WorldWideScience

Sample records for provision prohibiting discrimination

  1. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.4 Section 8b.4 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Provisions § 8b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the...

  2. 50 CFR 3.1 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 3.1 Section 3.1... PROVISIONS NONDISCRIMINATION-CONTRACTS, PERMITS, AND USE OF FACILITIES § 3.1 Discrimination prohibited. No..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to any form of discrimination or segregation...

  3. 24 CFR 6.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 6.4... COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT ACT OF 1974 General Provisions § 6.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) Section 109... benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity funded in whole or in part...

  4. 24 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT General Provisions § 8.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  5. 14 CFR 1251.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.103 Section... OF HANDICAP General Provisions § 1251.103 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified... of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal...

  6. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination against...

  7. 29 CFR 32.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.4 Section 32.4 Labor Office of... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 32.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which...

  8. 7 CFR 15b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.4 Section 15b.4... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 15b.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  9. 29 CFR 500.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 500.9 Section 500.9 Labor... SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER PROTECTION General Provisions § 500.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) It is a... Secretary alleging such discrimination. ...

  10. 45 CFR 605.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.4 Section 605.4... Provisions § 605.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.63 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.63 Section 1040.63 Energy... Provisions § 1040.63 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives Federal financial assistance from...

  12. 5 CFR 950.110 - Prohibited discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited discrimination. 950.110 Section 950.110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... PRIVATE VOLUNTARY ORGANIZATIONS General Provisions § 950.110 Prohibited discrimination. Discrimination for...

  13. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Provisions § 18.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b...

  14. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where the...

  15. 34 CFR 104.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.4 Section 104.4... ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 104.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activitiy which receives Federal financial...

  16. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to discrimination...

  17. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.4 Section 217.4... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 217.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  18. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...

  19. 22 CFR 142.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.4 Section 142.4... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General Provisions § 142.4 Discrimination... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  20. 14 CFR 1250.103 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1250.103 Section 1250.103 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN... Discrimination prohibited. ...

  1. 45 CFR 1151.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.21 Section 1151.21... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Accessibility § 1151.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.11 Section 8b.11 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Practices § 8b.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on...

  3. 15 CFR 8b.16 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8b.16 Section 8b.16 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION... Accessibility § 8b.16 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped individual shall, because a recipient...

  4. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1151.31 Section 1151.31... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited Employment § 1151.31 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the...

  5. 45 CFR 1624.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1624.4 Section 1624.4... AGAINST DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 1624.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No qualified... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination by any legal services program, directly...

  6. 49 CFR 27.7 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.7 Section 27.7... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 27.7 Discrimination prohibited. (a... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  7. 29 CFR 32.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.12 Section 32.12 Labor Office... § 32.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped individual shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  8. 49 CFR 374.101 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 374.101 Section 374.101... REGULATIONS Discrimination in Operations of Interstate Motor Common Carriers of Passengers § 374.101 Discrimination prohibited. No motor common carrier of passengers subject to 49 U.S.C. subtitle IV, part B shall...

  9. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.203 Section...) of the Justice System Improvement Act of 1979 § 42.203 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in...

  10. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Practices § 18.411 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which...

  11. 45 CFR 84.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.21 Section 84.21... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part...

  12. 5 CFR 900.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.404... § 900.404 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on the ground... be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this subpart applies. (b) Specific...

  13. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.11 Section 104.11... ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 104.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  14. 28 CFR 35.149 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 35.149 Section... STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES Program Accessibility § 35.149 Discrimination prohibited. Except as... subjected to discrimination by any public entity. ...

  15. 18 CFR 705.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States shall, on the grounds of race, color, or... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited. (1...

  16. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.12 Section 15b.12... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.12 Discrimination prohibited. (a... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. (2) A...

  17. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to discrimination...

  18. 29 CFR 32.26 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 32.26 Section 32.26 Labor Office... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 32.26 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified... discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. ...

  19. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 27.3 Section 27... ISSUED UNDER TITLE II OF PUBLIC LAW 93-153 § 27.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person shall... through contractual or other arrangements, subject an individual to discrimination on the grounds of race...

  20. 45 CFR 605.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.21 Section 605.21... Accessibility § 605.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  1. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer... participation in, deny the benefits of, or subject to discrimination any person in the United States under any...

  2. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving Federal...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.66 Section 1040.66 Energy... Practices § 1040.66 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination employment under any program or activity to...

  4. 6 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY § 21.5 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, any program to...

  5. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.11 Section 84.11... § 84.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this...

  6. 5 CFR 900.704 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 900.704... Federally Assisted Programs of the Office of Personnel Management § 900.704 Discrimination prohibited. (a..., be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  7. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.21 Section 1170.21... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.21 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment...

  8. 10 CFR 19.32 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 19.32 Section 19.32 Energy... § 19.32 Discrimination prohibited. No person shall on the grounds of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied a license, be denied the benefit of, or be subjected to discrimination under any...

  9. 14 CFR 1251.200 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.200 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.200 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any...

  10. 22 CFR 217.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.21 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities within the... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  11. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1110.3 Section 1110.3... HUMANITIES GENERAL NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS § 1110.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected, to discrimination under...

  12. 14 CFR 1251.300 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1251.300 Section... OF HANDICAP Accessibility § 1251.300 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall... benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any...

  13. 7 CFR 15b.17 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15b.17 Section 15b.17... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 15b.17 Discrimination prohibited. No... to discrimination under any program or activity receiving assistance from this Department. ...

  14. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 605.11 Section 605.11... Employment Practices § 605.11 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  15. 43 CFR 34.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 34.4 Section 34... DURING CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE ALASKA NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM § 34.4 Discrimination... part applies. (b) Specific actions in which discrimination is prohibited. No person shall directly or...

  16. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination...

  17. 43 CFR 17.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 17.203 Section... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  18. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 84.4 Section 84.4... § 84.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of... discrimination under any program or activity which receives Federal financial assistance. (b) Discriminatory...

  19. 38 CFR 18.421 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... Accessibility § 18.421 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a recipient's... from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to...

  20. 45 CFR 1170.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1170.31 Section 1170.31... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Accessibility § 1170.31 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped... denied the benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination...

  1. 34 CFR 104.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 104.21 Section 104.21... ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 104.21 Discrimination prohibited. No qualified handicapped person shall, because a... excluded from participation in, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity...

  2. 45 CFR 1203.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1203.4 Section 1203.4... OF 1964 § 1203.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. A person in the United States shall not, on... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under, a program to which this part applies. (b...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.71 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.71 Section 1040.71 Energy... § 1040.71 Discrimination prohibited. No handicapped person shall, because a recipient's facilities are... in, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity that receives or benefits from...

  4. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited: (1...

  5. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 217.11 Section 217... Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity to which this part applies. (2) A...

  6. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  7. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9 Section... TRANSPORTATION § 271.9 Discrimination prohibited. (a) All air carriers receiving subsidy under this part shall comply with the following: (1) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975; (2) The Civil Rights Act of 1964 and...

  8. 18 CFR 8.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.3 Section 8.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... LICENSED PROJECTS § 8.3 Discrimination prohibited. Every licensee maintaining recreation facilities for the...

  9. 30 CFR 270.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 270.4 Section 270.4 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE NONDISCRIMINATION IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 270.4 Discrimination prohibited. No contract or subcontract to which...

  10. 41 CFR 51-10.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Discrimination prohibited. 51-10.149 Section 51-10.149 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 10... FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-10.149 Program accessibility...

  11. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b) Specific...

  12. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.11 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.11 Discrimination... discrimination in employment under any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance. (2) A...

  13. 22 CFR 142.15 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 142.15 Section 142... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Accessibility § 142.15 Discrimination... be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which the part applies. ...

  14. 18 CFR 1307.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination... NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No qualified handicapped... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity to which this part applies. (b...

  15. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart applies...

  16. 45 CFR 1151.16 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1151... HANDICAP Discrimination Prohibited General § 1151.16 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity which...

  17. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR NURSING HOMES, INTERMEDIATE CARE FACILITIES, BOARD AND CARE HOMES, AND ASSISTED... Fire Safety Equipment Special Requirements § 232.625 Discrimination prohibited. Any contract or...

  18. Towards More Synergy in the Interpretation of the Prohibition of Sex Discrimination in European Law?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burri, S.D.

    2013-01-01

    The non-discrimination provisions in EU law and in the ECHR have a different background and the Court of Justice of the EU and the European Court of Human Rights have differing roles. However, in both European systems the prohibition of discrimination has become of increasing importance: EU law now

  19. 45 CFR 1153.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 1153... §§ 1153.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No qualified handicapped person shall, on the... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the agency. (b)(1) The agency, in...

  20. 45 CFR 707.6 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 707.6.... COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS § 707.6 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No qualified individual... benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the...

  1. 45 CFR 606.30 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 606... THE NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION § 606.30 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No qualified... benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the...

  2. 49 CFR 28.130 - General prohibition against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibition against discrimination. 28.130....130 General prohibition against discrimination. (a) No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on... subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the Department. (b)(1) The Department...

  3. 32 CFR 1699.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination... CONDUCTED BY SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM § 1699.130 General prohibitions against discrimination. (a) No... the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted...

  4. 49 CFR 28.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited... § 28.149 Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. Except as otherwise provided in § 28.150, no... otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the Department. ...

  5. 32 CFR 1699.149 - Program accessibility: discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program accessibility: discrimination prohibited... CONDUCTED BY SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM § 1699.149 Program accessibility: discrimination prohibited. Except as... participation in, or otherwise be subject to discrimination under any program or activity conducted by the...

  6. 41 CFR 101-6.204 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 101-6.204 Section 101-6.204 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-Nondiscrimination in Programs Receiving Federal Financial Assistance § 101-6.204 Discrimination prohibited. ...

  7. 45 CFR 2490.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 2490.130 Section 2490.130 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.130 General prohibitions...

  8. 19 CFR 201.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....130 Section 201.130 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF... Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission § 201.130 General prohibitions against discrimination... in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under any program or...

  9. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... prohibition also applies to programs as to which a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is (i... participate in the program as an employee but only to the extent set forth in paragraph (c) of this section... of defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respects...

  10. 12 CFR 410.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General prohibitions against discrimination. 410.130 Section 410.130 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED...

  11. 12 CFR 410.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited. 410.149 Section 410.149 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED...

  12. 29 CFR 1977.4 - Persons prohibited from discriminating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 General § 1977.4 Persons prohibited from discriminating. Section 11....4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... employee” because the employee has exercised rights under the Act. Section 3(4) of the Act defines “person...

  13. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., directly or through contractual or other arrangements, utilize criteria or methods of administration which... determining the site or location of facilities, an applicant or recipient may not make selections with the... participation in the Direct Distribution Program. (ii) Discrimination in the allocation of food to eligible...

  14. 22 CFR 209.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... participate in a program as an employee where a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is to... subjected to discrimination under, any program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance from the... accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respects individuals of a particular race, color, or national...

  15. 41 CFR 51-10.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... against discrimination. 51-10.130 Section 51-10.130 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED... THE COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-10.130 General...

  16. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assembles the data requested by M and, although N reviews it to delete genetic information, the data from a... discrimination based on genetic information (temporary). 54.9802-3T Section 54.9802-3T Internal Revenue INTERNAL... EXCISE TAXES § 54.9802-3T Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information...

  17. Public opinion about laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2011-01-01

    Weight discrimination is pervasive in American society and impairs quality of life for obese persons. With approximately two-thirds of Americans now overweight or obese, vast numbers of people are vulnerable to weight prejudice and its consequences. Currently, no laws exist to prohibit weight discrimination. This study conducted an online survey with a national sample of 1,001 adults (representing demographics of the United States) to examine public support for six potential legislative measures to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States. Results indicated substantial support (65% of men, 81% of women) for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, especially for legal measures that would prohibit employers from refusing to hire, terminate, or deny promotion based on a person's body weight. Laws that proposed extending the same protections to obese persons as people with physical disabilities received the least support, suggesting that Americans may not be in favor of considering obesity as a disability. Findings also highlight specific predictors of support (related to sex, age, education, income, body weight, and political ideology). These findings can be used to inform policy makers in efforts to develop antidiscrimination laws. Such measures will rectify health disparities for overweight Americans and facilitate public health efforts to address obesity.

  18. 45 CFR 148.180 - Prohibition of discrimination based on genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... records to excise any genetic information. T assembles the data requested by S and, although T reviews it to delete genetic information, the data from a specific region included some individuals' family... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition of discrimination based on genetic...

  19. 29 CFR 1904.36 - Prohibition against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... provision of the Act also protects the employee who files a safety and health complaint, asks for access to... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR RECORDING AND REPORTING OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AND ILLNESSES Other OSHA Injury and Illness...

  20. 28 CFR 35.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF DISABILITY IN STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT SERVICES General Requirements § 35.130 General... disabilities. (5) A public entity, in the selection of procurement contractors, may not use criteria that... cover the costs of measures, such as the provision of auxiliary aids or program accessibility, that are...

  1. 19 CFR 201.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 201.149 Section 201.149 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF... Conducted by the U.S. International Trade Commission § 201.149 Program accessibility: Discrimination... agency's facilities are inaccessible to or unusable by handicapped persons, be denied the benefits of, be...

  2. Freedom of peaceful assembly and prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančić Melanija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author deals with the question of realization of guaranteed freedom of peaceful assembly and the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. The prohibition of discrimination and freedom of peaceful assembly are prescribed by international documents and domestic law. The main emphasis will be on the prohibition of the Pride Parade that was to be held in Belgrade in October 2011 and on the rights and freedoms of the LGBT population that were consequently violated. However, on 22 December 2011 the Constitutional Court of Serbia upheld a constitutional complaint lodged by the organizers of the Pride Parade in 2009. The Constitutional Court ruled that the competent authorities in Serbia banned the 2009 Pride Parade in violation of the Serbian Constitution. This decision is of great importance for human rights protection in Serbia and the cornerstone judgment regarding the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and realization and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in our country.

  3. Private International Law in the Czech Republic: Tradition, New Experience and Prohibition of Discrimination on Grounds of Nationality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauknerová, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2008), s. 83-105 ISSN 1744-1048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : private international law * nationality * prohibition of discrimination Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  4. Evidence of Persistent and Pervasive Workplace Discrimination Against LGBT People: The Need for Federal Legislation Prohibiting Discrimination and Providing for Equal Employment Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Pizer, Jennifer; Mallory, Christy; Sears, Brad; Hunter, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people have experienced a long and pervasive history of employment discrimination. Today, more than eight million people in the American workforce identify as LGBT, but there still is no federal law that explicitly prohibits sexual orientation and gender identity discrimination against them.This Article begins by surveying the social science research and other evidence illustrating the nature and scope of the discrimination against LGBT workers a...

  5. Support for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States: public attitudes from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young; Puhl, Rebecca; Liu, Sai; Milici, Frances Fleming

    2014-08-01

    Public attitudes about three proposed laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the US, from 2011 to 2013 were examined. An online survey using a diverse national sample of US adults to assess their level of support for three specific laws against weight discrimination was conducted. Data collection occurred between June and July in 2011 (n = 1,098), 2012 (n = 1,202), and 2013 (n = 1,202). Between 2011 and 2013, support for laws prohibiting weight discrimination remained consistent, and in some cases became increasingly supportive, primarily in 2012-2013. At least 75% of participants consistently favored laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the workplace. Individuals became increasingly supportive of extending disability protections for individuals with obesity (62% in 2011 to 69% in 2013) and adding body weight as a protected class in Civil Rights statutes (70% in 2011 to 76% in 2013). Analyses highlight specific predictors of support (gender, race, education, and political affiliation). There is strong, consistent support for policies prohibiting weight discrimination. These findings have important implications for developing specific antidiscrimination legislation to protect Americans with obesity and improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  6. Towards More Synergy in the Interpretation of the Prohibition of Sex Discrimination in European Law?
    A Comparison of Legal Contexts and some Case Law of the EU and the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne D. Burri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-discrimination provisions in EU law and in the ECHR have a different background and the Court of Justice of the EU and the European Court of Human Rights have differing roles. However, in both European systems the prohibition of discrimination has become of increasing importance: EU law now covers more discrimination grounds, the scope of both EU law and the ECHR non-discrimination provisions has expanded and, in particular in the field of gender equality, there is an impressive body of - in particular EU - case law. National courts are confronted with issues that fall either under the ECHR or the EU provisions or both. Sometimes similar questions are interpreted by both European courts, for example in case of overlapping subject-matters, such as sex discrimination in the field of pensions, social security benefits or parental leave. The paper offers an analysis of the legal contexts and case law of both European systems in some areas that overlap and the main similarities and differences in approaches to sex equality in both systems. The comparison shows that while the ECtHR sometimes allows a gradual abolition of forms of direct sex discrimination, the approach of the Court of Justice is much stricter.

  7. Legal Provisions, Discrimination and Uncertainty on LGBT community in Albania. Laws on human rights vs exerted rights of LGBT persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana Curi

    2018-03-01

    On March 13, 2010, the Anti-Discrimination Law, one of the essential legal instruments that protects human rights in Albania, and also includes the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, came into force. Albania has already the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination. Two LGBT organizations have already been established in Albania: the Alliance against Discrimination LGBT and LGBT Pro Albania. They aim to protect the rights of sexual minorities in Albania and promote a national movement of social mobilization to protect and promote the rights of this community in Albania

  8. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of sex in labour-law relations

    OpenAIRE

    Jandová, Darina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive view on the issue of discrimination based on sex in labour-law relations. The aim of my thesis is to investigate why discrimination is still present in society despite all the effort made by the international organisations, legislators and non-governmental organizations. Therefore, the main objective of this work is to analyse the current position of women in society, the causes of why discrimination based on sex is emerging and to find o...

  9. 45 CFR 1232.9 - General prohibitions against employment and volunteer service discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activity under which volunteers are assigned to work in a number of work stations will assure that a... volunteer service discrimination. 1232.9 Section 1232.9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment and Volunteer Service...

  10. Voters’ Initiatives to Repeal or Prevent Laws Prohibiting Employment Discrimination Against LGBT People, 1974-Present

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan D.

    2009-01-01

    One marker of the hostility and animus directed towards LGBT Americans is the proliferation of attempts to use state and local ballot measures to repeal or preclude protection against employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. The pattern of outcomes has slowly shifted in the last 30 years from a majority of these attempts succeeding to a majority failing. Nonetheless, proponents of workplace equality for the LGBT minority have had to respond – more frequently t...

  11. Igualdad y prohibición de discriminación: de 1978 a 2018 // Equality and prohibition of discrimination: from 1978 to 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rey Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Throughout the forty years of validity of the 1978 Constitution, the traditional right of equality has been enriched by the emergence of a new branch of the legal system: Anti-Discriminatory Law. The text draws the conceptual grammar of the new categories and their jurisprudential development. The study analyzes what equality means in a precise juridical sense, which includes the constitutional prohibition against discrimination in general and equality between women and men, ethnic / racial equality, equality of persons with any type of disability or for reasons of sexual orientation and identity.

  12. Provision of Healthcare Services to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nigeria: Students' Attitudes Following the Passage of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Jolly, Kate; Gale, Nicola K; Ifaniyi, Oluwafemi A; Somefun, Esther O; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Fakayode, Victoria A

    2016-08-01

    After signing of the Same-Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act 2013 in Nigeria, media reports portray widespread societal intolerance toward the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population. This study was conducted to assess the attitudes of university undergraduates in Lagos state, Nigeria, toward provision of healthcare services for men who have sex with men (MSM), because the 2014 same-sex marriage prohibition law stipulates a jail sentence for organizations providing services to MSM. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires to collect information, including homophobic attitudes and views on access to healthcare, from 4000 undergraduates in 10 randomly selected faculties in two universities. During analysis, inter-university and inter-faculty comparison was carried out between medical and nonmedical students. Outright denial of healthcare services to MSM was supported by 37.6% of the 3537 undergraduates who responded, whereas denial of HIV prevention services was supported by 32.5%. However, compared with 38.7% and 34.1% of undergraduates from other faculties, 23.7% and 18.2% of medical students agreed that healthcare providers should not provide services to MSM and that MSM should not have access to HIV prevention services, respectively (P = 0.000). Although a significant proportion of the medical students supported the statement that doctors and other healthcare workers should be compelled to give priority to other groups before MSM (29.4% of medical vs. 47.2% of students from other faculties), a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of students. The homophobic statement with the highest support was that doctors and healthcare workers should be compelled to report MSM who come to access treatment (48.1% of medical vs. 57.4% of students from other faculties). A very high proportion of the undergraduate students had a negative attitude toward provision of healthcare services to MSM in

  13. Overview of the extent of discrimination in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Cantillon, Sara; Vasquez del Aguila, Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    Irish legislation prohibits discrimination in employment and service provision under nine grounds: age, disability, family status, gender, marital status, race/ethnic group/nationality, religious belief, sexual orientation, and membership of the Traveller community. This paper shows that despite the extensive equality legislative framework and “optimistic” perceptions of the general population about tolerance and openness, vulnerable populations continue to experience discrimination in their ...

  14. Framing messages about weight discrimination: impact on public support for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Heuer, C; Sarda, V

    2011-06-01

    To assess the public support for potential legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination against obese individuals in the United States, and to examine whether certain message frames about weight discrimination influence public support. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of the four paragraphs that framed the topic of weight discrimination in a distinct way (or a control condition with no paragraph). Participants were then asked to indicate their level of support for six antidiscrimination laws. A national sample of 1114 participants (48% women, 52% men), mean age 44.78 years (s.d. = 15.93). There was moderate support for several laws to prohibit weight-based discrimination, but gender differences were observed across experimental conditions indicating that some message frames may increase support for certain laws among women, but not men. However, message frames had no effect on support for laws with specific provisions to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that public support for these particular legal measures is consistent and high (65% of men and 81% of women expressed support) regardless of how the issue of weight discrimination is framed to the public. The present findings provide evidence of current levels of public support for legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination, and offer potential ways for policy makers and interest groups to communicate messages about weight discrimination in efforts to increase support.

  15. 45 CFR 2540.210 - What provisions exist to ensure that Corporation-supported programs do not discriminate in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the Education Amendments of 1972 (20 U.S.C. 1681 et seq.), section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of... Federal financial assistance to an education program or activity for purposes of the Education Amendments... project that receives Corporation assistance may not discriminate on the basis of religion against a...

  16. The immediate eff ect of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement on HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men in Nigeria: analysis of prospective data from the TRUST cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Keshinro, Babajide; Ake, Julie; Kennedy, Sara; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Baral, Stefan D

    2015-07-01

    In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community. TRUST is a prospective implementation research cohort of MSM (≥16 years) in Abuja, Nigeria. We compared HIV clinical outcomes and stigma, including fear and avoidance of health care, across baseline and quarterly visits before and after implementation of the the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act. Outcomes assessed were measures of stigma and discrimination, loss to follow-up, antiretroviral therapy status, and viral load. We compared outcomes before and after the legislation with χ2 statistics, and estimated incident stigma-related events and loss to follow-up with Poisson regression. Between March 19, 2013, and Aug 7, 2014, 707 MSM participated in baseline study procedures, contributing to 756 before legislation (prelaw) and 420 after legislation (postlaw) visits. Reported history of fear of seeking health care was significantly higher in postlaw visits than in prelaw visits (n=161 [38%] vs n=187 [25%]; psex practices. The negative effects of HIV treatment and care in MSM reinforce the unintended consequences of such legislation on global goals of HIV eradication. Strategies to reach MSM less likely to engage in HIV testing and care in highly stigmatised environments are needed to reduce time to HIV diagnosis and treatment. National Institutes of Health.

  17. Should the joint provision of credit insurance with unsecured lending be prohibited? An examination of the UK payment protection insurance market

    OpenAIRE

    John Ashton; Robert S. Hudson

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the recent UK regulatory decision to introduce a blanket ban on the joint provision of consumer lending and credit insurance was justified. This case has wide regulatory implications following international concerns that the sale of credit insurance has been detrimental to customers due to overpriced credit insurance and a possible cross subsidy from credit insurance to unsecured lending. To explore this issue a theoretical model is developed considering why a cros...

  18. 40 CFR 63.4 - Prohibited activities and circumvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited activities and circumvention... § 63.4 Prohibited activities and circumvention. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No owner or operator... part. (3)-(5) [Reserved] (b) Circumvention. No owner or operator subject to the provisions of this part...

  19. Discrimination against customers by retail chain stores and the impact of the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Reddy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Profit and other related objectives of business emphasise the need to distinguish between different customers or groups of customers. The South African Constitution, on the other hand, specifically prohibits unfair discrimination. This paper examines the legal principle of non-discrimination, as set out in the Constitution and the Equality Act, as well as the impact that these provisions have on discrimination against customers. The literature study shows that there is a legal obligation on business to ensure the provision of equitable customer service. An exploratory study was conducted among the customers of retail chain store outlets in Clermont, a historically disadvantaged area, to identify examples of differentiated treatment of customers by retail chain stores. Customer perceptions have in fact shown areas of differentiation which could be viewed as unfair discrimination unless justified

  20. 40 CFR 65.11 - Circumvention and prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circumvention and prohibited... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONSOLIDATED FEDERAL AIR RULE General Provisions § 65.11 Circumvention and prohibited activities. (a) Circumvention. (1) No owner or operator subject to the provisions of this part shall build...

  1. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  2. 18 CFR 1302.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa; (4) American Indian or...) Hispanic. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or...

  3. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Acceleration Act, Pub. L. 87-658, 42 U.S.C. 2641-2643. (B) Work-study under the Vocational Education Act of... limited, or for which preference is given, to students, fellows, or other persons in training for the same or related employments. (D) Assistance to rehabilitation facilities under the Vocational...

  4. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Act, Pub. L. 87-658, 42 U.S.C. 2641-2643. (b) Work-study under the Vocational Education Act of 1963... are limited, or for which preference is given, to students, fellows, or other persons in training for the same or related employments. (d) Assistance to rehabilitation facilities under the Vocational...

  5. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Fringe benefits available by virtue of employment, whether or not administered by the covered entity; (g... and other related activities, and selection for leaves of absence to pursue training; (h) Activities sponsored by a covered entity including social and recreational programs; and (i) Any other term, condition...

  6. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Employer sponsored activities, including social or recreational programs; and (9) Any other term, condition... advancement or promotion, or accord an employee the rank and rate of compensation, including fringe benefits... rate of compensation, including fringe benefits, merited by the employee's services and abilities. All...

  7. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (including the opportunity to participate in the program as an employee but only to the extent set forth in... defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respect any persons... provided under a program receiving Federal financial assistance shall be deemed to include any service...

  8. 43 CFR 17.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in the program as an employee but only to the extent set forth in paragraph (c) of this section... impairing accomplishment of the objectives of the program as respect individuals of a particular race, color..., financial aid, or other benefits provided under a program receiving Federal financial assistance shall be...

  9. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Where a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance to a program to which this part applies is... facilities), including programs where a primary objective of the Federal financial assistance is: (i) To... program as an employee in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section. (vii) Deny a person the...

  10. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participate in the program of an employee but only to the extent set forth in paragraph (c) of this section... objectives of the program as respects individuals of a particular race, color, or national origin. (3) In... benefits provided under a program receiving Federal financial assistance shall be deemed to include any...

  11. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention to the solutions found in Serbian double taxation treaties which are methodologically divided into three groups. One of them stands out as the most notable, being unique in global terms: double taxation treaties which provide for a prohibition of discriminatory treatment based on residence. The author critically addresses the fundamental flaws of the Serbian double taxation treaty policy which are recognized thorough a detailed scrutiny of the relevant norms of these international agreements.

  12. Connecticut – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A Connecticut statute bans employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. No Connecticut statutes prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. In November 2000, the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities – the agency responsible for administering the anti-discrimination statutes and for processing discrimination complaints – ruled that statutes prohibiting sex discrimination also banned discrimination on the basis of gender identity. ...

  13. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated by...

  14. 77 FR 14972 - Discrimination on the Basis of Disability in Federally Assisted Programs and Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Part 104 Discrimination on the Basis of Disability in Federally... regulations, which prohibit discrimination on the basis of disability in federally assisted programs and...\\ which prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability \\2\\ in federally assisted programs or...

  15. DISCRIMINATION OF WOMEN IN THE LABOUR MARKET OF SR AND MODELS OF DISCRIMINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Ján Vravec; Radovan Baèík

    2012-01-01

    IThe paper deals with the problem of women’s discrimination in the labour market. Significant differences, among women and men in the labour market, are especially in unemployment rate in reward system, and high horizontal and vertical segregation of women. The aspects of discrimination arise despite of existing legislation, which gender discrimination strictly prohibits. An analysis of arguments, consequences and models of women’s discrimination in the labour market can significantly help to...

  16. A CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF THE HATE SPEECH PROVISIONS OF THE EQUALITY ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a detailed contextual analysis of the categorical prohibition of hate speech in terms of section 10(1 of the Equality Act. It is argued that this provision is not primarily intended to describe and effectively regulate the extreme expression that falls within the narrow ambit of "hate speech" as defined in section 16(2(c of the Constitution. Rather, it is concerned with the promotion of equality in the broad societal context. It acknowledges the hurt and harm that discriminatory expression may entail and it condemns the reinforcement of systemic discrimination by means of expression. Therefore, the principal interpretive frame of reference for the analysis of section 10(1 of the Equality Act is the explicit constitutional obligation in terms of sections 9(3 and (4 of the Constitution to enact legislation to prevent and prohibit unfair discrimination, and not section 16(2(c of the Constitution. The fact that section 10(1 categorically prohibits hate speech, instead of premising its prohibition on the unfairness analysis generally applicable to discrimination in other contexts, however, implies that only expression with no reasonable prospect of meeting the constitutional fairness standard ought to be covered by section 10. Put differently, the prohibited expression may in no way promote rather than jeopardise the achievement of equality. The interpretation takes into account that section 10(1 applies only to engagement in expression that, in terms of an objective reasonableness assessment, is clearly primarily aimed at hurting or harming others, or at inciting others to hurt or harm, or at promoting hatred based on group identity. Furthermore, bona fide expression in accordance with the essential characteristics of the freedoms of expression mentioned in section 16(1 of the Constitution is explicitly excluded from its ambit. An analysis of the expression covered by section 10(1 leads to a conclusion that it prohibits only low

  17. DISCRIMINATION BY ASSOCIATION IN EUROPEAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuș

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The european law prohibit direct and indirect discrimination and harrasment on grounds of sex, racial or ethnic, religion or belief, disability, age or sexual orientation. The question is what is the situation when someone is discriminated on can claim to be the victim of unlawful discrimination because he or she is associated with another person who has the protected characteristic. The the Court of Justice of the European Union’s judgment in Coleman v Attridge Law and Steve Law confirms, for the first time in European law, the existence of the concept of discrimination by association. In this article I examine the implications of this case on all conceps of discrimination concepts of discrimination in European law (direct discrimination, indirect discrimination and harassment. I also examine the application of discrimination by association to grounds other than disability.

  18. 21 CFR 530.21 - Prohibitions for food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions for food-producing animals. 530.21... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals § 530.21 Prohibitions for...

  19. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP 1999...

  20. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts...

  1. U.S. Federal Discrimination Law and Language and Culture Restrictions in K-12 Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph; Cumming, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Section 1981 prohibits discrimination concerning the right to contract, and Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of the basis of race and national origin. The two cases that form the basis for the discussion in this article--"Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School" and "Doe v. Kamehameha Schools"--address whether culture…

  2. Differential discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukhanov, V.I.; Mazurov, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    A principal flowsheet of a differential discriminator intended for operation in a spectrometric circuit with statistical time distribution of pulses is described. The differential discriminator includes four integrated discriminators and a channel of piled-up signal rejection. The presence of the rejection channel enables the discriminator to operate effectively at loads of 14x10 3 pulse/s. The temperature instability of the discrimination thresholds equals 250 μV/ 0 C. The discrimination level changes within 0.1-5 V, the level shift constitutes 0.5% for the filling ratio of 1:10. The rejection coefficient is not less than 90%. Alpha spectrum of the 228 Th source is presented to evaluate the discriminator operation with the rejector. The rejector provides 50 ns time resolution

  3. Prostitution, disability and prohibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-01-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...... arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception....

  4. Prostitution, disability and prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-06-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three arguments for a legal exception, based on sexual rights, beneficence, and luck egalitarianism, respectively. It concludes that although the general case for and against criminalisation is complicated there is a good case for a legal exception. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Liebowitz, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    More than 25,000 LGBT workers in West Virginia continue to face widespread and persistent employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. Charleston, Morgantown, Lewisburg, Harpers Ferry, and Buckhannon have local ordinances that prohibit employment discrimination against LGBT people, but they do not provide as much protection for LGBT people as the state’s law that prohibits other types of discrimination. Approximately 95 percent of West Virginia’s workforce is not cover...

  6. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  7. Paradoxical consequences of prohibitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Sana; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    Explanations based in attribution theory claim that strong external controls such as parental restrictiveness and punishment undermine moral internalization. In contrast, three studies provide evidence that parental punishment does socialize morality, but of a particular sort: a morality focused on prohibitions (i.e., proscriptive orientation), rather than positive obligations (i.e., prescriptive orientation). Study 1 found young adults’ accounts of parental restrictiveness and punishment act...

  8. Paradoxical consequences of prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Sana; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    2013-08-01

    Explanations based in attribution theory claim that strong external controls such as parental restrictiveness and punishment undermine moral internalization. In contrast, 3 studies provide evidence that parental punishment does socialize morality, but of a particular sort: a morality focused on prohibitions (i.e., proscriptive orientation) rather than positive obligations (i.e., prescriptive orientation). Study 1 found young adults' accounts of parental restrictiveness and punishment activated their sensitivity to prohibitions and predicted a proscriptive orientation. Consistent with the greater potency of temptations for proscriptively oriented children, as well as past research linking shame to proscriptive morality, Study 2 found that restrictive parenting was also associated with greater suppression of temptations. Finally, Studies 3A and 3B found that suppressing these immoral thoughts is paradoxically harder for those with strong proscriptive orientations; more specifically, priming a proscriptive (versus prescriptive) orientation and inducing mental suppression of "immoral" thoughts led to the most ego depletion for those with restrictive parents. Overall, individuals who had restrictive parents had the lowest self-regulatory ability to resist their "immoral" temptations after prohibitions were activated. In contrast to common attributional explanations, these studies suggest that harsh external control by parents does not undercut moral socialization but rather undermines individuals' ability to resist temptation.

  9. 36 CFR 1280.34 - What are the types of corrective action NARA imposes for prohibited behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the types of corrective action NARA imposes for prohibited behavior? 1280.34 Section 1280.34 Parks, Forests, and Public... corrective action NARA imposes for prohibited behavior? (a) Individuals who violate the provisions of this...

  10. Bertrand Competition with an Asymmetric No-Discrimination Constraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouckaert, J.M.C.; Degryse, H.A.; van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the competitive and welfare consequences when only one firm must commit to uniform pricing while the competitor’s pricing policy is left unconstrained. The asymmetric no-discrimination constraint prohibits both behaviour-based price discrimination within the competitive segment

  11. Anti-discrimination law on the grounds of religion within the Italian legal system: Substantive and procedural aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cettina Di Salvo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The author illustrates the normative framework of protection against religious discrimination in Italian legal system, scattered over several different pieces of legislation. The analysis is devoted to the substantive and procedural rules on the principle of equal treatment irrespective of religion. The analysis shows that the law guarantees every aspect of freedom of personal convictions in religious matter and protects not only people who belong to traditional organized religions, but all people who have held religious beliefs or practices. Italian law prohibits discrimination in regard to religion, not just in employment, but also in other areas. Consequently, the scope is wider than the EU Non-discrimination Directive 2000/78/EC, which only covers discrimination in employment, occupation and working conditions. The rules for the procedure before the court, designed to ensure the protection for persons who have been subject to discrimination are then examined. The author focuses in particular on the provisions regarding the legal standing, the burden of proof, and the remedies, which are crucially important for the effective implementation of the principle of equality.

  12. Meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries | Mafela ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not ...

  13. The Cost of Employment Discrimination against Transgender Residents of Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Taylor NT; Herman, Jody L

    2015-01-01

    The State of Florida spends more than a half million dollars each year as the result of employment discrimination against transgender residents. Currently, 10 counties and 14 cities in Florida have ordinances prohibiting discrimination based on gender identity in public and private sector employment, but nearly 22,000 transgender adult residents are not covered by these laws. Employment discrimination against transgender adults in Florida costs the state an estimated $570,000 annually in stat...

  14. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Two methods investigating learning and memory in juvenile Gottingen minipigs were evaluated for potential use in preclinical toxicity testing. Twelve minipigs were tested using a spatial hole-board discrimination test including a learning phase and two memory phases. Five minipigs were tested...... in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test...

  15. Prohibition as ontological basis of the Russian legal reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify characteristics of the nature content and functioning of prohibition in the legal reality of Russia. nbsp Methods the methodological basis of research is the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors as well as a postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutic discursive. Results the paper proposes a definition of prohibition as a state socio volitional constraining limiting means that under the threat of legal liability is intended to prevent the wrongful act of the subject physical or legal entity and ensure the maintenance of law and order. Prohibition is a necessary means of ensuring the discipline of public relations and the consolidation of legal values designed to assure the effectiveness of legal regulation. Scientific novelty for the first time the article shows that prohibition as a legal category is the ontological basis of legal reality and acts as a determining factor in the content and focus not only of lawmaking and law enforcement but legal behavior as well. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when considering questions about the nature content and functioning of prohibitions.

  16. Waste management and the land disposal restriction storage prohibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    RCRA Sect. 3004(j) prohibits storage of wastes that have been prohibited from land disposal, unless that storage is for the purpose of accumulating sufficient quantities of hazardous wastes to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal. This requirement was incorporated as part of the Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) regulations. Under the LDR storage prohibition, facilities may only store restricted wastes in containers and tanks. As stated in the Third LDR rule, storage of prohibited waste is only allowed in non-land based storage units since land-based storage is a form of disposal. The EPA has recognized that generators and storers of radioactive mixed waste (RMW) may find it impossible to comply with storage prohibition in cases where no available treatment capacity exists. Additionally, under the current regulatory interpretation, there is no provision that would allow for storage of wastes for which treatment capacity and capability are not available, even where capacity is legitimately being developed. Under the LDR program, restricted wastes that are disposed of, or placed into storage before an LDR effective date, are not subject to the LDR requirements. However, if such wastes are removed from a storage or disposal site after the effective date, such wastes would be subject to LDR requirements. The purpose of this information brief is to clarify what waste management practices constitute removal from storage

  17. 45 CFR 1610.3 - Prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF LSC FUNDS, PROGRAM INTEGRITY § 1610.3 Prohibition. A recipient may not use non-LSC funds for any purpose prohibited by the LSC Act or for any activity prohibited by or inconsistent with Section 504...

  18. 7 CFR 771.7 - Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to discrimination on the basis of race, religion, color, national origin, gender, or other prohibited... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements... opportunity and non-discrimination requirements. No recipient of a boll weevil eradication loan shall directly...

  19. Mass discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broeckman, A. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1978-12-15

    In thermal ionization mass spectrometry the phenomenon of mass discrimination has led to the use of a correction factor for isotope ratio-measurements. The correction factor is defined as the measured ratio divided by the true or accepted value of this ratio. In fact this factor corrects for systematic errors of the whole procedure; however mass discrimination is often associated just with the mass spectrometer.

  20. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew

    2008-05-27

    The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness), but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta) is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  1. How discriminating are discriminative instruments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankins Matthew

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The McMaster framework introduced by Kirshner & Guyatt is the dominant paradigm for the development of measures of health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL. The framework defines the functions of such instruments as evaluative, predictive or discriminative. Evaluative instruments are required to be sensitive to change (responsiveness, but there is no corresponding index of the degree to which discriminative instruments are sensitive to cross-sectional differences. This paper argues that indices of validity and reliability are not sufficient to demonstrate that a discriminative instrument performs its function of discriminating between individuals, and that the McMaster framework would be augmented by the addition of a separate index of discrimination. The coefficient proposed by Ferguson (Delta is easily adapted to HRQL instruments and is a direct, non-parametric index of the degree to which an instrument distinguishes between individuals. While Delta should prove useful in the development and evaluation of discriminative instruments, further research is required to elucidate the relationship between the measurement properties of discrimination, reliability and responsiveness.

  2. 24 CFR 6.5 - Discrimination prohibited-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Terms and conditions of employment include advertising, interviewing, selection, promotion, demotion, transfer, recruitment and advertising, layoff or termination, pay or other compensation, including benefits...

  3. 24 CFR 5.309 - Prohibition against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 5.309 Section 5.309 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons... any tenant of such housing from owning common household pets or having such pets living in the tenant...

  4. 17 CFR 200.630 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Enforcement of Nondiscrimination on the Basis of... with handicaps. (5) The agency, in the selection of procurement contractors, may not use criteria that...

  5. 45 CFR 2490.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... 2490.149 Section 2490.149 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.149 Program...

  6. 28 CFR 41.52 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in employment under any program or activity that receives or benefits from federal financial assistance. (b) A recipient shall make all decisions concerning employment under any program or activity to...) Employer sponsored activities, including social or recreational programs; and (9) Any other term, condition...

  7. Evidence of Employment Discrimination on the Basis of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity: Complaints Filed with State Enforcement Agencies 1999-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Christopher; Badgett, M.V. Lee; Sears, Brad

    2008-01-01

    To more accurately measure the effect of anti-discrimination laws, this report compares sex, race, and sexual orientation complaint rates through a population-adjusted model. Today, twenty states and the District of Columbia prohibit employment discrimination based on sexual orientation. Of those, thirteen also prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity. An aggregation of all available state level data reveals that sexual orientation discrimination laws are used at similar freque...

  8. Vermont – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    In 1992, the State of Vermont passed a comprehensive statewide law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, which is defined as “female or male homosexuality, heterosexuality, or bisexuality.” Protection with respect to gender identity was added in May 2007. Vermont’s Human Rights Law prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation in areas such as employment, housing, and education.

  9. 17 CFR 200.735-3 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by law or regulation (including the provisions of this subpart), which would result in or might... section do not prohibit members and employees from the following: (i) The acceptance of food and refreshments, not lavish in kind, offered free in the course of a meeting or other group function, not...

  10. 7 CFR 800.199 - Conflict-of-interest provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict-of-interest provisions. 800.199 Section 800... Delegations, Designations, Approvals, Contracts, and Conflicts of Interest § 800.199 Conflict-of-interest...) Prohibited conflicts of interest. Unless waived on a case-by-case basis by the Administrator under section 11...

  11. 11 CFR 7.16 - Miscellaneous statutory provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous statutory provisions. 7.16... bribery, graft, and conflicts of interest, as appropriate to the employees concerned. (b) The prohibition... employee acting as the agent of a foreign principal registered under the Foreign Agents Registration Act...

  12. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Liebowitz, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 37,000 LGBT workers in Utah are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections.  At least 17 localities in Utah prohibit private employment discrimination against LGBT people, yet 53 percent of the workforce remains unprotected by local ordinances.  A statewide non-discrimination law would result in 17 additional complaints being filed with the Utah Anti-discrimination and Labor Division each year.  The cost of enforcing the additional complain...

  13. 29 CFR 779.502 - Statutory provisions; regulations in part 1500 of this title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Retail Enterprises Child Labor Provisions § 779.502 Statutory provisions; regulations in part 1500 of this title. (a) The Act's prohibitions in relation to employment of child labor, which may have... therefrom any oppressive child labor has been employed: Provided, That any such shipment or delivery for...

  14. 78 FR 25685 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    .... 111014628-3329-01] RIN 0648-BB54 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation... implement the provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) and prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing shark fins on board a fishing vessel unless they are...

  15. ‘Non-discrimination Does Not Fall Down from Heaven’: The Context and Evolution of Non-discrimination in EU Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Equality and non-discrimination in EU law are firmly embedded in EU law, either as general principles of law or they are written down in the Treaties and secondary legislation. This paper sketches the evolution of three specific forms of equality and non-discrimination, the prohibition of

  16. 40 CFR 80.385 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline sulfur program? 80.385 Section 80.385 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Violation Provisions § 80.385 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline sulfur program? No person shall: (a...

  17. 40 CFR 80.1005 - What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... gasoline toxics program? 80.1005 Section 80.1005 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Gasoline Toxics Violation Provisions § 80.1005 What acts are prohibited under the gasoline toxics program? No person shall: (a...

  18. 12 CFR 223.54 - What advertisements and statements are prohibited by section 23B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What advertisements and statements are prohibited by section 23B? 223.54 Section 223.54 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN MEMBER BANKS AND THEIR AFFILIATES (REGULATION W) General Provisions of Section 23B §...

  19. 22 CFR 126.1 - Prohibited exports and sales to certain countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... policy applies to Belarus, Cuba, Eritrea, Iran, North Korea, Syria, and Venezuela. This policy also... REGULATIONS GENERAL POLICIES AND PROVISIONS § 126.1 Prohibited exports and sales to certain countries. (a) General. It is the policy of the United States to deny licenses and other approvals for exports and...

  20. Prohibition of Children’s Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Specified Phthalates. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) issues this final rule prohibiting children's toys and child care articles that contain concentrations of more than 0.1 percent of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPENP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHEXP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP). Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) established permanent and interim prohibitions on the sale of certain consumer products containing specific phthalates. That provision also directed the CPSC to convene a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding whether any phthalates or phthalate alternatives, other than those already permanently prohibited, should be prohibited. The CPSIA requires the Commission to promulgate a final rule after receiving the final CHAP report. This rule fulfills that requirement.

  1. Forced sterilization of women as discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long history of subjecting marginalized women to forced and coerced sterilization. In recent years, the practice has been documented in countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It has targeted women who are ethnic and racial minorities, women with disabilities, women living with HIV, and poor women. A handful of courts have issued decisions on the recent forced sterilization of marginalized women finding that such actions violate the women's rights. However, they have all failed to address the women's claims of discrimination. The failure to acknowledge that forced sterilization is at its core a violation of the prohibition of discrimination undermines efforts to eradicate the practice. It further fails to recognize that coerced and forced sterilization fundamentally seeks to deny women deemed as "unworthy" the ability to procreate. Four key principles outlined in the human rights in patient care framework highlight the importance of a finding that the prohibition of discrimination was violated in cases of forced sterilization: the need to highlight the vulnerability of marginalized populations to discrimination in health care settings; the importance of the rights of medical providers; the role of the state in addressing systemic human rights violations in health care settings; and the application of human rights to patient care. Based on these principles, it is clear that finding a violation of the prohibition of discrimination in forced sterilization cases is critical in addressing the systemic nature of the practice, acknowledging the marginalization of specific groups and effectively ending forced sterilization through addressing the underlying purpose of the practice. If litigators, non-governmental organizations and judicial officers are mindful of these principles when dealing with cases of forced sterilization, it is likely that they will be better able to eradicate forced sterilization.

  2. Hard and soft age discrimination: the dual nature of workplace discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypinska, Justyna; Turek, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    The paper concentrates on the problem of age discrimination in the labour market and the way it can be conceptualised and measured in a multi-disciplinary way. The approach proposed here combines two understandings of age discrimination-a sociological and legal one, what allows for a fuller and expanded understanding of ageism in the workplace. At the heart of the study is a survey carried out in Poland with a sample of 1000 men and women aged 45-65 years. The study takes a deeper and innovative look into the issue of age discrimination in employment. Confirmatory factor analysis with WLSMV estimation and logistic regressions were used to test the hypotheses. The study shows that age discrimination in labour market can take on different forms: hard and soft, where the hard type of age discrimination mirrors the legally prohibited types of behaviours and those which relate to the actual decisions of employers which can impact on the employee's career development. The soft discrimination corresponds with those occurrences, which are not inscribed in the legal system per se, are occurring predominantly in the interpersonal sphere, but can nevertheless have negative consequences. Soft discrimination was experienced more often (28.6% of respondents) than hard discrimination (15.7%) with higher occurrences among women, persons in precarious job situation or residents of urban areas. The role of education was not confirmed to influence the levels of perceived age discrimination.

  3. Construction Safety, Health and Education Improvement Act of 1989. Hearing before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundred First Congress, First Session on S. 930 To Establish a Clear and Comprehensive Prohibition of Discrimination on the Basis of Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document reports the oral and written testimony of senators and representatives, administration officials, union officials, contractors' associations, engineers' associations, and construction and consulting companies concerning S. 930, a provision of the Construction Safety, Health and Education Improvement Act of 1989. This provision would…

  4. 5 CFR 1201.156 - Time for processing appeals involving allegations of discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in appeal. When an appellant alleges prohibited discrimination in the appeal, the judge will decide... appeal, but has raised the issue later in the proceeding, the judge will decide both the issue of... remanded to agency. When the judge remands an issue of discrimination to the agency, adjudication will be...

  5. Nuclear Activities (Prohibitions) Act 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to protect the health and safety of the people of Victoria and its environment by prohibiting nuclear activities from being carried out and regulating the possession of certain nuclear material in a manner consistent with assisting Australia in meeting its international nuclear non-proliferation objectives. (NEA) [fr

  6. Cartel prohibition may increase prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Marco A.

    In this paper, we show that a policy that forbids cartels may benefit dominant firms, and hurt consumers. When cartels are prohibited, an incumbent monopolist can commit not to form a cartel should a new entrant enter the market. This reduces the entry threat, which implies that entry occurs less

  7. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. [41 FR 49488, Nov. 9, 1976. Redesignated at...

  8. 24 CFR 891.685 - Prohibited relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited relationships. 891.685... and Individuals-Section 162 Assistance § 891.685 Prohibited relationships. The requirements for prohibited relationships for 202/162 projects are provided in § 891.130. ...

  9. Prohibition of thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Sajovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s society is governed – borrowing the terminology from Slavoj Žižek and his text Leninova izbira (Lenin’s choice, 2010 – by the unwritten denkverbot, or a “prohibition” of critical thinking. Its historical illustration is found in the notorious statement by Margaret Thatcher: “There is no alternative to neoliberalism.” The neoliberal economic and social contra revolution started in the 1960s at the department of economics of the university of chicago. Its most important proponent was american economist and winner of the noble prize in economics Milton Friedman. His programme was extremely conservative: “Firstly, the governments must do away with all the provisions and regulations that prevent accumulation of profit. Secondly, they must sell all the assets that are owned by them and could be managed with profit by corporations. And thirdly, the funding of welfare programmes must be decreased dramatically.” Milton friedman “carefully” concealed this completely inhumane ideology, which “matched the interests of big multinationals completely”, by formulating it through the academic “language of mathematics and science”, and thus “transformed” it into impartial economic science. Neoliberal managing of the economy was thus supposedly freed from human subjectivity and became “solely” the fulfilment of scientifically determined natural laws. It therefore became impossible to either doubt it or think critically about it. It is assumed that what enabled neoliberal ideology to parasitize science is the fact that under neoliberalism science itself became “ideology”. The Swiss-Canadian sociologist and philosopher Michel Freitag (1935– 2009, in his book le naufrage de l’université (1995, named it technoscience: “Science is not concerned with studying the world anymore, but with predicting the effects caused in the world by our practically justified interventions.” Technosciences focus on issues that

  10. The Effects of Race and Sex Discrimination Laws

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; Wendy A. Stock

    2001-01-01

    The question of the effects of race and sex discrimination laws on relative economic outcomes for blacks and women has been of interest at least since the Civil Rights and Equal Pay Acts passed in the 1960s. We present new evidence on the effects of these laws based on variation induced first by state anti-discrimination statutes passed prior to the federal legislation and then by the extension of anti-discrimination prohibitions to the remaining states with the passage of federal legislation...

  11. PROHIBITION TO ENGAGE IN A DUTY OR PROFESSION IN CROATIAN CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vuletić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with theoretical and practical issues concerning security measure of prohibition to engage in a duty or profession. Author discusses the purpose of this sanction, analyses legal requirements for imposing the sanction and suggests possible changes of the law de lege ferenda. Additionally, the author describes a few controversial questions concerning this sanction, such as the possibility of life imposing, its application in cases of tax evasion, the relationship with prohibition to operate a motor vehicle, and the question of supervision in practice. Finally, the author argues the quality of the existing provision.

  12. Fighting discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. North Carolina – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    North Carolina law provides virtually no protection for public employees against job discrimination on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation. No state-wide statute has been enacted in North Carolina to prohibit discrimination in employment on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Also, little judicial or administrative action surrounding discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity in the employment context or otherwise appears to exist.

  14. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Ohio

    OpenAIRE

    Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 212,000 LGBT workers in Ohio are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections.  At least 13 localities in Ohio prohibit employment discrimination against LGBT people, yet 81 percent of the workforce remains unprotected by local ordinances.  A statewide non-discrimination law would result in 100 additional complaints being filed with the Ohio Civil Rights Commission each year.  The cost of enforcing the additional complaints would be negligibl...

  15. 78 FR 36149 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    .... 111014628-3329-01] RIN 0648-BB54 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation.... SUMMARY: NMFS published a proposed rule on May 2, 2013, to implement provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) that prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing...

  16. 78 FR 40687 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    .... 111014628-3329-01] RIN 0648-BB54 Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation... period. SUMMARY: NMFS published a proposed rule on May 2, 2013, to implement provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) that prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea...

  17. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  18. 50 CFR 401.4 - Activities prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.4 Activities prohibited. Law enforcement, public relations, harvesting, marketing and processing activities, construction of fisherman use facilities, and activities concerned with...

  19. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  20. Laws on Sex Discrimination in Employment. Federal Civil Rights Act, Title VII State Fair Employment Practices Laws, Executive Orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This report describes the applicable laws regarding sex discrimination in employment. In addition to Federal law and two relevant Executive Orders, the report includes 21 state laws and the District of Columbia's law prohibiting discrimination based on sex. This document is a revision of ED 014 611. (BH)

  1. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  2. 16 CFR 1025.68 - Prohibited communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not served on all parties; or (ii) Any oral communication concerning a matter in adjudication which is... oral or written ex parte communication relative to the merits of any proceedings under these Rules is a...) Prohibited oral ex parte communication. (i) If a prohibited oral ex parte communication is made to a decision...

  3. 49 CFR 511.78 - Prohibited communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than a decisionmaker which is not served on all parties, (ii) Any oral communication other than a...) Prohibited ex parte communications. Any oral or written ex parte communication relative to the merits of a... circumstances shall be forwarded with the communication. (2) Prohibited oral ex parte communication. (i) If a...

  4. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207... § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by the...

  5. 14 CFR 120.31 - Prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited drugs. 120.31 Section 120.31... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.31 Prohibited drugs. (a) Each...

  6. 15 CFR 760.2 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... refusal to do business under this section for a United States person to provide management, procurement... race, religion, sex, or national origin of any U.S. person. (d) Furnishing information about business... OR BOYCOTTS § 760.2 Prohibitions. (a) Refusals to do business. Prohibition Against Refusals To Do...

  7. 24 CFR 891.832 - Prohibited relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited relationships. 891.832 Section 891.832 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 891.832 Prohibited relationships. Section 891.130 applies, except that in the mixed-finance program...

  8. 24 CFR 891.130 - Prohibited relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited relationships. 891.130 Section 891.130 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Requirements § 891.130 Prohibited relationships. This section shall apply to capital advances under the Section...

  9. 13 CFR 120.476 - Prohibited financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited financing. 120.476... Business Lending Companies (sblc) § 120.476 Prohibited financing. An SBLC may not make a loan to a small business that has received financing (or a commitment for financing) from an SBIC that is an Associate of...

  10. 10 CFR 430.61 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts. 430.61 Section 430.61 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Certification and... convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 430.61 Prohibited acts. (b) In accordance...

  11. 25 CFR 265.3 - Roads prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roads prohibited. 265.3 Section 265.3 Indians BUREAU OF... ON INDIAN RESERVATIONS § 265.3 Roads prohibited. (a) Within the boundaries of this officially... highways, roads, truck trails, work roads, and all other types of ways constructed to make possible the...

  12. 9 CFR 93.801 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions. 93.801 Section 93.801 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Elephants, Hippopotami, Rhinoceroses, and Tapirs § 93.801 Prohibitions...

  13. 12 CFR 703.16 - Prohibited investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investments. 703.16 Section 703.16 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.16 Prohibited investments. (a) Derivatives. A Federal credit union may...

  14. A contextual analysis of the hate speech provisions of the equality act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents a detailed contextual analysis of the categorical prohibition of hate speech in terms of section 10(1) of the Equality Act. It is argued that this provision is not primarily intended to describe and effectively regulate the extreme expression that falls within the narrow ambit of "hate speech" as defined in section ...

  15. 77 FR 22559 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Request; Chemical Weapons Convention Provisions of the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau of.... Abstract The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is a multilateral arms control treaty that seeks to achieve an international ban on chemical weapons (CW). The CWC prohibits the use, development, production...

  16. Slow Shift--Developing Provisions for Talented Students in Scandinavian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Marca; Hogenstijn, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    For decades, Scandinavian culture effectively prohibited the development of special provisions for talented students in higher education. However, in recent years, a cultural shift has gradually made more room for excellence and talent development in the national discourses. This paper analyzes the climate for talent development in Denmark,…

  17. Origins of the prohibition against off-label promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Terry S

    2014-01-01

    The statute and regulations administered by the Food and Drug Administration ("FDA") do not explicitly prohibit the promotion of drugs and medical devices for unapproved uses, yet the government has collected billions of dollars in penalties for such "off-label" promotion. The statutory interpretations and regulatory provisions relied on by the government to take enforcement action against off-label promotion are the incidental by-products of initiatives undertaken by FDA through administrative action and litigation early in its implementation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The actions were designed to obtain FDA authority over therapeutic claims made in advertising, even though Congress had assigned authority over advertising to the Federal Trade Commission, and to establish a prescription-only drug system, even though FDA lacked statutory authority for such a system. The principal purpose of both efforts was to prevent inappropriate self-medication. This article describes the history of those strategies, including expansion of the definition of the term "labeling" to encompass matter that was initially regarded as advertising; creation of the rule that the labeling of drugs must have adequate directions for all "intended" uses; and construction of the prescription-only drug system in a manner that allowed FDA to use the statutory requirement for labeling to have "adequate directions for use" to prohibit the off-label promotion of prescription drugs.

  18. Persons with disability bill 2002 and its implications to the provision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persons with disability bill 2002 and its implications to the provision of library and ... services to the visually handicapped persons in Kenyan learning institutions. ... to achieve their full potential and protect them from undue discrimination.

  19. Handling conditional discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.; Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination. We study how to train classifiers on such data, so that they are discrimination free with respect to a given sensitive attribute, e.g., gender. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination

  20. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    . In this paper I address these issues. First, I offer a taxonomy of discrimination. I then argue that discrimination is bad, when it is, because it harms people. Finally, I criticize a rival, disrespect-based account according to which discrimination is bad regardless of whether it causes harm....

  1. Pulse-width discriminators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budyashov, Yu.G.; Grebenyuk, V.M.; Zinov, V.G.

    1978-01-01

    A pulse duration discriminator is described which is intended for processing signals from multilayer scintillators. The basic elements of the scintillator are: an input gate, a current generator, an integrating capacitor, a Schmidt trigger and an anticoincidence circuit. The basic circuit of the discriminator and its time diagrams explaining its operating are given. The discriminator is based on microcircuits. Pulse duration discrimination threshold changes continuously from 20 to 100 ns, while its amplitude threshold changes within 20 to 100 mV. The temperature instability of discrimination thresholds (both in pulse width and in amplitude) is better than 0.1 per cent/deg C

  2. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in Idaho

    OpenAIRE

    Hasenbush, Amira; Mallory, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 21,000 LGBT workers in Idaho are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state or federal legal protections. Boise, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho Falls, Ketchum, Moscow, Pocatello and Sandpoint have local ordinancesthat prohibit employment and housing discrimination against LGBT people, but they do not provide as much protection for LGBT people as the state’s law, which is enforced by a fully funded Commission on Human Rights. Approximately 72% of Idaho’s workforce is not covered ...

  3. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  4. Nationality non-discrimination in Serbian tax treaty law

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Svetislav V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the nationality non-discrimination provision in Serbian double taxation treaties. First the author analyses the historical development of the nationality non-discrimination clause found the in the OECD Model Tax Convention and illustrates the dilemmas related to its interpretation, particularly the relevance of residence of taxpayers for comparability purposes and the application of Art. 24.1 of the OECD Model Tax Convention. Subsequently, the author turns his attention ...

  5. Prohibited Contaminants in Dietary Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Neilson M

    With the increasing use of unregulated dietary supplements, athletes are at continued risk from adverse medical events and inadvertent doping. A review of Clinical Key, MEDLINE, and PubMed databases from 2012 to 2017 was performed using search terms, including dietary supplement, contamination, doping in athletes, inadvertent doping, and prohibited substances. The references of pertinent articles were reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 3. Poor manufacturing processes and intentional contamination with many banned substances continue to occur in dietary supplements sold in the United States. Certain sectors, such as weight loss and muscle-building supplements, pose a greater threat because they are more likely to be contaminated. Athletes will continue to be at risk for adverse events and failed doping tests due to contaminated dietary supplements until legislation changes how they are regulated. In the interim, there are several steps that can be taken to mitigate this risk, including improved education of medical staff and athletes and use of third party-certified products.

  6. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union : National Laws and the Employment Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Bonini-Baraldi, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in the field of employment. This book assesses to what degree the Directive’s requirements have been met by the twenty-seven Member States. The authors

  7. 41 CFR 101-8.700 - Purpose of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 8-NONDISCRIMINATION IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.700 Purpose... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose of the Age...

  8. 14 CFR 1252.201 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... objective of any program or activity. A recipient is permitted to take an action otherwise prohibited by... discrimination. 1252.201 Section 1252.201 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION.... For purposes of this section, the terms normal operation and statutory objective shall have the...

  9. Quantum-state discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roa, Luis; Retamal, Juan Carlos; Saavedra, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    A proposal for a physical implementation of a quantum-state discrimination protocol using an ion in a linear trap is studied, where two nonorthogonal quantum states are codified using two electronic states of the ion. In addition, a protocol is given for discriminating superpositions of nonorthogonal entangled states between ions inside widely separated optical cavities. The discrimination protocol is extended to the case of N linearly independent nonorthogonal quantum states lying in a space of 2N-1 dimensions

  10. 9 CFR 71.17 - Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of dead poultry or other animals prohibited in same car with live poultry or other animals. 71.17 Section 71.17 Animals and... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.17 Interstate movement...

  11. Rights and wrongs under the ECHR : The prohibition of abuse of rights in Article 17 of the European Convention on Human Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Morree, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    The prohibition of abuse of rights in Article 17 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR or Convention) embodies one of the Convention’s main principles: its commitment to democracy and democratic values. The provision aims to prevent groups and individuals from successfully invoking

  12. 18 CFR 358.4 - Non-discrimination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-discrimination requirements. 358.4 Section 358.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY... treats all transmission customers in a not unduly discriminatory manner, if the tariff provisions permit...

  13. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  14. Discrimination and delusional ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Hanssen, M; Bak, M; Bijl, R V; de Graaf, R; Vollebergh, W; McKenzie, K; van Os, J

    2003-01-01

    In the UK and The Netherlands, people with high rates of psychosis are chronically exposed to discrimination. To test whether perceived discrimination is associated longitudinally with onset of psychosis. A 3-year prospective study of cohorts with no history of psychosis and differential rates of reported discrimination on the basis of age, gender, disability, appearance, skin colour or ethnicity and sexual orientation was conducted in the Dutch general population (n=4076). The main outcome was onset of psychotic symptoms (delusions and hallucinations). The rate of delusional ideation was 0.5% (n=19) in those who did not report discrimination, 0.9% (n=4) in those who reported discrimination in one domain, and 2.7% (n=3) in those who reported discrimination in more than one domain (exact P=0.027). This association remained after adjustment for possible confounders. No association was found between baseline discrimination and onset of hallucinatory experiences. Perceived discrimination may induce delusional ideation and thus contribute to the high observed rates of psychotic disorder in exposed minority populations.

  15. Discrimination and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, I.C.M.; Hanssen, M.S.S.; Bak, M.L.F.J.; Bijl, R.V.; Graaf, R. de; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; McKenzie, K.; Os, J. van

    2003-01-01

    Background In the UK and The Netherlands, people with high rates of psychosis are chronically exposed to discrimination. Aims To test whether perceived discrimination is associated longitudinally with onset of psychosis. Method A 3-year prospective study of cohorts with no history of psychosis and

  16. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  17. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  18. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  19. Introduction to integral discriminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.; Shakirov, Sh.

    2009-01-01

    The simplest partition function, associated with homogeneous symmetric forms S of degree r in n variables, is integral discriminant J n|r (S) = ∫e -S(x 1 ,...,x n ) dx 1 ...dx n . Actually, S-dependence remains the same if e -S in the integrand is substituted by arbitrary function f(S), i.e. integral discriminant is a characteristic of the form S itself, and not of the averaging procedure. The aim of the present paper is to calculate J n|r in a number of non-Gaussian cases. Using Ward identities - linear differential equations, satisfied by integral discriminants - we calculate J 2|3 ,J 2|4 ,J 2|5 and J 3|3 . In all these examples, integral discriminant appears to be a generalized hypergeometric function. It depends on several SL(n) invariants of S, with essential singularities controlled by the ordinary algebraic discriminant of S.

  20. Influence of genetic discrimination perceptions and knowledge on cancer genetics referral practice among clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowstuter, Katrina J; Sand, Sharon; Blazer, Kathleen R; MacDonald, Deborah J; Banks, Kimberly C; Lee, Carol A; Schwerin, Barbara U; Juarez, Margaret; Uman, Gwen C; Weitzel, Jeffrey N

    2008-09-01

    To describe nongenetics clinicians' perceptions and knowledge of cancer genetics and laws prohibiting genetic discrimination, attitudes toward the use of cancer genetic testing, and referral practices. Invitations to participate were sent to a random stratified sample of California Medical Association members and to all members of California Association of Nurse Practitioners and California Latino Medical Association. Responders in active practice were eligible and completed a 47-item survey. There were 1181 qualified participants (62% physicians). Although 96% viewed genetic testing as beneficial for their patients, 75% believed fear of genetic discrimination would cause patients to decline testing. More than 60% were not aware of federal or California laws prohibiting health insurance discrimination--concern about genetic discrimination was selected as a reason for nonreferral by 11%. A positive attitude toward genetic testing was the strongest predictor of referral (odds ratio: 3.55 [95% confidence interval: 2.24-5.63], P genetic discrimination, the less likely a participant was to refer (odds ratio: 0.72 [95% confidence interval: 0.518-0.991], P genetic discrimination law was associated with comfort recommending (odds ratio: 1.18 [95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.25], P genetic discrimination and knowledge deficits may be barriers to cancer genetics referrals. Clinician education may help promote access to cancer screening and prevention.

  1. 50 CFR 622.31 - Prohibited gear and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited gear and methods. 622.31... Management Measures § 622.31 Prohibited gear and methods. In addition to the prohibited gear/methods specified in this section, see §§ 622.33, 622.34, and 622.35 for seasonal/area prohibited gear/methods and...

  2. 15 CFR 744.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exports and reexports of any item subject to the EAR to Russian entities, included in Supplement No. 4 of...-use and end-user prohibition described in this part to learn the scope of these prohibitions. (2...

  3. Prohibitions against Mourning in Childhood Sibling Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Helen

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)

  4. 16 CFR 611.2 - General prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for consumer reports that bear on a consumer's credit worthiness, standing and capacity. Smith Co... information on consumers residing nationwide, and ceases to offer reports containing public record information... TREATMENT AS A NATIONWIDE CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCY § 611.2 General prohibition. (a) A consumer reporting...

  5. 77 FR 58492 - Prohibitions Governing Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AD08 Prohibitions Governing Fire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is making purely... Fire. * * * * * (j) Operating or using any internal or external combustion engine without a spark...

  6. 22 CFR 1104.3 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Prohibited acts. 1104.3 Section 1104.3 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION..., or otherwise alter or deface any archaeological resource located on public lands unless such activity...

  7. 12 CFR 584.2 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2 Prohibited activities. (a) Evasion of law or regulation. No savings and loan holding... savings and loan holding company or subsidiary thereof that is not a savings association shall commence...

  8. 12 CFR 584.9 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.9 Prohibited acts. (a) Control of mutual savings association. No savings and loan holding company or any subsidiary thereof, or any director, officer, or employee of a savings and loan holding company or...

  9. 45 CFR 1643.3 - Prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., EUTHANASIA, AND MERCY KILLING § 1643.3 Prohibition. No recipient may use LSC funds to assist in, support, or... form of legal assistance for the purpose of: (a) Securing or funding any item, benefit, program, or..., euthanasia, or mercy killing of any individual; (b) Compelling any person, institution, or governmental...

  10. 50 CFR 216.214 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.214 Prohibitions. No...

  11. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  12. 12 CFR 208.83 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STATE BANKING INSTITUTIONS IN THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Consumer Protection in Sales of... practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of credit, in violation of section 106(b... agreement by the consumer not to obtain, or a prohibition on the consumer from obtaining, an insurance...

  13. 12 CFR 14.30 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF... engage in any practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of credit, in violation of...) An agreement by the consumer not to obtain, or a prohibition on the consumer from obtaining, an...

  14. 12 CFR 536.30 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES... in any practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of credit, in violation of... agreement by the consumer not to obtain, or a prohibition on the consumer from obtaining, an insurance...

  15. 12 CFR 343.30 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONSUMER PROTECTION IN SALES OF INSURANCE § 343.30 Prohibited practices. (a) Anticoercion and antitying rules. You may not engage in any practice that would lead a consumer to believe that an extension of... annuity sold or offered for sale by you or any subsidiary of the bank is not backed by the Federal...

  16. 18 CFR 420.22 - Prohibition; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition; sanctions. 420.22 Section 420.22 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... established water pricing schedules of the Commission) of any such use, withdrawal or diversion, and invoke...

  17. 27 CFR 4.39 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... substance found within the wine, and health benefits or effects on health. The term includes both specific... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.39 Prohibited practices. (a) Statements on labels. Containers of wine, or any label on such containers, or any...

  18. 27 CFR 4.64 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... found within the wine, and health benefits or effects on health. The term includes both specific health... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Advertising of Wine § 4.64 Prohibited practices. (a) Restrictions. The advertisement of wine shall not contain: (1) Any statement that is false or...

  19. 25 CFR 141.30 - Retaliation prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.30 Retaliation prohibited. No licensee may refuse service to any customer for the purpose of retaliating against that customer for...

  20. 25 CFR 141.22 - Subleasing prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS PRACTICES ON THE NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.22 Subleasing prohibited. No licensee may lease, sublet, rent, or sell any building that the licensee occupies for any purpose to any person...

  1. 7 CFR 220.17 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., curriculum, instructions, methods of instruction, and materials of instruction in any school as a condition... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.17 Prohibitions. (a) In carrying out the... limited to, laws relating to taxation, welfare, and public assistance programs. Expenditure of funds from...

  2. 50 CFR 17.104 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) Manatee Protection Areas § 17.104 Prohibitions. Except as provided in § 17.105, (a) Manatee sanctuary. It is unlawful for any person to engage in any waterborne activity within a manatee sanctuary. (b) Manatee refuge. It is...

  3. 5 CFR 2414.8 - Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited oral ex parte communication is attempted to be made, shall refuse to listen to the communication... substance of the communication, if it was oral; (3) all written responses to the prohibited communication; and (4) memoranda stating the substance of all oral responses to the prohibited communication. The...

  4. 5 CFR 3501.103 - Prohibited interests in Federal lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 3501.103 Prohibited interests in Federal lands. (a) Cross-references to statutory prohibitions—(1) Prohibited purchases of public land by Bureau... the Bureau of Land Management are prohibited by 43 U.S.C. 11 from directly or indirectly purchasing or...

  5. 45 CFR 73.735-603 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... partisan election. (b) In addition, certain political activities are prohibited by Federal criminal law: (1... Political Activity § 73.735-603 Prohibited activities. (a) The following are prohibited activities: (1) Serving as an officer of a political party, a member of a national, State or local committee of a...

  6. 48 CFR 1252.237-72 - Prohibition on advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on advertising... Prohibition on advertising. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1213.7101 and 1237.7003, insert the following clause: Prohibition on Advertising (JAN 1996) The contractor or its representatives (including training instructors...

  7. Set discrimination of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shengyu; Ying Mingsheng

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a notion of set discrimination, which is an interesting extension of quantum state discrimination. A state is secretly chosen from a number of quantum states, which are partitioned into some disjoint sets. A set discrimination is required to identify which set the given state belongs to. Several essential problems are addressed in this paper, including the condition of perfect set discrimination, unambiguous set discrimination, and in the latter case, the efficiency of the discrimination. This generalizes some important results on quantum state discrimination in the literature. A combination of state and set discrimination and the efficiency are also studied

  8. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yingchun; Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng; Liu Feng

    2003-01-01

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals

  9. Neuronal discrimination capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Yingchun [Department of Mathematics, Hunan Normal University 410081, Changsha (China); COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Williams, Peter; Feng Jianfeng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Liu Feng [COGS, University of Sussex at Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Nanjing University (China)

    2003-12-19

    We explore neuronal mechanisms of discriminating between masked signals. It is found that when the correlation between input signals is zero, the output signals are separable if and only if input signals are separable. With positively (negatively) correlated signals, the output signals are separable (mixed) even when input signals are mixed (separable). Exact values of discrimination capacity are obtained for two most interesting cases: the exactly balanced inhibitory and excitatory input case and the uncorrelated input case. Interestingly, the discrimination capacity obtained in these cases is independent of model parameters, input distribution and is universal. Our results also suggest a functional role of inhibitory inputs and correlated inputs or, more generally, the large variability of efferent spike trains observed in in vivo experiments: the larger the variability of efferent spike trains, the easier it is to discriminate between masked input signals.

  10. Discrimination in Textbooks

    OpenAIRE

    大津, 尚志

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, I deal with the issues which concern discriminations in textbooks.In America, they have paid special attentions to these problems since 1960's. They made guidelines for textbooks to check various kinds of discriminative descriptions and tried to make textbooks to meet these standards. In this respects I would examine the present states about textbooks in America and would compare them to the Japanese ones. That would be useful, I believe, when we consider these issues in Japan.

  11. Guidelines for the Provision of Garbage Reception Facilities at Ports Under MARPOL Annex V

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Barbara; Coe, James M.

    1998-01-01

    This report offers guidelines for the provision of adequate port reception facilities for vessel-generated garbage under the requirements of Annex V of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution From Ships, 1973 (MARPOL 73/78), Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships. MARPOL Annex V prohibits at-sea disposal of plastic materials from vessels, and specifies the distance from shore at which other materials may be dumped. Annex V also require...

  12. Sex Discrimination Law in Higher Education: The Lessons of the Past Decade. ERIC Digest 85-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, J. Ralph; And Others

    The obligations of colleges and universities under existing laws prohibiting sex discrimination against employees and students are summarized. Principal federal sources of legal obligation regarding employees are the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and…

  13. LAWS ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT--FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, TITLE VII. STATE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    TITLE VII OF THE FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT (1964) PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN ADDITION TO THE USUAL GROUNDS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, AND NATIONAL ORIGIN. IT COVERS PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIES AFFECTING COMMERCE, AS WELL AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. IT IS UNLAWFUL FOR EMPLOYERS TO REFUSE TO HIRE,…

  14. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  15. Today's fentanyl crisis: Prohibition's Iron Law, revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beletsky, Leo; Davis, Corey S

    2017-08-01

    More than a decade in the making, America's opioid crisis has morphed from being driven by prescription drugs to one fuelled by heroin and, increasingly, fentanyl. Drawing on historical lessons of the era of National Alcohol Prohibition highlights the unintended, but predictable impact of supply-side interventions on the dynamics of illicit drug markets. Under the Iron Law of Prohibition, efforts to interrupt and suppress the illicit drug supply produce economic and logistical pressures favouring ever-more compact substitutes. This iatrogenic progression towards increasingly potent illicit drugs can be curtailed only through evidence-based harm reduction and demand reduction policies that acknowledge the structural determinants of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design provisions for safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkhofer, A.

    1983-01-01

    Design provisions for safety of nuclear power plants are based on a well balanced concept: the public is protected against a release of radioactive material by multiple barriers. These barriers are protected according to a 'defence-in-depth' principle. The reactor safety concept is primarily aimed at the prevention of accidents, especially fuel damage. Additionally, measures for consequence limitation are provided in order to prevent a severe release of radioactivity to the environment. However, it is difficult to judge the overall effectiveness of such devices. In a comprehensive safety analysis it has to be shown that the protection systems and safeguards work with sufficient reliability in the event of an accident. For the reliability assessment deterministic criteria (single failure, redundancy, fail-safe, demand for diversity) play an important role. Increasing efforts have been made to assess reliability quantitatively by means of probabilistic methods. It is now usual to perform reliability analyses of essential systems of nuclear power plants in the course of licensing procedures. As an additional level of emergency measures for a further reduction of hazards a reasonable amount of accident information has to be transferred. Operational experience may be considered as an important feedback to the design of plant safety features. Operator training has to include, besides skill in performing of operating procedures, the training of a flexible response to different accident situations. Experience has shown that the design provisions for safety could prevent dangerous release of the radioactive material to the environment after an accident has occurred. For future developments of reactor safety, extensive analyses of operating experience are of great importance. The main goal should be to enhance the reliability of measures for accident prevention, which prevent the core from meltdown or other damages

  17. 12 CFR 215.4 - General prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (i) A member bank with deposits of less than $100,000,000 may by an annual resolution of its board of... of the date of the resolution; (C) The bank meets or exceeds, on a fully-phased in basis, all... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General prohibitions. 215.4 Section 215.4 Banks...

  18. Disturbance by optimal discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the disturbance by measurements which unambiguously discriminate between given candidate states. We prove that such an optimal measurement necessarily changes distinguishable states indistinguishable when the inconclusive outcome is obtained. The result was previously shown by Chefles [Phys. Lett. A 239, 339 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9601(98)00064-4] under restrictions on the class of quantum measurements and on the definition of optimality. Our theorems remove these restrictions and are also applicable to infinitely many candidate states. Combining with our previous results, one can obtain concrete mathematical conditions for the resulting states. The method may have a wide variety of applications in contexts other than state discrimination.

  19. Discrimination of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material in Plastic Scintillator Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Geelhood, Bruce D.; Schweppe, John E.; Warner, Ray A.

    2003-01-01

    Plastic scintillator material is used in many applications for the detection of gamma-rays from radioactive material, primarily due to the sensitivity per unit cost compared to other detection materials. However, the resolution and lack of full-energy peaks in the plastic scintillator material prohibits detailed spectroscopy. Therefore, other materials such as doped sodium iodide are used for spectroscopic applications. The limited spectroscopic information can however be exploited in plastic scintillator materials to provide some discrimination. The discrimination between man-made and naturally occurring sources would be useful in reducing alarm screening for radiation detection applications which target man-made sources. The results of applying the limited energy information from plastic scintillator material for radiation portal monitors are discussed.

  20. Should Sabbath Prohibitions Be Overridden to Provide Emotional Support to a Sick Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Greenberger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. Objective This manuscript examines if and when a relative’s presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one’s relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Methods Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Results Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient’s and the professionals’ perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient’s perception of the emotional need for a relative’s presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient’s life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Conclusions Emotional support has an impact on the patient’s health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.

  1. Discrimination in Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abzug, Bella

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, expressly focuses on discrimination in employment, asserting that this has had the most direct effect on minorities and women in the country; while legal protections have grown stronger, they have not been used effectively. (Author/JM)

  2. Discrimination? - Exhibition of posters

    OpenAIRE

    Jakimovska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Participation in the exhibition with the students form the Art Academy. The exhibition consisted of 15 posters tackling the subjects of hate speech and discrimination. The exhibition happened thanks to the invitation of the Faculty of Law at UGD, and it was a part of a larger event of launching books on the aforementioned subjects.

  3. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  4. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    , not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  5. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  6. Airborne particulate discriminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Kathryn Louise [San Diego, CA; Castro, Alonso [Santa Fe, NM; Gray, Perry Clayton [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  7. 29 CFR 2590.702 - Prohibiting discrimination against participants and beneficiaries based on a health factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-inflicted injuries or injuries sustained in connection with attempted suicide. Because of depression.... In this Example 1, the suicide attempt is the result of a medical condition (depression). Accordingly... full-time in an institution of higher learning (full-time students)). There is no evidence to suggest...

  8. 45 CFR 146.121 - Prohibiting discrimination against participants and beneficiaries based on a health factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-inflicted injuries or injuries sustained in connection with attempted suicide. Because of depression.... In this Example 1, the suicide attempt is the result of a medical condition (depression). Accordingly... full-time in an institution of higher learning (full-time students)). There is no evidence to suggest...

  9. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... genetic information and should review the records to excise any genetic information. N assembles the data requested by M and, although N reviews it to delete genetic information, the data from a specific region... based on genetic information. 146.122 Section 146.122 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... genetic information and should review the records to excise any genetic information. N assembles the data requested by M and, although N reviews it to delete genetic information, the data from a specific region... genetic information. 2590.702-1 Section 2590.702-1 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...

  11. Hybrid resource provisioning for clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Mahfuzur; Graham, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Flexible resource provisioning, the assignment of virtual machines (VMs) to physical machine, is a key requirement for cloud computing. To achieve 'provisioning elasticity', the cloud needs to manage its available resources on demand. A-priori, static, VM provisioning introduces no runtime overhead but fails to deal with unanticipated changes in resource demands. Dynamic provisioning addresses this problem but introduces runtime overhead. To reduce VM management overhead so more useful work can be done and to also avoid sub-optimal provisioning we propose a hybrid approach that combines static and dynamic provisioning. The idea is to adapt a good initial static placement of VMs in response to evolving load characteristics, using live migration, as long as the overhead of doing so is low and the effectiveness is high. When this is no longer so, we trigger a revised static placement. (Thus, we are essentially applying local multi-objective optimization to tune a global optimization with reduced overhead.) This approach requires a complicated migration decision algorithm based on current and predicted:future workloads, power consumptions and memory usage in the host machines as well as network burst characteristics for the various possible VM multiplexings (combinations of VMs on a host). A further challenge is to identify those characteristics of the dynamic provisioning that should trigger static re-provisioning.

  12. Prohibition of Turning to a Worse Scenario in Judicial Activity: on the Example of Consideration of the Cases on Administrative Offenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenii V. Taribo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the prohibition of turning to a worse: how it is enshrined in the legislation on administrative violations, and how it manifests its effect in judicial practice. As analysis of legislation and judicial practice shows, courts of general jurisdiction and arbitration courts differently understand and apply this prohibition. This is due to the different legislative and organizational bases on which the process of bringing to administrative responsibility is based, in which courts of general and arbitration jurisdictions are involved. The article notes that the provisions of the draft of the new Code on Administrative Offenses, developed by the State Duma of the 6th convocation, point to a possible reduction of the scope of this ban. In this regard, the author comes to the conclusion that the legislator and the courts are to decide on a conceptually unified approach to the problem of the prohibition of turning to the worst in the field of administrative responsibility

  13. Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Braxton, Shawn Lamont

    2010-01-01

    Examining Workplace Discrimination in a Discrimination-Free Environment Shawn L. Braxton Abstract The purpose of this study is to explore how racial and gender discrimination is reproduced in concrete workplace settings even when anti-discrimination policies are present, and to understand the various reactions utilized by those who commonly experience it. I have selected a particular medical center, henceforth referred to by a pseudonym, â The Bliley Medical Centerâ as my case ...

  14. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  15. Fast timing discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The processing of pulses with very fast risetimes for timing purposes involves many problems because of the large equivalent bandwidths involved. For pulses with risetimes in the 150 ps range (and full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 400 ps) bandwidths in excess of 1GHz are required. Furthermore, these very narrow pulses with current amplitudes as small as 1 mA carry very small charges ( -12 coulomb), therefore, requiring very sensitive trigger circuits. The difficulty increases when timing characteristics in the picosecond range are sought especially when a wide input signal amplitude range causes a time-walk problem. The fast timing discriminator described has a time-walk of approximately +-75 ps over the input signal range from 80 mV to 3V. A schematic of the discriminator is included, and operation and performance are discussed

  16. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  17. Gender wage discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Boris

    2016-01-01

    There are pronounced and persistent wage differences between men and women in all parts of the world. A significant element of these wage disparities can be attributed to differences in worker and workplace characteristics, which are likely to mirror differences in worker productivity. However, a large part of these differences remains unexplained, and it is common to attribute them to discrimination by the employer that is rooted in prejudice against female workers. Yet recent empirical evid...

  18. Diversity, discrimination, and performance

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard, Jonathan S.; Levine, David I.

    2003-01-01

    Employee diversity may affect business performance both as a result of customer discrimination and as a result of how members of a group work with each other in teams. We test for both channels with data from more than 800 retail stores employing over 70,000 individuals matched to Census data on the demographics of the community. We find little payoff to matching employee demographics to those of potential customers except when the customers do not speak English. Although age diversity doe...

  19. [Comment on] Statistical discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Douglas

    In the December 8, 1981, issue of Eos, a news item reported the conclusion of a National Research Council study that sexual discrimination against women with Ph.D.'s exists in the field of geophysics. Basically, the item reported that even when allowances are made for motherhood the percentage of female Ph.D.'s holding high university and corporate positions is significantly lower than the percentage of male Ph.D.'s holding the same types of positions. The sexual discrimination conclusion, based only on these statistics, assumes that there are no basic psychological differences between men and women that might cause different populations in the employment group studied. Therefore, the reasoning goes, after taking into account possible effects from differences related to anatomy, such as women stopping their careers in order to bear and raise children, the statistical distributions of positions held by male and female Ph.D.'s ought to be very similar to one another. Any significant differences between the distributions must be caused primarily by sexual discrimination.

  20. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  1. Transgender women of color: discrimination and depression symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Kevin; Neilands, Torsten B.; Sevelius, Jae

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Trans women of color contend with multiple marginalizations; the purpose of this study is to examine associations between experiencing discriminatory (racist/transphobic) events and depression symptoms. It uses a categorical measure of combined discrimination, and examines a protective association of transgender identity on depression symptoms. Design/methodology/approach Data from a subset of trans women of color participants in the Sheroes study were analyzed with linear and logistic regression. Associations of depression symptoms with racist and transphobic events, combined discrimination, coping self-efficacy, and transgender identity were assessed with odds ratios. Findings Exposure to discriminatory events and combined discrimination positively associated with depression symptom odds. Increased transgender identity associated with increased coping self-efficacy, which negatively associated with depression symptom odds. Research limitations/implications Cross-sectional study data prohibits inferring causality; results support conducting longitudinal research on discrimination’s health effects, and research on transgender identity. Results also support operationalizing intersectionality in health research. The study’s categorical approach to combined discrimination may be replicable in studies with hard to reach populations and small sample sizes. Practical implications Health programs could pursue psychosocial interventions and anti-discrimination campaigns. Interventions might advocate increasing participants’ coping self-efficacy while providing space to explore and develop social identity. Social implications There is a need for policy and health programs to center trans women of color concerns. Originality/value This study examines combined discrimination and identity in relation to depression symptoms among trans women of color, an underserved population. Paper type Research paper PMID:25346778

  2. Price Discrimination: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló, Paula; Sard, Maria; Tugores, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a classroom experiment aimed at familiarizing students with different types of price discrimination (first-, second-, and third-degree price discrimination). During the experiment, the students were asked to decide what tariffs to set as monopolists for each of the price discrimination scenarios under…

  3. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  4. Low power constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Raut, S.M.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low power ultrafast constant fraction discriminator, which significantly reduces the power consumption. A conventional fast discriminator consumes about 1250 MW of power whereas this low power version consumes about 440 MW. In a multi detector system, where the number of discriminators is very large, reduction of power is of utmost importance. This low power discriminator is being designed for GRACE (Gamma Ray Atmospheric Cerenkov Experiments) telescope where 1000 channels of discriminators are required. A novel method of decreasing power consumption has been described. (author)

  5. 75 FR 47464 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-06

    ... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies AGENCY: Copyright... nonsubstantial correction to its regulation announcing the prohibition against circumvention of technological... the final rule governing exemption to prohibition on circumvention of copyright protection systems for...

  6. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... fish hatchery area. (e) Each person shall comply with the provisions of any special notices governing...

  7. Égalité salariale, discriminations individuelles et systémiques. Un éclairage de la jurisprudence américaine

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Mercat-Bruns

    2010-01-01

    The United States and Europe prohibit wage discrimination and support equal pay between men and women. Beyond the legal standards used in different countries, it is difficult to measure exactly the breadth of pay discrimination which covers entire careers and can stem from different sources. In the United States, two cases shed light on the stakes of this economic, social, and legal debate involving gender. These cases illustrate the recurring challenges of finding an adequate time frame in c...

  8. Marriage and labor market discrimination in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K H; Hill, M A

    1983-04-01

    "Many Japanese firms have engaged in the practice of compulsory retirement upon a female employee's marriage. In 1966, this practice was ruled as being contrary to provisions in Japan's Civil Code. [The authors] have specified and estimated a model of the economic determinants of age at marriage in order to analyze the effect that this discrimination has had on nuptiality in Japan. [The] results indicate that on average, after accounting for an upward trend, women who married after the 1966 court decision married about one year younger than women who married before 1966." It is also found that age at marriage is influenced by several socioeconomic variables, including wife's wage and educational level, husband's income and educational level, and wife's family background. Data are from a 1975 survey of women aged 20-59 who were living in the Tokyo metropolitan area. excerpt

  9. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  10. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  11. Direct-to-Consumer Drug Advertising Prohibition in Ethiopia: Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Ethiopia prohibited direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) for any drug product since the early 1980s. This total drug advertising prohibition is rare, and possibly unique, in the world. The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge and perceptions of health professionals on issues regarding DTCA.

  12. 22 CFR 1414.8 - Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reporting of prohibited communications... unauthorized ex parte communication, shall place or cause to be placed on the public record of the proceeding... rebut those contained in the prohibited communication. All such responses shall be placed in the public...

  13. 24 CFR 100.50 - Real estate practices prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate practices prohibited....50 Real estate practices prohibited. (a) This subpart provides the Department's interpretation of... in, any multiple-listing service, real estate brokers' association, or other service organization or...

  14. 47 CFR 76.505 - Prohibition on buy outs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on buy outs. 76.505 Section 76.505... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Ownership of Cable Systems § 76.505 Prohibition on buy outs. (a) No local... operator's franchise area. (c) A local exchange carrier and a cable operator whose telephone service area...

  15. 12 CFR 313.99 - Prohibited actions by employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited actions by employer. 313.99 Section 313.99 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION PROCEDURE AND RULES OF PRACTICE PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.99 Prohibited actions by...

  16. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall provide...

  17. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of this...

  18. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees who...

  19. 32 CFR 228.14 - Prohibition on gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on gambling. 228.14 Section 228.14...) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.14 Prohibition on gambling. Participating in games for money or other personal property, or the operating of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery, or the selling...

  20. 12 CFR 585.30 - What actions are prohibited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES Prohibition § 585.30 What actions are prohibited? (a) Person. If a...: (1) Become, or continue as, an institution-affiliated party with respect to any savings and loan holding company. (2) Own or control, directly or indirectly, any savings and loan holding company. A...

  1. 47 CFR 18.303 - Prohibited frequency bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited frequency bands. 18.303 Section 18.303 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical Standards § 18.303 Prohibited frequency bands. Operation of ISM equipment within the...

  2. 32 CFR 228.10 - Prohibition on alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on alcohol. 228.10 Section 228.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.10 Prohibition on alcohol. Entering or being on protected property...

  3. 29 CFR 3.9 - Prohibited payroll deductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Prohibited payroll deductions. 3.9 Section 3.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND SUBCONTRACTORS ON PUBLIC BUILDING OR PUBLIC WORK FINANCED IN WHOLE OR IN PART BY LOANS OR GRANTS FROM THE UNITED STATES § 3.9 Prohibited payroll deductions...

  4. 12 CFR 723.2 - What are the prohibited activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.2 What are the prohibited activities? (a) Who is ineligible to receive a... senior management employees is tied to the profit or sale of the business or commercial endeavor for... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the prohibited activities? 723.2...

  5. 5 CFR 4.1 - Prohibition against political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political campaigns, except as may be provided by or pursuant to statute. All such persons shall retain the... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against political activity. 4... PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.1 Prohibition against political activity. No person employed in the executive branch...

  6. 33 CFR 183.512 - Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel tanks: Prohibited materials... tanks: Prohibited materials. (a) A fuel tank must not be constructed from terneplate. (b) Unless it has an inorganic sacrificial galvanic coating on the inside and outside of the tank, a fuel tank must not...

  7. 45 CFR 73.735-802 - Executive order prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONDUCT Financial Interest § 73.735-802 Executive order prohibitions. (a) Basic prohibition of Executive Order 11222. (1) An employee shall not have a direct or indirect financial interest that conflicts... employee need not have a financial interest that actually conflicts with his or her duties to violate the...

  8. 12 CFR 956.3 - Prohibited investments and prudential rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investments and prudential rules... prudential rules. (a) Prohibited investments. A Bank may not invest in: (1) Instruments that provide an... the Bank provides to the issuer the customized terms, necessary liquidity, or favorable pricing...

  9. 25 CFR 247.18 - What are the sanitation prohibitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the sanitation prohibitions? 247.18 Section 247.18 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE USE OF COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY FISHING ACCESS SITES § 247.18 What are the sanitation prohibitions? (a) You cannot deposit...

  10. 29 CFR 2.13 - Audiovisual coverage prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Audiovisual coverage prohibited. 2.13 Section 2.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GENERAL REGULATIONS Audiovisual Coverage of Administrative Hearings § 2.13 Audiovisual coverage prohibited. The Department shall not permit audiovisual coverage of the...

  11. 5 CFR 2635.205 - Proper disposition of prohibited gifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proper disposition of prohibited gifts... STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Gifts From Outside Sources § 2635.205 Proper disposition of prohibited gifts. (a) An employee who has received a gift that cannot be accepted...

  12. 19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited... accordance with § 12.100(a) shall be seized under 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of...

  13. 46 CFR 105.05-2 - Prohibitions regarding petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. 105.05-2... VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-2 Prohibitions regarding petroleum products. (a) Commercial fishing vessels shall not transport Grade A flammable liquids...

  14. 40 CFR 82.270 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... newly manufacture any halon blend. Halon blends manufactured solely for the purpose of aviation fire... capable of recycling the blend to the relevant industry standards for the chemical purity of each... April 6, 1998 the provision that the blend must be returned to it or its designee for recycling; and (3...

  15. Effects of the provisions of the corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedmak, M. R.

    The effects of the provisions of the existing corporate and personal income tax codes on solar investment decisions are analyzed. It is shown that the provisions of a tax code do not discriminate against investment in solar technologies if the present value of depreciation and interest expense tax deductions over the relevant decision period is equal to the present value of actual capital expenses. However, on the basis of a quantitative analyses, it is concluded that the existing corporate income tax code does discriminate against solar investments for the majority of corporations, although the 25 percent tax credit available to businesses for solar investments is sufficient to alleviate the distortion in most cases. In contrast, the provisions of the existing personal income tax code favor solar investments over investments in less capital intensive energy generating units, as the interest paid on loads used to finance solar investments made by individuals is tax deductible, while conventional fuel expenses are not deductible.

  16. Haptic Discrimination of Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beek, Femke E.; Bergmann Tiest, Wouter M.; Kappers, Astrid M. L.

    2014-01-01

    While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive) and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices. PMID:25116638

  17. Haptic discrimination of distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke E van Beek

    Full Text Available While quite some research has focussed on the accuracy of haptic perception of distance, information on the precision of haptic perception of distance is still scarce, particularly regarding distances perceived by making arm movements. In this study, eight conditions were measured to answer four main questions, which are: what is the influence of reference distance, movement axis, perceptual mode (active or passive and stimulus type on the precision of this kind of distance perception? A discrimination experiment was performed with twelve participants. The participants were presented with two distances, using either a haptic device or a real stimulus. Participants compared the distances by moving their hand from a start to an end position. They were then asked to judge which of the distances was the longer, from which the discrimination threshold was determined for each participant and condition. The precision was influenced by reference distance. No effect of movement axis was found. The precision was higher for active than for passive movements and it was a bit lower for real stimuli than for rendered stimuli, but it was not affected by adding cutaneous information. Overall, the Weber fraction for the active perception of a distance of 25 or 35 cm was about 11% for all cardinal axes. The recorded position data suggest that participants, in order to be able to judge which distance was the longer, tried to produce similar speed profiles in both movements. This knowledge could be useful in the design of haptic devices.

  18. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  19. Women Status and their Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    PEŠKOVÁ, Pavlína

    2008-01-01

    My work deal with women status and their discrimination. Chapter one contains women status in different historical periods and development of their status to bigger equal with men. There is also written about present feminist trends. Chapter two is about women discrimination. There is about women´ job discrimination, job segregation according to gender and inequality in payment. There is also written about women status at home and unequal duties at home among family mates. Chapter three is ab...

  20. Digital pulse shape discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L. F.; Preston, J.; Pozzi, S.; Flaska, M.; Neal, J.

    2007-01-01

    Pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) has been utilised for about 40 years as a method to obtain estimates for dose in mixed neutron and photon fields. Digitizers that operate close to GHz are currently available at a reasonable cost, and they can be used to directly sample signals from photomultiplier tubes. This permits one to perform digital PSD rather than the traditional, and well-established, analogous techniques. One issue that complicates PSD for neutrons in mixed fields is that the light output characteristics of typical scintillators available for PSD, such as BC501A, vary as a function of energy deposited in the detector. This behaviour is more easily accommodated with digital processing of signals than with analogous signal processing. Results illustrate the effectiveness of digital PSD. (authors)

  1. Genetic discrimination: international perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otlowski, M; Taylor, S; Bombard, Y

    2012-01-01

    Genetic discrimination (GD) is a complex, multifaceted ethical, psychosocial, and legal phenomenon. It is defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. This article presents an overview of GD within the contemporary international context. It describes the concept of GD and its contextual features, reviews research evidence regarding people's experiences of GD and the impact of GD within a range of domains, and provides an overview of legal and policy responses to GD that have emerged globally. We argue that GD is a significant and internationally established phenomenon that requires multilevel responses to ensure social justice and equitable outcomes for all citizens. Future research should monitor GD and its impacts within the community as well as institutions and should evaluate the effectiveness of legislative, policy, community education, and systemic responses.

  2. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  3. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    -profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy......The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  5. Models of Public Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2013-01-01

    This article extends the framework of Le Grand (2003, 2010) to encompass responsiveness, and the main argument is that the combination of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision potentially has serious implications for responsiveness across service areas. Although...... research on employee motivation thrives, especially in the public service motivation (PSM) literature, few studies have investigated user capacity empirically, and we know little about the combination of PSM, user capacity and models of service provision. Analyzing four central service areas (day care......, schools, hospitals, and universities), we find variations in both user capacity and PSM. Taking this variation as a point of departure we discuss what implications different combinations of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision may have for responsiveness....

  6. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  7. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegl, B.

    2013-01-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyper-parameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  8. Challenging and Preventing Policies That Prohibit Local Civil Rights Protections for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    Discrimination causes health inequities for stigmatized groups. Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals, in particular, are at significantly increased risk for disparate health outcomes when they reside in states that fail to extend equal protections to them or that actively deprive equal rights to them. Several states and the federal government have proposed or enacted laws that permit residents to discriminate against LGBTQ individuals. One such law, Arkansas's Intrastate Commerce Improvement Act of 2015, preempts or prohibits local governments from enacting civil rights protections for LGBTQ individuals that are also lacking at the state level. State laws such as Arkansas's undermine local control, damage the economy, and create injustices that harm LGBTQ people. I set forth 2 constitutional arguments to challenge such laws, and I provide information to help advocates support evidence-based policymaking and prevent the passage of similar laws in their states.

  9. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  10. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  11. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its emphasis...

  12. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  13. Perceived Discrimination in LGBTIQ Discourse: A Typology of Verbal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Rojas Lizana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New within the field of Discourse Analysis, Perceived Discrimination (PD is the study of discourse that focuses on the perspective of the victims of discrimination. This article explores the experiences of verbal discrimination as reported by eighteen LGBTIQ participants during semi-structured, co-constructed interviews. Data were classified in order to develop a taxonomy of discrimination based on Mellor’s (2003, 2004. This taxonomy foregrounds two types of discrimination: verbal and behavioural. In this paper, I exemplify the forms of verbal discrimination encountered and offer an analysis of the discourse used in the construction of the experiences and of the effects reported. The results show that verbal discrimination is an overt phenomenon and that participants are stressed by the ever present possibility of facing it. Verbal discrimination is mainly triggered by a perceived transgression to the normalised standards of people’s behaviour, movements and look in a heterosexist society. It presents three subtypes: name calling, abuse and remarks. These subtypes are described through the analysis of keywords, effects and expressions (such as faggot, gay, dyke, queer, the pronoun ‘it’, religious comments and other remarks. The type of discrimination used was associated with the level of acquaintance perpetrators have with the experiencers; that is, name calling was used by people unknown to the victims while abuse and remarks by acquaintances and family members. Participants resorted to several discursive strategies to convey their intentions. They used mitigation strategies when wanting to minimize the experience, hedging and repetition were used for emphasis, and to convey urgency and pervasiveness. Metaphorical expressions related to internal or external injuries were also used to express the powerful effect of verbal discrimination on people.

  14. 75 FR 15777 - Common Crop Insurance Regulations, Basic Provisions; and Various Crop Insurance Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...

  15. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  16. Discrimination aware decision tree learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the following problem of discrimination aware classification was introduced: given a labeled dataset and an attribute B, find a classifier with high predictive accuracy that at the same time does not discriminate on the basis of the given attribute B. This problem is motivated by the fact

  17. Discrimination aware decision tree learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Calders, T.G.K.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the following discrimination aware classification problem was introduced: given a labeled dataset and an attribute B, find a classifier with high predictive accuracy that at the same time does not discriminate on the basis of the given attribute B. This problem is motivated by the fact

  18. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  19. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  20. Gender Discrimination in Jessica's Career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Ellen Piel

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on the sexual harassment and other gender-related difficulties faced by a Chinese-American woman. Profiles her encounters with gender discrimination and how it hindered career advancement and led to professional isolation. Relates how this case study can be used to sensitize workers to gender discrimination. (RJM)

  1. Bereavement Care Provision in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldin, Mai-Britt; Murphy, Irene; Keegan, Orla

    2015-01-01

    The Bereavement Care Taskforce of the EAPC has conducted a survey on bereavement care service provision in Europe. Mai-Britt Guldin, Irene Murphy, Orla Keegan, Barbara Monroe, Maria Antonia Lacasta Reverte and Inger Benkel report on the results. One of the key findings is that not all palliative...

  2. Children's perceptions of gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears Brown, Christia; Bigler, Rebecca S

    2004-09-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the gender of the perpetrator (i.e., teacher) were manipulated. Results indicated that older children were more likely than younger children to make attributions to discrimination when contextual information suggested that it was likely. Girls (but not boys) were more likely to view girls than boys as victims of discrimination, and children with egalitarian gender attitudes were more likely to perceive discrimination than were their peers. Copyright 2004 American Psychological Association

  3. 7 CFR 319.73-2 - Products prohibited importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the fungus Hemileia vastatrix (Berkely and Broome), which causes an injurious rust disease, the..., seeds of all kinds when in pulp, including coffee berries or fruits, are prohibited importation into all...

  4. 47 CFR 1.3002 - Structural rules and prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... bequest to the Commission from a regulated entity or other prohibited source; or (2) Accept gifts of cash... conflict of interest or the appearance of a conflict of interest. Agency ethics officials may also advise...

  5. 77 FR 3037 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... Vol. 77 Friday, No. 13 January 20, 2012 Part II Department of Labor Employee Benefits Security... Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Exemptions...

  6. 22 CFR 96.36 - Prohibition on child buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Accreditation and Approval Ethical Practices and Responsibilities § 96.36 Prohibition on child buying. (a) The... person may remit reasonable payments for activities related to the adoption proceedings, pre-birth and.... Professional Qualifications and Training for Employees ...

  7. 76 FR 14083 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... firms that litigate securities fraud cases on a contingency fee basis. Finally, IFS stated that the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice...

  8. 11 CFR 7.7 - Prohibited conduct-General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Government efficiency or economy; (d) Losing independence or impartiality; (e) Making a Government decision... Employees or Commissioners § 7.7 Prohibited conduct—General. A Commissioner or employee shall avoid any...

  9. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  10. The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001: vagueness and federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jonathan S

    2002-01-01

    On July 31, 2001, the U.S. House of Representatives passed The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2001. The legislation proposes a complete ban on somatic cell nuclear transfer to create cloned human embryos; it threatens transgressors with criminal punishment and civil fines. House Bill 2505 is the first human cloning prohibition to pass either chamber of Congress. This note argues that the bill is unconstitutionally vague and inconsistent with the Supreme Court's recent Commerce Clause jurisprudence.

  11. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2007-08-01

    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.

  12. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  13. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  14. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  15. JUSTIFICATION FOR INDIRECT DISCRIMINATION IN EU

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălina-Adriana Ivănuş

    2014-01-01

    The right to non-discrimination is very important for a civilized society. EU legislation establishes direct and indirect discrimination, harassment, sexual harassment, instruction to discriminate and any less favourable treatment of a woman related to pregnancy or maternity leave as forms of discrimination. The law and the Court of Justice permit the justification of indirect discrimination.

  16. Global trends on fears and concerns of genetic discrimination: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Annet; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2016-04-01

    Since the 1990s, developments in the field of genetics have led to many questions on the use and possible misuse of genetic information. 'Genetic discrimination' has been defined as the differential treatment of asymptomatic individuals or their relatives on the basis of their real or assumed genetic characteristics. Despite the public policy attention around genetic discrimination, there is currently still much confusion surrounding this phenomenon. On the one hand, there is little evidence of the occurrence of genetic discrimination. On the other hand, it appears that people remain concerned about this theme, and this fear influences their health and life choices. This article makes use of a systematic literature review to investigate what is already known about the nature, extent and background of these fears and concerns. The 42 included studies have found considerable levels of concerns about genetic discrimination. Concerns dominate in insurance contexts and within personal interactions. The extent of concerns appears to vary depending on the type of genetic illness. Furthermore, installed laws prohibiting genetic discrimination do not seem to alleviate existing fears. This raises important questions as to the origins of these fears. Based on the findings, recommendations for future research are made. First, research on the background of fears is needed. Second, future research needs to assess more fully all different forms (for example, direct and indirect) of genetic discrimination. Thirdly, it has to be studied whether genetic discrimination is a form of discrimination that is distinguishable from discrimination based on an illness or disability. Finally, a last element that should be addressed in future research is the most recent developments in research on genomics, such as next-generation sequencing or genome-wide association studies.

  17. Gender Discrimination in Orhan Pamuk's 'Snow' and Khaled Hosseini's 'A Thousand Splendid Suns'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iis Sugianti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Women's life without discrimination or violence is the freedom and entitlement of women's rights. The objective of the study is to achieve the idea. Dealing with it, the researcher applies feminism approach proposed by Damewood's theory of gender discrimination. Gender discrimination refers to the practice of granting or denying rights or privilege to a person based on his/her gender that is longstanding and acceptable to both genders. The novel `Snow` and `A Thousand Splendid Suns` focus on gender discrimination, violence, oppression, and struggle to fight against them. The researcher explores how gender discrimination, patriarchy culture and most of violence and oppression happened in family and country. The phenomenon of violence is not only a discrimination done by husbands who do gender discrimination in family, but also a fight done by a wife to fight against them, it depends on its case. In `Snow`, the women character faced many problems related to their headscarves. They are discriminated by their government and parents. Kadife is depicted as a brave woman. She tries to defend women‟s right in Kars to keep on using their headscarves. While in A `Thousand Splendid Suns`, the limitation of women`s activity happened. Women are banned to get education and they should stay at home. Mariam and Laila get oppression and violence by their husband. Their struggle is shown in the murder of their husband, Rasheed. The unstable practice of gender discrimination was continuously preserved by the culture, not religion. It was like a patriarchal culture that is one of clear examples of the women phenomena in the world and it can be in the form of prohibition and limitation of the role of women in the public area.

  18. Timbre discrimination in musical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, J M

    1978-08-01

    Most research on timbre perception has studied isolated tones. This study compares timbre discrimination of isolated tones with discrimination in various musical contexts, both single-voiced and multivoiced. Twelve different contexts were used (four isolated tonal comparisons, four single-voice musical patterns, and four multivoice patterns). Listerners judged whether the timbre remained the same or changed during the trial. Two possible versions of any instrumental timbre differed in the physical information used in their synthesis. Three instrumental timbres were tested in all contexts: clarinet, trumpet, and bassoon. The effects of context upon discrimination varied across instruments. The clarinet and trumpet versions were best discriminated in isolated contexts, with discrimination progressively worse in single-voice and multivoice patterns. The bassoon versions were best discriminated in the single-voice patterns, with equal discrimination in the isolated and multivoice cases. It is suggested that these results were due to pronounced physical differences observed between the spectra of the two versions of the bassoon that were not apparent between the versions of the clarinet or trumpet.

  19. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  20. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Masanori

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes discrimination of chromosome by autoradiography. In this method, the difference in DNA synthetic phase between each chromosome was used as a standard, and the used chromosome was in metaphase, as morphological characteristics were markedly in this phase. Cell cycle and autoradiography with 3 H-thymidine were also examined. In order to discriminate chromosome by autoradiography, it was effective to utilize the labelled pattern in late DNA synthetic phase, where asynchronous replication of chromosome appeared most obviously. DNA synthesis in chromosome was examined in each DNA synthetic phase by culturing the chromosome after the treatment with 3 H-thymidine and altering the time to prepare chromosome specimen. Discrimination of chromosome in plants and animals by autoradiography was also mentioned. It was noticed as a structural and functional discrimination of chromosome to observe amino acid uptake into chromosome protein and to utilize the difference in labelled pattern between the sites of chromosome. (K. Serizawa)

  2. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  3. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  4. Sexual orientation discrimination in hiring

    OpenAIRE

    Doris Weichselbaumer

    2000-01-01

    Little research has been done to examine discrimination against gays and lesbians in the labor market. Badgett (1995) conducted the only previous study investigating labor market outcomes of gays and lesbians using a random data set. However, due to the structure of the data, the wage differential between heterosexuals and gays and lesbians that is found can not be directly assigned to employer discrimination. Some gays and lesbians might deploy passing strategies to hide their sexual orienta...

  5. Unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chefles, Anthony; Kitagawa, Akira; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide; Twamley, Jason

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of unambiguous discrimination among oracle operators. The general theory of unambiguous discrimination among unitary operators is extended with this application in mind. We prove that entanglement with an ancilla cannot assist any discrimination strategy for commuting unitary operators. We also obtain a simple, practical test for the unambiguous distinguishability of an arbitrary set of unitary operators on a given system. Using this result, we prove that the unambiguous distinguishability criterion is the same for both standard and minimal oracle operators. We then show that, except in certain trivial cases, unambiguous discrimination among all standard oracle operators corresponding to integer functions with fixed domain and range is impossible. However, we find that it is possible to unambiguously discriminate among the Grover oracle operators corresponding to an arbitrarily large unsorted database. The unambiguous distinguishability of standard oracle operators corresponding to totally indistinguishable functions, which possess a strong form of classical indistinguishability, is analysed. We prove that these operators are not unambiguously distinguishable for any finite set of totally indistinguishable functions on a Boolean domain and with arbitrary fixed range. Sets of such functions on a larger domain can have unambiguously distinguishable standard oracle operators, and we provide a complete analysis of the simplest case, that of four functions. We also examine the possibility of unambiguous oracle operator discrimination with multiple parallel calls and investigate an intriguing unitary superoperator transformation between standard and entanglement-assisted minimal oracle operators

  6. 24 CFR 201.16 - Default provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default provision. 201.16 Section... PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.16 Default provision. The... default by the borrower. ...

  7. Mental health impacts of racial discrimination in Australian culturally and linguistically diverse communities: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand, Angeline S; Paradies, Yin; Kelaher, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Racial discrimination denies those from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds access to rights such as the ability to participate equally and freely in community and public life, equitable service provision and freedom from violence. Our study was designed to examine how people from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds in four Australian localities experience and respond to racial discrimination, as well as associated health impacts. Methods Data were collected from 1,139 Austra...

  8. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  9. The Short Selling Regulation in the EU: Assessing the Authorization Granted for ESMA to Prohibit Short Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Huhtilainen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the effectiveness of short sale constraints in reducing volatility is limited at best. Furthermore, there are evidence of counterproductive effects: constraints on short selling may actually increase volatility as well as deteriorate liquidity. However, based on theory and previous studies, reporting and disclosure requirements shall be favored provided they improve market efficiency as well as supervisory work of regulatory bodies.This paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the

  10. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...... basic formula. We also take the new approach further by deriving an intuitive formula for the optimal level of public goods, without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation has a role to play, as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants...

  11. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  12. Transgender inclusion in state non-discrimination policies: The democratic deficit and political powerlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Flores

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transgender people—people whose gender identity or expression is different from their assigned sex at birth—and their allies advocate for the inclusion of gender identity or transgender in state non-discrimination policies. These policies generally proscribe discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations. Courts and administrative agencies have determined discrimination against transgender people is a violation of existing statutes, but there remain efforts by advocates to seek policies that explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of transgender status, which are often the result of legislation going through the political process. A pluralist understanding of the political process theorizes that a majority coalition of minorities can offer social groups policies they support. This rests on the presumption that a majority coalition of minorities should rule. Any indication to the contrary may suggest a democratic deficit, whereby more than a majority is necessary for policy introduction. We find that there is a substantial democratic deficit regarding the inclusion of gender identity or transgender in employment non-discrimination policies. On average, state support for the policy must be 81% in order for the state to have a policy reflecting such sentiment. This leaves substantial implications for the political powerlessness of transgender people in the political process.

  13. 20 CFR 405.30 - Discrimination complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination complaints. 405.30 Section 405... INITIAL DISABILITY CLAIMS Introduction, General Description, and Definitions § 405.30 Discrimination... that an adjudicator has improperly discriminated against you, you may file a discrimination complaint...

  14. 14 CFR 399.36 - Unreasonable discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unreasonable discrimination. 399.36 Section... Unreasonable discrimination. (a) As used in this section: (1) Unreasonable discrimination means unjust discrimination or unreasonable preference or prejudice; and (2) Rate means rate, fare, or charge. (b) Except in...

  15. Unambiguous discrimination of mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Feng Yuan; Ying Mingsheng

    2006-01-01

    The problem of unambiguous discrimination between mixed quantum states is addressed by isolating the part of each mixed state which has no contribution to discrimination and by employing the strategy of set discrimination of pure states. A necessary and sufficient condition of unambiguous mixed state discrimination is presented. An upper bound of the efficiency is also derived

  16. International Trade and Labor Market Discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Chisik (Richard); J.E. Namini (Julian Emami)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe embed a competitive search model with labor market discrimination, or nepotism, into a two-sector, two-country framework in order to analyze how labor market discrimination impacts the pattern of international trade and also how trade trade affects discrimination. Discrimination, or

  17. Orthogonal sparse linear discriminant analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhonghua; Liu, Gang; Pu, Jiexin; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Haijun

    2018-03-01

    Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is a linear feature extraction approach, and it has received much attention. On the basis of LDA, researchers have done a lot of research work on it, and many variant versions of LDA were proposed. However, the inherent problem of LDA cannot be solved very well by the variant methods. The major disadvantages of the classical LDA are as follows. First, it is sensitive to outliers and noises. Second, only the global discriminant structure is preserved, while the local discriminant information is ignored. In this paper, we present a new orthogonal sparse linear discriminant analysis (OSLDA) algorithm. The k nearest neighbour graph is first constructed to preserve the locality discriminant information of sample points. Then, L2,1-norm constraint on the projection matrix is used to act as loss function, which can make the proposed method robust to outliers in data points. Extensive experiments have been performed on several standard public image databases, and the experiment results demonstrate the performance of the proposed OSLDA algorithm.

  18. 76 FR 44282 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... prescribes policies prohibiting interrogation of detainees by contractor personnel, as required by section... ancillary positions, including as trainers of, and advisors to, interrogations, if the contractor personnel...

  19. 16 CFR 1608.6 - Reference to guaranty by Government prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited. 1608.6 Section 1608.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS... guaranty by Government prohibited. No representation nor suggestion shall be made in advertising or... conforms to a flammability standard in effect under the act. ...

  20. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  1. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M.V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  2. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  3. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the US labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  4. Analysis of drug prohibition and estimation of budgetary implications of marijuana legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Flegr, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of drug prohibition on society. It analyzes starting-points and aims of prohibition and shows, how prohibition attempts to achieve its goals. Furthermore, it explores social costs of prohibition, mainly the impact on potencial health risks of drug use and property and violent crimes. Then it presents main reasons of failure to achieve its goals. Furthemore, this paper estimates probable budgetary implications of marijuana legalization. This estimate is based on ...

  5. 47 CFR 76.983 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... local franchising authority may prohibit a cable operator from offering reasonable discounts to senior... Federal agency, state, or local franchising authority from requiring and regulating the reception of cable...

  6. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  7. 50 CFR 660.112 - Trawl fishery-prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reports of groundfish landings, containing all data, and in the exact manner, required by the regulation.../Biogenic Area, Farallon Islands/Fanny Shoal, Half Moon Bay, Monterey Bay/Canyon, Point Sur Deep, Big Sur... prohibited from fishing, landing, or processing primary season Pacific whiting with a catcher/processor...

  8. Uranium Mining and Nuclear Facilities (Prohibitions) Act 1986 No. 194

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this Act is to protect the health and safety of the people of New South Wales and its environment. Accordingly it prohibits prospecting or mining for uranium and the construction and operation of nuclear reactors and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. (NEA) [fr

  9. 29 CFR 102.132 - Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... communication shall place or cause to be placed on the public record of the proceeding: (1) The communication... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties. 102.132 Section 102.132 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS...

  10. 21 CFR 189.5 - Prohibited cattle materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... passed, it was found to be not adulterated. (3) Mechanically Separated (MS)(Beef) means a meat food... were created. (3) Records must be retained at the manufacturing or processing establishment or at a... deemed adulterated under section 402(a)(3) of the act. (3) Food additive status. Prohibited cattle...

  11. 75 FR 54542 - Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2570 RIN 1210-AA98 Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans Correction In proposed rule document 2010-21073 beginning on page 53172 in the issue of Monday, August 30, 2010, make the following correction...

  12. 76 FR 66637 - Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2570 RIN 1210-AB49 Prohibited Transaction Exemption Procedures; Employee Benefit Plans AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security... Determinations, Employee Benefits Security Administration, Room N-5700, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC...

  13. 5 CFR 6401.102 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 6401.102 Prohibited financial... having outside employment with or holding stock or any other financial interest in companies that... apply to companies with subsidiaries in these areas but do not include retail distributors to the...

  14. 16 CFR 1117.9 - Prohibited acts and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited acts and sanctions. 1117.9 Section 1117.9 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT....C. 1001. (b) A failure to report to the Commission in a timely fashion as required by this part is a...

  15. 77 FR 36149 - Disclosure Requirements and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... FTC announces revised monetary thresholds for three exemptions from the Franchise Rule. FTC is... July 1, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Craig Tregillus, Franchise Rule Coordinator, Division of... and Prohibitions Concerning Franchising'' (Franchise Rule or Rule) \\1\\ provides three exemptions based...

  16. 34 CFR 76.657 - Separate classes prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Separate classes prohibited. 76.657 Section 76.657 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education STATE-ADMINISTERED PROGRAMS What Conditions Must... separately on the basis of school enrollment or religion of the students if: (a) The classes are at the same...

  17. 15 CFR 922.132 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from a cruise ship, any material or other matter, except: (A) Fish, fish parts, chumming materials, or... MBTA. (6) Flying motorized aircraft, except as necessary for valid law enforcement purposes, at less... prohibition does not apply to possession of fish resulting from fishing below 3000 feet within the Davidson...

  18. 34 CFR 303.123 - Prohibition against commingling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... assurance in this section is satisfied by the use of an accounting system that includes an “audit trail” of... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Statement of Assurances § 303.123 Prohibition against commingling. The statement must include an assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that funds made...

  19. 5 CFR 6201.102 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 6201.102 Administrative Personnel EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 6201.102 Prohibited...) All exporters that, during the preceding two fiscal years, exported an aggregate dollar volume of...

  20. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for... than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a spiny lobster with less than a 5...

  1. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits... States other than Puerto Rico or the U.S. Virgin Islands, and a more restrictive minimum size limit that applies to Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. (1) No person may import a Caribbean spiny lobster...

  2. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions against misuse of seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL... character, or with wrongful or fraudulent intent, using, buying, procuring, selling or transferring to...

  3. 29 CFR 801.4 - Prohibitions on lie detector use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions on lie detector use. 801.4 Section 801.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS APPLICATION... complaint, for testifying in any proceeding, or for exercising any rights afforded by the Act. (b) An...

  4. 15 CFR 922.163 - Prohibited activities-Sanctuary-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an exotic species of plant, invertebrate, fish, amphibian, or mammals into the Sanctuary. (8) Damage... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited activities-Sanctuary-wide... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY PROGRAM REGULATIONS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary...

  5. 40 CFR 763.165 - Manufacture and importation prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacture and importation...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.165 Manufacture...

  6. 40 CFR 80.27 - Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls and prohibitions on gasoline... prohibitions on gasoline volatility. (a)(1) Prohibited activities in 1991. During the 1991 regulatory control... shall sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, or transport gasoline whose Reid vapor...

  7. 36 CFR 51.42 - Are there exceptions to this compensable interest prohibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compensable interest prohibition? 51.42 Section 51.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK... exceptions to this compensable interest prohibition? Two exceptions to this compensable interest prohibition... owned in fee simple by a concessioner or owned in fee simple by a concessioner's predecessor before the...

  8. 75 FR 67632 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ...-AG88 Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by... National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (Pub. L. 111-84) prohibits the interrogation of..., to add DFARS 237.173, Prohibition on Interrogation of Detainees by Contractor Personnel, adding a...

  9. 12 CFR 4.37 - Persons and entities with access to OCC information; prohibition on dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information; prohibition on dissemination. 4.37 Section 4.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... § 4.37 Persons and entities with access to OCC information; prohibition on dissemination. (a) Current... agreement to abide by, the prohibition on the dissemination of non-public OCC information contained in...

  10. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  11. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, David; Spekkens, Robert W.

    2018-02-01

    Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  12. A Talk on Sex Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Irving C.

    The topic of this speech covers the 1972 amendments to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the subsequent court cases dealing with sex discrimination. The cases discussed cover maternity leaves for tenured as well as untenured teachers and other public employees. The issues basic to these cases involve mandatory maternity leaves at…

  13. Don't demotivate, discriminate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.A. Kamphorst (Jurjen); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper offers a new theory of discrimination in the workplace. We consider a manager who has to assign two tasks to two employees. The manager has superior information about the employees' abilities. We show that besides an equilibrium where the manager does not

  14. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  15. Sex Discrimination in Employment Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Univ. Extension.

    The conference on sex discrimination in employment practices was held at the University of California at Los Angeles in cooperation with the Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor. Speeches included: (1) "New Legislation--New Action" by Rosalind K. Loring and William Foster, (2) "Compliance Policies and Procedures for Business and Industry" by…

  16. Gender discrimination and job characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbelt, L.; Rispens, S.; Demerouti, E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender discrimination and the perceived job demands and job resources of women and men. This is important because it may provide insight into what factors contribute to women’s disadvantaged position at work.

  17. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamiran, F.; Zliobaite, I.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train

  18. Senate Bill (PLS No. 200, de 2015, analysis versus the Principle of the Prohibition of Social Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Ribeiro Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Senate Bill (PLS number 200, of 2015, proposes the edition of a law for the conduction of clinical trials involving human subjects. This study aimed to perform a critical analysis of the PLS 200/2015, based on the Principle of the Prohibition of Social Regression. Thus, a descriptive, documentary and normative research was conducted, with survey of the ethical and sanitary standards related to clinical research and findings related to the PL 200/2015. The PLS 200/2015 and the information regarding was also consulted on the website of the Senate. The regulation of the matter by law demonstrated not to be a problem in the research. The main conflicts were related to the creation of Independent Ethics Committee (IEC, that does not link the ethic review to an State Agency; the use of placebo, in which flexibility is contrary to all efforts to ensure that participants have the best treatment options; and post-study access, which restriction is contrary to the existing regulations that determine the free and unlimited access. The analysis of the main settings specified in the PLS 200/2015 did not identify social or scientific improvements. The Principle of the Prohibition of Social Regression can be used, thus, to ensure the constitutional provisions already undertake and accomplished, mainly the right to health, human dignity and the inviolability of the right to live.

  19. Social Status Correlates of Reporting Racial Discrimination and Gender Discrimination among Racially Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Annie E.; Choi, Kyung-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The growing body of research on discrimination and health indicates a deleterious effect of discrimination on various health outcomes. However, less is known about the sociodemographic correlates of reporting racial discrimination and gender discrimination among racially diverse women. We examined the associations of social status characteristics with lifetime experiences of racial discrimination and gender discrimination using a racially-diverse sample of 754 women attending family planning ...

  20. An example of multidimensional analysis: Discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, P.

    1990-01-01

    Among the approaches on the data multi-dimensional analysis, lectures on the discriminant analysis including theoretical and practical aspects are presented. The discrimination problem, the analysis steps and the discrimination categories are stressed. Examples on the descriptive historical analysis, the discrimination for decision making, the demonstration and separation of the top quark are given. In the linear discriminant analysis the following subjects are discussed: Huyghens theorem, projection, discriminant variable, geometrical interpretation, case for g=2, classification method, separation of the top events. Criteria allowing the obtention of relevant results are included [fr

  1. 78 FR 18960 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC586 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  2. 76 FR 27356 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... extent each Plan invested in the pooled fund (other than a Wachovia Plan) receives advance written notice... income or other taxation provisions. (f) Any determination made by SBL under Paragraphs (e)(1) or (e)(2... disadvantageous to such Eligible Member in respect of applicable income or other taxation provisions. The...

  3. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK : Helping or Hindering Employment Amongst the Disabled?

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, David N.F.; Heitmüller, Axel

    2005-01-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. This paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the US, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are low ...

  4. The organization for the prohibition of chemical weapons and the IAEA: A comparative overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, A.W.; Rolya, A.

    1993-01-01

    The long-awaited Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) - which was endorsed in New York by the United Nations General Assembly on 30 November 1992 - was opened for signature on 13 January 1993. To oversee its implementation, a new international organization, the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW), will be established when the treaty enters into force, which could be as early as January 1995. The IAEA - as the only existing organization with a mandate for implementing an international verification system - is an important model for the structure and functioning of the OPCW. Many provisions in the CWC benefit from the lessons learned through the implementation of the IAEA's safeguards system in such matters as rights of access for inspectors, the designation of inspectors, and procedural arrangements. Overall, the structure of the IAEA and that foreseen for the OPCE are quite similar. There are, nonetheless, several structural differences. Most notably, the IAEA is charged with a dual mission, that of promoting the contribution of nuclear energy to social and economic development and of seeking to ensure that nuclear materials and facilities which have been placed under safeguards are not diverted from peaceful uses. The OPCW is responsible for achieving a complete ban on chemical weapons and is not responsible, at least as currently envisaged, for the promotion of peaceful uses of chemistry and chemical sciences

  5. 9 CFR 93.916 - Special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions. 93.916 Section 93... § 93.916 Special provisions. (a) Slaughter. Live VHS-regulated fish from VHS-regulated regions may be... establishment discharges its waste water to a municipal sewage system that includes waste water disinfection...

  6. 48 CFR 11.107 - Solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision. 11... transaction-based reporting method to report its use of voluntary consensus standards to the National... Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities”). Use of the provision...

  7. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  8. 22 CFR 63.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions. 63.9 Section 63.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following...

  9. 22 CFR 226.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.48 Contract provisions. The...

  10. 30 CFR 847.2 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 847.2 Section 847.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... court of competent jurisdiction enters a judgment against or convicts a person under these provisions...

  11. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provision. 931.9 Section 931.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply...

  12. 12 CFR 1261.2 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 1261.2 Section 1261.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.2 General provisions. (a...

  13. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  14. Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) maintenance provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, J.L.

    1981-05-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was designed with maintainability as a primary parameter, and facilities and provisions were designed into the plant to accommodate the maintenance function. This paper describes the FFTF and its systems. Special maintenance equipment and facilities for performing maintenance on radioactive components are discussed. Maintenance provisions designed into the plant to enhance maintainability are also described

  15. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  16. Energy provision under Obama administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, J. [IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    The new bill before the Senate, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, allows for an additional amount for 'Fossil Energy Research and Development' of $4.6 billion, to be available until 30 September 2010 and that $2 billion of that is available for one or more near zero emissions power plant(s). Two further provisions allow for an additional $1 billion for the Department's Clean Coal Power Initiative Round III and a further $1.5 billion for a competitive solicitations for projects that demonstrate carbon capture from industrial sources. Awards for such projects may include plant efficiency improvements for integration with carbon capture technology. The press seems to be divided whether this money will help revive the FutureGen project. The financial commitment should help the G8 achieve its objective of seeing 20 CCS demonstration projects around the world by 2020. An economic stimulus package proposed by the incoming Barack Obama administration include $150 billion to be spent over 10 years to spur next generation biofuels, plug in hybrid vehicles, a new digital electrical grid and new low emission coal plants. The proposal is intended to create jobs and address critical infrastructure in the US.

  17. The Methodological Approach to Determining the Level of Formation and Provision of Enterprise Personnel Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavkalova Nataliia L.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to substantiate the methodical approach to determining the level of formation and provision of enterprise personnel security. By analyzing, systematizing and generalizing scientific achievements of many scientists, approaches to the evaluation of personnel security at the enterprise were considered, a set of indices for evaluation of personnel security was defined. There justified the urgency of creating a comprehensive approach to evaluation of personnel security that includes implementation of the following stages: defining a list of indices corresponding to the level of formation and provision of personnel security with the help of the expert evaluation method; calculating integral indices of personnel security for each component and the corresponding level by means of the taxonomic analysis; grouping enterprises by the level of formation and provision of personnel security with the use of the cluster and discriminant analysis. It is found that the implementation of this approach will allow not only determining the level of formation and provision of personnel security at the enterprise, but also developing appropriate recommendations on improving its state. Prospects for further research in this direction are evaluation of conditions for formation and provision of personnel security at the enterprise, which will enable revealing negative destabilizing factors that influence personnel security

  18. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik

    2014-04-29

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  19. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain....... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  20. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for structural discrimination to be woven into the fabric of autonomous vehicle developments, which remain underexplored and undiscussed. The prospect for structural discrimination arises as a result of the coordinated modes of autonomous vehicle behaviour...... individual identity, and potentially relative worth, to autonomous vehicles engaging in a crash damage calculus. At the risk of introducing these ideas into the development of autonomous vehicles, this paper hopes to spark a debate to foreclose these eventualities....... that is prescribed by its code. This leads to the potential for individuated outcomes to be networked and thereby multiplied consistently to any number of vehicles implementing such a code. The aggregated effects of such algorithmic policy preferences will thus cumulate in the reallocation of benefits and burdens...

  1. Limited taste discrimination in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masek, Pavel; Scott, Kristin

    2010-08-17

    In the gustatory systems of mammals and flies, different populations of sensory cells recognize different taste modalities, such that there are cells that respond selectively to sugars and others to bitter compounds. This organization readily allows animals to distinguish compounds of different modalities but may limit the ability to distinguish compounds within one taste modality. Here, we developed a behavioral paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate directly the tastes that a fly distinguishes. These studies reveal that flies do not discriminate among different sugars, or among different bitter compounds, based on chemical identity. Instead, flies show a limited ability to distinguish compounds within a modality based on intensity or palatability. Taste associative learning, similar to olfactory learning, requires the mushroom bodies, suggesting fundamental similarities in brain mechanisms underlying behavioral plasticity. Overall, these studies provide insight into the discriminative capacity of the Drosophila gustatory system and the modulation of taste behavior.

  2. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market. It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure...

  3. A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhongming; Xing Shilin; Wang Zhongmin

    1986-01-01

    A simple neutron-gamma discriminating system is described. A detector and a pulse shape discriminator are suitable for the neutron-gamma discriminating system. The influence of the constant fraction discriminator threshold energy on the neutron-gamma resolution properties is shown. The neutron-gamma timing distributions from an 241 Am-Be source, 2.5 MeV neutron beam and 14 MeV neutron beam are presented

  4. Discrimination Against Migrant Workers in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Badarulzaman, Muhammad Hafiz; Ayub, Zainal A; Yusoff, Zuryati M; Wahab, Harlida A

    2016-01-01

    AbstractMigrant workers are often discriminated against in almost every aspect of life. Discrimination against them is due to irrational dislike of them and also negative perception towards them. It is alleged that migrant workers contribute to the crimes hike in Malaysia. Using doctrinal research methodology, this article discusses direct and perceptive discrimination against them. This article concludes that physical discriminations are mostly happened because ineffective enforcement of the...

  5. Age discrimination: the new Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Sprack, John

    2006-01-01

    A summary of the principal changes introduced by the Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 as they came into effect in England and Wales. Extracts from the Regulations follow the commentary. Article by John Sprack (Barrister, part-time Chairman of Employment Tribunals and author of Tottel's Guide to the Age Discrimination Regulations 2006) published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by ...

  6. A Trivial Linear Discriminant Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the new model selection procedure of the discriminant analysis. Combining re-sampling technique with k-fold cross validation, we develop a k-fold cross validation for small sample method. By this breakthrough, we obtain the mean error rate in the validation samples (M2 and the 95\\% confidence interval (CI of discriminant coefficient. Moreover, we propose the model  selection  procedure  in  which  the model having a minimum M2 was  chosen  to  the  best  model.  We  apply  this  new  method and procedure to the pass/ fail determination of  exam  scores.  In  this  case,  we  fix  the constant =1 for seven linear discriminant  functions  (LDFs  and  several  good  results  were obtained as follows: 1 M2 of Fisher's LDF are over 4.6\\% worse than Revised IP-OLDF. 2 A soft-margin  SVM  for  penalty c=1  (SVM1  is  worse  than  another  mathematical  programming (MP based LDFs and logistic regression . 3 The 95\\% CI of the best discriminant coefficients was obtained. Seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF are almost the same as a trivial LDF for the linear separable model. Furthermore, if we choose the median of the coefficient of seven LDFs except for Fisher's LDF,  those are almost the same as the trivial LDF for the linear separable model.

  7. Competition, Takeovers, and Gender Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Fredrik Heyman; Helena Svaleryd; Jonas Vlachos

    2013-01-01

    Theories of taste-based discrimination predict that competitive pressures will drive discriminatory behaviour out of the market. Using detailed matched employer-employee data, we analyze how firm takeovers and product market competition are related to the gender composition of the firm’s workforce and the gender wage gap. Using a difference-in-difference framework and dealing with several endogeneity concerns, we find that the share of female employees increases as a result of an ownership ch...

  8. Mental illness and employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Heather

    2006-09-01

    Work is a major determinant of mental health and a socially integrating force. To be excluded from the workforce creates material deprivation, erodes self-confidence, creates a sense of isolation and marginalization and is a key risk factor for mental disability. This review summarizes recent evidence pertaining to employment-related stigma and discrimination experienced by people with mental disabilities. A broad understanding of the stigmatization process is adopted, which includes cognitive, attitudinal, behavioural and structural disadvantages. Stigma is both a proximate and a distal cause of employment inequity for people with a mental disability who experience direct discrimination because of prejudicial attitudes from employers and workmates and indirect discrimination owing to historical patterns of disadvantage, structural disincentives against competitive employment and generalized policy neglect. Against this background, modern mental health rehabilitation models and legislative philosophies, which focus on citizenship rights and full social participation, are to be welcomed. Yet, recent findings demonstrate that the legislation remains vulnerable to the very prejudicial attitudes they are intended to abate. Research conducted during the past year continues to highlight multiple attitudinal and structural barriers that prevent people with mental disabilities from becoming active participants in the competitive labour market.

  9. A discrimination problem from seismology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvers, E.

    1975-12-01

    Seismic discrimination between earthquakes and underground nuclear explosions is studied, utilizing magnitudes of two kinds from several seismic stations. A model is given first, where the mean values of the magnitudes are linear fuctions of a parameter describing event size. It is shown how the model parameters can be estimated after a minor restriction on their space. When the discrimination rule is derived from the model, a few different approaches are considered, and they are shown to coincide. It is found reasonabel to use a discriminant, which is linear in the magnitudes, and explicit formulas are obtained. The power of the method is expressed by a measure of separation between the alternatives, which also shows the importance of the individual magnitudes. Missing data is a frequent problem in practice, and the case is treated where there is a detection threshold for one of the magnitudes. The classicfication probabilities are computed when applying the rule to the available magnitudes, and they depend on the event size. The method is not optimal, and it is shown that it can be improved by using the technique of identification by negative evidence, i.e. by utilizing the threshold as upper bound for a missing magnitude. The model is one of general use, and the results thus have a wider applicability. (author)

  10. 26 CFR 54.9802-1 - Prohibiting discrimination against participants and beneficiaries based on a health factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depression, Individual D attempts suicide. As a result, D sustains injuries and is hospitalized for treatment...) Conclusion. In this Example 1, the suicide attempt is the result of a medical condition (depression... full-time in an institution of higher learning (full-time students)). There is no evidence to suggest...

  11. Discrimination ability of the Energy score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Tastu, Julija

    as appealing since being proper, we show that its discrimination ability may be limited when focusing on the dependence structure of multivariate probabilistic forecasts. For the case of multivariate Gaussian process, a theoretical upper for such discrimination ability is derived and discussed. This limited...... discrimination ability may eventually get compromised by computational and sampling issues, as dimension increases....

  12. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  13. 18 CFR 1307.5 - Employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination. 1307.5 Section 1307.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO HANDICAP § 1307.5 Employment discrimination. (a) General. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  14. 14 CFR 372.22 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 372.22 Section 372.22... REGULATIONS OVERSEAS MILITARY PERSONNEL CHARTERS Conditions and Limitations § 372.22 Discrimination. No... any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect...

  15. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  16. 14 CFR 380.26 - Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination. 380.26 Section 380.26... REGULATIONS PUBLIC CHARTERS Requirements Applicable to Charter Operators § 380.26 Discrimination. No charter... unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever. ...

  17. Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: the utility of Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T; Cheing, Gladys; Rosenthal, David A; Bezyak, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine what drives workplace discrimination against people with disabilities. These findings are then compared to available literature on attribution theory, which concerns itself with public perceptions of the controllability and stability of various impairments. The sample included 35,763 allegations of discriminations filed by people with disabilities under the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Group A included impairments deemed by Corrigan et al. [1988] to be uncontrollable but stable: visual impairment (representing 13% of the total allegations in this study), cancer (12%), cardiovascular disease (19%), and spinal cord injuries (5%). The controllable but unstable impairments in group B included depression (38%), schizophrenia (2%), alcohol and other drug abuse (4%), and HIV/AIDS (7%). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission had resolved all allegations in terms of merit Resolutions (a positive finding of discrimination) and Resolutions without merit. Allegations of workplace discrimination were found to center mainly on hiring, discharge, harassment, and reasonable accommodation issues. Perceived workplace discrimination (as measured by allegations filed with EEOC) does occur at higher levels in Group B, especially when serious issues involving discharge and disability harassment are involved. With the glaring exception of HIV/AIDS, however, actual discrimination (as measured by EEOC merit Resolutions) occurs at higher levels for Group A.

  18. Learners' perspectives on the provision of condoms in South African public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, W E; Panday-Soobrayan, S

    2017-12-01

    A stubborn health challenge for learners in South African public schools concerns sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR). In 2015, the Department of Basic Education (DBE) proposed the provision of condoms and SRHR-services to learners in schools. This study aimed to contribute to the finalisation and implementation of DBE's policy by exploring learners' perspectives on the provision of condoms and SRHR-services in schools. Sixteen focus group discussions were conducted with learners (n = 116) from 33 public schools, to assess their attitudes, social influences, and needs and desires regarding condom provision and SRHR-services in schools. The majority of learners did not support condom provision in schools as they feared that it may increase sexual activity. Contrarily, they supported the provision of other SRHR-services as clinics fail to offer youth-friendly services. Learners' sexual behaviour and access to SRHR-services are strongly determined by their social environment, including traditional norms and values, and social-pressure from peers and adults. Learners' most pressing needs and desires to access condoms and SRHR-services in school concerned respect, privacy and confidentiality of such service provision. Implementation of DBE's policy must be preceded by an evidence-informed advocacy campaign to debunk myths about the risk of increased sexual activity, to advocate for why such services are needed, to shift societal norms towards open discussion of adolescent SRHR and to grapple with the juxtaposition of being legally empowered but socially inhibited to protect oneself from HIV, STIs and early pregnancy. Provision of condoms and other SRHR-services in schools must be sensitive to learners' privacy and confidentiality to minimise stigma and discrimination.

  19. Workplace discrimination: experiences of practicing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, Alice A Tolbert; King, Roderick K

    2005-04-01

    In response to a growing concern regarding physician discrimination in the workplace, this study was developed to: (1) describe the types of discrimination that exist for the practicing physician and (2) determine which groups of physicians are more likely to experience the various forms of discrimination. Surveys were mailed to 1930 practicing physicians in Massachusetts. Participants were asked if they had encountered discrimination, how significant the discrimination was against a specific group, the frequency of personal discrimination, and the type of discrimination. Factor analysis identified four types of discrimination: career advancement, punitive behaviors, practice barriers and hiring barriers. A total of 445 responses were received (a 24% response rate). Sixty-three percent of responding physicians had experienced some form of discrimination. Respondents were women (46%), racial/ethnic minorities (42%) and international medical graduates (IMGs) (40%). In addition, 26% of those classified as white were also IMGs. Over 60% of respondents believed discrimination against IMGs was very or somewhat significant. Almost 27% of males acknowledged that gender bias against females was very or somewhat significant. IMGs were more likely to indicate that discrimination against IMGs was significant in their current organization. Of U.S. medical graduates (USMGs) 44% reported that discrimination against IMGs in their current organization was significant. Nonwhites were more likely to report that discrimination based on race/ethnicity was significant. Nearly 29% of white respondents also believed that such discrimination was very or somewhat significant. Physicians practicing in academic, research, and private practice sectors experience discrimination based on gender, ethnic/racial, and IMG status.

  20. Assessing access to care for transgender and gender nonconforming people: a consideration of diversity in combating discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Taylor M

    2014-06-01

    Transgender and gender nonconforming people face stigma and discrimination from a wide variety of sources and through numerous social realms. Stigma and discrimination originating from biomedicine and health care provision may impact this group's access to primary care. Such stigma and discrimination may originate not only from direct events and past negative experiences, but also through medicine's role in providing treatments of transitioning, the development of formal diagnoses to provide access to such treatments, and the medical language used to describe this diverse group. This paper examines the postponement of primary curative care among this marginalized group of people by drawing from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, one of the largest available datasets for this underserved group. This paper also proposes an innovate categorization system to account for differences in self-conceptualization and identity, which has been of considerable concern for transgender and gender nonconforming communities but remains underexplored in social and health research. Results suggest that experience, identity, state of transition, and disclosure of transgender or gender nonconforming status are associated with postponement due to discrimination. Other findings suggest that postponement associated with primary place of seeking care and health insurance has ties to both discrimination and affordability. These findings highlight the importance of combating stigma and discrimination generated from within or experienced at sites of biomedicine or health care provision in improving access to care for this group of people. Improving access to care for all gender variant people requires a critical evaluation of existing research practices and health care provision to ensure that care is tailored as needed to each person's perspective in relation to larger social processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients......). The discriminant functions correctly classified 81 and 80% of the women, respectively (NS) and respectively 75% and 64% of the men (NS) in the first and second recorded populations.......Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients...

  2. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    . It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does......This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  3. THE JURIDICAL PROTECTION ON GLOBAL DISCRIMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTINA OTOVESCU FRĂSIE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study I wished to evidence the main juridical documents referring to discrimination, adopted world wide by the United Nations Organization. Thus, can be identified several types of definitions concerning the discrimination against women, the race discrimination, the torture etc. within the analyzed documents. The democratic countries have laws that punish the discrimination, but, unfortunately, there are discrimination phenomena for example regarding the ethnicity, the gender, the language, the convictions, the age, at the working place, inside the family etc.

  4. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisara Mhode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV. Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes.

  5. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhode, Maisara; Nyamhanga, Tumaini

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV). Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes.

  6. Multipurpose discriminator with accurate time coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldin, B.Yu.; Krumshtejn, Z.V.; Ronzhin, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principle diagram of a multipurpose discriminator is described, designed on the basis of a wide-band differential amplifier. The discriminator has three independent channels: the timing channel, the lower level discriminator and the control channel. The timing channel and the lower level discriminator are connected to a coincidence circuit. Three methods of timing are used: a single threshold, a double threshold with timing on the pulse front, and a constant fraction timing. The lower level discriminator is a wide-band amplifier with an adjustable threshold. The investigation of compensation characteristics of the discriminator has shown that the time shift of the discriminator output in the constant fraction timing regime does not exceed +-75 ns for the input signal range of 1:85. The time resolution was found to be 20 ns in the 20% energy range near the photo-peak maximum of 60 Co γ source

  7. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  8. 28 CFR 16.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.1 Section 16.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION... administration of the Department of Justice. ...

  9. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers: The Medical ... and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is ... the rights guaranteed to the professionals when they appear before the Tribunal.

  10. 48 CFR 225.7605 - Solicitation provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel... accordance with 225.7604, use the provision at 252.225-7031, Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel, in all...

  11. Outsourcing, public Input provision and policy cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns public input provision as an instrument for redistribution under international outsourcing by using a model-economy comprising two countries, North and South, where firms in the North may outsource part of their low-skilled labor intensive production to the South. We consider two interrelated issues: (i) the incentives for each country to modify the provision of public input goods in response to international outsourcing, and (ii) whether international outsourcing justifie...

  12. Obligatory provisions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloosters, W.

    2008-01-01

    To cover the expenses associated with decommissioning and disposal of their nuclear power plants, German nuclear power plant operators set aside a total of more than EUR 30 billion and entered the respective provisions into their balance sheets. One point of eminent importance in this regard is the question whether these provisions are adequate in amount and permitted under accounting and tax laws. The other point to be considered is whether the funds will be available reliably if and when needed. Against the backdrop of these issues, the practice and importance of making these provisions are described. This is followed by an outline of the basic accounting and taxation aspects. It is seen that obligations under public law can be the basis of financial provisions only if there is a obligation sufficiently concrete in terms of time and object. The following examination of applicable obligations under the Atomic Energy Act incumbent upon nuclear power plant operators with regard to decommissioning and disposal results in the finding that such obligations are only partly regulated in the Atomic Energy Act, and that specifications in terms of time and purpose are insufficient. If the national practice of making financial provisions is to be put on a reliable basis, it is recommended to express the law on decommissioning and its mode of financing in more concrete terms in the Atomic Energy Act. In addition to unequivocal decommissioning and disposal obligations, the Atomic Energy Act should also incorporate regulations about financial provisions for decomissioning which are in need of more precise language. The present practice of making provisions is characterized by the risk that the funds necessary for planned decommissioning and disposal may not be available when needed. It is against this background that possible solutions reducing that risk are discussed. A recommendation is expressed to establish a public fund for decommissioning and disposal to which the

  13. Social identity change in response to discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzo, Cristina; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Auger, Emilie; Caron-Diotte, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Perceived age discrimination in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination.

  15. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  16. Discrimination, harassment and non-reporting in UK medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, Jonathan; Matheson, Marion; Verrall, Fabienne; Taylor, Anna K; Zahra, Daniel; Alldridge, Louise; Feder, Gene

    2018-04-01

    Discrimination and harassment create a hostile environment with deleterious effects on student well-being and education. In this study, we aimed to: (i) measure prevalences and types of discrimination and harassment in one UK medical school, and (ii) understand how and why students report them. The study used a mixed-methods design. A medical school population survey of 1318 students was carried out in March 2014. Students were asked whether they had experienced, witnessed or reported discrimination or harassment and were given space for free-text comments. Two focus group sessions were conducted to elicit information on types of harassment and the factors that influenced reporting. Proportions were analysed using the Wilson score method and associations tested using chi-squared and regression analyses. Qualitative data were subjected to framework analysis. Degrees of convergence between data were analysed. A total of 259 (19.7%) students responded to the survey. Most participants had experienced (63.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.3-69.0) or witnessed (56.4%, 95% CI: 50.3-62.3) at least one type of discrimination or harassment. Stereotyping was the form most commonly witnessed (43.2%, 95% CI: 37.4-49.3). In the qualitative data, reports of inappropriate joking and invasion of personal space were common. Black and minority ethnic students had witnessed and religious students had experienced a greater lack of provision (χ 2  = 4.73, p = 0.03 and χ 2  = 4.38, p = 0.04, respectively). Non-heterosexual students had experienced greater joking (χ 2  = 3.99, p = 0.04). Students with disabilities had experienced more stereotyping (χ 2  = 13.5, p harassment. Seven of 140 survey respondents had reported incidents (5.0%, 95% CI: 2.4-10.0). Reporting was perceived as ineffective and as potentially victimising of the reporter. Harassment and discrimination are prevalent in this sample and associated with gender, ethnicity, sexuality, disability and year

  17. Sustainable Production and Trade Discrimination: An Analysis of the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Alejandra Calle Saldarriaga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the legality of trade measures addressing environmental conditions of production (PPMs in the context of non-discrimination provisions under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT  and the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT Agreement.  It shows that the notion of de facto discrimination is still a sensitive subject in the analysis of origin-neutral measures, including those based on environmental PPMs. Much of the discussion regarding PPMs focuses on the issue of ‘like products’. The interpretation of ‘likeness’ has also served to classify PPMs into the two categories of product related and non-product related. Such distinction rests on how the PPM affects the final product. However, it is important to analyse to what extent these measures can accord less favourable treatment to like products. The author argues that this requires a competition analysis. This article also elucidates how depending upon the applicable law (the TBT Agreement or the GATT PPMs are likely to face different legal challenges, particularly in terms of less favourable treatment. The author also assesses the possibility of transposing concepts such as ‘legitimate regulatory distinctions’ stemming from the TBT jurisprudence into GATT cases involving PPMs, and whether there will be an additional ‘test’ for PPMs characterised as TBT measures. This article is based on an extensive literature review and doctrinal legal research

  18. Discriminant analysis of plasma fusion data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardaun, O.J.W.F.; Kardaun, J.W.P.F.; Itoh, S.; Itoh, K.

    1992-06-01

    Several discriminant analysis methods has been applied and compared to predict the type of ELM's in H-mode discharges: (a) quadratic discriminant analysis (linear discriminant analysis being a special case), (b) discrimination by non-parametric (kernel-) density estimates, and (c) discrimination by a product multinomial model on a discretised scale. Practical evaluation was performed using SAS in the first two cases, and INDEP, a standard FORTRAN program, initially developed for medical applications, in the last case. We give here a flavour of the approach and its results. In summary, discriminant analysis can be used as a useful descriptive method of specifying regions where particular types of plasma discharges can be produced. Parametric methods have the advantage of a rather compact mathematical formulation . Pertinent graphical representations are useful to make the theory and the results more palatable to the experimental physicists. (J.P.N.)

  19. Universal programmable devices for unambiguous discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chi; Ying Mingsheng; Qiao, Bo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the problem of designing unambiguous programmable discriminators for any n unknown quantum states in an m-dimensional Hilbert space. The discriminator is a fixed measurement that has two kinds of input registers: the program registers and the data register. The quantum state in the data register is what users want to identify, which is confirmed to be among the n states in program registers. The task of the discriminator is to tell the users which state stored in the program registers is equivalent to that in the data register. First, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for judging an unambiguous programmable discriminator. Then, if m=n, we present an optimal unambiguous programmable discriminator for them, in the sense of maximizing the worst-case probability of success. Finally, we propose a universal unambiguous programmable discriminator for arbitrary n quantum states

  20. Fast differential pulse discriminator-counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelevoj, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The flowsheet of a differential pulse discriminator counter is described; the result of discrimination here is independent from the shape of the input pulse. Rate of the analysis of input pulses with minimum amplitude up to 0.3 mV coming out from the photomultiplier makes up 220 MHz. The flowsheet of the discriminator used in the system of photon counting for atmosphere probing is presented