Abrami, G.; Blanc, C.; Grelot, F.


    are needed to implement the model and to collect them, specifically using the focus group method; Based on the conceptual model, to program a mathematical model which will be used to simulate damage (direct and indirect) on farm due to flood. This last objective should enable us to appraise policy to mitigate vulnerability which is planned to be implemented on Rhône River at the individual and regional scale. Finally, we discuss the possibility to use the UML modelling to develop a multi-agent system approach which could be interesting to take into account ties between farmers (solidarity, loan of equipment) or systemic effects due to the damage incurred by economic partners (loss of market share). Keywords vulnerability, UML modelling, farming systems, flood, mitigation policy, economic valuation

  15. Perceived vulnerability in adolescents to the health consequences of cigarette smoking. (United States)

    Urberg, K; Robbins, R


    Adolescent feelings of vulnerability, an aspect of the Health Belief Model and Elkind's concept of adolescent egocentrism, were examined in two groups of white, middle-class 6th to 12th graders. Feelings of vulnerability were examined with respect to developmental course, antecedents, and relationship to the specific risk-taking behavior of cigarette smoking. Feelings of vulnerability to the negative consequences of smoking were found to decrease rapidly from sixth to eighth grade and to increase slowly thereafter. Experience with illness and accidents was correlated with the general vulnerability measure. However, experience with illness due to smoking was not related to smoking vulnerability. This may have been because few adolescents were found to have had personal experiences with the health consequences of smoking. Feelings of vulnerability with respect to the negative consequences of cigarette smoking were correlated with adolescent smoking behavior. General feelings of vulnerability were unrelated to cigarette smoking.

  16. An integrated framework for software vulnerability detection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manoj Kumar


    Jul 15, 2017 ... framework for security vulnerability minimization using design of object-oriented software. The proposed frame- work minimizes vulnerability by restricting the flow of vulnerable information. Agrawal and Khan [40] proposed a framework to identify, analyse and mitigate vulnerabilities during the development ...

  17. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.


    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  18. Land tenure, disasters and vulnerability. (United States)

    Reale, Andreana; Handmer, John


    Although often overlooked, land tenure is an important variable impacting on vulnerability to disaster. Vulnerability can occur either where land tenure is perceived to be insecure, or where insecure tenure results in the loss of land, especially when alternative livelihood and housing options are limited. Disasters often provide the catalyst for such loss. This paper avoids making generalisations about the security of particular types of tenure, but instead explores factors that mediate tenure security, particularly in the wake of a disaster. The paper identifies five mediating factors: (1) the local legal system; (2) government administrative authority; (3) the economy; (4) evidence of tenure, and; (5) custom and dominant social attitudes. It is shown that some mediating factors are more salient for particular types of tenure than others. The paper will highlight the importance of land tenure in any assessment of vulnerability, and conclude with suggestions for further research. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.

  19. Are Vulnerability Disclosure Deadlines Justified?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman


    Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.

  20. Compounding vulnerability: pregnancy and schizophrenia. (United States)

    Dudzinski, Denise M


    The predominant ethical framework for addressing reproductive decisions in the maternal-fetal relationship is respect for the woman's autonomy. However, when a pregnant schizophrenic woman lacks such autonomy, healthcare providers try to both protect her and respect her preferences. By delineating etic (objective) and emic (subjective) perspectives on vulnerability, I argue that options which balance both perspectives are preferable and that acting on etic perspectives to the exclusion of emic considerations is rarely justified. In negotiating perspectives, we balance the etic commitment to protect the vulnerable patient and her fetus from harm with the emic concern to empower a decisionally incapacitated woman. Equilibrium is best achieved by nurturing interdependent relationships that empower and protect the vulnerable woman. The analysis points to the need for better social support for mentally ill patients.

  1. Security-related vulnerability life cycle analysis


    Vache Marconato, Géraldine; Nicomette, Vincent; Kaâniche, Mohamed


    International audience; This paper deals with the characterization of security-related vulnerabilities based on public data reported in the Open Source Vulnerability Database. We focus on the analysis of vulnerability life cycle events corresponding to the vulnerability discovery, the vulnerability disclosure, the patch release, and the exploit availability. We study the distribution of the time between these events considering different operating systems (Windows, Unix, Mobile OS), and diffe...

  2. Vulnerability and the bioethics through the experiences of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolim-Neto Leite Modesto


    Full Text Available Background: Vulnerable people are relatively or absolutely incapable of protecting their own interests. Vulnerability is an anthropological attribute of human beings due to the simple fact of being alive. Brazilian society has long been established as a matter through the eyes of social scientists. In the name of it, the vulnerability in the doctor-patient context is now being a much-discussed issue. Purpose: This study aims to analyze the current studies regarding the insertion of vulnerability in the health issue, reflexively dealing with the ethical matters involved, as well as with the narratives’ insertion in this process. Methods: This article is based on data extracted from Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo and on secondary data from textbooks about vulnerability, ethics, physician-patient relationship and narratives. Results and discussion: Doctors are faced with dilemmas in clinical practice: moral, ethical, legal, social, religious and economic. On these occasions, question their own values. By listening carefully to the stories of patients, health professionals broaden their perspectives, organize and integrate complex situations, which assists in conducting these difficult situations. Conclusion: Reflect the concept of vulnerability raises (re think health practices, particularly in bringing to light the social experience of illness and hospitalization of the patient.

  3. Social vulnerability, age and resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Pereira Patrocinio


    Full Text Available This article aims to present a conceptual exposition on social vulnerability and its implications for the aging process. We conducted a survey of theme in Latin American literature, considering the social reality of Latin America closer to the Brazilian social reality, with a higher probability of relationships and approaches to the issue at hand. The second part of the article discusses the situation of old age amid the existence of social vulnerability to, third party, presenting the importance of community resilience to overcome adversity in this way. With this, we hope that our reflections will contribute to the field of research and practice in the field of social gerontology.

  4. Managing a network vulnerability assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R; Blackley, John A


    Managing a Network Vulnerability Assessment provides a formal framework for finding and eliminating network security threats, ensuring that no vulnerabilities are overlooked. This thorough overview focuses on the steps necessary to successfully manage an assessment, including the development of a scope statement, the understanding and proper use of assessment methodology, the creation of an expert assessment team, and the production of a valuable response report. The book also details what commercial, freeware, and shareware tools are available, how they work, and how to use them.

  5. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciate the legal significance of consent. "Every human being ... {2} Nothing in this article shall affect the provisions of laws ... (1 A court may, at any stage of a case, order that the accused .... undue influence, incapacitated person is invalid.

  6. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh (United States)

    Alam, G. M. Monirul


    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  7. Livelihood Cycle and Vulnerability of Rural Households to Climate Change and Hazards in Bangladesh. (United States)

    Alam, G M Monirul


    Rural riverine households in Bangladesh are confronted with many climate-driven hazards, including riverbank erosion, which results in loss of productive land and other natural resources of the riverine households, and thus threatens their livelihoods and food security. This study assesses the main drivers of vulnerability and livelihood cycle of vulnerable riparian households in Bangladesh. The study utilises the IPCC framework of vulnerability and develops a weighted approach by employing the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index. The results reveal that the livelihood vulnerability index and the climate vulnerability index differ across locations, however, a high index value for both measures indicates the households' high livelihood vulnerability to climate change and hazards. The main drivers that influence the vulnerability dimensions are livelihood strategies and access to food, water and health facilities. These hazard-prone households are also vulnerable due to their existing low livelihood status that leads to a vicious cycle of poverty. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers to formulate and implement effective strategies and programs to minimise vulnerability and to enhance the local adaptation processes in order to improve such households' livelihood across Bangladesh.

  8. Metabolic advantages and vulnerabilities in brain metastases. (United States)

    Ciminera, Alexandra K; Jandial, Rahul; Termini, John


    Metabolic adaptations permit tumor cells to metastasize to and thrive in the brain. Brain metastases continue to present clinical challenges due to rising incidence and resistance to current treatments. Therefore, elucidating altered metabolic pathways in brain metastases may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of aggressive disease. Due to the high demand for glucose in the brain, increased glycolytic activity is favored for energy production. Primary tumors that undergo Warburg-like metabolic reprogramming become suited to growth in the brain microenvironment. Indeed, elevated metabolism is a predictor of metastasis in many cancer subtypes. Specifically, metabolic alterations are seen in primary tumors that are associated with the formation of brain metastases, namely breast cancer, lung cancer, and melanoma. Because of this selective pressure, inhibitors of key metabolic factors may reduce tumor cell viability, thus exploiting metabolic pathways for cancer therapeutics. This review summarizes the metabolic advantages and vulnerabilities of brain metastases.

  9. Defining and Measuring Coastal Vulnerability and Resilience to Natural Hazards (United States)

    Becker, M. K.; Hoagland, P.


    Accounting for an estimated 23 percent of the world's population, coastal communities face many types of natural hazards. In particular, they may be vulnerable to the effects of tropical cyclones, flooding due to tsunamis or storm surges, erosion, saltwater intrusion, and subsidence. These coastal hazards are further exacerbated by population growth and climate change. There is a lack of consensus in the literature about what constitutes vulnerability (negative impacts) and resilience (recovery from negative impacts) and how to measure these phenomena. While some important work has focused on the long-term effects of coastal hazards on economic growth, little has been done to understand, in quantitative terms, the extent to which coastal communities may be vulnerable to such hazards and, if so, whether they can be resilient. We surveyed nine indicators of human well-being in order to determine their potential suitability as measures of coastal vulnerability or resilience. Some measures, such as the Gross Domestic Product, the Human Development Index, and the Gini coefficient, comprise economic or distributional indicators of human welfare; others, such as the Social Vulnerability Index, are more complex and difficult to interpret. We selected per capita personal income as the most viable indicator, due largely to its simplicity and its availability over several decades. We used it to examine human community vulnerability and resilience to a specific coastal hazard—significant storm surges from major coastal hurricanes—in several US coastal metropolitan areas. We compiled data on per capita personal income from the US Bureau of Economic Analysis for 15 to 20 years prior and subsequent to four major hurricanes: Hugo, which hit the Charleston, South Carolina, metropolitan area in 1989; Bob, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in 1991; Andrew, Miami, Florida, in 1992; and Opal, Pensacola, Florida, in 1995. Intervention analysis using linear regression suggests that these

  10. Autonomy, Vulnerability, Recognition, and Justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, J.H.; Honneth, A.


    One of liberalism’s core commitments is to safeguarding individuals’ autonomy. And a central aspect of liberal social justice is the commitment to protecting the vulnerable. Taken together, and combined with an understanding of autonomy as an acquired set of capacities to lead one’s own life,

  11. Trust, Endangerment and Divine Vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mikkel Gabriel


    Faith is trusting God in the midst of endangerment. Yet, human experience of excessive suffering has challenged any spontaneous trust in God. In this article, I reconsider the idea of faith as trust in God, adding an emphasis on the divine vulnerability in the incarnation, and I develop a more...

  12. Cognitive vulnerability and dental fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer A John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cognitive Vulnerability Model proposes that perceptions of certain characteristics of a situation are critical determinants of fear. Although the model is applicable to all animal, natural environment and situational fears, it has not yet been applied specifically to dental fear. This study therefore aimed to examine the association between dental fear and perceptions of dental visits as uncontrollable, unpredictable and dangerous. Methods The study used a clustered, stratified national sample of Australians aged 15 years and over. All participants were asked in a telephone interview survey to indicate their level of dental fear. Participants who received an oral examination were subsequently provided with a self-complete questionnaire in which they rated their perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness associated with dental visiting. Results 3937 participants were recruited. Each of the three vulnerability-related perceptions was strongly associated with the prevalence of high dental fear. In a logistic regression analysis, uncontrollability and dangerousness perceptions were significantly associated with high dental fear after controlling for age and sex. However, unpredictability perceptions did not have a statistically significant independent association with dental fear after controlling for all other variables. Conclusion Results are mostly consistent with the Cognitive Vulnerability Model of the etiology of fear, with perceptions of uncontrollability, unpredictability and dangerousness each showing a strong bivariate relationship with high dental fear prevalence. However, more extensive measures of vulnerability perceptions would be valuable in future investigations.

  13. Evaluation of groundwater vulnerability in El-Bahariya Oasis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the DRASTIC model as well as utilising sensitivity analyses to evaluate the relative importance of the model parameters for aquifer vulnerability in ... of the area, where these conditions control the time and directions of flow, and the water ... than being shallow naturally flowing, the wells have become dry due to the intensive ...

  14. Predicting Polylepis distribution: vulnerable and increasingly important Andean woodlands


    Zutta, Brian R.; Phillip W. Rundel; Sassan Saatchi; Jorge D. Casana; Paul Gauthier Gauthier; Aldo Soto; Yessenia Velazco; Wolfgang Buermann


    Polylepis woodlands are a vital resource for preserving biodiversity and hydrological functions, which will be altered by climate change and challenge the sustainability of local human communities. However, these highaltitude Andean ecosystems are becoming increasingly vulnerable due to anthropogenic pressure including fragmentation, deforestation and the increase in livestock. Predicting the distribution of native woodlands has become increasingly important to counteract the negative effects...

  15. Seismic vulnerability assessment of a continuous steel box girder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tae-Hyung Lee


    Feb 7, 2018 ... indicate that the bridge structures equipped with seismic isolation devices (e.g. LRBs) significantly mitigated the damages due to earthquakes. Keywords. Continuous steel box girder bridge; fragility curves; seismic vulnerability assessment; damage state; nonlinear dynamic analysis; lead rubber bearing. 1.

  16. Agricultural vulnerability to climate change in Sokoto State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although climate change is global threat, developing countries have been identified as most vulnerable owing to their low adaptive capacities. In Nigeria, while the impacts of climate cut across diverse sectors, agriculture remains the most susceptible due to the predominance of rainfed agriculture. This paper examines ...

  17. Using plant traits to evaluate the resistance and resilience of ecosystem service provision (United States)

    Kohler, Marina; Devaux, Caroline; Fontana, Veronika; Grigulis, Karl; Lavorel, Sandra; Leitinger, Georg; Schirpke, Uta; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike


    Mountain grassland ecosystems are a hotspot of biodiversity and deliver a multiplicity of ecosystem services. Due to a long history of well adapted agricultural use and specific environmental conditions (e.g. slope, altitude, or climate), various types of grassland ecosystems have developed. Each of them shows specific attributes in forms of plant communities and abiotic characteristics, which lead to particular ranges of ecosystem service provision. However, ongoing climate and societal changes thread plant community composition and may lead to changes in plant traits, and therefore, the provision of ecosystem services. Currently it is not clear how vulnerable these ecosystems are to disturbances, or whether they have developed a high resilience over time. Thus, it is essential to know the ranges of resistance and resilience of an ecosystem service. We, therefore, developed a static approach based on community weighted mean plant traits and abiotic parameters to measure the boundaries of resistance and resilience of each ecosystem service separately. By calculating actual minimum and maximum amounts of ecosystem services, we define the range of resistance of an ecosystem service. We then calculate the potential amount of an ecosystem services (via simulated plant communities) by assuming that no species is lost or added to the system. By comparing actual and potential values, we can estimate whether an ecosystem service is in danger to lose its resilience. We selected different ecosystem services related to mountain grassland ecosystems, e.g. carbon storage, forage quality, forage quantity, and soil fertility. We analysed each ecosystem service for different grassland management types, covering meadows and pastures of very low land-use intensity through to grasslands of high land-use intensity. Results indicate that certain ecosystem services have a higher resilience than others (e.g. carbon storage) for all management types. The ecosystem may provide steady

  18. Application of the Water Vulnerability Index in Oke-Ogun Area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to water is influenced by many biophysical and socio-demographical contexts which can trigger vulnerability or modify adaptive capacity of local communities due to a greater dependence on water resources that are climate sensitive for livelihood supports. The study provides a method of assessing vulnerability to ...

  19. Evaluating operating system vulnerability to memory errors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Kurt Brian; Bridges, Patrick G. (University of New Mexico); Pedretti, Kevin Thomas Tauke; Mueller, Frank (North Carolina State University); Fiala, David (North Carolina State University); Brightwell, Ronald Brian


    Reliability is of great concern to the scalability of extreme-scale systems. Of particular concern are soft errors in main memory, which are a leading cause of failures on current systems and are predicted to be the leading cause on future systems. While great effort has gone into designing algorithms and applications that can continue to make progress in the presence of these errors without restarting, the most critical software running on a node, the operating system (OS), is currently left relatively unprotected. OS resiliency is of particular importance because, though this software typically represents a small footprint of a compute node's physical memory, recent studies show more memory errors in this region of memory than the remainder of the system. In this paper, we investigate the soft error vulnerability of two operating systems used in current and future high-performance computing systems: Kitten, the lightweight kernel developed at Sandia National Laboratories, and CLE, a high-performance Linux-based operating system developed by Cray. For each of these platforms, we outline major structures and subsystems that are vulnerable to soft errors and describe methods that could be used to reconstruct damaged state. Our results show the Kitten lightweight operating system may be an easier target to harden against memory errors due to its smaller memory footprint, largely deterministic state, and simpler system structure.

  20. [Gender vulnerability for parenthood among male adolescents]. (United States)

    Almeida, Anecy de Fátima Faustino; Hardy, Ellen


    To analyze gender relations perceived by male adolescents and how they contribute to making them more vulnerable to pregnancy during adolescence. Qualitative study carried out in Campo Grande, Midwestern Brazil, in 2003. Subjects were 13 male adolescents under 20 years of age, fathers of an only child aged up to 11 months whose mother was in the same age group as them. Semi-structured interviews were carried out, tape recorded and transcribed. Thematic content analysis was carried out. Gender stereotypes were identified in which the role of leader, provider, and sexually active was stressed and the role of caregiver was rejected. These roles seemed consolidated especially in the subjects' perspective regarding paid employment as a marker of their male condition as well as of a family provider. Adolescents' leadership prevailed in the relationship with the mother of their child especially in taking initiative in sexual intercourse and the use of contraceptives. They considered that pregnancy was unexpected and happened "by chance". However, fatherhood was experienced as a definite evidence of their status as adult men. Male adolescents showed to be vulnerable to fatherhood due to gender socialization following traditional patterns. This was evidenced by the inexistence of roles related to self care and care for others, and early playing roles of male sexual dominance, of father and family provider in order to grow up and become a man.

  1. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  2. Nrf2-dependent persistent oxidative stress results in stress-induced vulnerability to depression. (United States)

    Bouvier, E; Brouillard, F; Molet, J; Claverie, D; Cabungcal, J-H; Cresto, N; Doligez, N; Rivat, C; Do, K Q; Bernard, C; Benoliel, J-J; Becker, C


    Stressful life events produce a state of vulnerability to depression in some individuals. The mechanisms that contribute to vulnerability to depression remain poorly understood. A rat model of intense stress (social defeat (SD), first hit) produced vulnerability to depression in 40% of animals. Only vulnerable animals developed a depression-like phenotype after a second stressful hit (chronic mild stress). We found that this vulnerability to depression resulted from a persistent state of oxidative stress, which was reversed by treatment with antioxidants. This persistent state of oxidative stress was due to low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels, which characterized the vulnerable animals. We found that BDNF constitutively controlled the nuclear translocation of the master redox-sensitive transcription factor Nrf2, which activates antioxidant defenses. Low BDNF levels in vulnerable animals prevented Nrf2 translocation and consequently prevented the activation of detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes, ultimately resulting in the generation of sustained oxidative stress. Activating Nrf2 translocation restored redox homeostasis and reversed vulnerability to depression. This mechanism was confirmed in Nrf2-null mice. The mice displayed high levels of oxidative stress and were inherently vulnerable to depression, but this phenotype was reversed by treatment with antioxidants. Our data reveal a novel role for BDNF in controlling redox homeostasis and provide a mechanistic explanation for post-stress vulnerability to depression while suggesting ways to reverse it. Because numerous enzymatic reactions produce reactive oxygen species that must then be cleared, the finding that BDNF controls endogenous redox homeostasis opens new avenues for investigation.

  3. The nurse as advocate for vulnerable persons. (United States)

    Copp, L A


    This paper discusses the following issues. Advocacy: in planning and implementing nursing care; in primary care; in terminal care; in nursing research; and in health promotion/disease prevention. That which comprises a vulnerable population. Continuum of vulnerability: the potentially vulnerable; the circumstantially vulnerable; the temporarily vulnerable; the episodically vulnerable; the permanently vulnerable; and the inevitably vulnerable. Damaging one's humanity and self-image: loss of independence; barriers to the ability to make choices; the absences and presence of that which is needed; and the loss of individuality. Types of advocacy: human advocacy; animal advocacy; political advocacy; moral-ethical advocacy; legal advocacy; spiritual advocacy; and individual system advocacy. Advocacy concomitants: risk; heat; and prevention.

  4. Helping air quality managers identify vulnerable communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, C


    Full Text Available population exposure and vulnerability risk prioritisation model is proposed for potential use by air quality managers in conjunction with their air quality management plans. The model includes factors such as vulnerability caused by poverty, respiratory...

  5. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modelling and simulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, CJ


    Full Text Available attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft...

  6. Climate change & extreme weather vulnerability assessment framework. (United States)


    The Federal Highway Administrations (FHWAs) Climate Change and Extreme Weather Vulnerability : Assessment Framework is a guide for transportation agencies interested in assessing their vulnerability : to climate change and extreme weather event...

  7. Resilience, Vulnerability and Residual Threat: An Assessment from Indian Sundarban (United States)

    Ghosh, T.


    The estuarine islands within Indian Sundarban are extremely vulnerable due to climate change, erosion, flooding and increasing population pressure. Around 4.6 million people are living under constant threat of climatic shocks, affecting their farm based economy and dependency on forest resources for their livelihood. This paper attempts to focus on the dynamics of system's resilience in the backdrop of higher level of vulnerability. Globally the assessment of island vulnerability is generally more focused towards the climate change impacts, rather than taking into account other determining drivers with proper weightage. Three estuarine islands namely Sagar, Ghoramara and Mousani at the western part of Indian Sundarban Delta (ISD) have been chosen for this study to derive the indicator based scoring method using the household survey data from twenty seven (27) sampled `Mouza' (lowest administrative boundary; village) with cluster random sampling. Vulnerability and resilience of these islands have been calculated using the indicators like housing condition, electrification, population density, accretion, adult secondary education level, percentage of people `Below Poverty Line' (BPL) based on per capita income. Residual threats for these islands have been obtained by subtracting the score of resilience and vulnerability of the system. Result suggests that all these islands are in less resilient condition to combat the negative impact of the influencing factors. Sapkhali, Ghoramara, Bankimnagar, Shibpur and Baliara are becoming sensitive from excess residual threats. This study is an initiation for identifying the thrust areas need to address with effective policy adaptation, necessary to minimize the existing vulnerable conditions in these islands. Key words: Vulnerability, Resilience, Residual threat, Indian Sundarban

  8. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing any separability assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its...

  9. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li


    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  10. Chemical and radiological vulnerability assessment in urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božidar


    Full Text Available Cities and towns are faced with various types of threat from the extraordinary events involving chemical and radiological materials as exemplified by major chemical accidents, radiological incidents, fires, explosions, traffic accidents, terrorist attacks, etc. On the other hand, many sensitive or vulnerable assets exist within cities, such as: settlements, infrastructures, hospitals, schools, churches, businesses, government, and others. Besides emergency planning, the land use planning also represents an important tool for prevention or reduction of damages on people and other assets due to unwanted events. This paper considers development of method for inclusion vulnerability assessment in land use planning with objective to assess and limit the consequences in cities of likely accidents involving hazardous materials. We made preliminary assessment of criticality and vulnerability of the assets within Belgrade city area in respect to chemical sites and transportation roads that can be exposed to chemical accidents, or terrorist attacks.

  11. Virtuous aging and existential vulnerability. (United States)

    Laceulle, Hanne


    In its efforts to overcome problematic views that associate aging with inevitable decline, contemporary gerontology shows a tendency to focus predominantly on age-related vulnerabilities that science may try to remedy and control. However, gerontology should also offer languages to address vulnerabilities that cannot be remedied because they intrinsically belong to the human condition. After all, these are increasingly radically encountered in later life and should therefore be reflected upon in the study of aging. Humanistic gerontology seems to be the most promising field to look for languages capable of contemplating such existential vulnerabilities. The potential contribution of philosophy in this field remains underdeveloped so far, however. This article therefore aims to introduce insights from the philosophical tradition to (humanistic) gerontology. More specifically, it focuses on the tradition of virtue ethics, arguing that virtue is a particularly relevant notion to explore in dealing with existential vulnerability in later life. The notion of virtue is clarified by discussing a selection of philosophical perspectives on this topic, by Aristotle, MacIntyre and Swanton. Next a brief overview will be given of some of the ways the notion of virtue has found its way into gerontological discourse so far. The article ends with an analysis of the merits of virtue-ethical discourse for the study of aging and later life, and pleads for more inclusion of philosophical ideas such as virtue in gerontology, as these can enrich our conceptual frameworks and help us relate to deep existential questions regarding the experience of aging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Urban Vulnerability Assessment Using AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rezaei


    Full Text Available Purpose. Physical expansion of urban areas and cities is of great importance nowadays. Irreparable damages will thus be caused by lack of proper planning against natural disasters. Crisis management will therefore guide through prevention, preparedness, disaster relief, and recovery by planning an appropriate program. Methodology. Principal processes of crisis management against earthquake in Iran were evaluated and discussed. Multicriteria earthquake crisis management was then proposed by means of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. Vulnerability of 19 urban areas in Qazvin city was studied and analyzed as a case study. Three main criteria were considered as “physical dimensions and physical vulnerability texture,” “the amount of urban texture responsibility to aid after crisis,” and “possibility of city reversibility after the crisis.” These criteria were divided into 20 subcriteria which were prioritized by a questionnaire survey. Findings. “High population density,” “urban texture of old and repairable buildings,” “lack of relief and medical services,” “a few organic texture areas,” “sidewalks with less than 6 meters width in the region,” and “lack of open spaces in the area” were concluded to be the most important reasons causing high vulnerability of urban texture in Qazvin city.

  13. Enhancing protection for vulnerable waters (United States)

    Creed, Irena F.; Lane, Charles R.; Serran, Jacqueline N.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Basu, Nandita B.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; Christensen, Jay R.; Cohen, Matthew J.; Craft, Christopher; D'Amico, Ellen; Dekeyser, Edward; Fowler, Laurie; Golden, Heather E.; Jawitz, James W.; Kalla, Peter; Kirkman, L. Katherine; Lang, Megan; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Lewis, David B.; Marton, John; McLaughlin, Daniel L.; Raanan-Kiperwas, Hadas; Rains, Mark C.; Rains, Kai C.; Smith, Lora


    Governments worldwide do not adequately protect their limited freshwater systems and therefore place freshwater functions and attendant ecosystem services at risk. The best available scientific evidence compels enhanced protections for freshwater systems, especially for impermanent streams and wetlands outside of floodplains that are particularly vulnerable to alteration or destruction. New approaches to freshwater sustainability -- implemented through scientifically informed adaptive management -- are required to protect freshwater systems through periods of changing societal needs. One such approach introduced in the US in 2015 is the Clean Water Rule, which clarified the jurisdictional scope for federally protected waters. However, within hours of its implementation litigants convinced the US Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit to stay the rule, and the subsequently elected administration has now placed it under review for potential revision or rescission. Regardless of its outcome at the federal level, policy and management discussions initiated by the propagation of this rare rulemaking event have potential far-reaching implications at all levels of government across the US and worldwide. At this timely juncture, we provide a scientific rationale and three policy options for all levels of government to meaningfully enhance protection of these vulnerable waters. A fourth option, a 'do-nothing' approach, is wholly inconsistent with the well-established scientific evidence of the importance of these vulnerable waters.

  14. Neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson's disease. (United States)

    Double, Kay L


    The classic motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the progressive death of dopaminergic neurons within the substantia nigra. To date the relatively selective vulnerability of this brain region is not understood. The unique feature of dopaminergic neurons of the human substantia nigra pars compacta is the presence of the polymer pigment neuromelanin which gives this region its characteristic dark colour. In the healthy brain, neuromelanin appears to play a functional role to protect neurons from oxidative load but we have shown that in the Parkinson's disease brain the pigment undergoes structural changes and is associated with aggregation of α-synuclein protein, even early in the disease process. Further, the role of the pigment as a metal binder has also been suggested to underlie the relative vulnerability of these neurons, as changes in metal levels are suggested to be associated with neurodegenerative cascades in Parkinson's disease. While most research to date has focused on the role of iron in these pathways we have recently shown that changes in copper may contribute to neuronal vulnerability in this disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Capturing Agroecosystem Vulnerability and Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen C. J. Groot


    Full Text Available Vulnerability and resilience are two crucial attributes of social-ecological systems that are used for analyzing the response to disturbances. We assess these properties in relation to agroecosystem buffer capacity and adaptive capacity, which depend on the ‘window of opportunities’ of possible changes in terms of selected performance indicators, i.e., the solution space. The vulnerability of the system was quantified as the distance of performance indicators between original and disturbed systems. The buffer capacity was derived from the size of the solution space that could be obtained after reconfiguration of farm components (crops, animals, fertilizers, etc. that were present on the original farm, whereas the assessment of adaptive capacity was derived in a similar way, but after allowing innovation by introducing new components to the farm. To illustrate the approach, we applied these concepts to two dairy farms in Northwest Michoacán, Mexico. After a disturbance resulting in a fodder maize yield decline, both economic profitability and soil organic matter inputs were reduced. The scope for recovery was different between the farms, but the projected improvements in profitability and organic matter inputs would require considerable changes in the farm configurations, and thus flexibility in farm management. High resilience requires a farmer with the managerial ability to make the required changes to move through the proposed solution space. The approach we present here offers a generic quantitative assessment of vulnerability and resilience concepts, based on a combined assessment of the social and ecological dimensions of agroecosystems.

  16. Using fuzzy logic to determine the vulnerability of marine species to climate change. (United States)

    Jones, Miranda C; Cheung, William W L


    Marine species are being impacted by climate change and ocean acidification, although their level of vulnerability varies due to differences in species' sensitivity, adaptive capacity and exposure to climate hazards. Due to limited data on the biological and ecological attributes of many marine species, as well as inherent uncertainties in the assessment process, climate change vulnerability assessments in the marine environment frequently focus on a limited number of taxa or geographic ranges. As climate change is already impacting marine biodiversity and fisheries, there is an urgent need to expand vulnerability assessment to cover a large number of species and areas. Here, we develop a modelling approach to synthesize data on species-specific estimates of exposure, and ecological and biological traits to undertake an assessment of vulnerability (sensitivity and adaptive capacity) and risk of impacts (combining exposure to hazards and vulnerability) of climate change (including ocean acidification) for global marine fishes and invertebrates. We use a fuzzy logic approach to accommodate the variability in data availability and uncertainties associated with inferring vulnerability levels from climate projections and species' traits. Applying the approach to estimate the relative vulnerability and risk of impacts of climate change in 1074 exploited marine species globally, we estimated their index of vulnerability and risk of impacts to be on average 52 ± 19 SD and 66 ± 11 SD, scaling from 1 to 100, with 100 being the most vulnerable and highest risk, respectively, under the 'business-as-usual' greenhouse gas emission scenario (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5). We identified 157 species to be highly vulnerable while 294 species are identified as being at high risk of impacts. Species that are most vulnerable tend to be large-bodied endemic species. This study suggests that the fuzzy logic framework can help estimate climate vulnerabilities and risks

  17. Quantitative Assessment of Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Municipalities of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Žurovec


    Full Text Available The rural population in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BH, which constitutes more than half of the total population, experienced serious incidences of extreme weather events in the past two decades. This part of the population is vulnerable to climate change due to significant dependence on agriculture as a climate-sensitive livelihood option. However, the source of their vulnerability is due not only to the extent and magnitude of these extreme climate events, but also to the internal status within the vulnerable systems before the occurrence of such events. In order to explore the different dimensions of vulnerability, we used a set of 20 indicators to quantitatively assess the vulnerability of the rural population to climate change at the local level in BH. Two summarizing and two weighting methods were applied to assess vulnerability—Equal weights (EW and principal component analysis (PCA. Based on the results obtained, we concluded that the current socio-economic conditions and the increased environmental pressure as a result of the present human-environment interactions are the main determinants of vulnerability in most vulnerable municipalities, rather than the degree to which these municipalities are exposed to significant climatic variations. Most vulnerable municipalities are located across the north, with a gradual decrease in vulnerability towards the central, north, and east of the country. Vulnerability increases again from here towards the south of the country. The number of municipalities classified as the highest and highly vulnerable increased when the second summarizing method and weighted indicators were used. However, the general geographic distribution of vulnerability did not change substantially compared to the first method. The approaches used in this study provide some valuable results at the local level, and are presented in a way that is practical for decision-making processes and may serve as a base for further research

  18. Community vulnerability to health impacts of wildland fire ... (United States)

    Identifying communities vulnerable to adverse health effects from exposure to wildfire smoke may help prepare responses, increase the resilience to smoke and improve public health outcomes during smoke days. We developed a Community Health-Vulnerability Index (CHVI) based on factors known to increase the risks of health effects from air pollution and wildfire smoke exposures. These factors included county prevalence rates for asthma in children and adults, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, percent of population 65 years of age and older, and indicators of socioeconomic status including poverty, education, income and unemployment. Using air quality simulated for the period between 2008 and 2012 over the continental U.S. we also characterized the population size at risk with respect to the level and duration of exposure to fire-originated fine particulate matter (fire-PM2.5) and CHVI. We estimate that 10% of the population (30.5 million) lived in the areas where the contribution of fire-PM2.5 to annual average ambient PM2.5 was high (>1.5 µg m3) and that 10.3 million individuals experienced unhealthy air quality levels for more than 10 days due to smoke. Using CHVI we identified the most vulnerable counties and determined that these communities experience more smoke exposures in comparison to less vulnerable communities. We describe the development of an index of community vulnerability for the health effects of smoke based o

  19. Climate change vulnerability for species-Assessing the assessments. (United States)

    Wheatley, Christopher J; Beale, Colin M; Bradbury, Richard B; Pearce-Higgins, James W; Critchlow, Rob; Thomas, Chris D


    Climate change vulnerability assessments are commonly used to identify species at risk from global climate change, but the wide range of methodologies available makes it difficult for end users, such as conservation practitioners or policymakers, to decide which method to use as a basis for decision-making. In this study, we evaluate whether different assessments consistently assign species to the same risk categories and whether any of the existing methodologies perform well at identifying climate-threatened species. We compare the outputs of 12 climate change vulnerability assessment methodologies, using both real and simulated species, and validate the methods using historic data for British birds and butterflies (i.e. using historical data to assign risks and more recent data for validation). Our results show that the different vulnerability assessment methods are not consistent with one another; different risk categories are assigned for both the real and simulated sets of species. Validation of the different vulnerability assessments suggests that methods incorporating historic trend data into the assessment perform best at predicting distribution trends in subsequent time periods. This study demonstrates that climate change vulnerability assessments should not be used interchangeably due to the poor overall agreement between methods when considering the same species. The results of our validation provide more support for the use of trend-based rather than purely trait-based approaches, although further validation will be required as data become available. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cotton genetic resources and crop vulnerability (United States)

    A report on the genetic vulnerability of cotton was provided to the National Genetic Resources Advisory Council. The report discussed crop vulnerabilities associated with emerging diseases, emerging pests, and a narrowing genetic base. To address these crop vulnerabilities, the report discussed the ...

  1. Practices of Early Childhood Development Practitioners for Poor and Vulnerable Children from Birth to Four Years in South Africa (United States)

    Ebrahim, Hasina Banu; Killian, Bev; Rule, Peter


    This article explores the practices undertaken by early childhood development practitioners (ECDPs) to support poor and vulnerable children from birth to four years outside centre-based provision. The article draws on part of a UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Fund) commissioned evaluation on family and community-based ECD (Early…

  2. Coastal vulnerability: climate change and natural hazards perspectives (United States)

    Romieu, E.; Vinchon, C.


    erosion (i.e. its characteristics that create potential harm), and integrate them in a risk assessment. Global change is considered by modifications of hazard, anthropogenic pressure and exposition, in order to point out possible modification of vulnerabilities. 3) Learning from both perspectives Coastal vulnerability in its "end in itself" and climate change dimension is a widespread tool for decision makers but it can be inadequate when vulnerability is a component of risk. This is mainly due to the consideration of climate change as a "hazard", so that coastal vulnerability is seen as the possible adverse impacts of climate change. As a matter of fact, this concept is clearly well considered by managers, who feel deeply concerned by climate change. However, coastal risk managers would gain in considering climate change more like a driver able to modify existing hazards than like the pressure in itself. Using this concept could lead to new perspectives of coastal risk mitigation for decision makers (social vulnerability, risk perception…), learning from other disciplines and sciences thanks to research projects such as MOVE (FP7). Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the BRGM coastal team for rich discussions and fruitful collaborations in coastal vulnerability studies, more specially Déborah Idier for animating the Vulsaco project and Manuel Garcin for his work on tsunamis in Sri Lanka. They are also grateful to the MISEEVA and MOVE teams, which are doing some great trans-disciplinary work. References Birkmann, J., 2006. Measuring vulnerability to Natural Hazards : towards disaster resilient societies. United Nations University Press. Boruff, B. J., Emrich, C., Cutter, S. L., 2005. Erosion hazard vulnerability of US coastal counties. Journal of Coastal Research. 21, 932-942. Douglas, J., 2007. Physical vulnerability modelling in natural hazard risk assessment. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences. 7, 283-288. IPCC, 2001. Climate change 2001

  3. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    CONSENT IN THE ERITREAN CIVIL CODE. Consent is a requirement or prerequisite for many ... Notwithstanding the provisions of ArtfZl] Civil Code where an investigating police officer considers it necessary, having .... Liability Article 2028 — General Principle. Whosoever causes damage to another by an offence.

  4. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj


    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 1, 2012 ... a high level of community participation in the provision of such infrastructure as schools, electricity, ... Department of Geography & Environmental Management, ... “secondary towns”. The range of cites or towns that constitute the level of urban hierarchy vary among countries, depending on the pattern of.

  6. Vulnerability Is Dynamic! Conceptualising a Dynamic Approach to Coastal Tourism Destinations’ Vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Student, J.R.; Amelung, B.; Lamers, M.A.J.


    Coastal regions and islands are among the most popular tourist destinations.
    They are also highly vulnerable to climate change. Much of the literature on
    vulnerability, including IPCC reports, states that vulnerability is dynamic. However,
    vulnerability conceptualisations in the tourism

  7. Security infrastructure for on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Wlodarczyk, T.W.; Rong, C.; Ziegler, W.


    Providing consistent security services in on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services is of primary importance due to multi-tenant and potentially multi-provider nature of Clouds Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) environment. Cloud security infrastructure should address two aspects of the

  8. Constraints to adequate provision of physical resources for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constraining factors against adequate provision of physical facilities included inadequate supply of needed facilities, inadequate running expenses, stealing and vandalization, lack of maintenance schedules/budget, lack of storage facilities and frequent breakdown of facilities due to overuse. Urgent rehabilitation of school ...

  9. Evaluation of mangrove ecosystem of India for assessing its vulnerability to projected climatic changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Komarpant, D.S.

    -lying regions. Mangrove ecosystems would be more vulnerable to the climatic changes, as directly influenced by tides. Mangroves are believed to keep pace with rising sea level by continuous sedimentation enriching the ambient environment with organic matter. Due...

  10. Vulnerability of fuel distribution systems to hazards in coastal communities : final research report. (United States)


    Coastal communities are vulnerable to disruptions in their fuel distribution networks due to : tropical storms, hurricanes and associated flooding. These disruptions impact communities by : limiting fueling in the days following the storm potentially...

  11. An Inclusive Design Methodology for Redesigning the Food Service for Vulnerable Older Adult Hospital Patients


    MacDonald, A.S.; Teal, Gemma; Moynihan, Paula J


    A multidisciplinary team, funded by the UK cross-council New Dynamics of Ageing programme, is developing and prototyping a new food service for older patients (stroke, dementia and hip fracture) vulnerable to in-hospital nutritional problems. Designers, food scientists, dietitians, medical sociologists, ergonomists, and technologists are working together with key stakeholders and a ‘food family’ to understand the needs of the food provision from patients’ perspectives, to ‘map’ the food servi...

  12. Equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements: guidelines and tools for integrated provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A


    Full Text Available looks at equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements and offers guidelines and tools for integrated provision that incorporates the 1) development of fully provisioned quality living environments, 2) improvement of access...

  13. The (Un)Reliability of NVD Vulnerable Versions Data: an Empirical Experiment on Google Chrome Vulnerabilities


    Nguyen, Viet Hung; Massacci, Fabio


    NVD is one of the most popular databases used by researchers to conduct empirical research on data sets of vulnerabilities. Our recent analysis on Chrome vulnerability data reported by NVD has revealed an abnormally phenomenon in the data where almost vulnerabilities were originated from the first versions. This inspires our experiment to validate the reliability of the NVD vulnerable version data. In this experiment, we verify for each version of Chrome that NVD claims vulnerable is actually...

  14. A Preliminary Tsunami Vulnerability Analysis for Yenikapi Region in Istanbul (United States)

    Ceren Cankaya, Zeynep; Suzen, Lutfi; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet; Kolat, Cagil; Aytore, Betul; Zaytsev, Andrey


    One of the main requirements during post disaster recovery operations is to maintain proper transportation and fluent communication at the disaster areas. Ports and harbors are the main transportation hubs which must work with proper performance at all times especially after the disasters. Resilience of coastal utilities after earthquakes and tsunamis have major importance for efficient and proper rescue and recovery operations soon after the disasters. Istanbul is a mega city with its various coastal utilities located at the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. At Yenikapi region of Istanbul, there are critical coastal utilities and vulnerable coastal structures and critical activities occur daily. Fishery ports, commercial ports, small craft harbors, passenger terminals of intercity maritime transportation, water front commercial and/or recreational structures are some of the examples of coastal utilization which are vulnerable against marine disasters. Therefore their vulnerability under tsunami or any other marine hazard to Yenikapi region of Istanbul is an important issue. In this study, a methodology of vulnerability analysis under tsunami attack is proposed with the applications to Yenikapi region. In the study, high resolution (1m) GIS database of Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality (IMM) is used and analyzed by using GIS implementation. The bathymetry and topography database and the vector dataset containing all buildings/structures/infrastructures in the study area are obtained for tsunami numerical modeling for the study area. GIS based tsunami vulnerability assessment is conducted by applying the Multi-criteria Decision Making Analysis (MCDA). The tsunami parameters from deterministically defined worst case scenarios are computed from the simulations using tsunami numerical model NAMI DANCE. The vulnerability parameters in the region due to two different classifications i) vulnerability of buildings/structures and ii) vulnerability of (human) evacuation

  15. An assessment of flood vulnerability in Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Qasim


    Full Text Available In this research we have attempted to measure vulnerability of the communities living in the flood prone area of Khyber Pukhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Extensive literature review was conducted to identify the flood vulnerability indicators. Primary data were used to achieve the objective of this study. Questionnaires were used to collect the primary data from the selected households and from the director of Centre for Disaster Preparedness and Management. Subjective assessment technique was used to allocate weights to the selected indicators of vulnerability. A sample size of 280 respondents was taken from three selected locations of Charsadda, Nowshera and Peshawar. Simple random sampling was employed for the selection of respondents. Results revealed that overall vulnerability as well as component vulnerability for the selected locations was very high. The study therefore recommends preparedness, provision of funds for building houses with flood resistant materials and building houses in safer places. There is also a need for enhancing the adaptive capacities of the concerned communities through their socio-economic uplift. Implementation of these policies would lower the vulnerability of the communities to flood disasters.

  16. Security simulation for vulnerability assessment (United States)

    Hennessey, Brian; Norman, Bradley; Wesson, Robert B.


    This paper discusses simulation technologies developed to "stimulate" an operational command and control security system. The paper discusses simulation techniques used to create a virtual model of a facility in which to conduct vulnerability assessment exercises, performance benchmarking, CONOPS development and operator training. The paper discusses the specific techniques used for creating a 3d virtual environment and simulating streaming IP surveillance cameras and motion detection sensors. In addition the paper discusses advanced scenario creation techniques and the modeling of scenario entities, including vehicles, aircraft and personnel. The paper draws parallels with lessons learned in using Air Traffic Control simulators for operator training, incident recreation, procedure development and pre acquisition planning and testing.

  17. National legal system in relation to vulnerable population groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjeničić Marta


    Full Text Available Vulnerable social groups can be recognized in everyday life, and local legal regulations identify them as well. Strategies and laws clearly identify the increased needs of vulnerable groups. Local legislation, for example, observes comparative law trends and attempts to prevent discrimination of persons with disabilities, emphasizes their human rights and creates the legal framework for taking these persons out of the institutional form of protection and including them into the community. In Serbia however, strategies and laws, as well as by-laws, are written in sectors, and not in cross-sectors manner. Proper caring for persons with disabilities, including persons with mental disabilities, requires an integral approach, namely a mutual approach of the social, health, educational and other sectors. True enough, local regulations stress the need for an intersectional approach, but such an approach is scantily applied in practice, so the comprehensive care that would satisfy the multiple needs of persons with mental disabilities often turns out to be less than expected in the community. Pursuant to national laws and basic ethic principals, all citizens of the Republic of Serbia have the right to health protection without discrimination. Therefore, methods for using health protection, easier than the existing ones, should be found for certain vulnerable groups, depending on their characteristics, and so for the Roma as well, and bearing in mind that systemic health regulations in Serbia open the door to special treatment of these groups. The inaccessible approach to health care of the Roma population persists primarily due to insufficient basic health documentation and basic personal documentation. Personal documents are linked with the registered place of residence, which the Roma, largely do not have. The problem is thus on a wider scale and is not only focused on the health sector. As such, it requires a wider, intersectional approach and a

  18. Stochastic landslide vulnerability modeling in space and time in a part of the northern Himalayas, India. (United States)

    Das, Iswar; Kumar, Gaurav; Stein, Alfred; Bagchi, Arunabha; Dadhwal, Vinay K


    Little is known about the quantitative vulnerability analysis to landslides as not many attempts have been made to assess it comprehensively. This study assesses the spatio-temporal vulnerability of elements at risk to landslides in a stochastic framework. The study includes buildings, persons inside buildings, and traffic as elements at risk to landslides. Building vulnerability is the expected damage and depends on the position of a building with respect to the landslide hazard at a given time. Population and vehicle vulnerability are the expected death toll in a building and vehicle damage in space and time respectively. The study was carried out in a road corridor in the Indian Himalayas that is highly susceptible to landslides. Results showed that 26% of the buildings fall in the high and very high vulnerability categories. Population vulnerability inside buildings showed a value >0.75 during 0800 to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours in more buildings that other times of the day. It was also observed in the study region that the vulnerability of vehicle is above 0.6 in half of the road stretches during 0800 hours to 1000 hours and 1600 to 1800 hours due to high traffic density on the road section. From this study, we conclude that the vulnerability of an element at risk to landslide is a space and time event, and can be quantified using stochastic modeling. Therefore, the stochastic vulnerability modeling forms the basis for a quantitative landslide risk analysis and assessment.

  19. Declining vulnerability to river floods and the global benefits of adaptation. (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel C; Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van Aalst, Maarten K; Kron, Wolfgang; Ward, Philip J


    The global impacts of river floods are substantial and rising. Effective adaptation to the increasing risks requires an in-depth understanding of the physical and socioeconomic drivers of risk. Whereas the modeling of flood hazard and exposure has improved greatly, compelling evidence on spatiotemporal patterns in vulnerability of societies around the world is still lacking. Due to this knowledge gap, the effects of vulnerability on global flood risk are not fully understood, and future projections of fatalities and losses available today are based on simplistic assumptions or do not include vulnerability. We show for the first time (to our knowledge) that trends and fluctuations in vulnerability to river floods around the world can be estimated by dynamic high-resolution modeling of flood hazard and exposure. We find that rising per-capita income coincided with a global decline in vulnerability between 1980 and 2010, which is reflected in decreasing mortality and losses as a share of the people and gross domestic product exposed to inundation. The results also demonstrate that vulnerability levels in low- and high-income countries have been converging, due to a relatively strong trend of vulnerability reduction in developing countries. Finally, we present projections of flood losses and fatalities under 100 individual scenario and model combinations, and three possible global vulnerability scenarios. The projections emphasize that materialized flood risk largely results from human behavior and that future risk increases can be largely contained using effective disaster risk reduction strategies.

  20. Urban Vulnerability in Bantul District, Indonesia—Towards Safer and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rijanta


    Full Text Available Assuring safer and sustainable development in seismic prone areas requires predictive measurements, i.e., hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment. This research aims to assess urban vulnerability due to seismic hazard through a risk based spatial plan. The idea is to indicate current and future potential losses due to specified hazards with given spatial and temporal units. Herein, urban vulnerability refers to the classic separation between social and physical vulnerability assessments. The research area covers six sub-districts in Bantul, Indonesia. It experienced 6.2 Mw earthquakes on May, 27th, 2006 and suffered a death toll of 5700, economic losses of up to 3.1 billion US$ and damage to nearly 80% of a 508 km2 area. The research area experienced the following regional issues: (1 seismic hazard; (2 rapid land conversion and (3 domination of low-income group. This research employs spatial multi criteria evaluations (SMCE for social vulnerability (SMCE-SV and for physical vulnerability (SMCE-PV. The research reveals that (1 SMCE-SV and SMCE-PV are empirically possible to indicate the urban vulnerability indices; and (2 integrating the urban vulnerability assessment into a spatial plan requires strategic, technical, substantial and procedural integration. In summary, without adequate knowledge and political support, any manifestation towards safer and sustainable development will remain meager and haphazard.

  1. Vulnerability of network of networks (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.


    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  2. Interprofessionalism, personalization and care provision. (United States)

    Laurenson, Mary; Brocklehurst, Hilary


    This UK-based empirical research investigates interprofessionalism and personalization to assess their potential to achieve quality care provision for people with long-term conditions. Governmental policies extol the virtues of interprofessionalism and personalization to drive modernization forward, however, change requires the commitment of health and social care professionals. Therefore the complexity of turning policy into practice requires continual review to ensure policy ideals become practice realities rather than speculative rhetoric. This paper examines interprofessional working (IPW) and interprofessional education (IPE) by analysing the experiences and working relationships of professionals from different professions and their potential impact upon personalization initiatives. The conclusion argues that educational providers and professional awarding bodies need to enshrine interprofessionalism into curricula and qualification accreditation thereby instilling collaboration intrinsically into care provision.

  3. Vulnerability assessment to Drought in Various Provinces, approach towards risk management in the country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nasrnia


    Full Text Available Introduction: The water crisis is one of the main challenges of the current century. Drought is one of the most costly natural disasters in Iran. During the past 40 years, our country has experienced 27 droughts. It seems a necessary step to deal with the consequences of drought and reducing its effects, thorough understanding and knowledge of each region's vulnerability, which is neglected in our country, unfortunately. It is necessary to study the influencing factors in determining vulnerability and makes it visible. On the other hand, due to the continuing drought conditions intensified in recent years and its impact on different economic sectors, especially the agricultural sector in the country need to assess vulnerability to drought in the country will double. Materials and Methods: Fuzzy AHP method based on the concept of fuzzy sets introduced by LotfeiZadeh. There are several ways to use fuzzy theory and hierarchical structure proposed merger. Cheng in 1996 suggested a new approach to solve problems using Fuzzy AHP calibration values within the membership and (TFNs. Extent Analysis Method proposed by Chang is one of the common ways to solve problems. In this study, we developed a method based on fuzzy analytic hierarchy Chang that has been developed by Zhu et al. and Van Alhag. Results and Discussion: Vulnerability to drought conditions is determined by factors such as economic, social and physical sensitivity to the damaging effects of drought increases. This study is designed in the hierarchy. The purpose of this study is assessing the vulnerability of the country to drought. Vulnerability of this study includes economic vulnerability, social vulnerability and physical vulnerability. Economic vulnerability to drought indicates that the economy is vulnerable to external shocks due to drought and the inability of the economy to withstand the effects of the event and recover the situation. Social vulnerability determines the capacity to

  4. Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city (United States)

    Serre, D.; Barroca, B.


    Urban flood risk mitigation: from vulnerability assessment to resilient city Bruno Barroca1, Damien Serre2 1Laboratory of Urban Engineering, Environment and Building (L G U E H) - Université de Marne-la-Vallée - Pôle Ville, 5, Bd Descartes - Bâtiment Lavoisier - 77454 Marne la Vallée Cedex 2 - France 2City of Paris Engineering School, Construction - Environment Department, 15 rue Fénelon, 75010 Paris, France In France, as in Europe and more generally throughout the world, river floods have been increasing in frequency and severity over the last ten years, and there are more instances of rivers bursting their banks, aggravating the impact of the flooding of areas supposedly protected by flood defenses. Despite efforts made to well maintain the flood defense assets, we often observe flood defense failures leading to finally increase flood risk in protected area during major flood events. Furthermore, flood forecasting models, although they benefit continuous improvements, remain partly inaccurate due to uncertainties populated all along data calculation processes. These circumstances obliged stakeholders and the scientific communities to manage flood risk by integrating new concepts like stakes management, vulnerability assessments and more recently urban resilience development. Definitively, the goal is to reduce flood risk by managing of course flood defenses and improving flood forecasting models, but also stakes and vulnerability of flooded areas to achieve urban resilience face to flood events. Vulnerability to flood is essentially concentrated in urban areas. Assessing vulnerability of a city is very difficult. Indeed, urban area is a complex system composed by a sum of technical sub-systems as complex as the urban area itself. Assessing city vulnerability consists in talking into account each sub system vulnerability and integrating all direct and indirect impacts generally depending from city shape and city spatial organization. At this time, although

  5. Assessing human vulnerability: Daytime residential distribution as a vulnerability indicator (United States)

    Gokesch, Karin; Promper, Catrin; Papathoma-Köhle, Maria; Glade, Thomas


    Natural hazard risk management is based on detailed information on potential impacts of natural hazards. Especially concerning fast onset hazards such as flash floods, earthquakes but also debris flows and landslides, knowing potential hotspots of impact to both, assets and human lives is essential. This information is important for emergency management and decision making in the response phase of the disaster management cycle. Emergency managers are in need of information regarding not only the number of humans being potentially affected but also the respective vulnerability of the group affected based on characteristics such as age, income, health condition, mobility, etc. regarding a certain hazard. The analysis presented focuses on the distribution of the population, assuming a certain pattern of people in a certain radius of action. The method applied is based on a regular pattern of movement of different groups of people and a pattern of presence in certain units, e.g. schools, businesses or residential buildings. The distribution is calculated on a minimum of available data including the average household size, as well as information on building types. The study area is located in the Southwest of Lower Austria, Austria. The city of Waidhofen/Ybbs can be regarded as a regional center providing basic infrastructure, shops and schools. The high concentration of buildings combining shops and residential units leads to a high damage potential throughout the whole study area. The presented results indicate the population distribution within the study area on an average working day. It is clear that explicitly high numbers of people are located in specific buildings (e.g. schools and hospitals) which also include highly vulnerable groups especially to fast onset hazards. The results provide emergency services with the information that they need in order to intervene directly where large numbers of victims or people that need to be evacuated are located. In this

  6. Nicotine addiction: studies about vulnerability, epigenesis and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu, Ramon


    Full Text Available This article is a summary about the current research of nicotine effects on the nervous system and its relationship to the generation of an addictive behavior. Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine activates the reward pathway, which in turn is involved in certain psychiatric diseases. There are individuals who have a high vulnerability to nicotine addiction. This may be due to genetic and epigenetic factors and/or the environment. In this review, we described some epigenetic factors that may be involved in those phenomena. The two animal models most widely used for studying the reinforcing effects of nicotine are: self-administration and conditioning place preference (CPP. Here, we emphasized the CPP, due to its potential application in humans. In addition, we described the locomotor activity model (as a measure of psychostimulant effects to study vulnerability to drugs of abuse

  7. Vulnerability and resilience: a critical nexus. (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna


    Not all forms of human fragility or vulnerability are unavoidable. Sometimes we knowingly and intentionally impose conditions of vulnerability on others; and sometimes we knowingly and intentionally enter into and assume conditions of vulnerability for ourselves (for example, when we decide to trust or forgive, enter into intimate relationships with others, become a parent, become a subject of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, and the like). In this article, I propose a presently overlooked basis on which one might evaluate whether the imposition or assumption of vulnerability is acceptable, and on which one might ground a significant class of vulnerability-related obligations. Distinct from existing accounts of the importance of promoting autonomy in conditions of vulnerability, this article offers a preliminary exploration of the nature, role, and importance of resilience promotion, its relationship to autonomy promotion, and its prospects for improving human wellbeing in autonomy inhibiting conditions.

  8. Assessing the Security Vulnerabilities of Correctional Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, G.S.; Spencer, D.S.


    The National Institute of Justice has tasked their Satellite Facility at Sandia National Laboratories and their Southeast Regional Technology Center in Charleston, South Carolina to devise new procedures and tools for helping correctional facilities to assess their security vulnerabilities. Thus, a team is visiting selected correctional facilities and performing vulnerability assessments. A vulnerability assessment helps to identi~ the easiest paths for inmate escape, for introduction of contraband such as drugs or weapons, for unexpected intrusion fi-om outside of the facility, and for the perpetration of violent acts on other inmates and correctional employees, In addition, the vulnerability assessment helps to quantify the security risks for the facility. From these initial assessments will come better procedures for performing vulnerability assessments in general at other correctional facilities, as well as the development of tools to assist with the performance of such vulnerability assessments.

  9. Anticipating WPS PIN Vulnerability to Secure Wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Dwi Rianto


    Full Text Available WiFi Protected Setup (WPS is a standardized function supported by numerous vendors of wireless routers and access point to help set up connection to a wireless local area network. It is designed to simplify the set up and generally enabled by default. Due to design flaw, the WPS or QSS PIN is susceptible to a brute forceattack. In this paper, we test the security vulnerability occurred, evaluate the performance and give recommendations to anticipate the attack.

  10. A Framework for Assessing Fiscal Vulnerability


    Murray Petrie; Richard Hemming


    Fiscal vulnerability describes a situation where a government is exposed to the possibility of failure to meet its aggregate fiscal policy objectives. The suggested framework for assessing vulnerability highlights four macro-fiscal aspects of vulnerability: incorrect specification of the initial fiscal position; sensitivity of short-term fiscal outcomes to risk; threats to longer-term fiscal sustainability; and structural or institutional weaknesses affecting the design and implementation of ...

  11. Large-Scale Road Network Vulnerability Analysis


    Jenelius, Erik


    Disruptions in the transport system can have severe impacts for affected individuals, businesses and the society as a whole. In this research, vulnerability is seen as the risk of unplanned system disruptions, with a focus on large, rare events. Vulnerability analysis aims to provide decision support regarding preventive and restorative actions, ideally as an integrated part of the planning process.The thesis specifically develops the methodology for vulnerability analysis of road networks an...

  12. Promoting Sustainable Food Provision; the Role of Networks in Global Food Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.


    Food provision in contemporary societies is transforming due to challenges of globalization, sustainability and equity. The interactions between civil society organizations, governments, the food industry, consumers and producers constitute dynamic fields of environmental change in global food

  13. Ransomware - Threats Vulnerabilities And Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Shah


    Full Text Available Attack methodologies transform with the transforming dynamics of technology. Consequently it becomes imperative that individuals and organization implement the highest levels of security within their devices and infrastructure for optimal protection against these rapidly evolving attacks. Ransomware is one such attack that never fails to surprise in terms of its ability to identify vulnerabilities and loopholes in technology. This paper discusses the categories of ransomware its common attack vectors and provides a threat landscape with the aim to highlight the true potential and destructive nature of such malware based attacks. In this paper we also present the most current ransomware attack that is still a potential threat and also provide recommendations and strategies for prevention and protection against these attacks. A novel solution is also discussed that could be further worked upon in the future by other researchers and vendors of security devices.

  14. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others


    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  15. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin, Nicaragua (United States)

    Mendoza, J. A.; Barmen, G.


    The Río Artiguas basin in central Nicaragua shows a distinctive case of environmental deterioration due to anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals used in gold mining and other wastes are continuously released into the rivers, representing a threat to the water quality. This article aims to evaluate the groundwater intrinsic vulnerability in the Río Artiguas basin and to provide information for sustainable use of water resources. The DRASTIC and GOD methods were used to analyse the relative pollution potential within the basin. DRASTIC was modified to include the degree of influence that geological structures have on the vulnerability. Moderate vulnerability areas cover most of the basin along stream valleys and lowlands, increasing downstream in the basin. The resulting vulnerability maps show that the limited groundwater resources are susceptible to surface water pollution as high vulnerability areas converge along the river valleys.

  16. Vulnerability in patients and nurses and the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship. (United States)

    Angel, Sanne; Vatne, Solfrid


    To examine the mutual vulnerability of patients and nurses, anticipating that an enhanced understanding of the phenomenon may help reduce vulnerability. Patient vulnerability is a key issue in nursing, aimed at protecting the patient from harm. In the literature, vulnerability is described both from a risk perspective and a subjective perspective. This implies that the objective dimension of patient vulnerability does not necessarily reflect the patient's own perception of being vulnerable. However, external judgment may influence internal perception. Adding to this complexity, attention has also been drawn to the vulnerability of the nurse. A definition deduced from central literature on vulnerability captures the complexity of objective versus subjective vulnerability. Based on the perspective of vulnerability in general, vulnerability in healthcare services shows how dependency may increase patient vulnerability. Further, despite education, training and supportive settings, patients may increase nurse vulnerability. The core of this mutuality is explored in the light of Martin Heidegger's philosophy of being. The patient's need for help from the nurse opens the patient to engage in supportive and/or harmful encounters. Thus, dependency adds to the vulnerability related to health issues. The nurse's vulnerability lies in her engagement in caring for the patient. If failing to provide proper care, the nurse's existence as 'a good nurse' is threatened. This is exacerbated if the patient turns against the nurse. Therefore, the core of vulnerability seems to lie in the fact that the patient and the nurse are both striving to be the persons they want to be, and the persons they have not yet become. Recognition of the mutual vulnerability in the patient-nurse relationship calls for collective acknowledgement of the demanding nature of caring relationships, for support and for a strengthening of professional skills. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Immigrants and health care: sources of vulnerability. (United States)

    Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Escarce, José J; Lurie, Nicole


    Immigrants have been identified as a vulnerable population, but there is heterogeneity in the degree to which they are vulnerable to inadequate health care. Here we examine the factors that affect immigrants' vulnerability, including socioeconomic background; immigration status; limited English proficiency; federal, state, and local policies on access to publicly funded health care; residential location; and stigma and marginalization. We find that, overall, immigrants have lower rates of health insurance, use less health care, and receive lower quality of care than U.S.-born populations; however, there are differences among subgroups. We conclude with policy options for addressing immigrants' vulnerabilities.

  18. ICMPv6 RA Flooding Vulnerability Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Jočys


    Full Text Available ICMPv6 is the newest version of internet control message protocol, whose main purpose is to send error message indicating packet processing failure. It is know that ICMPv6 is technologically vulnerable. One of those vulnerabilities is the ICMPv6 RA flooding vulnerability, which can lead to systems in Local Area Network slow down or full stop. This paper will discuss Windows (XP, 7, 8.1 and Linux Ubuntu 14 operating systems resistance to RA flooding attack research and countermeasures to minimize this vulnerability.

  19. Mining Bug Databases for Unidentified Software Vulnerabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Jason Wright; Miles McQueen


    Identifying software vulnerabilities is becoming more important as critical and sensitive systems increasingly rely on complex software systems. It has been suggested in previous work that some bugs are only identified as vulnerabilities long after the bug has been made public. These vulnerabilities are known as hidden impact vulnerabilities. This paper discusses the feasibility and necessity to mine common publicly available bug databases for vulnerabilities that are yet to be identified. We present bug database analysis of two well known and frequently used software packages, namely Linux kernel and MySQL. It is shown that for both Linux and MySQL, a significant portion of vulnerabilities that were discovered for the time period from January 2006 to April 2011 were hidden impact vulnerabilities. It is also shown that the percentage of hidden impact vulnerabilities has increased in the last two years, for both software packages. We then propose an improved hidden impact vulnerability identification methodology based on text mining bug databases, and conclude by discussing a few potential problems faced by such a classifier.

  20. Assessing vulnerability of urban African communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov


    East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...

  1. Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment of Casablanca - Morocco, Pilot Study (United States)

    Omira, R.; Baptista, M. V.; Miranda, M.; Catita, C.; Toto, E.


    In this study we present a preliminary evaluation of the tsunami vulnerability of Casablanca area (Morocco) and the expected inundation from a tsunami generated in the North East Atlantic area in the Gulf of Cadiz using a combination of numerical modeling and GIS tools. The study area is the intensively occupied area of the Casablanca Harbor, a location that may be considered as one of the most vulnerable areas to tsunami hazard, along Morocco Atlantic coast, due to its location close to the source of moderate and strong magnitude earthquakes, the extension of low flat areas close to the sea and the existence of dwellings characterized by unstructured constructions. To study vulnerability and inundation we considered geomorphologic and artificial elements as well as the existence of defensive constructions. The inundation zone was divided in for sub-zones according to their height above sea level; the buildings were classed according to: building material, number of floors, conditions of foundation soil. The study area presents a large variety of constructions:1 storey buildings of 2- 2.5 m height, houses and stores of the ancient medina and some modern buildings. The results are presented, using GIS and show a preliminary "picture" of built stock behaviour in case of tsunami for Casablanca. The results clearly demonstrate that the vulnerability to tsunami impact is not uniform within the inundation zone. This work was developed in the framework of NEAREST and TRANSFER projects, EU.

  2. The vulnerability index calculation for determination of groundwater quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, D.A.; Parizek, R.R. [Penn State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)


    Non-point source pollutants, such as pesticides, enter groundwater systems in a variety of means at wide-ranging concentrations. Risks in using groundwater in human consumption vary depending on the amounts of contaminants, the type of groundwater aquifer, and various use factors. We have devised a method of determining the vulnerability of an aquifer towards contamination with the Vulnerability Index. The Index can be used either as a comparative or an absolute index (comparative with a pure water source or aquifer spring or without comparison, assuming no peaks in the compared sample). Data for the calculation is obtained by extraction of a given water sample followed by analysis with a nitrogen/phosphorus detector on gas chromatography. The calculation uses the sum of peak heights as its determination. An additional peak number factor is added to emphasize higher numbers of compounds found in a given sample. Karst aquifers are considered to be highly vulnerable due to the large solution openings in its structure. Examples will be given of Vulnerability Indices taken from springs emanating from karst, intermediate, and diffuse flow aquifers taken at various times of the 1992 sampling year and compared with rainfall during that time. Comparisons will be made of the Index vs. rainfall events and vs. pesticide application data. The risk of using contaminated drinking water sources can be evaluated with the use of this index.

  3. Hidden Connectivity in Networks with Vulnerable Classes of Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M. Krause


    Full Text Available In many complex systems representable as networks, nodes can be separated into different classes. Often these classes can be linked to a mutually shared vulnerability. Shared vulnerabilities may be due to a shared eavesdropper or correlated failures. In this paper, we show the impact of shared vulnerabilities on robust connectivity and how the heterogeneity of node classes can be exploited to maintain functionality by utilizing multiple paths. Percolation is the field of statistical physics that is generally used to analyze connectivity in complex networks, but in its existing forms, it cannot treat the heterogeneity of multiple vulnerable classes. To analyze the connectivity under these constraints, we describe each class as a color and develop a “color-avoiding” percolation. We present an analytic theory for random networks and a numerical algorithm for all networks, with which we can determine which nodes are color-avoiding connected and whether the maximal set percolates in the system. We find that the interaction of topology and color distribution implies a rich critical behavior, with critical values and critical exponents depending both on the topology and on the color distribution. Applying our physics-based theory to the Internet, we show how color-avoiding percolation can be used as the basis for new topologically aware secure communication protocols. Beyond applications to cybersecurity, our framework reveals a new layer of hidden structure in a wide range of natural and technological systems.

  4. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa. (United States)

    Dzingirai, Vupenyu; Bukachi, Salome; Leach, Melissa; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian; Wilkinson, Annie


    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a 'One Health' approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies-trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya-we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of 'structural violence' that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an 'anti-political' focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration.This article is part of the themed issue 'One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being'. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Structural drivers of vulnerability to zoonotic disease in Africa (United States)

    Bukachi, Salome; Mangwanya, Lindiwe; Scoones, Ian


    This paper argues that addressing the underlying structural drivers of disease vulnerability is essential for a ‘One Health’ approach to tackling zoonotic diseases in Africa. Through three case studies—trypanosomiasis in Zimbabwe, Ebola and Lassa fever in Sierra Leone and Rift Valley fever in Kenya—we show how political interests, commercial investments and conflict and securitization all generate patterns of vulnerability, reshaping the political ecology of disease landscapes, influencing traditional coping mechanisms and affecting health service provision and outbreak responses. A historical, political economy approach reveals patterns of ‘structural violence’ that reinforce inequalities and marginalization of certain groups, increasing disease risks. Addressing the politics of One Health requires analysing trade-offs and conflicts between interests and visions of the future. For all zoonotic diseases economic and political dimensions are ultimately critical and One Health approaches must engage with these factors, and not just end with an ‘anti-political’ focus on institutional and disciplinary collaboration. This article is part of the themed issue ‘One Health for a changing world: zoonoses, ecosystems and human well-being’. PMID:28584177

  6. The Human Rights and the Social Protection of Vulnerable Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina Mititelu


    Full Text Available In the texts with binding juridical force, drafted and published by the Council of theEuropean Union, we find no provisions regarding the juridical protection of the vulnerable persons (disabled persons, old people and mentally retarded, only planned measures regarding their social protection, that the E.U. States granted in the Social Charter (of 1961 and in the revised one of 1996, and, finally, in the additional Protocol from the year 1988. Given that to know these measures – that also remain compulsory for the signatory States or for the ones that ratified this Charter – is not possible without getting acquainted, at least in brief, with the human Rights provided by the E.U. legislation, within the pages of this study we referred explicitly to the text of the latter in order to evince the imperious necessity to draft a special legislation also regarding the juridical protection of vulnerable persons, not only a protection of a preeminently social nature.

  7. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj


    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  8. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matooane, M


    Full Text Available stream_source_info Matooane_2010.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 7198 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Matooane_2010.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Mamopeli Matooane, MSc. Juanette... John, MSc. Riëtha Oosthuizen, MSc. Vulnerability to air pollution: a building block in assessing vulnerability to multiple stressors 30 August 2010 Overview • VulnerabilityVulnerability assessment - Scope - Approach - Assessing...

  9. Mapping fires and American Red Cross aid using demographic indicators of vulnerability. (United States)

    Lue, Evan; Wilson, John P


    Social vulnerability indicators can assist with informing disaster relief preparation. Certain demographic segments of a population may suffer disproportionately during disaster events, and a geographical understanding of them can help to determine where to place strategically logistical assets and to target disaster-awareness outreach endeavours. Records of house fire events and American Red Cross aid provision over a five-year period were mapped for the County of Los Angeles, California, United States, to examine the congruence between actual events and expectations of risk based on vulnerability theory. The geographical context provided by the data was compared with spatially-explicit indicators of vulnerability, such as age, race, and wealth. Fire events were found to occur more frequently in more vulnerable areas, and Red Cross aid was found to have an even stronger relationship to those places. The findings suggest that these indicators speak beyond vulnerability and relate to patterns of fire risk. © 2017 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2017.

  10. Towards Individualized Vulnerability in Migration Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flegar, Veronika


    The Dutch parliament recently pledged for separate reception centres for vulnerable asylum seekers. In a reaction, the Dutch State Secretary of Security and Justice Klaas Dijkhoff objected to this claim, arguing that placing “vulnerable groups” into separate reception centres is stigmatizing.

  11. The politics of vulnerability and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frerks, G.E.; Warner, J.F.; Weijs, B.


    Much conceptual confusion exists over the concepts of vulnerability and (social) resilience, reinforced by the different paradigms (the article identifies four) and disciplinary traditions underlying their use. While since the 1980s the social construction of "vulnerability" as a driver for disaster

  12. evaluation of models for assessing groundwater vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    prepared in France by Margat (1968). In Germany,. Vierhuff et al. (1981) made a vulnerability map of the former Federal Republic of Germany before reunification on the same scale. The current international practices in mapping groundwater vulnerability have been reviewed by Vrba and Zaprozec (1994), Magiera (2000),.

  13. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity under a Changing Climate. The countries of the Greater Horn of Africa are particularly vulnerable to drought, exacerbated by widespread poverty and dependence on rainfed agriculture. Even with normal rainfall, the region does not produce enough food to ...

  14. Methods to Secure Databases Against Vulnerabilities (United States)


    source database management system. Recent history shows security incidents involving database management system vulnerabilities resulting in the...Many commercial and government organizations utilize some form of proprietary or open source database management system. Recent history shows security...PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Database vulnerabilities. Presentation tiers in Python and Java

  15. Vulnerable Youth and Transitions to Adulthood (United States)

    Xie, Rongbing; Sen, Bisakha; Foster, E. Michael


    This chapter focuses on vulnerable youth, the challenges they face during their transitions to adulthood, and the adverse effects of limited support systems on those transitions. The authors offer recommendations on how adult educators can help facilitate smooth transitions into adulthood for vulnerable youth.

  16. IT Security Vulnerability and Incident Response Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hafkamp, W.H.M.; Paulus, S.; Pohlman, N.; Reimer, H.


    This paper summarises the results of a Dutch PhD research project on IT security vulnerability and incident response management, which is supervised by the University of Twente in the Netherlands and which is currently in its final stage. Vulnerabilities are ‘failures or weaknesses in computer

  17. Vulnerability, Borderline Personality Disorders. Clinical and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Borderline personality disorder and vulnerability are difficult to assess and are rather elusive to define. A case study material is presented from a cognitive analytical model. An attempt of the dominant features of cognitive analytical therapy and discussion of vulnerability in relation to personality disorder is provided.

  18. Vulnerability in a Stochastic Dynamic Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbers, Chris; Gunning, Jan Willem


    Most measures of vulnerability are a-theoretic and essentially static. In this paper we use a stochastic Ramsey model to find a household's optimal welfare and we measure vulnerability as the shortfall from the welfare attained if the household consumed permanently at the poverty line. The results

  19. Vulnerability assessments as a political creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, Maartje; Maat, Harro; Crane, Todd A.


    Vulnerability assessments are a cornerstone of contemporary disaster research. This paper shows how research procedures and the presentation of results of vulnerability assessments are politically filtered. Using data from a study of tsunami risk assessment in Portugal, the paper demonstrates

  20. Predicting Vulnerability Risks Using Software Characteristics (United States)

    Roumani, Yaman


    Software vulnerabilities have been regarded as one of the key reasons for computer security breaches that have resulted in billions of dollars in losses per year (Telang and Wattal 2005). With the growth of the software industry and the Internet, the number of vulnerability attacks and the ease with which an attack can be made have increased. From…

  1. Climate change vulnerability assessment in Georgia (United States)

    Binita KC; J. Marshall Shepherd; Cassandra Johnson Gaither


    Climate change is occurring in the Southeastern United States, and one manifestation is changes in frequency and intensity of extreme events. A vulnerability assessment is performed in the state of Georgia (United States) at the county level from 1975 to 2012 in decadal increments. Climate change vulnerability is typically measured as a function of exposure to physical...

  2. Gender, vulnerability, and violence in urban Pakistan

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers used an index of vulnerability to violence to survey approximately 2400 people. The survey results, along with interviews and other research tools reveal how access to services and household vulnerability are major drivers of violence and how ideas about. 'masculinity' and 'femininity' interact with these ...

  3. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the factors affecting vulnerability to climate change on the whole island of Madagascar;; to better understand existing and possible adaptation strategies;; to explore various intervention strategies under different scenarios; and; to reinforce national capacity in analysis of climate change vulnerability and adaptation.

  4. Chemical facility vulnerability assessment project. (United States)

    Jaeger, Calvin D


    Sandia National Laboratories, under the direction of the Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice, conducted the chemical facility vulnerability assessment (CFVA) project. The primary objective of this project was to develop, test and validate a vulnerability assessment methodology (VAM) for determining the security of chemical facilities against terrorist or criminal attacks (VAM-CF). The project also included a report to the Department of Justice for Congress that in addition to describing the VAM-CF also addressed general observations related to security practices, threats and risks at chemical facilities and chemical transport. In the development of the VAM-CF Sandia leveraged the experience gained from the use and development of VAs in other areas and the input from the chemical industry and Federal agencies. The VAM-CF is a systematic, risk-based approach where risk is a function of the severity of consequences of an undesired event, the attack potential, and the likelihood of adversary success in causing the undesired event. For the purpose of the VAM-CF analyses Risk is a function of S, L(A), and L(AS), where S is the severity of consequence of an event, L(A) is the attack potential and L(AS) likelihood of adversary success in causing a catastrophic event. The VAM-CF consists of 13 basic steps. It involves an initial screening step, which helps to identify and prioritize facilities for further analysis. This step is similar to the prioritization approach developed by the American Chemistry Council (ACC). Other steps help to determine the components of the risk equation and ultimately the risk. The VAM-CF process involves identifying the hazardous chemicals and processes at a chemical facility. It helps chemical facilities to focus their attention on the most critical areas. The VAM-CF is not a quantitative analysis but, rather, compares relative security risks. If the risks are deemed too high, recommendations are developed for

  5. Integrated assessment on the vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disasters under climate change in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Wei, Yanqiang; Wang, Shijin; Fang, Yiping; Nawaz, Zain


    Animal husbandry is a dominant and traditional source of livelihood and income in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is the third largest snow covered area in China and is one of the main snow disaster regions in the world. It is thus imperative to urgently address the issue of vulnerability of the animal husbandry sector to snow disasters for disaster mitigation and adaptation under growing risk of these disasters as a result of future climate change. However, there is very few literature reported on the vulnerability of animal husbandry in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This assessment aims at identifying vulnerability of animal husbandry at spatial scale and to identify the reasons for vulnerability for adaptive planning and disaster mitigation. First, historical snow disaster characteristics have been analyzed and used for the spatial weight for vulnerability assessment. Second, indicator-based vulnerability assessment model and indicator system have been established. We combined risk of snow hazard, sensitivity of livestock to disaster, physical exposure to disaster, and community capacity to adapt to snow disaster in an integrated vulnerability index. Lastly, vulnerability of animal husbandry to snow disaster on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has been evaluated. Results indicate that high vulnerabilities are mainly concentrated in the eastern and central plateau and that vulnerability decreases gradually from the east to the west. Due to global warming, the vulnerability trend has eased to some extent during the last few decades. High livestock density exposure to blizzard-prone regions and shortages of livestock barn and forage are the main reasons of high vulnerability. The conclusion emphasizes the important role of the local government and community to help local pastoralists for reducing vulnerability to snow disaster and frozen hazard. The approaches presented in this paper can be used for snow disaster mitigation, resilience

  6. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira


    Full Text Available The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating the vulnerability, the safety aspect defined by the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - ABNT norm NBR ISO/IEC 27002 which will be violated, which lines of code generate the vulnerability and what should be done to avoid it, and the threat agent used by each of them. This classification allows the identification of possible points of vulnerability, allowing the developer to correct the identified gaps.

  7. Reproductive Health and Reproductive Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić


    Full Text Available Reproductive health represents, almost to an equal extent, a socio-cultural and a medical fact. What influences it, both positively and negatively, stems from the ways in which we culturally cognize and act with regard to reproductive behavior. These thoughts and actions are conditioned by a culturally contextualized conceptualization of human physiology which is, in turn, based on the conceptualization of sexuality, and especially, the normativization of gender roles. Therefore, reproductive health is, above all, female health, when viewed as a socio-cultural category, meaning that reproductive vulnerability mostly refers to those factors that negatively influence female reproductive health. These factors are social – they negatively influence reproductive health through the institutional and legally normative aspects, they are economic – they decrease the number of those who, in a certain socio-cultural context, have timely access to quality medical care, and they are cultural – they reinforce modes of thinking and behavior which do not take into consideration the right of every human being to his or her own sexual and reproductive life, but rather insist on conforming individual sexuality and reproductive desires and capacities to the dominant cultural norm.

  8. Vulnerability of pension fund balances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ólafur Ísleifsson


    Full Text Available Although the Icelandic general labour market pension funds are built on the proviso that pension schemes are fully funded these funds are still grappling with the devastating financial effects of the 2008 economic collapse that rendered most of them in a significant actuarial deficit. The public sector pension funds are based on an employer guarantee that makes up for any lack of funding that historically has been quite significant. We identify the relatively high actuarial discount rate and increasing longevity as two factors that add to the vulnerability of the Icelandic pension system. We present a stochastic model in order to obtain reasonably sound estimates of the effect of revising such key parameters of the actuarial assessments of the pension funds and thus obtain a view of the viability of the Icelandic pension system when confronted with the potential necessity of such parameter shifts. We present results of stochastic simulations of this models made to assess effects of changes in these major financial and demographic assumptions in actuarial evaluations of pension fund balances. Our results suggest that the Icelandic pension funds may be significantly less well funded than is generally perceived.

  9. Oxytocin and vulnerable romantic relationships. (United States)

    Grebe, Nicholas M; Kristoffersen, Andreas Aarseth; Grøntvedt, Trond Viggo; Emery Thompson, Melissa; Kennair, Leif Edward Ottesen; Gangestad, Steven W


    Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated in the formation and maintenance of various social relationships, including human romantic relationships. Competing models predict, alternatively, positive or negative associations between naturally-occurring OT levels and romantic relationship quality. Empirical tests of these models have been equivocal. We propose a novel hypothesis ('Identify and Invest') that frames OT as an allocator of psychological investment toward valued, vulnerable relationships, and test this proposal in two studies. In one sample of 75 couples, and a second sample of 148 romantically involved individuals, we assess facets of relationships predicting changes in OT across a thought-writing task regarding one's partner. In both studies, participants' OT change across the task corresponded positively with multiple dimensions of high relationship involvement. However, increases in participants' OT also corresponded to their partners reporting lower relationship involvement. OT increases, then, reflected discrepancies between assessments of self and partner relationship involvement. These findings are robust in a combined analysis of both studies, and do not significantly differ between samples. Collectively, our findings support the 'Identify and Invest' hypothesis in romantic couples, and we argue for its relevance across other types of social bonds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to Evaluate the Vulnerabilities with ICT Assets Disposal Policies


    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei


    This paper evaluates the possible vulnerabilities of ICT assets disposal policies and the associated impact that can affect the SMEs. A poorly implemented policy or unenforced policy is “potentially the weakest link” in the cyber-security chain. Do SMEs have an idea of vulnerabilities or threats due to assets disposal?In the event of breaches, the SMEs pay for the cost of notifying the concerned stakeholders, compensate affected parties, invest in improved mitigation technologies and also may...

  11. Corporate environmental responsibility and accountability:what chance in vulnerable Bangladesh?


    Belal, Ataur; Cooper, Stuart M.; Khan, Niaz Ahmed


    Bangladesh has recently been enjoying significant economic growth mainly arising from an export led development strategy. However, in that process its natural environment has been degraded and become more vulnerable in geophysical terms (e.g. environmental pollution). Much of the Bangladeshi population are also vulnerable in socio-economic terms due primarily to widespread poverty. In this context we ask, albeit sceptically, whether there is any chance of holding corporations to account for t...

  12. Vulnerability and risk in children living with a physical disability. (United States)

    Heaslip, Vanessa; Hewitt-Taylor, Jaqui


    Children are identified as a vulnerable group in need of a degree of safeguarding. About 6% of children in the UK have a disability, which can increase their level of vulnerability. How disability is perceived by others may affect the way they work with these young people in coping with life's risks, which may be increased due to the disability. Each individual's perception of the risks and benefits of a given venture varies. Children's nurses work with these young people and their families, aiming to give them maximum autonomy, self-reliance, empowerment and independence in adulthood. This involves risk-taking, as every young person needs to learn from graduated exposure to new experiences, environments, associations and hazards; the chance of harm must be balanced with the disadvantages of over-protection.

  13. Provisioning Strategies for Transparent Optical Networks Considering Transmission Quality, Security, and Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jirattigalachote, Amornrat


    achieve a significant improvement of network performance in terms of connection blocking, compared to previously published non-differentiated RWA and ICBR algorithms. Another important challenge to be considered in TONs is their vulnerability to physical-layer attacks. Deliberate attacking signals, e.g., high-power jamming, can cause severe service disruption or even service denial, due to their ability to propagate in the network. Detecting and locating the source of such attacks is difficult, since monitoring must be done in the optical domain, and it is also very expensive. Several attack-aware RWA algorithms have been proposed in the literature to proactively reduce the disruption caused by high-power jamming attacks. However, even with attack-aware network planning mechanisms, the uncontrollable propagation of the attack still remains an issue. To address this problem, we propose the use of power equalizers inside the network nodes in order to limit the propagation of high-power jamming attacks. Because of the high cost of such equipment, we develop a series of heuristics (incl. Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure (GRASP)) aiming at minimizing the number of power equalizers needed to reduce the network attack vulnerability to a desired level by optimizing the location of the equalizers. Our simulation results show that the equalizer placement obtained by the proposed GRASP approach allows for 50 % reduction of the sites with the power equalizers while offering the same level of attack propagation limitation as it is possible to achieve with all nodes having this additional equipment installed. In turn, this potentially yields a significant cost saving. Energy consumption in TONs has been the target of several studies focusing on the energy-aware and survivable network design problem for both dedicated and shared path protection. However, survivability and energy efficiency in a dynamic provisioning scenario has not been addressed. To fill this gap, in this

  14. Stream vulnerability to widespread and emergent stressors: a focus on unconventional oil and gas (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally; Maloney, Kelly O.; Katherine E. Kapo,; Walters, Annika W.; Evans-White, Michelle A.; Klemow, Kenneth M.


    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  15. Stream Vulnerability to Widespread and Emergent Stressors: A Focus on Unconventional Oil and Gas (United States)

    Entrekin, Sally A.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Kapo, Katherine E.; Walters, Annika W.; Evans-White, Michelle A.; Klemow, Kenneth M.


    Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken) tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects. PMID:26397727

  16. Stream Vulnerability to Widespread and Emergent Stressors: A Focus on Unconventional Oil and Gas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A Entrekin

    Full Text Available Multiple stressors threaten stream physical and biological quality, including elevated nutrients and other contaminants, riparian and in-stream habitat degradation and altered natural flow regime. Unconventional oil and gas (UOG development is one emerging stressor that spans the U.S. UOG development could alter stream sedimentation, riparian extent and composition, in-stream flow, and water quality. We developed indices to describe the watershed sensitivity and exposure to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and computed a vulnerability index from these two scores across stream catchments in six productive shale plays. We predicted that catchment vulnerability scores would vary across plays due to climatic, geologic and anthropogenic differences. Across-shale averages supported this prediction revealing differences in catchment sensitivity, exposure, and vulnerability scores that resulted from different natural and anthropogenic environmental conditions. For example, semi-arid Western shale play catchments (Mowry, Hilliard, and Bakken tended to be more sensitive to stressors due to low annual average precipitation and extensive grassland. Catchments in the Barnett and Marcellus-Utica were naturally sensitive from more erosive soils and steeper catchment slopes, but these catchments also experienced areas with greater UOG densities and urbanization. Our analysis suggested Fayetteville and Barnett catchments were vulnerable due to existing anthropogenic exposure. However, all shale plays had catchments that spanned a wide vulnerability gradient. Our results identify vulnerable catchments that can help prioritize stream protection and monitoring efforts. Resource managers can also use these findings to guide local development activities to help reduce possible environmental effects.

  17. Middle-Skilled Workforce Needs in a Changing Oil and Gas Industry: the Role of Flexibility. As the Oil Industry continues to shed jobs due to the global downturn in oil prices, one of the most vulnerable sectors to job loss are the middle-skilled workers such as the technicians and drill operators. We present options and ideas to mitigate the problem. (United States)

    Waddell, K.


    Middle-skilled workers are those whose jobs require considerable skill but not an advanced degree. Nationwide, one-third of the projected job growth for 2010-2020 will require middle-skilled workers. The educational paths to these jobs include career and technical education (CTE), certificates and associate's degrees from community colleges, apprenticeship programs, and training provided by employers. In the oil industry, the demand is expected to about 150,000 jobs. In environmental restoration and monitoring, there will be a need for at least 15,000 middle-skilled workers. Examples of the types of jobs include geological and petroleum technicians, derrick and drill operators, and pump system and refinery operators for the oil and gas sector. For the environmental restoration and monitoring sector, the types of jobs include environmental science technicians, and forest (and coastal) conservation technicians and workers. However, all of these numbers will be influenced by the growth and contraction of the regional or national economy that is not uncommon in the private sector. Over the past year, for example, the oil and gas industry has shed approximately 75,000 jobs (out of a workforce of 600,000) here in the United States, due almost exclusively to the drop of oil prices globally. A disproportionate number of the lost jobs were among the middle-skilled workforce. Meanwhile, the recent settlements stemming from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill are expected to create a surge of environmental restoration activity in the Gulf of Mexico region that has the potential to create thousands of new jobs over the next decade and beyond. Consequently, there is a need to develop education, training and apprenticeship programs that will help develop flexibility and complementary skill sets among middle-skilled workers that could help reduce the impacts of economic downturns and meet the needs of newly expanding sectors such as the environmental restoration field. This

  18. Coastal vulnerability index for the Tabasco State coast, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Nuñez Gómez


    Full Text Available Sea level rise is one of the most serious events that will impact low-lying lands, as is the case of most of Tabasco State. Historically, the State of Tabasco has been repeatedly impacted by extreme floods, the most recent one occurring in 2007. However, recent studies have shown that coastal erosion is the effect that most directly has impacted the Tabasco’s coastline, as this has even modified soil strata; this is also related to extreme hydrometeorological events associated with environmental changes and changes in the salinity gradient off the coast. In such a situation, future changes in the coastline are almost certain. Tabasco’s coastline has been recognized as one of the most vulnerable zones in the country since Mexico’s first national communication to the UNFCCC in 1997. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of this zone. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability of the Tabasco’s coastline by applying the coastal vulnerability index method (IVM using a geographic information system (GIS. This method has been successfully applied in several different places around the world including Canada, the United State, Spain and Indonesia. This model is suitable for the local conditions of Tabasco coast, as the input variables it requires (including waves, tides, sea level, coastal slope, erosion rates and geomorphology are available for the study area, thus allowing the possibility of estimating the coast’s vulnerability based on local data. Results from map algebra operations showed that the zones of very high or high vulnerability encompass a six-kilometer stretch around the Sánchez Magallanes community, near the del Carmen lagoon in the municipality of H. Cárdenas, Tabasco. This is due to the high-waves regime and other conditions associated to the coastal dune geomorphology as well as the unconsolidated fine sediments prevailing therein. Other high vulnerability zones are found just in front

  19. Integrating physical vulnerability models in a holistic framework-a tool for practitioners (United States)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Liliana Ciurean, Roxana


    The cost of hydro-meteorological hazards is increasing globally not only due to the influence of climate change upon the intensity and frequency of various natural processes but also due to worldwide socio-economic changes that alter the spatial and temporal patterns of vulnerability to natural hazards. During the past decades, much more information has become available on the role of vulnerability assessment in decreasing risk levels. However, few attempts have been made to develop and implement a standardised procedure for assessing physical vulnerability to hydro-meteorological hazards which considers integrating different qualitative and quantitative models in a complementary manner. Moreover, to date, it is not clear to which extent the transferability of different models to different spatio-temporal contexts is feasible, and how practitioners and decision-makers can use these models in a dynamic environment. The objective of this research is to develop a physical vulnerability assessment framework that integrates different vulnerability models (vulnerability indicators, functions and matrices) and scenario analysis in order to investigate the temporal evolution of physical vulnerability of elements at risk to hydro-meteorological hazards. This study will first analyse and discuss the role of vulnerability assessment in reducing risk levels, in particular, how different methods of physical vulnerability modelling are currently applied in various stages of disaster risk management; what are their benefits and limitations; and, to which extent they can be used complementary in an integrated framework. The conceptual framework will make use of two case study areas to enable validation and comparison of results in two different socio-economic contexts. The resulting framework will contribute to the improvement of the risk assessment process and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  20. Vulnerability, Health Agency and Capability to Health. (United States)

    Straehle, Christine


    One of the defining features of the capability approach (CA) to health, as developed in Venkatapuram's book Health Justice, is its aim to enable individual health agency. Furthermore, the CA to health hopes to provide a strong guideline for assessing the health-enabling content of social and political conditions. In this article, I employ the recent literature on the liberal concept of vulnerability to assess the CA. I distinguish two kinds of vulnerability. Considering circumstantial vulnerability, I argue that liberal accounts of vulnerability concerned with individual autonomy, align with the CA to health. Individuals should, as far as possible, be able to make health-enabling decisions about their lives, and their capability to do so should certainly not be hindered by public policy. The CA to health and a vulnerability-based analysis then work alongside to define moral responsibilities and designate those who hold them. Both approaches demand social policy to address circumstances that hinder individuals from taking health-enabling decisions. A background condition of vulnerability, on the other hand, even though it hampers the capability for health, does not warrant the strong moral claim proposed by the CA to health to define health as a meta-capability that should guide social policy. Nothing in our designing social policy could change the challenge to health agency when we deal with background conditions of vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Heat Wave Vulnerability Mapping for India. (United States)

    Azhar, Gulrez; Saha, Shubhayu; Ganguly, Partha; Mavalankar, Dileep; Madrigano, Jaime


    Assessing geographic variability in heat wave vulnerability forms the basis for planning appropriate targeted adaptation strategies. Given several recent deadly heatwaves in India, heat is increasingly being recognized as a public health problem. However, to date there has not been a country-wide assessment of heat vulnerability in India. We evaluated demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental vulnerability factors and combined district level data from several sources including the most recent census, health reports, and satellite remote sensing data. We then applied principal component analysis (PCA) on 17 normalized variables for each of the 640 districts to create a composite Heat Vulnerability Index (HVI) for India. Of the total 640 districts, our analysis identified 10 and 97 districts in the very high and high risk categories (> 2SD and 2-1SD HVI) respectively. Mapping showed that the districts with higher heat vulnerability are located in the central parts of the country. On examination, these are less urbanized and have low rates of literacy, access to water and sanitation, and presence of household amenities. Therefore, we concluded that creating and mapping a heat vulnerability index is a useful first step in protecting the public from the health burden of heat. Future work should incorporate heat exposure and health outcome data to validate the index, as well as examine sub-district levels of vulnerability.

  2. Vulnerability of intertropical littoral areas (United States)

    Manighetti, Isabelle; De Wit, Rutger; Duvail, Stéphanie; Seyler, Patrick


    The coastal zone is of very high importance for human development and human wellbeing. Half of the global urban population lives in the coastal zone, where it has access to both continental and marine ecosystem services and to maritime transport. These urban populations coexist with rural and traditional coastal populations, some of which still possess good traditional ecological knowledge of the coastal ecosystems. Marine biodiversity and favourable environmental conditions sustain fisheries and aquaculture, represent a source of inspiration for humankind and provide numerous opportunities for recreation and tourism. In addition, coastal areas provide nursery functions for juvenile fish and invertebrates, which is important for the fish and crayfish stocks exploited offshore. Located at the interface between marine energy and continental processes, the coastal landscapes are dynamic environments. Nevertheless, the destruction of habitats and the increasing exploitation of the coastal zone represent serious threats to the ecosystems. Moreover, human land use and modifications in the watersheds have strong impacts on the coastal zone primarily by contributing to their pollution and nutrient over-enrichment. Damming and creation of reservoirs upstream also heavily modify the hydrology of the watersheds and often dramatically reduce the delivery of sediments to the coastal zone. In addition to these regional and local anthropogenic impacts, the coastal zone is vulnerable to global change among which sea level rise and climate change are particularly important drivers. Many coastal zones extend along giant faults and subduction zones, which makes them particularly exposed to earthquakes and tsunami hazards. Other forms of natural hazards are caused by hurricanes and cyclones that develop at sea and whose trajectories often hit the coastlines.

  3. Groundwater vulnerability assessment of the Cork Harbour area, SW Ireland (United States)

    Allen, A. R.; Milenic, D.


    In the Cork Harbour area of SW Ireland, high yield karst and intergranular gravel aquifers are extremely vulnerable to pollution from a variety of sources, mainly due to the limited protection afforded by the thin cover of low permeability glacial and alluvial overburden. The main potential sources of pollution are due to rapid urbanisation of the Cork city area and its attendant infrastructure, and increased industrialisation in the area, with numerous new industries, particularly pharmaceutical and chemical industries, located around Cork Harbour. Other potential sources of pollution are a number of landfills in the area and an oil refinery near the mouth of Cork Harbour. Traditional agricultural sources of pollution also exist, due to increased use of chemical fertilisers. Finally, the susceptibility to saline intrusion of the karst and gravel aquifers around Cork Harbour is high due to the long coastline of the harbour and the low-lying nature of the karst synclines with their superimposed buried valleys.

  4. Spatial scan statistics in vulnerability assessment (United States)

    Fuchs, Sven; Ornetsmüller, Christine


    In the European Alps the concept of risk has increasingly been applied in order to reduce the susceptibility of society to mountain hazards. Risk is defined as a function of the magnitude and frequency of a hazard process times consequences; the latter being quantified by the value of elements at risk exposed and their vulnerability. Vulnerability means the degree of loss to a given element at risk resulting from the impact of a natural hazard. Recent empirical studies suggested a dependency of the degree of loss on the hazard impact, and respective vulnerability (or damage-loss) functions were developed. However, until now only little information is available on the spatial characteristics of vulnerability on a local scale; considerable ranges in the loss ratio for medium process intensities only provide a hint that there might me mutual reasons for lower or higher loss rates. In this paper we therefore focus on the spatial dimension of vulnerability by searching for spatial clusters in the damage ratio of elements at risk exposed. By using the software SaTScan, we applied an ordinal data model and a normal data model in order to detect spatial distribution patterns of five individual torrent events in Austria. For both models, we detected some significant clusters of high damage ratios, and consequently high vulnerability. Moreover, secondary clusters of high and low values were found. Based on our results, the assumption that lower process intensities result in lower damage ratios, and therefore in lower vulnerability, and vice versa, has to be partly rejected. The spatial distribution of vulnerability is not only dependent on the process intensities but also on the overall land use pattern and the individual constructive characteristics of the buildings exposed. Generally we suggest the use of a normal data model for test sites exceeding a minimum of 30 elements at risk exposed. As such, the study enhanced our understanding of spatial vulnerability patterns on

  5. ICBM vulnerability: Calculations, predictions, and error bars (United States)

    Hobson, Art


    The theory of intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) silo vulnerability is reviewed, and the present and probable future (mid-1990s) vulnerability of US silos is analyzed. The analysis emphasizes methodology, sources of information, and uncertainties. US ICBMs might still be survivable today but they will certainly be vulnerable to ICBM attack, and perhaps even to submarine-launched ballistic missile attack, by the mid-1990s. These calculations are presented not only for their immediate importance but also to introduce other physicists to some of the quantitative methods that can be used to analyze international security topics.

  6. Pricing vulnerable options with stochastic volatility (United States)

    Wang, Guanying; Wang, Xingchun; Zhou, Ke


    In this paper, we investigate the pricing issue of vulnerable options with stochastic volatility by decomposing stochastic volatility into the long-term and short-term volatility. We describe the short-term fluctuation of stochastic volatility using a mean-reverting process, and assume the long-term volatility to be a constant. Based on the proposed model, we derive a pricing formula of vulnerable options in a special case. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the impacts of two stochastic volatility components on vulnerable option prices.

  7. 77 FR 28894 - Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool (United States)


    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Maritime Vulnerability Self-Assessment Tool AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of removal of TSA's maritime vulnerability self... transportation security incident (TSI)\\1\\ must conduct a vulnerability assessment and submit a security plan to...

  8. Assessing the vulnerability of economic sectors to climate variability to improve the usability of seasonal to decadal climate forecasts in Europe - a preliminary concept (United States)

    Funk, Daniel


    Climate variability poses major challenges for decision-makers in climate-sensitive sectors. Seasonal to decadal (S2D) forecasts provide potential value for management decisions especially in the context of climate change where information from present or past climatology loses significance. However, usable and decision-relevant tailored climate forecasts are still sparse for Europe and successful examples of application require elaborate and individual producer-user interaction. The assessment of sector-specific vulnerabilities to critical climate conditions at specific temporal scale will be a great step forward to increase the usability and efficiency of climate forecasts. A concept for a sector-specific vulnerability assessment (VA) to climate variability is presented. The focus of this VA is on the provision of usable vulnerability information which can be directly incorporated in decision-making processes. This is done by developing sector-specific climate-impact-decision-pathways and the identification of their specific time frames using data from both bottom-up and top-down approaches. The structure of common VA's for climate change related issues is adopted which envisages the determination of exposure, sensitivity and coping capacity. However, the application of the common vulnerability components within the context of climate service application poses some fundamental considerations: Exposure - the effect of climate events on the system of concern may be modified and delayed due to interconnected systems (e.g. catchment). The critical time-frame of a climate event or event sequence is dependent on system-internal thresholds and initial conditions. But also on decision-making processes which require specific lead times of climate information to initiate respective coping measures. Sensitivity - in organizational systems climate may pose only one of many factors relevant for decision making. The scope of "sensitivity" in this concept comprises both the

  9. Tsunami impact and vulnerability in the harbour area of Tangier, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Benchekroun


    Full Text Available In this study, we assess tsunami impact and building vulnerability in the harbour area of Tangier – Morocco. Tsunami impact is evaluated through performing high-resolution inundation modelling. To assess buildings tsunami vulnerability, we use a geographic information system (GIS multi-criteria approach based upon weight and classification factors. The methodology includes various steps: (i identification of the most hazardous earthquake tsunamigenic sources, (ii computation of high-resolution digital elevation model, (iii simulation of inundation, (iv field survey to classify buildings and defence structures and (v application of the GIS-based model to produce final vulnerability map. Results show the potential tsunami impact and vulnerability that Tangier coast might face due to the occurrence of a large tsunami event in the region. Inundation map indicates that a coastal area of over 4.5 km2 is prone to tsunami flood with flow depths ranging from 0.5 to more than 6 m. Vulnerability map highlights different levels of expected buildings vulnerability to tsunami impact, which vary from “very high” for single-storey structures, located in the city harbour and along the sandy beach, to “low” for multi-storeys RC structures. Both inundation and vulnerability maps have important implications for decision makers and land use planning aiming to mitigate tsunami hazard in the North East Atlantic region.

  10. Mapping Climate Change Vulnerability Distribution of Water Resources in a Regional Water Supply System (United States)

    Liu, T.; Tung, C.; Li, M.


    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. It is important to know how climate change might effect regional water resources, however, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will effect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate. For example, the water supply of some area is from the water of river. When the storm occurred, the water can't be treated due to high density of suspended sediment in the river. Then the water supply in this area is more vulnerable to climate. This study used an integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool. A water supply system is very complex which needs dynamic modeling to determine the vulnerability distribution. This study used a system dynamics model- VENSIM connected with TaiWAP to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  11. Individual and social vulnerabilities upon acquiring tuberculosis: a literature systematic review (United States)


    Tuberculosis is a contagious infectious disease mainly caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that still meets the priority criteria - high magnitude, transcendence and vulnerability - due to the threat it poses to public health. When taking into consideration the vulnerability conditions that favor the onset of the disease, this article aimed to investigate the implications originated from individual and social vulnerability conditions in which tuberculosis patients are inserted. Databases like MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO were searched in Portuguese, Spanish and English using the descriptors tuberculosis and vulnerability, and 183 articles were found. After the selection criterion was applied, there were 22 publications left to be discussed. Some of the aspects that characterize the vulnerability to tuberculosis are: low-income and low-education families, age, poor living conditions, chemical dependency, pre-existing conditions/aggravations like diabetes mellitus and malnutrition, indigenous communities, variables related to health professionals, intense border crossings and migration, difficulty in accessing information and health services and lack of knowledge on tuberculosis. Much as such aspects are present and favor the onset of the disease, several reports show high incidence rates of tuberculosis in low vulnerability places, suggesting that some factors related to the disease are still unclear. In conclusion, health promotion is important in order to disfavor such conditions or factors of vulnerability to tuberculosis, making them a primary target in the public health planning process and disease control. PMID:25067955

  12. Individual and social vulnerabilities upon acquiring tuberculosis: a literature systematic review. (United States)

    Nadjane Batista Lacerda, Sheylla; Cristina de Abreu Temoteo, Rayrla; Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo, Tânia; Darliane Tavares de Luna, Fernanda; Alves Nunes de Sousa, Milena; Carlos de Abreu, Luiz; Luiz Affonso Fonseca, Fernando


    Tuberculosis is a contagious infectious disease mainly caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis that still meets the priority criteria - high magnitude, transcendence and vulnerability - due to the threat it poses to public health. When taking into consideration the vulnerability conditions that favor the onset of the disease, this article aimed to investigate the implications originated from individual and social vulnerability conditions in which tuberculosis patients are inserted. Databases like MEDLINE, LILACS and SciELO were searched in Portuguese, Spanish and English using the descriptors tuberculosis and vulnerability, and 183 articles were found. After the selection criterion was applied, there were 22 publications left to be discussed. Some of the aspects that characterize the vulnerability to tuberculosis are: low-income and low-education families, age, poor living conditions, chemical dependency, pre-existing conditions/aggravations like diabetes mellitus and malnutrition, indigenous communities, variables related to health professionals, intense border crossings and migration, difficulty in accessing information and health services and lack of knowledge on tuberculosis. Much as such aspects are present and favor the onset of the disease, several reports show high incidence rates of tuberculosis in low vulnerability places, suggesting that some factors related to the disease are still unclear. In conclusion, health promotion is important in order to disfavor such conditions or factors of vulnerability to tuberculosis, making them a primary target in the public health planning process and disease control.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Ordered Weighted Averaging Operator in Earthquake Vulnerability Assessment (United States)

    Moradi, M.; Delavar, M. R.; Moshiri, B.


    The main objective of this research is to find the extent to which the minimal variability Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) model of seismic vulnerability assessment is sensitive to variation of optimism degree. There are a variety of models proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment. In order to examine the efficiency of seismic vulnerability assessment models, the stability of results could be analysed. Seismic vulnerability assessment is done to estimate the probable losses in the future earthquake. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods have been applied by a number of researchers to estimate the human, physical and financial losses in urban areas. The study area of this research is Tehran Metropolitan Area (TMA) which has more than eight million inhabitants. In addition, this paper assumes that North Tehran Fault (NTF) is activated and caused an earthquake in TMA. 1996 census data is used to extract the attribute values for six effective criteria in seismic vulnerability assessment. The results demonstrate that minimal variability OWA model of Seismic Loss Estimation (SLE) is more stable where the aggregated seismic vulnerability degree has a lower value. Moreover, minimal variability OWA is very sensitive to optimism degree in northern areas of Tehran. A number of statistical units in southern areas of the city also indicate considerable sensitivity to optimism degree due to numerous non-standard buildings. In addition, the change of seismic vulnerability degree caused by variation of optimism degree does not exceed 25 % of the original value which means that the overall accuracy of the model is acceptable.

  14. Doing Research with Vulnerable Populations: The Case of Intravenous Drug Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murdoch, Blake


    Full Text Available This review article considers ethical concerns when doing research on potentially vulnerable people who inject drugs (PWID in a Canadian context. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans broadly addresses many of the traditional ethical principles of research on vulnerable persons, but does so at the cost of clarity and precision. Vulnerability is contextual rather than absolute. When doing research with vulnerable persons, informed consent should be obtained from an independent person, and comprehension should be checked using questioning. Participants can be vulnerable due to many factors, including addiction, chronic disease, socioeconomic and racial status, and lack of education. The ability of PWID to give informed consent can be compromised by undue influence or intoxication, but existing research shows that neither the mode nor the magnitude of compensation has a significant effect on new rates of drug use. Compensation can also help dispel the therapeutic misconception. Intoxication rather than undue influence is the main concern when obtaining informed consent from PWID. The stigmatization of PWID as incapable of consent should be avoided. Paternalistic exclusion from research can harm PWID and exacerbate their vulnerability by reducing our knowledge of and ability to specifically treat them. As such, we must collect better data about the effects of research ethics policies. Studies to this effect should focus on experiences, perspectives and needs of potentially vulnerable research participants. Research ethics boards in Canada should adopt an evidence-based approach when applying discretionary power to proposals for clinical research.

  15. Managing Risk, Reducing Vulnerability and Enhancing Productivity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    term emergency relief. ... Using case studies from Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan and Tanzania, this action-research project seeks to contribute to the development of adaptive strategies by gathering knowledge on vulnerability to drought within different ...

  16. Vulnerability in the South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, J


    Full Text Available Categories and factors associated with vulnerability EmploymentFuel useDiseaseDisease state Cultural practicesBody burdenObesityGender Socio-economic status Background exposure FitnessRace Education...

  17. CDC's Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) Mapping Dashboard (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The interactive maps are visual representations of the Social Vulnerability Index (SVI). Data were extracted from the US Census and the American Community Survey.

  18. Aquifer vulnerability for Colorado and New Mexico (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of aquifer vulnerability calculated for each 30-meter raster cell. Depth to...

  19. Characterizing vulnerable plaque features with intravascular elastography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaar, J.A.; Korte, C.L. de; Mastik, F.; Strijder, C.; Pasterkamp, G.; Boersma, E.; Serruys, P.W.; Steen, A.F.W. van der


    BACKGROUND: In vivo detection of vulnerable plaques is presently limited by a lack of diagnostic tools. Intravascular ultrasound elastography is a new technique based on intravascular ultrasound and has the potential to differentiate between different plaques phenotypes. However, the predictive

  20. Violence and vulnerabilities: Afghans in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Alimia


    Full Text Available Given that the majority of Afghans who live in Pakistan today are unlikely to return to Afghanistan, more needs to be done to address their vulnerabilities and protect them from harassment and violence.

  1. Salt vulnerability assessment methodology for urban streams (United States)

    Betts, A. R.; Gharabaghi, B.; McBean, E. A.


    De-icing agents such as road salts while used for winter road maintenance can cause negative effects on urban stream water quality and drinking water supplies. A new methodology using readily available spatial data to identify Salt Vulnerable Areas (SVAs) for urban streams is used to prioritize implementation of best management practices. The methodology calculates the probable chloride concentration statistics at specified points in the urban stream network and compares the results with known aquatic species exposure tolerance limits to characterize the vulnerability scores. The approach prioritizes implementation of best management practices to areas identified as vulnerable to road salt. The vulnerability assessment is performed on seven sites in four watersheds in the Greater Toronto Area and validated using the Hanlon Creek watershed in Guelph. The mean annual in-stream chloride concentration equation uses readily available spatial data - with province-wide coverage - that can be easily used in any urban watershed.

  2. The vulnerability of Palestinian refugees from Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Morrison


    Full Text Available While Syrian nationals may eventually return to their home country, the future for Palestinians from Syria is increasingly uncertain. Meanwhile they are more vulnerable than, and treated worse than, most other refugees from the Syrian conflict.

  3. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS]. (United States)

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa


    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  4. A stakeholder dialogue on European vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vega-Leinert, de la A.C.; Schröter, D.; Leemans, R.; Fritsch, U.; Pluimers, J.C.


    A stakeholder dialogue was embedded in the ATEAM project to facilitate the development and dissemination of its European-wide vulnerability assessment of global change impacts. Participating stakeholders were primarily ecosystem managers and policy advisers interested in potential impacts on

  5. Distributed Generation to Counter Grid Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nerad, Anton H


    In this paper I examine how the United States can best defend against the interruption of critical electrical energy by hostile acts, identify and examine some of the vulnerabilities to our nation's...

  6. Computed Tomography Biomarkers of Vulnerable Coronary Plaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyulas Tiberiu


    Full Text Available An unstable plaque has a high risk of thrombosis and at the same time for a fast progression of the stenosis degree. Also, “high-risk plaque” and “thrombosis-prone plaque” are used as synonym terms for characterization of a vulnerable plaque. The imaging biomarkers for vulnerable coronary plaques are considered to be spotty calcifications, active remodeling, low-density atheroma and the presence of a ring-like attenuation pattern, also known as the napkin-ring sign. Computed cardiac tomography can determine the plaque composition by assessing the plaque density, which is measured in Hounsfield units (HU. The aim of this manuscript was to provide an update about the most frequently used biomarkers of vulnerability in a vulnerable plaque with the help of computed cardiac tomography.

  7. Vulnerable Zone Indicator System (Option 2) (United States)

    Enter your latitude and longitude to access the Vulnerable Zone Indicator System. VZIS can help you determine if your area could be affected by a chemical accident at a facility that submitted a Risk Management Plan (RMP).

  8. Coastal vulnerability assessment for Egypt's Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Hereher


    Full Text Available The Egyptian Mediterranean coast was examined for the vulnerability to sea-level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (CVI, which was derived from the geologic and physical characteristics of the coast. This paper is the first to apply the CVI along the Egyptian coasts. The coast has different geomorphologic aspects ranging from steep-slope-rocky cliffs to gentle sloping deltaic sediments. Although the coast is under low tidal effect and low height waves, results showed that more than one-third of the 1000 km long coast is severely vulnerable to sea-level rise. Unfortunately, the area under high vulnerability to sea-level rise comprises the densely populated Nile Delta coast. National actions should be implemented to safeguard the entire coast at the threatened locations.

  9. Environmental conflicts and women's vulnerability in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based violence since environmental conflicts increase women's vulnerability ... Those who use violence may bully, intimidate, verbally insult, sexually ..... schools: Case studies from the Durban Metropolitan Area, M.A. dissertation submitted to.

  10. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions. (United States)


    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years... status within 3 years from the time of award. Grantee B then provides services to homeless veterans for a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery provisions. 61...

  11. 24 CFR 206.27 - Mortgage provisions. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage provisions. 206.27 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.27 Mortgage provisions. (a...

  12. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1) When...

  16. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  17. 28 CFR 512.21 - Copyright provisions. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyright provisions. 512.21 Section 512... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.21 Copyright provisions. (a) An employee of the Bureau may not copyright... non-employee may copyright original materials developed as a result of research conducted under this...

  18. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle


    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  19. 40 CFR 192.42 - Substitute provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute provisions. 192.42 Section 192.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... § 192.42 Substitute provisions. The regulatory agency may, with the concurrence of EPA, substitute for...

  20. 38 CFR 8.29 - Policy provisions. (United States)


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy provisions. 8.29 Section 8.29 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE National Service Life Insurance Policy § 8.29 Policy provisions. Contracts of insurance authorized to be made in accordance with the...

  1. 24 CFR 5.321 - Lease provisions. (United States)


    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.321 Lease provisions. (a) Lease provisions. (1) PHAs which have established pet... persons with disabilities: (i) State that tenants are permitted to keep common household pets in their...

  2. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions. (United States)


    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... may be amended as needed to meet management responsibilities for the area. ...

  3. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  4. 9 CFR 93.916 - Special provisions. (United States)


    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish Species... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions. 93.916 Section 93.916 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  5. Vulnerabilities Classification for Safe Development on Android


    Ricardo Luis D. M. Ferreira; Anderson F. P. dos Santos; Ricardo Choren


    The global sales market is currently led by devices with the Android operating system. In 2015, more than 1 billion smartphones were sold, of which 81.5% were operated by the Android platform. In 2017, it is estimated that 267.78 billion applications will be downloaded from Google Play. According to Qian, 90% of applications are vulnerable, despite the recommendations of rules and standards for the safe software development. This study presents a classification of vulnerabilities, indicating ...

  6. Groundwater vulnerability mapping in Guadalajara aquifers system (Western Mexico) (United States)

    Rizo-Decelis, L. David; Marín, Ana I.; Andreo, Bartolomé


    Groundwater vulnerability mapping is a practical tool to implement strategies for land-use planning and sustainable socioeconomic development coherent with groundwater protection. The objective of vulnerability mapping is to identify the most vulnerable zones of catchment areas and to provide criteria for protecting the groundwater used for drinking water supply. The delineation of protection zones in fractured aquifers is a challenging task due to the heterogeneity and anisotropy of hydraulic conductivities, which makes difficult prediction of groundwater flow organization and flow velocities. Different methods of intrinsic groundwater vulnerability mapping were applied in the Atemajac-Toluquilla groundwater body, an aquifers system that covers around 1300 km2. The aquifer supplies the 30% of urban water resources of the metropolitan area of Guadalajara (Mexico), where over 4.6 million people reside. Study area is located in a complex neotectonic active volcanic region in the Santiago River Basin (Western Mexico), which influences the aquifer system underneath the city. Previous works have defined the flow dynamics and identified the origin of recharge. In addition, the mixture of fresh groundwater with hydrothermal and polluted waters have been estimated. Two main aquifers compose the multilayer system. The upper aquifer is unconfined and consists of sediments and pyroclastic materials. Recharge of this aquifer comes from rainwater and ascending vertical fluids from the lower aquifer. The lower aquifer consists of fractured basalts of Pliocene age. Formerly, the main water source has been the upper unit, which is a porous and unconsolidated unit, which acts as a semi-isotropic aquifer. Intense groundwater usage has resulted in lowering the water table in the upper aquifer. Therefore, the current groundwater extraction is carried out from the deeper aquifer and underlying bedrock units, where fracture flow predominates. Pollution indicators have been reported in

  7. Climate Change Vulnerability Assessment for Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher P. Ischay; Ernest L. Fossum; Polly C. Buotte; Jeffrey A. Hicke; Alexander Peterson


    The University of Idaho (UI) was asked to participate in the development of a climate change vulnerability assessment for Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This report describes the outcome of that assessment. The climate change happening now, due in large part to human activities, is expected to continue in the future. UI and INL used a common framework for assessing vulnerability that considers exposure (future climate change), sensitivity (system or component responses to climate), impact (exposure combined with sensitivity), and adaptive capacity (capability of INL to modify operations to minimize climate change impacts) to assess vulnerability. Analyses of climate change (exposure) revealed that warming that is ongoing at INL will continue in the coming decades, with increased warming in later decades and under scenarios of greater greenhouse gas emissions. Projections of precipitation are more uncertain, with multi model means exhibiting somewhat wetter conditions and more wet days per year. Additional impacts relevant to INL include estimates of more burned area and increased evaporation and transpiration, leading to reduced soil moisture and plant growth.

  8. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective (United States)

    Chung, Gunhui


    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  9. Measuring populations' vulnerabilities for famine and food security interventions: the case of Ethiopia's Chronic Vulnerability Index. (United States)

    Burg, Jericho


    The concept of vulnerability has become an important part of food security analyses since the 1980s. It is seen as having two sides: exposure to external hazards; and an inability to cope with those shocks, attributed to social, political, and economic factors. Numerous attempts have been made to construct models to determine levels of vulnerability among populations. This paper analyses one such attempt, the Chronic Vulnerability Index (CVI), developed to measure levels of vulnerability to food insecurity in Ethiopia. The example of the CVI reveals many of the difficulties associated with producing a basic model of vulnerability that can be used in disaster mitigation. Ultimately, the CVI assumes that vulnerability is a linear, additive phenomenon with discrete causes and effects and fails to capture interactions between hazards and the human systems that produce and complicate them. The paper concludes with a discussion of alternatives to the CVI.

  10. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services. (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik


    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  11. An Update on NASA's Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (United States)

    Goetz, S. J.; Miller, C. E.; Griffith, P. C.; Larson, E. K.; Kasischke, E. S.; Margolis, H. A.


    ABoVE is a NASA-led field campaign taking place in Alaska and western Canada over the next 8-10 years, with a wide range of interdisciplinary science objectives designed to address the extent to which ecosystems and society are vulnerable, or resilient, to environmental changes underway and expected. The first phase of ABoVE is underway, with a focus on ecosystem dynamics and ecosystem services objectives. Some 45 core and affiliated projects are currently included, and another 10-20 will be added in late 2016 with initiation of the airborne science component. The ABoVE leadership is fostering partnerships with several other major arctic and boreal research, management and policy initiatives. The Science Team is organized around science themes, with Working Groups (WGs) on vegetation, permafrost and hydrology, disturbance, carbon dynamics, wildlife and ecosystem services, and modeling. Despite the disciplinary science WGs, ABoVE research broadly focuses the complex interdependencies and feedbacks across disciplines. Additional WGs focus on airborne science, geospatial products, core variables and standards, and stakeholder engagement - all supplemented by a range of infrastructure activities such as data management, cloud computing, laboratory and field support. Ultimately ABoVE research will improve our understanding of the consequences of environmental changes occurring across the study domain, as well as increase our confidence in making projections of the ecosystem responses and vulnerability to changes taking place both within and outside the domain. ABoVE will also build a lasting legacy of research through an expanded knowledge base, the provision of key datasets archived for a broader network of researchers and resource managers, and the development of data products and knowledge designed to foster decision support and applied research partnerships with broad societal relevance. We will provide a brief status update of ABoVE activities and plans, including

  12. Assessment of impacts and vulnerability to India's coastline due to climate change

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    - ment and Forests, Government of India, November 2010. 2. Unnikrishnan, A. S. and Shankar, D., Global Planet. Change, 2007, 57, 301– 307. 3. Mitrovicia, J. X., Gomez, N. and Clark, P. U., Nature, 2009, 323, 753. 4. Jagtap, T. G. and Nagle, V. L...

  13. Institutional adaptability to redress electricity infrastructure vulnerability due to climate change


    John Foster; William Paul Bell; Craig Froome; Phil Wild; Liam Wagner; Deepak Sharma; Suwin Sandu; Suchi Misra; Ravindra Bagia


    The objectives of this project are to examine the adaptive capacity of existing institutional arrangements in the National Electricity Market (NEM) to existing and predicted climate change conditions. Specifically the project aims to: 1. identify climate change adaptation issues in the NEM; 1. analyse climate change impacts on reliability in the NEM under alternative climate change scenarios to 2030, particularly what adaptation strategies the power generation and supply network infrastructur...

  14. Mainstreaming the Adaptations and Reducing the Vulnerability of the Poor due to Climate Change


    C. R. Ranganathan; K. Palanisami; K. R. Kakumanu; A. Baulraj


    Many rural poor people in developing countries depend on agriculture and are highly influenced by climatic change. Hence, sustainable livelihood approaches are used at both policy and project level to initiate new poverty reduction activities and modify existing activities to improve livelihood incomes. Practices relevant to climate change adaptation around the world are wideranging and include development of technology, management, infrastructure, livestock, groundwater, and knowledge. Both ...

  15. Spatial distribution of vulnerable areas for gully erosion due to agricultural land abandonment in Southeast Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Gutiérrez, F.; Gutiérrez, M.; Desir, G.; Guerrero, J.; Lucha, P.; Marin, C.; Garcia-Ruiz, J.M.


    Abandonment of agricultural land is one of the main changes of land use in Mediterranean countries. From the land use change analysis with the CLUE-S model appeared that especially marl areas without irrigation possibilities are potentially subject to abandonment. However, specifically these areas

  16. European information on climate change impacts, vulnerability and adaptation (United States)

    Jol, A.; Isoard, S.


    Vulnerability to natural and technological disasters is increasing due to a combination of intensifying land use, increasing industrial development, further urban expansion and expanding infrastructure and also climate change. At EU level the European Commission's White Paper on adaptation to climate change (published in 2009) highlights that adaptation actions should be focused on the most vulnerable areas and communities in Europe (e.g. mountains, coastal areas, river flood prone areas, Mediterranean, Arctic). Mainstreaming of climate change into existing EU policies will be a key policy, including within the Water Framework Directive, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, Nature protection and biodiversity policies, integrated coastal zone management, other (sectoral) policies (agriculture, forestry, energy, transport, health) and disaster risk prevention. 2010 is the international year on biodiversity and the Conference of Parties of the biodiversity convention will meet in autumn 2010 (Japan) to discuss amongst other post-2010 strategies, objectives and indicators. Both within the Biodiversity Convention (CBD) and the Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) there is increasing recognition of the need for integration of biodiversity conservation into climate change mitigation and adaptation activities. Furthermore a number of European countries and also some regions have started to prepare and/or have adopted national adaptation plans or frameworks. Sharing of good practices on climate change vulnerability methods and adaptation actions is so far limited, but is essential to improve such plans, at national, sub national and local level where much of the adaptation action is already taking place and will be expanding in future, also involving increasingly the business community. The EU Clearinghouse on CC impacts, vulnerability and adaptation should address these needs and it is planned to be operational end of 2011. The EEA is expected to have a role in its

  17. Drought vulnerability assesssment and mapping in Morocco (United States)

    Imani, Yasmina; Lahlou, Ouiam; Bennasser Alaoui, Si; Naumann, Gustavo; Barbosa, Paulo; Vogt, Juergen


    Drought vulnerability assessment and mapping in Morocco Authors: Yasmina Imani 1, Ouiam Lahlou 1, Si Bennasser Alaoui 1 Paulo Barbosa 2, Jurgen Vogt 2, Gustavo Naumann 2 1: Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II (IAV Hassan II), Rabat Morocco. 2: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES), Ispra, Italy. In Morocco, nearly 50% of the population lives in rural areas. They are mostly small subsistent farmers whose production depends almost entirely on rainfall. They are therefore very sensitive to drought episodes that may dramatically affect their incomes. Although, as a consequence of the increasing frequency, length and severity of drought episodes in the late 90's, the Moroccan government decided, to move on from a crisis to a risk management approach, drought management remains in practice mainly reactive and often ineffective. The lack of effectiveness of public policy is in part a consequence of the poor understanding of drought vulnerability at the rural community level, which prevents the development of efficient mitigation actions and adaptation strategies, tailored to the needs and specificities of each rural community. Thus, the aim of this study is to assess and map drought vulnerability at the rural commune level in the Oum Er-Rbia basin which is a very heterogeneous basin, showing a big variability of climates, landscapes, cropping systems and social habits. Agricultural data collected from the provincial and local administrations of Agriculture and socio-economic data from the National Department of Statistics were used to compute a composite vulnerability index (DVI) integrating four different components: (i) the renewable natural capacity, (ii) the economic capacity, (iii) human and civic resources, and (iv) infrastructure and technology. The drought vulnerability maps that were derived from the computation of the DVI shows that except very specific areas, most of the Oum er Rbia

  18. General Aspects of some Causes of Web Application Vulnerabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironela Pîrnău


    Full Text Available Because web applications are complex software systems in constant evolution, they become real targets for hackers as they provide direct access to corporate or personal data. Web application security is supposed to represent an essential priority for organizations in order to protect sensitive customer data, or those of the employees of a company. Worldwide, there are many organizations that report the most common types of attacks on Web applications and methods for their prevention. While the paper is an overview, it puts forward several typical examples of web application vulnerabilities that are due to programming errors; these may be used by attackers to take unauthorized control over computers.

  19. Establishing Vulnerability Map of Water Resources in Regional Water Supply System (United States)

    Liu, T. M.; Tung, C. P.; Li, M. H.


    In recent years, the threat of increasing frequency of extreme weather rise up human attention on climate change. To reduce the threat of water scarcity, it is important to know how climate change might affect regional water resources and where the hotspots, the vulnerability points, are. However, there is not much information to help government understanding how climate change will affect the water resources locally. To a regional water supply system, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable to climate due to the lack of water treatment plants or tape water pipe system. And also, there might be some hotspots more vulnerable due to high population and high industrial product value when they expose to the same threat of water scarcity. This study aims to evaluate the spatial vulnerability distribution of water resources and propose the adaptive plan for southern region of Taiwan. An integrated tool - TaiWAP (Taiwan Water Resources Assessment Program) for climate change vulnerability assessment on water resources, which includes 10 GCMs output of SRES A2, A1B, B2 scenarios, weather generator, GWLF model, and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) tool is used for climate impact assessment. For the simulation of the complex water supply system, the system dynamics model- VENSIM which is connected with TaiWAP is adopted to simulate a water supply system and evaluate vulnerability of each unit in a water supply system. The vulnerable hotspots will be indicated in the system and the adaptive strategies will be applied to strengthen the local vulnerable area. The adaptive capacity will be enhanced to mitigate climate change impacts on water supply system locally to achieve sustainable water uses.

  20. 7 CFR 457.117 - Forage production crop insurance provisions. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage production crop insurance provisions. 457.117... production crop insurance provisions. The Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and... Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order...

  1. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability in the coastal region of Oman using DRASTIC index method in GIS environment. (United States)

    Jamrah, Ahmad; Al-Futaisi, Ahmed; Rajmohan, Natarajan; Al-Yaroubi, Saif


    A study was carried out to develop a vulnerability map for Barka region in the North Batina of Oman using DRASTIC vulnerability index method in GIS environment. DRASTIC layers were created using data from published reports and the seven DRASTIC layers were processed by the ArcGIS geographic information system. Finally, DRASTIC maps were created for 1995 and 2004 to understand the long-term changes in the vulnerability index. DRASTIC vulnerability maps were evaluated using groundwater quality data such as chemical and biological parameters. DRASTIC vulnerability maps of 1995 and 2004 indicate that the northern part of Barka is more vulnerable to pollution than southern part and the central part of Barka also shows high relative vulnerability which is mostly related to the high conductivity values. Moreover, the changes in water level due to high abstraction rate of groundwater reflect in the vulnerability maps and low vulnerability area is increased in the southern part during 2004 compared to 1995. Moreover, regional distribution maps of nitrate, chloride and total and fecal coliforms are well correlated with DRASTIC vulnerability maps. In contrast to this, even though DRASTIC method predicted the central part of the study region is highly vulnerable, both chemical and biological parameters show lower concentrations in this region compared to coastal belt, which is mainly due to agricultural and urban development. In Barka, urban development and agricultural activities are very high in coastal region compared to southern and central part of the study area. Hence, this study concluded that DRASTIC method is also applicable in coastal region having ubiquitous contamination sources.

  2. Community vulnerability assessment index for flood prone savannah agro-ecological zone: A case study of Wa West District, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effah Kwabena Antwi


    Full Text Available The savannah regions of Northern Ghana are characterized by smallholder farming systems and high levels of poverty. Over the past two decades, communities in the regions have become more prone to climate and human-induced disasters in the form of annual floods and droughts. This study evaluates the degree and magnitude of vulnerability in four communities subjected to similar climate change induced flood events and propose intervention options. The study employs rural participatory research approaches in developing four vulnerability categories namely socio-economic, ecological, engineering and political; which were used to develop indicators that aided the calculation of total community vulnerability index for each community. The findings indicate that the state of a community's vulnerability to flood is a composite effect of the four vulnerability index categories which may act independently or concurrently to produce the net effect. Based on a synthesis of total vulnerability obtained in each community, Baleufili was found to be the least vulnerable to flood due to its high scores in engineering, socio-economic and political vulnerability indicators. Baleufili and Bankpama were the most ecologically vulnerable communities. The selection of vulnerability index categories and associated indicators were grounded in specific local peculiarities that evolved out of engagement with community stakeholders and expert knowledge of the socioecological landscape. Thus, the Total Community Vulnerability Assessment Framework (TCVAF provides an effective decision support for identifying communities’ vulnerability status and help to design both short and long term interventions options that are community specific as a way of enhancing their coping and adaptive capacity to disasters.

  3. Neurophysiological maturation in adolescence - vulnerability and counteracting addiction to alcohol. (United States)

    Chwedorowicz, Roman; Skarżyński, Henryk; Pucek, Weronika; Studziński, Tadeusz


    The results of contemporary studies confirm the formation of two neural networks in the brain during the period of adolescence. The first is defined as emotional, located in the limbic system, develops earlier, quicker, and more intensively than the second one in the prefrontal cortex, called the judgement network, which fulfils the role of control and inhibition of emotional reactions. The domination of the emotional network in adolescence is manifested by hyperactivity of the limbic system, accompanied by intensified undertaking of courageous, reckless, risky, or even sometimes dangerous actions, so very characteristic in the maturation. The aim of the article is to present the state of the art in the field of latest achievements in experimental neurophysiology related to the maturation of the structural end functional processes in adolescents, and to alcohol vulnerability. Alcohol effect initiation starts in early adolescence, and therefore is connected with alcohol abuse and addiction in adulthood, which confirms the necessity for provision of an early prophylactic protection for juveniles, even before entering the phase of early adolescence. Some electrophysiological characteristics, such as low P3 amplitude of the Event-Related Potential (ERP) and Event-Related Oscillations (EROs), are manifested by their high risk offspring, and are considered to be biological markers (endophenotypes) of a predisposition to develop alcohol use disorders. Electroencephalographic oscillations induced within the range of the theta and delta waves (Event-Related Oscillation- ERO), considered as endophenotypes and markers of increased vulnerability for addiction, present three groups of genes and three types of neurotransmitters, with gamma aminobutyric acid, acetylcholine and glutamate as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. A new research approach consisting in the application of electroencephalographic methods and techniques in developmental and genetic studies of

  4. A Quantitative Method to Estimate Vulnerability. Case Study: Motozintla de Mendoza, Chiapas (United States)

    Rodriguez, F.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.


    The community of Motozintla de Mendoza is located in the State of Chiapas, México (15' 22' N and 92' 15' W) near to the international border with Guatemala. Due to its location, this community is continuously exposed to many different hazards. Motozintla has a population of 20,000 inhabitants. This community suffered the impact of had two disasters recently. In view of these scenarios we carried out the present research with the objective quantifying the vulnerability of this community. We prepared a tool that allow us to document the physical vulnerability conducting interviews with people in risk situation. Our tool included the analysis of five elements: household structure and public services, socioeconomic characteristics, community preparation for facing a disaster situation, and risk perception of the inhabitants using a sample statistically significant. Three field works were carried out (October and November 2009, and October 2010) and 444 interviews were registered. Five levels of vulnerability were considered: very high, high, middle, moderate and low. Our region of study was classified spatially and the different estimated levels of vulnerability were located in geo referenced on maps. Our results indicate that the locality has a high level of physical vulnerability because about 74% of the population reports that their household had suffered damages in the past; 86% of the households present low resistance building materials; 70% of the interviewed families has a daily income under five to fifteen dollars; 66% of population does not know any existing Civil Protection Plan; 83% of the population considers that they live in a high level of risk due to floods; finally, the community organization is practically nonexistent. In conclusion, the level of vulnerability of Motozintla is high due to the many factors to which is exposed, in addition, to the structural, socioeconomic and cultural characteristics of their inhabitants. Evidently, those elements of

  5. Exclusion as a Criterion for Selecting Socially Vulnerable Population Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova


    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical aspects of a scientific research “The Mechanisms for Overcoming Mental Barriers of Inclusion of Socially Vulnerable Categories of the Population for the Purpose of Intensifying Modernization in the Regional Community” (RSF grant No. 16-18-00078. The authors analyze the essence of the category of “socially vulnerable groups” from the legal, economic and sociological perspectives. The paper shows that the economic approach that uses the criterion “the level of income and accumulated assets” when defining vulnerable population groups prevails in public administration practice. The legal field of the category based on the economic approach is defined by the concept of “the poor and socially unprotected categories of citizens”. With the help of the analysis of theoretical and methodological aspects of this issue, the authors show that these criteria are a necessary but not sufficient condition for classifying the population as being socially vulnerable. Foreign literature associates the phenomenon of vulnerability with the concept of risks, with the possibility of households responding to them and with the likelihood of losing the well-being (poverty theory; research areas related to the means of subsistence, etc.. The asset-based approaches relate vulnerability to the poverty that arises due to lack of access to tangible and intangible assets. Sociological theories presented by the concept of social exclusion pay much attention to the breakdown of social ties as a source of vulnerability. The essence of social exclusion consists in the inability of people to participate in important aspects of social life (in politics, labor markets, education and healthcare, cultural life, etc. though they have all the rights to do so. The difference between the concepts of exclusion and poverty is manifested in the displacement of emphasis from income inequality to limited access to rights. Social exclusion is

  6. Assessing the Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change in Jordan (United States)

    Khresat, Sa'eb; Shraidaeh, Fadi; Maddat, Amer


    vulnerability. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6°C by 2050. These upward temperature trends are projected to continue beyond 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. It is concluded that the Overall vulnerability of agriculture to climate change in Jordan is high, where impacts such as drought and increased temperatures and decreased precipitation will be more pronounced. Major implications on rain fed agriculture are possible shorter growing season, increasing moisture and heat stress to field and horticultural crops and eventually low income and food insecurity. There were different impacts among studied communities, which is related to the: economic capability, local knowledge, physical infrastructure, institutional capacity, modern technology used, age group of farmers and diversification of their income.

  7. analysis and mapping of climate change risk and vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    to climate change and, thereby identify vulnerable hotspots. A biophysical and socio-economic indicator based integrated vulnerability assessment technique was used to map climate change vulnerability. Indicators were generated and analysed under three components of vulnerability, namely exposure, sensitivity and ...

  8. Windows Server 2012 vulnerabilities and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel R. López


    Full Text Available This investigation analyses the history of the vulnerabilities of the base system Windows Server 2012 highlighting the most critic vulnerabilities given every 4 months since its creation until the current date of the research. It was organized by the type of vulnerabilities based on the classification of the NIST. Next, given the official vulnerabilities of the system, the authors show how a critical vulnerability is treated by Microsoft in order to countermeasure the security flaw. Then, the authors present the recommended security approaches for Windows Server 2012, which focus on the baseline software given by Microsoft, update, patch and change management, hardening practices and the application of Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS. AD RMS is considered as an important feature since it is able to protect the system even though it is compromised using access lists at a document level. Finally, the investigation of the state of the art related to the security of Windows Server 2012 shows an analysis of solutions given by third parties vendors, which offer security products to secure the base system objective of this study. The recommended solution given by the authors present the security vendor Symantec with its successful features and also characteristics that the authors considered that may have to be improved in future versions of the security solution.

  9. Vulnerability synthetic indices: a literature integrative review. (United States)

    Schumann, Lívia Rejane Miguel Amaral; Schumann, Lívia Amaral; Moura, Leides Baroso Azevedo


    The concept of vulnerability is delimited by dynamic social and multigenerational processes involving at least three dimensions: exposure to risk trajectories, internal and external capabilities of reaction and possibilities of adaptation based on both the intensity of risk and the resilience of people. In order to identify and describe the synthetic indices of vulnerability, there was an integrative literature review. We consulted free access articles indexed in the following databases: BioMed, Bireme, PubMed, Reldalyc, SciELO and Web of Science; and we used controlled descriptors in English and Portuguese for all time slots available with selection and analysis of 47 studies that reported results of 23 synthetic indices of vulnerability. The results showed that the synthetic indices of vulnerability address four themes: social determinants of health; environmental and climatic conditions; family and course of life; territories and specific geographic areas. It was concluded that the definition of the components and indicators, as well as the methodologies adopted for the construction of synthetic indices need to be evaluated by means of the limitations and advantages of reporting the vulnerability through summary measures in policy formulation and decision-making aimed at human development.

  10. Comparative studies of groundwater vulnerability assessment (United States)

    Maria, Rizka


    Pollution of groundwater is a primary issue because aquifers are susceptible to contamination from land use and anthropogenic impacts. Groundwater susceptibility is intrinsic and specific. Intrinsic vulnerability refers to an aquifer that is susceptible to pollution and to the geological and hydrogeological features. Vulnerability assessment is an essential step in assessing groundwater contamination. This approach provides a visual analysis for helping planners and decision makers to achieve the sustainable management of water resources. Comparative studies are applying different methodologies to result in the basic evaluation of the groundwater vulnerability. Based on the comparison of methods, there are several advantages and disadvantages. SI can be overlaid on DRASTIC and Pesticide DRASTIC to extract the divergence in sensitivity. DRASTIC identifies low susceptibility and underestimates the pollution risk while Pesticide DRASTIC and SI represents better risk and is recommended for the future. SINTACS method generates very high vulnerability zones with surface waters and aquifer interactions. GOD method could be adequate for vulnerability mapping in karstified carbonate aquifers at small–moderate scales, and EPIK method can be used for large scale. GOD method is suitable for designing large area such as land management while DRASTIC has good accuracy and more real use in geoenvironmental detailed studies.

  11. 49 CFR 579.28 - Due date of reports and other miscellaneous provisions. (United States)


    ... VIN, or a tire manufacturer is not aware of the TIN, at the time the incident is initially reported... period in which the VIN or TIN is identified. A manufacturer need not submit an updated report if the VIN...

  12. Modelling coastal vulnerability : Design and evaluation of a vulnerability model for tropical storms and floods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchand, M.


    This resarch thesis focuses on vulnerability of societies in low lying coastal and deltaic environments to tropical cyclonic storms and floods. Models that explore vulnerability under various planned and unplanned conditions hardly exist. Within the Andhra Pradesh Cyclone Hazard Mitigation Project

  13. Urticaria due to antihistamines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sánchez Morillas, L; Rojas Pérez-Ezquerra, P; Reaño Martos, M; Sanz, M L; Laguna Martínez, J J


    .... We report a patient with urticaria due to ingestion of ebastine and fexofenadine. Skin prick tests, patch tests, and basophil activation tests with the implicated drugs and antihistamines from other families were negative...

  14. The Paradigmatic Struggle for Legitimacy of the Danish Welfare State regarding the Provision of Welfare Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl; Nielsen, Anna Lyneborg; Pedersen, John Storm


    The Danish welfare state constitutes a paradigmatic case of the welfare struggle of modern welfare states. Taking care of vulnerable children and youths is used as a case study here, to illustrate the efforts of the welfare state to acquire legitimacy as a body of public administration. That is...... blindness, in order to test the legitimacy of the welfare state´s provision of welfare services at the beginning of this century. We propose a new paradigm to improve the welfare state´s legitimacy. Our case is considered critical....

  15. Creativity and psychopathology: a shared vulnerability model. (United States)

    Carson, Shelley H


    Creativity is considered a positive personal trait. However, highly creative people have demonstrated elevated risk for certain forms of psychopathology, including mood disorders, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and alcoholism. A model of shared vulnerability explains the relation between creativity and psychopathology. This model, supported by recent findings from neuroscience and molecular genetics, suggests that the biological determinants conferring risk for psychopathology interact with protective cognitive factors to enhance creative ideation. Elements of shared vulnerability include cognitive disinhibition (which allows more stimuli into conscious awareness), an attentional style driven by novelty salience, and neural hyperconnectivity that may increase associations among disparate stimuli. These vulnerabilities interact with superior meta-cognitive protective factors, such as high IQ, increased working memory capacity, and enhanced cognitive flexibility, to enlarge the range and depth of stimuli available in conscious awareness to be manipulated and combined to form novel and original ideas.

  16. Handling Undiscovered Vulnerabilities Using a Provenance Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentine Anantharaj


    Full Text Available This paper elaborates on a novel approach at preventing exploits from vulnerabilities which remain uncovered during the testing phase of a system's development lifecycle. The combination of predicted usage patterns, a Provenance network model and a clustering methodology provide a secure failure mechanism for both known and unknown security issues within the system. The paper also addresses of the requisite supporting infrastructure and deployment issues related to the model. The idea is to approach the growing problem of newer and more complex vulnerabilities in an ever more intricate and vast set of systems using a generic software state mapping procedure for recognizable (and thus the complementary unrecognizable patterns to judge the stability at each step in an operation sequence. Thus abstracting these vulnerabilities at a higher level provides us a generic technique to classify and handle such concerns in the future and in turn prevent exploits before a corrective patch is released.

  17. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben


    The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim of the pre......The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire was originally a 22 item scale, later reduced to a 12 item scale. In population studies the 12 item scale has been a significant predictor of health and illness. The scale has not been psychometrically evaluated for more than 30 years, and the aim...... 0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  18. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F


    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976...... and 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date...... of cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  19. Reflexivity and vulnerability in collaborative knowledge production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft; Olesen, Birgitte Ravn

    -reports of positive learning outcomes and fails to illuminate how power is always at play leaving certain participants exposed and potentially vulnerable (Fenwick, 2008). As such, it remains unclear how power relations unfold in moment-by-moment interactions including how the researcher’s position matters...... because their voices are subjugated and they appear to be vulnerable. The extent of this development in the peer interactions and the reproductive nature of the knowledge produced were unexpected. In other words we – the researchers – became struck in the analytical process. In the final part of the paper......, we discuss how the reproduction of power relations invokes ethical concerns and raises critical perspectives on the undeniable common good of collaborative research in which participants’ vulnerability may be overlooked in potentially reflexive moments (Nordentoft and Kappel, 2011). Still, we find...

  20. A versatile method for groundwater vulnerability projections in future scenarios. (United States)

    Stevenazzi, Stefania; Bonfanti, Marianna; Masetti, Marco; Nghiem, Son V; Sorichetta, Alessandro


    Water scarcity and associated risks are serious societal problems. A major challenge for the future will be to ensure the short-term and long-term provision of accessible and safe freshwater to meet the needs of the rapidly growing human population and changes in land cover and land use, where conservation and protection play a key role. Through a Bayesian spatial statistical method, a time-dependent approach for groundwater vulnerability assessment is developed to account for both the recent status of groundwater contamination and its evolution, as required by the European Union (Groundwater Directive, 2006/118/EC). This approach combines natural and anthropogenic factors to identify areas with a critical combination of high levels and increasing trends of nitrate concentrations, together with a quantitative evaluation of how different future scenarios would impact the quality of groundwater resources in a given area. In particular, the proposed approach can determine potential impacts on groundwater resources if policies are maintained at the status quo or if new measures are implemented for safeguarding groundwater quality, as natural factors are changing under climatic or anthropogenic stresses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistance and vulnerability to stigmatization in abortion work. (United States)

    O'Donnell, Jenny; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori R


    The stigma surrounding abortion in the United States commonly permeates the experience of both those seeking this health service as well as those engaged in its provision. Annually there are approximately 1.2 million abortions performed in the United States; despite that existing research shows that abortion services are highly utilized, women rarely disclose their use of these services. In 2005 only 1787 facilities that offer abortion services remained, a drop of almost 40 percent since 1982 (Jones, Zolna, Henshaw, & Finer, 2008). While it has been acknowledged that all professionals working in abortion are labeled to some degree as different, no published research has explored stigmatization as a process experienced by the range of individuals that comprise the abortion-providing workforce in the USA. Using qualitative data from a group of healthcare professionals doing abortion work in a Western state, this study begins to fill that gap, providing evidence of how the experience of stigma can vary and is managed within interactions in the workplace, in professional circles, among family and friends, and among strangers. The analysis shows that the experience of stigma for those providing abortion care is not a static or fixed loss of status. It is a dynamic situation in which those vulnerable to stigmatization can avoid, resist, or transform the stigma that would attach to them by varying degrees within selective contexts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 1493.530 - Miscellaneous provisions. (United States)


    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.530 Miscellaneous provisions. (a) Assignment. (1) The...

  3. 19 CFR 171.55 - Notice provisions. (United States)


    ... section 6079 of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 and implementing regulations. (b) Notice provision. The... property and shall include a statement of the applicable law under which the property is seized and a...

  4. 48 CFR 4.607 - Solicitation Provisions. (United States)


    ... United States or its outlying areas. ..., Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, in solicitations that— (1) Are expected to result in a..., Central Contractor Registration. (b) Insert the provision at 52.204-5, Women-Owned Business (Other Than...

  5. 24 CFR 266.410 - Mortgage provisions. (United States)


    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Mortgage and... accordance with HUD guidelines. (i) Regulatory Agreement. The mortgage must contain a provision incorporating the Regulatory Agreement by reference. ...

  6. SU-G-BRB-16: Vulnerabilities in the Gamma Metric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, B; Siebers, J [University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    Purpose: To explore vulnerabilities in the gamma index metric that undermine its wide use as a radiation therapy quality assurance tool. Methods: 2D test field pairs (images) are created specifically to achieve high gamma passing rates, but to also include gross errors by exploiting the distance-to-agreement and percent-passing components of the metric. The first set has no requirement of clinical practicality, but is intended to expose vulnerabilities. The second set exposes clinically realistic vulnerabilities. To circumvent limitations inherent to user-specific tuning of prediction algorithms to match measurements, digital test cases are manually constructed, thereby mimicking high-quality image prediction. Results: With a 3 mm distance-to-agreement metric, changing field size by ±6 mm results in a gamma passing rate over 99%. For a uniform field, a lattice of passing points spaced 5 mm apart results in a passing rate of 100%. Exploiting the percent-passing component, a 10×10 cm{sup 2} field can have a 95% passing rate when an 8 cm{sup 2}=2.8×2.8 cm{sup 2} highly out-of-tolerance (e.g. zero dose) square is missing from the comparison image. For clinically realistic vulnerabilities, an arc plan for which a 2D image is created can have a >95% passing rate solely due to agreement in the lateral spillage, with the failing 5% in the critical target region. A field with an integrated boost (e.g whole brain plus small metastases) could neglect the metastases entirely, yet still pass with a 95% threshold. All the failure modes described would be visually apparent on a gamma-map image. Conclusion: The %gamma<1 metric has significant vulnerabilities. High passing rates can obscure critical faults in hypothetical and delivered radiation doses. Great caution should be used with gamma as a QA metric; users should inspect the gamma-map. Visual analysis of gamma-maps may be impractical for cine acquisition.

  7. Intrinsic vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping for karst aquifers: A case study (United States)

    Mimi, Ziad A.; Assi, Amjad


    SummaryGroundwater from karst aquifers is among the most important resources of drinking water supply of the worldwide population. The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this European approach to the groundwater underlying the Ramallah district, a karst hydrogeology system in Palestine. The vulnerability maps which were developed can assist in the implementation of groundwater management strategies to prevent degradation of groundwater quality. Large areas in the case study area can be classified as low or very low risk area corresponding to the pollution sources due to the absence of hazards and also due to low vulnerabilities. These areas could consequently be interesting for future development as they are preferable in view of ground water protection.

  8. Banks' Procyclical Behavior: Does Provisioning Matter?


    Vincent Bouvatier; Laetitia Lepetit


    International audience; A panel of 186 European banks is used for the period 1992-2004 to determine if banking behaviors, induced by the capital adequacy constraint and the provisioning system, amplify credit fluctuations. Our nding is consistent with the bank capital channel hypothesis, which means that poorly capitalized banks constrained to expand credit. We also find that loan loss provisions (LLP) made in order to cover identified credit losses (non discretionary LLP) amplify credit fluc...

  9. Determinants of occupational pension provision in Germany


    Dummann, Kathrin


    Demographic change causes an undersupply of financial old age benefits within the statutory pay-as-you-go pension system in Germany. Therefore, the provision of occupational as well as private pensions has to be enhanced. However, there seems to be an undersupply of occupational pension provision particularly in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Using survey data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and the German SAVE survey, the present paper studies econometrically the deter...

  10. The changing climate and human vulnerability in north-central Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret N. Angula


    Full Text Available North-central Namibia is more vulnerable to effects of climate change and variability. Combined effects of environmental degradation, social vulnerability to poverty and a changing climate will compromise subsistence farming in north-central Namibia (NCN. This will make subsistence and small-scale farmers in the region more vulnerable to projected changes in the climate system. Thus, the aim of this article was to examine factors contributing to subsistence farmers’ vulnerability to impacts of climate change. The article further discusses different aspects of human vulnerability and existing adaptation strategies in response to impacts of climate related disasters experienced over the past three to four decades in NCN. Qualitative and quantitative research approaches and methodology were employed to obtain information from subsistence farmers in north-central Namibia. The sociodemographic characteristics of Ohangwena, Oshana and Omusati Region reveals high levels of unemployment, high adult and elderly population and high dependency on agricultural livelihood system. These indicators help understand levels of household vulnerability. The study concludes that households interviewed revealed low levels of adaptive capacity due to exposure to climate risks and combined effects of social, political and cultural factors. This article provided an understanding that is required to inform the adaptation pathways relevant for NCN.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazri Nur Yusuf


    Full Text Available Studies on potentials of feedback over English language teaching seem not to have not been well-revealed, including studies on the use of feedback to improve English pre-service teachers’ competence. The present study investigates to what extent a multimodal feedback can influence pre-service teachers’ teaching, and which teaching aspects are influenced. Twenty five pre-service teachers taking Microteaching Course served as respondents supervised by a course advisor. The data were collected by teacher observation in a rating-scale form, self-appraisal, and interviews. The data were analyzed by using correlated sample t-test and the eight teaching components proposed by Brown (2001. The results showed that after multimodal feedback provision, pre-service teachers indicated an improvement significantly in seven out of eight teaching aspects. The provision of multimodal feedback could improve their teaching competence on preparation, instructional objective elicitation, mastery of instructional materials, use of media, and classroom management, including classroom language. But, the results do not indicate that they perform well on reflection and follow-up due to some reasons. In addition, the results evince that multimodal feedback provision could improve pre-service teachers’ pedagogical competence when the multimodal feedback is integrated with content, interpersonal relationship, and management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Jayapal


    Full Text Available Providing efficient and scalable service provisioning in Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET is a big research challenge. In adaptive service provisioning mechanism an adaptive election procedure is used to select a coordinator node. The role of a service coordinator is crucial in any distributed directory based service provisioning scheme. The existing coordinator election schemes use either the nodeID or a hash function to choose the coordinator. In these schemes, the leader changes are more frequent due to node mobility. We propose an adaptive scheme that makes use of an eligibility factor that is calculated based on the distance to the zone center, remaining battery power and average speed to elect a core node that change according to the network dynamics. We also retain the node with the second highest priority as a backup node. Our algorithm is compared with the existing solution by simulation and the result shows that the core node selected by us is more stable and hence reduces the number of handoffs. This in turn improves the service delivery performance by increasing the packet delivery ratio and decreasing the delay, the overhead and the forwarding cost.

  13. The right to health care and vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Loureiro


    Full Text Available The article seeks to clarify the concept of vulnerability, by taking structural and epochal frailty into account. To understand the right to health care, the author reflects about the fundamental goods, and he then examines how that same right is present in the Portuguese and the Spanish constitutions. The association between vulnerability and the law is also tackled, with a special reference –in dialogue with Herbert Hart– to its fundamental level and to other links between both terms in the field of health. The article closes with a few remarks on posthumanist attempts at saying goodbye to human frailty.

  14. Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted...... explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences...

  15. Terminological Ontologies for Risk and Vulnerability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup; Erdman Thomsen, Hanne


    Risk and vulnerability analyses are an important preliminary stage in civil contingency planning. The Danish Emergency Management Agency has developed a generic model and a set of tools that may be used in the preparedness planning, i.e. for identifying and describing society’s critical functions......, for formulating threat scenarios and for assessing consequences. Terminological ontologies, which are systems of domain specific concepts comprising concept relations and characteristics, are useful, both when describing the central concepts of risk and vulnerability analysis (meta concepts), and for further...

  16. Multi-dimensional flood vulnerability assessment using data envelopment analysis (United States)

    Zahid, Zalina; Saharizan, Nurul Syuhada; Hamzah, Paezah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh; Khairi, Siti Shaliza Mohd


    Malaysia has been greatly impacted by flood during monsoon seasons. Even though flood prone areas are well identified, assessment on the vulnerability of the disaster is lacking. Assessment of flood vulnerability, defined as the potential for loss when a disaster occurs, is addressed in this paper. The focus is on the development of flood vulnerability measurement in 11 states in Peninsular Malaysia using a non-parametric approach of Data Envelopment Analysis. Scores for three dimensions of flood vulnerability (Population Vulnerability, Social Vulnerability and Biophysical) were calculated using secondary data of selected input and output variables across an 11-year period from 2004 to 2014. The results showed that Johor and Pahang were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Population Vulnerability, followed by Kelantan, the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Social Vulnerability and Kedah, Pahang and Terengganu were the most vulnerable to flood in terms of Biophysical Vulnerability among the eleven states. The results also showed that the state of Johor, Pahang and Kelantan to be most vulnerable across the three dimensions. Flood vulnerability assessment is important as it provides invaluable information that will allow the authority to identify and develop plans for flood mitigation and to reduce the vulnerability of flood at the affected regions.

  17. Developing a vulnerability mapping methodology: applying the water-associated disease index to dengue in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Dickin

    Full Text Available The Water-associated Disease Index (WADI was developed to identify and visualize vulnerability to different water-associated diseases by integrating a range of social and biophysical determinants in map format. In this study vulnerability is used to encompass conditions of exposure, susceptibility, and differential coping capacity to a water-associated health hazard. By assessing these conditions, the tool is designed to provide stakeholders with an integrated and long-term understanding of subnational vulnerabilities to water-associated disease and contribute to intervention strategies to reduce the burden of illness. The objective of this paper is to describe and validate the WADI tool by applying it to dengue. A systemic ecohealth framework that considers links between people, the environment and health was applied to identify secondary datasets, populating the index with components including climate conditions, land cover, education status and water use practices. Data were aggregated to create composite indicators of exposure and of susceptibility in a Geographic Information System (GIS. These indicators were weighted by their contribution to dengue vulnerability, and the output consisted of an overall index visualized in map format. The WADI was validated in this Malaysia case study, demonstrating a significant association with dengue rates at a sub-national level, and illustrating a range of factors that drive vulnerability to the disease within the country. The index output indicated high vulnerability to dengue in urban areas, especially in the capital Kuala Lumpur and surrounding region. However, in other regions, vulnerability to dengue varied throughout the year due to the influence of seasonal climate conditions, such as monsoon patterns. The WADI tool complements early warning models for water-associated disease by providing upstream information for planning prevention and control approaches, which increasingly require a

  18. Vulnerability of Bread-Baskets to Weather Shocks (United States)

    Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; West, P. C.; Foley, J. A.


    Many analyses of food security consider broad trends in food supply (crop production, crop use) and demand (changing diets, population growth.) However, if past shocks to the food system due to weather events (i.e. droughts) were to repeat themselves today, the resulting famines could be far more serious due to increased concentration of grain production in vulnerable bread-baskets, and decreased resilience of global and regional food systems (i.e. lower stocks, dependence on fewer crops). The present research project takes advantage of high-resolution historical weather datasets to assess probabilities of historically observed droughts repeating themselves in one or more of today's bread-basket regions. Using recently developed relationships between weather and crop yield, we consider the likelihood of region-wide crop failures under current conditions, and also under various climate scenarios.

  19. Developing Vulnerability Analysis Method for Climate Change Adaptation on Agropolitan Region in Malang District (United States)

    Sugiarto, Y.; Perdinan; Atmaja, T.; Wibowo, A.


    Agriculture plays a strategic role in strengthening sustainable development. Based on agropolitan concept, the village becomes the center of economic activities by combining agriculture, agro-industry, agribusiness and tourism that able to create high value-added economy. The impact of climate change on agriculture and water resources may increase the pressure on agropolitan development. The assessment method is required to measure the vulnerability of area-based communities in the agropolitan to climate change impact. An analysis of agropolitan vulnerability was conducted in Malang district based on four aspects and considering the availability and distribution of water as the problem. The indicators used to measure was vulnerability component which consisted of sensitivity and adaptive capacity and exposure component. The studies earned 21 indicators derived from the 115 village-based data. The results of vulnerability assessments showed that most of the villages were categorised at a moderate level. Around 20% of 388 villages were categorized at high to very high level of vulnerability due to low level of agricultural economic. In agropolitan region within the sub-district of Poncokusumo, the vulnerability of the villages varies between very low to very high. The most villages were vulnerable due to lower adaptive capacity, eventhough the level of sensitivity and exposure of all villages were relatively similar. The existence of water resources was the biggest contributor to the high exposure of the villages in Malang district, while the reception of credit facilities and source of family income were among the indicators that lead to high sensitivity component.

  20. The vulnerability of organic matter in Swiss forest soils (United States)

    González Domínguez, Beatriz; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Studer, Mirjam S.; Hagedorn, Frank; Wacker, Lukas; Haghipour, Negar; Zimmermann, Stephan; Walthert, Lorenz; Abiven, Samuel; McIntyre, Cameron


    Soils contain more carbon than atmosphere and terrestrial vegetation combined [1], and thus are key players in the carbon cycle. With climate change, the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is vulnerable to loss through increased CO2 emissions, which in turn can amplify changes with this carbon feedback [2]. The objective of this study is to investigate the variation of indicators of SOC vulnerability (e.g. SOC mineralisation, turnover time, bulk soil and mineralised 14C signatures) and to evaluate climate, soil and terrain variables as primary drivers. To choose the study locations we used a statistics-based approach to select a balanced combination of 54 forest sites with de-correlated drivers of SOC vulnerability (i.e. proxies for soil temperature and moisture, pH, % clay, slope gradient and orientation). Sites were selected from the forest soil database of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), which in May 2014, contained data from 1,050 soil profiles spread across Switzerland. We re-sampled soils at the 54 locations during summer 2014. With these samples we run a standardized laboratory soil incubation (i.e. 25°C; soils moisture -20kPa; sieved to ≤ 2 mm; 40 g equivalent dry mass; adjusted to 0.8 g cm-3 bulk density) and measured SOC mineralisation on days 4, 13, 30, 63, 121 and 181 by trapping the CO2 evolved from soils in sodium hydroxide traps [3]. Additionally, we measured the 14C signature of the carbon trapped during last stage of the incubation, and compare it to the 14C signature of the bulk soil. Based on the cumulative SOC mineralised, we found that despite the well-studied relationship between climate and SOC dynamics [4], temperature did not emerge as a predictor of SOC vulnerability. In parallel, moisture only had a minor role, with soils from drier sites being the most vulnerable. This indicates a possible limitation of heterotrophic activity due to water shortage. On the other hand, soil pH raised as the driver

  1. Vulnerability of Russian regions to natural risk: experience of quantitative assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Petrova


    Full Text Available One of the important tracks leading to natural risk prevention, disaster mitigation or the reduction of losses due to natural hazards is the vulnerability assessment of an 'at-risk' region. The majority of researchers propose to assess vulnerability according to an expert evaluation of several qualitative characteristics, scoring each of them usually using three ratings: low, average, and high. Unlike these investigations, we attempted a quantitative vulnerability assessment using multidimensional statistical methods. Cluster analysis for all 89 Russian regions revealed five different types of region, which are characterized with a single (rarely two prevailing factor causing increase of vulnerability. These factors are: the sensitivity of the technosphere to unfavorable influences; a 'human factor'; a high volume of stored toxic waste that increases possibility of NDs with serious consequences; the low per capita GRP, which determine reduced prevention and protection costs; the heightened liability of regions to natural disasters that can be complicated due to unfavorable social processes. The proposed methods permitted us to find differences in prevailing risk factor (vulnerability factor for the region types that helps to show in which direction risk management should focus on.

  2. Structural vulnerability assessment of electric power grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koç, Y.; Warnier, M.; Kooij, R.E.; Brazier, F.


    Cascading failures are the typical reasons of blackouts in power grids. The grid topology plays an important role in determining the dynamics of cascading failures in power grids. Measures for vulnerability analysis are crucial to assure a higher level of robustness of power grids. Metrics from

  3. Reducing vulnerability among pastoralists in Northern Kenya

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Climate data confirms pastoral livelihoods are at risk from rising surface temperatures, more intense rainfall and more frequent droughts. Figure 2 shows a ... 1 Rainfall and drought data from “An assessment of drought induced vulnerability of the Turkana pastoralist community livelihoods in northern Kenya and its ability to.

  4. Evaluating Youth Work with Vulnerable Young People. (United States)

    Furlong, Andy; Cartmel, Fred; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart

    This report presents the results of an 18-month research project that studied the effectiveness of youth work with vulnerable young people. The research, representing six distinct geographical areas of Scotland characterized by disadvantage, focused on young people aged 13 to 16. In each neighborhood, the project examined the experiences of young…

  5. Addressing uncertainty in vulnerability assessments [Chapter 5 (United States)

    Linda Joyce; Molly Cross; Evan Girvatz


    This chapter addresses issues and approaches for dealing with uncertainty specifically within the context of conducting climate change vulnerability assessments (i.e., uncertainties related to identifying and modeling the sensitivities, levels of exposure, and adaptive capacity of the assessment targets).

  6. Comprehensive food security and vulnerability analysis: Nigeria:


    Kuku, Oluyemisi; Mathiassen, Astrid; Wadhwa, Amit; Myles, Lucy; Ajibola, Akeem


    The Nigerian Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) provides an in-depth assessment of the food security situation within Nigeria. This is very important as it equips policymakers with timely and relevant information that will aid the targeting of interventions.

  7. Analysis of computational vulnerabilities in digital repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdete Fernandes Belarmino


    Full Text Available Objective. Demonstrates the results of research that aimed to analyze the computational vulnerabilities of digital directories in public Universities. Argues the relevance of information in contemporary societies like an invaluable resource, emphasizing scientific information as an essential element to constitute scientific progress. Characterizes the emergence of Digital Repositories and highlights its use in academic environment to preserve, promote, disseminate and encourage the scientific production. Describes the main software for the construction of digital repositories. Method. The investigation identified and analyzed the vulnerabilities that are exposed the digital repositories using Penetration Testing running. Discriminating the levels of risk and the types of vulnerabilities. Results. From a sample of 30 repositories, we could examine 20, identified that: 5% of the repositories have critical vulnerabilities, 85% high, 25% medium and 100% lowers. Conclusions. Which demonstrates the necessity to adapt actions for these environments that promote informational security to minimizing the incidence of external and / or internal systems attacks.Abstract Grey Text – use bold for subheadings when needed.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Climate change poses a serious danger to livelihoods and food security as well as enhancing risks and vulnerabilities through the increased incidence of environmental disaster and intense weather events [1]. The impacts of climate change basically may be restricted in nature but also with economy-wide implications [2].

  9. Vulnerable Derivatives and Good Deal Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murgoci, Agatha


    We price vulnerable derivatives – i.e. derivatives where the counterparty may default. These are basically the derivatives traded on the over-the-counter (OTC) markets. Default is modelled in a structural framework. The technique employed for pricing is good deal bounds (GDBs). The method imposes...

  10. Relative seismic shaking vulnerability microzonation using an ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nakamura horizontal to vertical spectral ratio method provides many advantages over alternative methods including: low cost; .... This technique has the obvious advantage that the instrumentation does ...... Relative seismic shaking vulnerability microzonation. 893. App e ndix. 2. –. S. 6000. O u tput vs frequency resp o nse ...

  11. Governing for Resilience in Vulnerable Places

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trell, Elen-Maarja; Restemeyer, Britta; Bakema, Melanie; van Hoven, Bettina


    Governing for Resilience in Vulnerable Places provides an overview and a critical analysis of the ways in which the concept ‘resilience’ has been addressed in social sciences research. In doing so, this edited book draws together state of the art research from a variety of disciplines (i.e. spatial

  12. Chemical Safety Vulnerability Working Group Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report marks the culmination of a 4-month review conducted to identify chemical safety vulnerabilities existing at DOE facilities. This review is an integral part of DOE's efforts to raise its commitment to chemical safety to the same level as that for nuclear safety.

  13. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) constitute major public health concern and enigma. A comprehensive knowledge of the modes of transmission is necessary to evolve an effective preventive strategy. Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the vulnerability, knowledge and prevention of STIs among female ...

  14. Armillaria ectypa, a vulnerable indicator of mires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Ohenoja


    Full Text Available A boreal-montane basidiomycete, Armillaria ectypa, occurs as occasional in northern Finland, mainly in the aapa mire area. According to the IUCN criteria it has been classified as a vulnerable fungus in Finland. Its ecology is in some way connected e.g. to the carices of wet mesotrophic mires.

  15. Vulnerability of pregnant women in clinical research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zande, Indira S. E.; van der Graaf, Rieke; Oudijk, Martijn A.; van Delden, Johannes J. M.


    Notwithstanding the need to produce evidence-based knowledge on medications for pregnant women, they remain underrepresented in clinical research. Sometimes they are excluded because of their supposed vulnerability, but there are no universally accepted criteria for considering pregnant women as

  16. Consumer financial vulnerability: identifying transmission linkages ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    activates the postulated consumer financial vulnerability index (CFVI) transmission path. To determine the extent to which other macroeconomic variables impact on the postulated CFVI transmission path, a consumer price index (CPI) time series was entered exogenously into the existing. VAR equation. It appears from the ...

  17. The vulnerability and resilience of historic structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš


    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2017), s. 8-12 ISSN 1842-5631 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : emergency situations * vulnerability * resilience * maintenance * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage OBOR OECD: Architecture engineering

  18. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2007 ... Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural Systems in Madagascar. Madagascar has completed its national plan of action for adapting to climate change. Several actors and decision-makers - agricultural policymakers, regional rural development managers, emergency services ...

  19. Deferential vulnerability and patient decision-making

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 1, 2017 ... Deferential vulnerability arises when individuals subordinate themselves or submit to an authority figure when making decisions about their day-to-day lives and existence within their specific environment and relationships. This customary obedience occurs in cultures where certain hierarchical systems ...

  20. Vulnerability in North-central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil; Milhøj, Anders; Phuong Nguyen, Thao


    are becoming richer over time, despite the impact of flooding in the provinces. The article ends by looking at the vulnerability–resilience debate concluding that the poorer households could enter a vulnerability loop, unless new strategies to cope with natural hazards are suggested....

  1. Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Vulnerability and Knowledge of Sexually Transmitted. Infections Among Female Traders of Reproductive. Age in Enugu, Nigeria. Ikeako LC, Ekwueme OC1, Ezegwui HU2, Okeke TOC2. Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Anambra State University Teaching Hospital, Amaku, Awka, 2University of Nigeria Teaching ...

  2. Flood vulnerability evaluation in complex urban areas (United States)

    Giosa, L.; Pascale, S.; Sdao, F.; Sole, A.; Cantisani, A.


    This paper deals the conception, the development and the subsequent validation of an integrated numerical model for the assessment of systemic vulnerability in complex and urbanized areas, subject to flood risk. The proposed methodology is based on the application of the concept of "systemic vulnerability", the model is a mathematician-decisional model action to estimate the vulnerability of complex a territorial system during a flood event. The model uses a group of "pressure pointers" in order to define, qualitatively and quantitatively, the influence exercised on the territorial system from factors like as those physicists, social, economic, etc.. The model evaluates the exposure to the flood risk of the elements that belong to a system. The proposed model, which is based on the studies of Tamura et al., 2000; Minciardi et al., 2004; Pascale et al., 2008; considers the vulnerability not as a characteristic of a particular element at risk, but as a peculiarity of a complex territorial system, in which the different elements are reciprocally linked in a functional way. The proposed model points out the elements with the major functional lost and that make the whole system critical. This characteristic makes the proposed model able to support a correct territorial planning and a suitable management of the emergency following natural disasters such as floods. The proposed approach was tested on the study area in the city of Potenza, southern Italy.

  3. Urbanising Thailand: Implications for climate vulnerability assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friend, R.; Choosuk, C.; Hutanuwatr, K.; Inmuong, Y.; Kittitornkool, J.; Lambregts, B.; Promphakping, B.; Roachanakanan, T.; Thiengburanathum, P.; Siriwattanaphaiboon, S.


    This report summarises a series of studies carried out by a multi-disciplinary team of Thai scholars. It focuses on the dynamics of urbanisation and climate change risks, and on the linkages between urbanisation, climate change and emerging patterns of urban poverty and vulnerability. It provides

  4. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars


    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  5. Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change : Agricultural ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2007 ... to facilitate a dialogue between decision-makers and researchers at the national, regional and local level;; to produce spatial information on the factors affecting vulnerability to climate change on the whole island of Madagascar;; to better understand existing and possible adaptation strategies;; to explore ...

  6. Vulnerability and Safety Nets in Lao PDR


    Lindelow, Magnus; Fenton, Nina


    Lao PDR has experienced high levels of economic growth in recent years and the incidence of poverty has fallen dramatically since the 1990s. Yet, this report shows that Lao households continue to be highly vulnerable to regular seasonal fluctuations, as well as agricultural shocks and natural disasters. The report also highlights the importance of health shocks, injury and death for household ...

  7. Vulnerability--A New View of Schizophrenia (United States)

    Zubin, Joseph; Spring, Bonnie


    Although descriptive and etiological approaches to psychopathology have made notable advances, they seem to have reached a plateau. After reviewing the six approaches to etiology that now preempt the field--ecological, developmental, learning, genetic, internal environment, and neurophysiological models--a second-order model, vulnerability, is…

  8. Intracoronary Thermography: a vulnerable Plaque Detection Technique?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. ten Have (Anna)


    textabstractThe studies reported in this thesis were performed to answer the central question: can intracoronary thermography be used for vulnerable plaque detection? To answer this question, we have identified parameters that influence intracoronary thermography measurements, and have studied to

  9. Groundwater vulnerability map for South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chiedza Musekiwa

    This paper discusses the creation of a coastal vulnerability map for South Africa. The criteria used included elevation to chart datum, beach width, tidal range, wave height, geology, geomorphology, anthropogenic activities, distance to 20m isobaths and relative sea level change. The values of these parameters were divided ...

  10. The making of vulnerabilities: understanding the differentiated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The making of vulnerabilities: understanding the differentiated effects of HIV and AIDS among street traders in Warwick Junction, Durban, South Africa. ... other societal processes, such as globalisation and urbanisation, or how these processes collectively converge with place-specific conditions to expose, drive and ...

  11. Multiple perspective vulnerability analysis of the power network (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Na


    To understand the vulnerability of the power network from multiple perspectives, multi-angle and multi-dimensional vulnerability analysis as well as community based vulnerability analysis are proposed in this paper. Taking into account of central China power grid as an example, correlation analysis of different vulnerability models is discussed. Then, vulnerabilities produced by different vulnerability metrics under the given vulnerability models and failure scenarios are analyzed. At last, applying the community detecting approach, critical areas of central China power grid are identified, Vulnerable and robust communities on both topological and functional perspective are acquired and analyzed. The approach introduced in this paper can be used to help decision makers develop optimal protection strategies. It will be also useful to give a multiple vulnerability analysis of the other infrastructure systems.

  12. A pragmatic analysis of vulnerability in clinical research. (United States)

    Wendler, David


    Identifying which subjects are vulnerable, and implementing safeguards to protect them, is widely regarded as essential to clinical research. Commentators have endorsed a number of responses to these challenges and have thereby made significant progress in understanding vulnerability in clinical research. At the same time, this literature points to a central contradiction which calls into question its potential to protect vulnerable subjects in practice. Specifically, analysis suggests that all human subjects are vulnerable and vulnerability in clinical research is comparative and context dependent, in the sense that individuals are vulnerable relative to others and in some contexts only. Yet, if everyone is vulnerable, there seems to be no point in citing the vulnerability of some individuals. Moreover, the conclusion that everyone is vulnerable seems inconsistent with the claims that vulnerability is comparative and context dependent, raising concern over whether it will be possible to develop a comprehensive account of vulnerability that is internally consistent. The solution to this dilemma lies in recognition of the fact that the practical significance of claims regarding vulnerability depends on the context in which they are used. The claims that appear to lead to the central contradiction are in fact accurate conclusions that follow from different uses of the term 'vulnerability'. The present manuscript describes this 'pragmatic' approach to vulnerability in clinical research and considers its implications for ensuring that subjects receive appropriate protection. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Influence of gender roles and rising food prices on poor, pregnant women's eating and food provisioning practices in Dhaka, Bangladesh. (United States)

    Levay, Adrienne V; Mumtaz, Zubia; Faiz Rashid, Sabina; Willows, Noreen


    Maternal malnutrition in Bangladesh is a persistent health issue and is the product of a number of complex factors, including adherence to food 'taboos' and a patriarchal gender order that limits women's mobility and decision-making. The recent global food price crisis is also negatively impacting poor pregnant women's access to food. It is believed that those who are most acutely affected by rising food prices are the urban poor. While there is an abundance of useful quantitative research centered on maternal nutrition and food insecurity measurements in Bangladesh, missing is an understanding of how food insecurity is experienced by people who are most vulnerable, the urban ultra-poor. In particular, little is known of the lived experience of food insecurity among pregnant women in this context. This research investigated these lived experiences by exploring food provisioning strategies of urban, ultra-poor, pregnant women. This knowledge is important as discussions surrounding the creation of new development goals are currently underway. Using a focused-ethnographic approach, household food provisioning experiences were explored. Data from participant observation, a focus group discussion and semi-structured interviews were collected in an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Interviews were undertaken with 28 participants including 12 pregnant women and new mothers, two husbands, nine non-pregnant women, and five health care workers. The key findings are: 1) women were aware of the importance of good nutrition and demonstrated accurate, biomedically-based knowledge of healthy eating practices during pregnancy; 2) the normative gender rules that have traditionally constrained women's access to nutritional resources are relaxing in the urban setting; however 3) women are challenged in accessing adequate quality and quantities of food due to the increase in food prices at the market. Rising food prices and resultant food insecurity due to insufficient incomes are

  14. Death due to asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert L. Sheffer


    Full Text Available The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minorities are at increased risk of asthma. The perception of dyspnea may be blunted in asthma sufferers. Slow-onset fatal asthma may be associated with submucosal eosinophilic, whereas sudden-onset may be associated with submucosal neutrophilia. Fatal asthma occurs in patients abusing regular |32-agonist therapy. Peak flow assessment often provides insight into asthma deterioration prior to signs of respiratory distress. Markers of risk of death due to asthma further identify the fatality-prone asthma patient.

  15. Children's health and vulnerability in outdoor microclimates: A comprehensive review. (United States)

    Vanos, Jennifer K


    Children are routinely identified as a vulnerable population in environmental health risk assessments, experiencing adverse health outcomes due to exposure to a suite of atmospheric constituents. To provide a substantive overview of the research literature pertaining to biometeorological effects on children. Key information areas within urban environmental health research related to atmospheric variables (heat, air pollution, radiation) are assessed and integrated to better understand health outcomes and vulnerabilities in children. Critical avenues for improvement and understanding of children's health related to such biophysical parameters are also identified. This comprehensive review assesses past and current primary studies, organizational reports, educational books, and review articles. Emphasis is placed on the differential ambient exposures to temperature, air pollution, and radiation within urban microclimates commonly used by children (e.g., schoolyards, urban parks), and the resulting health impacts. Exposure to heat, air pollution, and radiation are often enhanced in urban areas, specifically under the current design of the majority of outdoor child play places. Many heat indices, energy budget models, and health outcome studies fail to adequately parameterize children, yet those that do find enhanced vulnerability to ambient stressors, particularly heat and air pollution. Such environmental exposures relate strongly to behavior, activity, asthma, obesity, and overall child well-being. Current research indicates that a changing climate, growing urban population, and unsustainable design are projected to pose increasing complications. Evidence-based research to link children's health, physiology, and behavior to atmospheric extremes is an important future research avenue, underscoring the fact that children are among the population groups disproportionately affected by ambient extremes. However, current methods and population-based models lack child

  16. Incentive Use in Research: Protecting Vulnerable Populations from Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Muwonge


    Full Text Available Global investment in Medical Research and Development has markedly increased in the last few decades. However, due to the decreasing public altruism, researchers have come under increased pressures from the funding bodies to produce results. Out of desperation, some researchers have resorted to using incentives as a means of sourcing for volunteers. Consequently, the research burden has disproportionately been shared among the most vulnerable populations in the society. Incentives especially monetary ones present an ethical dilemma because of the uncertainties’ surrounding the morality, amount and type of payment, vulnerability of volunteers and possible threats to voluntary participation. Several studies done on the use of incentives in medical research have noted that financial motivation was the number one reason for subjects to volunteer in Medical research. Mutual benefit and freedom of choice by participants were given as reasons to support their use. However, scientists who are against the use of incentives believe that they are coercive or undue inducements, and may influence a subjects’ ability to give an informed consent. Guidelines exist that protect vulnerable groups from exploitation, although none sheds light into the use of incentives. Nonetheless, in the face of the waning public altruism, the benefits of using incentives far outweigh the dangers, although researchers should avoid situations where their use may become problematic. As a mode of payment to research subjects, researchers should adopt a combination of the Dickerts’ Wage and re-imbursement models as guides in quantifying the incentive. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 408-417

  17. Future socio-economic impacts and vulnerabilities (United States)

    Balgis Osman-Elasha; John Parrotta; Neil Adger; Maria Brockhaus; Carol J. Pierce Colfer; Brent Sohngen; Tallaat Dafalla; Linda A. Joyce; Nkem Johnson; Carmenza Robledo


    The projected impacts of climate change are significant, and despite the uncertainties associated with current climate and ecosystem model projections, the associated changes in the provision of forest ecosystem services are expected to be substantial in many parts of the world. These impacts will present significant social and economic challenges for affected...

  18. Death due to asthma


    Sheffer, Albert L.


    The prevalence and fatality rate of asthma have increased worldwide. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment of asthma are central to the occurrence of fatal asthma. Atopy is the principal risk factor associated with asthma. However, consideration of the epidemiologic, physiologic, pharmacologic, pathologic and clinical parameters of asthma assessment may provide valuable insight into death due to asthma. Psychologic and socioeconomic factors may further aggravate the asthma status. Ethnic minoriti...

  19. Human due diligence. (United States)

    Harding, David; Rouse, Ted


    Most companies do a thorough job of financial due diligence when they acquire other companies. But all too often, deal makers simply ignore or underestimate the significance of people issues in mergers and acquisitions. The consequences are severe. Most obviously, there's a high degree of talent loss after a deal's announcement. To make matters worse, differences in decision-making styles lead to infighting; integration stalls; and productivity declines. The good news is that human due diligence can help companies avoid these problems. Done early enough, it helps acquirers decide whether to embrace or kill a deal and determine the price they are willing to pay. It also lays the groundwork for smooth integration. When acquirers have done their homework, they can uncover capability gaps, points of friction, and differences in decision making. Even more important, they can make the critical "people" decisions-who stays, who goes, who runs the combined business, what to do with the rank and file-at the time the deal is announced or shortly thereafter. Making such decisions within the first 30 days is critical to the success of a deal. Hostile situations clearly make things more difficult, but companies can and must still do a certain amount of human due diligence to reduce the inevitable fallout from the acquisition process and smooth the integration. This article details the steps involved in conducting human due diligence. The approach is structured around answering five basic questions: Who is the cultural acquirer? What kind of organization do you want? Will the two cultures mesh? Who are the people you most want to retain? And how will rank-and-file employees react to the deal? Unless an acquiring company has answered these questions to its satisfaction, the acquisition it is making will be very likely to end badly.

  20. Methods of Services Provision in Slovak Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Sičáková-Beblavá


    Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of services provision in Slovak towns.  It addresses decision-making concerning selected services provision, based on a transaction cost economic model. The article looks at five types of services from that point of view. These are core services, i.e., services that are provided in most Slovak towns, thereby allowing outcomes of decision-making to be compared, and services which can be outsourced according to transaction cost theory. Findings partially confirm the hypothesis: Slovak towns do outsource, though “insourcing” moderately prevails. However, a comparison of several research studies in the area indicates a trend towards higher outsourcing of such local services provision.  The findings show that public bodies do not always select the most suitable methods of services provision, as suggested by the transaction costs theory (the Brown-Potoski model. This indicates that it is not only economic models that influence decision-making concerning the organization of services provision in the Slovak towns.

  1. Bank loan loss provisions research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Ozili


    Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.

  2. Completing Northeast Regional Vulnerability Assessment Incorporating the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — NatureServe and Heritage Program collaborators have developed a Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to provide a rapid, scientifically defensible assessment of...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1194 - Which general provisions apply? (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which general provisions apply? 63... Information § 63.1194 Which general provisions apply? The general provisions in subpart A of this part define... for general provisions that apply (or don't apply) to you as an owner or operator subject to the...

  4. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Lifeline Networks Using Vulnerability Factor : In Application to Water Distribution Lines


    能島, 暢呂; Nobuoto, NOJIMA; 岐阜大学工学部社会基盤工学科; Department of Civil Engineering, Gifu University


    A simple index is proposed for seismic vulnerability assessment of lifeline network facilities. The proposed index, "V-factor," is evaluated using the correction factors representing relative vulnerability corresponding to a variety of pipe diameters, pipe materials, and joint types in statistical models used widely for estimation of number of pipe breaks in the event of earthquakes. Such correction factors are averaged over the entire networks on the basis of extended length of pipelines cla...

  5. Regionalisation of global insights into dryland vulnerability: Better reflecting smallholders' vulnerability in Northeast Brazil


    Sietz, Diana


    Global analyses of vulnerability reveal generic insights into the relation between socio-ecological systems and the stress impacting upon them including climate and market variability. They thus provide a valuable basis for better understanding and comparing the evolution of socio-ecological systems from a broad perspective. However, even when reflecting sub-national differences, global assessments necessarily aggregate regional variations in the underlying conditions of vulnerability. Refine...

  6. Assessment of social protection as a form of capabilities to reduce climate change vulnerabilities: public sectors initiatives of Bangladesh


    Al-Mansur, Raiyan


    "Climate change is forcing vulnerable communities in developing countries to adapt to unprecedented climate stress. Developing countries like Bangladesh is especially vulnerable to climate change because of their geographic exposure; northern part of Bangladesh is gradually going to be desert with continued drought. At the same time, the southern part of Bangladesh is being threatened by cyclone and high tidal wave sinks of the saline water of sea. Due to limited adaptive capacities as well a...

  7. Tackling women’s vulnerabilities through integrating a gender perspective into disaster risk reduction in the built environment


    Ginige, Kanchana; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard


    The majority of human and direct economic losses from natural hazards occur as a result of\\ud damage to the built environment due to the vital role that the built environment performs in serving human endeavours. One of the key reasons for people in developing countries to be more\\ud vulnerable to natural disasters than their wealthier counterparts is the limited capacities in their construction industries. Among the people in developing countries, women are evidently even more vulnerable to ...

  8. Provision of frequency control by wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckmann, Markus; Baier, Andre [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)


    Nowadays, wind farms do not provide frequency control in Germany. Because of the increasing wind energy generation, wind farms will have to provide this ancillary service in the future. Even though the provision of frequency control by wind farms has become a big field of research, no work has yet been done concerning the proof of the provision. Thus, the scope of this paper is the presentation of a new concept how wind farms can prove the provision of frequency control. Moreover, this paper describes a method for calculating the available amount of frequency control power based on probabilistic forecasts. An economic analysis is conducted for three different wind farms and a virtual power plant consisting of these wind farms participating at the market for negative tertiary control power in Germany. (orig.)

  9. Vendor System Vulnerability Testing Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Davidson


    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) prepared this generic test plan to provide clients (vendors, end users, program sponsors, etc.) with a sense of the scope and depth of vulnerability testing performed at the INL’s Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Test Bed and to serve as an example of such a plan. Although this test plan specifically addresses vulnerability testing of systems applied to the energy sector (electric/power transmission and distribution and oil and gas systems), it is generic enough to be applied to control systems used in other critical infrastructures such as the transportation sector, water/waste water sector, or hazardous chemical production facilities. The SCADA Test Bed is established at the INL as a testing environment to evaluate the security vulnerabilities of SCADA systems, energy management systems (EMS), and distributed control systems. It now supports multiple programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, other government agencies, and private sector clients. This particular test plan applies to testing conducted on a SCADA/EMS provided by a vendor. Before performing detailed vulnerability testing of a SCADA/EMS, an as delivered baseline examination of the system is conducted, to establish a starting point for all-subsequent testing. The series of baseline tests document factory delivered defaults, system configuration, and potential configuration changes to aid in the development of a security plan for in depth vulnerability testing. The baseline test document is provided to the System Provider,a who evaluates the baseline report and provides recommendations to the system configuration to enhance the security profile of the baseline system. Vulnerability testing is then conducted at the SCADA Test Bed, which provides an in-depth security analysis of the Vendor’s system.b a. The term System Provider replaces the name of the company/organization providing the system

  10. Groundwater vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders (United States)

    Dams, Jef; Joris, Ingeborg; Bronders, Jan; Van Looy, Stijn; Vanden Boer, Dirk; Heuvelmans, Griet; Seuntjens, Piet


    Pesticides are increasingly being detected in shallow groundwater and and are one of the main causes of the poor chemical status of phreatic groundwater bodies in Flanders. There is a need for groundwater vulnerability maps in order to design monitoring strategies and land-use strategies for sensitive areas such as drinking water capture zones. This research focuses on the development of generic vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders and a tool to calculate substance-specific vulnerability maps at the scale of Flanders and at the local scale. (1) The generic vulnerability maps are constructed using an index based method in which maps of the main contributing factors in soil and saturated zone to high concentrations of pesticides in groundwater are classified and overlain. Different weights are assigned to the contributing factors according to the type of pesticide (low/high mobility, low/high persistence). Factors that are taken into account are the organic matter content and texture of soil, depth of the unsaturated zone, organic carbon and redox potential of the phreatic groundwater and thickness and conductivity of the phreatic layer. (2) Secondly a tool is developed that calculates substance-specific vulnerability maps for Flanders using a hybrid approach where a process-based leaching model GeoPEARL is combined with vulnerability indices that account for dilution in the phreatic layer. The GeoPEARL model is parameterized for Flanders in 1434 unique combinations of soil properties, climate and groundwater depth. Leaching is calculated for a 20 year period for each 50 x 50 m gridcell in Flanders. (3) At the local scale finally, a fully process-based approach is applied combining GeoPEARL leaching calculations and flowline calculations of pesticide transport in the saturated zone to define critical zones in the capture zone of a receptor such as a drinking water well or a river segment. The three approaches are explained more in detail and illustrated

  11. [Onychomycoses due to molds]. (United States)

    Chabasse, D; Pihet, M


    Onychomycoses represent about 30% of superficial mycosis that are encountered in Dermatology consults. Fungi such as dermatophytes, which are mainly found on the feet nails, cause nearly 50% of these onychopathies. Yeasts are predominantly present on hands, whereas non-dermatophytic moulds are very seldom involved in both foot and hand nails infections. According to literature, these moulds are responsible for 2 to 17% of onychomycoses. Nevertheless, we have to differentiate between onychomycoses due to pseudodermatophytes such as Neoscytalidium (ex-Scytalidium) and Onychocola canadensis, which present a high affinity for keratin, and onychomycoses due to filamentous fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium, Scopulariopsis, Acremonium... These saprophytic moulds are indeed most of the time considered as colonizers rather than real pathogens agents. Mycology and histopathology laboratories play an important role. They allow to identify the species that is involved in nail infection, but also to confirm parasitism by the fungus in the infected nails. Indeed, before attributing any pathogenic role to non-dermatophytic moulds, it is essential to precisely evaluate their pathogenicity through samples and accurate mycological and/or histological analysis. The treatment of onychomycoses due to non-dermatophytic moulds is difficult, as there is today no consensus. The choice of an antifungal agent will first depend on the species that is involved in the infection, but also on the severity of nail lesions and on the patient himself. In most cases, the onychomycosis will be cured with chemical or mechanical removing of the infected tissues, followed by a local antifungal treatment. In some cases, a systemic therapy will be discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dealing with the vulnerability of the Italian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Montanaro


    Full Text Available The major vulnerabilities of the Italian banking system are the overhang of NPLs and low profitability. Differently from the attention given to excesses of NPLs, the profitability problem is normally considered to be a matter to be left to bank management and not an area of explicit direct regulatory action. Although focusing on capital requirements, regulators and supervisors seldom pose the question of where capital comes from. Using a large sample of 410 Italian domestic banking groups and individual banks, we propose an NPL stress test and a viability test that show: that the system’s vulnerability is a widespread phenomenon; that a further recapitalisation of around ten billion euro is necessary; and that, more importantly, limiting interventions to the overhang problem does not put the majority of Italian banks into a viability path due to the inefficiencies coming from their current business models. The analysis of the Italian case strengthens the critique of current regulation and supervision because, not focusing on bank profitability, they do not avoid threats on solvency coming from the accumulation of NPLs. We thus argue that the structural changes necessary to put the Italian banking system into a viable path require new regulatory and supervisory approaches.

  13. Network Forensics Method Based on Evidence Graph and Vulnerability Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsha He


    Full Text Available As the Internet becomes larger in scale, more complex in structure and more diversified in traffic, the number of crimes that utilize computer technologies is also increasing at a phenomenal rate. To react to the increasing number of computer crimes, the field of computer and network forensics has emerged. The general purpose of network forensics is to find malicious users or activities by gathering and dissecting firm evidences about computer crimes, e.g., hacking. However, due to the large volume of Internet traffic, not all the traffic captured and analyzed is valuable for investigation or confirmation. After analyzing some existing network forensics methods to identify common shortcomings, we propose in this paper a new network forensics method that uses a combination of network vulnerability and network evidence graph. In our proposed method, we use vulnerability evidence and reasoning algorithm to reconstruct attack scenarios and then backtrack the network packets to find the original evidences. Our proposed method can reconstruct attack scenarios effectively and then identify multi-staged attacks through evidential reasoning. Results of experiments show that the evidence graph constructed using our method is more complete and credible while possessing the reasoning capability.

  14. A Contamination Vulnerability Assessment for the Sacramento Area Groundwater Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, J E; Hudson, G B; Eaton, G F; Leif, R


    In response to concerns expressed by the California Legislature and the citizenry of the State of California, the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), implemented a program to assess groundwater quality, and provide a predictive capability for identifying areas that are vulnerable to contamination. The program was initiated in response to concern over public supply well closures due to contamination by chemicals such as MtBE from gasoline, and solvents from industrial operations. As a result of this increased awareness regarding groundwater quality, the Supplemental Report of the 1999 Budget Act mandated the SWRCB to develop a comprehensive ambient groundwater-monitoring plan, and led to the initiation of the Ambient Groundwater Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The primary objective of the GAMA Program is to assess the water quality and to predict the relative susceptibility to contamination of groundwater resources throughout the state of California. Under the GAMA program, scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) collaborate with the SWRCB, the U.S. Geological Survey, the California Department of Health Services (DHS), and the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) to implement the groundwater assessment program in cooperation with local water purveyors. In 2001 and 2002, LLNL carried out this vulnerability study in the groundwater basin of Sacramento suburban area, located to the north of the American River and to the east of the Sacramento River. The goal of the study is to provide a probabilistic assessment of the relative vulnerability of groundwater used for the public water supply to contamination from surface sources. This assessment of relative contamination vulnerability is made based on the results of two types of analyses that are not routinely carried out at public water supply wells: ultra low-level measurement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and groundwater age dating (using the tritium-helium-3

  15. 42 CFR 426.400 - Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an LCD. (United States)


    ... concerning a provision (or provisions) of an LCD. 426.400 Section 426.400 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.400 Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an LCD. (a) The complaint. An...

  16. 42 CFR 426.500 - Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD. (United States)


    ... concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD. 426.500 Section 426.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.500 Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD. (a) The complaint. An...

  17. Cognitive vulnerability to depression : genetic and environmental influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antypa, Niki


    This thesis explores cognitive vulnerability to depression and the interplay between genetic and environmental influences. Cognitive vulnerability to depression is characterized by negative patterns of information processing. One aspect is cognitive reactivity - the tendency to respond with

  18. Assessment of Ecological Vulnerability under Oil Spill Stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ling Cai; Li Yan; Jialin Ni; Cui Wang


      Using the constituent elements of vulnerability, an evaluation index system for the ecological vulnerability of coastal areas under oil spill stress is established based on "Sensitivity-Adaptive Capacity-Exposure...

  19. On the Library and Information Literacy Education of Vulnerable Groups (United States)

    Zhu, Tian-hui


    This paper defines and classifies vulnerable groups, elaborates the necessity of information literacy education of vulnerable groups, analyzes the feasibility for the library to carry out the education, and then discusses specific measures taken by the library to fulfill it.

  20. Identifying institutional vulnerability : The importance of language, and system boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, Wilfred; Finch, John; McMaster, Robert


    Taking the idea that institutional reproduction is not obvious and that institutions are vulnerable has significant conceptual implications. Institutional vulnerability can arise through communication between actors in a common language. To apprehend this requires an elaboration of John Searle's

  1. Ecological vulnerability analysis: A river basin case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ippolito, A.; Sala, S.; Faber, J.H.; Vighi, M.


    Assessing and quantifying ecosystem vulnerability is a key issue in site-specific ecotoxicological risk assessment. In this paper, the concept of vulnerability, particularly referred to aquatic ecosystems is defined. Sensitivity to stressors, susceptibility for exposure and recovery capability are

  2. Red Team Operations to Assess Information Technology Vulnerabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.; Parker, R.L.


    All Information and Communication Technology (ICT) systems have vulnerabilities. Weaknesses in these systems are introduced either during the specification, implementation or operational phase. Leaving aside these introduced vulnerabilities are intentional or unintentional, the fact remains that

  3. Psychological Vulnerability and Gambling in Later Life. (United States)

    Dennis, Cory B; Davis, Thomas D; Chang, Janet; McAllister, Carolyn


    Because behavioral problems often emerge from maladaptive coping methods, we investigated whether unmet basic psychological needs evolve toward a level of psychological vulnerability that puts older adults who gamble at risk for becoming problem gamblers. Data from a community sample of 379 adults ages 60 and above were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Participants responded to items regarding their demographics, gambling frequency, engagement in at-risk gambling behaviors, and the extent to which their basic psychological needs were met. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs among older adults who gamble was negatively associated with their being at risk for developing a gambling problem. Satisfaction of basic psychological needs also mediated the negative effect of socioeconomic status on at-risk gambling behavior. Social workers should become mindful of how older adults, who are confronting psychological vulnerabilities in later life, might well turn to gambling as a maladaptive coping mechanism.As per journal style, abstract must not exceed100 words. Please amend accordingly.

  4. Intelligent Techniques for Power Systems Vulnerability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sharkawi


    Full Text Available With power grids considered national security matters, the reliable operation of the system is of top priority to utilities.  This concern is amplified by the utility’s deregulation, which increases the system’s openness while simultaneously decreasing the applied degree of control.  Vulnerability Assessment (VA deals with the power system’s ability to continue to provide service in case of an unforeseen catastrophic contingency.  Such contingencies may include unauthorized tripping, breaks in communication links, sabotage or intrusion by external agents, human errors, natural calamities and faults.  These contingencies could lead to a disruption of service to part or all of the system.  The service disruption is known as outage or blackout.  The paper outlines an approach by which feature extraction and boundary tracking can be implemented to achieve on line vulnerability assessment.

  5. Vulnerability of community businesses to environmental disasters. (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Lindell, Michael K; Prater, Carla S


    Business plays important roles in community functioning. However, disaster research has been disproportionately focused on units of analysis such as families, households and government agencies. This paper synthesises the major findings within the business development research field and the disaster research field. It constructs a framework for evaluating business vulnerability to natural disasters. Our theoretical integration of the research conducted to date addresses five major issues. First, it defines the ways in which businesses are subject to the impacts of natural disasters. Second, it identifies the factors that determine the magnitude of business impacts after a disaster. Third, it identifies how and when businesses return to their pre-disaster level in the disaster stricken community. Fourth, it describes measures that can be taken by individual firms and community planners to reduce the impacts of environmental disasters. Fifth, it identifies needs for public policy and future research to reduce business vulnerability to environmental disasters.

  6. Resilience and Vulnerability: Complementary or Conflicting Concepts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Miller


    Full Text Available Resilience and vulnerability represent two related yet different approaches to understanding the response of systems and actors to change; to shocks and surprises, as well as slow creeping changes. Their respective origins in ecological and social theory largely explain the continuing differences in approach to social-ecological dimensions of change. However, there are many areas of strong convergence. This paper explores the emerging linkages and complementarities between the concepts of resilience and vulnerability to identify areas of synergy. We do this with regard to theory, methodology, and application. The paper seeks to go beyond just recognizing the complementarities between the two approaches to demonstrate how researchers are actively engaging with each field to coproduce new knowledge, and to suggest promising areas of complementarity that are likely to further research and action in the field.

  7. Individualized preventive psychiatry: syndrome and vulnerability diagnostics. (United States)

    Müller-Spahn, Franz


    The development of prevention and treatment strategies of psychiatric disorders will depend on a more profound knowledge of the complex relationships between gene-environment interactions, particularly the interplay of vulnerability and resilience factors within a person's biography. In this article, the advantages and limitations of the current psychiatric classification systems will be discussed. New directions for a future multiaxial system including biological, psychological, social, life span, gender and cultural factors based on the DSM-V- and ICD-11-research agenda are going to be outlined. Psychiatry without psychopathology is impossible. However, in the future, psychopathology will be closer linked to the biological and psychological nature of the disease process and more function-based. Future diagnostic classification manuals should include dimensional and categorical aspects as well as vulnerability and resilience diagnostic elements. There is a need for a personalized integrative diagnosis and care.

  8. Drivers and Pattern of Social Vulnerability to Flood in Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria (United States)

    Fasona, M.


    Lagos is Africa's second largest city and a city-state in southwest Nigeria. Population and economic activities in the city are concentrated in the greater Lagos metropolitan area - a group of barrier islands less than a thousand square kilometer. Several physical factors and critical human-environmental conditions contribute to high flood vulnerability across the city. Flood impact is highly denominated and the poor tend to suffer more due to higher risk of exposure and poor adaptive capacity. In this study we present the pattern of social vulnerability to flooding across the Lagos metropolis and argued that the pattern substantially reflects the pattern and severity of flooding impact on people across the metropolis. Twenty nine social indicators and experiences including poverty profile, housing conditions, education, population and demography, social network, and communication, among others, were considered. The data were collated through field survey and subjected to principal component analysis. The results were processed into raster surfaces using GIS for social vulnerability characterization at neighborhood levels. The results suggest the social status indicators, neighborhood standing and social networks indictors, the indicators of emergency responses and security, and the neighborhood conditions, in that order, are the most important determinants of social vulnerability. Six of the 16 LGAs in metropolitan Lagos have high social vulnerability. Neighborhoods that combine poor social status indicators and poor neighborhood standing and social networks are found to have high social vulnerability whereas other poor neighborhoods with strong social networks performed better. We conclude that improved human living condition and social network and communication in poor urban neighborhoods are important to reducing social vulnerability to flooding in the metropolis.

  9. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, hazard indicators and vulnerability factors (United States)

    Blauhut, V.; Stahl, K.; Stagge, J. H.; Tallaksen, L. M.; De Stefano, L.; Vogt, J.


    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work (1) tests the capability of commonly applied hazard indicators and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and (2) combines information on past drought impacts, drought hazard indicators, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This "hybrid approach" bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact forecast in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro region specific sensitivities of hazard indicators, with the Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index for a twelve month aggregation period (SPEI-12) as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictor, with information about landuse and water resources as best vulnerability-based predictors. (3) The application of the "hybrid approach" revealed strong regional (NUTS combo level) and sector specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer aggregation periods, and a combination of information on landuse and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information

  10. Estimating drought risk across Europe from reported drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors (United States)

    Blauhut, Veit; Stahl, Kerstin; Stagge, James Howard; Tallaksen, Lena M.; De Stefano, Lucia; Vogt, Jürgen


    Drought is one of the most costly natural hazards in Europe. Due to its complexity, drought risk, meant as the combination of the natural hazard and societal vulnerability, is difficult to define and challenging to detect and predict, as the impacts of drought are very diverse, covering the breadth of socioeconomic and environmental systems. Pan-European maps of drought risk could inform the elaboration of guidelines and policies to address its documented severity and impact across borders. This work tests the capability of commonly applied drought indices and vulnerability factors to predict annual drought impact occurrence for different sectors and macro regions in Europe and combines information on past drought impacts, drought indices, and vulnerability factors into estimates of drought risk at the pan-European scale. This hybrid approach bridges the gap between traditional vulnerability assessment and probabilistic impact prediction in a statistical modelling framework. Multivariable logistic regression was applied to predict the likelihood of impact occurrence on an annual basis for particular impact categories and European macro regions. The results indicate sector- and macro-region-specific sensitivities of drought indices, with the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for a 12-month accumulation period as the overall best hazard predictor. Vulnerability factors have only limited ability to predict drought impacts as single predictors, with information about land use and water resources being the best vulnerability-based predictors. The application of the hybrid approach revealed strong regional and sector-specific differences in drought risk across Europe. The majority of the best predictor combinations rely on a combination of SPEI for shorter and longer accumulation periods, and a combination of information on land use and water resources. The added value of integrating regional vulnerability information with drought risk prediction

  11. An integrated risk and vulnerability assessment framework for climate change and malaria transmission in East Africa. (United States)

    Onyango, Esther Achieng; Sahin, Oz; Awiti, Alex; Chu, Cordia; Mackey, Brendan


    Malaria is one of the key research concerns in climate change-health relationships. Numerous risk assessments and modelling studies provide evidence that the transmission range of malaria will expand with rising temperatures, adversely impacting on vulnerable communities in the East African highlands. While there exist multiple lines of evidence for the influence of climate change on malaria transmission, there is insufficient understanding of the complex and interdependent factors that determine the risk and vulnerability of human populations at the community level. Moreover, existing studies have had limited focus on the nature of the impacts on vulnerable communities or how well they are prepared to cope. In order to address these gaps, a systems approach was used to present an integrated risk and vulnerability assessment framework for studies of community level risk and vulnerability to malaria due to climate change. Drawing upon published literature on existing frameworks, a systems approach was applied to characterize the factors influencing the interactions between climate change and malaria transmission. This involved structural analysis to determine influential, relay, dependent and autonomous variables in order to construct a detailed causal loop conceptual model that illustrates the relationships among key variables. An integrated assessment framework that considers indicators of both biophysical and social vulnerability was proposed based on the conceptual model. A major conclusion was that this integrated assessment framework can be implemented using Bayesian Belief Networks, and applied at a community level using both quantitative and qualitative methods with stakeholder engagement. The approach enables a robust assessment of community level risk and vulnerability to malaria, along with contextually relevant and targeted adaptation strategies for dealing with malaria transmission that incorporate both scientific and community perspectives.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean de Dieu Bazimenyera


    Full Text Available Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain is among the regions which faces the shortage of water due to its increasing population, industrialization, agriculture and domestic use; hence the high dependence on groundwater. In China, the exploitation of aquifers has been historically undertaken without proper concern for environmental impacts or even the concept of sustainable yield. In order to maintain basin aquifer as a source of water for the area, it is necessary to find out whether certain locations in this groundwater basin are susceptible to receive and transmit pollution, this is why the main objective of this research is to find out the groundwater vulnerable zones using Geographical Information System (GIS model in Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou plain. GIS was used to create groundwater vulnerability map by overlaying hydro-geological data. The input of the model was provided by the following seven data layers: Depth to water, net Recharge, Aquifer media, Soil media, Topography, Impact of vadose zone and hydraulic Conductivity. This study showed that Hangzhou-Jiaxing-Huzhou area is grouped into three categories: High vulnerable zone with 27.4% of the total area, moderate vulnerable zone which occupy the great part of that area 60.5% and low vulnerable zone with 12.1%. This research suggests first the prioritization of high vulnerable areas in order to prevent the further pollution to already polluted areas; next the frequent monitoring of vulnerable zones to monitor the changing level of pollutants; and finally suggests that this model can be an effective tool for local authorities who are responsible for managing groundwater resources in that area.

  13. Climate change and marine fisheries: Least developed countries top global index of vulnerability. (United States)

    Blasiak, Robert; Spijkers, Jessica; Tokunaga, Kanae; Pittman, Jeremy; Yagi, Nobuyuki; Österblom, Henrik


    Future impacts of climate change on marine fisheries have the potential to negatively influence a wide range of socio-economic factors, including food security, livelihoods and public health, and even to reshape development trajectories and spark transboundary conflict. Yet there is considerable variability in the vulnerability of countries around the world to these effects. We calculate a vulnerability index of 147 countries by drawing on the most recent data related to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries. Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change framework for vulnerability, we first construct aggregate indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity using 12 primary variables. Seven out of the ten most vulnerable countries on the resulting index are Small Island Developing States, and the top quartile of the index includes countries located in Africa (17), Asia (7), North America and the Caribbean (4) and Oceania (8). More than 87% of least developed countries are found within the top half of the vulnerability index, while the bottom half includes all but one of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member states. This is primarily due to the tremendous variation in countries' adaptive capacity, as no such trends are evident from the exposure or sensitivity indices. A negative correlation exists between vulnerability and per capita carbon emissions, and the clustering of states at different levels of development across the vulnerability index suggests growing barriers to meeting global commitments to reducing inequality, promoting human well-being and ensuring sustainable cities and communities. The index provides a useful tool for prioritizing the allocation of climate finance, as well as activities aimed at capacity building and the transfer of marine technology.

  14. Vulnerability curves vs. vulnerability indicators: application of an indicator-based methodology for debris-flow hazards (United States)

    Papathoma-Köhle, Maria


    The assessment of the physical vulnerability of elements at risk as part of the risk analysis is an essential aspect for the development of strategies and structural measures for risk reduction. Understanding, analysing and, if possible, quantifying physical vulnerability is a prerequisite for designing strategies and adopting tools for its reduction. The most common methods for assessing physical vulnerability are vulnerability matrices, vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators; however, in most of the cases, these methods are used in a conflicting way rather than in combination. The article focuses on two of these methods: vulnerability curves and vulnerability indicators. Vulnerability curves express physical vulnerability as a function of the intensity of the process and the degree of loss, considering, in individual cases only, some structural characteristics of the affected buildings. However, a considerable amount of studies argue that vulnerability assessment should focus on the identification of these variables that influence the vulnerability of an element at risk (vulnerability indicators). In this study, an indicator-based methodology (IBM) for mountain hazards including debris flow (Kappes et al., 2012) is applied to a case study for debris flows in South Tyrol, where in the past a vulnerability curve has been developed. The relatively "new" indicator-based method is being scrutinised and recommendations for its improvement are outlined. The comparison of the two methodological approaches and their results is challenging since both methodological approaches deal with vulnerability in a different way. However, it is still possible to highlight their weaknesses and strengths, show clearly that both methodologies are necessary for the assessment of physical vulnerability and provide a preliminary "holistic methodological framework" for physical vulnerability assessment showing how the two approaches may be used in combination in the future.

  15. Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) to Evaluate the Vulnerabilities with ICT Assets Disposal Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeboah-Boateng, Ezer Osei


    This paper evaluates the possible vulnerabilities of ICT assets disposal policies and the associated impact that can affect the SMEs. A poorly implemented policy or unenforced policy is “potentially the weakest link” in the cyber-security chain. Do SMEs have an idea of vulnerabilities or threats...... due to assets disposal? In the event of breaches, the SMEs pay for the cost of notifying the concerned stakeholders, compensate affected parties, invest in improved mitigation technologies and also may be subjected to unwarranted public scrutiny. ICT assets at the end-of-useful life span usually have...... data left on the hard disk drives or storage media, which is a source of data confidentiality vulnerability. SMEs were surveyed in developing economies on their assets disposal policies. The perceived correlations were analyzed using fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs) to ascertain if any cyber...

  16. Significance of vulnerability assessment in establishment of Hainan provincal disaster medical system. (United States)

    Li, Min; Lu, Chuanzhu; Son, Wei; Miao, Junhong; Ding, Yipeng; Li, Longhe; Zhang, Leilei; Zhao, Nin; Hu, Bijiang; Zhang, Yunjun


    Hainan is an island province in south China with a high frequency of unconventional emergencies due to its special geographic location and national military defense role. Given the limited transportation route from Hainan to the outside world, self-rescue is more important to Hainan Province than other provinces in China and it is therefore imperative to establish an independent, scientific as well as efficient provincal disaster medical system in Hainan. The regulatory role for vulnerability analysis/assessment has been demonstrated in establisment of disaster medical system in varoius countries and or regions. In this paper, we attempt to describe/propose how to adopt vulnerability assessment through mathematical modeling of major biophysical social vulnerability factors to establish an independent, scientific, effieicnt and comprehensive provincial disaster medical system in Hainan. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Scale Issues in the Assessment of Pesticide Leaching Vulnerability for Loamy Structured Soils in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Keur, Peter; Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Hollis, John

    Three approaches for vulnerability mapping of pesticide leaching for Denmark are considered. The first method is based on an approach developed at the European spatial scale, the second method relies on mapping soil hydraulic properties at a finer scale derived from a national soil property map...... for vulnerability due to change in climate and agricultural land management. In the European scale approach soil types in Denmark are classified using a decision tree structure that accounts for both soil texture as well as the lower boundary condition available from soil survey data at the European scale...... saturated conductivity. It is expected that loamy soils are vulnerable at both the low and high values as low values indicate risk for preferential flow, whereas high values correspond to a more coarse soil structure with high soil hydraulic conductivity. It appears that the coarse spatial scale of derived...

  18. Business continuity, emergency planning and special needs: How to protect the vulnerable. (United States)

    Reilly, Daniel


    Emergencies and disasters affect all segments of the population. Some segments are more at risk during the emergency response and recovery efforts owing to vulnerabilities that increase the risk of harm. These vulnerabilities are due to individuals' disabilities, which must be incorporated into emergency and business continuity planning. Some disabilities are obvious, such as impaired vision, hearing or mobility, while other are less evident, but equally disabling, such as cognitive disorders, geographical or language isolation, and numerous age-related factors. Taken together when creating emergency or business continuity plans, the issues identified as disabilities can be grouped by functionality and termed as special needs. This paper will detail the identification of special needs populations, explain how these persons are vulnerable during the emergency or disaster response and recovery process, and provide examples of how to partner with individuals within identified special needs populations to improve the planning process.

  19. Proximity, relationship closeness, and cognitive vulnerability: predicting enduring depressive reactions to a college campus tragedy. (United States)

    Pfeifer, Benjamin J; Haeffel, Gerald J


    To test the hypothesis that enduring depressive reactions to tragedy are due to a unique combination of three factors-close physical proximity to the event, close relationship with the victim(s), and high levels of cognitive vulnerability. Participants were 70 undergraduates (66% female; mean age = 18) from a midsized private university. Cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms were assessed 2 years before a college campus tragedy; physical proximity, relationship with the victim, and depressive symptoms were assessed 2 months after the tragedy. Individuals with a combination of high levels of cognitive vulnerability and close physical proximity to the event were at greater risk for enduring depression, but only if they did not have a very close relationship with the victim. This article puts forth a testable theory that helps to explain why some individuals are at risk for enduring depressive reactions to tragedy. Implications for research and practice are discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The CERT Guide to Coordinated Vulnerability Disclosure (United States)


    interface mentioned in many reports. 10. Writing code: This technique involves developing custom tools to assist with extracting, characterizing, and...internal use is granted, provided the copyright and “No Warranty” statements are included with all reproductions and derivative works. External use:* This...the next few years. As vulnerability discovery tools and techniques evolve into this space, so must our tools and pro- cesses for coordination and

  1. Social Media: Strategic Asset or Operational Vulnerability? (United States)


    instantly, and influence opinions. This ability to communicate globally, when viewed operationally, has caused social media to become another element of...unchecked social media can be a critical strategic and operational vulnerability that can have an impact on operational success if it is not protected and...used properly. Operational commanders must be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of social media and have safeguards in place to ensure it does

  2. Current status of vulnerable plaque detection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharif, Faisal


    Critical coronary stenoses have been shown to contribute to only a minority of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Autopsy studies have identified a subgroup of high-risk patients with disrupted vulnerable plaque and modest stenosis. Consequently, a clinical need exists to develop methods to identify these plaques prospectively before disruption and clinical expression of disease. Recent advances in invasive and noninvasive imaging techniques have shown the potential to identify these high-risk plaques. The anatomical characteristics of the vulnerable plaque such as thin cap fibroatheroma and lipid pool can be identified with angioscopy, high frequency intravascular ultrasound, intravascular MRI, and optical coherence tomography. Efforts have also been made to recognize active inflammation in high-risk plaques using intravascular thermography. Plaque chemical composition by measuring electromagnetic radiation using spectroscopy is also an emerging technology to detect vulnerable plaques. Noninvasive imaging with MRI, CT, and PET also holds the potential to differentiate between low and high-risk plaques. However, at present none of these imaging modalities are able to detect vulnerable plaque neither has been shown to definitively predict outcome. Nevertheless in contrast, there has been a parallel development in the physiological assessment of advanced atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Thus recent trials using fractional flow reserve in patients with modest non flow-limiting stenoses have shown that deferral of PCI with optimal medical therapy in these patients is superior to coronary intervention. Further trials are needed to provide more information regarding the natural history of high-risk but non flow-limiting plaque to establish patient-specific targeted therapy and to refine plaque stabilizing strategies in the future.

  3. Overactive bladder in the vulnerable elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff GF


    Full Text Available Gillian F Wolff,1 George A Kuchel,2 Phillip P Smith1,21Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, 2UConn Center on Aging, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is a common problem that may occur in individuals of all ages. It has a considerable impact on patient quality of life, and although moderately effective management strategies do exist, this condition often remains undiagnosed and untreated. OAB needs to be viewed as a symptom complex. Its presentation and management are complicated in the vulnerable elderly by the presence of baseline frailty and multiple coexisting chronic conditions. Furthermore, and beyond a simple understanding of symptomatology, providers must address patient goals and motivations as well as the expectations of caretakers. These multiple levels of perception, function, expectations, and treatment efficacy/risks must be tailored to the individual patient. While the vulnerable elderly patient may often have evidence of urinary tract dysfunction, OAB and urge urinary incontinence in this population must be understood as a multifactorial geriatric syndrome and viewed in the context of medical and functional baseline and precipitating risk factors. Expectations and goals must be tailored to the resources of vulnerable elderly patients and their caregivers, and care must be coordinated with other medical care providers. The management of OAB in the vulnerable elderly often poses significant management challenges. Nonetheless, with a thoughtful approach and an aim towards future research specifically for this population, significant reductions in morbidity and mortality long with enhancement in health-related quality of life are possible.Keywords: urinary incontinence, urgency, antispasmodics, aging, frailty

  4. Schizophrenia: two-faced meaning of vulnerability. (United States)

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Naudin, Jean


    The authors stress the current two-faced meaning of vulnerability that conveys both an objective and a subjective direction of sense, leading to a naturalistic model as well as a humanistic one. These models are heirs of both the Kraepelinian and Bleulerian conceptions of schizophrenia. Coping strategies and resilience are core concepts of the humanistic model. Research on these protective factors may be of major importance in the current debate on prevention in schizophrenia. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Social Vulnerability, Frailty and Mortality in Elderly People


    Andrew, Melissa K.; Mitnitski, Arnold B.; Rockwood, Kenneth


    BACKGROUND: Social vulnerability is related to the health of elderly people, but its measurement and relationship to frailty are controversial. The aims of the present study were to operationalize social vulnerability according to a deficit accumulation approach, to compare social vulnerability and frailty, and to study social vulnerability in relation to mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This is a secondary analysis of community-dwelling elderly people in two cohort studies, the Canadian Stud...

  6. Mental vulnerability as a risk factor for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ditte; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold


    Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression.......Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression....

  7. Credit where due. (United States)

    Friedman, Steven G


    The history of medicine is filled with stories of tireless researchers who failed to get credit for their hard work. Examples of this include Rosalind Franklin, who helped to elucidate the structure of DNA; Frederick Banting, who helped to discover insulin; and Jay McLean, who discovered heparin. The founding of the field of vascular surgery provides one of the most vivid examples of uncredited work. Even though Alexis Carrel was an unpaid, untitled assistant in Charles Guthrie's laboratory, it was Carrel alone who received a Nobel Prize for their work. In an attempt to give credit where due, the reasons for this injustice are described. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque (United States)

    Fok, Pak-Wing


    Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

  9. Vulnerability and tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriana Cátia Rainho Brás


    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding social causality of Tuberculosis in Rio de Janeiro. This is one of the Brazilian states with the highest incidence of this disease. We follow the story of Paulo, a patient who received care at the outpatient clinic for multi-drug resistant Tuberculosis, in Rio de Janeiro. To make sense of his story, we will look at it through the concept of vulnerability in life conditions. Along with Sabroza (2006, we argue that this vulnerability is a collective expression of the economic insertion of a growing segment of Rio’s population in the current technical-scientific-informational capitalism (Santos, 2002 [1979]. Limitations in the health services add directly to vulnerability in life conditions of patients making treatment a hard endeavour. We propose to think and act on Tuberculosis at the collective level of reality, through intersectoral actions. We aim at contributing to the current debates on the social determination of Tuberculosis, to inform actions that can significantly reduce the suffering associated to this and other similarly caused diseases.

  10. Strategic use of communication to market cancer prevention and control to vulnerable populations. (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L


    There are significant challenges to communicating relevant cancer prevention and control information to health care consumers due both to the complexities of the health information to be communicated and the complexities of health communication, especially with vulnerable populations. The need for effective communication about cancer risks, early detection, prevention, care, and survivorship is particularly acute, yet also tremendously complex, for reaching vulnerable populations, those groups of people who are most likely to suffer significantly higher levels of morbidity and mortality from cancers than other segments of the population. These vulnerable populations, typically the poorest, lowest educated, and most disenfranchised members of modern society, are heir to serious cancer-related health disparities. Vulnerable populations often have health literacy difficulties, cultural barriers, and economic challenges to accessing and making sense of relevant health information. This paper examines these challenges to communicating relevant information to vulnerable populations and suggests strategies for effectively using different communication media for marketing cancer prevention and control to reduce health disparities and promote public health.

  11. Comparative assessment of lowland and highland Smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability in Ethiopia (United States)

    Ayal, D. Y., Sr.; Abshare, M. W. M.; Desta, S. D.; Filho, W. L.


    Desalegn Yayeh Ayal P.O.BOX 150129 Addis Ababa University Ethiopia Mobil +251910824784 Abstract Smallholder farmers' near term scenario (2010-2039) vulnerability nature and magnitude was examined using twenty-two exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity vulnerability indicators. Assessment of smallholder farmers' vulnerability to climate variability revealed the importance of comprehending exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity induces. Due to differences in level of change in rainfall, temperature, drought frequency, their environmental interaction and variations on adaptive capacity the nature and magnitude of smallholder farmers vulnerability to physical, biological and epidemiological challenges of crop and livestock production varied within and across agro-ecologies. Highlanders' sensitive relates with high population density, erosion and crop disease and pest damage occurrence. Whereas lowlanders will be more sensitive to high crop disease and pest damage, provenance of livestock disease, absence of alternative water sources, less diversified agricultural practices. However, with little variations in the magnitude and nature of vulnerability, both highlanders and lowlanders are victims of climate variability and change. Given the ever increasing population, temperature and unpredictable nature of rainfall variability, the study concluded that future adaptation strategies should capitalize on preparing smallholder farmers for both extremes- excess rainfall and flooding on the one hand and severe drought on the other.

  12. Spatio-temporal changes of exposure and vulnerability to floods in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Jun Wang


    Full Text Available A socio-economic data set on China's historical flood losses for the period 1984–2012 was compiled to analyze the exposed population, economy, and crop area as well as the vulnerabilities of the population and economy to floods. The results revealed that the exposed population was approximately 126 persons km−2 per year when taking China as a whole; in terms of the economy, potential losses due to floods were estimated to be approximately 1.49 million CN¥ km−2 and the crop area exposed to floods covered 153 million hm2 per year. China's total exposure to floods significantly increased over the analysis period. The areas that showed the higher exposure were mainly located along the east coast. The population's vulnerability to floods showed a significantly increasing trend, however, the economic vulnerability showed a decreasing trend. The populations and economies that were most vulnerable to floods were in Hunan, Anhui, Chongqing, Jiangxi, and Hubei provinces. The municipalities of Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin showed the lowest vulnerabilities to floods.

  13. Stigma, violence and HIV vulnerability among transgender persons in sex work in Maharashtra, India. (United States)

    Ganju, Deepika; Saggurti, Niranjan


    Among marginalised groups in India, HIV prevalence is highest among transgender persons; however, little is known about their HIV vulnerability. This study describes transgender sex workers' experiences of stigma and violence, a key driver of the HIV epidemic, and explores their coping responses. In-depth interviews were conducted with 68 respondents in Maharashtra state, India. Findings show that respondents face pervasive stigma and violence due to multiple marginalised social identities (transgender status, sex work, gender non-conformity), which reinforce and intersect with social inequities (economic and housing insecurity, employment discrimination, poverty), fuelling HIV vulnerability at the micro, meso and macro levels. Several factors, such as felt and internalised stigma associated with psycho-social distress and low self-efficacy to challenge abuse and negotiate condom use; clients' power in sexual transactions; establishing trust in regular partnerships through condomless sex; norms condoning violence against gender non-conforming persons; lack of community support; police harassment; health provider discrimination and the sex work environment create a context for HIV vulnerability. In the face of such adversity, respondents adopt coping strategies to shift power relations and mobilise against abuse. Community mobilisation interventions, as discussed in the paper, offer a promising vulnerability reduction strategy to safeguard transgender sex workers' rights and reduce HIV vulnerability.

  14. 6 CFR 27.400 - Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (United States)


    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. 27... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Other § 27.400 Chemical-terrorism vulnerability information. (a... that constitute Chemical-terrorism Vulnerability Information (CVI), as defined in § 27.400(b). The...

  15. 6 CFR 27.215 - Security vulnerability assessments. (United States)


    ... FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.215 Security vulnerability assessments. (a) Initial Assessment. If the Assistant Secretary determines that a chemical facility is high-risk, the facility must complete a Security Vulnerability Assessment. A Security Vulnerability...

  16. analysis and mapping of climate change risk and vulnerability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, to determine the degree of climate risk and the relative vulnerability of the districts, to climate change and, thereby ... integrated vulnerability assessment technique was used to map climate change vulnerability. Indicators were ..... Climate change and globalisation in India. Global Environmental ...

  17. Working up a Debt: Students as Vulnerable Consumers (United States)

    Robson, Julie; Farquhar, Jillian Dawes; Hindle, Christopher


    Students are recognized as vulnerable consumers where financial matters are concerned, particularly with reference to indebtedness. This study examines student indebtedness in order to initiate wider debate about student vulnerability. We consider vulnerability as dynamic and temporal, linked to an event that renders the consumer susceptible to…

  18. The vulnerability of cyborgs: the case of ICD shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, Nelly E.J.


    This article contributes to Science and Technology Studies on vulnerability by putting cyborgs at center stage. What vulnerabilities emerge when technologies move under the skin? I argue that cyborgs face new forms of vulnerability because they have to live with a continuous, inextricable

  19. Vulnerability of smallholder farmers to climate change in the central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We adopted Vulnerability as expected poverty (VEP)approach was where an individual's vulnerability is the prospect of a smallholder household considering poor and non-poor scenarios. Results of the analysis indicated that men and women headed households vary interms of their vulnerability to climate change infavor ...

  20. An Empirical Measure of Computer Security Strength for Vulnerability Remediation (United States)

    Villegas, Rafael


    Remediating all vulnerabilities on computer systems in a timely and cost effective manner is difficult given that the window of time between the announcement of a new vulnerability and an automated attack has decreased. Hence, organizations need to prioritize the vulnerability remediation process on their computer systems. The goal of this…

  1. Groundwater Vulnerability Map for South Africa | Musekiwa | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vulnerability of groundwater is a relative, non-measurable and dimensionless property which is based on the concept that some land areas are more vulnerable to groundwater contamination than others. Maps showing groundwater vulnerability assist with the identification of areas more susceptible to contamination than ...

  2. An assessment of coastal vulnerability for the South African coast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coastal vulnerability is the degree to which a coastal system is susceptible to, or unable to cope with, adverse effects of climate change. One of the most widely used methods in assessing risk and vulnerability of coastlines on a regional scale includes the calculation of vulnerability indices and presenting these results on a ...

  3. Reconceptualizing Vulnerability in Personal Narrative Writing with Youths (United States)

    Johnson, Elisabeth


    Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…

  4. Combining demographic and genetic factors to assess population vulnerability in stream species (United States)

    Erin L, Landguth; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie W.; Waples, Robin S.; Whited, Diane; Lowe, Winsor H.; Lucotch, John; Neville, Helen; Luikart, Gordon


    Accelerating climate change and other cumulative stressors create an urgent need to understand the influence of environmental variation and landscape features on the connectivity and vulnerability of freshwater species. Here, we introduce a novel modeling framework for aquatic systems that integrates spatially explicit, individual-based, demographic and genetic (demogenetic) assessments with environmental variables. To show its potential utility, we simulated a hypothetical network of 19 migratory riverine populations (e.g., salmonids) using a riverscape connectivity and demogenetic model (CDFISH). We assessed how stream resistance to movement (a function of water temperature, fluvial distance, and physical barriers) might influence demogenetic connectivity, and hence, population vulnerability. We present demographic metrics (abundance, immigration, and change in abundance) and genetic metrics (diversity, differentiation, and change in differentiation), and combine them into a single vulnerability index for identifying populations at risk of extirpation. We considered four realistic scenarios that illustrate the relative sensitivity of these metrics for early detection of reduced connectivity: (1) maximum resistance due to high water temperatures throughout the network, (2) minimum resistance due to low water temperatures throughout the network, (3) increased resistance at a tributary junction caused by a partial barrier, and (4) complete isolation of a tributary, leaving resident individuals only. We then applied this demogenetic framework using empirical data for a bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) metapopulation in the upper Flathead River system, Canada and USA, to assess how current and predicted future stream warming may influence population vulnerability. Results suggest that warmer water temperatures and associated barriers to movement (e.g., low flows, dewatering) are predicted to fragment suitable habitat for migratory salmonids, resulting in the loss

  5. 48 CFR 5215.407 - Solicitation provisions. (United States)


    ... that adequate price competition will exist. If it is anticipated that an award will be based on adequate price competition, the solicitation shall include the provision at 5252.215-9000. If the... minimum delay in the event that adequate price competition does not materialize and it is necessary to...

  6. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    that the housing provision as currently practised is not socially sustainable as it does not rely on data from the .... Design Base. One of the first issues the architect always tries to address before embarking on a design is to obtain the design brief and analyse the data provided. ..... of Housing. Nigeria: Jos Universal. Press.

  7. 24 CFR 203.17 - Mortgage provisions. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage provisions. 203.17 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203...

  8. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision. (United States)


    ... November 12, 1999, and whose investment in Bank stock as of the effective date of the capital plan will be... FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply... chapter, respectively, and each member shall comply with the minimum investment established in the capital...

  9. 9 CFR 93.318 - Special provisions. (United States)


    ... recognized expositions in Canada, including racing, horse shows, rodeo, circus, or stage exhibitions in... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.318 Special provisions. (a) In-bond shipments from Canada. (1) Horses from Canada transported in-bond through the United States for immediate export shall...

  10. 40 CFR 1042.301 - General provisions. (United States)


    ... Production-line Engines § 1042.301 General provisions. (a) If you produce engines that are subject to the... engine manufacturers may omit testing under this subpart. (2) We may exempt Category 1 engine families... certain engine families if your production-line engines do not meet the requirements of this part or you...

  11. 10 CFR 26.711 - General provisions. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 26.711 Section 26.711 Energy NUCLEAR... information about individuals is retained and shared with other licensees and entities. If, for any reason, the shared information used for determining an individual's eligibility for authorization under this...

  12. 15 CFR 301.1 - General provisions. (United States)


    ... FOR EDUCATIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS § 301.1 General provisions. (a) Purpose. This part sets... duty-free importation of scientific instruments and apparatus by public or private nonprofit institutions. (b) Background. (1) The Agreement on the importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural...

  13. Advance Provision of Emergency Contraception for Adolescents (United States)

    Adamji, Jehan-Marie; Swartwout, Kathryn


    Emergency contraception is most effective at preventing unintended pregnancy when taken as early as possible following unprotected sexual intercourse. Advance provision of this medication supports more timely and effective use. In the midst of rising teen pregnancy rates, current policies often limit access to emergency contraception for…

  14. 32 CFR 518.15 - General provisions. (United States)


    ... information under the FOIA can have an adverse impact on OPSEC. The Army implementing directive for OPSEC is... provisions of the FOIA are reserved for persons with private interests as opposed to U.S. Federal Agencies... release of names and duty information of personnel who, by the nature of their position and duties...

  15. 15 CFR 748.1 - General provisions. (United States)


    ... approval of the Secretary of Commerce or of the Under Secretary for Industry and Security. (d) Electronic... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 748.1 Section 748.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU...

  16. Information provision by regulated public transport companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deborger, Bruno; Fosgerau, Mogens


    We study the interaction between pricing, frequency of service and information provision by public transport firms offering scheduled services, and we do so under various regulatory regimes. The model assumes that users can come to the bus stop or rail station at random or they can plan their tri...

  17. 45 CFR 612.1 - General provisions. (United States)


    .... science, news releases) may be provided to the public without reliance on this Part. As a matter of policy... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 612.1 Section 612.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF...

  18. 45 CFR 74.48 - Contract provisions. (United States)



  19. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    , the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...

  20. 5 CFR 831.1905 - Additional provisions. (United States)


    ... necessary to properly process a request for State income tax withholding. (d) If the State is paid... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 831.1905 Section 831.1905 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  1. 76 FR 32316 - Gap in Termination Provisions (United States)


    ... example, the Software and Information Industry Association (SIIA) stated that the better practice would be... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Gap in Termination Provisions AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is amending its regulations governing notices of...

  2. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... impact on the type and nature of houses provided within the city .... architects. The common data usually obtained when it comes to mass housing estates provision has been that of income capability of the house owners as shown in researches by Igbinosa.

  3. 28 CFR 105.27 - Miscellaneous provisions. (United States)


    ... Private Security Officer Employment § 105.27 Miscellaneous provisions. (a) Alternate State availability... national fingerprint-based criminal history checks of prospective and current private security officers and... history checks of prospective and current private security officers. (b) FBI fees for national check. The...

  4. 20 CFR 301.1 - Statutory provisions. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions. 301.1 Section 301.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... therefor, or in any of such activities. * * * (b) The term “carrier” means an express company, sleeping-car...

  5. 31 CFR 281.9 - General provisions. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 281.9 Section 281.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... regulations within the framework of this circular will be issued by the Fiscal Assistant Secretary of the...

  6. 40 CFR 35.6595 - Contract provisions. (United States)


    ... must comply with 40 CFR 31.36(i)(3) through (6). (4) Conflict of interest. The recipient must include provisions pertaining to conflict of interest as described in § 35.6550(b)(2)(ii). ... regulations pertaining to reporting and patent rights under any contract involving research, developmental...

  7. 40 CFR 1042.701 - General provisions. (United States)


    ..., Banking, and Trading for Certification § 1042.701 General provisions. This subpart describes how you may... family with a higher FEL that applies only to future production. (f) Engine families that use emission...) Emission credits may be used in the model year they are generated or in future model years. Emission...

  8. 7 CFR 249.25 - Other provisions. (United States)


    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Miscellaneous Provisions § 249... (7 U.S.C. 2011, et seq.) and to any other Federal or State food or nutrition assistance program. (b...

  9. 5 CFR 9701.527 - Savings provision. (United States)



  10. 78 FR 48048 - Student Assistance General Provisions (United States)


    ...] [Pages 48048-48051] [FR Doc No: 2013-19071] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 668 RIN 1880-AA87 Student... Education. ACTION: Final regulations. SUMMARY: The Secretary amends the Student Assistance General Provisions regulations governing participation in the student financial assistance programs authorized under...

  11. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal is empowered to deal with all cases of professional discipline under the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is examined against the background of constitutional provision that affects the exercise of the powers of the ...

  12. Girls and Gender in Alternative Education Provision (United States)

    Russell, Lisa; Thomson, Pat


    UK Government policy states that all young people aged 14-19 are entitled to a broad and balanced curriculum, with access to "personalised" education and training pathways. With boys currently leading the statistics on exclusion, girls' educational and social needs are often sidelined in alternative education provision, as the majority…

  13. 10 CFR 905.34 - Adjustment provisions. (United States)


    ... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...

  14. 29 CFR 1902.36 - General provisions. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 1902.36 Section 1902.36 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATE PLANS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND ENFORCEMENT OF STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Determinations Under...

  15. Pastoralists' Vulnerability to Trypanosomiasis in Maasai Steppe. (United States)

    Nnko, Happiness J; Gwakisa, Paul S; Ngonyoka, Anibariki; Saigilu, Meshack; Ole-Neselle, Moses; Kisoka, William; Sindato, Calvin; Estes, Anna


    Trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of both livestock and humans. Although pastoral communities of the Maasai Steppe have been able to adapt to trypanosomiasis in the past, their traditional strategies are now constrained by changes in climate and land regimes that affect their ability to move with their herds and continually shape the communities' vulnerability to trypanosomiasis. Despite these constraints, information on communities' vulnerability and adaptive capacity to trypanosomiasis is limited. A cross-sectional study was therefore conducted in Simanjiro and Monduli districts of the Maasai Steppe to establish pastoralists' vulnerability to animal trypanosomiasis and factors that determined their adaptation strategies. A weighted overlay approach in ArcGIS 10.4 was used to analyze vulnerability levels while binomial and multinomial logistic regressions in R 3.3.2 were used to analyze the determinants of adaptation. Simanjiro district was the most vulnerable to trypanosomiasis. The majority (87.5%, n = 136) of the respondents were aware of trypanosomiasis in animals, but only 7.4% (n = 136) knew about the human form of the disease. Reported impacts of animal trypanosomiasis were low milk production (95.6%, n = 136), death of livestock (96.8%, n = 136) and emaciation of animals (99.9%, n = 136). Crop farming was the most frequently reported animal trypanosomiasis adaptation strategy (66%, n = 136). At a 95% confidence interval, accessibility to livestock extension services (β = 7.61, SE = 3.28, df = 135, P = 0.02), years of livestock keeping experience (β = 6.17, SE = 1.95, df = 135, P = 0.001), number of cattle owned (β = 5.85, SE = 2.70, df = 135, P = 0.03) and membership in associations (β = - 4.11, SE = 1.79, df = 135, P = 0.02) had a significant impact on the probability of adapting to animal trypanosomiasis.

  16. 75 FR 7227 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted... (United States)


    ... of serious injury or death of large whales due to incidental entanglement in U.S. commercial fishing... Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits (EFPs) AGENCY... is for testing of fixed fishing gear with no vertical lines on the northern edge of Jeffrey's Ledge...

  17. Understanding Data Needs for Vulnerability Assessment and Decision Making to Manage Vulnerability of Department of Defense Installations to Climate Change (United States)


    vulnerability and disaster risk management approaches; Linkov et al., 2014, argue for integration of risk analysis into resilience planning; Larkin et al...FINAL REPORT Understanding Data Needs for Vulnerability Assessment and Decision Making to Manage Vulnerability of Department of Defense...2. REPORT TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 5/17/2012 to 9/30/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Vulnerability of DoD

  18. Drinking water vulnerability to climate change and alternatives for adaptation in coastal South and South East Asia. (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Scheelbeek, P F D; Vineis, P; Khan, A E; Ahmed, K M; Butler, A P

    Drinking water in much of Asia, particularly in coastal and rural settings, is provided by a variety of sources, which are widely distributed and frequently managed at an individual or local community level. Coastal and near-inland drinking water sources in South and South East (SSE) Asia are vulnerable to contamination by seawater, most dramatically from tropical cyclone induced storm surges. This paper assesses spatial vulnerabilities to salinisation of drinking water sources due to meteorological variability and climate change along the (ca. 6000 km) coastline of SSE Asia. The risks of increasing climatic stresses are first considered, and then maps of relative vulnerability along the entire coastline are developed, using data from global scale land surface models, along with an overall vulnerability index. The results show that surface and near-surface drinking water in the coastal areas of the mega-deltas in Vietnam and Bangladesh-India are most vulnerable, putting more than 25 million people at risk of drinking 'saline' water. Climate change is likely to exacerbate this problem, with adverse consequences for health, such as prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. There is a need for identifying locations that are most at risk of salinisation in order for policy makers and local officials to implement strategies for reducing these health impacts. To counter the risks associated with these vulnerabilities, possible adaptation measures are also outlined. We conclude that detailed and fine scale vulnerability assessments may become crucial for planning targeted adaptation programmes along these coasts.

  19. Vulnerability Assessment of Environmental and Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Sultanate of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Saif Al-Kalbani


    Full Text Available Climate change and its consequences present one of the most important threats to water resources systems which are vulnerable to such changes due to their limited adaptive capacity. Water resources in arid mountain regions, such as Al Jabal Al Akhdar; northern Sultanate of Oman, are vulnerable to the potential adverse impacts of environmental and climate change. Besides climatic change, current demographic trends, economic development and related land use changes are exerting pressures and have direct impacts on increasing demands for water resources and their vulnerability. In this study, vulnerability assessment was carried out using guidelines prepared by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP and Peking University to evaluate four components of the water resource system: water resources stress, water development pressure, ecological health, and management capacity. The calculated vulnerability index (VI was high, indicating that the water resources are experiencing levels of stress. Ecosystem deterioration was the dominant parameter and management capacity was the dominant category driving the vulnerability on water resources. The vulnerability assessment will support policy and decision makers in evaluating options to modify existing policies. It will also help in developing long-term strategic plans for climate change mitigation and adaptation measures and implement effective policies for sustainable water resources management, and therefore the sustenance of human wellbeing in the region.

  20. Groundwater Vulnerability to Seawater Intrusion along Coastal Urban Areas: A Quantitative Comparative Assessment of EPIK and DRASTIC (United States)

    Momjian, Nanor; Abou Najm, Majdi; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem


    Groundwater vulnerability assessment models are invariably coupled with Geographic Information Systems to provide decision makers with easier visualization of complex systems. In this study, we examine the uncertainty associated with such models (DRASTIC, EPIK) in assessing seawater intrusion, a growing threat along coastal urban cities due to overexploitation of groundwater resources associated with population growth and more recently, exacerbated by climate change impacts. For this purpose, a mapping of groundwater vulnerability was first conducted at a country level (Lebanon) and coupled with a groundwater quality monitoring program in three coastal cities for cross-validation. Then, six water quality categories were defined and mapped based on water quality standards ranging from drinking to seawater with weighted scores assigned for each category in both DRASTIC and EPIK for cross-validation. Finally, the results of groundwater quality tests were compared with vulnerability predictions at sampling points using two indicators (Chloride and TDS). While field measurements demonstrated the high vulnerability to seawater intrusion in coastal urbanized areas, the modelling results exhibited variations from field measurements reaching up to two water quality categories. Vertical-based vulnerability models demonstrated poor correlation when the anthropogenic impact was introduced through a process that depends on lateral groundwater flow thus highlighting (1) the limited ability of such models to capture vulnerability to lateral seawater intrusion induced primarily by vertical groundwater withdrawal, and (2) the need to incorporate depth and underlying lithology into the layers of groundwater vulnerability models when examining horizontally induced contamination such as seawater intrusion.

  1. Freshwater Vulnerability beyond Local Water Stress: Heterogeneous Effects of Water-Electricity Nexus Across the Continental United States. (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Zimmerman, Julie B; Wang, Chunyan; Font Vivanco, David; Hertwich, Edgar G


    Human health and economic prosperity are vulnerable to freshwater shortage in many parts of the world. Despite a growing literature that examines the freshwater vulnerability in various spatiotemporal contexts, existing knowledge has been conventionally constrained by a territorial perspective. On the basis of spatial analyses of monthly water and electricity flows across 2110 watersheds and three interconnected power systems, this study investigates the water-electricity nexus (WEN)'s transboundary effects on freshwater vulnerability in the continental United States in 2014. The effects are shown to be considerable and heterogeneous across time and space. For at least one month a year, 58 million people living in water-abundant watersheds were exposed to additional freshwater vulnerability by relying on electricity generated by freshwater-cooled thermal energy conversion cycles in highly stressed watersheds; for 72 million people living in highly stressed watersheds, their freshwater vulnerability was mitigated by using imported electricity generated in water-abundant watersheds or power plants running dry cooling or using nonfreshwater for cooling purposes. On the country scale, the mitigation effects were the most significant during September and October, while the additional freshwater vulnerability was more significant in February, March, and December. Due to the WEN's transboundary effects, overall, the freshwater vulnerability was slightly worsened within the Eastern Interconnection, substantially improved within the Western Interconnection, and least affected within the ERCOT Interconnection.

  2. [Keratitis due to Acanthamoeba]. (United States)

    Pérez-Irezábal, Julio; Martínez, Inés; Isasa, Patricia; Barrón, Jorge


    Free-living amebae appertaining to the genus Acanthamoeba, Naegleria and Balamuthia are the most prevalent protozoa found in the environment. These amebae have a cosmopolitan distribution in soil, air and water, providing multiple opportunities for contacts with humans and animals, although they only occasionally cause disease. Acanthamoeba spp. are the causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, a rare and often fatal disease of the central nervous system, and amebic keratitis, a painful disease of the eyes. Keratitis usually follows a chronic course due to the delay in diagnosis and subsequent treatment. The clear increase in Acanthamoeba keratitis in the last 20 years is related to the use and deficient maintenance of contact lenses, and to swimming while wearing them. The expected incidence is one case per 30,000 contact lens wearers per year, with 88% of cases occurring in persons wearing hydrogel lenses. This review presents information on the morphology, life-cycle and epidemiology of Acanthamoeba, as well as on diagnostic procedures (culture), appropriate antimicrobial therapy, and prevention measures.

  3. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters. (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S


    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  4. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.


    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  5. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jejal Reddy Bathi


    Full Text Available Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  6. Aren't we all vulnerable: why do vulnerability analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moench, Marcus


    The idea of 'vulnerability' is widely-used shorthand for the disproportionate impacts that climate change will have on high-risk groups and fragile ecosystems. Decision makers increasingly want to target adaptation funding to those people and environments most affected by climate change. They must also be able to monitor the effectiveness of their investments. Vulnerability analysis is sometimes presented as the solution to these wants and needs — but existing approaches are often of little use: at best, they reiterate what we already know; at worst, they are used to justify entrenched agendas. To be truly useful as a basis for dialogue, action and accountability, the meaning of 'vulnerability' must be clarified and the methods for analysing it greatly strengthened. This means establishing standard, replicable approaches that differentiate between the roles and exposure of stakeholders, systems and institutions.

  7. Climate Vulnerability and Human Migration in Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Grecequet


    Full Text Available The relationship between climate change and human migration is not homogenous and depends critically on the differential vulnerability of population and places. If places and populations are not vulnerable, or susceptible, to climate change, then the climate–migration relationship may not materialize. The key to understanding and, from a policy perspective, planning for whether and how climate change will impact future migration patterns is therefore knowledge of the link between climate vulnerability and migration. However, beyond specific case studies, little is known about this association in global perspective. We therefore provide a descriptive, country-level portrait of this relationship. We show that the negative association between climate vulnerability and international migration holds only for countries least vulnerable to climate change, which suggests the potential for trapped populations in more vulnerable countries. However, when analyzed separately by life supporting sector (food, water, health, ecosystem services, human habitat, and infrastructure and vulnerability dimension (exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity, we detect evidence of a relationship among more, but not the most, vulnerable countries. The bilateral (i.e., country-to-country migration show that, on average, people move from countries of higher vulnerability to lower vulnerability, reducing global risk by 15%. This finding is consistent with the idea that migration is a climate adaptation strategy. Still, ~6% of bilateral migration is maladaptive with respect to climate change, with some movement toward countries with greater climate change vulnerability.

  8. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N. H.


    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  9. Vulnerability of Forests in India: A National Scale Assessment. (United States)

    Sharma, Jagmohan; Upgupta, Sujata; Jayaraman, Mathangi; Chaturvedi, Rajiv Kumar; Bala, Govindswamy; Ravindranath, N H


    Forests are subjected to stress from climatic and non-climatic sources. In this study, we have reported the results of inherent, as well as climate change driven vulnerability assessments for Indian forests. To assess inherent vulnerability of forests under current climate, we have used four indicators, namely biological richness, disturbance index, canopy cover, and slope. The assessment is presented as spatial profile of inherent vulnerability in low, medium, high and very high vulnerability classes. Fourty percent forest grid points in India show high or very high inherent vulnerability. Plantation forests show higher inherent vulnerability than natural forests. We assess the climate change driven vulnerability by combining the results of inherent vulnerability assessment with the climate change impact projections simulated by the Integrated Biosphere Simulator dynamic global vegetation model. While 46% forest grid points show high, very high, or extremely high vulnerability under future climate in the short term (2030s) under both representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5, such grid points are 49 and 54%, respectively, in the long term (2080s). Generally, forests in the higher rainfall zones show lower vulnerability as compared to drier forests under future climate. Minimizing anthropogenic disturbance and conserving biodiversity can potentially reduce forest vulnerability under climate change. For disturbed forests and plantations, adaptive management aimed at forest restoration is necessary to build long-term resilience.

  10. Social Vulnerability and Ebola Virus Disease in Rural Liberia. (United States)

    Stanturf, John A; Goodrick, Scott L; Warren, Melvin L; Charnley, Susan; Stegall, Christie M


    The Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic that has stricken thousands of people in the three West African countries of Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Guinea highlights the lack of adaptive capacity in post-conflict countries. The scarcity of health services in particular renders these populations vulnerable to multiple interacting stressors including food insecurity, climate change, and the cascading effects of disease epidemics such as EVD. However, the spatial distribution of vulnerable rural populations and the individual stressors contributing to their vulnerability are unknown. We developed a Social Vulnerability Classification using census indicators and mapped it at the district scale for Liberia. According to the Classification, we estimate that districts having the highest social vulnerability lie in the north and west of Liberia in Lofa, Bong, Grand Cape Mount, and Bomi Counties. Three of these counties together with the capital Monrovia and surrounding Montserrado and Margibi counties experienced the highest levels of EVD infections in Liberia. Vulnerability has multiple dimensions and a classification developed from multiple variables provides a more holistic view of vulnerability than single indicators such as food insecurity or scarcity of health care facilities. Few rural Liberians are food secure and many cannot reach a medical clinic in vulnerable households and populations. Our results can be used to identify vulnerability hotspots where development strategies and allocation of resources to address the underlying causes of vulnerability in Liberia may be warranted. We demonstrate how social vulnerability index approaches can be applied in the context of disease outbreaks, and our methods are relevant elsewhere.

  11. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities (United States)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael


    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  12. The essence of care in health vulnerability: a Heideggerian construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virna Ribeiro Feitosa Cestari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Reflect on the essence of care in health vulnerability from the phenomenological perspective of Martin Heidegger. Method: Theoretical-reflexive study, anchored in three essential parts: 1 Care in Heidegger; 2 The essence of care in health vulnerability; And 3 Nursing care actions on health vulnerability. Results: Vulnerability must be recognized as an indelible trait of the human condition and has its constituents in the human being, co-presence and care. Caring is an interactive process that reveals itself in the relationship with the other. Respecting the integrity of the Being in vulnerability must be a priority in nursing care, through behaviors that privilege the Being. Conclusion: Understanding ontological care and its relation to vulnerability under Heidegger’s phenomenological view allowed us to uncover the facets of care in health vulnerability by adding to the nursing knowledge body a comprehensive and reflective perspective.

  13. The Assessment of Vulnerability of Industrial Parks to Climate Change in South Korea (United States)

    Ryu, J. E.; Lee, D. K.; Jung, T. Y.; Choi, K. L.; Lee, S. H.


    Many countries are developing policy and measures to adapt to climate changes at the national and local levels, but the assessment of vulnerability to climate change and the establishment of countermeasures in the industries considering industrial factors such as worker, infrastructure are insufficient due to the characteristics of diverse processes and fields. In South Korea, the national government provides infrastructures for industrial parks where various companies in manufacturing and other industries are concentrated . Because of their concentration, damages can aggravate in case of natural disasters such as typhoons. In this study, vulnerability indices for climate change were developed and evaluated using climate scenarios for the climate exposure of localized terrential downpour for eight industrial parks. The vulnerability indices were selected and reviewed through literature review and two in-depth interviews with experts in various industries, and the assessment of vulnerability to climate change was conducted by collecting relevant information including the Directory of Industrial Complexes. The vulnerability of each industrial park to climate change was assessed for four time serious such as the base line, 2020s, 2050s, and 2100s . As a result, even though the possibility of localized heavy rain was the highest in Yeosu(Southeast coast) at present, but it was predicted that Gwangyang(Southwest coast) will be higher in the future. For the influences of climate including sensitivity, Ulsan Mipo(Southeast coast) is currently under the highest influence of climate, but the Gumi(Inland area) was forecasted to be under the highest influence of climate in the future. As a result of the assessment of vulnerability to climate change including adaptive capacity, Gumi and Myongji Noksan(Southeast coast) were most vulnerable to localized heavy rain. The degree of vulnerability of all the industrial parks except Ulsan and Yeosu was forecasted to increase in the

  14. Enhancement of global flood damage assessments using building material based vulnerability curves (United States)

    Englhardt, Johanna; de Ruiter, Marleen; de Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen


    This study discusses the development of an enhanced approach for flood damage and risk assessments using vulnerability curves that are based on building material information. The approach draws upon common practices in earthquake vulnerability assessments, and is an alternative for land-use or building occupancy approach in flood risk assessment models. The approach is of particular importance for studies where there is a large variation in building material, such as large scale studies or studies in developing countries. A case study of Ethiopia is used to demonstrate the impact of the different methodological approaches on direct damage assessments due to flooding. Generally, flood damage assessments use damage curves for different land-use or occupancy types (i.e. urban or residential and commercial classes). However, these categories do not necessarily relate directly to vulnerability of damage by flood waters. For this, the construction type and building material may be more important, as is used in earthquake risk assessments. For this study, we use building material classification data of the PAGER1 project to define new building material based vulnerability classes for flood damage. This approach will be compared to the widely applied land-use based vulnerability curves such as used by De Moel et al. (2011). The case of Ethiopia demonstrates and compares the feasibility of this novel flood vulnerability method on a country level which holds the potential to be scaled up to a global level. The study shows that flood vulnerability based on building material also allows for better differentiation between flood damage in urban and rural settings, opening doors to better link to poverty studies when such exposure data is available. Furthermore, this new approach paves the road to the enhancement of multi-risk assessments as the method enables the comparison of vulnerability across different natural hazard types that also use material-based vulnerability curves

  15. Vulnerability and adaptation of urban dwellers in slope failure threats--a preliminary observation for the Klang Valley Region. (United States)

    Thanapackiam, P; Salleh, Khairulmaini Osman; Ghaffar, Fauza Ab


    This paper discusses the outcome of a research that examines the relationships between vulnerability and adaptation of urban dwellers to the slope failure threat in the Klang Valley Region. Intense urban landuse expansions in the Klang Valley Region have increased urban dwellers vulnerability to slope failures in recent years. The Klang Valley Region was chosen as the study area due to the increasing intensities and frequencies of slope failures threat. This paper examines urban dwellers vulnerability based on their (1) population and demographics characteristics, (2) the state of physical structures of dwellings and (3) the situation of the immediate environment threatened by slope failures. The locations of slope failure incidents were identified, mapped and examined followed with a detailed field study to identified areas. The results identified significant relationships between vulnerability indicators and slope failures in the Klang Valley Region. The findings of the study are envisaged to give valuable insights on addressing the threat of slope failures in the Klang Valley Region.

  16. The vulnerability of family caregivers in relation to vulnerability as understood by nurses. (United States)

    Sarvimäki, Anneli; Stenbock-Hult, Bettina; Sundell, Eija; Oesch-Börman, Christine


    In Finland, the care of older persons is shifting from institutional care to family care. Research shows that family caregivers experience their situation much in the same way as professional nurses. The nurses' experiences have been studied in terms of vulnerability, and the same perspective could deepen our understanding of family caregivers' experiences. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of the vulnerability of older caregivers taking care of an ageing family member. The research questions were as follows: How do family caregivers experience vulnerability? How do their experiences relate to vulnerability as understood by nurses? The study was done as a secondary analysis of focus group interviews on the experiences and daily life of older family caregivers. Four caregivers had taken part in monthly interviews during a period of 10 months. The interviews were analysed by deductive and inductive content analysis. The results showed that the caregivers saw caregiving as part of being human. They experienced a variety of feelings and moral agony and were harmed physically, mentally and socially. They showed courage, protected themselves and recognised that being a caregiver also was a source of maturing and developing. These results corresponded with the nurses' understanding of vulnerability. Shame, the experience of duty as a burden, worry and loneliness were themes that were found only among the family caregivers. The use of a matrix may have restricted the analysis, but using it in an unconstrained way allowed for new themes to be created. The results indicate a common humanness and vulnerability in professional and family caregiving. They also show that family caregivers need more support both from society and professionals. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  17. The Lipid-Rich Plaque Study of vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients: Study design and rationale. (United States)

    Waksman, Ron; Torguson, Rebecca; Spad, Mia-Ashley; Garcia-Garcia, Hector; Ware, James; Wang, Rui; Madden, Sean; Shah, Priti; Muller, James


    It has been hypothesized that the outcome post-PCI could be improved by the detection and subsequent treatment of vulnerable patients and lipid-rich vulnerable coronary plaques (LRP). A near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) catheter capable of detecting LRP is being evaluated in The Lipid-Rich Plaque Study. The LRP Study is an international, multicenter, prospective cohort study conducted in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent cardiac catheterization with possible ad hoc PCI for an index event. Patient level and plaque level events were detected by follow-up in the subsequent 2 years. Enrollment began in February 2014 and was completed in March 2016; a total of 1,562 patients were enrolled. Adjudication of new coronary event occurrence and de novo culprit lesion location during the 2-year follow-up is performed by an independent clinical end-points committee (CEC) blinded to NIRS-IVUS findings. The first analysis of the results will be performed when at least 20 de novo events have occurred for which follow-up angiographic data and baseline NIRS-IVUS measurements are available. It is expected that results of the study will be announced in 2018. The LRP Study will test the hypotheses that NIRS-IVUS imaging to detect LRP in patients can identify vulnerable patients and vulnerable plaques. Identification of vulnerable patients will assist future studies of novel systemic therapies; identification of localized vulnerable plaques would enhance future studies of possible preventive measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do provisions to advance chemical facility safety also advance chemical facility security? An analysis of possible synergies


    Hedlund, Frank Huess


    The European Commission has launched a study on the applicability of existing chemical industry safety provisions to enhancing security of chemical facilities covering the situation in 18 EU Member States. This paper reports some preliminary analytical findings regarding the extent to which existing provisions that have been put into existence to advance safety objectives due to synergy effects could be expected advance security objectives as well.The paper provides a conceptual definition of...

  19. Lake eutrophication and environmental change: A viability framework for resilience, vulnerability and adaptive capacity (United States)

    Mathias, Jean-Denis; Rougé, Charles; Deffuant, Guillaume


    several vulnerability functions, representing for instance social, economic or ecological vulnerability, and each representing the violation of the associated property, but these functions need to be ultimately aggregated as a single indicator. Due to the stochastic nature of the system, there is a range of possible trajectories. Statistics can be derived from the probability distribution of the vulnerability of the trajectories. Dynamic programming methods can then yield the policies which, among available policies, minimize a given trajectory. Thus, this viability framework gives indication on both the possible consequences of a hazard or an environmental change, and on the policies that can mitigate or avert it. It also enables to assess the benefits of extending the set of available policy options, and we define adaptive capacity as the reduction in a given vulnerability statistic due to the introduction of new policy options.

  20. Aquifer Vulnerability maps and climate change (United States)

    Ducci, Daniela; Sellerino, Mariangela


    The aquifer vulnerability maps to contamination are used worldwide by environmental agencies and water-resource managers with the aim of preserving the water resources and of evaluating the most suitable areas where to locate new settlements. In the parametric methods, more used to assess the groundwater contamination vulnerability, e.g. the DRASTIC and the AVI methods, an important role is played by the protective capacity of cover layers to the introduction and transport of contaminants into the aquifer. Therefore, these methods point out the importance of the "Depth to water" parameter, which represents, where the aquifer is unconfined, the depth of the piezometric level and, where the aquifer is confined, the top of the aquifer. This parameter is rarely variable in confined aquifers and in deep unconfined aquifers, as karst aquifers, where the piezometric oscillations are low, compared with the depth of the water table. On the contrary, in shallow aquifers of flat areas, where in addition a large number of human activities are practiced and the contamination risk is high, the piezometric level varies suddenly with the rainfall, and it is very sensitive to drought periods and climatic changes. This affects noticeably the "Depth to water" parameter and consequently the vulnerability maps (e.g. 3 m of piezometric lowering can produce a change in the DRASTIC index from 10 to 7…). To validate this hypothesis, the DRASTC and AVI methods have been applied on a shallow aquifer located in a flat area in Campania (Italy,) considering data corresponding to an average rainfall period and to a drought period.