WorldWideScience

Sample records for provision prohibiting discrimination

  1. 7 CFR 15d.2 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., religion, sex, age, national origin, marital status, familial status, sexual orientation, or disability, or... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 15d.2 Section 15d.2... THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE § 15d.2 Discrimination prohibited. (a) No agency, officer...

  2. 24 CFR 232.625 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 232.625 Section 232.625 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  3. 13 CFR 113.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accept a person on a nonsegregated basis as a patient, student, visitor, guest, customer, passenger, or...) Participate in a contractual or other relationship that has the effect of subjecting job applicants or employees to discrimination prohibited by this part. The relationships referred to in this paragraph include...

  4. THE PROHIBITION OF DISCRIMINATION OF ART. 14 OF THE EUROPEAN CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN MATTERS OF INHERITANCE AND AFILLIATION REGARDING THE PROVISIONS OF THE NEW CIVIL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA ALEXANDRA ANGHELESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Taking into consideration the provisions of the New Civil Code that has recently entered into force, the study focuses on the analysis of its provisions regarding matters of inheritance and affiliation in order to establish their compliance with the established case-law of the European Court of Human Rights in interpreting article 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights.

  5. 7 CFR 15b.12 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (b) Specific activities. The provisions of this subpart apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and... absence to pursue training; (8) Employer sponsored activities, including those that are social or...

  6. 22 CFR 217.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Specific activities. The provisions of this subpart apply to: (1) Recruitment, advertising, and the... absence to pursue training; (8) Employer sponsored activities, including those that are social or...

  7. 22 CFR 142.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... prohibited by this subpart. This includes relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient, and...

  8. 7 CFR 15.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Extension Service participates. (2) Rural Electrification and Rural Telephone Programs. (i) Refusal or...; (ii) Refusal or failure by a borrower to extend, or discrimination by a borrower in the extension of... selection of schools and child-care institutions to participate in the Program. (ii) Discrimination by a...

  9. 24 CFR 241.640 - Employment discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment discrimination prohibited. 241.640 Section 241.640 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 24 CFR 9.149 - Program accessibility: discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Program accessibility: discrimination prohibited. 9.149 Section 9.149 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY IN...

  11. 43 CFR 27.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin, or sex, be excluded from receiving or... other arrangements, on the grounds of race, creed, color, national origin, or sex, discriminate in..., creed, color, national origin, or sex in its employment practices, including recruitment advertising...

  12. 24 CFR 100.202 - General prohibitions against discrimination because of handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination because of handicap. 100.202 Section 100.202 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Against Discrimination Because of Handicap § 100.202 General prohibitions against discrimination because of handicap. (a) It shall be unlawful to discriminate in the sale or rental, or to otherwise make...

  13. 42 CFR 426.555 - Prohibited provisions of the Board's decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.555 Prohibited provisions of the Board's decision. The Board... provisions of an NCD. (b) Order CMS or its contractors to pay a specific claim. (c) Set a time limit for CMS to establish a new or revised NCD. (d) Review or evaluate an NCD other than the NCD under review. (e...

  14. Potential Policies and Laws to Prohibit Weight Discrimination: Public Views from 4 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Latner, Janet D; O’brien, Kerry S; Luedicke, Joerg; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Salas, Ximena Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Context People viewed as “overweight” or “obese” are vulnerable to weight-based discrimination, creating inequities and adverse health outcomes. Given the high rates of obesity recorded globally, studies documenting weight discrimination in multiple countries, and an absence of legislation to address this form of discrimination, research examining policy remedies across different countries is needed. Our study provides the first multinational examination of public support for policies and legislation to prohibit weight discrimination. Methods Identical online surveys were completed by 2,866 adults in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Iceland. We assessed public support for potential laws to prohibit weight-based discrimination, such as adding body weight to existing civil rights statutes, extending disability protections to persons with obesity, and instituting legal measures to prohibit employers from discriminating against employees because of body weight. We examined sociodemographic and weight-related characteristics predicting support for antidiscrimination policies, and the differences in these patterns across countries. Findings The majority of participants in the United States, Canada, and Australia agreed that their government should have specific laws in place to prohibit weight discrimination. At least two-thirds of the participants in all 4 countries expressed support for policies that would make it illegal for employers to refuse to hire, assign lower wages, deny promotions, or terminate qualified employees because of body weight. Women and participants with higher body weight expressed more support for antidiscrimination measures. Beliefs about the causes of obesity were also related to support for these laws. Conclusions Public support for legal measures to prohibit weight discrimination can be found in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Iceland, especially for laws to remedy this discrimination in employment. Our findings

  15. Potential Policies and Laws to Prohibit Weight Discrimination: Public Views from 4 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Latner, Janet D; O'Brien, Kerry S; Luedicke, Joerg; Danielsdottir, Sigrun; Salas, Ximena Ramos

    2015-12-01

    People viewed as "overweight" or "obese" are vulnerable to weight-based discrimination, creating inequities and adverse health outcomes. Given the high rates of obesity recorded globally, studies documenting weight discrimination in multiple countries, and an absence of legislation to address this form of discrimination, research examining policy remedies across different countries is needed. Our study provides the first multinational examination of public support for policies and legislation to prohibit weight discrimination. Identical online surveys were completed by 2,866 adults in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Iceland. We assessed public support for potential laws to prohibit weight-based discrimination, such as adding body weight to existing civil rights statutes, extending disability protections to persons with obesity, and instituting legal measures to prohibit employers from discriminating against employees because of body weight. We examined sociodemographic and weight-related characteristics predicting support for antidiscrimination policies, and the differences in these patterns across countries. The majority of participants in the United States, Canada, and Australia agreed that their government should have specific laws in place to prohibit weight discrimination. At least two-thirds of the participants in all 4 countries expressed support for policies that would make it illegal for employers to refuse to hire, assign lower wages, deny promotions, or terminate qualified employees because of body weight. Women and participants with higher body weight expressed more support for antidiscrimination measures. Beliefs about the causes of obesity were also related to support for these laws. Public support for legal measures to prohibit weight discrimination can be found in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Iceland, especially for laws to remedy this discrimination in employment. Our findings provide important information for policymakers

  16. Public opinion about laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; Heuer, Chelsea A

    2011-01-01

    Weight discrimination is pervasive in American society and impairs quality of life for obese persons. With approximately two-thirds of Americans now overweight or obese, vast numbers of people are vulnerable to weight prejudice and its consequences. Currently, no laws exist to prohibit weight discrimination. This study conducted an online survey with a national sample of 1,001 adults (representing demographics of the United States) to examine public support for six potential legislative measures to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States. Results indicated substantial support (65% of men, 81% of women) for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, especially for legal measures that would prohibit employers from refusing to hire, terminate, or deny promotion based on a person's body weight. Laws that proposed extending the same protections to obese persons as people with physical disabilities received the least support, suggesting that Americans may not be in favor of considering obesity as a disability. Findings also highlight specific predictors of support (related to sex, age, education, income, body weight, and political ideology). These findings can be used to inform policy makers in efforts to develop antidiscrimination laws. Such measures will rectify health disparities for overweight Americans and facilitate public health efforts to address obesity.

  17. Freedom of peaceful assembly and prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jančić Melanija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author deals with the question of realization of guaranteed freedom of peaceful assembly and the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. The prohibition of discrimination and freedom of peaceful assembly are prescribed by international documents and domestic law. The main emphasis will be on the prohibition of the Pride Parade that was to be held in Belgrade in October 2011 and on the rights and freedoms of the LGBT population that were consequently violated. However, on 22 December 2011 the Constitutional Court of Serbia upheld a constitutional complaint lodged by the organizers of the Pride Parade in 2009. The Constitutional Court ruled that the competent authorities in Serbia banned the 2009 Pride Parade in violation of the Serbian Constitution. This decision is of great importance for human rights protection in Serbia and the cornerstone judgment regarding the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and realization and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms in our country.

  18. Support for laws to prohibit weight discrimination in the United States: public attitudes from 2011 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Young; Puhl, Rebecca; Liu, Sai; Milici, Frances Fleming

    2014-08-01

    Public attitudes about three proposed laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the US, from 2011 to 2013 were examined. An online survey using a diverse national sample of US adults to assess their level of support for three specific laws against weight discrimination was conducted. Data collection occurred between June and July in 2011 (n = 1,098), 2012 (n = 1,202), and 2013 (n = 1,202). Between 2011 and 2013, support for laws prohibiting weight discrimination remained consistent, and in some cases became increasingly supportive, primarily in 2012-2013. At least 75% of participants consistently favored laws prohibiting weight discrimination in the workplace. Individuals became increasingly supportive of extending disability protections for individuals with obesity (62% in 2011 to 69% in 2013) and adding body weight as a protected class in Civil Rights statutes (70% in 2011 to 76% in 2013). Analyses highlight specific predictors of support (gender, race, education, and political affiliation). There is strong, consistent support for policies prohibiting weight discrimination. These findings have important implications for developing specific antidiscrimination legislation to protect Americans with obesity and improve their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  19. 24 CFR 100.120 - Discrimination in the making of loans and in the provision of other financial assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination in the making of loans and in the provision of other financial assistance. 100.120 Section 100.120 Housing and Urban... HOUSING ACT Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions § 100.120 Discrimination in the...

  20. Legal Provisions, Discrimination and Uncertainty on LGBT community in Albania. Laws on human rights vs exerted rights of LGBT persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urjana Curi

    2018-03-01

    On March 13, 2010, the Anti-Discrimination Law, one of the essential legal instruments that protects human rights in Albania, and also includes the prohibition of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, came into force. Albania has already the Commissioner for Protection from Discrimination. Two LGBT organizations have already been established in Albania: the Alliance against Discrimination LGBT and LGBT Pro Albania. They aim to protect the rights of sexual minorities in Albania and promote a national movement of social mobilization to protect and promote the rights of this community in Albania

  1. 5 CFR 4.2 - Prohibition against racial, political or religious discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... religious discrimination. 4.2 Section 4.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... discrimination. No person employed in the executive branch of the Federal Government who has authority to take or... parties or organizations as constitutes by law a disqualification for Government employment. No...

  2. Voters’ Initiatives to Repeal or Prevent Laws Prohibiting Employment Discrimination Against LGBT People, 1974-Present

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad; Mallory, Christy; Hunter, Nan D.

    2009-01-01

    One marker of the hostility and animus directed towards LGBT Americans is the proliferation of attempts to use state and local ballot measures to repeal or preclude protection against employment discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity. The pattern of outcomes has slowly shifted in the last 30 years from a majority of these attempts succeeding to a majority failing. Nonetheless, proponents of workplace equality for the LGBT minority have had to respond – more frequently t...

  3. Act No. 16.045 of 2 June 1989 prohibiting all discrimination that violates the principle of equality of treatment and opportunities for both sexes in all sectors of labor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Uruguayan Act prohibits discrimination in employment with respect to the following areas, among others: 1) advertising for the provision of positions; 2) selection criteria; 3) recruitment and hiring; 4) evaluation of performance criteria; 5) the right to advancement and promotion; 6) labour stability; 7) social benefits; 8) suspension and dismissal, particularly in cases involving a change of civil status, pregnancy, or nursing; 9) possibilities for professional and technical education or retraining; and 10) remuneration criteria. Reserving places for one sex because of the presence of activities in which the sex of the employee is essential for performance or to comply with international labor treaties does not constitute discrimination. Nor do compensatory acts designed to promote equality of opportunities and treatment of both sexes in concrete situations. In cases where the provisions of this Act have been violated, specially designated judges will call the parties together and may adopt measures designed to end the situation complained of. If they deem it necessary, the judges may institute more formal proceedings. If the measures adopted are not carried out, the person violating the law is subject to a daily fine, as well as administrative penalties set out in Act 15.903 of 10 November 1987. Adverse decisions may be appealed. The state is also to undertake educative campaigns to create interest in and understanding of the problems affecting women workers, thus promoting awareness in such workers and their employers of their situation.

  4. Apparent discrimination in the provision of biologic therapy to patients with Crohn's disease according to ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, A; Mayberry, J F

    2015-05-01

    respectively). Based on a population composition, rather than prevalence data, in which 24% of the Leicester community should have been of South Asian origin, 33 patients would have received biologics compared with 92 patients of English origin (66%). This is significantly different to the 13 patients who did receive treatment (z=-3.2, P < 0.001). Suggested reasons for these differences have included concerns about the animal origins of infliximab as well as difficulties associated with accessing the service, such as the provision of information in an appropriate language through appropriate media. For those who come from groups with significant social deprivation there is often a readiness to accept more limited clinical services. However, such differences themselves, are examples of discrimination in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Provision of Healthcare Services to Men Who Have Sex with Men in Nigeria: Students' Attitudes Following the Passage of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekoni, Adekemi O; Jolly, Kate; Gale, Nicola K; Ifaniyi, Oluwafemi A; Somefun, Esther O; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Fakayode, Victoria A

    2016-08-01

    After signing of the Same-Sex Marriage (Prohibition) Act 2013 in Nigeria, media reports portray widespread societal intolerance toward the lesbian, gay, and bisexual population. This study was conducted to assess the attitudes of university undergraduates in Lagos state, Nigeria, toward provision of healthcare services for men who have sex with men (MSM), because the 2014 same-sex marriage prohibition law stipulates a jail sentence for organizations providing services to MSM. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted by using self-administered questionnaires to collect information, including homophobic attitudes and views on access to healthcare, from 4000 undergraduates in 10 randomly selected faculties in two universities. During analysis, inter-university and inter-faculty comparison was carried out between medical and nonmedical students. Outright denial of healthcare services to MSM was supported by 37.6% of the 3537 undergraduates who responded, whereas denial of HIV prevention services was supported by 32.5%. However, compared with 38.7% and 34.1% of undergraduates from other faculties, 23.7% and 18.2% of medical students agreed that healthcare providers should not provide services to MSM and that MSM should not have access to HIV prevention services, respectively (P = 0.000). Although a significant proportion of the medical students supported the statement that doctors and other healthcare workers should be compelled to give priority to other groups before MSM (29.4% of medical vs. 47.2% of students from other faculties), a statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of students. The homophobic statement with the highest support was that doctors and healthcare workers should be compelled to report MSM who come to access treatment (48.1% of medical vs. 57.4% of students from other faculties). A very high proportion of the undergraduate students had a negative attitude toward provision of healthcare services to MSM in

  6. Framing messages about weight discrimination: impact on public support for legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, R M; Heuer, C; Sarda, V

    2011-06-01

    To assess the public support for potential legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination against obese individuals in the United States, and to examine whether certain message frames about weight discrimination influence public support. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of the four paragraphs that framed the topic of weight discrimination in a distinct way (or a control condition with no paragraph). Participants were then asked to indicate their level of support for six antidiscrimination laws. A national sample of 1114 participants (48% women, 52% men), mean age 44.78 years (s.d. = 15.93). There was moderate support for several laws to prohibit weight-based discrimination, but gender differences were observed across experimental conditions indicating that some message frames may increase support for certain laws among women, but not men. However, message frames had no effect on support for laws with specific provisions to prohibit weight discrimination in the workplace, suggesting that public support for these particular legal measures is consistent and high (65% of men and 81% of women expressed support) regardless of how the issue of weight discrimination is framed to the public. The present findings provide evidence of current levels of public support for legislation to prohibit weight-based discrimination, and offer potential ways for policy makers and interest groups to communicate messages about weight discrimination in efforts to increase support.

  7. The immediate eff ect of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement on HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men in Nigeria: analysis of prospective data from the TRUST cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Keshinro, Babajide; Ake, Julie; Kennedy, Sara; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Baral, Stefan D

    2015-07-01

    In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community. TRUST is a prospective implementation research cohort of MSM (≥16 years) in Abuja, Nigeria. We compared HIV clinical outcomes and stigma, including fear and avoidance of health care, across baseline and quarterly visits before and after implementation of the the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act. Outcomes assessed were measures of stigma and discrimination, loss to follow-up, antiretroviral therapy status, and viral load. We compared outcomes before and after the legislation with χ2 statistics, and estimated incident stigma-related events and loss to follow-up with Poisson regression. Between March 19, 2013, and Aug 7, 2014, 707 MSM participated in baseline study procedures, contributing to 756 before legislation (prelaw) and 420 after legislation (postlaw) visits. Reported history of fear of seeking health care was significantly higher in postlaw visits than in prelaw visits (n=161 [38%] vs n=187 [25%]; psame-sex practices. The negative effects of HIV treatment and care in MSM reinforce the unintended consequences of such legislation on global goals of HIV eradication. Strategies to reach MSM less likely to engage in HIV testing and care in highly stigmatised environments are needed to reduce time to HIV diagnosis and treatment. National Institutes of Health.

  8. 40 CFR 61.05 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited activities. 61.05 Section 61.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS General Provisions § 61.05 Prohibited activities...

  9. Discrimination against customers by retail chain stores and the impact of the law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Reddy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Profit and other related objectives of business emphasise the need to distinguish between different customers or groups of customers. The South African Constitution, on the other hand, specifically prohibits unfair discrimination. This paper examines the legal principle of non-discrimination, as set out in the Constitution and the Equality Act, as well as the impact that these provisions have on discrimination against customers. The literature study shows that there is a legal obligation on business to ensure the provision of equitable customer service. An exploratory study was conducted among the customers of retail chain store outlets in Clermont, a historically disadvantaged area, to identify examples of differentiated treatment of customers by retail chain stores. Customer perceptions have in fact shown areas of differentiation which could be viewed as unfair discrimination unless justified

  10. 45 CFR 1110.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... origin if the purpose and effect are to remove or overcome the consequences of practices or impediments... reasonable action to remove or overcome the consequences of the prior discriminatory practice or usage, and...) to reduce the unemployment of such individuals or to help them through employment to meet subsistence...

  11. 28 CFR 42.203 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... summary punishment, or deny any individual the rights guaranteed by the Constitution to all persons; (9..., section 815(c)(1) of the JSIA shall be interpreted by the Office consistently with title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Law 88-352, 79 Stat. 253, as amended by the Equal Employment Opportunity Act...

  12. 45 CFR 84.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... required to produce the identical result or level of achievement for handicapped and nonhandicapped persons... benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement, in the most integrated setting appropriate to the... accomplishment of the objectives of the recipient's program or activity with respect to handicapped persons, or...

  13. 15 CFR 8b.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., to gain the same benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement as afforded to others, in the... be equally effective, need not produce the identical result or level of achievement for handicapped... accomplishment of the objectives of the recipient's program or activity with respect to handicapped individuals...

  14. 38 CFR 18.404 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... effective, are not required to produce the identical result or level of achievement for handicapped and... the same benefit, or to reach the same level of achievement, in the most integrated setting... accomplishment of the objectives of the recipient's program or activity with respect to handicapped persons, or...

  15. 22 CFR 217.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the identical result or level of achievement for handicapped and nonhandicapped persons, but must... reach the same level of achievement, in the most integrated setting appropriate to the person's needs... have the purpose or effect of defeating or substantially impairing accomplishment of the objectives of...

  16. 38 CFR 18.411 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... apprenticeships. (b) Specific activities. Nondiscrimination in employment applies to: (1) Recruitment, advertising... absence to pursue training; (8) Employer sponsored activities, including those that are social or...

  17. 45 CFR 84.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Recruitment, advertising, and the processing of applications for employment; (2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion... absence to pursue training; (8) Employer sponsored activities, including those that are social or...

  18. 18 CFR 1302.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Hispanic. A person of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race; (3) Asian or Pacific Islander. A person having origin in any of the original...

  19. 34 CFR 104.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the... Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF... employment; (2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right...

  20. 45 CFR 605.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the... employment; (2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right...

  1. 45 CFR 1170.21 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the... employment; (2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.11 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to in this subparagraph include relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the recipient, and..., demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any...

  3. 14 CFR 1251.200 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... subparagraph include relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations... employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe..., award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3...

  4. 45 CFR 1151.31 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to in this paragraph include relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions... employment; (2) Hiring, upgrading, promotion, award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right...

  5. 10 CFR 1040.66 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph include relationships with employment and referral agencies, labor unions, organizations providing..., demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any...

  6. 36 CFR 13.450 - Prohibition of aircraft use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of aircraft use... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Subsistence § 13.450 Prohibition of aircraft use. (a) Notwithstanding the provisions 43 CFR 36.11(f) the use of aircraft for access to or from lands and waters within a...

  7. 20 CFR 652.8 - Administrative provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... federally required records and reports that are uniform in definition, accessible to authorized Federal and... nondiscrimination law, including laws prohibiting discrimination on the basis of age, race, sex, color, religion...

  8. Connecticut – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    A Connecticut statute bans employment discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. No Connecticut statutes prohibit discrimination on the basis of gender identity or expression. In November 2000, the Connecticut Commission on Human Rights and Opportunities – the agency responsible for administering the anti-discrimination statutes and for processing discrimination complaints – ruled that statutes prohibiting sex discrimination also banned discrimination on the basis of gender identity. ...

  9. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions.

  10. Colour discrimination against persons with albinism in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores issues relating to discrimination against persons living with albinism, against the background of colour discrimination. It also addresses calls for 'colourism' to be recognised as a distinct form of discrimination. Although colour as grounds for discrimination is prohibited in the equality clause of the ...

  11. A CONTEXTUAL ANALYSIS OF THE HATE SPEECH PROVISIONS OF THE EQUALITY ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Marais

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a detailed contextual analysis of the categorical prohibition of hate speech in terms of section 10(1 of the Equality Act. It is argued that this provision is not primarily intended to describe and effectively regulate the extreme expression that falls within the narrow ambit of "hate speech" as defined in section 16(2(c of the Constitution. Rather, it is concerned with the promotion of equality in the broad societal context. It acknowledges the hurt and harm that discriminatory expression may entail and it condemns the reinforcement of systemic discrimination by means of expression. Therefore, the principal interpretive frame of reference for the analysis of section 10(1 of the Equality Act is the explicit constitutional obligation in terms of sections 9(3 and (4 of the Constitution to enact legislation to prevent and prohibit unfair discrimination, and not section 16(2(c of the Constitution. The fact that section 10(1 categorically prohibits hate speech, instead of premising its prohibition on the unfairness analysis generally applicable to discrimination in other contexts, however, implies that only expression with no reasonable prospect of meeting the constitutional fairness standard ought to be covered by section 10. Put differently, the prohibited expression may in no way promote rather than jeopardise the achievement of equality. The interpretation takes into account that section 10(1 applies only to engagement in expression that, in terms of an objective reasonableness assessment, is clearly primarily aimed at hurting or harming others, or at inciting others to hurt or harm, or at promoting hatred based on group identity. Furthermore, bona fide expression in accordance with the essential characteristics of the freedoms of expression mentioned in section 16(1 of the Constitution is explicitly excluded from its ambit. An analysis of the expression covered by section 10(1 leads to a conclusion that it prohibits only low

  12. Should Sabbath Prohibitions Be Overridden to Provide Emotional Support to a Sick Relative?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberger, Chaya; Mor, Pnina

    2016-01-01

    .... It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one's relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support...

  13. 21 CFR 530.21 - Prohibitions for food-producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibitions for food-producing animals. 530.21... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS Specific Provisions Relating to Extralabel Use of Animal and Human Drugs in Food-Producing Animals § 530.21 Prohibitions for...

  14. 48 CFR 552.237-72 - Prohibition Regarding “Quasi-Military Armed Forces.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...Quasi-Military Armed Forces.â 552.237-72 Section 552.237-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Provisions and Clauses 552.237-72 Prohibition Regarding “Quasi-Military Armed Forces.” As prescribed in 537.110(b), insert the following clause: Prohibition Regarding “Quasi-Military Armed Forces” (SEP 1999...

  15. 48 CFR 252.222-7005 - Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens-Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... nonimmigrant aliens-Guam. 252.222-7005 Section 252.222-7005 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.222-7005 Prohibition on use of nonimmigrant aliens—Guam. As prescribed in 222.7302, use the following clause: Prohibition on Use of Nonimmigrant Aliens—Guam (SEP 1999...

  16. 31 CFR 538.209 - Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving Sudan. 538.209 Section 538.209 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.209 Prohibited transportation-related transactions involving Sudan... relating to transportation of cargo to or from Sudan; (b) The provision of transportation of cargo to or...

  17. Prostitution, disability and prohibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Frej Klem

    2015-01-01

    Criminalisation of prostitution, and minority rights for disabled persons, are important contemporary political issues. The article examines their intersection by analysing the conditions and arguments for making a legal exception for disabled persons to a general prohibition against purchasing...... sexual services. It explores the badness of prostitution, focusing on and discussing the argument that prostitution harms prostitutes, considers forms of regulation and the arguments for and against with emphasis on a liberty-based objection to prohibition, and finally presents and analyses three...

  18. 21 CFR 1005.3 - Importation of noncomplying goods prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH IMPORTATION OF ELECTRONIC PRODUCTS General Provisions § 1005.3 Importation of noncomplying goods prohibited. The importation of any electronic product for which standards have been prescribed under section 534 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the act) (21 U.S.C...

  19. 40 CFR 86.1854-12 - Prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light-Duty Trucks, and... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited acts. 86.1854-12 Section 86.1854-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED...

  20. 40 CFR 86.1809-12 - Prohibition of defeat devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of defeat devices. 86.1809-12 Section 86.1809-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  1. 40 CFR 86.1809-10 - Prohibition of defeat devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of defeat devices. 86.1809-10 Section 86.1809-10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1809-01 - Prohibition of defeat devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) General Compliance Provisions for Control of Air Pollution From New and In-Use Light-Duty Vehicles, Light... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of defeat devices. 86.1809-01 Section 86.1809-01 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  3. 45 CFR 74.81 - Prohibition against profit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Special Provisions for Awards to Commercial Organizations § 74.81 Prohibition against profit. Except for awards under the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small... to any recipient even if the recipient is a commercial organization. Profit is any amount in excess...

  4. U.S. Federal Discrimination Law and Language and Culture Restrictions in K-12 Private Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Ralph; Cumming, Joy

    2013-01-01

    Section 1981 prohibits discrimination concerning the right to contract, and Title VI prohibits discrimination on the basis of the basis of race and national origin. The two cases that form the basis for the discussion in this article--"Silva v. St. Anne Catholic School" and "Doe v. Kamehameha Schools"--address whether culture…

  5. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    discrimination as two ways of articulating particular, opaque forms of racial discrimination that occur in everyday Danish (and other) contexts, and have therefore become normalized. I present and discuss discrimination as it surfaces in data from my empirical studies of discrimination in Danish contexts......In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which...... to understand and identify aspects of power and asymmetry in communication and interactions. With this as a defining term, I address how exclusion and discrimination exist, while also being indiscernible, within widely accepted societal norms. I introduce the concepts of microdiscrimination and benevolent...

  6. Should Employers Be Permitted not to Hire Smokers? A Review of US Legal Provisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi R. Patel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Increasingly, healthcare and non-healthcare employers prohibit or penalize the use of tobacco products among current and new employees in the United States. Despite this trend, and for a range of different reasons, around half of states currently legally protect employees from being denied positions, or having employment contracts terminated, due to tobacco use. Methods We undertook a conceptual analysis of legal provisions in all 50 states. Results We found ethically relevant variations in terms of how tobacco is defined, which employee populations are protected, and to what extent they are protected. Furthermore, the underlying ethical rationales for smoker protection differ, and can be grouped into two main categories: prevention of discrimination and protection of privacy. Conclusion We critically discuss these rationales and the role of their advocates and argue that enabling equality of opportunity is a more adequate overarching concept for preventing employers from disadvantaging smokers.

  7. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira; Davis, Gregory K.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 66,000 LGBT workers in South Carolina are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state legal protections. Four localities in South Carolina prohibit public sector employment discrimination against LGBT people.  Only 18% of the state’s labor force works in those localities, and only a small proportion of those workers are employed by their local governments. Currently none of South Carolina’s LGBT-inclusive local ordinances prohibit discrimination in private employment. ...

  8. Employment Discrimination Based on Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Mallory, Christy; Hasenbush, Amira

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 66,000 LGBT workers in South Carolina are vulnerable to employment discrimination absent state legal protections. Four localities in South Carolina prohibit public sector employment discrimination against LGBT people.  Only 18% of the state’s labor force works in those localities, and only a small proportion of those workers are employed by their local governments. Currently none of South Carolina’s LGBT-inclusive local ordinances prohibit discrimination in private employment. F...

  9. Detecting Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Heckman, James J.

    1998-01-01

    The evidence on discrimination produced from the audit method is examined. Audits survey the average firm and not the marginal firm which determines the level of market discrimination. Taken on its own terms, there is little evidence of labor market discrimination from audit methods. The validity of audit methods is critically dependent on unverified assumptions about equality across race/gender groups of the distributions of unobserved (by audit designers) productivity components acted on by...

  10. 29 CFR 1604.4 - Discrimination against married women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a discrimination based on sex. (b) It may be that under certain circumstances, such a rule could be justified within the meaning of section 703(e)(1) of title VII. We express no opinion on this question at... applicable to married men is a discrimination based on sex prohibited by title VII of the Civil Rights Act...

  11. Spatial discrimination and visual discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Annika M. J.; Grand, Nanna; Klastrup, Signe

    2013-01-01

    in a visual discrimination test. The juvenile minipigs were able to learn the spatial hole-board discrimination test and showed improved working and reference memory during the learning phase. Performance in the memory phases was affected by the retention intervals, but the minipigs were able to remember...... the concept of the test in both memory phases. Working memory and reference memory were significantly improved in the last trials of the memory phases. In the visual discrimination test, the minipigs learned to discriminate between the three figures presented to them within 9-14 sessions. For the memory test......, all minipigs performed 9/12 correct choices or better. Juvenile Gottingen minipigs are able to learn to perform in a spatial hole-board discrimination test as well as in a visual discrimination test, showing an increase in performance over time. Both tests have considerable scope to assess learning...

  12. Provisions distributed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut

    2017-01-01

    Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture

  13. 33 CFR 156.310 - Prohibited areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas. 156.310 Section... the Gulf of Mexico § 156.310 Prohibited areas. Lightering operations are prohibited within the following areas in the Gulf of Mexico: (a) Claypile—prohibited area. This prohibited area consists of the...

  14. Prohibition as ontological basis of the Russian legal reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify characteristics of the nature content and functioning of prohibition in the legal reality of Russia. nbsp Methods the methodological basis of research is the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors as well as a postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutic discursive. Results the paper proposes a definition of prohibition as a state socio volitional constraining limiting means that under the threat of legal liability is intended to prevent the wrongful act of the subject physical or legal entity and ensure the maintenance of law and order. Prohibition is a necessary means of ensuring the discipline of public relations and the consolidation of legal values designed to assure the effectiveness of legal regulation. Scientific novelty for the first time the article shows that prohibition as a legal category is the ontological basis of legal reality and acts as a determining factor in the content and focus not only of lawmaking and law enforcement but legal behavior as well. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching when considering questions about the nature content and functioning of prohibitions.

  15. 7 CFR 771.7 - Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to discrimination on the basis of race, religion, color, national origin, gender, or other prohibited... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equal opportunity and non-discrimination requirements... opportunity and non-discrimination requirements. No recipient of a boll weevil eradication loan shall directly...

  16. Genetic Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Genetic Discrimination Enter Search Term(s): Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research News Features ...

  17. 45 CFR 1151.16 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF... insure that communications with their applicants, employees, and beneficiaries are available to persons...

  18. 24 CFR 6.5 - Discrimination prohibited-employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal financial assistance, directly or through contractual agents or other arrangements including..., transfer, recruitment and advertising, layoff or termination, pay or other compensation, including benefits...

  19. 22 CFR 1600.130 - General prohibitions against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 1600.130 Section 1600.130 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP..., on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise...

  20. 22 CFR 1600.149 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 1600.149 Section 1600.149 Foreign Relations JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE JAPAN-UNITED STATES FRIENDSHIP... unusable by handicapped persons, be denied the benefits of, be excluded from participation in, or otherwise...

  1. 24 CFR 5.309 - Prohibition against discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons..., or continued occupancy of, such housing by reason of the person's ownership of common household pets... any tenant of such housing from owning common household pets or having such pets living in the tenant...

  2. 47 CFR 1.1849 - Program accessibility: Discrimination prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... provide accommodations requiring the assistance of other persons (e.g., American Sign Language interpreters, communication access realtime translation (CART) providers, transcribers, captioners, and readers...

  3. 10 CFR 4.122 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraph include relationships with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations..., transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other...

  4. 28 CFR 41.52 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations providing or administering fringe..., termination, right of return from layoff, and rehiring; (3) Rates of pay or any other form of compensation and...

  5. 24 CFR 8.10 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... agencies, labor unions, organizations providing or administering fringe benefits to employees of the..., award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff, injury or illness...

  6. 31 CFR 359.67 - Does Public Debt prohibit the issuance of Series I savings bonds in a chain letter scheme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does Public Debt prohibit the... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES I Miscellaneous Provisions § 359.67 Does Public Debt prohibit the issuance of Series I savings bonds in a chain letter scheme? We...

  7. 31 CFR 351.82 - Does Public Debt prohibit the issuance of Series EE savings bonds in a chain letter scheme?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does Public Debt prohibit the... BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Miscellaneous Provisions § 351.82 Does Public Debt prohibit the issuance of Series EE savings bonds in a chain letter scheme? We...

  8. 78 FR 25685 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS proposes a rule to implement the provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) and prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing...

  9. ‘Non-discrimination Does Not Fall Down from Heaven’: The Context and Evolution of Non-discrimination in EU Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prechal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Equality and non-discrimination in EU law are firmly embedded in EU law, either as general principles of law or they are written down in the Treaties and secondary legislation. This paper sketches the evolution of three specific forms of equality and non-discrimination, the prohibition of

  10. 48 CFR 52.225-20 - Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Restricted Business Operations in Sudan-Certification. 52.225-20 Section 52.225-20 Federal Acquisition... Operations in Sudan—Certification. As prescribed at 25.1103(d), insert the following provision: Prohibition on Conducting Restricted Business Operations in Sudan—Certification (AUG 2009) (a) Definitions. As...

  11. 12 CFR 223.54 - What advertisements and statements are prohibited by section 23B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What advertisements and statements are... (REGULATION W) General Provisions of Section 23B § 223.54 What advertisements and statements are prohibited by section 23B? (a) In general. A member bank and its affiliates may not publish any advertisement or enter...

  12. 40 CFR 1068.101 - What general actions does this regulation prohibit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incorrect fuel or engine oil that renders the emissions control system inoperative. Section 1068.120....105(a)), covers the appropriate category of engines/equipment (such as locomotive or Marine SI), and... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Prohibited Actions and...

  13. 75 FR 35302 - Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco-Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... 20 Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco--Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail AGENCY... tobacco cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. These provisions implement specific requirements of the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act, which restricts the mailability of cigarettes and smokeless...

  14. Prohibition of Children’s Toys and Child Care Articles Containing Specified Phthalates. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-27

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) issues this final rule prohibiting children's toys and child care articles that contain concentrations of more than 0.1 percent of diisononyl phthalate (DINP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), di-n-pentyl phthalate (DPENP), di-n-hexyl phthalate (DHEXP), and dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP). Section 108 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (CPSIA) established permanent and interim prohibitions on the sale of certain consumer products containing specific phthalates. That provision also directed the CPSC to convene a Chronic Hazard Advisory Panel (CHAP) to study the effects on children's health of all phthalates and phthalate alternatives as used in children's toys and child care articles and to provide recommendations to the Commission regarding whether any phthalates or phthalate alternatives, other than those already permanently prohibited, should be prohibited. The CPSIA requires the Commission to promulgate a final rule after receiving the final CHAP report. This rule fulfills that requirement.

  15. Forced sterilization of women as discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priti

    2017-01-01

    There has been a long history of subjecting marginalized women to forced and coerced sterilization. In recent years, the practice has been documented in countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and Africa. It has targeted women who are ethnic and racial minorities, women with disabilities, women living with HIV, and poor women. A handful of courts have issued decisions on the recent forced sterilization of marginalized women finding that such actions violate the women's rights. However, they have all failed to address the women's claims of discrimination. The failure to acknowledge that forced sterilization is at its core a violation of the prohibition of discrimination undermines efforts to eradicate the practice. It further fails to recognize that coerced and forced sterilization fundamentally seeks to deny women deemed as "unworthy" the ability to procreate. Four key principles outlined in the human rights in patient care framework highlight the importance of a finding that the prohibition of discrimination was violated in cases of forced sterilization: the need to highlight the vulnerability of marginalized populations to discrimination in health care settings; the importance of the rights of medical providers; the role of the state in addressing systemic human rights violations in health care settings; and the application of human rights to patient care. Based on these principles, it is clear that finding a violation of the prohibition of discrimination in forced sterilization cases is critical in addressing the systemic nature of the practice, acknowledging the marginalization of specific groups and effectively ending forced sterilization through addressing the underlying purpose of the practice. If litigators, non-governmental organizations and judicial officers are mindful of these principles when dealing with cases of forced sterilization, it is likely that they will be better able to eradicate forced sterilization.

  16. 5 CFR 9701.106 - Relationship to other provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.106 Relationship to other provisions....106 Section 9701.106 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES..., modifies or otherwise affects the employment discrimination laws that the Equal Employment Opportunity...

  17. Suppression of discrimination against people with disabilities in the field of labor and employment: Situation and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjević Nataša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrimination based on disability is a complex phenomenon that is present in all spheres of social life, especially in the world of work. The reasons that led to this are numerous: living conditions, social and economic policies of different times, but also many social factors such as ignorance, carelessness, neglect, fear and prejudice. Therefore, various documents on the international and national levels are adopted which contain provisions prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities and that provide a legal framework for their employment. Accordingly, the Serbian national legislation is now significantly closer to the standards of the international community and the European Union in this field, which opened the way for more effective protection of persons with disabilities. However, one of the main problems is the application of the law in practice. The authors tried to, through the presentation of relevant documents of international and domestic law, point out their individual shortcomings while proposing certain amendments to the existing legal solutions for the purpose of finding effective ways to combat discrimination against persons with disabilities in the labor and employment area, which is the main aim of this paper.

  18. Hard and soft age discrimination: the dual nature of workplace discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stypinska, Justyna; Turek, Konrad

    2017-03-01

    The paper concentrates on the problem of age discrimination in the labour market and the way it can be conceptualised and measured in a multi-disciplinary way. The approach proposed here combines two understandings of age discrimination-a sociological and legal one, what allows for a fuller and expanded understanding of ageism in the workplace. At the heart of the study is a survey carried out in Poland with a sample of 1000 men and women aged 45-65 years. The study takes a deeper and innovative look into the issue of age discrimination in employment. Confirmatory factor analysis with WLSMV estimation and logistic regressions were used to test the hypotheses. The study shows that age discrimination in labour market can take on different forms: hard and soft, where the hard type of age discrimination mirrors the legally prohibited types of behaviours and those which relate to the actual decisions of employers which can impact on the employee's career development. The soft discrimination corresponds with those occurrences, which are not inscribed in the legal system per se, are occurring predominantly in the interpersonal sphere, but can nevertheless have negative consequences. Soft discrimination was experienced more often (28.6% of respondents) than hard discrimination (15.7%) with higher occurrences among women, persons in precarious job situation or residents of urban areas. The role of education was not confirmed to influence the levels of perceived age discrimination.

  19. 40 CFR 140.4 - Complete prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 140.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MARINE SANITATION DEVICE STANDARD § 140.4 Complete prohibition. (a) Prohibition pursuant to CWA section... Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency, and by receiving the Administrator's affirmative determination...

  20. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 and Its Impact on Educational Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Colleges, Washington, DC. Project on the Status and Education of Women.

    The Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978--which amends Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964--and its impact on educational institutions are discussed. The Act prohibits discrimination against women employees because of pregnancy, childbirth, or related medical conditions. It covers hiring, promotion, firing, and seniority rights as well as…

  1. South Dakota – Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity Law and Documentation of Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Sears, Brad

    2009-01-01

    At the state level, South Dakota has no formal laws banning discrimination based on sexual orientation. However, South Dakota State University, one city, and two counties in South Dakota have ordinances prohibiting discrimination in employment based on sexual orientation and/or gender identity.

  2. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. ...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1802 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited activities. 13.1802 Section 13.1802 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Prohibited activities. The following activities are prohibited in Sitka National Historical Park— (a) Camping...

  4. 45 CFR 1226.8 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited activities. 1226.8 Section 1226.8... SERVICE PROHIBITIONS ON ELECTORAL AND LOBBYING ACTIVITIES Volunteer Activities § 1226.8 Prohibited activities. (a) Electoral Activity. Volunteers shall not engage in any activity which may, directly or...

  5. 24 CFR 92.214 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited activities. 92.214... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements Eligible and Prohibited Activities § 92.214 Prohibited activities. (a) HOME funds may not be used to: (1) Provide project reserve accounts...

  6. 50 CFR 404.6 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited activities. 404.6 Section 404.6 Wildlife and Fisheries JOINT REGULATIONS (UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.6 Prohibited activities. The following activities are prohibited and thus...

  7. Interest prohibition and financial product innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    We give a rough sketch of the Judaic, Greek, Islamic and Christian positions in the matter of interest prohibition during the last few millennia and discuss the way in which interest prohibition is dealt with in Islamic finance, the problems with authority-based arguments for interest prohibition,

  8. 50 CFR 600.509 - Prohibited species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited species. 600.509 Section 600... species. (a) The owner or operator of each FFV must minimize its catch or receipt of prohibited species... its catch of fish received as soon as possible and return all prohibited species and species parts to...

  9. Prohibition of thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Sajovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s society is governed – borrowing the terminology from Slavoj Žižek and his text Leninova izbira (Lenin’s choice, 2010 – by the unwritten denkverbot, or a “prohibition” of critical thinking. Its historical illustration is found in the notorious statement by Margaret Thatcher: “There is no alternative to neoliberalism.” The neoliberal economic and social contra revolution started in the 1960s at the department of economics of the university of chicago. Its most important proponent was american economist and winner of the noble prize in economics Milton Friedman. His programme was extremely conservative: “Firstly, the governments must do away with all the provisions and regulations that prevent accumulation of profit. Secondly, they must sell all the assets that are owned by them and could be managed with profit by corporations. And thirdly, the funding of welfare programmes must be decreased dramatically.” Milton friedman “carefully” concealed this completely inhumane ideology, which “matched the interests of big multinationals completely”, by formulating it through the academic “language of mathematics and science”, and thus “transformed” it into impartial economic science. Neoliberal managing of the economy was thus supposedly freed from human subjectivity and became “solely” the fulfilment of scientifically determined natural laws. It therefore became impossible to either doubt it or think critically about it. It is assumed that what enabled neoliberal ideology to parasitize science is the fact that under neoliberalism science itself became “ideology”. The Swiss-Canadian sociologist and philosopher Michel Freitag (1935– 2009, in his book le naufrage de l’université (1995, named it technoscience: “Science is not concerned with studying the world anymore, but with predicting the effects caused in the world by our practically justified interventions.” Technosciences focus on issues that

  10. A Proposal for Introducing the Anti-Discrimination Legislation for People with Disabilities in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    玉村, 公二彦; 佐藤, 和美

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to show and examine the Korean Disability Discrimination Bill which has been discussed both in disability groups and in Korean Government. The purpose of the bill is to prohibit discrimination against people with disabilities and to protect their Rights. Although Korean approach for tackling the disability discrimination has been based on the Social Welfare Act for People with Disabilities, disability groups have recognized the weakness of the approach in comparison with the i...

  11. Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    The purpose of this report is to describe and analyse Danish anti-discrimination legislation and the debate about discrimination in Denmark in order to identify present and future legal challenges. The main focus is the implementation of the EU anti-discrimination directives in Danish law...

  12. 78 FR 36149 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Correction AGENCY: National Marine..., to implement provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) that prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing shark fins on board a fishing vessel unless they are...

  13. 78 FR 40687 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Provisions; Implementation of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY..., 2013, to implement provisions of the Shark Conservation Act of 2010 (SCA) that prohibit any person from removing any of the fins of a shark at sea, possessing shark fins on board a fishing vessel unless they are...

  14. The Badness of Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2006-01-01

    The most blatant forms of discrimination are morally outrageous and very obviously so; but the nature and boundaries of discrimination are more controversial, and it is not clear whether all forms of discrimination are morally bad; nor is it clear why objectionable cases of discrimination are bad...

  15. Legal capacity and biomedicine: Biomedical discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetić Radenka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article begins with the overview of the legal capacity as a general legal qualification recognized by the legal order guaranteeing the right to be a holder of rights and obligations. The article is then focused on the scope of the absolute Constitutional guarantee of the right to legal personality as well as on the Constitutional prohibition of discrimination which gives rise to the general equality before the Constitution and the law. The focus of this article is the moment when the legal capacity, or legal personality, is considered to be acquired. It then moves to the issue whether limiting the access to techniques of assisted reproduction (biomedical conception is contrary to the general rules on legal capacity, and whether this is a genuine form of biomedical discrimination.

  16. 31 CFR 560.207 - Prohibited investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited investment. 560.207... § 560.207 Prohibited investment. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... investment by a United States person in Iran or in property (including entities) owned or controlled by the...

  17. 50 CFR 300.117 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Antarctic Marine Living Resources § 300.117 Prohibitions. In addition to the prohibitions in § 300.4, it is... by command, impediment, threat, coercion, or by refusal of reasonable assistance, an observer from... intimidating, hostile, or offensive environment. In determining whether conduct constitutes harassment, the...

  18. 17 CFR 4.20 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited activities. 4.20 Section 4.20 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Pool Operators § 4.20 Prohibited activities. (a)(1...

  19. 50 CFR 80.6 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited activities. 80.6 Section 80.6... WILDLIFE RESTORATION AND DINGELL-JOHNSON SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS § 80.6 Prohibited activities. The... project purposes as approved by the regional director. (a) Law enforcement activities conducted by the...

  20. 17 CFR 4.30 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited activities. 4.30 Section 4.30 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS Commodity Trading Advisors § 4.30 Prohibited activities. No...

  1. 24 CFR 954.308 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited activities. 954.308 Section 954.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... DEVELOPMENT INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Eligible Activities and Affordability § 954.308 Prohibited activities. (a...

  2. 46 CFR 153.236 - Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited materials. 153.236 Section 153.236 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 153.236 Prohibited materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section is...

  3. 50 CFR 300.4 - General prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General prohibitions. 300.4 Section 300.4 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL FISHING AND RELATED ACTIVITIES INTERNATIONAL FISHERIES REGULATIONS General § 300.4 General prohibitions. It is unlawful for any person subject to the jurisdiction of the...

  4. 32 CFR 143.5 - Prohibited activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited activity. 143.5 Section 143.5... NEGOTIATION OR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING § 143.5 Prohibited activity. (a) Membership and enrollment. (1) A member of the Armed Forces, knowing of the activities or objectives of a particular military labor...

  5. 14 CFR 120.31 - Prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited drugs. 120.31 Section 120.31... AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM... Under § 91.147 of This Chapter and Safety-Sensitive Employees § 120.31 Prohibited drugs. (a) Each...

  6. 25 CFR 141.28 - Gambling prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gambling prohibited. 141.28 Section 141.28 Indians BUREAU..., HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS General Business Practices § 141.28 Gambling prohibited. No licensee may permit any person to gamble by dice, cards, or in any way whatever, including the use of any mechanical...

  7. Dialectical roots for interest prohibition theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that arguments for strict prohibition of interests must be based on the use of arguments from authority. This is carried out by first making a survey of so-called dialectical roots for interest prohibition and then demonstrating that for at least one important positive interest bearing

  8. A contextual analysis of the hate speech provisions of the equality act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article presents a detailed contextual analysis of the categorical prohibition of hate speech in terms of section 10(1) of the Equality Act. It is argued that this provision is ... assessment, is clearly primarily aimed at hurting or harming others, or at inciting others to hurt or harm, or at promoting hatred based on group identity.

  9. Slow Shift--Developing Provisions for Talented Students in Scandinavian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensberger, Marca; Hogenstijn, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    For decades, Scandinavian culture effectively prohibited the development of special provisions for talented students in higher education. However, in recent years, a cultural shift has gradually made more room for excellence and talent development in the national discourses. This paper analyzes the climate for talent development in Denmark,…

  10. Slow shift – developing provisions for talented students in Scandinavian higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Maarten Hogenstijn; Dr. Marca Wolfensberger

    2016-01-01

    For decades, Scandinavian culture effectively prohibited the development of special provisions for talented students in higher education. However, in recent years, a cultural shift has gradually made more room for excellence and talent development in the national discourses. This paper analyzes the

  11. 49 CFR 39.9 - What may the owner or operator of a foreign-flag vessel do if it believes a provision of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What may the owner or operator of a foreign-flag vessel do if it believes a provision of a foreign nation's law prohibits compliance with a provision of this part? 39.9 Section 39.9 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES: PASSENGER...

  12. LABOR DISCRIMINATION IN BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyara Slavyanska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Labor discrimination is a phenomenon with very serious social and economic consequences, which has increased actuality and importance in Bulgaria nowadays. Because of the high price of discrimination, building effective anti-discrimination legislation occupies a special place in the policy of the European Union. Despite the European directives, the presence of anti-discrimination legislation and the broadly declared anti-discrimination inclinations in our country, these are absolutely not enough for providing environment of equality, with a climate of respect and tolerance to the differences. It turns out that certain groups are definitely victims of labor discrimination. In this connection the present article consecutively identifies these groups, as well as the reasons for their discrimination, underlining the necessity and benefits of the integration of the different.

  13. Employee response to unfair discrimination by immediate supervisors / Masebole Paul Nthelebovu

    OpenAIRE

    Nthelebovu, Masebole Paul

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between an immediate supervisor and an employee is of critical importance in employment relations. This relationship should be founded on trust in order to ensure job satisfaction and productivity. Unfair discrimination is prohibited in South African organisations, and is therefore legally and socially unacceptable. Unfair discrimination by immediate supervisors could lead to lower levels of job satisfaction and other negative forms of work behaviour. Employees...

  14. An application specific informal logic for interest prohibition theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Interest prohibition theory concerns theoretical aspects of interest prohibition. We attempt to lay down some aspects of interest prohibition theory wrapped in a larger framework of informal logic. The reason for this is that interest prohibition theory has to deal with a variety of arguments which

  15. 16 CFR 1507.2 - Prohibited chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.2 Prohibited chemicals. Fireworks devices shall not contain any of the following chemicals: (a) Arsenic sulfide, arsenates, or arsenites. (b) Boron. (c) Chlorates, except: (1) In colored...

  16. Dietary supplements containing prohibited substances: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not yet) prohibited designer steroids and other performance-enhancing newer chemical entities will increase. Athletes, coaches and sports doctors should therefore be provided with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to ...

  17. Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the European Union : National Laws and the Employment Equality Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Bonini-Baraldi, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2003 the Employment Equality Directive (2000/78/EC) requires Member States of the European Union to prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in the field of employment. This book assesses to what degree the Directive’s requirements have been met by the twenty-seven Member States. The authors

  18. Transgender women of color: discrimination and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Kevin; Neilands, Torsten B; Sevelius, Jae

    2013-01-01

    Trans women of color contend with multiple marginalizations; the purpose of this study is to examine associations between experiencing discriminatory (racist/transphobic) events and depression symptoms. It uses a categorical measure of combined discrimination, and examines a protective association of transgender identity on depression symptoms. Data from a subset of trans women of color participants in the Sheroes study were analyzed with linear and logistic regression. Associations of depression symptoms with racist and transphobic events, combined discrimination, coping self-efficacy, and transgender identity were assessed with odds ratios. Exposure to discriminatory events and combined discrimination positively associated with depression symptom odds. Increased transgender identity associated with increased coping self-efficacy, which negatively associated with depression symptom odds. Cross-sectional study data prohibits inferring causality; results support conducting longitudinal research on discrimination's health effects, and research on transgender identity. Results also support operationalizing intersectionality in health research. The study's categorical approach to combined discrimination may be replicable in studies with hard to reach populations and small sample sizes. Health programs could pursue psychosocial interventions and anti-discrimination campaigns. Interventions might advocate increasing participants' coping self-efficacy while providing space to explore and develop social identity. There is a need for policy and health programs to center trans women of color concerns. This study examines combined discrimination and identity in relation to depression symptoms among trans women of color, an underserved population. Research paper.

  19. Measuring Discriminations : an Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    DUGUET Emmanuel; Yannick L'Horty; Meurs, Dominique; Pascale PETIT

    2010-01-01

    The articles published here were all presented at the international conference on the measurement of discriminations held at the University of Evry Val d'Essonne on 13 and 14 December 2007, under the auspices of the TEPP research federation (FR n° 3126 of the CNRS). Over these two days, about sixty participants discussed the problems of defining and measuring discrimination, including work on economics, sociology and law; on discriminations in hiring, training, unemployment, promotion, career...

  20. racial discrimination laws and the interests of justice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUKKE

    In this paper a general introduction of the facts of the case will be given. Thereafter the principles applied by die court in evaluating racial discrimination laws and the interests of justice will be highlighted. The case deals with certain provisions of the Black Administration Act,4 which applies to. Africans living under a system ...

  1. Discrimination against Black Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloud, Ashwaq; Alsulayyim, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Discrimination is a structured way of abusing people based on racial differences, hence barring them from accessing wealth, political participation and engagement in many spheres of human life. Racism and discrimination are inherently rooted in institutions in the society, the problem has spread across many social segments of the society including…

  2. INTERSECTIONAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST CHILDREN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    This paper adds a perspective to existing research on child protection by engaging in a debate on intersectional discrimination and its relationship to child protection. The paper has a twofold objective, (1) to further establish intersectionality as a concept to address discrimination against...... children, and (2) to illustrate the importance of addressing intersectionality within rights-based programmes of child protection....

  3. Flash-Type Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  4. Sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Hastie, Trevor; Witten, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    commonplace in biological and medical applications. In this setting, a traditional approach involves performing feature selection before classification. We propose sparse discriminant analysis, a method for performing linear discriminant analysis with a sparseness criterion imposed such that classification......We consider the problem of performing interpretable classification in the high-dimensional setting, in which the number of features is very large and the number of observations is limited. This setting has been studied extensively in the chemometrics literature, and more recently has become...... and feature selection are performed simultaneously. Sparse discriminant analysis is based on the optimal scoring interpretation of linear discriminant analysis, and can be extended to perform sparse discrimination via mixtures of Gaussians if boundaries between classes are nonlinear or if subgroups...

  5. Discrimination in Modern Society

    OpenAIRE

    Schekach, E. V.; Щекач, Е. В.

    2013-01-01

    Issues of discrimination in modern society are examined in the article. Types of discrimination, ways of demonstration, methods of combating discrimination and inequality are described. Particular attention is paid to the legal basis and the real life stories, which serve as a material base for judgments how to prevent discrimination. Possible ways are suggested to eliminate such a negative phenomenon of society like discrimination. Статья посвящена вопросам дискриминации в современном общ...

  6. Sparse tensor discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Tang, Jinhui; Zhang, David

    2013-10-01

    The classical linear discriminant analysis has undergone great development and has recently been extended to different cases. In this paper, a novel discriminant subspace learning method called sparse tensor discriminant analysis (STDA) is proposed, which further extends the recently presented multilinear discriminant analysis to a sparse case. Through introducing the L1 and L2 norms into the objective function of STDA, we can obtain multiple interrelated sparse discriminant subspaces for feature extraction. As there are no closed-form solutions, k-mode optimization technique and the L1 norm sparse regression are combined to iteratively learn the optimal sparse discriminant subspace along different modes of the tensors. Moreover, each non-zero element in each subspace is selected from the most important variables/factors, and thus STDA has the potential to perform better than other discriminant subspace methods. Extensive experiments on face databases (Yale, FERET, and CMU PIE face databases) and the Weizmann action database show that the proposed STDA algorithm demonstrates the most competitive performance against the compared tensor-based methods, particularly in small sample sizes.

  7. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided.

  8. 17 CFR 31.22 - Prohibited trading in leverage contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited trading in leverage... LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.22 Prohibited trading in leverage contracts. No futures commission merchant or... orders for any leverage contract. ...

  9. 76 FR 3165 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Applicants note that the Transaction proceeded on a more expedited basis than is typical of most... Employee Benefits Security Administration Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction... proposed exemptions from certain of the prohibited transaction restrictions of the Employee Retirement...

  10. On Teaching about Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Richard A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a classroom assignment which is designed to motivate students' critical thinking skills concerning sex discrimination. Includes data sets for student analysis, instructions for student writing assignments, answers to student work, and suggestions for enhancing critical thinking skills. (GEA)

  11. Discrimination in lexical decision.

    OpenAIRE

    Milin, P.; Feldman, L.B.; Ramscar, M.; Hendrix, P.; Baayen, R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures?in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures?to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision late...

  12. Morphological characterization of breeds of sheep: a discriminant analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asamoah-Boaheng, Michael; Sam, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    In this study the characterisation and separation/discrimination of three sheep breeds (crosses, West African Dwarfs (WAD) and West African Long Legged (WALL)] based on their physical traits (morphological characterisation) was investigated extensively with the application of discriminant analysis. The study's main objective was specifically based on developing a variable selection criterion that can discriminate best among the three sheep breeds and as well as obtain a reliable mathematical function/equation (discriminant functions) for provision of maximum separation among the three known sheep breeds. Data from College of Education, Mampong animal farms on various breeds of sheep (hybrid/crossed breed, Sahell/WALL and Djallonke/WAD) was used. Factor Analysis was employed as a variable selection criterion for selecting six sheep traits that can discriminate best among the sheep breeds. Canonical discriminant function was derived for the eight variable data set and was compared with the derived quadratic discriminant functions (QDFs) using the six extracted sheep traits. The six variable QDF distance classifier provided maximum separation after cross validation than the 8-variable canonical discriminant functions. The derived mathematical functions (QDFs) were able to provide maximum separation among the three known sheep breeds with a correct classification rate of 0.86.

  13. Multiview Uncorrelated Discriminant Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong; Yang, Mo

    2016-12-01

    Multiview learning is more robust than single-view learning in many real applications. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a popular technique to utilize information stemming from multiple feature sets. However, it does not exploit label information effectively. Later multiview linear discriminant analysis (MLDA) was proposed through combining CCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Due to the successful application of uncorrelated LDA (ULDA), which seeks optimal discriminant features with minimum redundancy, we propose a new supervised learning method called multiview ULDA (MULDA) in this paper. This method combines the theory of ULDA with CCA. Then we adapt discriminant CCA (DCCA) instead of the CCA in MLDA and MULDA, and discuss about the effect of this modification. Furthermore, we generalize these methods to the nonlinear case by kernel-based learning techniques. The new method is called kernel multiview uncorrelated discriminant analysis (KMUDA). Then we modify kernel multiview discriminant analysis and KMUDA by replacing Kernel CCA with Kernel DCCA. Our methods are tested on different real datasets and compared with other state-of-the-art methods. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of our methods.

  14. 7 CFR 220.17 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for participation in the Program. (b) The value of assistance to children under the Act shall not be... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SCHOOL BREAKFAST PROGRAM § 220.17 Prohibitions. (a) In carrying out the... State and local sources for the maintenance of food programs for children shall not be diminished as a...

  15. Human embryo cloning prohibited in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Athena

    2005-12-01

    Since the birth of Dolly (the cloned sheep) in 1997, debates have arisen on the ethical and legal questions of cloning-for-biomedical-research (more commonly termed "therapeutic cloning") and of reproductive cloning using human gametes. Hong Kong enacted the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance (Cap 561) in 2000. Section 15(1)(e) of this Ordinance prohibits the "replacing of the nucleus of a cell of an embryo with a nucleus taken from any other cell," i.e., nucleus substitution. Section 15(1)(f) prohibits the cloning of any embryo. The scope of the latter, therefore, is arguably the widest, prohibiting all cloning techniques such as cell nucleus replacement, embryo splitting, parthenogenesis, and cloning using stem cell lines. Although the Human Reproductive Technology Ordinance is not yet fully operative, this article examines how these prohibitions may adversely impact on basic research and the vision of the Hong Kong scientific community. It concludes that in light of recent scientific developments, it is time to review if the law offers a coherent set of policies in this area.

  16. 9 CFR 93.701 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Miscellaneous Animals § 93.701 Prohibitions. (a) No person may import a... where foot-and-mouth disease exists. (b) No person may import a brushtail possum or hedgehog into the...

  17. 50 CFR 216.203 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Construction and Operation of Offshore Oil and Gas Facilities in the U.S. Beaufort Sea § 216.203 Prohibitions. Notwithstanding takings contemplated in § 216.200 and...

  18. 27 CFR 5.42 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... whom any levels of alcohol consumption may cause health risks. This information must appear as part of... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited practices. 5.42 Section 5.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 16 CFR 611.2 - General prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for consumer reports that bear on a consumer's credit worthiness, standing and capacity. Smith Co... information on consumers residing nationwide, and ceases to offer reports containing public record information... TREATMENT AS A NATIONWIDE CONSUMER REPORTING AGENCY § 611.2 General prohibition. (a) A consumer reporting...

  20. 50 CFR 660.306 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Coast treaty Indian tribe fishing under §§ 660.324 or 660.385; (ii) The fish are processed by a waste... Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... course of recreational groundfish fishing. (2)Retain any prohibited species (defined in § 660.302 and...

  1. 77 FR 58492 - Prohibitions Governing Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AD08 Prohibitions Governing Fire AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA... Fire. * * * * * (j) Operating or using any internal or external combustion engine without a spark...

  2. 17 CFR 30.3 - Prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited transactions. 30.3 Section 30.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION FOREIGN FUTURES AND... foreign board of trade, and carried for or on behalf of a customer at a designated contract market...

  3. 45 CFR 1643.3 - Prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... advocating a legal right to cause, or to assist in causing, the suicide, euthanasia, or mercy killing of any... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) LEGAL SERVICES CORPORATION RESTRICTION ON ASSISTED SUICIDE, EUTHANASIA, AND MERCY KILLING § 1643.3 Prohibition. No recipient may use LSC funds to assist in, support, or...

  4. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited overlap. 73.509 Section 73.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES... must be used. (3) The effective radiated power (ERP) that is the maximum ERP for any elevation plane on...

  5. 31 CFR 505.10 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of regulations, rulings, instructions, licenses, or otherwise, no person within the United States... United States is prohibited by regulations issued under the Arms Export Control Act of 1976, 22 U.S.C... North Korea Mongolia People's Republic of China Poland Romania The Slovak Republic The geographic area...

  6. Prohibitions against Mourning in Childhood Sibling Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Helen

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)

  7. 7 CFR 1216.49 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... engaging in: (a) Any action that would be a conflict of interest; (b) Using funds collected by the Board... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PEANUT PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order National Peanut Board § 1216.49 Prohibited...

  8. Legal Status of Diplomats: Duties, Restrictions, Prohibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Antonovich Zanko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides analysis of such elements of the legal status of diplomats as obligations, prohibitions, restrictions and responsibility. Elements of the legal status are evaluated through the lens of comparative research and include the experience of diplomatic service legal regulation in the former Soviet Union countries as well as in other foreign countries.

  9. 12 CFR 208.83 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12 U.S.C. 1972), is conditional upon either: (1... purchase the insurance product or annuity from another source. (c) Prohibition on domestic violence... product if the status of the applicant or insured as a victim of domestic violence or as a provider of...

  10. 45 CFR 73.735-603 - Prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited activities. 73.735-603 Section 73.735... Political Activity § 73.735-603 Prohibited activities. (a) The following are prohibited activities: (1... participating in a fund-raising activity of, a political party or political club; (5) Taking an active part in...

  11. 46 CFR 151.56-1 - Prohibited materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited materials. 151.56-1 Section 151.56-1 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Prohibited Materials of Construction § 151.56-1 Prohibited materials. When one of the following paragraphs of this section is referenced in table 151.05, the materials...

  12. 19 CFR 145.58 - Other restricted and prohibited merchandise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other restricted and prohibited merchandise. 145.58 Section 145.58 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... restricted and prohibited merchandise. Other restrictions and prohibitions pertaining to certain types of...

  13. 48 CFR 1252.237-72 - Prohibition on advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibition on advertising... Prohibition on advertising. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1213.7101 and 1237.7003, insert the following clause: Prohibition on Advertising (JAN 1996) The contractor or its representatives (including training instructors...

  14. When do health care decisions discriminate against persons with disabilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehlman, M J; Durchslag, M R; Neuhauser, D

    1997-12-01

    Recent interpretations of laws prohibiting discrimination against persons with disabilities indicate that these laws will play a greater role in health care decision making than previously anticipated. This article employs lessons from other areas of antidiscrimination law to examine these developments and to provide a framework for making health care decisions that are consistent with these new legal interpretations. This article addresses decisions in individual cases, treatment policies adopted by health care providers, and coverage programs of third-party payers, both public and private.

  15. Features of the Civil Law Procedure for Protection against Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Agim Nuhiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and protection against discrimination shall be applicable for all natural and legal persons in the process of exercise of the rights and freedoms guaranteed with the Constitution and the legislation of the Republic of Macedonia. The person considering that some right has been infringed because of discrimination is entitled to submit a lawsuit in front of a competent court. The provisions from the Law on litigation procedure are adequately applied for the procedure. A civil action is commenced with the filing of a complaint. The plaintiff must file the complaint with the court. The complaint must set forth the claims and the legal basis for discrimination. In the procedure for protection against discrimination, besides the court for general local jurisdiction, the court in whose area is the seat, or the residence of the plaintiff, also has local jurisdiction.

  16. 78 FR 54434 - Nondiscrimination Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... gender identity), national origin, age (as defined by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967... (including pregnancy and gender identity), national origin, age (as defined by the Age Discrimination in... pregnancy and gender identity), national origin, age (as defined by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act...

  17. Untangling equality and non-discrimination to promote the right to health care for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNaughton, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Equality and non-discrimination are core principles in international human rights law, and all members of the United Nations have legal obligations to promote these principles. Although widely adopted into law, interpretations of the rights to equality and non-discrimination, as well as their relationship to each other, vary considerably across jurisdictions. At the international level, there are separate provisions on equality and non-discrimination in the human rights treaties, yet legal scholars tend to treat the two concepts as one. This article examines the equality and non-discrimination provisions in the International Bill of Human Rights to consider their potential for addressing economic and social inequalities. The article proposes a legal framework that recognizes positive equality as distinct from status-based non-discrimination. Finally, it argues that both of these distinct rights have important roles in contributing to realizing social rights, in particular, a right to health care.

  18. "Ethics surrounding the provision of abortion care".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Miranda, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The provision of abortion care represents a great ethical challenge to physicians, particularly in countries where the law states that abortion is a crime. The concept that it is a crime carries a stigma that is worse than that associated with other acts qualified by law as crimes. This stigma leads to at least two different kinds of unethical behavior. One is the refusal to provide safe abortion services to women who comply with the legal requirements, alleging conscientious objection, and the other is to discriminate against women with complications of induced abortion. Both unethical behaviors may be associated with severe consequences for the health of women whose care was refused or delayed. Less attention is given to the ethical obligation to prevent induced abortion from recurring by offering postabortion contraception to comply with the ethical obligation of preventing harm to the patients for whose care they are responsible. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Should Sabbath Prohibitions Be Overridden to Provide Emotional Support to a Sick Relative?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Greenberger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. Objective This manuscript examines if and when a relative’s presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one’s relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Methods Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Results Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient’s and the professionals’ perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient’s perception of the emotional need for a relative’s presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient’s life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Conclusions Emotional support has an impact on the patient’s health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.

  20. Should Sabbath Prohibitions Be Overridden to Provide Emotional Support to a Sick Relative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Chaya; Mor, Pnina

    2016-07-28

    There is a consensus among the halachic authorities that life-saving actions override Sabbath prohibitions. They are painstaking in securing that the sanctity of the Sabbath is maintained but that not a single life be lost. This manuscript examines if and when a relative's presence at the bedside of a seriously ill individual is potentially life-saving against the backdrop of the scientific literature. It specifically addresses the permissibility of traveling in a motorized vehicle, generally prohibited on the Sabbath, to be with one's relative in hospital for the provision of emotional support. Discourse of the halachic issues in the context of the scientific literature. Stress, mental or physical, has been determined as a potentially life-threatening condition in many disease entities. The literature attests to both the patient's and the professionals' perception of the curative potential of the presence of loved ones by advocating for the patient and relieving stress in the hospital experience. Emotional support from a loved one is perceived by some patients as vital to survival. There is halachic consensus that a patient's perception of the emotional need for a relative's presence is sufficient to permit overriding rabbinic prohibitions. Torah prohibitions, which may be overridden for medical needs, may be overridden for emotional support, providing a health professional or family member attests to the fulfilment of this specific need as diminishing the danger to the patient's life. In certain cases, the latter contingency is unnecessary. Emotional support has an impact on the patient's health status; the degree to which its impact is strong enough to save life is still being studied. As more data from scientific studies emerge, they may be relevant to sharpening the halachic rulings with respect to the issue at hand.

  1. Changes to Medicare Secondary Payer (MSP) provisions--HCFA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-11

    This notice describes how subsections 6202(b), (c), and (e) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989 (Pub. L. 101-239) affect the Medicare Program These subsections: Create uniform rules for computing Medicare secondary payments for all MSP situations; Exempt from the MSP provisions services performed for a religious order by members of the order who take a vow of poverty; Prohibit group health plans (GHPs) from "taking into account" that an individual is entitled to Medicare when Medicare is the secondary payer; Prohibit GHPs from differentiating, in the services they provide, between individuals with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and other individuals covered by the plan; Require that GHPs of employers of 20 or more employees provide the same benefits under the same conditions to employees age 65 or older and employees' spouses age 65 or older as they provide to employees and spouses under age 65; Impose a 25 percent excise tax on contributions that employers and employee organizations make to nonconforming GHPs, i.e., plans that do not comply with the MSP provisions; Extend to all MSP situations the Federal Government's right to take legal action to collect double damages if a primary plan fails to comply with the Medicare secondary payment requirements of the law; Make the provisions for special enrollment periods for the disabled parallel to those in effect for the working aged. The statutory changes made by subsections 6202(b), (c), and (e) can be put into effect without first issuing regulations because it is clear on the face of the statute what the Congress intended.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Education and Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the status of women education in present education system and some measures to overcome the lags existing. Discrimination against girls and women in the developing world is a devastating reality. It results in millions of individual tragedies, which add up to lost potential for entire countries. Gender bias in education is an…

  3. Housing discrimination 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, D

    2000-01-01

    To examine the hypothesis that phone-based discrimination exists, an undergraduate course was conducted at the University of Pennsylvania. It was noted that racial housing audits were designed in such a way that teams of White and Black auditors were assigned similar identities and characteristics. To this effect, systematic differences in treatment were taken to reflect racial discrimination. The course, ¿Research Design: Measurement of Discrimination,¿ was carried out as a response to the pressure to involve undergraduates in research. A racially diverse group of students registered, among them speakers of Black English Vernacular, Black Accented English, and White Middle Class English. A total of 79 rental units advertised in newspapers and rental guides were audited by the class. Overall, results of the study suggest that telephone audits constitute a potentially cheap, easy, and efficient way of measuring and studying processes of racial discrimination in urban housing markets. Compared with Whites, African Americans were less likely to be told of a unit's availability, more likely to speak to a rental agent, to pay an application fee, and to have credit mentioned as an issue. In addition, these racial effects interacted with and were exacerbated by gender class.

  4. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  5. Analytic boosted boson discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Moult, Ian; Neill, Duff [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-05-20

    Observables which discriminate boosted topologies from massive QCD jets are of great importance for the success of the jet substructure program at the Large Hadron Collider. Such observables, while both widely and successfully used, have been studied almost exclusively with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present the first all-orders factorization theorem for a two-prong discriminant based on a jet shape variable, D{sub 2}, valid for both signal and background jets. Our factorization theorem simultaneously describes the production of both collinear and soft subjets, and we introduce a novel zero-bin procedure to correctly describe the transition region between these limits. By proving an all orders factorization theorem, we enable a systematically improvable description, and allow for precision comparisons between data, Monte Carlo, and first principles QCD calculations for jet substructure observables. Using our factorization theorem, we present numerical results for the discrimination of a boosted Z boson from massive QCD background jets. We compare our results with Monte Carlo predictions which allows for a detailed understanding of the extent to which these generators accurately describe the formation of two-prong QCD jets, and informs their usage in substructure analyses. Our calculation also provides considerable insight into the discrimination power and calculability of jet substructure observables in general.

  6. Discrimination Learning in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  7. Selim v Lele and the civil (industrial) conscription prohibition: constitutional protection against federal legislation controlling or privatising Australian public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    Selim v Lele (2008) 167 FCR 61; [2008] FCAFC 13 was a decision of the Federal Court which interpreted s 51(xxiiiA) of the Australian Constitution. This section accords the federal government, among other things, power to make laws with respect to the provision of "medical and dental services (but not so as to authorise any form of civil conscription)". The Federal Court decided that the phrase "civil conscription" was analogous to "industrial conscription". In that sense the Federal Court held that the prohibition was designed to preserve the employment autonomy of Australian medical practitioners or dentists, preventing federal laws that required them, either expressly or by practical compulsion, to work for the federal government or any industrial employer nominated or permitted by the federal government. The specific question in Selim v Lele was whether the imposition of standards and prohibition of "inappropriate practice" under the Health Insurance Act 1973 (Cth), ss 10, 20, 20A and Pt VAA, amounted to civil conscription. The court held they did not. The Federal Court also discussed in that context the sufficiency of "practical compulsion" in relation to the s 51(xxxiiiA) prohibition, The constitutional prohibition on "any form" of civil conscription provides one of the few rights protections in the Australian Constitution and may have an important role to play in shaping the limits of health care system privatisation in Australia.

  8. 45 CFR 148.180 - Prohibition of discrimination based on genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... respect to D (family medical history of Type 2 diabetes). (e) Limitation on requesting or requiring... manifested disease or disorder of family members, which as family medical history constitutes genetic... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). B provides this information voluntarily and not in...

  9. 45 CFR 146.121 - Prohibiting discrimination against participants and beneficiaries based on a health factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE MARKET Requirements Relating to Access and Renewability of Coverage, and Limitations on... requires issuers to offer all the policies they sell in the small group market on a guaranteed available..., prenatal care or well-baby visits. (iv) A program that reimburses employees for the costs of smoking...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.702 - Prohibiting discrimination against participants and beneficiaries based on a health factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... they sell in the small group market on a guaranteed available basis to all small employers and to..., prenatal care or well-baby visits. (iv) A program that reimburses employees for the costs of smoking...

  11. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... section; (ii) Genetic counseling (including obtaining, interpreting, or assessing genetic information); or (iii) Genetic education. (5)(i) Genetic test means an analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins... medical appropriateness of the item or service depends on the genetic makeup of a patient, then the plan...

  12. 26 CFR 54.9802-3T - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... test, as defined in paragraph (a)(5) of this section; (ii) Genetic counseling (including obtaining, interpreting, or assessing genetic information); or (iii) Genetic education. (5)(i) Genetic test means an... item or service depends on the genetic makeup of a patient, then the plan is permitted to condition...

  13. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section; (ii) Genetic counseling (including obtaining, interpreting, or assessing genetic information); or (iii) Genetic education. (5)(i) Genetic test means an analysis of human DNA, RNA, chromosomes, proteins... appropriateness of the item or service depends on the genetic makeup of a patient, then the plan or issuer is...

  14. Prohibiting Capital Punishment for People Identified with Mental Retardation: Protection or Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musher, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the literature advocating or opposing a universal ban on capital punishment for people diagnosed with mental retardation and also offers the author's own views. It is argued that the realities of the American legal and penal systems require such a ban until each case can be examined thoroughly by individuals well informed…

  15. 45 CFR 1232.9 - General prohibitions against employment and volunteer service discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with employment and referral agencies, with labor unions, with organizations providing or administering..., upgrading, promotion, award of tenure, demotion, transfer, layoff, termination, right of return from layoff...

  16. 39 CFR 447.21 - Prohibited conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being discriminated against, on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, or age. (d) No...) Illegal use of drugs may be grounds for removal from the Postal Service. (g) No employee while on property...

  17. Bringing Equality Home - Implementing the Convention on All Forms of Discrimination Against Women

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg-Lewis, Ilana

    2003-01-01

    This booklet contains stories about the advances made in the implementation of the Convention on Women's Rights. New and changed constitutions, court decisions giving women the legal right to land and to protection from sexual harassment, new laws that prohibit gender-based discrimination, and Government policies that respect women's health needs are only some of the themes touched. This is a "work in progress", a collection of 'snapshots' of a dynamic process currently taking place around th...

  18. Theoretical and empirical approaches to the study of attitude to the discrimination of the ethno lookism

    OpenAIRE

    Labunskaya V.A.

    2016-01-01

    The article argues that the prohibition on the part of society displays ethno lookism as "ordinary" discriminatory practices aimed at representatives of ethno-cultural groups with a certain type of appearance, it leads to the actualization of masked, hid- den forms of this type of discrimination. This determines the transition to the study of the relevance of non-straight ethno lookism ways of expression. Previously developed by the author, "ethno-socio-psychological model of an empirical stu...

  19. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences of specific groups, on specific domains or on specific types of discrimination. This study aims to chart the extent to which residents of the Netherlands perceive that they are subject to discrimination, from...

  20. Discrimination in lexical decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Petar; Feldman, Laurie Beth; Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Baayen, R Harald

    2017-01-01

    In this study we present a novel set of discrimination-based indicators of language processing derived from Naive Discriminative Learning (ndl) theory. We compare the effectiveness of these new measures with classical lexical-distributional measures-in particular, frequency counts and form similarity measures-to predict lexical decision latencies when a complete morphological segmentation of masked primes is or is not possible. Data derive from a re-analysis of a large subset of decision latencies from the English Lexicon Project, as well as from the results of two new masked priming studies. Results demonstrate the superiority of discrimination-based predictors over lexical-distributional predictors alone, across both the simple and primed lexical decision tasks. Comparable priming after masked corner and cornea type primes, across two experiments, fails to support early obligatory segmentation into morphemes as predicted by the morpho-orthographic account of reading. Results fit well with ndl theory, which, in conformity with Word and Paradigm theory, rejects the morpheme as a relevant unit of analysis. Furthermore, results indicate that readers with greater spelling proficiency and larger vocabularies make better use of orthographic priors and handle lexical competition more efficiently.

  1. The relative merits of discriminating and non-discriminating dosemeters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marshal, T. O.; Christensen, Palle; Julius, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    The need for discriminating and non-discriminating personal dosemeters in the field of radiological protection is examined. The ability of various types of dosemeter to meet these needs is also discussed. It is concluded that there is a need for discriminating dosemeters but in the majority...... of cases a simple two element non-discriminating dosemeter will suffice. In cases where the use of discriminating dosemeters is justified, thermoluminescence dosemeters can be designed to provided information on radiation type and energy, but if further information is required the photographic film...

  2. Shellfish Harvest Prohibition Areas for 2011; shellfish11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Geospatial vector polygon data defining shellfishing prohibition areas, seasonal, and conditional shellfish closure areas, and areas open to legal shellfish...

  3. Transgender Discrimination and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Richard

    2010-01-01

    An emerging area of law is developing regarding sex/gender identity discrimination, also referred to as transgender discrimination, as distinguished from discrimination based on sexual orientation. A transgendered individual is defined as "a person who has a gender-identity disorder which is a persistent discomfort about one?s assigned sex or…

  4. [Age discrimination. Point of view of the professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera Casado, Jose Manuel; Bustillos, Antonio; Guerra Vaquero, Ana Ilenia; Huici Casal, Carmen; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that legislation is an essential resource in the prevention of discriminatory behaviour against older people. This study first examines the Spanish legislation for potential age discrimination and then uses the C-EVE-D questionnaire to ask professionals in social work and health care settings the extent to what certain ageist behaviours described in the questionnaire are observed in practice. The field study was carried out with professionals in geriatrics and gerontology, who are members of Spanish Society for Geriatrics and Gerontology (SEGG). The EVE discrimination questionnaire consists of 28 items which investigate the existence of age discrimination in medical and social care contexts. A total of 174 people (63% women; mean age: 45.6 years) took part in the study, with a mean professional experience of 17.2 years. Doctors made up 59% of the sample, psychologists 19%, with the rest coming from other professions. The first 20 discrimination items of the EVE-D questionnaire were significantly positively reported by more than 60% of the sample. Although Spanish legislation, from the constitution down to the rules that govern social and health care settings, clearly prohibits any kind of discrimination with regard to age, our results show that Spanish professionals most closely involved in the care of older people perceive both direct and indirect age discrimination. Furthermore, evidence was found of prejudice in the treatment of older people as a phenomenon in day-to-day health and social services care, both when analysing medical cases and, to a greater extent, cases of a more general nature and/or relating to co-existence. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carrara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  6. Discrimination, policies, and sexual rights in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on a politics arena that has been articulated through the impact of ideals of sexual rights on Brazilian sexual politics, namely the affirmation of "LGBT rights". These rights have been constructed both through attempts to extend civil and social rights to the LGBT population that were previously restricted to heterosexuals, and by the enactment of provisions directly banning homophobic discrimination and violence. The focus will be on some of the principal social actors in this process, especially those situated in the three branches of government, since the most decisive clashes are now being waged at this level. Without intending to offer an exhaustive description of what has occurred in the Brazilian courts, Congress, and Administration, we point to the complexity of a situation which shows numerous innovations and breaks in its different dimensions, while simultaneously revealing contradictions, gaps, and ambiguities.

  7. Discriminative Shape Alignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loog, M.; de Bruijne, M.

    2009-01-01

    The alignment of shape data to a common mean before its subsequent processing is an ubiquitous step within the area shape analysis. Current approaches to shape analysis or, as more specifically considered in this work, shape classification perform the alignment in a fully unsupervised way......, not taking into account that eventually the shapes are to be assigned to two or more different classes. This work introduces a discriminative variation to well-known Procrustes alignment and demonstrates its benefit over this classical method in shape classification tasks. The focus is on two...

  8. 24 CFR 100.50 - Real estate practices prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate practices prohibited....50 Real estate practices prohibited. (a) This subpart provides the Department's interpretation of... in, any multiple-listing service, real estate brokers' association, or other service organization or...

  9. 19 CFR 12.101 - Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Seizure of prohibited switchblade knives. 12.101...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Switchblade Knives § 12.101 Seizure of prohibited... accordance with § 12.100(a) shall be seized under 19 U.S.C. 1595a(c). (b) Notice of seizure. Notice of...

  10. 5 CFR 3501.104 - Prohibited interests in mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited interests in mining. 3501.104... CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR § 3501.104 Prohibited interests in mining. (a... of the Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement and other employees who perform functions...

  11. 4 CFR 202.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibitions against misuse of seal. 202.3 Section 202.3 Accounts RECOVERY ACCOUNTABILITY AND TRANSPARENCY BOARD OFFICIAL SEAL § 202.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Falsely making, forging, counterfeiting, mutilating, or altering the Board seal or...

  12. 40 CFR 144.11 - Prohibition of unauthorized injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of unauthorized injection... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM General Program Requirements § 144.11 Prohibition of unauthorized injection. Any underground injection, except into a well authorized by rule or...

  13. 40 CFR 147.2903 - Prohibition of unauthorized injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition of unauthorized injection... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STATE, TRIBAL, AND EPA-ADMINISTERED UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAMS Osage Mineral Reserve-Class II Wells § 147.2903 Prohibition of unauthorized injection. (a) Any underground...

  14. 25 CFR 226.22 - Prohibition of pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of pollution. 226.22 Section 226.22 Indians... LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Operations § 226.22 Prohibition of pollution. (a) All operators... holes) in a manner that will prevent pollution and the migration of oil, gas, salt water or other...

  15. 20 CFR 627.205 - Public service employment prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public service employment prohibition. 627....205 Public service employment prohibition. No funds available under titles I, II-A, II-C, or III-A of the Act may be used for public service employment (sections 141(p) and 314(d)(2)). ...

  16. 12 CFR 1412.4 - Prohibited indemnification payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited indemnification payments. 1412.4 Section 1412.4 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.4 Prohibited indemnification payments. No System institution shall make or agree...

  17. 12 CFR 1412.3 - Golden parachute payments prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Golden parachute payments prohibited. 1412.3 Section 1412.3 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION GOLDEN PARACHUTE AND INDEMNIFICATION PAYMENTS § 1412.3 Golden parachute payments prohibited. No System institution shall make or agree...

  18. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159 Section 121.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part. ...

  19. 24 CFR 35.140 - Prohibited methods of paint removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited methods of paint removal... and Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.140 Prohibited methods of paint...

  20. 32 CFR 228.10 - Prohibition on alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on alcohol. 228.10 Section 228.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.10 Prohibition on alcohol. Entering or being on protected property...

  1. 18 CFR 1312.4 - Prohibited acts and criminal penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibited acts and criminal penalties. 1312.4 Section 1312.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.4 Prohibited acts and criminal...

  2. 14 CFR 120.17 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.17 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAM Air Traffic Controllers § 120.17 Use of prohibited drugs. (a) Each employer shall provide...

  3. 14 CFR 120.33 - Use of prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of prohibited drugs. 120.33 Section 120...) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND ALCOHOL... prohibited drugs. (a) This section applies to individuals who perform a function listed in subpart E of this...

  4. 14 CFR 120.35 - Testing for prohibited drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing for prohibited drugs. 120.35... (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS DRUG AND... for prohibited drugs. (a) Each certificate holder or operator shall test each of its employees who...

  5. Violence against Persons (Prohibition) Act 2015 and other existing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notable among these, is the Violence against Persons (Prohibition) Act 2015. This paper looks into the International and National Instruments in relation to their prospects, challenges and viability in comparison to the Violence against Persons (Prohibition) Act 2015. A way forward to any observed anomalies shall also be ...

  6. 48 CFR 3.802 - Statutory prohibition and requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Limitations on the Payment of Funds To Influence Federal Transactions 3.802 Statutory prohibition and requirement. (a) 31 U.S.C. 1352 prohibits a... any person for influencing or attempting to influence an officer or employee of any agency, a Member...

  7. 12 CFR 703.15 - Prohibited investment activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited investment activities. 703.15 Section 703.15 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS INVESTMENT AND DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.15 Prohibited investment activities. Adjusted trading or short sales...

  8. 5 CFR 4.1 - Prohibition against political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against political activity. 4... PRACTICES (RULE IV) § 4.1 Prohibition against political activity. No person employed in the executive branch... occupying a position in the competitive service shall take any active part in political management or in...

  9. 10 CFR 32.13 - Same: Prohibition of introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Prohibition of introduction. 32.13 Section 32.13 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO MANUFACTURE OR TRANSFER CERTAIN ITEMS CONTAINING BYPRODUCT MATERIAL Exempt Concentrations and Items § 32.13 Same: Prohibition of introduction. No...

  10. 31 CFR 586.204 - Prohibited new investment within Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Serbia. 586.204 Section 586.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... (SERBIA & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 586.204 Prohibited new investment within Serbia. Except as otherwise provided in regulations, orders, directives, or licenses that may hereafter...

  11. 50 CFR 640.27 - Spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spiny lobster import prohibitions. 640.27... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Management Measures § 640.27 Spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for...

  12. 27 CFR 479.163 - Reuse of stamps prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of stamps prohibited. 479.163 Section 479.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS... CERTAIN OTHER FIREARMS Distribution and Sale of Stamps § 479.163 Reuse of stamps prohibited. A stamp once...

  13. 32 CFR 228.14 - Prohibition on gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on gambling. 228.14 Section 228.14...) MISCELLANEOUS SECURITY PROTECTIVE FORCE § 228.14 Prohibition on gambling. Participating in games for money or other personal property, or the operating of gambling devices, the conduct of a lottery, or the selling...

  14. 36 CFR 6.12 - Prohibited acts and penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... waste disposal site without the proper amount or form of bond or security deposit, as prescribed by the... INTERIOR SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL SITES IN UNITS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 6.12 Prohibited acts and penalties. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating a solid waste disposal site without a permit...

  15. 49 CFR 172.334 - Identification numbers; prohibited display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification numbers; prohibited display. 172..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.334 Identification numbers; prohibited display. (a) No person may display an identification number on a RADIOACTIVE, EXPLOSIVES 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5...

  16. 50 CFR 648.14 - Prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... areas is prima facie evidence that such vessel was fishing in violation of the provisions of the... his or her duties; any authorized officer conducting any search, inspection, investigation, or seizure... conducting his or her duties, including those duties authorized in § 648.7(g); or any dockside/roving monitor...

  17. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance.

  18. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    appreciate the legal significance of consent. "Every human being ... {2} Nothing in this article shall affect the provisions of laws ... (1 A court may, at any stage of a case, order that the accused .... undue influence, incapacitated person is invalid.

  19. Meaning Discrimination in Bilingual Venda Dictionaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munzhedzi James Mafela

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Venda, one of the minority languages in South Africa, has few dictionaries. All are translational bilingual dictionaries meant for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Dictionary users find it difficult to use the bilingual Venda dictionaries because they are confronted with equivalents which they cannot distinguish. In most cases, the equivalents of the entry-words are provided without giving meaning discrimination. Without a good command of Venda and the provision of meaning discrimination, users will find it difficult to make a correct choice of the equivalent for which they are looking. Bilingual Venda dictionaries are therefore not helpful for dictionary users who are non-native speakers of the language. Devices such as giving illustrative examples, indicating parts of speech and adding etymology could be used to solve the problem of meaning discrimination in bilingual Venda dictionaries. This article highlights the problem of the absence of meaning discrimination and suggests solutions to future Venda lexico-graphers in this regard.


    Keywords: BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, MEANING DISCRIMINATION, EQUIVALENCE, ENTRY-WORD, LEXICOGRAPHY, CULTURE, TRANSLATION, SOURCE LANGUAGE, TAR-GET LANGUAGE, SYNONYM, POLYSEMY


    *****

    OPSOMMING: Betekenisonderskeiding in tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke. Venda, een van die minderheidstale in Suid-Afrika, het min woordeboeke. Almal is vertalende tweetalige woordeboeke bedoel vir woordeboekgebruikers wat nie moedertaalsprekers van die taal is nie. Woordeboekgebruikers vind dit moeilik om tweetalige Vendawoordeboeke te gebruik om-dat hulle gekonfronteer word met ekwivalente wat hulle nie kan onderskei nie. In die meeste gevalle word die ekwivalente van die trefwoorde verskaf sonder om betekenisonderskeiding aan te dui. Sonder 'n goeie beheersing van Venda en die aanduiding van betekenisonderskeiding, sal gebruikers dit moeilik vind om die regte keuse van die

  20. 12 CFR 343.30 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... credit, in violation of section 106(b) of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12 U.S.C. 1972... domestic violence discrimination. You may not sell or offer for sale, as principal, agent, or broker, any... violence or as a provider of services to victims of domestic violence is considered as a criterion in any...

  1. 12 CFR 14.30 - Prohibited practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section 106(b) of the Bank Holding Company Act Amendments of 1970 (12 U.S.C. 1972), is conditional upon... domestic violence discrimination. A covered person may not sell or offer for sale, as principal, agent, or... domestic violence or as a provider of services to victims of domestic violence is considered as a criterion...

  2. Endophilia or Exophobia: Beyond Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, J.F.; Salamanca Acosta, N.; Hamermesh, D.

    2013-01-01

    The immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative: One group suffers compared to another. But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against others – are exophobic – or because they favor their own kind – are endophilic? This difference matters, as the relative importance of the types of discrimination and their inter-relation affect market outcomes. Using a field experiment in which graders at one university were randomly assigned students' exams that did or d...

  3. Weight discrimination and bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puhl, Rebecca M; King, Kelly M

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant attention to the medical impacts of obesity, often ignored are the negative outcomes that obese children and adults experience as a result of stigma, bias, and discrimination. Obese individuals are frequently stigmatized because of their weight in many domains of daily life. Research spanning several decades has documented consistent weight bias and stigmatization in employment, health care, schools, the media, and interpersonal relationships. For overweight and obese youth, weight stigmatization translates into pervasive victimization, teasing, and bullying. Multiple adverse outcomes are associated with exposure to weight stigmatization, including depression, anxiety, low self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, suicidal ideation, poor academic performance, lower physical activity, maladaptive eating behaviors, and avoidance of health care. This review summarizes the nature and extent of weight stigmatization against overweight and obese individuals, as well as the resulting consequences that these experiences create for social, psychological, and physical health for children and adults who are targeted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Lei

    2015-01-01

    Multitask clustering tries to improve the clustering performance of multiple tasks simultaneously by taking their relationship into account. Most existing multitask clustering algorithms fall into the type of generative clustering, and none are formulated as convex optimization problems. In this paper, we propose two convex Discriminative Multitask Clustering (DMTC) objectives to address the problems. The first one aims to learn a shared feature representation, which can be seen as a technical combination of the convex multitask feature learning and the convex Multiclass Maximum Margin Clustering (M3C). The second one aims to learn the task relationship, which can be seen as a combination of the convex multitask relationship learning and M3C. The objectives of the two algorithms are solved in a uniform procedure by the efficient cutting-plane algorithm and further unified in the Bayesian framework. Experimental results on a toy problem and two benchmark data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

  5. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kégl Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1–9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1 we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2, since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1. Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5. We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems

  6. Introduction to multivariate discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kégl, Balázs

    2013-07-01

    Multivariate discrimination or classification is one of the best-studied problem in machine learning, with a plethora of well-tested and well-performing algorithms. There are also several good general textbooks [1-9] on the subject written to an average engineering, computer science, or statistics graduate student; most of them are also accessible for an average physics student with some background on computer science and statistics. Hence, instead of writing a generic introduction, we concentrate here on relating the subject to a practitioner experimental physicist. After a short introduction on the basic setup (Section 1) we delve into the practical issues of complexity regularization, model selection, and hyperparameter optimization (Section 2), since it is this step that makes high-complexity non-parametric fitting so different from low-dimensional parametric fitting. To emphasize that this issue is not restricted to classification, we illustrate the concept on a low-dimensional but non-parametric regression example (Section 2.1). Section 3 describes the common algorithmic-statistical formal framework that unifies the main families of multivariate classification algorithms. We explain here the large-margin principle that partly explains why these algorithms work. Section 4 is devoted to the description of the three main (families of) classification algorithms, neural networks, the support vector machine, and AdaBoost. We do not go into the algorithmic details; the goal is to give an overview on the form of the functions these methods learn and on the objective functions they optimize. Besides their technical description, we also make an attempt to put these algorithm into a socio-historical context. We then briefly describe some rather heterogeneous applications to illustrate the pattern recognition pipeline and to show how widespread the use of these methods is (Section 5). We conclude the chapter with three essentially open research problems that are either

  7. Is sex-selective abortion morally justified and should it be prohibited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Wendy; Ballantyne, Angela; Draper, Heather

    2007-11-01

    In this paper we argue that sex-selective abortion (SSA) cannot be morally justified and that it should be prohibited. We present two main arguments against SSA. First, we present reasons why the decision for a woman to seek SSA in cultures with strong son-preference cannot be regarded as autonomous on either a narrow or a broad account of autonomy. Second, we identify serious harms associated with SSA including perpetuation of discrimination against women, disruption to social and familial networks, and increased violence against women. For these reasons, SSA should be prohibited by law, and such laws should be enforced. Finally, we describe additional strategies for decreasing son-preference. Some of these strategies rely upon highlighting the disadvantages of women becoming scarce, such as lack of brides and daughters-in-law to care for elderly parents. We should, however, be cautious not to perpetuate the view that the purpose of women is to be the consorts for, and carers of, men, and the providers of children. Arguments against SSA should be located within a concerted effort to ensure greater, deeper social and cultural equality between the sexes.

  8. Perceived discrimination: why applicants and employees expect and perceive discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu Ghazaleh, N.

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation we have investigated perceptions of discrimination. We have shown discrimination exists in the eyes of applicants and employees and especially when from an ethnic minority group. There are psychological variables that influence these perceptions differently for minority and

  9. COMBATING DISCRIMINATION ON THE GROUNDS OF DISABILITY IN INTERNATIONAL AND EU LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Maucec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides for a critical overview of international and in particular EU human rights and non-discrimination frameworks relevant and applicable to unequal treatment of persons with disabilities. Having considered the contents and scope of relevant international human rights and non-discrimination provisions the author turns to the questions as to how these provisions might be exercised, who the rights holders and duty bearers would be and what the challenges of balancing different rights and needs are. The article also includes the definition of the concept of disability in the context of non-discrimination law and examines the dimensions of disability discrimination as defined in international and EU law. The author concludes that international and especially modern EU non-discrimination law establish a wide and inclusive legal framework for dealing with disability discrimination. However, the actual scope of the realization of international and European legal standards on disability discrimination in each state will depend on the consistency and effectiveness of their national implementation and on the manner of putting them into practice.

  10. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (p<0.001). In the total sample, discrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  11. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina R Sutin

    Full Text Available Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2 to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08 and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97 than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  12. Perceived Discrimination in LGBTIQ Discourse: A Typology of Verbal Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Rojas Lizana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New within the field of Discourse Analysis, Perceived Discrimination (PD is the study of discourse that focuses on the perspective of the victims of discrimination. This article explores the experiences of verbal discrimination as reported by eighteen LGBTIQ participants during semi-structured, co-constructed interviews. Data were classified in order to develop a taxonomy of discrimination based on Mellor’s (2003, 2004. This taxonomy foregrounds two types of discrimination: verbal and behavioural. In this paper, I exemplify the forms of verbal discrimination encountered and offer an analysis of the discourse used in the construction of the experiences and of the effects reported. The results show that verbal discrimination is an overt phenomenon and that participants are stressed by the ever present possibility of facing it. Verbal discrimination is mainly triggered by a perceived transgression to the normalised standards of people’s behaviour, movements and look in a heterosexist society. It presents three subtypes: name calling, abuse and remarks. These subtypes are described through the analysis of keywords, effects and expressions (such as faggot, gay, dyke, queer, the pronoun ‘it’, religious comments and other remarks. The type of discrimination used was associated with the level of acquaintance perpetrators have with the experiencers; that is, name calling was used by people unknown to the victims while abuse and remarks by acquaintances and family members. Participants resorted to several discursive strategies to convey their intentions. They used mitigation strategies when wanting to minimize the experience, hedging and repetition were used for emphasis, and to convey urgency and pervasiveness. Metaphorical expressions related to internal or external injuries were also used to express the powerful effect of verbal discrimination on people.

  13. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  14. Housing Discrimination toward Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tom E. C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study involving 68 persons who had advertised apartments for rent was designed to determine if housing discrimination exists toward blind persons. Results indicated that housing discrimination toward blind persons does exist, as nearly 40 percent of the Ss refused to rent the apartment to the blind second caller. (Author/SBH)

  15. Price Discrimination in Academic Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Patrick; Merz, Thomas E.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of price discrimination (charging different prices to different customers for same product) for 89 academic journals in 6 disciplines reveals: incidence of price discrimination rose between 1974 and 1984, increase in mean institutional (library) subscription price exceeded increase in mean individual subscription price. Journal list…

  16. Vibrotactile Discrimination of Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Frank A.; Ammirante, Paolo; Fels, Deborah I.

    2012-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the ability to discriminate between musical timbres based on vibrotactile stimulation alone. Participants made same/different judgments on pairs of complex waveforms presented sequentially to the back through voice coils embedded in a conforming chair. Discrimination between cello, piano, and trombone tones matched…

  17. Perceptions of Discrimination during Downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkey, Linda Kathryn

    1993-01-01

    Demonstrates that perceptions of ethnic discrimination during layoffs are moderately correlated with perceptions of selection fairness and information access during the layoff process. Shows that, in the company studied, both minority and majority ethnic group members felt equally discriminated against. (SR)

  18. Endophilia or exophobia: beyond discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feld, J.F.; Salamanca Acosta, N.; Hamermesh, D.

    2013-01-01

    The immense literature on discrimination treats outcomes as relative: One group suffers compared to another. But does a difference arise because agents discriminate against others—are exophobic—or because they favor their own kind—are endophilic? This difference matters, as the relative importance

  19. Perceived discrimination in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iris Andriessen; Henk Fernee; Karin Wittebrood

    2014-01-01

    Only available in electronic version There is no systematic structure in the Netherlands for mapping out the discrimination experiences of different groups in different areas of society. As in many other countries, discrimination studies in the Netherlands mostly focus on the experiences

  20. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  1. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  2. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing any separability assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its...

  3. Dynamic provisioning for community services

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Li

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc

  4. Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT generates lots of high-dimensional sensor intelligent data. The processing of high-dimensional data (e.g., data visualization and data classification is very difficult, so it requires excellent subspace learning algorithms to learn a latent subspace to preserve the intrinsic structure of the high-dimensional data, and abandon the least useful information in the subsequent processing. In this context, many subspace learning algorithms have been presented. However, in the process of transforming the high-dimensional data into the low-dimensional space, the huge difference between the sum of inter-class distance and the sum of intra-class distance for distinct data may cause a bias problem. That means that the impact of intra-class distance is overwhelmed. To address this problem, we propose a novel algorithm called Hierarchical Discriminant Analysis (HDA. It minimizes the sum of intra-class distance first, and then maximizes the sum of inter-class distance. This proposed method balances the bias from the inter-class and that from the intra-class to achieve better performance. Extensive experiments are conducted on several benchmark face datasets. The results reveal that HDA obtains better performance than other dimensionality reduction algorithms.

  5. Studies in genetic discrimination. Final progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    We have screened 1006 respondents in a study of genetic discrimination. Analysis of these responses has produced evidence of the range of institutions engaged in genetic discrimination and demonstrates the impact of this discrimination on the respondents to the study. We have found that both ignorance and policy underlie genetic discrimination and that anti-discrimination laws are being violated.

  6. 15 CFR 922.193 - Prohibited or otherwise regulated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., seizure or disposition of seized property in connection with enforcement of the Act or any regulations... an emergency threatening life or the environment. (d) The prohibitions in paragraphs (a) (1) through...

  7. 5 CFR 734.302 - Use of official authority; prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... political campaign in order to win a Federal contract: ... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Prohibited Activities § 734.302... title while participating in political activity; (2) Using his or her authority to coerce any person to...

  8. 34 CFR 300.174 - Prohibition on mandatory medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... construed to create a Federal prohibition against teachers and other school personnel consulting or sharing classroom-based observations with parents or guardians regarding a student's academic and functional...

  9. The toxicology of cannabis and cannabis prohibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2007-08-01

    The acute side effects caused by cannabis use are mainly related to psyche and cognition, and to circulation. Euphoria, anxiety, changes in sensory perception, impairment of memory and psychomotor performance are common effects after a dose is taken that exceeds an individually variable threshold. Cannabis consumption may increase heart rate and change blood pressure, which may have serious consequences in people with heart disease. Effects of chronic use may be induction of psychosis and development of dependency to the drug. Effects on cognitive abilities seem to be reversible after abstinence, except possibly in very heavy users. Cannabis exposure in utero may have negative consequences on brain development with subtle impairment of cognitive abilities in later life. Consequences of cannabis smoking may be similar to those of tobacco smoking and should be avoided. Use by young people has more detrimental effects than use by adults. There appear to be promising therapeutic uses of cannabis for a range of indications. Use of moderate doses in a therapeutic context is usually not associated with severe side effects. Current prohibition on cannabis use may also have harmful side effects for the individual and the society, while having little influence on prevalence of use. Harm is greatest for seriously ill people who may benefit from a treatment with cannabis. This makes it difficult to justify criminal penalties against patients.

  10. Consent: statutory Provisions in Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBY

    CONSENT IN THE ERITREAN CIVIL CODE. Consent is a requirement or prerequisite for many ... Notwithstanding the provisions of ArtfZl] Civil Code where an investigating police officer considers it necessary, having .... Liability Article 2028 — General Principle. Whosoever causes damage to another by an offence.

  11. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2012-01-01

    The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...

  12. IMPLICATIONS OF COMMUNITY INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... a high level of community participation in the provision of such infrastructure as schools, electricity, ... Department of Geography & Environmental Management, ... “secondary towns”. The range of cites or towns that constitute the level of urban hierarchy vary among countries, depending on the pattern of.

  13. Equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements: guidelines and tools for integrated provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available looks at equitable provision of social facilities for a range of settlements and offers guidelines and tools for integrated provision that incorporates the 1) development of fully provisioned quality living environments, 2) improvement of access...

  14. Covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peirong; Zhu, J I; Zhu, Lixing; Li, Y I

    Linear discriminant analysis has been widely used to characterize or separate multiple classes via linear combinations of features. However, the high dimensionality of features from modern biological experiments defies traditional discriminant analysis techniques. Possible interfeature correlations present additional challenges and are often underused in modelling. In this paper, by incorporating possible interfeature correlations, we propose a covariance-enhanced discriminant analysis method that simultaneously and consistently selects informative features and identifies the corresponding discriminable classes. Under mild regularity conditions, we show that the method can achieve consistent parameter estimation and model selection, and can attain an asymptotically optimal misclassification rate. Extensive simulations have verified the utility of the method, which we apply to a renal transplantation trial.

  15. Getting the Facts on Housing Discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sara L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide for conducting investigations of housing discrimination complaints. Outlines interview questions, documentation procedures, procedures for establishing proof of discrimination, and evaluation techniques. (MK)

  16. EU Law and Multiple Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    2006-01-01

    In EU law, nationality and gender were the only equality issues on the legal agenda from the outset in 1958 and for about 40 years. Multiple discrimination was not addressed until the 1990's. The intersectionality approach which has been widely discussed outside Europe has mainly been used...... with a view to gendermainstreaming the fight against other kinds of discrimination (on grounds of ethnic origin, age, etc)....

  17. Handheld Sensor for UXO Discrimination:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Goods Properties Inc. (formerly Remington Arms Co.) is conducting an investigation for UXO on the 422-acre Lake Success Business Park property in... UXO Discrimination June 2006 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is...number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUN 2006 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Handheld Sensor for UXO Discrimination: Cost

  18. A laser pumped quantum discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkin, L.A.; Fateev, G.P.; Pikhtelev, A.I.; Puzanov, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    A method of laser pumping in a quantum discriminator employing alkaline metal vapors is investigated. A good qualitative correlation between computed and experimental relations of the quality parameter on the intensity of laser light is noted. It is demonstrated that the value of the quality parameter of the quantum discriminator with laser pumping may be increased by a factor of at least two compared to a traditional scheme.

  19. Interprofessionalism, personalization and care provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurenson, Mary; Brocklehurst, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    This UK-based empirical research investigates interprofessionalism and personalization to assess their potential to achieve quality care provision for people with long-term conditions. Governmental policies extol the virtues of interprofessionalism and personalization to drive modernization forward, however, change requires the commitment of health and social care professionals. Therefore the complexity of turning policy into practice requires continual review to ensure policy ideals become practice realities rather than speculative rhetoric. This paper examines interprofessional working (IPW) and interprofessional education (IPE) by analysing the experiences and working relationships of professionals from different professions and their potential impact upon personalization initiatives. The conclusion argues that educational providers and professional awarding bodies need to enshrine interprofessionalism into curricula and qualification accreditation thereby instilling collaboration intrinsically into care provision.

  20. Colleges Grapple with New Provision of U.S. Tax Code that Requires Comparable Benefits for All Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Carolyn J.

    1988-01-01

    The provision, known as Section 89 of the Internal Revenue Code, that requires employers to make sure that their health and insurance benefits do not discriminate against low-paid employees, is discussed. The process of comparing employee benefits and a lack of federal guidance has complicated matters. (MLW)

  1. Transgender inclusion in state non-discrimination policies: The democratic deficit and political powerlessness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Flores

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Transgender people—people whose gender identity or expression is different from their assigned sex at birth—and their allies advocate for the inclusion of gender identity or transgender in state non-discrimination policies. These policies generally proscribe discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations. Courts and administrative agencies have determined discrimination against transgender people is a violation of existing statutes, but there remain efforts by advocates to seek policies that explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of transgender status, which are often the result of legislation going through the political process. A pluralist understanding of the political process theorizes that a majority coalition of minorities can offer social groups policies they support. This rests on the presumption that a majority coalition of minorities should rule. Any indication to the contrary may suggest a democratic deficit, whereby more than a majority is necessary for policy introduction. We find that there is a substantial democratic deficit regarding the inclusion of gender identity or transgender in employment non-discrimination policies. On average, state support for the policy must be 81% in order for the state to have a policy reflecting such sentiment. This leaves substantial implications for the political powerlessness of transgender people in the political process.

  2. Title IX and Pregnancy Discrimination in Higher Education: The New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mary Ann; Younger, Jaclyn

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy discrimination is a little known area covered by Title IX. According to the Title IX regulations, areas of prohibited discrimination include: admissions; hiring; coursework accommodations and completion; pregnancy leave policies and status protection upon return from leave; and health insurance coverage. These regulations will soon get more attention as the Obama Administration insists on Title IX dissemination and compliance in an effort to stop the leaky pipeline for women in the STEM fields. Research shows that pregnancy and childbirth are the major reasons why women drop out of research science in much greater numbers than men; this dropout is most likely to occur among graduate students and postdoctoral fellows who are in their peak childbearing years. A similar pattern of dropout can be seen in all fields, including related professional schools. Research also reveals that there are currently few established policies in higher education which adequately address pregnancy and childbirth in formal policies for students. This article will address new efforts by the United States Department of Education and the federal agencies to begin to seek compliance relating to Title IX and pregnancy discrimination in educational institutions. It will discuss the recent successful efforts of the U.S. Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights in investigating and settling pregnancy discrimination claims as well as the lessons learned in private action lawsuits under Title IX. Title IX private action suits have transformed athletics for women, and more recently Title IX has been applied in sexual harassment cases. Pregnancy discrimination is now the new frontier.

  3. Employment Discrimination against LGBT Utahns

    OpenAIRE

    Rosky, Clifford; Mallory, Christy; Smith, Jenni; Badgett, M. V. Lee

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes data from a 2010 survey on the employment experiences of 939 LGBT people living in Utah.  The study found that 44% of LGB people and 66% of transgender people in Utah have experienced employment discrimination.  The data showed that employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity currently occurs in Utah, with close to 30% of LGB respondents and 45% of transgender respondents reporting that they experienced some form of workplace harassment on a w...

  4. Labor Market Discrimination: Vietnamese Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linus Yamane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese and East European immigrants face similar obstacles in the U.S. labor market. This provides for an interesting test of racial discrimination in the labor market. Does it make any difference if an immigrant is Asian or White? When Vietnamese immigrants are compared to East European immigrants, Vietnamese men earn 7-9% less than comparable East European men, with more discrimination among the less educated, and in the larger Vietnamese population centers like California. Vietnamese women earn as much as comparable East European women. Vietnamese immigrants, male and female, are much less likely to hold managerial and supervisory positions than comparable East European immigrants.

  5. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  6. Optimal Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj

    2009-01-01

    There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...

  7. Digital discrimination: Political bias in Internet service provision across ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidmann, Nils B; Benitez-Baleato, Suso; Hunziker, Philipp; Glatz, Eduard; Dimitropoulos, Xenofontas

    2016-09-09

    The global expansion of the Internet is frequently associated with increased government transparency, political rights, and democracy. However, this assumption depends on marginalized groups getting access in the first place. Here we document a strong and persistent political bias in the allocation of Internet coverage across ethnic groups worldwide. Using estimates of Internet penetration obtained through network measurements, we show that politically excluded groups suffer from significantly lower Internet penetration rates compared with those in power, an effect that cannot be explained by economic or geographic factors. Our findings underline one of the central impediments to "liberation technology," which is that governments still play a key role in the allocation of the Internet and can, intentionally or not, sabotage its liberating effects. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Analysis of drug prohibition and estimation of budgetary implications of marijuana legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Flegr, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of drug prohibition on society. It analyzes starting-points and aims of prohibition and shows, how prohibition attempts to achieve its goals. Furthermore, it explores social costs of prohibition, mainly the impact on potencial health risks of drug use and property and violent crimes. Then it presents main reasons of failure to achieve its goals. Furthemore, this paper estimates probable budgetary implications of marijuana legalization. This estimate is based on ...

  9. Discriminant Analysis on a Microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Alan H.

    1988-01-01

    Described is a method for discriminant analysis which uses the multiple regression facilities offered by many microcomputer statistical packages. This method is illustrated with an ecological example using the MICROTAB statistical package on a BBC microcomputer. Compares these results with an analysis of the same data using SPSS X. (Author/CW)

  10. Contextual Advantage for State Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schmid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding quantitative aspects of quantum phenomena which cannot be explained by any classical model has foundational importance for understanding the boundary between classical and quantum theory. It also has practical significance for identifying information processing tasks for which those phenomena provide a quantum advantage. Using the framework of generalized noncontextuality as our notion of classicality, we find one such nonclassical feature within the phenomenology of quantum minimum-error state discrimination. Namely, we identify quantitative limits on the success probability for minimum-error state discrimination in any experiment described by a noncontextual ontological model. These constraints constitute noncontextuality inequalities that are violated by quantum theory, and this violation implies a quantum advantage for state discrimination relative to noncontextual models. Furthermore, our noncontextuality inequalities are robust to noise and are operationally formulated, so that any experimental violation of the inequalities is a witness of contextuality, independently of the validity of quantum theory. Along the way, we introduce new methods for analyzing noncontextuality scenarios and demonstrate a tight connection between our minimum-error state discrimination scenario and a Bell scenario.

  11. Spatial layout affects speed discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verghese, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We address a surprising result in a previous study of speed discrimination with multiple moving gratings: discrimination thresholds decreased when the number of stimuli was increased, but remained unchanged when the area of a single stimulus was increased [Verghese & Stone (1995). Vision Research, 35, 2811-2823]. In this study, we manipulated the spatial- and phase relationship between multiple grating patches to determine their effect on speed discrimination thresholds. In a fusion experiment, we merged multiple stimulus patches, in stages, into a single patch. Thresholds increased as the patches were brought closer and their phase relationship was adjusted to be consistent with a single patch. Thresholds increased further still as these patches were fused into a single patch. In a fission experiment, we divided a single large patch into multiple patches by superimposing a cross with luminance equal to that of the background. Thresholds decreased as the large patch was divided into quadrants and decreased further as the quadrants were maximally separated. However, when the cross luminance was darker than the background, it was perceived as an occluder and thresholds, on average, were unchanged from that for the single large patch. A control experiment shows that the observed trend in discrimination thresholds is not due to the differences in perceived speed of the stimuli. These results suggest that the parsing of the visual image into entities affects the combination of speed information across space, and that each discrete entity effectively provides a single independent estimate of speed.

  12. Preschool Children's Discrimination of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ellen; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Children's abilities to judge "who is older" without using size as a cue were studied. Five-year-olds were better able to discriminate age than four-year-olds but were not equal to adults. No significant sex differences were found. (Author/RD)

  13. Structural Discrimination and Autonomous Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hin-Yan

    2016-01-01

    discrimination looms with the possibility of crash optimisation impulses in which a protective shield is cast over those individuals in which society may have a vested interest in prioritising or safeguarding. A stark dystopian scenario is introduced to sketch the contours whereby personal beacons signal...

  14. The Racial Equality Directive And Effective Protection Against Discrimination: Mismatches Between The Substantive Law And Its Application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ambrus (Mónika); M. Busstra (Marjolein); K.A.M. Henrard (Kristin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe success of the Racial Equality Directive (RED) in terms of effective protection against discrimination depends inter alia on the coherence and correlation between its substantive and procedural provisions, both in terms of the wording of the Directive and in terms of its

  15. 76 FR 59426 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... prohibited transaction restrictions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act...) The term ``Independent Fiduciary'' shall mean the fiduciary of the Plan making the decision to engage... Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended; (b) The term Affiliate means: Any person...

  16. 36 CFR 28.10 - Permitted and prohibited uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... building which is used principally as a single-family home, church, school, or community facility; as an...) The construction or expansion of an apartment building or other building with multiple dwelling units or conversion of an existing building into a multiple family home is prohibited. (ii) The...

  17. 40 CFR 763.165 - Manufacture and importation prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manufacture and importation...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT ASBESTOS Prohibition of the Manufacture, Importation, Processing, and Distribution in Commerce of Certain Asbestos-Containing Products; Labeling Requirements § 763.165 Manufacture...

  18. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its fraudulent...

  19. 9 CFR 95.3 - Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Byproducts from diseased animals prohibited. 95.3 Section 95.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  20. 34 CFR 303.123 - Prohibition against commingling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition against commingling. 303.123 Section 303.123 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND...

  1. 76 FR 49788 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Brotherhood of Carpenters Pension Fund (the Plan), 2011-11; and L-11651 and L-11652, Verizon Communications... Department at (202) 693-8648. (This is not a toll-free number.) The United Brotherhood of Carpenters Pension Fund (the Plan), Located in Las Vegas, Nevada, [Prohibited Transaction Exemption 2011- 11; Exemption...

  2. 31 CFR 595.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section and a party to the transaction believes the funds have been blocked due to mistaken... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions involving blocked property. 595.201 Section 595.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and...

  3. 31 CFR 536.201 - Prohibited transactions involving blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... institution pursuant to this section and a party to the transaction believes the funds have been blocked due... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited transactions involving blocked property. 536.201 Section 536.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and...

  4. 77 FR 76770 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... modify Section III.X of the individual Prohibited Transaction Exemptions (PTEs) and final authorizations... real property or leasehold interests therein. Section II of the original Underwriter Exemptions (PTEs... Department amended PTEs 89-88, 89-89, and 89-90 at 55 FR 48939 to include Fitch Inc. as an acceptable credit...

  5. 12 CFR 723.2 - What are the prohibited activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... compensated director is recused from the decision making process. ... MEMBER BUSINESS LOANS § 723.2 What are the prohibited activities? (a) Who is ineligible to receive a member business loan? You may not grant a member business loan to the following: (1) Your chief executive...

  6. 76 FR 27356 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... value of the Auction Rate Securities (the ARS or the Securities) plus accrued but unpaid income... prohibited transaction restrictions of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (ERISA or the Act..., plus any accrued but unpaid interest or dividends; (f) The Plan does not waive any rights or claims in...

  7. 48 CFR 3009.171-5 - Serious felonies prohibiting award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ethics of the business concern; or are of a nature that is inconsistent with the mission of FPS... the integrity or business ethics of the business concern; or is of a nature that is inconsistent with... convictions will prohibit a business concern from being awarded a contract for FPS guard services. Serious...

  8. 5 CFR 6201.102 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 6201.102 Prohibited... employee or covered family member shall own securities issued by an exporter or lending institution...) Distribution of list of designated entities. The DAEO shall distribute the List of Designated Entities to all...

  9. 30 CFR 706.19 - Resolving prohibited interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... entity (Department, bureau, office, etc.) where the employee works shall promptly advise the employee...) Remedial action may include: (1) Reassignment of the employee to a position which performs no function or... INTERIOR GENERAL RESTRICTION ON FINANCIAL INTERESTS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES § 706.19 Resolving prohibited...

  10. 5 CFR 2635.403 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... between the prohibition or restriction as applied to spouses and minor children and the efficiency of the... by this subpart. (e) Eligibility for special tax treatment. An employee required to sell or otherwise divest a financial interest may be eligible to defer the tax consequences of divestiture under subpart J...

  11. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of spiny...

  12. 4 CFR 2.5 - Prohibited personnel practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for employment— (1) On the basis of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, as prohibited... reasonably believes evidences— (i) A violation of any law, rule, or regulation, or (ii) Mismanagement, a... information which the employee or applicant reasonably believes evidences— (i) A violation of any law, rule...

  13. 14 CFR 1250.103-2 - Specific discriminatory acts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. 1250.103-2 Section 1250.103-2 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION..., directly or through contractual or other arrangements, on ground of race, color, or national origin: (1...

  14. 5 CFR 734.409 - Participation in political organizations; prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in political organizations... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.409 Participation in political organizations; prohibitions. An employee covered...

  15. 5 CFR 734.410 - Participation in political fundraising; prohibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in political fundraising... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITIES OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES Employees in Certain Agencies and Positions § 734.410 Participation in political fundraising; prohibitions. An employee covered...

  16. Author: F Osman LEGISLATIVE PROHIBITIONS ON WEARING A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    support of this, Weil26 stated that teachers and parents described an unmanageable situation at schools with .... authorities prohibited a primary school teacher from wearing a headscarf while teaching. Switzerland ... some disagreement as to how strict the separation between religion and the state should be, and what is ...

  17. Legislative prohibitions on wearing a headscarf: are they justified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article critically examines the reasons underlying these bans and argues that these prohibitions are not justified. It does this by first analysing the place of the headscarf in Islam, its religious basis and its significance to Muslim women. It argues that the headscarf is more than just a mere religious symbol and that Muslim ...

  18. 5 CFR 8401.102 - Prohibited financial interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibitions in this section, such as acquisition by inheritance, gift, or merger, acquisition or other change... dividend or the exercise of preemptive rights arising out of securities permitted by paragraph (b)(2)(i)(A... legal interest derived from a trust. It extends to any right to acquire or dispose of any long or short...

  19. 76 FR 58403 - Prohibitions-Developed Recreation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Forest Service 36 CFR Part 261 RIN 0596-AC98 Prohibitions--Developed Recreation Sites AGENCY: Forest.... Section-by-Section Analysis 36 CFR Part 261, Subpart A Section 261.16 Developed Recreation Sites.... 261.16 Developed recreation sites. * * * * * (j) Bringing in or possessing an animal, other than a...

  20. 76 FR 16459 - Prohibiting Exports Involving Libya by Executive Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Prohibiting Exports Involving Libya by Executive Order AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Government of Libya. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Grace Kim, Office of the General Counsel, U.S. Nuclear... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Exports Involving the Government of Libya Suspended by Executive Order Under an...

  1. 34 CFR 75.708 - Prohibition of subgrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Responsibilities of a Grantee? General Administrative Responsibilities § 75.708 Prohibition of subgrants. (a) A... statute. (b) A grantee may contract for supplies, equipment, construction, and other services, in accordance with 34 CFR part 74, Subpart C—Post-Award Requirements (Procurement Standards §§ 74.40-74.48) and...

  2. 21 CFR 530.41 - Drugs prohibited for extralabel use in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs prohibited for extralabel use in animals. (a) The following drugs, families of drugs, and substances are prohibited for extralabel animal and human drug uses in food-producing animals. (1... following drugs, families of drugs, and substances are prohibited for extralabel animal and human drug uses...

  3. 40 CFR 148.3 - Dilution prohibited as a substitute for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dilution prohibited as a substitute for treatment. 148.3 Section 148.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... prohibited as a substitute for treatment. The prohibition of § 268.3 shall apply to owners or operators of...

  4. 40 CFR 80.27 - Controls and prohibitions on gasoline volatility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Controls and prohibitions on gasoline... prohibitions on gasoline volatility. (a)(1) Prohibited activities in 1991. During the 1991 regulatory control... shall sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, or transport gasoline whose Reid vapor...

  5. 31 CFR 538.204 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. 538.204 Section 538.204 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 538.204 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Sudan. Except as otherwise...

  6. 12 CFR 4.37 - Persons and entities with access to OCC information; prohibition on dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... information; prohibition on dissemination. 4.37 Section 4.37 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY... § 4.37 Persons and entities with access to OCC information; prohibition on dissemination. (a) Current... agreement to abide by, the prohibition on the dissemination of non-public OCC information contained in...

  7. 26 CFR 1.857-5 - Net income and loss from prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net income and loss from prohibited transactions... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.857-5 Net income and loss... equal to 100 percent of the net income derived from prohibited transactions. A prohibited transaction is...

  8. Discrimination and health in an English study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, M; Paul, Sheila; Lambert, Helen; Ahmad, Waqar; Paradies, Yin; Davey Smith, George

    2008-04-01

    In this study we examine the relationship between education, racial discrimination and health among white (n=227), African Caribbean (n=213) and Indian and Pakistani (n=233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds, England, as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures of discrimination included any physical attack, verbal abuse and a combined variable, any discrimination due to race, colour, ethnicity or sex. Analyses were conducted examining the relationship between education and discrimination, discrimination and health, and discrimination and health controlling for education. People educated above secondary level were more likely than people educated to secondary level or below to report being physically attacked, verbally abused and exposed to discrimination. People from minority ethnic groups (African Caribbean and Indian Pakistani) were more likely to be verbally abused and exposed to discrimination than the white group. Ethnicity and education interacted for African Caribbeans, such that respondents with post-school qualifications were more likely to report verbal abuse or any discrimination. There was no association between having been exposed to any kind of discrimination and having fair or poor health. Physical attack and any discrimination were associated with anxiety, worry and depression. The results remained unchanged when ethnicity and education were included in the models. Education and ethnicity were associated with differences in exposure to discrimination. In turn, exposure to discrimination was associated with higher levels of anxiety, worry or depression although there was no association between discrimination and health. The results support the contention that racial discrimination may play an important role in modifying the relationship between ethnicity, socioeconomic position and health. The counter-intuitive relationship between education and levels of reported discrimination in non-minority ethnic groups highlights

  9. 29 CFR 1979.102 - Obligations and prohibited acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., regulation, or standard of the Federal Aviation Administration or any other provision of Federal law relating..., regulation, or standard of the Federal Aviation Administration or any other provision of Federal law relating... THE WENDELL H. FORD AVIATION INVESTMENT AND REFORM ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY Complaints, Investigations...

  10. Age-based hiring discrimination as a function of equity norms and self-perceived objectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Lindner

    Full Text Available Participants completed a questionnaire priming them to perceive themselves as either objective or biased, either before or after evaluating a young or old job applicant for a position linked to youthful stereotypes. Participants agreed that they were objective and tended to disagree that they were biased. Extending past research, both the objective and bias priming conditions led to an increase in age discrimination compared to the control condition. We also investigated whether equity norms reduced age discrimination, by manipulating the presence or absence of an equity statement reminding decision-makers of the legal prohibitions against discrimination "on the basis of age, disability, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, or sex." The presence of equity norms increased enthusiasm for both young and old applicants when participants were not already primed to think of themselves as objective, but did not reduce age-based hiring discrimination. Equity norms had no effect when individuals thought of themselves as objective - they preferred the younger more than the older job applicant. However, the presence of equity norms did affect individuals' perceptions of which factors were important to their hiring decisions, increasing the perceived importance of applicants' expertise and decreasing the perceived importance of the applicants' age. The results suggest that interventions that rely exclusively on decision-makers' intentions to behave equitably may be ineffective.

  11. Within centre evaluation of hypercalcaemia discriminant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Conradsen, Knut

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic hypercalcaemia discriminant functions, discriminating between clinically significant and non-significant hypercalcaemia, were tested 5 years after their development in order to evaluate the impact of time on their diagnostic capacity. Two populations, consisting of 257 and 129 patients...

  12. Discriminating Yogurt Microstructure Using Diffuse Reflectance Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Jacob Lercke; Møller, Flemming; Abildgaard, Otto Højager Attermann

    2015-01-01

    The protein microstructure of many dairy products is of great importance for the consumers’ experience when eating the product. However, studies concerning discrimination between protein microstructures are limited. This paper presents preliminary results for discriminating different yogurt...

  13. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p < 0.001) or dual user (use both cigarettes and e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p < 0.001). Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores (b = -1.92, p < 0.001), total drinks consumed over 14 days (b = -4.58, p = 0.002), and average drinks per drinking day (b = -0.71, p < 0.001) were all lower when e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  14. Labor Mobility and Racial Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Deschamps; José de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of labor mobility on racial discrimination. We present an equilibrium search model that reveals an inverted U-shaped relationship between labor mobility and race-based wage differentials. We explore this relationship empirically with an exogenous mobility shock on the European soccer labor market. The Bosman ruling by the European Court of Justice in 1995 lifted restrictions on soccer player mobility. Using a panel of all clubs in the English first division from...

  15. Maximum Entropy Discrimination Markov Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jun; Xing, Eric P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel and general framework called {\\it Maximum Entropy Discrimination Markov Networks} (MaxEnDNet), which integrates the max-margin structured learning and Bayesian-style estimation and combines and extends their merits. Major innovations of this model include: 1) It generalizes the extant Markov network prediction rule based on a point estimator of weights to a Bayesian-style estimator that integrates over a learned distribution of the weights. 2) It extends the ...

  16. DISCRIMINATION AGAINST MIGRANT WORKERS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Badarulzaman, Muhammad Hafiz; Ayub, Zainal A; Yusoff, Zuryati M; Wahab, Harlida A

    2017-01-01

    AbstractMigrant workers are often discriminated against in almost every aspect of life. Discrimination against them is due to irrational dislike of them and also negative perception towards them. It is alleged that migrant workers contribute to the crimes hike in Malaysia. Using doctrinal research methodology, this article discusses direct and perceptive discrimination against them. This article concludes that physical discriminations are mostly happened because ineffective enforcement of the...

  17. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market. It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure...

  18. Fairness Testing: Testing Software for Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Galhotra, Sainyam; Brun, Yuriy; Meliou, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper defines software fairness and discrimination and develops a testing-based method for measuring if and how much software discriminates, focusing on causality in discriminatory behavior. Evidence of software discrimination has been found in modern software systems that recommend criminal sentences, grant access to financial products, and determine who is allowed to participate in promotions. Our approach, Themis, generates efficient test suites to measure discrimination. Given a sche...

  19. Gender discrimination in exam grading?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2018-01-01

    Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses t...... tendencies are in accordance with statistical discrimination as a mechanism for grading bias in essay writing and with gender-stereotyped beliefs of math being a male domain.......Girls, on average, obtain higher test scores in school than boys, and recent research suggests that part of this difference may be due to discrimination against boys in grading. This bias is consequential if admission to subsequent education programs is based on exam scores. This study assesses...... are scored twice (blind and non-blind). Both strategies use difference-in-differences methods. Although imprecisely estimated, the point estimates indicate a blind grading advantage for boys in essay writing of approximately 5-8% SD, corresponding to 9-15% of the gender gap in essay exam grades. The effect...

  20. Discriminating between explosions and earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake, explosion, and a nuclear test data are compared with forward modeling and band-pass filtered surface wave amplitude data for exploring methodologies to improve earthquake-explosion discrimination. The proposed discrimination method is based on the solutions of a double integral transformation in the wavenumber and frequency domains. Recorded explosion data on June 26, 2001 (39.212°N, 125.383°E) and October 30, 2001 (38.748°N, 125.267°E), a nuclear test on October 9, 2006 (41.275°N, 129.095°E), and two earthquakes on April 14, 2002 (39.207°N, 125.686°E) and June 7, 2002 (38.703°N, 125.638°E), all in North Korea, are used to discriminate between explosions and earthquakes by seismic wave analysis and numerical modeling. The explosion signal is characterized by first P waves with higher energy than that of S waves. Rg waves are clearly dominant at 0.05-0.5 Hz in the explosion data but not in the earthquake data. This feature is attributed to the dominant P waves in the explosion and their coupling with the SH components.

  1. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination in Asian Elephants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U. Tin; Htun, U. Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants ("Elephas aximus") in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black- discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white- discrimination in 5.3…

  2. Non-discrimination and equality of women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostland, Rolanda Carina

    2006-01-01

    Non-discrimination is considered to be a cornerstone of the human rights framework of the United Nations. Already in the UN Charter of 1945 it is stated that human rights should be promoted without discrimination as to, amongst other things, sex. This principle of non-discrimination on the ground of

  3. Experienced discrimination amongst European old citizens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Wim J. A.; van Santvoort, Marc M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the experienced age discrimination of old European citizens and the factors related to this discrimination. Differences in experienced discrimination between old citizens of different European countries are explored. Data from the 2008 ESS survey are used. Old age is defined as

  4. Drivers of workplace discrimination against people with disabilities: the utility of Attribution Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T; Cheing, Gladys; Rosenthal, David A; Bezyak, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to determine what drives workplace discrimination against people with disabilities. These findings are then compared to available literature on attribution theory, which concerns itself with public perceptions of the controllability and stability of various impairments. The sample included 35,763 allegations of discriminations filed by people with disabilities under the employment provisions of the Americans with Disabilities Act. Group A included impairments deemed by Corrigan et al. [1988] to be uncontrollable but stable: visual impairment (representing 13% of the total allegations in this study), cancer (12%), cardiovascular disease (19%), and spinal cord injuries (5%). The controllable but unstable impairments in group B included depression (38%), schizophrenia (2%), alcohol and other drug abuse (4%), and HIV/AIDS (7%). The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission had resolved all allegations in terms of merit Resolutions (a positive finding of discrimination) and Resolutions without merit. Allegations of workplace discrimination were found to center mainly on hiring, discharge, harassment, and reasonable accommodation issues. Perceived workplace discrimination (as measured by allegations filed with EEOC) does occur at higher levels in Group B, especially when serious issues involving discharge and disability harassment are involved. With the glaring exception of HIV/AIDS, however, actual discrimination (as measured by EEOC merit Resolutions) occurs at higher levels for Group A.

  5. 26 CFR 54.9802-1 - Prohibiting discrimination against participants and beneficiaries based on a health factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the policies they sell in the small group market on a guaranteed available basis to all small..., prenatal care or well-baby visits. (iv) A program that reimburses employees for the costs of smoking...

  6. 38 CFR 61.67 - Recovery provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years... status within 3 years from the time of award. Grantee B then provides services to homeless veterans for a... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovery provisions. 61...

  7. 24 CFR 206.27 - Mortgage provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage provisions. 206.27 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES HOME EQUITY CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.27 Mortgage provisions. (a...

  8. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61, subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group 2...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1) When...

  12. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream originating...

  13. 28 CFR 512.21 - Copyright provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copyright provisions. 512.21 Section 512... ADMINISTRATION RESEARCH Research § 512.21 Copyright provisions. (a) An employee of the Bureau may not copyright... non-employee may copyright original materials developed as a result of research conducted under this...

  14. Shelter provision and state sovereignty in Calais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Boyle

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.

  15. 40 CFR 192.42 - Substitute provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitute provisions. 192.42 Section 192.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION... § 192.42 Substitute provisions. The regulatory agency may, with the concurrence of EPA, substitute for...

  16. 38 CFR 8.29 - Policy provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy provisions. 8.29 Section 8.29 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE National Service Life Insurance Policy § 8.29 Policy provisions. Contracts of insurance authorized to be made in accordance with the...

  17. 24 CFR 5.321 - Lease provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GENERAL HUD PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS; WAIVERS Pet Ownership for the Elderly or Persons With Disabilities General Requirements § 5.321 Lease provisions. (a) Lease provisions. (1) PHAs which have established pet... persons with disabilities: (i) State that tenants are permitted to keep common household pets in their...

  18. 50 CFR 71.12 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MANAGEMENT OF FISHERIES CONSERVATION AREAS HUNTING AND FISHING ON NATIONAL FISH HATCHERY AREAS Fishing § 71.12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... may be amended as needed to meet management responsibilities for the area. ...

  19. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  20. 9 CFR 93.916 - Special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Aquatic Animal Species General Provisions for Vhs-Regulated Fish Species... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions. 93.916 Section 93.916 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. Cadrul normatuiv international in materia combaterii discriminării şi violenţei faţă de femei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitic Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Combating discrimination and violence against women is an imperative of our time. All efforts of international society today are directed to ensure an effective regulatory framework. It is also important to implement into national law the relevant provisions for promoting gender equality and combating discrimination against women. It ultimately matter consistent application of national legislation, containing relevant measures to ensure gender equality and the establishment of liability for non-compliance of national legislation and international treaties to which the State is a party. The purpose of this research is to identify provisions of international instruments for combating discrimination and violence against women. In addition, we intend to identify the universal and regional mechanisms effective measures to ensure gender equality, combating discrimination and violence against women.

  2. Implementing the optimal provision of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik

    2014-04-29

    Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.

  3. Assessing access to care for transgender and gender nonconforming people: a consideration of diversity in combating discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Taylor M

    2014-06-01

    Transgender and gender nonconforming people face stigma and discrimination from a wide variety of sources and through numerous social realms. Stigma and discrimination originating from biomedicine and health care provision may impact this group's access to primary care. Such stigma and discrimination may originate not only from direct events and past negative experiences, but also through medicine's role in providing treatments of transitioning, the development of formal diagnoses to provide access to such treatments, and the medical language used to describe this diverse group. This paper examines the postponement of primary curative care among this marginalized group of people by drawing from the National Transgender Discrimination Survey, one of the largest available datasets for this underserved group. This paper also proposes an innovate categorization system to account for differences in self-conceptualization and identity, which has been of considerable concern for transgender and gender nonconforming communities but remains underexplored in social and health research. Results suggest that experience, identity, state of transition, and disclosure of transgender or gender nonconforming status are associated with postponement due to discrimination. Other findings suggest that postponement associated with primary place of seeking care and health insurance has ties to both discrimination and affordability. These findings highlight the importance of combating stigma and discrimination generated from within or experienced at sites of biomedicine or health care provision in improving access to care for this group of people. Improving access to care for all gender variant people requires a critical evaluation of existing research practices and health care provision to ensure that care is tailored as needed to each person's perspective in relation to larger social processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing for Statistical Discrimination based on Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesner, Rune Vammen

    This paper develops a model which incorporates the two most commonly cited strands of the literature on statistical discrimination, namely screening discrimination and stereotyping. The model is used to provide empirical evidence of statistical discrimination based on gender in the labour market....... It is shown that the implications of both screening discrimination and stereotyping are consistent with observable wage dynamics. In addition, it is found that the gender wage gap decreases in tenure but increases in job transitions and that the fraction of women in high-ranking positions within a firm does...... not affect the level of statistical discrimination by gender....

  5. Experiences and Impact of Stigma and Discrimination among People on Antiretroviral Therapy in Dar es Salaam: A Qualitative Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisara Mhode

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The impact of stigma on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART has been less studied in Tanzania. Recent studies indicate that people on ART still experience stigma. Qualitative information on the subject matter is especially insufficient. Objective. This paper reports on the dimensions of stigma and discrimination and their impact on adherence to ART as experienced by people living with HIV (PLHIV. Design. A phenomenological approach was used to gather information on the lived experiences of stigma and discrimination. The sample size was determined according to the saturation principle. Results. Respondents experienced different forms of HIV-related stigma such as verbal, social, and perceived stigma. Various forms of discrimination were experienced, including relational discrimination, mistreatment by health care workers, blame and rejection by spouses, and workplace discrimination. HIV-related stigma and discrimination compromised ART adherence by reinforcing concealment of HIV status and undermining social suppport. Conclusion. After nearly a decade of increasing the provision of ART in Tanzania, PLHIV still experience stigma and discrimination; these experiences still appear to have a negative impact on treatment adherence. Efforts to reduce stigma and discrimination remain relevant in the ART period and should be given more impetus in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes.

  6. Prohibition as ontological basis of the Russian legal reality

    OpenAIRE

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov; Nikolay N. Rybushkin

    2016-01-01

    Objective to identify characteristics of the nature content and functioning of prohibition in the legal reality of Russia. nbsp Methods the methodological basis of research is the dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors as well as a postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels. Dialectical ap...

  7. 78 FR 66769 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... Prohibited Transaction Exemptions (PTEs) 93-33 and 97- 11. PTE 93-33 \\3\\ permits an individual for whose... investments, provided the conditions of the exemption are met. 4. PTEs 93-33 and 97-11 provide relief from the... industry since PTEs 93-33 and 97-11 were issued. In this regard, the Applicant notes that PTEs 93-33 and 97...

  8. 7 CFR 457.117 - Forage production crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forage production crop insurance provisions. 457.117... production crop insurance provisions. The Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2001 and... Forage Production Crop Insurance Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order...

  9. Cortical area in the rat that mediates visual pattern discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörtwein, Gitta; Mogensen, Jesper; Williams, Gregg

    1994-01-01

    Neurobiologi, visuel discrimination, delayed alternation, rotte, inferotemporal cortex, artssammenligning......Neurobiologi, visuel discrimination, delayed alternation, rotte, inferotemporal cortex, artssammenligning...

  10. Hand-held UXO Discriminator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, E.; Smith, J.T.; Kappler, K.N.; Ratti, A.; Morrison, H.F.; Becker, A.

    2010-04-01

    With prior funding (UX-1225, MM-0437, and MM-0838), we have successfully designed and built a cart-mounted Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) and demonstrated its performance at various test sites (e.g., Gasperikova et al., 2007, 2009). It is a multi-transmitter multi-receiver active electromagnetic system that is able to discriminate UXO from scrap at a single measurement position, hence eliminates equirement of a very accurate sensor location. The cart-mounted system comprises of three orthogonal transmitters and eight pairs of differenced receivers (Smith et al., 2007). Receiver coils are located on ymmetry lines through the center of the system and see identical fields during the on-time of the pulse in all of the transmitter coils. They can then be wired in opposition to produce zero output during the n-ime of the pulses in three orthogonal transmitters. Moreover, this configuration dramatically reduces noise in the measurements by canceling the background electromagnetic fields (these fields are uniform ver the scale of the receiver array and are consequently nulled by the differencing operation), and by canceling the noise contributed by the tilt of the receivers in the Earth's magnetic field, and therefore reatly enhances receivers sensitivity to the gradients of the target.

  11. Children's discrimination of vowel sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coady, Jeffry A.; Kluender, Keith R.; Evans, Julia

    2003-10-01

    Children's ability to discriminate sequences of steady-state vowels was investigated. Vowels (as in ``beet,'' ``bat,'' ``bought,'' and ``boot'') were synthesized at durations of 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, and 1280 ms. Four different vowel sequences were created by concatenating different orders of vowels for each duration, separated by 10-ms intervening silence. Thus, sequences differed in vowel order and duration (rate). Sequences were 12 s in duration, with amplitude ramped linearly over the first and last 2 s. Sequence pairs included both same (identical sequences) and different trials (sequences with vowels in different orders). Sequences with vowel of equal duration were presented on individual trials. Children aged 7;0 to 10;6 listened to pairs of sequences (with 100 ms between sequences) and responded whether sequences sounded the same or different. Results indicate that children are best able to discriminate sequences of intermediate-duration vowels, typical of conversational speaking rate. Children were less accurate with both shorter and longer vowels. Results are discussed in terms of auditory processing (shortest vowels) and memory (longest vowels). [Research supported by NIDCD DC-05263, DC-04072, and DC-005650.

  12. Anticipated discrimination among people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçok, A; Brohan, E; Rose, D; Sartorius, N; Leese, M; Yoon, C K; Plooy, A; Ertekin, B A; Milev, R; Thornicroft, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of anticipated discrimination in people with schizophrenia (n = 732) from 27 countries in the International Study of Discrimination and Stigma Outcomes (INDIGO). Anticipated discrimination was assessed through four questions of Discrimination and Stigma Scale. Twenty-five individuals were identified at each site who were reasonably representative of all such treated cases within the local area. Sixty-four per cent of the participants reported that they had stopped themselves from applying for work, training or education because of anticipated discrimination. Seventy-two per cent of them reported that they felt the need to conceal their diagnosis. Expecting to be avoided by others who know about their diagnosis was highly associated with decisions to conceal their diagnosis. Those who concealed their diagnosis were younger and more educated. The participants who perceived discrimination by others were more likely to stop themselves from looking for a close relationship. Anticipated discrimination in finding and keeping work was more common in the absence than in the presence of experienced discrimination, and the similar findings applied to intimate relationships. This study shows that anticipated discrimination among people with schizophrenia is common, but is not necessarily associated with experienced discrimination. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Social identity change in response to discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perozzo, Cristina; de la Sablonnière, Roxane; Auger, Emilie; Caron-Diotte, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the conditions under which discrimination can lead to social identity changes among members of a minority group. Both positive and negative relations between perceptions of discrimination and social identity have previously been reported. To explain the conflicting results and understand the complex reality of members of stigmatized groups, we argue that group-based emotions (e.g., group-based dissatisfaction) and ambiguity of discrimination cues (i.e., overt vs. ambiguous) need to be considered. We hypothesized that perceptions of discrimination would play a moderating role between group-based dissatisfaction and social identity change in a context of ambiguous, but not of overt, discrimination. The sample was comprised of 151 Arab Muslims living in the province of Quebec. Participants read fictitious newspaper articles portraying either overt (n = 76) or ambiguous (n = 75) discrimination towards in-group members. Results revealed that for participants in the overt discrimination condition, only group-based dissatisfaction was positively associated with social identity change. In contrast, for the participants in the ambiguous discrimination condition, those who perceived little discrimination and felt low group-based dissatisfaction reported a decrease in social identity. However, those who perceived low group discrimination and felt high group-based dissatisfaction reported a positive social identity change. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Perceived age discrimination in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippon, Isla; Kneale, Dylan; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes; Steptoe, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: to examine perceived age discrimination in a large representative sample of older adults in England. Methods: this cross-sectional study of over 7,500 individuals used data from the fifth wave of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), a longitudinal cohort study of men and women aged 52 years and older in England. Wave 5 asked respondents about the frequency of five everyday discriminatory situations. Participants who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results: approximately a third (33.3%) of all respondents experienced age discrimination, rising to 36.8% in those aged 65 and over. Perceived age discrimination was associated with older age, higher education, lower levels of household wealth and being retired or not in employment. The correlates of age discrimination across the five discriminatory situations were similar. Conclusion: understanding age discrimination is vital if we are to develop appropriate policies and to target future interventions effectively. These findings highlight the scale of the challenge of age discrimination for older adults in England and illustrate that those groups are particularly vulnerable to this form of discrimination. PMID:24077751

  15. Patients’ perceptions of discrimination during hospitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelson, Patricia; Kolly, Véronique; Perneger, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To identify sources of perceived discrimination during hospitalization and examine the relationship of perceived discrimination to patient and hospital stay characteristics, and to patient ratings of care. Background  Patient experiences of discrimination within the health‐care system are associated with delays in care seeking, non‐adherence to medical advice and poorer health status. Most research to date has focused on race and ethnicity‐based discrimination, and few studies have included hospitalized patients. Methods  Questions about patients’ experiences of discrimination were added to a regular patient opinion survey conducted at the Geneva University Hospitals. Participants were 1537 adult residents of Switzerland discharged from the hospital between 15 February and 15 March 2007. Results  A total of 171 (11.1%) respondents reported at least one source of discrimination. Most (93, 54.4%) reported a single cause of discrimination. The most frequent causes of discrimination were language, age, nationality and having a disease that is viewed negatively by others. Fifteen percentage of non‐European respondents reported at least one of the following types of discrimination: language, nationality, religion and skin colour. Reporting discrimination from any cause was associated with higher Picker Patient Experience problem scores, and patients who reported discrimination were less likely to describe their care as very good or excellent and less likely to recommend the hospital to others. Conclusions  Patient experiences of discrimination during hospitalization are relatively frequent and are associated with lower patient ratings of care. Collection of data on patient experiences of discrimination may contribute to the development of interventions aimed at ensuring respectful, quality care for all patients. PMID:19788555

  16. Patients' perceptions of discrimination during hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudelson, Patricia; Kolly, Véronique; Perneger, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    To identify sources of perceived discrimination during hospitalization and examine the relationship of perceived discrimination to patient and hospital stay characteristics, and to patient ratings of care. Patient experiences of discrimination within the health-care system are associated with delays in care seeking, non-adherence to medical advice and poorer health status. Most research to date has focused on race and ethnicity-based discrimination, and few studies have included hospitalized patients. Questions about patients' experiences of discrimination were added to a regular patient opinion survey conducted at the Geneva University Hospitals. Participants were 1537 adult residents of Switzerland discharged from the hospital between 15 February and 15 March 2007. A total of 171 (11.1%) respondents reported at least one source of discrimination. Most (93, 54.4%) reported a single cause of discrimination. The most frequent causes of discrimination were language, age, nationality and having a disease that is viewed negatively by others. Fifteen percentage of non-European respondents reported at least one of the following types of discrimination: language, nationality, religion and skin colour. Reporting discrimination from any cause was associated with higher Picker Patient Experience problem scores, and patients who reported discrimination were less likely to describe their care as very good or excellent and less likely to recommend the hospital to others. Patient experiences of discrimination during hospitalization are relatively frequent and are associated with lower patient ratings of care. Collection of data on patient experiences of discrimination may contribute to the development of interventions aimed at ensuring respectful, quality care for all patients.

  17. The Sociology of Discrimination: Racial Discrimination in Employment, Housing, Credit, and Consumer Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pager, Devah; Shepherd, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Persistent racial inequality in employment, housing, and a wide range of other social domains has renewed interest in the possible role of discrimination. And yet, unlike in the pre-civil rights era, when racial prejudice and discrimination were overt and widespread, today discrimination is less readily identifiable, posing problems for social scientific conceptualization and measurement. This article reviews the relevant literature on discrimination, with an emphasis on racial discrimination in employment, housing, credit markets, and consumer interactions. We begin by defining discrimination and discussing relevant methods of measurement. We then provide an overview of major findings from studies of discrimination in each of the four domains; and, finally, we turn to a discussion of the individual, organizational, and structural mechanisms that may underlie contemporary forms of discrimination. This discussion seeks to orient readers to some of the key debates in the study of discrimination and to provide a roadmap for those interested in building upon this long and important line of research.

  18. Discrimination and subjective well-being: protective influences of membership in a discriminated category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnilica, Karel

    2011-03-01

    Research reveals that discrimination has harmful effects on health and quality of life. Among the most frequent types of discrimination pertains gender and age discrimination. Research results show that discriminatory behaviours based on gender afflict predominantly women; age discrimination afflicts mainly older adults. At the same time, it has been found that members of these traditionally discriminated categories often use strategies that mitigate the effects of discrimination. Discrimination will have detrimental effects on subjective well-being. But its effects will be most harmful for persons who are not members of the traditionally discriminated categories. These hypotheses were tested on data from three waves of the European Social Survey that the Czech Republic also participated in. Data were analyzed in a series of multilevel random coefficients regression analyses with respondents nested within states and states nested within years of study. Both perceived gender discrimination and perceived age discrimination have negative effects on subjective well-being. However, gender discrimination had more harmful effects on the subjective well-being of men than women and age discrimination had the most harmful effects on the subjective well-being of people in their middle ages, not the elderly ones. Discrimination does not need to have most harmful effects on the quality of life of members of the categories that are discriminated against most often.

  19. The Validity of the Sales Purchase Contract with Redemption Pact in Light of the Provisions New Civil Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mateescu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The sales contract with buyback agreement has existed in the Romanian legislation as it has been instituted by means of the original form of the Civil Code in force. The legislative evolution of the lastcentury has abrogated the provisions referring to this field and has eventually led to a legislative void in this matter. This situation has entailed the validation of all legal deeds in the form of sales contract with buyback agreement, form which used to be prohibited in the past, in certain situations. Noticing such situation andunderstanding the need to reinstate the legal framework for the regulation of social relationships with respect to the sales contract with buyback agreements, the Romanian lawgiver has dedicated it a subsection in the new Civil Code. The future civil regulation resumes a major part of the contents and meanings of the provisions of articles 1371-1387 of the Civil Code, currently abrogated. The different element lies in the institution of the express prohibition of sales with buyback option where the difference between the pricereceived and the price paid exceeds the level of interests set by the specific legislation. In addition, the sales where the seller has the obligation to buy back the good sold without setting the price of the good at the time of undertaking such obligation are also prohibited. Following the entry into force of the new Civil Code, the sale with buyback option shall fit the category of legal deeds affected by a resolutive condition, which shall also affect possible rights transmitted by concluding the contract. Such agreements shall be fully valid as long as the general validity conditions of the legal deeds are complied with and the legal norms passed in the interest matter are not infringed.

  20. 7 CFR 1493.530 - Miscellaneous provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CCC EXPORT CREDIT GUARANTEE PROGRAMS CCC Supplier Credit Guarantee Program Operations § 1493.530 Miscellaneous provisions. (a) Assignment. (1) The...

  1. 19 CFR 171.55 - Notice provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... section 6079 of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 and implementing regulations. (b) Notice provision. The... property and shall include a statement of the applicable law under which the property is seized and a...

  2. 48 CFR 4.607 - Solicitation Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... United States or its outlying areas. ..., Data Universal Numbering System (DUNS) Number, in solicitations that— (1) Are expected to result in a..., Central Contractor Registration. (b) Insert the provision at 52.204-5, Women-Owned Business (Other Than...

  3. 24 CFR 266.410 - Mortgage provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY RISK-SHARING PROGRAM FOR INSURED AFFORDABLE MULTIFAMILY PROJECT LOANS Mortgage and... accordance with HUD guidelines. (i) Regulatory Agreement. The mortgage must contain a provision incorporating the Regulatory Agreement by reference. ...

  4. Prosody discrimination by songbirds (Padda oryzivora).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoi, Nozomi; Watanabe, Shigeru; Maekawa, Kikuo; Hibiya, Junko

    2012-01-01

    In human verbal communication, not only lexical information, but also paralinguistic information plays an important role in transmitting the speakers' mental state. Paralinguistic information is conveyed mainly through acoustic features like pitch, rhythm, tempo and so on. These acoustic features are generally known as prosody. It is known that some species of birds can discriminate certain aspects of human speech. However, there have not been any studies on the discrimination of prosody in human language which convey different paralinguistic meanings by birds. In the present study, we have shown that the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora) can discriminate different prosodic patterns of Japanese sentences. These birds could generalize prosodic discrimination to novel sentences, but could not generalize sentence discrimination to those with novel prosody. Moreover, unlike Japanese speakers, Java sparrows used the first part of the utterance as the discrimination cue.

  5. Prosody discrimination by songbirds (Padda oryzivora.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Naoi

    Full Text Available In human verbal communication, not only lexical information, but also paralinguistic information plays an important role in transmitting the speakers' mental state. Paralinguistic information is conveyed mainly through acoustic features like pitch, rhythm, tempo and so on. These acoustic features are generally known as prosody. It is known that some species of birds can discriminate certain aspects of human speech. However, there have not been any studies on the discrimination of prosody in human language which convey different paralinguistic meanings by birds. In the present study, we have shown that the Java sparrow (Padda oryzivora can discriminate different prosodic patterns of Japanese sentences. These birds could generalize prosodic discrimination to novel sentences, but could not generalize sentence discrimination to those with novel prosody. Moreover, unlike Japanese speakers, Java sparrows used the first part of the utterance as the discrimination cue.

  6. Discriminative clustering via extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gao; Liu, Tianchi; Yang, Yan; Lin, Zhiping; Song, Shiji; Wu, Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Discriminative clustering is an unsupervised learning framework which introduces the discriminative learning rule of supervised classification into clustering. The underlying assumption is that a good partition (clustering) of the data should yield high discrimination, namely, the partitioned data can be easily classified by some classification algorithms. In this paper, we propose three discriminative clustering approaches based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM). The first algorithm iteratively trains weighted ELM (W-ELM) classifier to gradually maximize the data discrimination. The second and third methods are both built on Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA); but one approach adopts alternative optimization, while the other leverages kernel k-means. We show that the proposed algorithms can be easily implemented, and yield competitive clustering accuracy on real world data sets compared to state-of-the-art clustering methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  8. Sex Discrimination in High School Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Timothy K.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses Yellow Springs Exempted Village School District Board of Education vs Ohio High School Athletic Association where U.S. District Court in Ohio held unconstitutional a state athletic association rule prohibiting girls from participating on the same team as boys in contact sports. Available from City School of Law, 5100 Rockhill Road, K.C.,…

  9. Banks' Procyclical Behavior: Does Provisioning Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Bouvatier; Laetitia Lepetit

    2008-01-01

    International audience; A panel of 186 European banks is used for the period 1992-2004 to determine if banking behaviors, induced by the capital adequacy constraint and the provisioning system, amplify credit fluctuations. Our nding is consistent with the bank capital channel hypothesis, which means that poorly capitalized banks constrained to expand credit. We also find that loan loss provisions (LLP) made in order to cover identified credit losses (non discretionary LLP) amplify credit fluc...

  10. Determinants of occupational pension provision in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dummann, Kathrin

    2007-01-01

    Demographic change causes an undersupply of financial old age benefits within the statutory pay-as-you-go pension system in Germany. Therefore, the provision of occupational as well as private pensions has to be enhanced. However, there seems to be an undersupply of occupational pension provision particularly in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Using survey data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) and the German SAVE survey, the present paper studies econometrically the deter...

  11. Discrimination, race relations and the second generation

    OpenAIRE

    Waters, Mary C.; Kasinitz, Philip

    2010-01-01

    In an increasingly diverse America, the experience of race and racial discrimination is too often described as if it is the same for all racial and ethnic groups. Utilizing the perspective on ethnic and racial groups developed by Zolberg that stresses their contingent and dynamic nature, we explore ethnic and racial discrimination in depth. Drawing on data from the New York Second Generation Study we describe the experience of prejudice and discrimination among eight groups of young adults-na...

  12. Discrimination problems of retirement age employees

    OpenAIRE

    Krinitsyna, Zoya Vasilievna; Mikhailova, T. R.; German, M. V.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that there is an increasing number of people of retirement age; however, they face great obstacles in the labor market. Different types of age discrimination are named: open and indirect discrimination. The analysis of internal and external factors of integration of retirement age people into the labor market is given. The main causes of discrimination of people of retirement age are shown. The basic problems in the labor market of elderly workers and possible ways of their soluti...

  13. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  14. Disability Discrimination and the Right of Disabled Persons to Access the Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MC Marumoagae

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Inequality, discrimination and transformation remain the key challenges which most employers are faced with in the South African labour market. Key among such challenges has also been employers' ability to ensure that persons with disabilities access the labour market. In this paper I highlight employment discrimination experienced by persons with disabilities in South African workplaces, which often prohibits them from accessing employment opportunities. I argue that employers need to consider employing persons with disabilities and also reasonably to accommodate them within South African workplaces. I further illustrate efforts by the legislature to eradicate forms of unjustified discrimination against persons with disabilities through the enactment of the Employment Equity Act 55 of 1998. I argue that all of us need to understand how cultural, social, physical and other barriers continue to prevent persons with disabilities in South Africa from enjoying their constitutional rights to equality, freedom and human dignity, and further, that it is desirable that society at large and government work together towards eradicating barriers which prevent persons with disabilities from accessing the labour market.

  15. Monte Carlo simulations of a novel coherent scatter materials discrimination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Laila; Starr-Baier, Sean; MacDonald, C. A.; Petruccelli, Jonathan C.

    2017-05-01

    X-ray coherent scatter imaging has the potential to improve the detection of liquid and powder materials of concern in security screening. While x-ray attenuation is dependent on atomic number, coherent scatter is highly dependent on the characteristic angle for the target material, and thus offers an additional discrimination. Conventional coherent scatter analysis requires pixel-by-pixel scanning, and so could be prohibitively slow for security applications. A novel slot scan system has been developed to provide rapid imaging of the coherent scatter at selected angles of interest, simultaneously with the conventional absorption images. Prior experimental results showed promising capability. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to assess discrimination capability and provide system optimization. Simulation analysis performed using the measured ring profiles for an array of powders and liquids, including water, ethanol and peroxide. For example, simulations yielded a signal-to-background ratio of 1.63+/-0.08 for a sample consisting of two 10 mm diameter vials, one containing ethanol (signal) and one water (background). This high SBR value is due to the high angular separation of the coherent scatter between the two liquids. The results indicate that the addition of coherent scatter information to single or dual energy attenuation images improves the discrimination of materials of interest.

  16. Discrimination And Intolerance in the Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Correia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available When the people speak about discrimination and intolerance, it is usually in reference to the racial, religious, political, sexual, age, problems, etc., and does not refer, or refers less, the discrimination and the intolerance determined by artistic reasons, or with these related : the age differences in art, the sexism in art, and the rejection of works of art. In this text we intend to show the existence of these forms of discrimination and intolerance, explain what they mean, its causes, and its aftermath. We analyze the specificity of each of the discrimination and intolerance in the artistic field,  and the social weight they have in the world today.

  17. Discriminant forest classification method and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Barry Y.; Hanley, William G.; Lemmond, Tracy D.; Hiller, Lawrence J.; Knapp, David A.; Mugge, Marshall J.

    2012-11-06

    A hybrid machine learning methodology and system for classification that combines classical random forest (RF) methodology with discriminant analysis (DA) techniques to provide enhanced classification capability. A DA technique which uses feature measurements of an object to predict its class membership, such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) or Andersen-Bahadur linear discriminant technique (AB), is used to split the data at each node in each of its classification trees to train and grow the trees and the forest. When training is finished, a set of n DA-based decision trees of a discriminant forest is produced for use in predicting the classification of new samples of unknown class.

  18. Discrimination of Arabic contrasts by American learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud S. Al Mahmoud

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on second language perception of non-native contrasts. The study specifically tests the perceptual assimilation model (PAM by examining American learners’ ability to discriminate Arabic contrasts. Twenty two native American speakers enrolled in a university level Arabic language program took part in a forced choice AXB discrimination task. Results of the study provide partial evidence for PAM. Only two-category contrasts followed straightforwardly from PAM; discrimination results of category-goodness difference and both uncategorizable contrasts yielded partial support, while results of uncategorized versus categorized contrast discrimination provided counter-evidence to PAM.

  19. Health care workplace discrimination and physician turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    To examine the association between physician race/ ethnicity, workplace discrimination, and physician job turnover. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007 of practicing physicians (n = 529) randomly identified via the American Medical Association Masterfile and the National Medical Association membership roster. We assessed the relationships between career racial/ethnic discrimination at work and several career-related dependent variables, including 2 measures of physician turnover, career satisfaction, and contemplation of career change. We used standard frequency analyses, odds ratios and chi2 statistics, and multivariate logistic regression modeling to evaluate these associations. Physicians who self-identified as nonmajority were significantly more likely to have left at least 1 job because of workplace discrimination (black, 29%; Asian, 24%; other race, 21%; Hispanic/Latino, 20%; white, 9%). In multivariate models, having experienced racial/ethnic discrimination at work was associated with high job turnover (adjusted odds ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-4.9). Among physicians who experienced workplace discrimination, only 45% of physicians were satisfied with their careers (vs 88% among those who had not experienced workplace discrimination, p value workplace discrimination, p value Workplace discrimination is associated with physician job turnover, career dissatisfaction, and contemplation of career change. These findings underscore the importance of monitoring for workplace discrimination and responding when opportunities for intervention and retention still exist.

  20. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh eMatsuda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, extremely humanlike robots called androids have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  1. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  2. 78 FR 18960 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Commercial Fisheries Research... 3. This pilot study would utilize 12 Federal commercial fishing vessels; 6 vessels in each of the 2..., as prohibited in Sec. 697.19(a)(2) for LMA 2, and Sec. 697.19(b)(5) for LMA 3; and (3) trap tag...

  3. An Empirical Approach to Salary Discrimination: With Case Study of Sex Discrimination in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Julie A.; Murphy, Norman C.

    1977-01-01

    A statistical method to determine sex discrimination in salaries considered known differential variables which can legitimately be used to determine salary level apart from discrimination based on improper criteria, such as race, sex, religion, etc. This case study of a group of educators exemplifies salary discrimination based on sex. (Author/MV)

  4. Gender Discrimination and Women's Development in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, M.

    2008-01-01

    Gender is a common term where as gender discrimination is meant only for women, because females are the only victims of gender discrimination. Females are nearly 50 percent of the total population but their representation in public life is very low. Recognizing women's right and believing their ability are essential for women's empowerment and…

  5. Pattern recognition in bees : orientation discrimination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van; Srinivasan, M.V.; Wait, P.B.

    1990-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera, worker) were trained to discriminate between two random gratings oriented perpendicularly to each other. This task was quickly learned with vertical, horizontal, and oblique gratings. After being trained on perpendicularly-oriented random gratings, bees could discriminate

  6. Price Discrimination and Resale: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuchoudhary, Atin; Metcalf, Christopher; Pommerenke, Kai; Reiley, David; Rojas, Christian; Rostek, Marzena; Stodder, James

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a classroom experiment designed to illustrate key concepts of third-degree price discrimination. By participating as buyers and sellers, students actively learn (1) how group pricing differs from uniform pricing, (2) how resale between buyers limits a seller's ability to price discriminate, and (3) how preventing price…

  7. Discrimination against Women: Prevalence, Consequences, Remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrine, Hope; Klonoff, Elizabeth A.

    This book reports two scientific studies of the frequency of discrimination against women and the physical and mental health impacts of discrimination. The preface and introduction contain an overview of the studies, which examined a sample of women selected to represent educational, racial, economic, and age diversity, and a summary of existing…

  8. Wage Discrimination against Handicapped Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William G.; Lambrinos, James

    1985-01-01

    The extent of discrimination against handicapped men and women is estimated in this article. Observed wage differentials are corrected for selectivity bias. Results indicate that almost one-third of the wage differential for men and close to one-half for women can be attributed to discrimination. Handicapped women are also subjected to sex…

  9. Updating the OMERACT Filter: Discrimination and Feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, George; Beaton, Dorcas E.; Tugwell, Peter; Boers, Maarten; Kirwan, John R.; Bingham, Clifton O.; Boonen, Annelies; Brooks, Peter; Conaghan, Philip G.; D'Agostino, Maria-Antonietta; Dougados, Maxime; Furst, Daniel E.; Gossec, Laure; Guillemin, Francis; Helliwell, Philip; Hewlett, Sarah; Kvien, Tore K.; Landewé, Robert B.; March, Lyn; Mease, Philip J.; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Simon, Lee; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Strand, Vibeke; van der Heijde, Désirée M.

    2014-01-01

    The "Discrimination" part of the OMERACT Filter asks whether a measure discriminates between situations that are of interest. "Feasibility" in the OMERACT Filter encompasses the practical considerations of using an instrument, including its ease of use, time to complete, monetary costs, and

  10. Statistical Theories of Discrimination in Labor Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, Dennis J.; Cain, Glen G.

    1977-01-01

    Economic discrimination in labor markets, different pay for workers of the same ability, is analyzed in several statistical models using data for black/white and male/female earnings. The conclusion is that statistical theories are unlikely to explain labor market discrimination. (MF)

  11. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  12. Infants' discrimination of happy and sad music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flom, Ross; Gentile, Douglas A; Pick, Anne D

    2008-12-01

    Infants can detect information specifying affect in infant- and adult-directed speech, familiar and unfamiliar facial expressions, and in point-light displays of facial expressions. We examined 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of musical excerpts judged by adults and preschoolers as happy and sad. In Experiment 1, using an infant-controlled habituation procedure, 3-, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds heard three musical excerpts that were rated as either happy or sad. Following habituation, infants were presented with two new musical excerpts from the other affect group. Nine-month-olds discriminated the musical excerpts rated as affectively different. Five- and seven-month-olds discriminated the happy and sad excerpts when they were habituated to sad excerpts but not when they were habituated to happy excerpts. Three-month-olds showed no evidence of discriminating the sad and happy excerpts. In Experiment 2, 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds were presented with two new musical excerpts from the same affective group as the habituation excerpts. At no age did infants discriminate these novel, yet affectively similar, musical excerpts. In Experiment 3, we examined 5-, 7-, and 9-month-olds' discrimination of individual excerpts rated as affectively similar. Only the 9-month-olds discriminated the affectively similar individual excerpts. Results are discussed in terms of infants' ability to discriminate affect across a variety of events and its relevance for later social-communicative development.

  13. Discrimination in Autism within Different Sensory Modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, Michelle; Passetti, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that unusual visual processing in autism might stem from enhanced visual discrimination. Although there are also many anecdotal reports of auditory and tactile processing disturbances in autism these have received comparatively little attention. It is possible that the enhanced discrimination ability in vision in…

  14. Sex Discrimination in a Paramedical Profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zincone, Louis H., Jr.; Close, Frank A.

    1978-01-01

    Survey data from a national sample of physical therapists were used to investigate male-female income differences in the field. Results indicated salary differentials to be due both to discrimination and differences in productivity. Types of discrimination and how they affect employment productivity measures are examined. (MF)

  15. Mental illness - stigma and discrimination in Zambia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their illness on the one side, and widespread stigma and discrimination on the other. Evidence from North America and paralleling findings from research in Western Europe suggest that stigma and discrimination are major problems in the community, with negative attitudes and behaviour towards people with mental illness ...

  16. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Perceived discrimination and mental health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived discrimination and mental health disorders: The. South African Stress and Health study. Hashim Moomal, Pamela B Jackson, Dan J Stein, Allen Herman, Landon Myer, Soraya Seedat, Edith Madela-Mntla,. D R Williams. Discrimination includes actions (subtle or overt, direct or indirect) that limit the social, political ...

  18. Discrimination Report ESTCP Project #MM-0437

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasperikova, Erika

    2008-10-01

    The FY06 Defense Appropriation contains funding for the 'Development of Advanced, Sophisticated, and Discrimination Technologies for UXO Cleanup' in the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program. In 2003, the Defense Science Board observed: 'The...problem is that instruments that can detect the buried UXOs also detect numerous scrap metal objects and other artifacts, which leads to an enormous amount of expensive digging. Typically 100 holes may be dug before a real UXO is unearthed. The Task Force assessment is that much of this wasteful digging can be eliminated by the use of more advanced technology instruments that exploit modern digital processing and advanced multi-mode sensors to achieve an improved level of discrimination of scrap from UXOs'. Significant progress has been made in discrimination technology. To date, testing of these approaches has been primarily limited to test sites with only limited application at live sites. Acceptance of discrimination technologies requires demonstration of system capabilities at UXO sites under real world conditions. FE Warren Air Force Base (AFB) in Cheyenne, WY is one such site. The demonstration objective was to determine the discrimination capabilities, cost and reliability of the Berkeley UXO Discriminator (BUD) in discrimination of UXO from scrap metal in real life conditions. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory performed a detection and discrimination survey of the Priority 1 area ({approx}5 acres) of the FE Warren AFB. The data included a system characterization with the emplaced calibration items and targets in the Geophysical Prove Out (GPO) area.

  19. Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Washington, DC.

    This brochure presents regulatory guidelines on sex discrimination with sections devoted to: general principles; sex as a bona fide occupational qualification; separate lines of progression and seniority systems; discrimination against married women; advertising job opportunities; employment agencies; pre-employment inquiries as to sex; the…

  20. Hydroacoustic Blockage Calibration for Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harben, P E; Matzel, E; Upton, Z; Pulli, J J

    2003-07-11

    The core focus of this hydroacoustic research is to develop a better understanding of hydroacoustic blockage to better predict those stations that can be used in discrimination analysis for any particular event. The research involves two approaches: (1) model-based assessment of blockage and (2) ground-truth data-based assessment of blockage. The goal is to reliably determine all hydroacoustic stations that can be brought to bear on a discrimination analysis from any event location in the world s oceans. An important aspect of this capability is to include reflected T-phases where they reliably occur since reflected T-phases can allow station utilization when the direct path is otherwise completely blocked. We have conceptually designed an approach to automate assessment procedures that will allow both model-based and data-based methodologies to be utilized and in the future, integrated. We have modified the HydroCAM model-based network assessment code to include variable density bathymetry grids. This will improve the reliability of model-based blockage assessment as dense bathymetry grids are added to the bathymetry database where available and needed. We are also running the HydroCAM code to produce blockage grids in the Indian Ocean for many different blockage criteria. We have been building the database necessary to begin the data driven assessment of blockage. At present, the database is accumulating earthquake events within the Indian Ocean basin as recorded at Diego Garcia and Cape Leeuwin. Over 130 events from 2001 and 2002 have been loaded. Now earthquake event data is automatically loaded into the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory database at 1-hour record lengths to accommodate future reflection phase analysis. Future work will focus on the utilization of reflected T-phases, the automated use of model-based blockage grids, and the enhancement and use of the data-based method for blockage assessment in the Indian Ocean. The analysis methodology will

  1. Analyzing Students’ Discrimination in Primary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analisa Listanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The negative stigma which causes discrimination appears because of someone’s point of view towards the diversity of race, religion, social, or culture. This diversity can also be found in primary school. Some student are not able yet to appreciate and respect the diversity. This research used a qualitative approach with study case method of giving the knowledge about discrimination in primary school. This research aimed to find out the cause, effect, and effort in minimizing discrimination at school. Based on the data obatained, the causing factors of the discrimination are social background, physical disability, and strong and weak groups at school. Forming the attitude to appreciate and respect diversity on students can be achieved through daily leraning activity at school which can be created through multicultural education approach in order to minimize discrimination in primary school.

  2. Study of signal discrimination for timing measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Krepelkova, Marta

    2017-01-01

    The timing detectors of the CMS-TOTEM Precision Proton Spectrometer (CT-PPS) are currently read out using discrete components, separated into three boards; the first board hosts the sensors and the amplifiers, the second one hosts the discriminators and the third is dedicated to the Time to Digital Converter (TDC) and to the interface with the data acquisition system (DAQ). This work proposes a new front-end electronics for the timing detector, with sensors, amplifiers and discriminators integrated on the same board. We simulated an updated version of the amplifier together with a discriminator designed using commercial components. We decided to use an LVDS buffer as a discriminator, because of its cost, availability, speed and lo w power consumption. As a proof of concept, we used the LVDS input of an FPGA to discriminate signals produced by a detector prototype, using a radioactive source.

  3. Transferability between Hospitals of Hypercalcaemia Discriminant Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; McNair, Peter; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    1996-01-01

    , estimated from routine laboratory analysis, age and sex in two consecutively recorded populations with hypercalcemia including 162 and 257 patients with hypercalcemia. Discriminant functions were developed for each sex to distinguish between hypercalcemia associated with malignancy and hypercalcemia......Transferability of discriminant functions is potentially useful both from an economical point of view and because, in general, medical knowledge, in this case discriminant functions, should be transferable. In the present study we have evaluated the transferability of discriminant functions......, and increased to 83 and 89% at posterior probability levels higher than 60%. Transfer of the discrimination functions between the hospitals was followed by a decrease in diagnostic accuracy of 6-16%. At a posterior probability of 60% the diagnostic accuracies were 79% or more in the receiving hospital, in both...

  4. Methods of Services Provision in Slovak Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília Sičáková-Beblavá

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of services provision in Slovak towns.  It addresses decision-making concerning selected services provision, based on a transaction cost economic model. The article looks at five types of services from that point of view. These are core services, i.e., services that are provided in most Slovak towns, thereby allowing outcomes of decision-making to be compared, and services which can be outsourced according to transaction cost theory. Findings partially confirm the hypothesis: Slovak towns do outsource, though “insourcing” moderately prevails. However, a comparison of several research studies in the area indicates a trend towards higher outsourcing of such local services provision.  The findings show that public bodies do not always select the most suitable methods of services provision, as suggested by the transaction costs theory (the Brown-Potoski model. This indicates that it is not only economic models that influence decision-making concerning the organization of services provision in the Slovak towns.

  5. Bank loan loss provisions research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Ozili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.

  6. 40 CFR 63.1194 - Which general provisions apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which general provisions apply? 63... Information § 63.1194 Which general provisions apply? The general provisions in subpart A of this part define... for general provisions that apply (or don't apply) to you as an owner or operator subject to the...

  7. Hue discrimination in Iberoamerican Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carranza, Jazmín; Medina, Juana

    2008-04-01

    In this work we analyze the Farnsworth Munsell 100 Hue Test results, this test offers a simple method for testing color discrimination and was applied to a sample of 129 observers, with natural daylight in the same conditions (the observers were men and women), all of these were participants in colorimetric training courses, and aged 20 to 76, with two to twenty five years experience in the color control manufacturer laboratories (of plastics, rugs, dyes, textiles, and paints). Their job titles included mixers, inspectors, shaders, matchers, passers, and dyers. The test was applied twice and the results here presented are the comparison between both tests, taking into account errors by mistakes incidence in each hue position, as well as the redeeming of each participant in both test. The comparison shows us that most of the mistakes are in the green hue in both tests, but in the second test, approximately 20 percent of the observers reduced those. Also we can to separate persons with normal color vision of those which have zones of color confusion. In this work it is show some ones results of the comparison between men and women.

  8. 26 CFR 54.4975-1 - General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General rules relating to excise tax on prohibited transactions. 54.4975-1 Section 54.4975-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) PENSION EXCISE TAXES § 54.4975-1 General rules relating to excise tax on prohibite...

  9. 76 FR 22289 - Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Respect to North Korea #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 76... 13570 of April 18, 2011 Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea By the authority... States, directly or indirectly, of any goods, services, or technology from North Korea is prohibited. Sec...

  10. 42 CFR 1001.951 - Fraud and kickbacks and other prohibited activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fraud and kickbacks and other prohibited activities... and extent of any adverse physical, mental, financial or other impact the conduct had on program... documented mental, emotional, or physical condition before or during the commission of the prohibited act(s...

  11. 17 CFR 245.101 - Prohibition of insider trading during pension fund blackout periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition of insider trading during pension fund blackout periods. 245.101 Section 245.101 Commodity and Securities Exchanges...-Blackout Trading Restriction) § 245.101 Prohibition of insider trading during pension fund blackout periods...

  12. 48 CFR 436.571 - Prohibition against the use of lead-based paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... use of lead-based paint. 436.571 Section 436.571 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... 436.571 Prohibition against the use of lead-based paint. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-71, Prohibition Against the Use of Lead-Based Paint, in solicitations and contracts, if...

  13. 48 CFR 452.236-71 - Prohibition Against the Use of Lead-Based Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Use of Lead-Based Paint. 452.236-71 Section 452.236-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... and Clauses 452.236-71 Prohibition Against the Use of Lead-Based Paint. As prescribed in 436.571, insert the following clause: Prohibition Against the Use of Lead-Based Paint (NOV 1996) Neither the...

  14. 48 CFR 1452.236-70 - Prohibition Against Use of Lead-based Paint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Lead-based Paint. 1452.236-70 Section 1452.236-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF... Clauses 1452.236-70 Prohibition Against Use of Lead-based Paint. As prescribed in 1436.570(b), insert the following clause: Prohibition Against Use of Lead-Based Paint—Department of the Interior (JUL 1996) Paint...

  15. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and informational...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and... No. 77—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq 1. Applicability... prohibition. No person may conduct flight operations over or within the territory of Iraq except as provided...

  17. 25 CFR 103.15 - Are there any prohibited loan terms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are there any prohibited loan terms? 103.15 Section 103... there any prohibited loan terms? A loan agreement guaranteed or insured under the Program may not... in writing; (c) A loan repayment term of over 30 years; (d) Payments scheduled less frequently than...

  18. 34 CFR 75.532 - Use of funds for religion prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of funds for religion prohibited. 75.532 Section 75.532 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DIRECT GRANT PROGRAMS What Conditions Must Be Met by a Grantee? Allowable Costs § 75.532 Use of funds for religion prohibited. (a) No grantee...

  19. 40 CFR 80.78 - Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reformulated gasoline. 80.78 Section 80.78 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.78 Controls and prohibitions on reformulated gasoline. (a) Prohibited activities. (1) No person may manufacture...

  20. 16 CFR 312.7 - Prohibition against conditioning a child's participation on collection of personal information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited from conditioning a child's participation in a game, the offering of a prize, or another activity... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition against conditioning a child's... COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.7...

  1. 10 CFR 32.15 - Same: Quality assurance, prohibition of transfer, and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Same: Quality assurance, prohibition of transfer, and labeling. 32.15 Section 32.15 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION SPECIFIC DOMESTIC LICENSES TO... Same: Quality assurance, prohibition of transfer, and labeling. (a) Each person licensed under § 32.14...

  2. 31 CFR 515.337 - Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Cuba. 515.337 Section 515.337 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 515.337 Prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba. For purposes of this part, the term prohibited officials of the Government of Cuba means Ministers and Vice-ministers...

  3. 40 CFR 205.57-9 - Prohibition on distribution in commerce; manufacturer's remedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibition on distribution in commerce; manufacturer's remedy. 205.57-9 Section 205.57-9 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.57-9 Prohibition on distribution in commerce; manufacturer's remedy. (a...

  4. 5 CFR 3201.105 - Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients. 3201.105 Section 3201.105 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL DEPOSIT... INSURANCE CORPORATION § 3201.105 Prohibition on dealings with former employers, associates, and clients. (a...

  5. 14 CFR 121.317 - Passenger information requirements, smoking prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. 121.317 Section 121.317 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... prohibitions, and additional seat belt requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (l) of this section... paragraph (l) of this section, the “Fasten Seat Belt” sign shall be turned on during any movement on the...

  6. 19 CFR 145.51 - Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930. 145.51 Section 145.51 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... § 145.51 Articles prohibited by section 305, Tariff Act of 1930. (a) Types of articles. Various articles...

  7. 21 CFR 589.2000 - Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. 589... Animal proteins prohibited in ruminant feed. (a) Definitions—(1) Protein derived from mammalian tissues means any protein-containing portion of mammalian animals, excluding: Blood and blood products; gelatin...

  8. 9 CFR 590.419 - Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reuse of containers bearing official... INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.419 Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited. The reuse, by any person, of containers bearing official identification is prohibited unless such...

  9. 9 CFR 592.260 - Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited. 592.260 Section 592.260 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... § 592.260 Reuse of containers bearing official identification prohibited. The reuse, by any person, of...

  10. 7 CFR 319.37-12 - Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles... Stock, Plants, Roots, Bulbs, Seeds, and Other Plant Products 1,2 § 319.37-12 Prohibited articles accompanying restricted articles. A restricted article for importation into the United States shall not be...

  11. The invasion of Iraq: a challenge to the Charter Prohibition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is done against the backdrop of the norm of jus cogens prohibiting the threat or use of force by states in their international relations as well as the law of international humanitarian law prohibiting certain means and methods in the conduct of war. The article also considers the ramifications of the war as well as the ...

  12. 24 CFR 570.210 - Prohibition on use of assistance for employment relocation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Eligible Activities § 570.210 Prohibition on use of assistance for employment relocation activities. (a) Prohibition. CDBG funds may not be used to directly assist a business, including a business expansion, in the relocation of a plant, facility, or operation from one LMA to another LMA if the...

  13. 40 CFR 268.50 - Prohibitions on storage of restricted wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quantities of hazardous waste as are necessary to facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal. (d) If... WASTES (CONTINUED) LAND DISPOSAL RESTRICTIONS Prohibitions on Storage § 268.50 Prohibitions on storage of... facilitate proper recovery, treatment, or disposal and the generator complies with the requirements in § 262...

  14. 30 CFR 56.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 56... Miscellaneous § 56.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  15. 30 CFR 57.20014 - Prohibited areas for food and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited areas for food and beverages. 57... MINES Miscellaneous § 57.20014 Prohibited areas for food and beverages. No person shall be allowed to consume or store food or beverages in a toilet room or in any area exposed to a toxic material. ...

  16. 31 CFR 537.202 - Prohibited exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reexportation of financial services to Burma. 537.202 Section 537.202 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... permit granted prior to July 29, 2003, the exportation or reexportation of financial services to Burma... BURMESE SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 537.202 Prohibited exportation or reexportation of financial...

  17. Provision of frequency control by wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckmann, Markus; Baier, Andre [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays, wind farms do not provide frequency control in Germany. Because of the increasing wind energy generation, wind farms will have to provide this ancillary service in the future. Even though the provision of frequency control by wind farms has become a big field of research, no work has yet been done concerning the proof of the provision. Thus, the scope of this paper is the presentation of a new concept how wind farms can prove the provision of frequency control. Moreover, this paper describes a method for calculating the available amount of frequency control power based on probabilistic forecasts. An economic analysis is conducted for three different wind farms and a virtual power plant consisting of these wind farms participating at the market for negative tertiary control power in Germany. (orig.)

  18. From discrimination to internalized mental illness stigma: The mediating roles of anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M; Williams, Michelle K; Weisz, Bradley M

    2015-06-01

    Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future and how anticipation of stigma in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one's mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Experiences of discrimination over one's lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. From Discrimination to Internalized Mental Illness Stigma: The Mediating Roles of Anticipated Discrimination and Anticipated Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Diane M.; Williams, Michelle K.; Weisz, Bradley M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Internalizing mental illness stigma is related to poorer well-being, but less is known about the factors that predict levels of internalized stigma. This study explored how experiences of discrimination relate to greater anticipation of discrimination and devaluation in the future, and how anticipation of stigma, in turn predicts greater stigma internalization. Method Participants were 105 adults with mental illness who self-reported their experiences of discrimination based on their mental illness, their anticipation of discrimination and social devaluation from others in the future, and their level of internalized stigma. Participants were approached in several locations and completed surveys on laptop computers. Results Correlational analyses indicated that more experiences of discrimination due to one’s mental illness were related to increased anticipated discrimination in the future, increased anticipated social stigma from others, and greater internalized stigma. Multiple serial mediator analyses showed that the effect of experiences of discrimination on internalized stigma was fully mediated by increased anticipated discrimination and anticipated stigma. Conclusion and Implications for Practice Experiences of discrimination over the lifetime may influence not only how much future discrimination people with mental illness are concerned with but also how much they internalize negative feelings about the self. Mental health professionals may need to address concerns with future discrimination and devaluation in order to decrease internalized stigma. PMID:25844910

  20. 76 FR 34260 - Proposed Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-13

    ... Securities Lending Short-Term Investment Fund (the SecLending Fund) by the Frank Russell Company (FRC), the... Liquidity Fund) by FRC in connection with the Liquidity Fund's holding of the Notes (the Revised Liquidity Fund CSA); (3) The provision of a revised guarantee to FRC by its parent company, the Northwest Mutual...

  1. 76 FR 70491 - Exemptions From Certain Prohibited Transaction Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...) by the Frank Russell Company (FRC), the parent company of RTC and a party in interest with respect to..., in the RTC Russell Liquidity Fund (the Liquidity Fund) by FRC in connection with the Liquidity Fund's holding of the Notes (the Revised Liquidity Fund CSA); (3) The provision of a revised guarantee to FRC by...

  2. The specter of discrimination: Fear of interpersonal racial discrimination among adolescents in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herda, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This analysis examines fear of interpersonal racial discrimination among Black, Hispanic, and White adolescents. The extent and correlates of these concerns are examined using survey data from the Project for Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. Borrowing from the fear-of-crime literature, the contact hypothesis, and group threat theory, several hypotheses are developed linking discrimination fear to direct personal experience with discrimination, indirect or vicarious experience, and environmental signals of discrimination. Results show that about half of Blacks and Hispanics have feared discrimination in the past year. Multivariate results indicate that fear is most likely if one has experienced victimization first-hand and when one's parent is affected by discrimination. Further, a larger presence neighborhood outgroups produces greater fear. Overall, discrimination fear constitutes an additional obstacle for minority adolescents as they transition to adulthood. The phenomenon warrants increased scholarly attention and represents a fruitful avenue for future research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Straddling the Columbia: a constitutional law professor's musings on circumventing Washington State's criminal prohibition on compensated surrogacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicolas, Peter

    2014-01-01

      The law in many states has long been hostile to gay parenting, with some states prohibiting adoption in the first instance by gay individuals or same-sex couples, and other states prohibiting so...

  4. 42 CFR 426.400 - Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an LCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concerning a provision (or provisions) of an LCD. 426.400 Section 426.400 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an LCD § 426.400 Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an LCD. (a) The complaint. An...

  5. 42 CFR 426.500 - Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD. 426.500 Section 426.500 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS AND LOCAL COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.500 Procedure for filing an acceptable complaint concerning a provision (or provisions) of an NCD. (a) The complaint. An...

  6. Municipal service provision in rural communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Helle

    EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... setting a competitive framework for local development. Rural municipalities are challenged due to demographic changes and population decline and consequently need to adjust municipal services. In this respect it is stressed that service provision need be linked to strategic planning based on urban...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....

  7. The age 60 rule: age discrimination in commercial aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Robin

    2002-03-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration's Age 60 Rule, promulgated in 1959, prohibits airline pilots from working in Part 121 operations once they have reached the age of 60. The Age 60 Rule remains a most contentious and politically sensitive topic, with challenges to the Rule currently mounted in both legislative and legal arenas. An extensive review of the medical literature was accomplished using MEDLINE. Pertinent Federal Regulations were examined. Legal proceedings and public domain documents were noted. Letters and personal communication were solicited where necessary information could not be ascertained by other means. The Age 60 Rule was not based on any scientific data showing that airline pilots aged 60 and older were any less safe than younger pilots, and there is evidence to indicate that the choice of age 60 was actually based on economic rather than safety considerations. Airline pilots consistently exceed general population norms for longevity, physical health, and mental abilities. Fear of an adverse pilot health event causing a crash in standard multi-crew operations is not justified. For decades, airline pilots under age 60 have been granted the means to demonstrate their fitness for flying by taking medical, cognitive, and performance evaluations that are denied to airline pilots when they reach age 60. Actual flight experience demonstrates that older pilots are as safe as younger pilots. International aviation experience indicates that abolishing the Age 60 Rule will not compromise aviation safety. There appears to be no medical, scientific, or safety justification for the Age 60 Rule. As such, perpetuation of the Age 60 Rule, where age alone is used as the single criterion of older pilot fitness, represents age discrimination in commercial aviation.

  8. 45 CFR 83.11 - Discriminatory acts prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... treatment or rules of behavior; (v) Discriminate against any individual by assisting an agency, organization... any agency, organization, or person in making housing available to any of its students, shall take... quality and cost to the student. An entity may render such assistance to any agency, organization, or...

  9. Decision theory for discrimination-aware classification

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-12-01

    Social discrimination (e.g., against females) arising from data mining techniques is a growing concern worldwide. In recent years, several methods have been proposed for making classifiers learned over discriminatory data discriminationaware. However, these methods suffer from two major shortcomings: (1) They require either modifying the discriminatory data or tweaking a specific classification algorithm and (2) They are not flexible w.r.t. discrimination control and multiple sensitive attribute handling. In this paper, we present two solutions for discrimination-aware classification that neither require data modification nor classifier tweaking. Our first and second solutions exploit, respectively, the reject option of probabilistic classifier(s) and the disagreement region of general classifier ensembles to reduce discrimination. We relate both solutions with decision theory for better understanding of the process. Our experiments using real-world datasets demonstrate that our solutions outperform existing state-ofthe-art methods, especially at low discrimination which is a significant advantage. The superior performance coupled with flexible control over discrimination and easy applicability to multiple sensitive attributes makes our solutions an important step forward in practical discrimination-aware classification. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Auditory Discrimination Learning: Role of Working Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Xuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Perceptual training is generally assumed to improve perception by modifying the encoding or decoding of sensory information. However, this assumption is incompatible with recent demonstrations that transfer of learning can be enhanced by across-trial variation of training stimuli or task. Here we present three lines of evidence from healthy adults in support of the idea that the enhanced transfer of auditory discrimination learning is mediated by working memory (WM. First, the ability to discriminate small differences in tone frequency or duration was correlated with WM measured with a tone n-back task. Second, training frequency discrimination around a variable frequency transferred to and from WM learning, but training around a fixed frequency did not. The transfer of learning in both directions was correlated with a reduction of the influence of stimulus variation in the discrimination task, linking WM and its improvement to across-trial stimulus interaction in auditory discrimination. Third, while WM training transferred broadly to other WM and auditory discrimination tasks, variable-frequency training on duration discrimination did not improve WM, indicating that stimulus variation challenges and trains WM only if the task demands stimulus updating in the varied dimension. The results provide empirical evidence as well as a theoretic framework for interactions between cognitive and sensory plasticity during perceptual experience.

  11. PT-symmetric quantum state discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M; Brody, Dorje C; Caldeira, João; Günther, Uwe; Meister, Bernhard K; Samsonov, Boris F

    2013-04-28

    The objective of this paper is to explain and elucidate the formalism of PT quantum mechanics by applying it to a well-known problem in conventional Hermitian quantum mechanics, namely the problem of state discrimination. Suppose that a system is known to be in one of two quantum states, |ψ(1)> or |ψ(2)>. If these states are not orthogonal, then the requirement of unitarity forbids the possibility of discriminating between these two states with one measurement; that is, determining with one measurement what state the system is in. In conventional quantum mechanics, there is a strategy in which successful state discrimination can be achieved with a single measurement but only with a success probability p that is less than unity. In this paper, the state-discrimination problem is examined in the context of PT quantum mechanics and the approach is based on the fact that a non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonian determines the inner product that is appropriate for the Hilbert space of physical states. It is shown that it is always possible to choose this inner product so that the two states |ψ(1)> and |ψ(2)> are orthogonal. Using PT quantum mechanics, one cannot achieve a better state discrimination than in ordinary quantum mechanics, but one can instead perform a simulated quantum state discrimination, in which with a single measurement a perfect state discrimination is realized with probability p.

  12. Discrimination problems of retirement age employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krinitcyna Z.V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that there is an increasing number of people of retirement age; however, they face great obstacles in the labor market. Different types of age discrimination are named: open and indirect discrimination. The analysis of internal and external factors of integration of retirement age people into the labor market is given. The main causes of discrimination of people of retirement age are shown. The basic problems in the labor market of elderly workers and possible ways of their solutions are given.

  13. 40 CFR 256.26 - Requirement for schedules leading to compliance with the prohibition of open dumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. 256.26 Section 256.26 Protection of Environment... compliance with the prohibition of open dumping. In implementing the section 4005(c) prohibition on open dumping, the State plan shall provide that any entity which demonstrates that it has considered other...

  14. 40 CFR 80.611 - What evidence may be used to determine compliance with the prohibitions and requirements of this...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Determination of compliance with the requirements and prohibitions of this subpart other than the standards... compliance with the prohibitions and requirements of this subpart and liability for violations of this... determine compliance with the prohibitions and requirements of this subpart and liability for violations of...

  15. The Disability Discrimination Act in the UK: helping or hindering employment among the disabled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David; Heitmueller, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The enactment of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) in 1990 triggered a substantial academic debate about its consequences on employment rates of disabled people. In contrast, the employment provision of the 1996 Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) in Britain has received little attention. Exploiting both pooled and longitudinal data, this paper provides robust evidence that, similar to the ADA in the USA, the DDA has had no impact on the employment rate of disabled people or possibly worsened it. Possible reasons for this are higher uncertainty around litigation costs, low levels of general awareness about the Act among disabled people and employers, and a lack of financial support.

  16. Overview of prohibited and permitted plant regulatory listing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Tasker, Alan V.

    2011-01-01

    Pest risk analysis is a process that evaluates the risks involved with a proposed species to help determine whether it should be permitted or denied entry into a country, and how the risks could be managed if it is imported. The prohibited listing approach was developed in the late 1800s and early 1900s in response to outbreaks of plant and animals pests such as foot and mouth disease of livestock, Mediterranean fruitfly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann), and Gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.). Under this approach, selected species of concern are evaluated to determine if they should be regulated for entry. Under the permitted listing approach that was first used on a national level in Australia in the 1990s, all species that are proposed for introduction are assessed to determine if they should be regulated.

  17. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.

  18. Quantifying explainable discrimination and removing illegal discrimination in automated decision making

    KAUST Repository

    Kamiran, Faisal

    2012-11-18

    Recently, the following discrimination-aware classification problem was introduced. Historical data used for supervised learning may contain discrimination, for instance, with respect to gender. The question addressed by discrimination-aware techniques is, given sensitive attribute, how to train discrimination-free classifiers on such historical data that are discriminative, with respect to the given sensitive attribute. Existing techniques that deal with this problem aim at removing all discrimination and do not take into account that part of the discrimination may be explainable by other attributes. For example, in a job application, the education level of a job candidate could be such an explainable attribute. If the data contain many highly educated male candidates and only few highly educated women, a difference in acceptance rates between woman and man does not necessarily reflect gender discrimination, as it could be explained by the different levels of education. Even though selecting on education level would result in more males being accepted, a difference with respect to such a criterion would not be considered to be undesirable, nor illegal. Current state-of-the-art techniques, however, do not take such gender-neutral explanations into account and tend to overreact and actually start reverse discriminating, as we will show in this paper. Therefore, we introduce and analyze the refined notion of conditional non-discrimination in classifier design. We show that some of the differences in decisions across the sensitive groups can be explainable and are hence tolerable. Therefore, we develop methodology for quantifying the explainable discrimination and algorithmic techniques for removing the illegal discrimination when one or more attributes are considered as explanatory. Experimental evaluation on synthetic and real-world classification datasets demonstrates that the new techniques are superior to the old ones in this new context, as they succeed in

  19. 48 CFR 5215.407 - Solicitation provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that adequate price competition will exist. If it is anticipated that an award will be based on adequate price competition, the solicitation shall include the provision at 5252.215-9000. If the... minimum delay in the event that adequate price competition does not materialize and it is necessary to...

  20. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    that the housing provision as currently practised is not socially sustainable as it does not rely on data from the .... Design Base. One of the first issues the architect always tries to address before embarking on a design is to obtain the design brief and analyse the data provided. ..... of Housing. Nigeria: Jos Universal. Press.

  1. 24 CFR 203.17 - Mortgage provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mortgage provisions. 203.17 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible Mortgages § 203...

  2. 12 CFR 931.9 - Transition provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... November 12, 1999, and whose investment in Bank stock as of the effective date of the capital plan will be... FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply... chapter, respectively, and each member shall comply with the minimum investment established in the capital...

  3. 9 CFR 93.318 - Special provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... recognized expositions in Canada, including racing, horse shows, rodeo, circus, or stage exhibitions in... CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.318 Special provisions. (a) In-bond shipments from Canada. (1) Horses from Canada transported in-bond through the United States for immediate export shall...

  4. 40 CFR 1042.301 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Production-line Engines § 1042.301 General provisions. (a) If you produce engines that are subject to the... engine manufacturers may omit testing under this subpart. (2) We may exempt Category 1 engine families... certain engine families if your production-line engines do not meet the requirements of this part or you...

  5. 10 CFR 26.711 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 26.711 Section 26.711 Energy NUCLEAR... information about individuals is retained and shared with other licensees and entities. If, for any reason, the shared information used for determining an individual's eligibility for authorization under this...

  6. 15 CFR 301.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FOR EDUCATIONAL AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS § 301.1 General provisions. (a) Purpose. This part sets... duty-free importation of scientific instruments and apparatus by public or private nonprofit institutions. (b) Background. (1) The Agreement on the importation of Educational, Scientific and Cultural...

  7. Advance Provision of Emergency Contraception for Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamji, Jehan-Marie; Swartwout, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Emergency contraception is most effective at preventing unintended pregnancy when taken as early as possible following unprotected sexual intercourse. Advance provision of this medication supports more timely and effective use. In the midst of rising teen pregnancy rates, current policies often limit access to emergency contraception for…

  8. 32 CFR 518.15 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information under the FOIA can have an adverse impact on OPSEC. The Army implementing directive for OPSEC is... provisions of the FOIA are reserved for persons with private interests as opposed to U.S. Federal Agencies... release of names and duty information of personnel who, by the nature of their position and duties...

  9. 15 CFR 748.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... approval of the Secretary of Commerce or of the Under Secretary for Industry and Security. (d) Electronic... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 748.1 Section 748.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU...

  10. Information provision by regulated public transport companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deborger, Bruno; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction between pricing, frequency of service and information provision by public transport firms offering scheduled services, and we do so under various regulatory regimes. The model assumes that users can come to the bus stop or rail station at random or they can plan their tri...

  11. 45 CFR 612.1 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... science, news releases) may be provided to the public without reliance on this Part. As a matter of policy... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General provisions. 612.1 Section 612.1 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION AVAILABILITY OF...

  12. 45 CFR 74.48 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provisions. 74.48 Section 74.48 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award...

  13. Incomplete Contracting Theory and EU Treaty Provisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis

    , the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...

  14. 5 CFR 831.1905 - Additional provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary to properly process a request for State income tax withholding. (d) If the State is paid... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 831.1905 Section 831.1905 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  15. 76 FR 32316 - Gap in Termination Provisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... example, the Software and Information Industry Association (SIIA) stated that the better practice would be... Copyright Office 37 CFR Part 201 Gap in Termination Provisions AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is amending its regulations governing notices of...

  16. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... impact on the type and nature of houses provided within the city .... architects. The common data usually obtained when it comes to mass housing estates provision has been that of income capability of the house owners as shown in researches by Igbinosa.

  17. 28 CFR 105.27 - Miscellaneous provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Private Security Officer Employment § 105.27 Miscellaneous provisions. (a) Alternate State availability... national fingerprint-based criminal history checks of prospective and current private security officers and... history checks of prospective and current private security officers. (b) FBI fees for national check. The...

  18. 20 CFR 301.1 - Statutory provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions. 301.1 Section 301.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... therefor, or in any of such activities. * * * (b) The term “carrier” means an express company, sleeping-car...

  19. 31 CFR 281.9 - General provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 281.9 Section 281.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... regulations within the framework of this circular will be issued by the Fiscal Assistant Secretary of the...

  20. 40 CFR 35.6595 - Contract provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must comply with 40 CFR 31.36(i)(3) through (6). (4) Conflict of interest. The recipient must include provisions pertaining to conflict of interest as described in § 35.6550(b)(2)(ii). ... regulations pertaining to reporting and patent rights under any contract involving research, developmental...