... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional provisions for lead. 51.117... Additional provisions for lead. In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of the...
... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision for additional pilot. 401.425 Section 401.425... REGULATIONS Rates, Charges, and Conditions for Pilotage Services § 401.425 Provision for additional pilot. The... Authority, Ltd., Canada, may require the assignment of two pilots to a ship upon request of the ship or when...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research... Organizations Additional Provisions § 600.381 Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants. (a) General. This section contains provisions applicable to the Small Business Innovation Reserach...
Peterson K. Ozili
Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for direct food additives. 172.5... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION General Provisions § 172.5 General provisions for direct food additives. (a...
Koester, Siegfried; Gruber, Gerhard
Germany has several types of Research Reactors in operation. These reactors use fuel containing uranium of U.S. origin. Basically all the fuel which will be spent until May 2006 will be returned to the U.S. under existing contracts with the U.S. Department of Energy. The contracts are based on the U.S. FRR SNF (Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel) Program which started in May 1996 and which will last for 10 years. In 1990, the German Federal Government started a program to long-term store (approx. 40 years) and finally dispose of spent fuel in Germany after the so-called U.S. fuel return window will be closed. In order to long-term store the fuel, a special container was designed which covers all different types of spent fuel from the Research Reactors. The container called 'CASTOR MTR 2' is basically licensed and is already in use for the spent fuel of Russian origin from the 'Research Reactor Rossendorf' in the eastern part of Germany. All that fuel is expected to be stored in the existing intermediate storage facility, the so-called BZA (Brennelemente Zwischenlager Ahaus). BZA already accomodates spent fuel from the former THTR-300 high temperature reactor. A final repository does not yet exist in Germany. Alternative provisions to close the back-end of the Research Reactor fuel cycle are reprocessing at COGEMA (France) or in Russian facilities, perspectively. Waste return in a form to be agreed will be mandatory, at least in France. (author)
Full Text Available It is necessary to create new knowledge for the development of the economy. The source of new knowledge are research: basic, applied and industrial, which complement each other to form one whole. Each of these research has other sources of financing and other purposes. Due to the large influx of foreign technology to Poland industrial research is not growing as we would expect. To balance this deficiency the Research Institutes may provide services on the world market. It would be advisable to seek the provision of services on the global research market so that it could became a Polish smart specialization. This specialization would include the sale of intellect, which should never run out of customers.
... additives. 174.5 Section 174.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: GENERAL § 174.5 General provisions applicable to indirect food additives. (a) Regulations prescribing conditions under...
... Warranty Provisions for Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. 552.246-77 Section 552.246-77 Federal Acquisition... a Noncomplex Nature. As prescribed in 546.710(a), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts that include FAR 52.246-17, Warranty of Supplies of a Noncomplex Nature. Additional Contract...
Vedel, Suzanne Elizabeth; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark
A key prerequisite to ensure that payment for ecosystem services is effective is that the management measures landowners are paid to undertake are in fact additional to the status quo and hence bring about a change in provision. We investigated Danish forest owners' preferences for conditional...... owners may already provide some of these, e.g., if they derive private benefits from them, in which case additionality becomes an issue. This study investigates the link between forest owners' current management and their willingness to accept (WTA) payments for providing specific ecosystem services...... contracts for the provision of ecosystem services in Natura 2000 policies in a sample covering 12.5% of the total private forest area. This involves allowing old trees to decay naturally, setting aside forest areas, accepting a fixed percentage of broadleaves and increasing access for the public. Forest...
...-Research and Development. 1852.235-74 Section 1852.235-74 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL... Provisions and Clauses 1852.235-74 Additional Reports of Work—Research and Development. As prescribed in 1835.070(e), insert a clause substantially the same as the following: Additional Reports of Work—Research...
... Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.46-7 Statutory provisions; plan requirements for taxpayers electing additional investment credit, etc. As amended by sections 802(b)(7), and 803 (c), (d), and (e) of... taxpayers electing additional investment credit, etc. 1.46-7 Section 1.46-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...
... payment for new medical services and technologies: General provisions. (a) Basis. Sections 412.87 and 412... establish a mechanism to recognize the costs of new medical services and technologies under the hospital... that are new medical services and technologies, if the following conditions are met: (1) A new medical...
This study discussed internet, the services and the uses, it can be put to in the provision of library services, or in an information centre. Literature search was used to elicit information for this study. The results revealed that whenever internet intervenes in library operations, these is bridge in time, space, minimized cost and ...
This paper is a reflective-reflexive examination of provisions of trustworthiness in critical narrative research. The author presents her understanding of provisions of trustworthiness as a science and as an art, and blurs these boundaries as she acknowledges their tension in practice. She weaves between theory and her experience in two…
A. A. Sogorin
The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individ...
A. A. Sogorin
Full Text Available The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individual. The boundaries of the social and humanitarian scientific field are defined. Accordingly, the study presents the main aspects of advertising in terms of art learning, sociology, cultural studies, history, psychology, political science, philosophy and linguistics. It is proved that the study of sociohumanitarian field is characterized with a permanent disciplinary interaction in the case study of advertising (the pairing of linguistics and psychology, political science and psychology, sociology and psychology. The chief strategies of advertising research within social and humanitarian fields include: a single basic approach strategy: the recognition of advertising as a twoway communication process; communication strategy: the rejection of research within the subject of a separate discipline, active interaction with the related sciences on the subject of the study; application of the principle of mutual academic enrichment; future strategy: focus on new technologies, methods, implementation of schemes of advertising in the social space, the attempts of futurological analysis. The article demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary scientific cooperation in the study of advertising as a social phenomenon.
The Nuffield Council on Bioethics' 2011 report, Human Bodies: Donation for Medicine and Research, proposes a system for examining the ethical implications of different types of incentives for the provision of human tissue for use in medicine and research. The cornerstone of this system is the principle of altruism which, the Council recommends, should, where possible, remain the starting point for any such tissue provision. Using the Council's example of ova provision for research as an area in which altruism-based rewards might be departed from, this article argues that such a system has the potential to become inconsistent and unnecessarily complex. It suggests that the outcomes-focussed and motivations-focussed justifications the Council provides do not sit easily within the fast-paced and unpredictable area of biotechnology research. Further, it may undermine the focus on autonomy that is enshrined in the relevant legislation. This article suggests that a fair system for incentivising and rewarding the provision of human tissue in research should be developed, which focuses on elements of this role that are common to all tissue providers.
... provisions in today's rule will result in a reduction in nitrogen oxides (NO X ), volatile organic compounds... requirements under EPA's diesel sulfur program related to the sulfur content of locomotive and marine (LM... ability of locomotive and marine diesel fuel produced from transmix by transmix processors and pipeline...
Gregório, João; Pizarro, Ângela; Cavaco, Afonso; Wipfli, Rolf; Lovis, Christian; Mira da Silva, Miguel; Lapão, Luís Velez
Chronic diseases are pressing health systems to introduce reforms, focused on primary care and multidisciplinary models. Community pharmacists have developed a new role, addressing pharmaceutical care and services. Information systems and technologies (IST) will have an important role in shaping future healthcare provision. However, the best way to design and implement an IST for pharmaceutical service provision is still an open research question. In this paper, we present a possible strategy based on the use of Design Science Research Methodology (DSRM). The application of the DSRM six stages is described, from the definition and characterization of the problem to the evaluation of the artefact.
Weitzel, Derek; Fraser, Dan; Bockelman, Brian; Swanson, David
It is common at research institutions to maintain multiple clusters that represent different owners or generations of hardware, or that fulfill different needs and policies. Many of these clusters are consistently under utilized while researchers on campus could greatly benefit from these unused capabilities. By leveraging principles from the Open Science Grid it is now possible to utilize these resources by forming a lightweight campus grid. The campus grids framework enables jobs that are submitted to one cluster to overflow, when necessary, to other clusters within the campus using whatever authentication mechanisms are available on campus. This framework is currently being used on several campuses to run HEP and other science jobs. Further, the framework has in some cases been expanded beyond the campus boundary by bridging campus grids into a regional grid, and can even be used to integrate resources from a national cyberinfrastructure such as the Open Science Grid. This paper will highlight 18 months of operational experiences creating campus grids in the US, and the different campus configurations that have successfully utilized the campus grid infrastructure.
Ramirez-Gomez, Sara O I; Torres-Vitolas, Carlos A.; Schreckenberg, Kate; Honzák, Miroslav; Cruz-Garcia, Gisella S.; Willcock, Simon; Palacios, Erwin; Pérez-Miñana, Elena; Verweij, Pita A.; Poppy, Guy M.
Over the last two decades indigenous peoples in the lower Caquetá River basin in Colombia have experienced detrimental changes in the provision of important ecosystem services in ways that have significant implications for the maintenance of their traditional livelihoods. To assess these changes we
McGrath, Cecile Hoareau; Hofman, Joanna; Bajziková, Lubica; Harte, Emma; Lasakova, Anna; Pankowska, Paulina; Sasso, S.; Belanger, Julie; Florea, S.; Krivogra, J.
At a time when more students than ever are attending higher education, its provision is becoming more fluid, global and competitive. For example, developments in new technologies mean that higher education institutions (HEIs) can make their courses available all over the world. These developments bring into question the traditional delivery model…
Full Text Available The study examined the ODL learners’ perceptions of the quality of provision of research support services to the ODL learners by tutors. It focused on the Zimbabwe Open University’s (ZOU Bachelor of Education (Educational Management research students’ experiences. It was a qualitative multiple case study of four of the 10 Regional Centres of the ZOU. It purposively sampled 40 out of 160 research participants because they possessed desirable research characteristics for this study. The study was deemed significant in influencing tutors and policy makers to consider their research students’ supervision experiences as a basis for improving the quality of services for future research supervision practices and research projects. The study was guided by a two fold theory namely, thee Facilitation Theory (Nyawaranda, 2005 and the Nurturing Theory (Anderson, Pay and Mac Laughlin, 2006. Both theories advocate for the need of the supervisors to give their students a big heart. In terms of research supervision services offered by tutors the study indicated the time students were offered to meet research supervisors, prompt returns of marked work, and tutor student motivation and counselling as key services. In connection with the joys about research supervision, the students highly regarded: the manner in which tutors motivated them, tutors guidance in choosing research topic, tutor mentorship during research supervision and provision of workshops to polish up their research skills. In line with the challenges to the provision of research support services, three categories of challenges emerged. First, student-related challenges included lack of time, lack of money, lack of library facilities, lack of motivation and commitment to do research, lack of adequate theory in the area being researched on and family problems. Second, supervisor-related challenges included: too little direction, too little practical help given, too few meeting with students
Cass, Tony; CERN. Geneva. IT Department
Much effort (and money) has been invested in recent years to ensure that academic and research sites are well interconnected with high-capacity networks that, in most cases, span national and continental boundaries. However, these dedicated research and education networks, whether national (NRENs) or trans-continental (RENs), frequently have Acceptable Use Policies (AUPs) that restrict their use by commercial entities, notably Cloud Service Providers (CSPs). After a brief summary of the issues involved, we describe three approaches to removing the network connectivity barrier that threatens to limit the ability of academic and research institutions to profit effectively from services offered by CSPs.
Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.
Operational research (OR) analysis provides information and systems to support decision making. In health care there are examples of OR being used to support decisions surrounding both the organization of health services and the treatment of individual patients. However, its uptake is currently low in spite of the increase in potential areas of application. In practice there is a lack of awareness amongst health service staff about what OR is and how it can help. This paper addresses this issue by exposing the contribution that OR made to a programme of research relating to DNA technology. Examples are given of the way it was used to provide information on the costs and outcomes of services and the ways these evolve over time. These examples demonstrate the way OR methods increase the understanding of both analysts and service providers about a problem area. This helps ensure that appropriate and valid approaches to tackling problem areas are developed. When developing these approaches, the problem orientated philosophy of OR means analysts are willing to use a range of methodologies, some originating in OR and some in other disciplines. The broad focus of OR also means that its findings enhance those provided by other disciplines which might seem to be competitors. The conclusion of the paper is that OR has a crucial role to play in the improvement of health services.
Bedos Christophe P
Full Text Available Abstract Background The quality of the physician-patient therapeutic relationship is a key factor in the effectiveness of care. Unfortunately, physicians and people living in poverty inhabit very different social milieux, and this great social distance hinders the development of a therapeutic alliance. Social competence is a process based on knowledge, skills and attitudes that support effective interaction between the physician and patient despite the intervening social distance. It enables physicians to better understand their patients' living conditions and to adapt care to patients' needs and abilities. Methods/Design This qualitative research is based on a comprehensive design using in-depth semi-structured interviews with 25 general practitioners working with low-income patients in Montreal's metropolitan area (Québec, Canada. Physicians will be recruited based on two criteria: they provide care to low-income patients with at least one chronic illness, and are identified by their peers as having expertise in providing care to a poor population. For this recruitment, we will draw upon contacts we have made in another research study (Loignon et al., 2009 involving clinics located in poor neighbourhoods. That study will include in-clinic observations and interviews with physicians, both of which will help us identify physicians who have developed skills for treating low-income patients. We will also use the snowball sampling technique, asking participants to refer us to other physicians who meet our inclusion criteria. The semi-structured interviews, of 60 to 90 minutes each, will be recorded and transcribed. Our techniques for ensuring internal validity will include data analysis of transcribed interviews, indexation and reduction of data with software qualitative analysis, and development and validation of interpretations. Discussion This research project will allow us to identify the dimensions of the social competence process that helps
Eli Dart; Helen Chen; Jerry Friesen; Jim Brandt; Jim Hutchins; Perry Robertson
During the past few years, the worldwide Internet has grown at a phenomenal rate, which has spurred the proposal of innovative network technologies to support the fast, efficient and low-latency transport of a wide spectrum of multimedia traffic types. Existing network infrastructures have been plagued by their inability to provide for real-time application traffic as well as their general lack of resources and resilience to congestion. This work proposes to address these issues by implementing a prototype high-speed network infrastructure consisting of Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) on top of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) transport medium. Since ATM is connection-oriented whereas IP uses a connection-less paradigm, the efficient integration of IPv6 over ATM is especially challenging and has generated much interest in the research community. We propose, in collaboration with an industry partner, to implement IPv6 over ATM using a unique approach that integrates IP over fast A TM hardware while still preserving IP's connection-less paradigm. This is achieved by replacing ATM's control software with IP's routing code and by caching IP's forwarding decisions in ATM's VPI/VCI translation tables. Prototype ''VR'' and distributed-parallel-computing applications will also be developed to exercise the realtime capability of our IPv6 over ATM network.
Дмитро Павлович Крамаренко
Full Text Available The analysis of the research results of influence of various amounts of aquatic organism additions on the reproduction of yeast cells is given. A positive impact of aquatic organism addition of animal and plant origin in investigated quantities on the reproduction of yeast cells is revealed. The influence of the chemical composition of the aquatic organism additives on the reproduction of yeast cells is proved
Newbould, Louise; Mountain, Gail; Hawley, Mark S; Ariss, Steven
A scoping review was conducted to map the research evidence on the use of videoconferencing for remote health care provision for older adults in care homes. The review aimed to identify the nature and extent of the existing evidence base. Databases used were Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Reviews. The review identified 26 articles for inclusion, of which 14 were case studies, making the most used study design. Papers described videoconferencing as being used for assessment, management of health care, clinical support, and diagnosis, with eight of the papers reporting the use of videoconferencing for more than one clinical purpose. A further eight papers reported the use of videoconferencing for assessment alone. The literature reported the collection of various types of data, with 12 papers describing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. The outcomes mainly addressed staff satisfaction ( n = 9) and resident satisfaction ( n = 8). Current evidence supports the feasibility of videoconferencing in care homes. However, research needs to be undertaken to establish the contexts and mechanisms that underpin the successful implementation of videoconferencing in care homes and to define useful measures for success.
Gray, Dennis; Wilson, Mandy; Allsop, Steve; Saggers, Sherry; Wilkes, Edward; Ober, Coralie
To review the results of five research projects commissioned to enhance alcohol treatment among Aboriginal Australians, and to highlight arising from them. Drafts of the papers were workshopped by project representatives, final papers reviewed and results summarised. Lessons arising were identified and described. While the impact of the projects varied, they highlight the feasibility of adapting mainstream interventions in Aboriginal Australian contexts. Outcomes include greater potential to: screen for those at risk; increase community awareness; build capacity and partnerships between organisations; and co-ordinate comprehensive referral networks and service provision. Results show a small investment can produce sustainable change and positive outcomes. However, to optimise and maintain investment, cultural difference needs to be recognised in both planning and delivery of alcohol interventions; resources and funding must be responsive to and realistic about the capacities of organisations; partnerships need to be formed voluntarily based on respect, equality and trust; and practices and procedures within organisations need to be formalised. There is no simple way to reduce alcohol-related harm in Aboriginal communities. However, the papers reviewed show that with Aboriginal control, modest investment and respectful collaboration, service enhancements and improved outcomes can be achieved. Mainstream interventions need to be adapted to Aboriginal settings, not simply transferred. The lessons outlined provide important reflections for future research. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Full Text Available A scoping review was conducted to map the research evidence on the use of videoconferencing for remote health care provision for older adults in care homes. The review aimed to identify the nature and extent of the existing evidence base. Databases used were Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Reviews. The review identified 26 articles for inclusion, of which 14 were case studies, making the most used study design. Papers described videoconferencing as being used for assessment, management of health care, clinical support, and diagnosis, with eight of the papers reporting the use of videoconferencing for more than one clinical purpose. A further eight papers reported the use of videoconferencing for assessment alone. The literature reported the collection of various types of data, with 12 papers describing the use of both qualitative and quantitative data. The outcomes mainly addressed staff satisfaction (n=9 and resident satisfaction (n=8. Current evidence supports the feasibility of videoconferencing in care homes. However, research needs to be undertaken to establish the contexts and mechanisms that underpin the successful implementation of videoconferencing in care homes and to define useful measures for success.
Communication received from the permanent mission of Austria regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material
The Director General received a note verbale of 13 June 1996 from Permanent Mission of Austria regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. In the light of the request expressed at the end of the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is being circulated
Communication received from the permanent mission of Finland regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material
The Director General received a note verbale of 8 February 1996 from Permanent Mission of Finland regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. In the light of the request expressed at the and of the note verbale, the text of the note verbale is being circulated
Parker, Amy T.; Pogrund, Rona L.
Research on the development of literacy in children with visual impairments and additional disabilities is minimal even though these children make up approximately 65% of the population of children with visual impairments. This article reports on emerging themes that were explored after a review of the literature revealed nine literacy studies…
Katsura, Yasufumi; Attaviriyanupap, Pathom; Kataoka, Yoshihiko
In this research, the fundamental premises for deregulation of the electric power industry are reevaluated. The authors develop a simple model to represent wholesale electricity market with highly congested network. The model is developed by simplifying the power system and market in New York ISO based on available data of New York ISO in 2004 with some estimation. Based on the developed model and construction cost data from the past, the economic impact of transmission line addition on market participants and the impact of deregulation on power plant additions under market with transmission congestion are studied. Simulation results show that the market signals may fail to facilitate proper capacity additions and results in the undesirable over-construction and insufficient-construction cycle of capacity addition.
Communication received from the Member States of the European Community regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material
The document reproduces the text of the note verbale received by the Director General on 30 November 1992 from the Permanent Missions to the Agency of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, relating to the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfer of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material. The note verbale dated 23 November 1992, received by the Director General from the Commission of the European Communities and relating to the same subject, is reproduced as well
Charyeva, Zulfiya; Oguntunde, Olugbenga; Orobaton, Nosa; Otolorin, Emmanuel; Inuwa, Fatima; Alalade, Olubisi; Abegunde, Dele; Danladi, Saba'atu
Contraceptive use remains low in Nigeria, with only 11% of women reporting use of any modern method. Access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) is constrained by a severe shortage of human resources. To assess feasibility of task shifting provision of implants, we trained community health extension workers (CHEWs) to insert and remove contraceptive implants in rural communities of Bauchi and Sokoto states in northern Nigeria. We conducted 2- to 3-week training sessions for 166 selected CHEWs from 82 facilities in Sokoto state (September 2013) and 84 health facilities in Bauchi state (December 2013). To assess feasibility of the task shifting approach, we conducted operations research using a pretest-posttest design using multiple sources of information, including surveys with 151 trained CHEWs (9% were lost to follow-up) and with 150 family planning clients; facility observations using supply checklists (N = 149); direct observation of counseling provided by CHEWs (N = 144) and of their clinical (N = 113) skills; as well as a review of service statistics (N = 151 health facilities). The endline assessment was conducted 6 months after the training in each state. CHEWs inserted a total of 3,588 implants in 151 health facilities over a period of 6 months, generating 10,088 couple-years of protection (CYP). After practicing on anatomic arm models, most CHEWs achieved competency in implant insertions after insertions with 4-5 actual clients. Clinical observations revealed that CHEWs performed implant insertion tasks correctly 90% of the time or more for nearly all checklist items. The amount of information that CHEWs provided clients increased between baseline and endline, and over 95% of surveyed clients reported being satisfied with CHEWs' services in both surveys. The study found that supervisors not only observed and corrected insertion skills, as needed, during supervisory visits but also encouraged CHEWs to conduct more community
Martin Olsthoorn; Evert Pommer; Michiel Ras; Ab van der Torre; Jean Marie Wildeboer Schut
Original title: Voorzieningen verdeeld Citizens ‘profit’ from the government when they receive income support because they are unable to generate an income themselves. They also profit when they make use of provisions such as care, support, education, public transport, sport, culture
Berger, Bettina; Weger, Ulrich; Heusser, Peter
Personalised and contextualised care has been turned into a major demand by people involved in healthcare suggesting to move toward person-centred medicine. The assessment of person-centred medicine can be most effectively achieved if treatments are investigated using ‘with versus without’ person-centredness or integrative study designs. However, this assumes that the components of an integrative or person-centred intervention have an additive relationship to produce the total effect. Beecher’s model of additivity assumes an additive relation between placebo and drug effects and is thus presenting an arithmetic summation. So far, no review has been carried out assessing the validity of the additive model, which is to be questioned and more closely investigated in this review. Initial searches for primary studies were undertaken in July 2016 using Pubmed and Google Scholar. In order to find matching publications of similar magnitude for the comparison part of this review, corresponding matches for all included reviews were sought. A total of 22 reviews and 3 clinical and experimental studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results pointed to the following factors actively questioning the additive model: interactions of various effects, trial design, conditioning, context effects and factors, neurobiological factors, mechanism of action, statistical factors, intervention-specific factors (alcohol, caffeine), side-effects and type of intervention. All but one of the closely assessed publications was questioning the additive model. A closer examination of study design is necessary. An attempt in a more systematic approach geared towards solutions could be a suggestion for future research in this field. PMID:28321318
Tennant, David Robin; Bruyninckx, Chris
Consumer exposure assessments for food additives are incomplete without information about the proportions of foods in each authorised category that contain the additive. Such information has been difficult to obtain but the Mintel Global New Products Database (GNPD) provides information about product launches across Europe over the past 20 years. These data can be searched to identify products with specific additives listed on product labels and the numbers compared with total product launches for food and drink categories in the same database to determine the frequency of occurrence. There are uncertainties associated with the data but these can be managed by adopting a cautious and conservative approach. GNPD data can be mapped with authorised food categories and with food descriptions used in the EFSA Comprehensive European Food Consumption Surveys Database for exposure modelling. The data, when presented as percent occurrence, could be incorporated into the EFSA ANS Panel's 'brand-loyal/non-brand loyal exposure model in a quantitative way. Case studies of preservative, antioxidant, colour and sweetener additives showed that the impact of including occurrence data is greatest in the non-brand loyal scenario. Recommendations for future research include identifying occurrence data for alcoholic beverages, linking regulatory food codes, FoodEx and GNPD product descriptions, developing the use of occurrence data for carry-over foods and improving understanding of brand loyalty in consumer exposure models.
The effect of tin content on hardness and tensile properties of A390 alloys has been discussed. The microstructure of the A390 alloy with tin addition has been surveyed by OM and investigated by SEM. Research showed that β-Sn in the alloy precipitation forms were mainly small blocks and thin strips, particles within the Al2Cu network or large blocks consisting of β-Sn and Al2Cu on Al/Si interfaces or α-Al grain boundaries. Spheroidization of the primary and eutectic silicon was improved due to Sn accretion. With the augment of element tin, hardness of casting alloy is much higher than that of alloy after heat treatment. The elongation and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were increased in Sn addition from 0 to 1%, which is attributed to the multiple action of Sn.
A large variety of research reactor spent fuel with different fuel meats, different geometries and different enrichments in 235 U are presently stored underwater in basins located around the world. More than 90% of these fuels are clad in aluminium or aluminium based alloys that are notoriously susceptible to corrosion in water of less than optimum quality. Some fuel is stored in the reactor pools themselves, some in auxiliary pools (or basins) close to the reactor and some stored at away-from-reactor pools. Since the early 1990s, when corrosion induced degradation of the fuel cladding was observed in many of the pools, corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel stored in light water filled basins has become a major concern, and programmes were implemented at the sites to improve fuel storage conditions. The IAEA has since then established a number of programmatic activities to address corrosion of research reactor aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. Of special relevance was the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase I) initiated in 1996, whose results were published in IAEA Technical Reports Series No. 418. At the end of this CRP it was considered necessary that a continuation of the CRP should concentrate on fuel storage basins that had demonstrated significant corrosion problems and would therefore provide additional insight into the fundamentals of localized corrosion of aluminium. As a consequence, the IAEA started a new CRP entitled Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water (Phase II), to carry out more comprehensive research in some specific areas of corrosion of aluminium clad spent nuclear fuel in water. In addition to this CRP, one of the activities under IAEA's Technical Cooperation Regional Project for Latin America Management of Spent Fuel from Research Reactors (2001-2006) was corrosion monitoring and surveillance of research
Sun, Jiaojiao; Xu, Wei; Lin, Zifei
In this paper, the reliability of a non-linearly damped friction oscillator under combined additive and multiplicative Gaussian white noise excitations is investigated. The stochastic averaging method, which is usually applied to the research of smooth system, has been extended to the study of the reliability of non-smooth friction system. The results indicate that the reliability of friction system can be improved by Coulomb friction and reduced by random excitations. In particular, the effect of the external random excitation on the reliability is larger than the effect of the parametric random excitation. The validity of the analytical results is verified by the numerical results.
Idinger, J.; Labella, R.; Rialhe, A.; Teller, N.
The additional protocol (AP) provides important tools to strengthen and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the safeguards system. Safeguards are designed to verify that States comply with their international commitments not to use nuclear material or to engage in nuclear-related activities for the purpose of developing nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices. Under an AP based on INFCIRC/540, a State must provide to the IAEA additional information about, and inspector access to, all parts of its nuclear fuel cycle. In addition, the State has to supply information about its nuclear fuel cycle-related research and development (R&D) activities. The majority of States declare their R&D activities under the AP Articles 2.a.(i), 2.a.(x), and 2.b.(i) as part of initial declarations and their annual updates under the AP. In order to verify consistency and completeness of information provided under the AP by States, the Agency has started to analyze declared R&D information by identifying interrelationships between States in different R&D areas relevant to safeguards. The paper outlines the quality of R&D information provided by States to the Agency, describes how the extraction and analysis of relevant declarations are currently carried out at the Agency and specifies what kinds of difficulties arise during evaluation in respect to cross-linking international projects and finding gaps in reporting. In addition, the paper tries to elaborate how the reporting quality of AP information with reference to R&D activities and the assessment process of R&D information could be improved. (author)
The Uniform Accident and Sickness Policy Provision Law (UPPL) is a state statute that allows insurance companies in 26 states to deny claims for accidents and injuries incurred by persons under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Serious repercussions can result for patients and health care professionals as states enforce this law. To examine differences within the laws that might facilitate amendments or reduce insurance companies' ability to deny claims, a content analysis was carried out of each state's UPPL law. Results showed no meaningful differences between each state's laws. These results indicate patients and health professionals share similar risk related to the UPPL regardless of state.
Zhao, Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shu-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zeng, Jian-Guo
The global antimicrobial resistance has been a big challenge to the human health for years. It has to make balance between the safety of animal products and the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. Any methods that can minimize or even phase out the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry should be encouraged. We herein describe the research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from the side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization. Killing two birds with one stone-besides the major purposes, the rational utilization of non-medicinal parts and wastes of industrialization of Chinese herbal medicines is also achieved under the proposed strategies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of the results of the both experimental results and theoretical works on the SI engine with additional expansion of exhaust gases, also known as five-stroke engine. The engine like this was constructed at Cracow University of Technology as a retrofitted in-line four cylinder engine in which outer cylinders (1st and 4th work as fired cylinders and inner cylinders (2nd and 3rd work as volume for the additional expansion. The aim of development of such an engine is to gain higher energy recovery ratio of the combusted fuel through the second expansion of exhaust in a separate cylinder. The operating parameters of the engine in various versions were analyzed: as naturally aspirated, supercharged using a turbocharger with a waste-gate valve and a turbocharger with variable nozzle turbine. Selected results of the indicating measurements of the engine with special emphasis on the indicated thermal efficiency were presented. The results pointed out the directions of further optimization of the engine. These results are all the more important, because according to the author’s knowledge, the research on the real object of this type are carried out in only one science center in the world besides Cracow University of Technology.
Claxton, Karl; Griffin, Susan; Koffijberg, Hendrik; McKenna, Claire
A simple extension of standard meta-analysis can provide quantitative estimates of the potential health benefits of further research and of implementing the findings of existing research, which can help inform research prioritisation and efforts to change clinical practice
Claxton, Karl; Griffin, Susan; Koffijberg, Hendrik; McKenna, Claire
A simple extension of standard metaanalysis can provide quantitative estimates of the potential health benefits of further research and of implementing the findings of existing research, which can help inform research prioritisation and efforts to change clinical practice
The inclusion of an additional safety rod in conjunction with a core conversion study of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was carried out using neutronics, thermal hydraulics and burnup codes. The study is based on a recommendation by Integrated Safety Assessment for Research Reactors (INSARP) mission to incorporate a safety rod to the reactor safety system as well as the need to replace the reactor fuel with LEU. Conversion from one fuel type to another requires a complete re-evaluation of the safety analysis. Changes to the reactivity worth, shutdown margin, power density and material properties must be taken into account, and appropriate modifications made. Neutronics analysis including burnup was studied followed by thermal hydraulics analyses which comprise steady state and transients. Four computer codes were used for the analysis; MCNP, REBUS, PLTEP and PARET. The neutronics analysis revealed that the LEU core must be operated at 34 Kw in order to attain the flux of 1.0E12 n/cm 2 .s as the nominal flux of the HEU core. The auxiliary safety rod placed at a modified irradiation site gives a better worth than the cadmium capsules. For core excess reactivity of 4 mk, 348 fuel pins would be appropriate for the GHARR-1 LEU core. Results indicate that flux level of 1.0E12 n/cm 2 .s in the inner irradiation channel will not be compromised, if the power of the LEU core is increased to 34 kW. The GHARR-1 core using LEU-U0 2 -12.5% fuel can be operated for 23 shim cycles, with cycles length 2.5 years, for over 57 years at the 17 kW power level. All 23 LEU cycles meet the ∼ 4.0 mk excess reactivity required at the beginning of cycle . For comparison, the MNSR HEU reference core can also be operated for 23 shim cycles, but with a cycle length of 2.0 years for just over 46 years at 15.0kW power level. It is observed that the GHARR-1 core with LEU UO 2 fuel enriched to 12.5% and a power level of 34 kW can be operated ∼25% longer than the current HEU core operated at
... executive agencies. Specifically, the head of the agency must conduct market research before issuing an... million for the procurement of items other than commercial items is required to conduct market research... 10 U.S.C. 2377(c), ``Preliminary Market Research'', to require the head of an agency to conduct...
Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
The design of experimental test parts to characterize micro additive manufacturing (AM) processes is challenging due to the influence of the manufacturing and metrology processes. This work builds on the lessons learned from a case study in the literature to derive generalized requirements and high...... level decompositions for the design of test parts and the design of experiments to characterize micro additive manufacturing processes. While the test parts and the experiments described are still work in progress, the generic requirements derived from them can serve as a starting point for the design...... of other micro additive manufacturing related studies and their decompositions can help structure future work....
... and small disadvantaged business, should be exempt from market research requirements because the... subcontracting opportunities for small- business concerns. Careful attention to market-research strategies is an effective method for creating contract opportunities for small- business concerns. It provides them with an...
Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther
The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…
Martin-Betancor, K; Ritz, Christian; Fernández-Piñas, F
A novel additivity framework for mixture effect modelling in the context of whole cell inducible biosensors has been mathematically developed and implemented in R. The proposed method is a multivariate extension of the effective dose (EDp) concept. Specifically, the extension accounts for differe......A novel additivity framework for mixture effect modelling in the context of whole cell inducible biosensors has been mathematically developed and implemented in R. The proposed method is a multivariate extension of the effective dose (EDp) concept. Specifically, the extension accounts...... for differential maximal effects among analytes and response inhibition beyond the maximum permissive concentrations. This allows a multivariate extension of Loewe additivity, enabling direct application in a biphasic dose-response framework. The proposed additivity definition was validated, and its applicability...... illustrated by studying the response of the cyanobacterial biosensor Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 pBG2120 to binary mixtures of Zn, Cu, Cd, Ag, Co and Hg. The novel method allowed by the first time to model complete dose-response profiles of an inducible whole cell biosensor to mixtures. In addition...
Wang, Xin; Wei, Zheng ying; Du, Jun; Ren, Chuan qi; Zhang, Shan; Zhang, Zhitong; Bai, Hao
Existing metal additive manufacturing equipment has high capital costs and slow throughput printing. In this paper, a new metal fused-coating additive manufacturing (MFCAM) was proposed. Experiments of single-track formation were conducted using MFCAM to validate the feasibility. The low melting alloy was selected as the forming material. Then, the effect of process parameters such as the flow rate, deposition velocity and initial distance on the forming morphology. There is a strong coupling effect between the single track forming morphology. Through the analysis of influencing factors to improve the forming quality of specimens. The experimental results show that the twice as forming efficiency as the metal droplet deposition. Additionally, the forming morphology and quality were analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscope and X-ray. The results show that the metal fused-coating process can achieve good surface morphology and without internal tissue defect.
Sun, Zhixin; Li, Ruoting; Wang, Xiancheng; Hu, Chuan
Aiming at the combustion deterioration problem of diesel engine in plateau environment, a bench test was carried out for the effects of EHN additive on combustion characteristics of the diesel engine with intake pressure of 0.68 kPa. Test results showed that with the full load working condition of 1 400 r/min: Cylinder pressure and pressure uprising rate decreased with EHN additive added in, mechanical load on the engine could be relieved; peak value of the heat release rate decreased and its occurrence advanced, ignition delay and combustion duration were shortened; cylinder temperature and exhaust gas temperature declined, thermal load on the engine could be relieved, output torque increased while specific oil consumption decreased, and effective thermal efficiency of diesel engine increased.
Full Text Available Introduction: Mental health care is a critical area to better understand integrated care and to pilot the different components of the integrated care model. However, there is an urgent need for better tools to compare and understand the context of integrated mental health care in Europe.Method: The REMAST tool (REFINEMENT MApping Services Tool combines a series of standardised health service research instruments and geographical information systems (GIS to develop local atlases of mental health care from the perspective of horizontal and vertical integrated care. It contains five main sections: (a Population Data; (b the Verona Socio-economic Status (SES Index; (c the Mental Health System Checklist; (d the Mental Health Services Inventory using the DESDE-LTC instrument; and (e Geographical Data.Expected results: The REMAST tool facilitates context analysis in mental health by providing the comparative rates of mental health service provision according to the availability of main types of care; care placement capacity; workforce capacity; and geographical accessibility to services in the local areas in eight study areas in Austria, England, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Romania and Spain.Discussion: The outcomes of this project will facilitate cooperative work and knowledge transfer on mental health care to the different agencies involved in mental health planning and provision. This project would improve the information to users and society on the available resources for mental health care and system thinking at the local level by the different stakeholders. The techniques used in this project and the knowledge generated could eventually be transferred to the mapping of other fields of integrated care.
The research shows an opportunity of preparing biodiesel fuel on the basis of local diesel fuel and the bioadditive - castor oil. Limiting optimum concentration of introduction of the bioadditive equal was established as 5% mass ratio. The castor oil released from seeds of Palma Christi grown on experimental field. All physical and chemical characteristics of the oil including IR-spectra were determined. Operating conditions of castor oil introduction (temperature, solubility, concentra-tion,...
The additional investigations concern the determination of the transfer of the fission products I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134, and Te-132 along the pasture-cattle-milk pathway insolving fresh grass, and of the fission products Cs-137 and Cs-134 from winter fodder to milk, beef and veal, and the enrichment of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in the human organism as well as the migration of the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134, Ru-103, and K-40 from the Chernobyl fall-out to the soil. (DG) [de
Full Text Available Biogas – ecological fuel, which is assigned to alternative energy sources. It should be noted, that biogas – renewable energy source, which does not require any specific climatic conditions or geographical position of a country. This power source is available and can be successfully produced and used in all countries of the world. The main components of biogas – methane CH4 and carbon monoxide CO2. This gas is formed under anaerobic conditions, when microorganisms decompose biodegradable biomass. In biological sciences biomass means a living matter content, expressed in grams per unit area. Meanwhile, in the energy sector, the definition of biomass is limited and biomass is characterized as fuel source, produced from plant materials and organic waste (food waste, wood, sludge, manure, vegetables, etc.. Currently, to produce biogas from biomass, bioreactors are used worldwide. However, in order to increase the quality and yield of biogas, in the world practice various bioload additives are used: vegetable waste, clay minerals, and a large amount of the protein-containing waste. The goal – to evaluate the impact of biochar on biogas quality and yield using sewage sludge load. It was found, that 10% biochar additive increased average CH4 concentration of 7.9%, reduced the CO2 concentration of 3–4% and totally removed H2S from biogas.
Ridikas, D.; Bernard, D.; Cabellos, O.; Lee, Y.O.; Oberstedt, S.; Oshima, M.
Research reactors (RRs) have played and continue to play a key role in the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy. The main applications of most RRs continue to be radioisotope production, neutron beam applications, silicon doping and material irradiation for nuclear systems, as well as teaching and training for human resource development. What has been perceived as less important is the role of RRs to provide nuclear data, utilizing their inherent capability of integral experiments, benchmark, and validation analyses, particularly for the assessment of the safety margin and improvement of economic efficiency in the development and licensing of future nuclear power plants. In this respect, the previous International Conference on Nuclear Data for Science and Technology, held in Nice, France, from 22 to 27 April 2007, especially emphasized atomic and nuclear data needs for basic nuclear physics research, innovative power reactors and future fuel cycles (e.g., fast reactors, dedicated reactors for nuclear waste transmutation, accelerator driven systems, the Th-U fuel cycle, etc.), and the realization of fusion reactors (e.g., ITER). Other fields in which nuclear data are required relate to the testing of materials needed for such facilities, the evaluation of radioisotope production and their medical application, the simulation via computer software radiation of doses to patients and advanced cancer therapies, as well as the improvement of analytical techniques adopted for cultural heritage diagnostics and material composition analysis. RRs continue to occupy a visibly important place in these areas of study and application along with dedicated accelerator-based neutron sources. For example, an installation like the Lohengrin Fission Fragment Separator at Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble, France, remains a unique place to study fission fragments and their properties as products of thermal neutron induced fission. Equally, the importance of
Yudin, I.P.; Panasik, V.A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.
The paper deals with the construction of the 12 C +6 beam transport line for biomedical research at the Nuclotron accelerator complex, JINR. We have studied the scheme and modes of magneto-optical elements of the channel. The results of calculations of the investigated beam transport of carbon ions are presented. The algorithms to control the carbon ion beam in the transportation system are discussed. The choice of the magneto-optical system is motivated. The graphs of the beam envelopes in the channel are given. The scanning control beam functions are considered
Yudin, I.P.; Panasik, V.A.; Tyutyunnikov, S.I.
The paper deals with the construction of the beam 12 C +6 transport line for biomedical research at the Nuclotron accelerator complex, JINR. We have studied the scheme and modes of magneto-optical elements of the channel. The results of calculations of the investigated beam transport of carbon ions are presented. The algorithms to control the carbon ion beam in the transportation system are discussed. The choice of the magneto-optical system is motivated. The graphs of the beam envelopes in the channel are given. The scanning control beam functions are considered
Deen, J.R.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Papastergiou, C.
The GRR-1 is a 5-MW pool-type, light-water-moderated and-cooled reactor fueled with MTR-type fuel elements. Recently received Be reflector blocks will soon be added to the core to add additional reactivity until fresh LEU fuel arrives. REBUS-3 xy fuel cycle analyses, using burnup dependent cross sections, were performed to assist in fuel management decisions for the water- and Be-reflected HEU nonequilibrium cores. Cross sections generated by EPRI-CELL have been benchmarked to identical VIM Monte Carlo models. The size of the Be-reflected LEU core has been reduced to 30 elements compared to 35 for the HEU water-reflected core, and an equilibrium cycle calculation has been performed
Papesch, R.; Klus, L.; Svoboda, J.; Zajac, R.
The main goal of the article is the comparison of the possible use of secondary energy products. Used fly ashes, respectively steel dusts in cement mixes derive from production in Moravian-Silesian Region. The research focused on their influence on the chemical and physico-mechanical characteristics of the fresh and solid mixture. The aim was to find suitable formulations for grouting works, highway construction possibly rehabilitation of underground cavities created by mining activities. The introduction is mentioned the history of waste utilization up to current use as a product and the overall state of the problem. The conclusion is an evaluation of possible use in practice, including recommendations to carry out further tests.
Dimitrovski, Mile; Mucevski, Kiril
In this paper an attempt to get some cognitions about the influence of the additives for engine oils upon the working parameters of the internal combustion engines is made. During the experimental researches the changes of the basic parameters which determine the work of the engine, such as: the pressure of compression, the noise, the vibrations, the friction of the engine mechanism, the internal cleanliness of the engine and similar, were observed. It was conclude that the use of additives into the engine oil resulted with smoother work of the engine and cleaner exhausted as well. (Author)
Gale, J. [IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme, Cheltenham (United Kingdom)
The new bill before the Senate, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, allows for an additional amount for 'Fossil Energy Research and Development' of $4.6 billion, to be available until 30 September 2010 and that $2 billion of that is available for one or more near zero emissions power plant(s). Two further provisions allow for an additional $1 billion for the Department's Clean Coal Power Initiative Round III and a further $1.5 billion for a competitive solicitations for projects that demonstrate carbon capture from industrial sources. Awards for such projects may include plant efficiency improvements for integration with carbon capture technology. The press seems to be divided whether this money will help revive the FutureGen project. The financial commitment should help the G8 achieve its objective of seeing 20 CCS demonstration projects around the world by 2020. An economic stimulus package proposed by the incoming Barack Obama administration include $150 billion to be spent over 10 years to spur next generation biofuels, plug in hybrid vehicles, a new digital electrical grid and new low emission coal plants. The proposal is intended to create jobs and address critical infrastructure in the US.
O'Donnell, Patrick; Tierney, Edel; O'Carroll, Austin; Nurse, Diane; MacFarlane, Anne
The involvement of patients and the public in healthcare has grown significantly in recent decades and is documented in health policy documents internationally. Many benefits of involving these groups in primary care planning have been reported. However, these benefits are rarely felt by those considered marginalised in society and they are often excluded from participating in the process of planning primary care. It has been recommended to employ suitable approaches, such as co-operative and participatory initiatives, to enable marginalised groups to highlight their priorities for care. This Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) research study involved 21 members of various marginalised groups who contributed their views about access to primary care. Using a series of PLA techniques for data generation and co-analysis, we explored barriers and facilitators to primary healthcare access from the perspective of migrants, Irish Travellers, homeless people, drug users, sex workers and people living in deprivation, and identified their priorities for action with regard to primary care provision. Four overarching themes were identified: the home environment, the effects of the 'two-tier' healthcare system on engagement, healthcare encounters, and the complex health needs of many in those groups. The study demonstrates that there are many complicated personal and structural barriers to accessing primary healthcare for marginalised groups. There were shared and differential experiences across the groups. Participants also expressed shared priorities for action in the planning and running of primary care services. Members of marginalised groups have shared priorities for action to improve their access to primary care. If steps are taken to address these, there is scope to impact on more than one marginalised group and to address the existing health inequities.
Design provisions for safety of nuclear power plants are based on a well balanced concept: the public is protected against a release of radioactive material by multiple barriers. These barriers are protected according to a 'defence-in-depth' principle. The reactor safety concept is primarily aimed at the prevention of accidents, especially fuel damage. Additionally, measures for consequence limitation are provided in order to prevent a severe release of radioactivity to the environment. However, it is difficult to judge the overall effectiveness of such devices. In a comprehensive safety analysis it has to be shown that the protection systems and safeguards work with sufficient reliability in the event of an accident. For the reliability assessment deterministic criteria (single failure, redundancy, fail-safe, demand for diversity) play an important role. Increasing efforts have been made to assess reliability quantitatively by means of probabilistic methods. It is now usual to perform reliability analyses of essential systems of nuclear power plants in the course of licensing procedures. As an additional level of emergency measures for a further reduction of hazards a reasonable amount of accident information has to be transferred. Operational experience may be considered as an important feedback to the design of plant safety features. Operator training has to include, besides skill in performing of operating procedures, the training of a flexible response to different accident situations. Experience has shown that the design provisions for safety could prevent dangerous release of the radioactive material to the environment after an accident has occurred. For future developments of reactor safety, extensive analyses of operating experience are of great importance. The main goal should be to enhance the reliability of measures for accident prevention, which prevent the core from meltdown or other damages
Ji, Lei; Lu, Jiping; Tang, Shuiyuan; Wu, Qianru; Wang, Jiachen; Ma, Shuyuan; Fan, Hongli; Liu, Changmeng
Wire feeding additive manufacturing (WFAM) has broad application prospects because of its advantages of low cost and high efficiency. However, with the mode of lateral wire feeding, including wire and laser additive manufacturing, gas tungsten arc additive manufacturing etc., it is easy to generate macro defects on the surface of the components because of the anisotropy of melted wire, which limits the promotion and application of WFAM. In this work, gas tungsten arc additive manufacturing with lateral wire feeding is proposed to investigate the mechanisms of macro defects. The results illustrate that the defect forms mainly include side spatters, collapse, poor flatness, and unmelted wire. It was found that the heat input, layer thickness, tool path, and wire curvature can have an impact on the macro defects. Side spatters are the most serious defects, mainly because the droplets cannot be transferred to the center of the molten pool in the lateral wire feeding mode. This research indicates that the macro defects can be controlled by optimizing the process parameters. Finally, block parts without macro defects were fabricated, which is meaningful for the further application of WFAM.
Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig
-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy......The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...
Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Pedersen, Lene Holm
This article extends the framework of Le Grand (2003, 2010) to encompass responsiveness, and the main argument is that the combination of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision potentially has serious implications for responsiveness across service areas. Although...... research on employee motivation thrives, especially in the public service motivation (PSM) literature, few studies have investigated user capacity empirically, and we know little about the combination of PSM, user capacity and models of service provision. Analyzing four central service areas (day care......, schools, hospitals, and universities), we find variations in both user capacity and PSM. Taking this variation as a point of departure we discuss what implications different combinations of employee motivation, user capacity, and models of public service provision may have for responsiveness....
Mumith, A; Thomas, M; Shah, Z; Coathup, M; Blunn, G
Increasing innovation in rapid prototyping (RP) and additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D printing, is bringing about major changes in translational surgical research. This review describes the current position in the use of additive manufacturing in orthopaedic surgery. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:455-60.
Norton, Michael I; Frost, Jeana H; Ariely, Dan
Ullrich, Krueger, Brod, and Groschupf (2013)-using a replication of the trait paradigm from Norton, Frost, and Ariely (2007)-suggest that less information does not always equal greater liking. We first ground the current debate in a larger historical debate in social psychology regarding the merits of configural versus algebraic models of person perception. We next review (a) related research that has suggested that more information can in some cases lead to more liking and (b) a large body of "real world" data-from friendships, daters, married couples, employment, celebrities, and politics-that suggests that more information often leads to less liking. We then provide an additional replication of our "less is more" effect, using a slight variation of the trait-list paradigm. The existing data suggest a need for further integrative explorations of when familiarity leads to contempt or liking or has no effect. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Tuesday 28 January 2014 - K. E. Huthmacher Ministerialdirektor Provision for the Future - Basic and Sustainability Research Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) visiting the stands with R. Heuer CERN Director-General on the occasion of the Inauguration of the Industrial Exhibition Germany@CERN and visiting the ATLAS Cavern with D. Charlton ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson and R. Voss Head of International Relations.
Tuesday 28 January - K. E. Huthmacher Ministerialdirektor Provision for the Future - Basic and Sustainability Research Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) visiting the stands with R. Heuer CERN Director-General on the occasion of the Inauguration of the Industrial Exhibition Germany@CERN and visiting the ATLAS Cavern with D. Charlton ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson and R. Voss Head of International Relations.
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to explore and compare reporting practices on provisions for liabilities in different countries. Methodology: The research was limited to the types of provisions that are addressed in the International Accounting Standard 37 - Provisions, Contingent Liabilities and Contingent Assets. For the purpose of the study, financial statements of the biggest public companies in Great Britain, Germany and Poland have been chosen to be taken into consideration. The following detailed issues have been explored: - Presentation of the types of provisions in a statement of financial position and additional notes to a financial statement, - Presentation of the amounts of provisions made, used, and reversed during a given period and the effects of changes in the discount rate, - Scope and quality of descriptions of the nature of obligations presented by entities. The results of the analysis have been viewed from two perspectives - the areas of compliance and non-compliance of reporting on provisions with IFRS have been identified and a comparison of the extent of compliance with particular requirements between companies from different countries has been developed. Findings: The results of the analysis have revealed that companies from selected countries demonstrate different levels of compliance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. Substantial differences in the scope and the quality of descriptive disclosures on provisions have been also identified. Originality/value: The study contributes to the research on cross-country differences in reporting practices and indicates the need for a further analysis of the underlying determinants
Cho-hoi Hui; Tom Fong
Under the framework of Basel II, banks which adopt the internal ratings-based approach will be required to compare their actual provisions with expected losses. Any shortfall (i.e., the expected loss exceeds the provision) should be deducted from capital of the bank. It is therefore important to ensure banks make adequate provisions against expected losses. In addition, both sound policy and the Banking Ordinance require banks to take a forward-looking view of provisions. These requirements r...
Communication received from the Permanent Mission of Sweden regarding the provision of certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material
The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 28 June 1996 received by the Director General of IAEA from the Permanent Mission of Sweden through which the Government of Sweden provides, on a voluntary basis, certain additional information on production, inventories and international transfers of nuclear material and on exports of certain relevant equipment and non-nuclear material, in order to assist the Agency in the discharge of its safeguards responsibilities
Selix, Nancy W; Rowniak, Stefan
Transgender individuals have unique health care needs and experience health disparities. There is an increased need for transgender health care services and primary care for this underserved population. However, provision of appropriate health care services for transgender persons requires cultural competency and skill on the part of the health care provider, and providers need specific skills to address the needs of this population. A review of the literature was performed by accessing CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. Pertinent research was extracted and reviewed for relevance. References in these publications were reviewed to identify additional publications that address primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary care of transgender individuals. Articles that include prevention, screening, and treatment of health problems of transgender persons were identified. Research on the health needs of the transgender population is limited. Whenever available, research findings that address this unique population should be incorporated into clinical practice. When research evidence is not available to address the unique needs of transgender individuals, research and clinical care guidelines from the general population may be applied for health screening and maintenance. This article provides information about primary care services for transgender individuals and seeks to improve awareness of the health disparities this underserved population experiences. Simple solutions to modify clinical settings to enhance care are provided. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Full Text Available An experimental study and subsequent analytical assessment of activation energy change in lignite oxidation process with addition of NaNO3 and CuSO4 mineral salts were conducted. The results showed that injection of catalytic additives leads to reduction of coal activation energy and reaction initial temperature.
..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH AND STUDIES PROGRAM How Does the Secretary Make a Grant... use for an application for a research project, a survey, or a study? 660.32 Section 660.32 Education... purposes of the International Education Program authorized by part A of title VI of the HEA. (d...
Full Text Available For approximately 15 years there have been a number of episodes of rampage school violence in elementary/high school and higher education in the United States. Initial responses included implementation of antibullying programs, disciplinary measures, and increased law security measures. As the incidences have continued, it has become apparent that a more collaborative and interdisciplinary approach is needed for prevention. This paper offers a review of research literature as it applies to proposed innovative strategies for collaborative research, prevention, and intervention in the school setting.
Full Text Available This scientific survey is about periodic lattice structures which are made by Selective Laser Melting (SLM. Selective laser melting is based on Additive Manufacturing. The increased use and increasing demand of lattice structures in different fields of applications forms the necessity of a closer look on complex structures. Lattice structures can be found in different fields of applications for example in lightweight applications, filters and heat exchangers. Because of the expanding of application areas and thus arising requirements, the quality improvement is indispensable. Additive manufacturing and especially the SLM process enable the manufacturing of highly complex shapes and structures. Further it allows the integration of lightweight structures within to be manufactured applications. These high performance structures and applications need specific boundary and process conditions [1-3]. The main aim of this survey is an extraction of important parameters concerning the shape of lattices. A first focus will be on mechanical properties and the therefore necessary tensile tests.
Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.
To cover the expenses associated with decommissioning and disposal of their nuclear power plants, German nuclear power plant operators set aside a total of more than EUR 30 billion and entered the respective provisions into their balance sheets. One point of eminent importance in this regard is the question whether these provisions are adequate in amount and permitted under accounting and tax laws. The other point to be considered is whether the funds will be available reliably if and when needed. Against the backdrop of these issues, the practice and importance of making these provisions are described. This is followed by an outline of the basic accounting and taxation aspects. It is seen that obligations under public law can be the basis of financial provisions only if there is a obligation sufficiently concrete in terms of time and object. The following examination of applicable obligations under the Atomic Energy Act incumbent upon nuclear power plant operators with regard to decommissioning and disposal results in the finding that such obligations are only partly regulated in the Atomic Energy Act, and that specifications in terms of time and purpose are insufficient. If the national practice of making financial provisions is to be put on a reliable basis, it is recommended to express the law on decommissioning and its mode of financing in more concrete terms in the Atomic Energy Act. In addition to unequivocal decommissioning and disposal obligations, the Atomic Energy Act should also incorporate regulations about financial provisions for decomissioning which are in need of more precise language. The present practice of making provisions is characterized by the risk that the funds necessary for planned decommissioning and disposal may not be available when needed. It is against this background that possible solutions reducing that risk are discussed. A recommendation is expressed to establish a public fund for decommissioning and disposal to which the
Maher, Michael; Smith, Adrien; Margiotta, Jesse
DARPA's interest in additive manufacture dates back to the mid-80s with seedling programs that developed the foundational knowledge and equipment that led to the Solid Freeform Fabrication program in 1990. The drivers for this program included reducing development times by enabling "tool-less" manufacturing as well as integration of design and fabrication tools. DARPA consistently pushed the boundaries of additive manufacture with follow-on programs that expanded the material suite available for 3-D printing as well as new processes that expanded the technology's capability base. Programs such as the Mesoscopic Integrated Conformal Electronics (MICE) program incorporated functionality to the manufacturing processes through direct write of electronics. DARPA's investment in additive manufacture continues to this day but the focus has changed. DARPA's early investments were focused on developing and demonstrating the technology's capabilities. Now that the technology has been demonstrated, there is serious interest in taking advantage of the attributes unique to the processing methodology (such as customization and new design possibilities) for producing production parts. Accordingly, today's investment at DARPA addresses the systematic barriers to implementation rather than the technology itself. The Open Manufacturing program is enabling rapid qualification of new technologies for the manufacturing environment through the development of new modeling and informatics tools. While the technology is becoming more mainstream, there are plenty of challenges that need to be addressed. And as the technology continues to mature, the agency will continue to look for those "DARPA-hard" challenges that enable revolutionary changes in capability and performance for the Department of Defense.
Having already made a big impact in the medical sector, three-dimensional (3-D) printing technology continues to push the boundaries of cost efficiency, convenience, and customization. It has transformed some aspects of medical device production. However, expectations of the technology are often exaggerated in the media, so we spoke to leading researchers in the field about its practical applications and what can be expected in the near future.
KORKMAZ, Sezer; ÇUHADAR, Uğur
In today's rapidly changing and increasingly competitive healthcare industry, measuring, evaluating and improving the quality of services provide significant contributions in terms of Competitive advantage and meeting or overcoming patient expectations.This research has examined whether there is service quality levels using Servqual service quality scale developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry. 250 patients were included in the study. According to the results obtained from the quest...
Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kirchhoff, V. W. J. H.; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Kawakami, Shuji; Posny, Francoise
The first climatological overview of total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone in the southern hemisphere tropical and subtropics is based on ozone sounding data from 10 sites comprising the Southern Hemisphere Additional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) network. The period covered is 1998-2000. Observations were made over: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Reunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristobal, Galapagos; Natal, Brazil. Campaign data were collected on a trans-Atlantic oceanographic cruise and during SAFARI-2000 in Zambia. The ozone data, with simultaneous temperature profiles to approx. 7 hPa and relative humidity to approx. 200 hPa, reside at: . SHADOZ ozone time-series and profiles give a perspective on tropical total, stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. Prominent features are highly variable tropospheric ozone and a zonal wave-one pattern in total (and tropospheric) column ozone. Total, stratospheric and tropospheric column ozone amounts peak between August and November and are lowest between March and May. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Indian and Pacific Ocean displays influences of the Indian Ocean Dipole and convective mixing. Pollution transport from Africa and South America is a seasonal feature. Tropospheric ozone seasonality over the Atlantic Basin shows effects of regional subsidence and recirculation as well as biomass burning. Dynamical and chemical influences appear to be of comparable magnitude though model studies are needed to quantify this.
Marjeta Tomulić Vehovec
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the provisions concerning dividends in the double taxation avoidance agreements concluded by the Republic of Croatia. Since the base for taxation is necessarily laid down in domestic law, Croatian legislation is examined as well. The author primarily discusses dividends provisions in four agreements signed with Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Slovenia, in addition to analyzing the differences from and similarities with the OECD Model Convention. Second, the paper briefly explains the methods for eliminating double taxation on income from dividends. Finally, it addresses the changes necessary for accession to the European Union.
Nguyen, Hanh Thi
Although the 3 prime questions ("What did your doctor tell you the medication is for?" "How did your doctor tell you to take the medication?," and "What did your doctor tell you to expect?") have been recommended as a way to implement an interactive approach to patient's counseling in pharmacy, research examining how these questions are actually used in practice is relatively sparse. Qualitative approaches might assist to inform pertinent questions that might challenge prevailing paradigms. This commentary calls for a close look at how novice pharmacists in training manage these questions in real-life patient's consultations. These examples are aimed to provide preliminary observations about (1) how the prime questions in their original and modified forms are treated by pharmacists in training and patients, and (2) the interactional functions that the prime questions and similar questions may serve. Preliminary observations based on a conversation analysis of these examples show that the open-ended nature of the original prime questions sometimes leads to interactional problems such as delays in patients' responses and pharmacists' revision of the questions. Modified question formats that involve the use of specific knowledge expected to be possessed by a pharmacist, such as declarative questions and Q-word questions with concrete information, may lead to smoother interaction. Finally, questions about the purpose of the therapy may also be used to create opportunities to express empathy toward the patient or to shift the zone of expertise to the doctor. These initial findings suggest a more context sensitive and adaptive approach to communication in pharmacy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zha Jinshun; Jiang Yan; Xu Yuan; Lin Qinxiu; Huang Chunling; Jiang Tingyin
after therapy (t fT3 =5.23, t fT4 =10.14 in group Ⅰ, t fT3 =5.12, t fT4 =9.98 in group Ⅱ, all P<0.01), then decreased gradually to the normal ranges. The fT 3 and fT 4 values in group Ⅱ were much lower than those in group Ⅰ (t fT3 =8.22, t fT4 =19.18, all P<0.01) 30 days after therapy, no significance were found in other time periods. Cure rate of hyperthyroidism was achieved in 36 of the 50 patients (72%) in group Ⅰ and in 38 of the 50 patients (76%) in group Ⅱ without significant difference. There were no significant differences in curative effect of the two groups (χ 2 =0.21, P>0.05). Conclusion: For patients withdrawing of ATD and those with short effective half-time, as well as those intolerant or invalid, the short term addition of lithium to 131 I allows for a better control of thyrotoxia and the completeness of treatment. But there have not been observed that lithium carbonate plus 131 I can improve the long term cure rate of Graves hyperthyroidism. (authors)
... addition thereto) shall be a lien in favor of the United States upon all property and rights to property... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions; lien for taxes. 20.6321... Administration § 20.6321 Statutory provisions; lien for taxes. Sec. 6321. Lien for taxes. If any person liable to...
Oct 2, 2015 ... thought to prevent infection, but recent research has proven otherwise. In addition ... One patient had ophthalmalgia and was exposed to. Kaiy for one year and ... migraine, ear infections, tuberculosis, bone fractures, epilepsy,.
Full Text Available This article deals with the methods of services provision in Slovak towns. It addresses decision-making concerning selected services provision, based on a transaction cost economic model. The article looks at five types of services from that point of view. These are core services, i.e., services that are provided in most Slovak towns, thereby allowing outcomes of decision-making to be compared, and services which can be outsourced according to transaction cost theory. Findings partially confirm the hypothesis: Slovak towns do outsource, though “insourcing” moderately prevails. However, a comparison of several research studies in the area indicates a trend towards higher outsourcing of such local services provision. The findings show that public bodies do not always select the most suitable methods of services provision, as suggested by the transaction costs theory (the Brown-Potoski model. This indicates that it is not only economic models that influence decision-making concerning the organization of services provision in the Slovak towns.
Ogbu, Helen Uchechukwu; Brady, Bernadine; Kinlen, Louise
The Irish direct provision system for asylum seekers is acknowledged as providing a very challenging and exclusionary living environment for adults and children. To date, there has been little research focused specifically on the ways in which the direct provision environment impacts on the parenting role. This qualitative study explores the…
Full Text Available Embedding support devices in educational computer games has been asserted to positively affect learning outcomes. However, there is only limited direct empirical evidence on which design variations of support provision influence learning. In order to better understand the impact of support design on novices’ learning, the current study investigates how support devices and their type of provision (intrinsic vs. extrinsic determine games’ effectiveness on learning outcomes. This effectiveness is also related to how the design-type of provision influences learners’ virtual presence and cognitive load. Compared to an educational adventure game without additional support, the results indicate that the game equipped with support devices enhances learning outcomes, although no differences in cognitive load were found. A variation in the design of provision shows no effect. In order to gain a more thorough understanding of support devices and their design for games, additional learner characteristics (e.g., interest should be considered in future research.
Smith, Chris; van Moorsel, Aad
Uncertainty is an inherent property of open, distributed and multiparty systems. The viability of the mutually beneficial relationships which motivate these systems relies on rational decision-making by each constituent party under uncertainty. Service provision in distributed systems is one such relationship. Uncertainty is experienced by the service provider in his ability to deliver a service with selected quality level guarantees due to inherent non-determinism, such as load fluctuations and hardware failures. Statistical estimators utilized to model this non-determinism introduce additional uncertainty through sampling error. Inability of the provider to accurately model and analyze uncertainty in the quality level guarantees can result in the formation of sub-optimal service provision contracts. Emblematic consequences include loss of revenue, inefficient resource utilization and erosion of reputation and consumer trust. We propose a utility model for contract-based service provision to provide a systematic approach to optimal service provision contract formation under uncertainty. Performance prediction methods to enable the derivation of statistical estimators for quality level are introduced, with analysis of their resultant accuracy and cost.
Rahman, Mahfuzur; Graham, Peter
Flexible resource provisioning, the assignment of virtual machines (VMs) to physical machine, is a key requirement for cloud computing. To achieve 'provisioning elasticity', the cloud needs to manage its available resources on demand. A-priori, static, VM provisioning introduces no runtime overhead but fails to deal with unanticipated changes in resource demands. Dynamic provisioning addresses this problem but introduces runtime overhead. To reduce VM management overhead so more useful work can be done and to also avoid sub-optimal provisioning we propose a hybrid approach that combines static and dynamic provisioning. The idea is to adapt a good initial static placement of VMs in response to evolving load characteristics, using live migration, as long as the overhead of doing so is low and the effectiveness is high. When this is no longer so, we trigger a revised static placement. (Thus, we are essentially applying local multi-objective optimization to tune a global optimization with reduced overhead.) This approach requires a complicated migration decision algorithm based on current and predicted:future workloads, power consumptions and memory usage in the host machines as well as network burst characteristics for the various possible VM multiplexings (combinations of VMs on a host). A further challenge is to identify those characteristics of the dynamic provisioning that should trigger static re-provisioning.
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision for accounting and financial controls. 458.32... Additional Provisions Applicable § 458.32 Provision for accounting and financial controls. Every labor organization shall provide accounting and financial controls necessary to assure the maintenance of fiscal...
... GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Food additives URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/ ...
Abboud, Nadim E.
In this research, we consider the spares provisioning problem, where a finite population of homogeneous machines are being deployed to meet a constant demand. While a machine is operating, it could become inoperable due to the failure of a critical built-in part in the machine. Before repairs on the machine can be initiated, however, a replacement part must be obtained. If a replacement part is available from stock, the machine is immediately transferred to the repair subsystem...
....12 General provisions. The following provisions shall apply to public sport fishing on a national... fish hatchery area. (e) Each person shall comply with the provisions of any special notices governing...
[International regulation of ethics committees on biomedical research as protection mechanisms for people: analysis of the Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine, concerning Biomedical Research of the Council of Europe].
de Lecuona, Itziar
The article explores and analyses the content of the Council of Europe's Additional Protocol to the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine concerning Biomedical Research regarding the standard legal instrument in biomedical research, issued by an international organization with leadership in bioethics. This implies ethics committees are mechanisms of protection of humans in biomedical research and not mere bureaucratic agencies and that a sound inescapable international regulatory framework exists for States to regulate biomedical research. The methodology used focuses on the analysis of the background, the context in which it is made and the nature and scope of the Protocol. It also identifies and analyses the characteristics and functions of ethics committees in biomedical research and, in particular, the information that should be provided to this bodies to develop their functions previously, during and at the end of research projects. This analysis will provide guidelines, suggestions and conclusions for the awareness and training of members of these committees in order to influence the daily practice. This paper may also be of interest to legal practitioners who work in different areas of biomedical research. From this practical perspective, the article examines the legal treatment of the Protocol to meet new challenges and classic issues in research: the treatment of human biological samples, the use of placebos, avoiding double standards, human vulnerability, undue influence and conflicts of interest, among others. Also, from a critical view, this work links the legal responses to develop work procedures that are required for an effective performance of the functions assigned of ethics committees in biomedical research. An existing international legal response that lacks doctrinal standards and provides little support should, however, serve as a guide and standard to develop actions that allow ethics committees -as key bodies for States- to advance in
V. A. Stefanovich
Full Text Available Researches on distribution of chrome and copper in the fused coating received from the superficial alloyed wire by boron with in additionally applied electroplated coating of chrome and copper were executed. The structure of the fused coating consists of dendrites on which borders the boride eutectic is located. It is established that the content of chrome in dendrites is 1,5– 1,6 times less than in the borid; distribution of copper on structure is uniformed. Coefficients of digestion of chrome and copper at an argon-arc welding from a wire electrode with electroplated coating are established. The assimilation coefficient for chrome is equal to 0,9–1,0; for copper – 0,6–0,75.
Full Text Available Cloud computing is currently emerging as an ever-changing, growing paradigm that models “everything-as-a-service.” Virtualised physical resources, infrastructure, and applications are supplied by service provisioning in the cloud. The evolution in the adoption of cloud computing is driven by clear and distinct promising features for both cloud users and cloud providers. However, the increasing number of cloud providers and the variety of service offerings have made it difficult for the customers to choose the best services. By employing successful service provisioning, the essential services required by customers, such as agility and availability, pricing, security and trust, and user metrics can be guaranteed by service provisioning. Hence, continuous service provisioning that satisfies the user requirements is a mandatory feature for the cloud user and vitally important in cloud computing service offerings. Therefore, we aim to review the state-of-the-art service provisioning objectives, essential services, topologies, user requirements, necessary metrics, and pricing mechanisms. We synthesize and summarize different provision techniques, approaches, and models through a comprehensive literature review. A thematic taxonomy of cloud service provisioning is presented after the systematic review. Finally, future research directions and open research issues are identified.
Whaiduzzaman, Md; Haque, Mohammad Nazmul; Rejaul Karim Chowdhury, Md; Gani, Abdullah
Cloud computing is currently emerging as an ever-changing, growing paradigm that models "everything-as-a-service." Virtualised physical resources, infrastructure, and applications are supplied by service provisioning in the cloud. The evolution in the adoption of cloud computing is driven by clear and distinct promising features for both cloud users and cloud providers. However, the increasing number of cloud providers and the variety of service offerings have made it difficult for the customers to choose the best services. By employing successful service provisioning, the essential services required by customers, such as agility and availability, pricing, security and trust, and user metrics can be guaranteed by service provisioning. Hence, continuous service provisioning that satisfies the user requirements is a mandatory feature for the cloud user and vitally important in cloud computing service offerings. Therefore, we aim to review the state-of-the-art service provisioning objectives, essential services, topologies, user requirements, necessary metrics, and pricing mechanisms. We synthesize and summarize different provision techniques, approaches, and models through a comprehensive literature review. A thematic taxonomy of cloud service provisioning is presented after the systematic review. Finally, future research directions and open research issues are identified.
Horst Keppler, Jan; Rothwell, Geoffrey; Cometto, Marco; Deffrennes, Marc; Iracane, Daniel; Ha, Jaejoo; Paillere, Henri; ); Aspelund, Karl; Aydil, Ismail; ); Berthelemy, Michel; Devezeaux De Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Burtin, Alain; Crozat, Matthew P.; D'Haeseleer, William; Friedrich, Reiner; Gonzalez Jimenez, Antonio; Hirschberg, Stefan; Kiso, Jan-Ole; ); Lee, Manki; Le Masne, Dominique; ); Lundmark, Roger J.; Neumann, Doris; ); Politis, Savvas; ); Prin, Coralie; Skonieczny, Olgierd; Voss, Alfred
Electricity provision touches upon every facet of life in OECD and non-OECD countries alike, and choosing how this electricity is generated - whether from fossil fuels, nuclear energy or renewables - affects not only economic outcomes but individual and social well-being in the broader sense. Research on the overall costs of electricity is an ongoing effort, as only certain costs of electricity provision are perceived directly by producers and consumers. Other costs, such as the health impacts of air pollution, damage from climate change or the effects on the electricity system of small-scale variable production are not reflected in market prices and thus diminish well-being in unaccounted for ways. Accounting for these social costs in order to establish the full costs of electricity provision is difficult, yet such costs are too important to be disregarded in the context of the energy transitions currently under way in OECD and NEA countries. This report draws on evidence from a large number of studies concerning the social costs of electricity and identifies proven instruments for internalising them so as to improve overall welfare. The results outlined in the report should lead to new and more comprehensive research on the full costs of electricity, which in turn would allow policy makers and the public to make better informed decisions along the path towards fully sustainable electricity systems
The backdrop to this article is provided by the Better Health, Better Care Action Plan (Scottish Government, 2007), Section 1 of which is entitled 'Towards a Mutual NHS'. According to Better Health, Better Care (Scottish Government, 2007: 5): 'Mutual organisations are designed to serve their members. They are designed to gather people around a common sense of purpose. They are designed to bring the organisation together in what people often call "co-production."' The aim of this article is to précis the current knowledge of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. In detail, it will: introduce the 'mutual' organisation; offer a historical perspective of mutuality; suggest why healthcare mutuality is important; and briefly, detail the differences in mutual health-care policy in England and Scotland. It is hoped that this analysis will help researchers and practitioners alike appreciate further the philosophy of mutuality in the provision of Scottish healthcare. © The Author(s) 2015.
The paper discusses some of the library and information provision research and evaluation aspects in the distance education context in Tanzania. It explores some current and potential areas that can be considered for research and evaluation by library and information personnel, scholars and researchers. It does so by ...
Piskarev, S.A; Aksenov, V.R.
At present Russia has a problem of new NPPs construction, which have to replace old one. The main goal here is provision of safety operation. Communication provision between operational personnel and variety of plant systems is one of the aspects of it. The aim of this paper is research of foreign experience in communication and operator support systems development, consideration of several modern projects based on these systems, definition drifts of development. (authors)
Kamaraj, Deepan C; Bray, Nathan; Rispin, Karen; Kankipati, Padmaja; Pearlman, Jonathan; Borg, Johan
Currently, inadequate wheelchair provision has forced many people with disabilities to be trapped in a cycle of poverty and deprivation, limiting their ability to access education, work and social facilities. This issue is in part because of the lack of collaboration among various stakeholders who need to work together to design, manufacture and deliver such assistive mobility devices. This in turn has led to inadequate evidence about intervention effectiveness, disability prevalence and subsequent costeffectiveness that would help facilitate appropriate provision and support for people with disabilities. In this paper, we describe a novel conceptual framework that can be tested across the globe to study and evaluate the effectiveness of wheelchair provision. The Comparative Effectiveness Research Subcommittee (CER-SC), consisting of the authors of this article, housed within the Evidence-Based Practice Working Group (EBP-WG) of the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP), conducted a scoping review of scientific literature and standard practices used during wheelchair service provision. The literature review was followed by a series of discussion groups. The three iterations of the conceptual framework are described in this manuscript. We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe.
Dynamic Provisioning for Community Services outlines a dynamic provisioning and maintenance mechanism in a running distributed system, e.g. the grid, which can be used to maximize the utilization of computing resources and user demands. The book includes a complete and reliable maintenance system solution for the large-scale distributed system and an interoperation mechanism for the grid middleware deployed in the United States, Europe, and China. The experiments and evaluations have all been practically implemented for ChinaGrid, and the best practices established can help readers to construc
Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj
There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... for the optimal level of a public good without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation may have a role to play as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants of optimal provision are completely different and the traditional formula with its emphasis...
ACTIVITIES OF SAINT-PETERSBURG RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF RADIATION HYGIENE AFTER PROFESSOR P.V. RAMZAEV FOR PROVISION OF RADIATION SAFETY OF XXII WINTER OLYMPIC AND XI WINTER PARALYMPICS GAMES OF 2014 IN SOCHI CITY
I. K. Romanovich
Full Text Available The article contains an analysis of the experience of Rospotrebnadzor radiological units’ activities for radiation safety provision of the participators and guests of XXII Winter Olympic Games in Sochi and also of Sochi city inhabitants as during the period of preparations for the Games so during the period of the Olympic and Paralympics Games. Peculiarities of organization of activities of Rospotrebnadzor specialists are considered for the preparation period and main period, the occurred problems of technical and methodical provision of radiation control which was carried out for the purpose of counteraction to possible actions of radiation terrorism are considered as well. The role is noted of the specialists of Radiation Hygiene Institute in the methodical and organizational provision of the whole complex of carried-out activities.
Burgos, Jose Luis; Cepeda, Javier A; Kahn, James G; Mittal, Maria Luisa; Meza, Emilio; Lazos, Raúl Rafael Palacios; Vargas, Psyché Calderón; Vickerman, Peter; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Martin, Natasha K
Mexico recently enacted drug policy reform to decriminalize possession of small amounts of illicit drugs and mandated that police refer identified substance users to drug treatment. However, the economic implications of drug treatment expansion are uncertain. We estimated the costs of opioid substitution therapy (OST) provision in Tijuana, Mexico, where opioid use and HIV are major public health concerns. We adopted an economic health care provider perspective and applied an ingredients-based micro-costing approach to quantify the average monthly cost of OST (methadone maintenance) provision at two providers (one private and one public) in Tijuana, Mexico. Costs were divided by type of input (capital, recurrent personnel and non-personnel). We defined "delivery cost" as all costs except for the methadone and compared total cost by type of methadone (powdered form or capsule). Cost data were obtained from interviews with senior staff and review of expenditure reports. Service provision data were obtained from activity logs and senior staff interviews. Outcomes were cost per OST contact and cost per person month of OST. We additionally collected information on patient charges for OST provision from published rates. The total cost per OST contact at the private and public sites was $3.12 and $5.90, respectively, corresponding to $95 and $179 per person month of OST. The costs of methadone delivery per OST contact were similar at both sites ($2.78 private and $3.46 public). However, cost of the methadone itself varied substantially ($0.34 per 80 mg dose [powder] at the private site and $2.44 per dose [capsule] at the public site). Patients were charged $1.93-$2.66 per methadone dose. The cost of OST provision in Mexico is consistent with other upper-middle income settings. However, evidenced-based (OST) drug treatment facilities in Mexico are still unaffordable to most people who inject drugs.
... (protection for production losses only) within one Basic Provisions and the applicable Crop Provisions to..., Macadamia Nut Crop Insurance Provisions, Onion Crop Insurance Provisions, Dry Pea Crop Insurance Provisions... (protection for production losses only) and revenue protection (protection against loss of revenue caused by...
Guldin, Mai-Britt; Murphy, Irene; Keegan, Orla
The Bereavement Care Taskforce of the EAPC has conducted a survey on bereavement care service provision in Europe. Mai-Britt Guldin, Irene Murphy, Orla Keegan, Barbara Monroe, Maria Antonia Lacasta Reverte and Inger Benkel report on the results. One of the key findings is that not all palliative...
Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the existence of a substantial body of theoretical literature that deals with the intersection of language and culture in the field of English as a foreign/additional (EA/FL language teaching and learning, there are very few empirical studies that investigate this issue with real teachers and learners. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review some of those empirical studies with a view to informing additional/foreign language pedagogy and teacher education. For that, the paper, first, summarizes some of the main theoretical issues by discussing the different ways in which the relationship of language and culture has been subjacent to EA/FL pedagogies. Then, the paper shows that there are three different types of language-and-culture-related empirical studies: on coursebooks, on teacher cognition, and on classroom interaction and teacher cognition. A review of these types of studies is made by discussing their main findings. Finally, the paper brings about some implications for the field from the findings of the empirical studies and proposes some topics for further research. Key-words: Culture and language relation. English as an additional/foreign language. Empirical studies. Resumo Apesar da existência de uma vasta literatura teórica que lida com a interseção entre língua e cultura na área de ensino e aprendizagem do inglês como língua adicional/estrangeira (LA/E, existem poucos estudos empíricos que investigam essa questão com professores e alunos reais. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho é revisar alguns desses estudos empíricos com o intuito de contribuir com a pedagogia e a formação de professores de inglês como LA/E. Para isso este trabalho, em primeiro lugar, resume algumas das principais questões teóricas, discutindo as diferentes maneiras em que a relação entre língua e cultura tem subjazido às pedagogias do Inglês como LA/E. Em seguida, o trabalho mostra que há três tipos
Shawn T. Flanigan
Full Text Available Research demonstrates that service provision by violent organizations can be an effective strategy for coercing the local community to accept and conceal a group’s violent activities, and for creating loyalty to these groups. This has been most frequently explored among political organizations such as terrorist groups, with organizations like Hezbollah and Hamas very visibly engaged in providing social welfare in addition to their violent activities. Recent reports indicate that criminal organizations in Mexico also are involved in instances of public service provision in local communities. This article explores the extent to which drug cartels operating in Mexico are involved in public service provision to members of communities where they operate, and considers possible motivations and implications for public service provision by these criminal organizations, with specific attention to the organization La Familia Michoacána/ Knights Templar. The article also gives attention to the consequences to citizenship and government of service provision by violent nonstate actors, and the ways such service provision may disrupt the social contract between the citizen and the state.
Alan E. Watson
While there is a long history of research on factors influencing wilderness recreation visitor experiences, there has been little focused research to understand the experiences of users visiting wilderness under legislative special provisions or the impact of these special provisions on wilderness recreation visitors. There are some exceptions. For example, contrasting...
Full Text Available The work is devoted to the improvement of theoretical approaches in determining the financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level. The author summarizes the concept of the «financial security» and defines the main difference from the term «financing». The systematization of key differences in the financial provision of a transport company from other financial entities of the economic sector at the national and regional levels is carried out. The disadvantages and advantages of sources of financial support are analyzed. The purpose of the article is to study theoretical approaches in determining the financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level. The prospects for further scientific research are the need to identify new scientific approaches and techniques to substantiate and elaborate the concept of the «financial provision of transportation by public transport». The practical application of the research should be formed in a detailed analysis of cash flow streams in the system of «state – regional authority – economic entity». The financial provision of transportation by public transport at the regional level has not been given the sufficient attention in the scientific research within the country. This fact confirms the need for a thorough analysis of the transport industry as a whole.
Bashir, Khawaja Muhammad Imran; Kim, Jin-Soo; An, Jeong Hyeon; Sohn, Jae Hak; Choi, Jae-Suk
Fish-paste products, also known as fish cakes or surimi-based products, are worldwide favorites. Surimi, a wet protein concentrate of fish muscle, is used as an intermediate raw material to produce surimi seafood. The flavor, texture, taste, shelf-life, and market value of surimi-based products depend on the source of the fish meat, type of applied heat treatment, and additives used to prepare the surimi. While preparing surimi with chemical additives, several problems have been observed, suc...
... Disciplinary Action § 73.735-1201 General provisions. (a) Violations of the regulations contained in the Part may be cause for disciplinary action which could be in addition to any penalty prescribed by law. (For a list of some offenses for which disciplinary action may be taken and “The Code of Ethics for...
... containing the basic clause unless the HCA approves an exclusion. Additional non-conflicting alternates may... and contract clauses. 3027.409 Section 3027.409 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF..., AND COPYRIGHTS Rights in Data and Copyrights 3027.409 Solicitation provisions and contract clauses...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Default provision. 201.16 Section... PROPERTY IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.16 Default provision. The... default by the borrower. ...
Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela
Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…
... reinsured policies: Cultivated Wild Rice Crop Provisions. 1. Definitions Approved laboratory. A testing.... Cultivated Wild Rice. A member of the grass family Zizania Palustris L., adapted for growing in man-made... for the crop year. Planted acreage. In addition to the definition contained in the Basic Provisions...
Pelly, Fiona E; O'Connor, Helen T; Denyer, Gareth S; Caterson, Ian D
The history of food provision at the summer Olympic Games (OG) over the past century (1896-2008) provides insight into the evolution of sports nutrition research and the dietary strategies of athletes. Early research favoring protein as the main fuel for exercise was reflected in OG menus from 1932 to 1968. Despite conclusive research from the 1960s demonstrating the clear benefit of carbohydrate on exercise performance, a specific emphasis on carbohydrate-rich foods was not noted until the 1970s. Athlete food preferences and catering complexity evolved rapidly between 1970 and 2000, driven predominantly by a dramatic expansion of the OG and the emergence of systematic sports nutrition research. Nutritional advice by experts and sponsorship by food companies became increasingly important beginning with the 1984 Los Angeles OG. More recent developments include nutritional labeling of menu items and provision of a nutrition information desk (Barcelona 1992), demand for a "high-starch, low-fat menu" (Atlanta 1996), the addition of a dedicated menu website and the systematic gathering of information on athletes' apparent consumption (Sydney 2000), and appointment of the first international dietetic review committee (Beijing 2008). The history of catering at the OG tracks the evolution of sports nutrition practice from anecdotes and myth towards an established specialty in nutrition and dietetics grounded in evidence-based science. © 2011 International Life Sciences Institute.
Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj
The standard approach to the optimal provision of public goods highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. A new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the income tax schedule. We demonstrate that both approaches are derived from the same...... basic formula. We also take the new approach further by deriving an intuitive formula for the optimal level of public goods, without imposing strong assumptions on preferences. This formula shows that distortionary taxation has a role to play, as in the standard approach. However, the main determinants...
Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Verdelin, Nicolaj
There currently exist two competing approaches in the literature on the optimal provision of public goods. The standard approach highlights the importance of distortionary taxation and distributional concerns. The new approach neutralizes distributional concerns by adjusting the non-linear income...... tax, and finds that this reinvigorates the simple Samuelson rule when preferences are separable in goods and leisure. We provide a synthesis by demonstrating that both approaches derive from the same basic formula. We further develop the new approach by deriving a general, intuitive formula...
Background Currently, inadequate wheelchair provision has forced many people with disabilities to be trapped in a cycle of poverty and deprivation, limiting their ability to access education, work and social facilities. This issue is in part because of the lack of collaboration among various stakeholders who need to work together to design, manufacture and deliver such assistive mobility devices. This in turn has led to inadequate evidence about intervention effectiveness, disability prevalence and subsequent costeffectiveness that would help facilitate appropriate provision and support for people with disabilities. Objectives In this paper, we describe a novel conceptual framework that can be tested across the globe to study and evaluate the effectiveness of wheelchair provision. Method The Comparative Effectiveness Research Subcommittee (CER-SC), consisting of the authors of this article, housed within the Evidence-Based Practice Working Group (EBP-WG) of the International Society of Wheelchair Professionals (ISWP), conducted a scoping review of scientific literature and standard practices used during wheelchair service provision. The literature review was followed by a series of discussion groups. Results The three iterations of the conceptual framework are described in this manuscript. Conclusion We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe. PMID:28936421
Khawaja Muhammad Imran Bashir
Full Text Available Fish-paste products, also known as fish cakes or surimi-based products, are worldwide favorites. Surimi, a wet protein concentrate of fish muscle, is used as an intermediate raw material to produce surimi seafood. The flavor, texture, taste, shelf-life, and market value of surimi-based products depend on the source of the fish meat, type of applied heat treatment, and additives used to prepare the surimi. While preparing surimi with chemical additives, several problems have been observed, such as a lack of unique characteristics, inferior acceptability, and poor functionality. Various types of fish-paste products have been developed by using different ingredients (e.g., vegetables, seafood, herbs and oriental medicines, grains and roots including carrots, and functional food materials. However, a systematic review of fish-paste products prepared using natural food additives has not yet been performed. Therefore, the quality characteristics of fish-paste products and their functionalities were elucidated in this study. With the increasing demand for surimi seafood products, the functional properties, physiochemical properties, and shelf-life of surimi-based products need to be improved. This review will aid the preparation of new value-added products in the surimi industry.
Politi, Mary C; Estlund, Amy; Milne, Anne; Buckel, Christina M; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Madden, Tessa
The Contraceptive CHOICE Project developed a patient-centered model for contraceptive provision including: (1) structured, evidence-based counseling; (2) staff and health care provider education; and (3) removal of barriers such as cost and multiple appointments to initiate contraception. In preparation for conducting a research study of the CHOICE model in three community health settings, we sought to identify potential barriers and facilitators to implementation. Using a semi-structured interview guide guided by a framework of implementation research, we conducted 31 qualitative interviews with female patients, staff, and health care providers assessing attitudes, beliefs, and barriers to receiving contraception. We also asked about current contraceptive provision and explored organizational practices relevant to implementing the CHOICE model. We used a grounded theory approach to identify major themes. Many participants felt that current contraceptive provision could be improved by the CHOICE model. Potential facilitators included agreement about the necessity for improved contraceptive knowledge among patients and staff; importance of patient-centered contraceptive counseling; and benefits to same-day insertion of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC). Potential barriers included misconceptions about contraception held by staff and providers; resistance to new practices; costs associated with LARC; and scheduling challenges required for same-day insertion of LARC. In addition to staff and provider training, implementing a patient-centered model of contraceptive provision needs to be supplemented by strategies to manage patient and system-level barriers. Community health center staff, providers, and patients support patient-centered contraceptive counseling to improve contraception provision if organizations can address these barriers.
Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José
One of the applicability areas of SDN is for creating services for dynamic provisioning of network resources with strict QoS requirements. The research available in this field focuses mainly on the service logic implemented over the functionality of the SDN Controller (SDNC). However, there is much...... to be covered regarding the specific mechanisms used by the SDNC to enforce the QoS in the data plane devices. To this end, the current paper proposes a data plane QoS architecture, together with the invariants that have to be maintained by the SDNC in order to ensure predictable QoS for the network services....... More specifically, the paper will look into on demand provisioning of Virtual Circuits (VCs) with specific QoS, based on the SDN paradigm. The aim is to analyze and compare the strategies for network resources management for two cases: a coarse granular and a fine granular VC provisioning service...
Bingham, Lisa; Straatsma, Menno; Karssenberg, Derek
Attributing monetary value to ecosystem services for decision-making has become more relevant as a basis for decision-making. There are a number of problematic aspects of the calculations, including consistency of economy represented (e.g., purchasing price, production price) and determining which ecosystem subservices to include in a valuation. While several authors have proposed methods for calculating ecosystem services and calculations are presented for global and regional studies, the calculations are mostly broken down into biomes and regions without showing spatially explicit results. The key to decision-making for governments is to be able to make spatial-based decisions because a large spatial variation may exist within a biome or region. Our objective was to compute the spatial distribution of global ecosystem services based on 89 subservices. Initially, only the provisioning ecosystem service category is presented. The provisioning ecosystem service category was calculated using 6 ecosystem services (food, water, raw materials, genetic resources, medical resources, and ornaments) divided into 41 subservices. Global data sets were obtained from a variety of governmental and research agencies for the year 2005 because this is the most data complete and recent year available. All data originated either in tabular or grid formats and were disaggregated to 10 km cell length grids. A lookup table with production values by subservice by country were disaggregated over the economic zone (either marine, land, or combination) based on the spatial existence of the subservice (e.g. forest cover, crop land, non-arable land). Values express the production price in international dollars per hectare. The ecosystem services and the ecosystem service category(ies) maps may be used to show spatial variation of a service within and between countries as well as to specifically show the values within specific regions (e.g. countries, continents), biomes (e.g. coastal, forest
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NASA contract clauses and....070 NASA contract clauses and solicitation provision. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the... ensure that the provision at 1852.235-72, Instructions for Responding to NASA Research Announcements, is...
Graham, Pamela Louise; Crilley, Eilish; Stretesky, Paul B; Long, Michael A; Palmer, Katie Jane; Steinbock, Eileen; Defeyter, Margaret Anne
Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gaging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities, and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy, and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families.
Pamela Louise Graham
Full Text Available Access to an adequate supply of nutritious food has been recognized as a basic human right. However, many families across the UK face food insecurity, which is thought to be exacerbated during school holidays. To address this issue, some schools and community groups have chosen to roll out holiday clubs, though research into the effectiveness of such interventions is limited and no studies to date have evaluated holiday clubs being organized through schools. In an effort to address some of the limitations in the research literature, the current qualitative investigation utilized semi-structured interviews with staff involved in holiday clubs in school and community venues with the aim of gauging their views on the need for and benefits of holiday food provision in addition to potential areas for development. The investigation revealed that staff perceived many families to be facing food insecurity and isolation during the school holidays, which may be alleviated through holiday club provision. Holiday clubs were viewed as a valuable source of support for children and adults, providing food, activities and learning experiences. Staff were keen to see them implemented on a wider scale in future but suggested some areas that require attention in any future development of such provision. Findings are discussed in relation to current research, policy and practice surrounding the health and wellbeing of children and families.
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Food additives in standardized foods. 170.10... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.10 Food additives... the Act, which proposes the inclusion of a food additive in such definition and standard of identity...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tolerances for related food additives. 170.18... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.18 Tolerances for related food additives. (a) Food additives that cause similar or related pharmacological effects will be...
Mar 2, 2015 ... Joseph Daniels1,&, Ruth Nduati1,2, James Kiarie1,3, Carey Farquhar1,4,5 .... or basic science research career (Socio-Behavioral Research, .... a research environment that supports knowledge sharing to develop research ...
Full Text Available Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yoghurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.
Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H; Kersting, Mathilde
Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.
Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H.; Kersting, Mathilde
Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions. PMID:26191012
Dumont, Jean-Noel; Espiet-Subert, Florence
The French La Manche repository site received its last radioactive waste package in 1994. In 2003, the official surveillance phase of the closed repository started under the supervision of Andra (the national industrial operator), the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) and society (e.g. the local municipalities). Florence Espiet explained that information on the existence of the repository, its content, how it was operated and how it works needs to be preserved. It also is planned to review the information periodically for a minimum of 300 years. She described the creation of two documents on memory (a detailed and a summary one), both on permanent paper, and the preservation of the land registration. The latter constitutes 'passive' provisions for preserving memory. In addition, a number of 'active' provisions are and will be put in place: guided visits, exhibitions, partnerships with organisations dealing with memory preservation, and the creation of a think tank. The latter consists of local citizens and politicians, retired employees from Andra and artists that meet several times a year and reflect on memory preservation from the perspective of, for instance, local history, education, arts and rituals. Finally, two types of markers will be used to preserve the repository's memory: i) three herbaria cataloguing the plants growing on the site of the repository, including a very short description of the repository, will be stored at different sites in France; ii) a stele indicating the main characteristics of the repository, potentially linked to an art work, will be erected at the repository
Bakkar, Nadine; Kovalik, Tina; Lorenzini, Ileana; Spangler, Scott; Lacoste, Alix; Sponaugle, Kyle; Ferrante, Philip; Argentinis, Elenee; Sattler, Rita; Bowser, Robert
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease with no effective treatments. Numerous RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have been shown to be altered in ALS, with mutations in 11 RBPs causing familial forms of the disease, and 6 more RBPs showing abnormal expression/distribution in ALS albeit without any known mutations. RBP dysregulation is widely accepted as a contributing factor in ALS pathobiology. There are at least 1542 RBPs in the human genome; therefore, other unidentified RBPs may also be linked to the pathogenesis of ALS. We used IBM Watson ® to sieve through all RBPs in the genome and identify new RBPs linked to ALS (ALS-RBPs). IBM Watson extracted features from published literature to create semantic similarities and identify new connections between entities of interest. IBM Watson analyzed all published abstracts of previously known ALS-RBPs, and applied that text-based knowledge to all RBPs in the genome, ranking them by semantic similarity to the known set. We then validated the Watson top-ten-ranked RBPs at the protein and RNA levels in tissues from ALS and non-neurological disease controls, as well as in patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells. 5 RBPs previously unlinked to ALS, hnRNPU, Syncrip, RBMS3, Caprin-1 and NUPL2, showed significant alterations in ALS compared to controls. Overall, we successfully used IBM Watson to help identify additional RBPs altered in ALS, highlighting the use of artificial intelligence tools to accelerate scientific discovery in ALS and possibly other complex neurological disorders.
A descriptive qualitative research design was used to determine whether participants ... simulation as a teaching method; a manikin offering effective learning; confidence ..... Tesch R. Qualitative Research: Analysis Types and Software Tools.
research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research. This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.
Additional supply agreement of 9 December 1988 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Governments of the Islamic Republic of Iran and of Argentina for the transfer of enriched uranium for a research reactor in Iran
The document reproduces the text of the additional supply agreement of 9 December 1988 between the IAEA and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran and of Argentina for the transfer of 115.80 kilograms of uranium enriched up to 20% in the isotope uranium-235 for a research reactor in Iran
The Act for Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been promulgated anew. Contents are the following : general rules, officials, advisors and personnel, duties, financial affairs and accounts, supervision, miscellaneous rules, penal provisions, and additional rules. (In the additional rules, the merger into JAERI of Japan Nuclear Ship Research and Development Agency is treated.) Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute conducts research etc. for the development of atomic energy comprehensively and efficiently, thereby contributing to the promotion of atomic energy research, development and utilization, according to the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act. Duties are atomic energy basic and application research, reactor relation, training of the personnel, RIs relation, etc. (Mori, K.)
... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC586 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; General Provisions for Domestic Fisheries; Application for Exempted Fishing Permits AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...
Rochimah, S.; Sianipar, F. Y.; Anggraini, R. N. E.
Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga(PKK)is an Indonesian community with women as its member, especially housewife. It has many purposes, such ascollaborating the knowledges among members, monitoring children's health, supporting healthy life style in the family. This article is part of our research in building e-PKK, an integrated application to support many activities in PKK's business processes. In this paper we build a module to guide and provise toddler's nutrition to be used by mother. This application is very useful since baby's growth phase is an important phase to be noticed by mother.Using this application, mother can easily obtain baby's growth information whenever and wherever they are via their smartphone. This mobile device applications using backward chaining and forward chaining method. Backward chaining method is a method that uses a goal-based approach, while the forward chaining conducting a set of data for later inference process to find optimal conclusion. Moreover, this apllication provides recommendations of groceries, recipes, as well as the suitability of foodstuffs according to the age of early baby's growth and the type of baby's allergic. In addition, it also provide information about baby's nutrition, growth benchmarks, and first aid. Besides, the application can be used to monthly baby growth record like Kartu Menuju Sehat (KMS) or Growth Monitoring Card, storing toddlers weighing, immunization and provision of vitamin A. An additional feature of this application is the complaints system, where other can ask directly to health care center about toddlers’ growth.
Balman, Mehmet; Chaniotakis, Evangelos; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex
We are witnessing a new era that offers new opportunities to conduct scientific research with the help of recent advancements in computational and storage technologies. Computational intensive science spans multiple scientific domains, such as particle physics, climate modeling, and bio-informatics simulations. These large-scale applications necessitate collaborators to access very large data sets resulting from simulations performed in geographically distributed institutions. Furthermore, often scientific experimental facilities generate massive data sets that need to be transferred to validate the simulation data in remote collaborating sites. A major component needed to support these needs is the communication infrastructure which enables high performance visualization, large volume data analysis, and also provides access to computational resources. In order to provide high-speed on-demand data access between collaborating institutions, national governments support next generation research networks such as Internet 2 and ESnet (Energy Sciences Network). Delivering network-as-a-service that provides predictable performance, efficient resource utilization and better coordination between compute and storage resources is highly desirable. In this paper, we study network provisioning and advanced bandwidth reservation in ESnet for on-demand high performance data transfers. We present a novel approach for path finding in time-dependent transport networks with bandwidth guarantees. We plan to improve the current ESnet advance network reservation system, OSCARS , by presenting to the clients, the possible reservation options and alternatives for earliest completion time and shortest transfer duration. The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) provides high bandwidth connections between research laboratories and academic institutions for data sharing and video/voice communication. The ESnet On-Demand Secure Circuits and Advance Reservation System (OSCARS) establishes
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special provisions. 93.916 Section 93... § 93.916 Special provisions. (a) Slaughter. Live VHS-regulated fish from VHS-regulated regions may be... establishment discharges its waste water to a municipal sewage system that includes waste water disinfection...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Solicitation provision. 11... transaction-based reporting method to report its use of voluntary consensus standards to the National... Use of Voluntary Consensus Standards and in Conformity Assessment Activities”). Use of the provision...
Full Text Available Government provision of shelter for Calais’ migrant population over the last twenty years has prioritised the assertion of state authority over the alleviation of human suffering. Policies in 2015-16, which involved the destruction of informal shelter and the provision of basic alternative accommodation, continued this trend.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General provisions. 63.9 Section 63.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES PAYMENTS TO AND ON BEHALF OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE INTERNATIONAL EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 63.9 General provisions. The following...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contract provisions. 226.48 Section 226.48 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 226.48 Contract provisions. The...
... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 847.2 Section 847.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM... court of competent jurisdiction enters a judgment against or convicts a person under these provisions...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition provision. 931.9 Section 931.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.9 Transition provision. (a) In general. Each Bank shall comply...
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 1261.2 Section 1261.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK DIRECTORS Federal Home Loan Bank Boards of Directors: Eligibility and Elections § 1261.2 General provisions. (a...
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...
The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was designed with maintainability as a primary parameter, and facilities and provisions were designed into the plant to accommodate the maintenance function. This paper describes the FFTF and its systems. Special maintenance equipment and facilities for performing maintenance on radioactive components are discussed. Maintenance provisions designed into the plant to enhance maintainability are also described
Oh, Kyemin; Kang, Myung-suk; Heo, Gyunyoung; Kim, Hyoung-chan
In current nuclear field based on technology-neutral approach, safety principles and design have been considered for Generation IV (Gen-IV) nuclear power plants in parallel. This strategy can save resource, time, and manpower while keeping achievable safety. For this reason, the studies related with safety affecting significant design parameters for planned construction or fusion plants was needed and required even though K-DEMO is staying in pre-conceptual design phase. Objective Provision Tree (OPT) is one of the tools of Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM) developed by Risk and Safety Working Group (RSWG) for design and assessment of Gen-IV. This is suitable tool to recognize and investigate safety issues from previous engineering experience. The purpose of this paper is to suggest multiple barriers/critical safety function and to describe the current status of the OPT for the conceptual design of K-DEMO. In this paper, critical safety functions were defined and OPT for K-DEMO was described and performed. We have carried out researches related to safety for fusion power plant in collaboration with the academies funded by NFRI during the past 4 years. As part of this research, Integrated Safety Assessment Methodology (ISAM), which was used to develop GEN-IV nuclear systems, was used to determine the technical safety issues and regulatory requirements for K-DEMO. OPT is one of ISAM tools
Mar 6, 2015 ... Introduction: Several studies in Sub- Saharan Africa have documented high and ... Methods: A Descriptive cross sectional survey was employed and three hundred twenty ... In addition, unwanted pregnancy among female.
Aug 25, 2011 ... other African nations lack published animal welfare laws. .... The internationally accepted three Rs framework (Reduction, ... In addition, the lack of institutional animal ethics committees promotes the outsourcing of animal.
Oct 19, 2013 ... Although women with breast cancer get clinical management, there is need to design holistic palliative ... women in addition to Kaposi's sarcoma and cervical cancer [1,2]. The incidence of ..... Asian Indian women: Knowledge ...
Polasky, Stephen; Lewis, David J; Plantinga, Andrew J; Nelson, Erik
Many ecosystem services are public goods whose provision depends on the spatial pattern of land use. The pattern of land use is often determined by the decisions of multiple private landowners. Increasing the provision of ecosystem services, though beneficial for society as a whole, may be costly to private landowners. A regulator interested in providing incentives to landowners for increased provision of ecosystem services often lacks complete information on landowners' costs. The combination of spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric cost information means that the optimal provision of ecosystem services cannot be achieved using standard regulatory or payment for ecosystem services approaches. Here we show that an auction that sets payments between landowners and the regulator for the increased value of ecosystem services with conservation provides incentives for landowners to truthfully reveal cost information, and allows the regulator to implement the optimal provision of ecosystem services, even in the case with spatially dependent benefits and asymmetric information.
May 6, 2014 ... facilitate and support articulation between the ECT mid-level worker qualification and the professional B EMC degree. Methods. The researchers used an exploratory, sequential mixed-method design, which is characterised by a qualitative phase of research followed by a quantitative phase. This design is ...
supports medical education and research at institutions in 12 ... (CBE). CapacityPlus, led by IntraHealth International, is the USAID-funded ... acquire public health, clinical, and/or research skills, usually through applied learning in a .... If students were evaluated, indicate the type of student (i.e. medical, dental, nursing, etc.) ...
Jan 24, 2017 ... and the specific rotavirus VP4 (P-types) and VP7 (G-types) determined. Results: The .... Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the Kenya Medical Research. Institute (KEMRI) ... rotavirus dsRNA was run on 10% polyacrylamide resolving gels using a large format .... What is known about this topic. •. Rotavirus is ...
Thiago Botelho Azeredo
Full Text Available Abstract The provision of ARVs is central to HIV/AIDS programs, because of its impact on the course of the disease and on quality of life. Although first-line treatments costs have declined, treatment-associated expenses are steeper each year. Sustainability is therefore an important variable for the success of treatment programs. A conceptual framework on sustainability of ARV provision was developed, followed by data collection instruments. The pilot study was undertaken in Brazil. Bolivia, Peru and Mozambique, were visited. Key informants were identified and interviewed. Investigation of sustainability related to ARV provision involved implementation and routinization events of provision schemes. Evidence of greater sustainability potential was observed in Peru, where provision is implemented and routinized by the National HIV/AIDS program and expenditures met by the government. In Mozambique, provision is dependent on donations and external aid, but the country displays a great effort to incorporate ARV provision and care in routine healthcare activities. Bolivia, in addition to external dependence on financing and management of drug supply, presents problems regarding implementation and routinization. The conceptual framework was useful in recognizing events that influence sustainable ARV provision in these countries.
Oct 25, 2017 ... stigma and superstition are known to lead to frequent presentation .... The limited documented research on challenges to help-seeking behaviour for cancer ..... to touch your breast  that breast self-examination may cause.
Jul 12, 2016 ... multiple risk factors provides support for multiple-behavior interventions as ... consumption) with smoking therefore needs further research. As such this study .... restaurants, in bars, and on a statewide basis. They preferred to.
The mini-clinical-evaluation exercise (mini-CEX) is a way of assessing the clinical ... Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the Medical Health. Research ..... mini-CEX assessment and feedback session, the greater the likelihood of.
Apr 14, 2016 ... Qualitative data, content analysis approach was used. Results: Overall 422 .... Study design: A mixed method cross-sectional design using both quantitative and qualitative research methods as described by. Hanson et al  ...
Subjects covered in this section are: (1) PCAST panel promotes energy research cooperation; (2) Letter issued by ANS urges funding balance in FFTF restart consideration and (3) FESAC panel releases report on priorities and balance
Research. December 2017, Vol. 9, No. 4 AJHPE 171. During curriculum development, teachers ... Ideally, examiners need an educational method to determine ..... A major focus of this study was addressing the human resource gap when.
Jul 20, 2016 ... Abstract. Introduction: In sub Saharan Africa, childbirth remains a challenge that creates the need for additional screening tools. Maternal pelvis height, which is currently in use by automotive engineers has previously been shown to have significant associations with various childbirth related outcomes and ...
Dec 16, 2015 ... ... motivation among health workers (62%), overwhelming workload (89%) and abuse of services by clients ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the ..... additional drugs and other supplies . .... disruptive effects of user fee exemption policies on health.
Dec 15, 2017 ... also to the food industry, which should also consider sugar content reduction in ... shouldn't be affected by high amount of sugar or use of artificial ingredients .... have yoghurt without additives and less sweet. On the other ...
Mar 26, 2018 ... developing countries, they affect low- and middle-income countries. (LMICs) ... smoking and lack of physical activity.[2,3] Such ... Healthcare empowerment is key to the prevention of diabetes[15,16] and should be ..... word-search game and a health model to explain healthy lifestyle choices, in addition to ...
Mar 28, 2014 ... 1Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College, P. O. Box 2240, Moshi, Tanzania, 2KCMC- Duke. Collaboration, P.O Box .... providing additional food to children taking medication. Of these, ... should be used because they complement each other. Surprisingly ...
Aug 3, 2011 ... The potential predictor variables included socio-demographic characteristics of the mother; indices for decision-making power about health and nutrition as well as decision-making power about short and long term investment strategies, housing material, household assets; in addition to household size ...
Today?s scientific and business applications generate mas- sive data sets that need to be transferred to remote sites for sharing, processing, and long term storage. Because of increasing data volumes and enhancement in current net- work technology that provide on-demand high-speed data access between collaborating institutions, data handling and scheduling problems have reached a new scale. In this paper, we present a new data scheduling model with ad- vance resource provisioning, in which data movement operations are defined with earliest start and latest comple- tion times. We analyze time-dependent resource assign- ment problem, and propose a new methodology to improve the current systems by allowing researchers and higher-level meta-schedulers to use data-placement as-a-service, so they can plan ahead and submit transfer requests in advance. In general, scheduling with time and resource conflicts is NP-hard. We introduce an efficient algorithm to organize multiple requests on the fly, while satisfying users? time and resource constraints. We successfully tested our algorithm in a simple benchmark simulator that we have developed, and demonstrated its performance with initial test results.
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
School food in Denmark has unlike many other European countries traditionally been the responsibility of parents. However publically driven healthy school food and nutrition strategies is increasingly being applied as a measure to counteract the growing prevalence of obesity among young people. I...... for studying this shaping process and thus has the potential to give valuable insight into the further development of healthy and organic school meals in Denmark.......School food in Denmark has unlike many other European countries traditionally been the responsibility of parents. However publically driven healthy school food and nutrition strategies is increasingly being applied as a measure to counteract the growing prevalence of obesity among young people....... In addition school food has become a major focus for public organic procurement strategies that seeks to create more sustainable public service provision. Since there are no national regulation of school food provision the school and its food supply in Denmark has become an arena for development...
Full Text Available Abstract Background As in most fields of health care, societal and political changes encourage suppliers of long-term care to put their clients at the center of care and service provision and become more responsive towards client needs and requirements. However, the diverse, multiple and dynamic nature of demand for long-term care complicates the movement towards demand-based care provision. This paper aims to advance long-term care practice and, to that end, examines the application of modularity. This concept is recognized in a wide range of product and service settings for its ability to design demand-based products and processes. Methods Starting from the basic dimensions of modularity, we use qualitative research to explore the use and application of modularity principles in the current working practices and processes of four organizations in the field of long-term care for the elderly. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 key informants and triangulated with document research and observation. Data was analyzed thematically by means of coding and subsequent exploration of patterns. Data analysis was facilitated by qualitative analysis software. Results Our data suggest that a modular setup of supply is employed in the arrangement of care and service supply and assists providers of long-term care in providing their clients with choice options and variation. In addition, modularization of the needs assessment and package specification process allows the case organizations to manage client involvement but still provide customized packages of care and services. Conclusion The adequate setup of an organization's supply and its specification phase activities are indispensible for long-term care providers who aim to do better in terms of quality and efficiency. Moreover, long-term care providers could benefit from joint provision of care and services by means of modular working teams. Based upon our findings, we are able to
Background As in most fields of health care, societal and political changes encourage suppliers of long-term care to put their clients at the center of care and service provision and become more responsive towards client needs and requirements. However, the diverse, multiple and dynamic nature of demand for long-term care complicates the movement towards demand-based care provision. This paper aims to advance long-term care practice and, to that end, examines the application of modularity. This concept is recognized in a wide range of product and service settings for its ability to design demand-based products and processes. Methods Starting from the basic dimensions of modularity, we use qualitative research to explore the use and application of modularity principles in the current working practices and processes of four organizations in the field of long-term care for the elderly. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 key informants and triangulated with document research and observation. Data was analyzed thematically by means of coding and subsequent exploration of patterns. Data analysis was facilitated by qualitative analysis software. Results Our data suggest that a modular setup of supply is employed in the arrangement of care and service supply and assists providers of long-term care in providing their clients with choice options and variation. In addition, modularization of the needs assessment and package specification process allows the case organizations to manage client involvement but still provide customized packages of care and services. Conclusion The adequate setup of an organization's supply and its specification phase activities are indispensible for long-term care providers who aim to do better in terms of quality and efficiency. Moreover, long-term care providers could benefit from joint provision of care and services by means of modular working teams. Based upon our findings, we are able to elaborate on how to further
May 18, 2017 ... available to populations of developing countries [2-5]. In 2013, in. Western and Central Europe and ..... initiation among the infected persons in the community. Addressing stigma and educating ... Lifespan/Tufts/Brown Center for AIDS Research (P30AI042853). Tables. Table 1: Baseline characteristics of ...
15 févr. 2016 ... présentent un Indice de Masse Corporel (IMC) normal, les autres femmes sont soit ..... In The health belief model and personal health behavior, edited by MH ... Evaluation of the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale. Research in.
Mar 14, 2017 ... R Ebrahim,1 MSc (Dent); H Julie,2 MPH, MCur, PhD. 1 Extended ... and research is applied to develop and sustain society.. Methods .... service they want, not the service we want to give whether they want it or. Co math. G.
Nov 24, 2017 ... Page number not for citation purposes. 1. Prevalence and determinants of common mental ..... illnesses were smoke cigarette in the last 3 months that make prevalence of tobacco use 38.2%. ..... Okasha A, Karam E.Mental health services and research in the. Arab world. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.
Apr 21, 2014 ... Prospective assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea in ... Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of .... University Teaching Hospital Health Research Ethics Committee ... BANG, Berlin questionnaire and the American Society of .... The epidemiology of adult obstructive sleep.
Feb 1, 2016 ... University Hospital, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark, 3Center for Global Health, Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5000. Odense .... BHP is a Danish-Guinean Demographic Surveillance Site with a study-area .... variables such as age groups, previous military duty, history of.
Jun 24, 2015 ... related immunosuppression, previous history of TB, and pause in treatment . In Brazil, researchers .... treatment, use of traditional medicines or herbs, history of TB drug side effects and treatment delay). ..... therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis in Lima Ciudad, Peru. International journal of tuberculosis and ...
Research. May 2016, Vol. 8, No. 1 AJHPE 37. Students who enrol in occupational therapy (OT) at the. University of Kwa Zulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban, South Africa ... The latter may include becoming familiar with the disintegrating social systems in primary .... They also lacked the skills needed to adapt sessions and failed to ...
Jun 22, 2015 ... collaboration with Makerere University, School of Public Health. We acknowledge The Family Health Research and Development Centre. (FHRDC) Uganda. Supported by Bill & Melinda Gates Institute for. Population & Reproductive Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, ...
However, a focus on competence alone is inadequate to produce graduates who are capable of adapting to the changing needs of health systems. While knowledge and technical ... shared their responses to guided questions. There were three sessions; after each session the researcher aggregated participant responses ...
Jan 31, 2014 ... by Hazarika in a population-based study in India. The researcher noted that patients' preference to the private health facilities was due mainly to their dissatisfaction with the services in the public health facilities . Furthermore, the quality of the services in the private health facilities could also be a major ...
Mar 20, 2018 ... student health professionals in various institutions, both in South Africa. (SA) and internationally. ... field include dentists, dental therapists and oral hygienists in training, .... The College of Health Sciences at UKZN has four schools: clinical ..... Journal of Emerging Trends in Educational Research and Policy ...
Sep 14, 2017 ... Abstract. Introduction: Medical and dental students are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection which is an ... The Pan African Medical Journal - ISSN 1937-8688. ... Research ... in the College of Health Sciences and clinical students (years four to .... Hepatology International.2017 Jan; 11(1):.
Jan 19, 2015 ... One research assistant was available to assist the learners and to answer questions while they completed the questionnaires during a classroom period. ..... PubMed | Google Scholar. 4. Hall PA, Holmqvist M, Sherry SB. Risky adolescent sexual behaviour: A psychological perspective for primary care.
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.1 Section 16.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION... administration of the Department of Justice. ...
Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers: The Medical ... and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is ... the rights guaranteed to the professionals when they appear before the Tribunal.
... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel... accordance with 225.7604, use the provision at 252.225-7031, Secondary Arab Boycott of Israel, in all...
Jones, Jason D; Cassidy, Jude
The secure base construct represents one of attachment theory's most important contributions to our understanding of parent-child relationships and child development. The present study represents the first examination of how parents' self-reported attachment styles relate to parental secure base provision and adolescent (mean age = 16.6 years, SE = .59) secure base use during an observed parent-adolescent interaction. Further, the present study is the first to examine how fathers', as well as mothers', attachment styles relate to observed behavior in a parent-child interaction. At the bivariate level, maternal avoidance, but not anxiety, was negatively associated with observed adolescent secure base use. In addition, path analysis revealed that maternal avoidance was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through mothers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents and through adolescents' less positive perceptions of their mothers. Further, paternal anxiety, but not avoidance, was indirectly related to less adolescent secure base use through fathers' self-reported hostile behavior toward their adolescents. No significant findings emerged in relation to parental secure base provision. We discuss these results in the context of attachment theory and suggest directions for future research.
Aronsson, Thomas; Koskela, Erkki
This paper concerns public input provision as an instrument for redistribution under international outsourcing by using a model-economy comprising two countries, North and South, where firms in the North may outsource part of their low-skilled labor intensive production to the South. We consider two interrelated issues: (i) the incentives for each country to modify the provision of public input goods in response to international outsourcing, and (ii) whether international outsourcing justifie...
Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana
The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis and treat...
... Research program. The primary objective of this study is to assess the effects of different stressors on... Reflex Action Mortality Predictors (RAMP) under different stressors to assess the discard mortality rates... research landings from the VTRs in their ACE accounting, in addition to the vessel's dealer-recorded...
Garcia, Susan E.; Giannelli, Joseph F.; Jarvis, Alfred J.
Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been injecting zinc into the primary coolant via the reactor feedwater system for over 25 years for the purpose of controlling primary system radiation fields. The BWR zinc injection process has evolved since the initial application at the Hope Creek Nuclear Station in 1986. Key transitions were from the original natural zinc oxide (NZO) to depleted zinc oxide (DZO), and from active zinc injection of a powdered zinc oxide slurry (pumped systems) to passive injection systems (zinc pellet beds). Zinc addition has continued through various chemistry regimes changes, from normal water chemistry (NWC) to hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) and HWC with noble metals (NobleChem™) for mitigation of intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of reactor internals and primary system piping. While past reports published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) document specific industry experience related to these topics, the Zinc Sourcebook was prepared to consolidate all of the experience gained over the past 25 years. The Zinc Sourcebook will benefit experienced BWR Chemistry, Operations, Radiation Protection and Engineering personnel as well as new people entering the nuclear power industry. While all North American BWRs implement feedwater zinc injection, a number of other BWRs do not inject zinc. This Sourcebook will also be a valuable resource to plants considering the benefits of zinc addition process implementation, and to gain insights on industry experience related to zinc process control and best practices. This paper presents some of the highlights from the Sourcebook. (author)
周丹; 梁风; 姚耀春
Forming a stable solid electrolyte interface film (SEI film) is the key to solve the compatibility between lithium ion battery electrode material and electrolyte. Therefore,the research of high quality anode film-forming additive in electrolyte for lithium ion battery attracts much attention. The principle of film-forming additives for organic electrolyte in Li-ion batteries was reviewed. The research status of a variety of additives was particularly introduced. The recent progress on negative film-forming additives was reviewed in detail,from the perspectives of film formation mechanisms and quantum calculation. The main problem was how to select more suitable and efficient film-forming additives. In addition,the possible trends in this area were proposed:①Understanding the mechanism of additive reacting with the electrolyte,especially for the negative film forming additive which has minimum side effects for lithium ion battery;②Combining two or more additives together to compensate the deficiencies of one additive;③Increasing the solubility of inorganic film-forming additives in the electrolyte.%解决锂离子电池电极材料和电解液相容性的关键是形成稳定且Li+可导的固态电解质界面膜（SEI膜），因此，对优质负极成膜添加剂的研究成为锂离子电池研发中的一个热点。本文综述了锂离子电池电解液成膜添加剂的作用原理，具体介绍了各类负极成膜添加剂的研究现状，从成膜反应机理和理论计算方面详述了近几年来负极成膜添加剂的研究进展。分析了所存在的问题主要是如何快速地挑选出更适宜、更高效的成膜添加剂，并指出了成膜添加剂未来的发展趋势为：①研究各添加剂与电解液的反应机理，着重开发对锂离子电池副反应小的负极成膜添加剂；②通过选择两种或两种以上的添加剂的协同作用，以弥补一种添加剂的不足；③提高无机成膜添加剂在电解液中的溶解度。
Full Text Available Schoolbooks account for between 65% and 75% of all publishing activity in Indonesia. The amount of money allocated is continually increasing. Priority is given to the primary and junior secondary school levels (6+3 years, which are compulsory. Between 1969 and 1988, the Government of Indonesia (GOI has produced some 550 million primary textbooks and library books. Up to the year 2000, the GOI has decided to allocate the total of US$ 355.2 million to produce 250 million copies of primary and junior secondary school textbooks to reach the ratio of one book for each student. In addition, around Rp 20-50 billion (US$ 10-20 million annually is spent to purchase 8-17 million copies of reading books which are aimed at stimulating the reading interest of primary school children. These books are distributed free to some 168,000 primary and 26,969 junior secondary schools throughout Indonesia. Following the massive efforts to increase book availability at schools, some innovative policies are being taken. Book evaluation standards have been improved to ensure that only high quality books are used at schools. The distribution system has been restructured to guarantee that books reach targeted schools. Consequently, the book monitoring system has had to be strengthened to examine whether or not the books really reach the schools and are used properly by students and teachers in the classrooms. In the last three years, there has also been a growing concern with multicultural issues in schoolbook provision programs. In such a culturally diverse nation as Indonesia, schoolbooks should also be culturally sensitive and be recognize the varied sociocultural backgrounds which affect students' learning.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tolerances for related food additives. 570.18 Section 570.18 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.18 Tolerances...
Full Text Available Introduction: Meeting the complex health needs of people often requires interaction among numerous different sectors. No one service can adequately respond to the diverse care needs of consumers. Providers working more effectively together is frequently touted as the solution. Cross-sector service provision is defined as independent, yet interconnected sectors working together to better meet the needs of consumers and improve the quality and effectiveness of service provision. Cross-sector service provision is expected, yet much remains unknown about how it is conceptualised or its impact on health status. This umbrella review aims to clarify the critical attributes that shape cross-sector service provision by presenting the current state of the literature and building on the findings of the 2004 review by Sloper. Methods: Literature related to cross-sector service provision is immense, which poses a challenge for decision makers wishing to make evidence-informed decisions. An umbrella review was conducted to articulate the overall state of cross-sector service provision literature and examine the evidence to allow for the discovery of consistencies and discrepancies across the published knowledge base. Findings: Sixteen reviews met the inclusion criteria. Seven themes emerged: Focusing on the consumer, developing a shared vision of care, leadership involvement, service provision across the boundaries, adequately resourcing the arrangement, developing novel arrangements or aligning with existing relationships, and strengthening connections between sectors. Future research from a cross-organisational, rather than individual provider, perspective is needed to better understand what shapes cross-sector service provision at the boundaries. Conclusion: Findings aligned closely with the work done by Sloper and raise red flags related to reinventing what is already known. Future researchers should look to explore novel areas rather than looking into
Winters, Shannon; Magalhaes, Lilian; Anne Kinsella, Elizabeth; Kothari, Anita
Meeting the complex health needs of people often requires interaction among numerous different sectors. No one service can adequately respond to the diverse care needs of consumers. Providers working more effectively together is frequently touted as the solution. Cross-sector service provision is defined as independent, yet interconnected sectors working together to better meet the needs of consumers and improve the quality and effectiveness of service provision. Cross-sector service provision is expected, yet much remains unknown about how it is conceptualised or its impact on health status. This umbrella review aims to clarify the critical attributes that shape cross-sector service provision by presenting the current state of the literature and building on the findings of the 2004 review by Sloper. Literature related to cross-sector service provision is immense, which poses a challenge for decision makers wishing to make evidence-informed decisions. An umbrella review was conducted to articulate the overall state of cross-sector service provision literature and examine the evidence to allow for the discovery of consistencies and discrepancies across the published knowledge base. Sixteen reviews met the inclusion criteria. Seven themes emerged: Focusing on the consumer, developing a shared vision of care, leadership involvement, service provision across the boundaries, adequately resourcing the arrangement, developing novel arrangements or aligning with existing relationships, and strengthening connections between sectors. Future research from a cross-organisational, rather than individual provider, perspective is needed to better understand what shapes cross-sector service provision at the boundaries. Findings aligned closely with the work done by Sloper and raise red flags related to reinventing what is already known. Future researchers should look to explore novel areas rather than looking into areas that have been explored at length. Evaluations of out
Fazri Nur Yusuf
Full Text Available Studies on potentials of feedback over English language teaching seem not to have not been well-revealed, including studies on the use of feedback to improve English pre-service teachers’ competence. The present study investigates to what extent a multimodal feedback can influence pre-service teachers’ teaching, and which teaching aspects are influenced. Twenty five pre-service teachers taking Microteaching Course served as respondents supervised by a course advisor. The data were collected by teacher observation in a rating-scale form, self-appraisal, and interviews. The data were analyzed by using correlated sample t-test and the eight teaching components proposed by Brown (2001. The results showed that after multimodal feedback provision, pre-service teachers indicated an improvement significantly in seven out of eight teaching aspects. The provision of multimodal feedback could improve their teaching competence on preparation, instructional objective elicitation, mastery of instructional materials, use of media, and classroom management, including classroom language. But, the results do not indicate that they perform well on reflection and follow-up due to some reasons. In addition, the results evince that multimodal feedback provision could improve pre-service teachers’ pedagogical competence when the multimodal feedback is integrated with content, interpersonal relationship, and management.
..., paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section apply in the case of a class 103 license for a facility for the... electric energy, if otherwise qualified, from obtaining a construction permit or operating license under... over a sufficient range of normal operating conditions, transient conditions, and specified accident...
...) link in the chain of distribution of the program material to broadcast stations. In light of recent.... These requirements serve to ensure productive use of the spectrum and to prevent noneconomic overuse. 9... completely out of service, so long as the values mandated by the rules were maintained both in normal...
.... Historically, programs designed to assist at-risk youth to attain employment and self-sufficiency were a patchwork of short-term, stand alone services delivered by a loosely coordinated network...
Gibson, Grant; Newton, Lisa; Pritchard, Gary; Finch, Tracy; Brittain, Katie; Robinson, Louise
In this review we explore the provision of assistive technology products and services currently available for people with dementia within the United Kingdom. A scoping review of assistive technology products and services currently available highlighted 171 products or product types and 331 services. In addition, we assimilated data on the amount and quality of information provided by assistive technology services alongside assistive technology costs. We identify a range of products available across three areas: assistive technology used 'by', 'with' and 'on' people with dementia. Assistive technology provision is dominated by 'telecare' provided by local authorities, with services being subject to major variations in pricing and information provision; few currently used available resources for assistive technology in dementia. We argue that greater attention should be paid to information provision about assistive technology services across an increasingly mixed economy of dementia care providers, including primary care, local authorities, private companies and local/national assistive technology resources. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential for transmission of infectious diseases offered by the school environment are likely to be an important contributor to the rates of infectious disease experienced by children. This study aimed to test whether the addition of hand sanitiser in primary school classrooms compared with usual hand hygiene would reduce illness absences in primary school children in New Zealand. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This parallel-group cluster randomised trial took place in 68 primary schools, where schools were allocated using restricted randomisation (1:1 ratio to the intervention or control group. All children (aged 5 to 11 y in attendance at participating schools received an in-class hand hygiene education session. Schools in the intervention group were provided with alcohol-based hand sanitiser dispensers in classrooms for the winter school terms (27 April to 25 September 2009. Control schools received only the hand hygiene education session. The primary outcome was the number of absence episodes due to any illness among 2,443 follow-up children whose caregivers were telephoned after each absence from school. Secondary outcomes measured among follow-up children were the number of absence episodes due to specific illness (respiratory or gastrointestinal, length of illness and illness absence episodes, and number of episodes where at least one other member of the household became ill subsequently (child or adult. We also examined whether provision of sanitiser was associated with experience of a skin reaction. The number of absences for any reason and the length of the absence episode were measured in all primary school children enrolled at the schools. Children, school administrative staff, and the school liaison research assistants were not blind to group allocation. Outcome assessors of follow-up children were blind to group allocation. Of the 1,301 and 1,142 follow-up children in the hand sanitiser and control groups, respectively, the
Feofanova Iryna V.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the questions, giving answers to which is necessary for scientific substantiation of the tax transformation in Ukraine. The article analyzes the structural-logical relationships of the theories, providing substantiation of tax systems and transformation of them. Various views on the level of both the tax burden and the distribution of the tax burden between big and small business have been systematized. The issues that require theoretical substantiation when choosing a model of tax system have been identified. It is determined that shares of both indirect and direct taxes and their rates can be substantiated by calculations on the basis of statistical data. The results of the presented research can be used to develop the algorithm for theoretical substantiation of tax transformation
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for branded engines. 1042.640 Section 1042.640 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Special Compliance Provisions § 1042.640 Special provisions for branded engines. The following provisions...
Valdmanis, Vivian; DeNicola, Arianna; Bernet, Patrick
In this paper, we assess the capacity of Florida's public health departments. We achieve this by using bootstrapped data envelopment analysis (DEA) applied to Johansen's definition of capacity utilization. Our purpose in this paper is to measure if there is, theoretically, enough excess capacity available to handle a possible surge in the demand for primary care services especially after the implementation of the Affordable Care Act that includes provisions for expanded public health services. We measure subunit service availability using a comprehensive data source available for all 67 county health departments in the provision of diagnostic care and primary health care. In this research we aim to address two related research questions. First, we structure our analysis so as to fix budgets. This is based on the assumption that State spending on social and health services could be limited, but patient needs are not. Our second research question is that, given the dearth of primary care providers in Florida if budgets are allowed to vary is there enough medical labor to provide care to clients. Using a non-parametric approach, we also apply bootstrapping to the concept of plant capacity which adds to the productivity research. To preview our findings, we report that there exists excess plant capacity for patient treatment and care, but question whether resources may be better suited for more traditional types of public health services.
Full Text Available As China’s capital market has become more and more developed, listed companies have begun to establish some anti-takeover provisions to protect their controlling right. Existing studies have examined the consequences of the establishment of such provisions. However, few studies have explored how these provisions affect corporate strategic change. Based on agency theory and prospect theory, this paper proposes two channels through which one of the anti-takeover provisions, staggered board provision, impacts strategic change. Using the data of China’s listed companies which issue A-shares in Shenzhen and Shanghai stock exchanges from 2007 to 2014, these two channels are tested. We find that the existence of a staggered board provision negatively affects the extent of strategic change. In addition, if governance mechanisms restrict directors’ power, the relationship between staggered board provision and strategic change will be weakened, which supports the agency theory. If the listed company is faced with a more dynamic external environment, the relationship between staggered board provision and strategic change will be stronger, which supports the prospect theory. These results are robust after we use a different method to measure strategic change. Our conclusions not only enrich literature about strategic change and anti-takeover provisions, but also are helpful for improving corporate governance in China and other developing countries.
Pires, Armando J. Garcia
We analyze the effects of multi-homing consumers on content provision by media firms. We develop a model where media firms compete on content provision and advertising revenues, and consumers enjoy network effects from consuming content that other consumers also consume. Media firms have to choose if they are single-content or multi-content, and in the latter case how much content to offer. Competition for advertising revenues gives a two-sided market nature to our model, since advertisers pr...
... provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? You are not subject to the early... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are the early payment provisions, or interest rate provisions, applicable in leasing arrangements? 714.8 Section 714.8 Banks and Banking NATIONAL...
Wagner, B.; Maier, S.; Peinsipp-Byma, E.
In the area of working with spatial data, in addition to the classic, two-dimensional geometrical data (maps, aerial images, etc.), the needs for three-dimensional spatial data (city models, digital elevation models, etc.) is increasing. Due to this increased demand the acquiring, storing and provision of 3D enabled spatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is more and more important. Existing proprietary solutions quickly reaches their limits during data exchange and data delivery to other systems. They generate a large workload, which will be very costly. However, it is noticeable that these expenses and costs can generally be significantly reduced using standards. The aim of this research is therefore to develop a concept in the field of three-dimensional spatial data that runs on existing standards whenever possible. In this research, the military image analysts are the preferred user group of the system. To achieve the objective of the widest possible use of standards in spatial 3D data, existing standards, proprietary interfaces and standards under discussion have been analyzed. Since the here used GIS of the Fraunhofer IOSB is already using and supporting OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) and NATO-STANAG (NATO-Standardization Agreement) standards for the most part of it, a special attention for possible use was laid on their standards. The most promising standard is the OGC standard 3DPS (3D Portrayal Service) with its occurrences W3DS (Web 3D Service) and WVS (Web View Service). A demo system was created, using a standardized workflow from the data acquiring, storing and provision and showing the benefit of our approach.
Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy
The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.
Some comments are given on PB 26128. Both in the Netherlands and in Denmark research has been done into the safety effects of infrastructural provisions, namely cycle tracks and cycle lanes. The research has mostly been done using before and after studies, based on statistical analysis of number of
Deborger, Bruno; Fosgerau, Mogens
We study the interaction between pricing, frequency of service and information provision by public transport firms offering scheduled services, and we do so under various regulatory regimes. The model assumes that users can come to the bus stop or rail station at random or they can plan their trips...
... approval of the Secretary of Commerce or of the Under Secretary for Industry and Security. (d) Electronic... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 748.1 Section 748.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU...
Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Oliveira, A.I.; Ferrada, F.; Hammoudi, S.; Cordeiro, J.; Maciaszek, L.A.; Filipe, J.
The notion of service-enhanced product, representing the association of services to manufactured products, offers an important mechanism for value creation and product differentiation. This is particularly relevant in the case of complex, highly customized and long-life products. Provision of
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Miscellaneous provisions. 105.27 Section 105.27 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIMINAL HISTORY BACKGROUND CHECKS... has elected to opt out; or (ii) A participating State that has not yet established a process for...
... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion...
... organizational conflicts of interest certificate from any marketing consultants engaged by an offeror in support... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Solicitation provisions. 1706.6 Section 1706.6 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.6...
... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true General provisions. 1956.57 Section 1956.57 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... and surviving spouse, allowable funeral expenses, and dower and courtesy rights, and specific...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions. 718.1 Section 718.1 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND... establish criteria for the techniques to be used to take chest roentgenograms (X-rays) in connection with a...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 301.1 Section 301.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS INSTRUMENTS AND APPARATUS...
... personnel supported by funds provided under this part to support a nonprofit nutrition program for the... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS CHILD AND ADULT CARE FOOD PROGRAM Operational Provisions § 226.15...
... Non-baseline Products. A manufacturer with total annual sales less than $50 million is not required to... section. (3) Provisions Applicable to Atypical Products. A manufacturer with total annual sales less than... required for aerosol products. EPA will review the submitted information and, at EPA's discretion, may...
... conduct blasting operations shall use every reasonable precaution including, but not limited to, visual... alternative provisions may be made which are adequately designed to prevent any premature firing of electric...) Blasting operations in the proximity of overhead power lines, communication lines, utility services, or...
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other provisions. 249.25 Section 249.25 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... (7 U.S.C. 2011, et seq.) and to any other Federal or State food or nutrition assistance program. (b...
A.J. Dur (Robert); K. Staal (Klaas)
textabstractWe analyze a simple model of local public good provision in a country consisting of a large number of heterogeneous regions, each comprising two districts, a city and a village. When districts remain autonomous and local public goods have positive spillover effects on the neighbouring
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 62.9 Section 62.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... governments, or other interested individuals or groups to assist in administering the National Natural...
Dorney, Carl; McKnight, Cliff
Public library music provision, as a less traditional role for public libraries, has always caused contention: a vital source of cultural materials within the community though never confirmed to be a core part of library services by the Government. This article concerns itself with a detailed consideration of the decline of music services over the…
Citi, Manuele; Jensen, Mads Dagnis
, the paper utilises an automated text analysis approach to measure the ambiguity of Treaty provisions on a number of indicators. Empirically, the analysis demonstrates a significant association between the indicators of article ambiguity and the number of laws and court rulings. It thus provides support...
... continue to take place based on existing contract/marketing criteria principles. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adjustment provisions. 905.34 Section 905.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.34 Adjustment...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other provisions. 102.41 Section 102.41 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION RECORD DISCLOSURE AND PRIVACY... the preservation of the constitutional principles of federalism and separation of powers. (d) Medical...
Newbould, Louise; Mountain, Gail; Hawley, Mark; Ariss, Steve
A survey was developed to map provision, knowledge, attitudes and views towards videoconferencing in care homes in Yorkshire and The Humber. The survey was sent to 859 care homes, with a 14% response rate. Twelve homes reported using videoconferencing. Non-users appeared skeptical, managers using the system reported improvements in outcomes.
Karen H. Fung
Conclusion: The majority of the educational institutions teach wheelchair education; however, there is great variability in what and how it is taught and evaluated. The results demonstrate the need for more in-depth investigation regarding the integration process of wheelchair education in educational institutions, with the ultimate goal of improving wheelchair service provision worldwide.
... the food service management company will ensure that its system of inventory management will not... recipient agency's fixed-price contract with a food service management company. Such provisions must also be... management company must credit the recipient agency for the value of all donated foods received for use in...
...) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.67 Recovery provisions. (a) If after 3 years from the date of award of a capital grant, the grant recipient has withdrawn from the VA Homeless Providers Grant and Per Diem Program (Program); does not establish the project for which the grant was made...
..., or, with respect to a female employee, a calendar day on which, because of pregnancy, miscarriage, or... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statutory provisions. 332.1 Section 332.1 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT...
The interim Constitution of 1993 and the final Constitution of 1996 contain specific provisions applicable to juristic persons. Juristic persons are also entitled to the fundamental rights contained in the Bill of Rights to the extent that these rights are applicable to them. It must be kept in mind that juristic persons have peculiar ...
... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exception provision. 17.625 Section 17.625 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.625 Exception...
... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Inpatient Operating... the prospective payment system for inpatient operating costs. Except as provided in this subpart, the... for § 412.60, which deals with DRG classification and weighting factors, the provisions of subparts D...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.70 Section 700.70 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.60 Section 700.60 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions. 700.50 Section 700.50 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 16.40 Section 16.40 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF MATERIAL OR INFORMATION..., commission, service, or administration of the Department of Justice. (2) Request for access to a record means...
... harvested production does not exist; (2) The loss is due to an ineligible cause of loss or practices, soil... provisions. (a) For calculations of loss, the participant's existing unit structure will be used as the basis... (2) For NAP covered crops, part 1437 of this title. (b) County average yield for loss calculations...
... SALES LOANS MADE BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY AND FOREIGN MILITARY SALES LOANS MADE BY THE FEDERAL FINANCING BANK AND GUARANTEED BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY Form of Private Loan § 25... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan provisions. 25.400 Section 25...
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appeal provisions. 135.405 Section 135.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND...
...) Introduction. As provided in § 9901.303(a)(2), the provisions of 5 U.S.C. chapter 55, subchapter V, and related... market supplements are treated the same as locality pay under 5 U.S.C. 5304 and are included in computing...
... U.S. Revised Statutes or any other provision of law that requires competitive bidding. (b.... (a) Competitive bidding not required for carriers. CMS may enter into contracts with carriers, or... certain administrative responsibilities that the law imposes. Accordingly, their agreements and contracts...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General provisions. 281.9 Section 281.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FOREIGN EXCHANGE OPERATIONS § 281.9 General...
... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions... operation of the treatment process or control technique, the owner or operator shall instead comply with the... calibration gas for Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A shall be the single organic HAP representing the...
Adamji, Jehan-Marie; Swartwout, Kathryn
Emergency contraception is most effective at preventing unintended pregnancy when taken as early as possible following unprotected sexual intercourse. Advance provision of this medication supports more timely and effective use. In the midst of rising teen pregnancy rates, current policies often limit access to emergency contraception for…
Cluver, Lucie; Pantelic, Marija; Orkin, Mark; Toska, Elona; Medley, Sally; Sherr, Lorraine
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present a groundbreaking global development agenda to protect the most vulnerable. Adolescents living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience extreme health vulnerabilities, but we know little about the impacts of SDG-aligned provisions on their health. This study tests associations of provisions aligned with five SDGs with potential mortality risks. Clinical and interview data were gathered from N = 1060 adolescents living with HIV in rural and urban South Africa in 2014 to 2015. All ART-initiated adolescents from 53 government health facilities were identified, and traced in their communities to include those defaulting and lost-to-follow-up. Potential mortality risk was assessed as either: viral suppression failure (1000+ copies/ml) using patient file records, or adolescent self-report of diagnosed but untreated tuberculosis or symptomatic pulmonary tuberculosis. SDG-aligned provisions were measured through adolescent interviews. Provisions aligned with SDGs 1&2 (no poverty and zero hunger) were operationalized as access to basic necessities, social protection and food security; An SDG 3-aligned provision (ensure healthy lives) was having a healthy primary caregiver; An SDG 8-aligned provision (employment for all) was employment of a household member; An SDG 16-aligned provision (protection from violence) was protection from physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Research partners included the South African national government, UNICEF and Pediatric and Adolescent Treatment for Africa. 20.8% of adolescents living with HIV had potential mortality risk - i.e. viral suppression failure, symptomatic untreated TB, or both. All SDG-aligned provisions were significantly associated with reduced potential mortality risk: SDG 1&2 (OR 0.599 CI 0.361 to 0.994); SDG 3 (OR 0.577 CI 0.411 to 0.808); SDG 8 (OR 0.602 CI 0.440 to 0.823) and SDG 16 (OR 0.686 CI 0.505 to 0.933). Access to multiple SDG-aligned provisions showed a
Full Text Available Se presenta la metodología de una investigación de aula donde se contrastan dos métodos de enseñanza de problemas aditivos con números negativos. En el “método redactar” los alumnos enuncian los problemas, aprenden sus estructuras y resuelven problemas propuestos por sus compañeros. En el “método resolver” se practican los problemas en una secuencia marcada por un orden de dificultad. El conocimiento adquirido se contrastó con el de otros alumnos que resolvieron problemas del libro de texto como aplicación de reglas operatorias. La metodología conjuga un tratamiento estadístico para contrastar la efectividad de los métodos con base en el éxito en la resolución y un estudio cualitativo de ciertos aspectos del “método redactar”. We present a research methodology used in a classroom study in which two different learning methods of additive problems with negative numbers are compared. With the “writing method” students write the problems, learn their structures and solve problems that have been written by their partners. With the “solving method” students practice additive problems in a given sequence, according to the problems level of difficulty. The knowledge acquired was compared with the one obtained by other students who solved additive problems from the textbook, as application of operational rules. We have used a mixed methodology: A statistical treatment to contrast the effectiveness of the methods for solving problems and a qualitative study of certain aspects of the “writing method”.
... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General restrictions on use of color additives. 70... GENERAL COLOR ADDITIVES General Provisions § 70.5 General restrictions on use of color additives. (a) Color additives for use in the area of the eye. No listing or certification of a color additive shall be...
Jul 16, 2016 ... counterfeiting of currency and monetary instruments, money ... the term economic corruption which is frequently used by researchers in .... mentioned in the provisions and legislator also added fraud to this list under Article.
Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.
Full Text Available To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: “Information barrier: accessible housing”, “Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits”, and “Cost barrier: housing adaptations”. In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision.
Full Text Available The RTAs with trade facilitation provisions have been expected to generate a larger net trade-creating effect and complement the discriminatory feature of RTAs but have yet to be empirically proven. Recognizing the limitations of existing studies, we conducted a quantitative analysis on the effects of RTAs with and without trade facilitation provisions on both intra- and extra-bloc trade by using a modified gravity equation. We applied the Poisson Pseudo-Maximum Likelihood (PPML estimation with time varying exporter and importer fixed effect method to panel data consisting of 45,770 country pairs covering 170 countries for 2000-2010. We found that the trade facilitation provisions in existing RTAs are non-discriminatory by generating more intra- and extra-bloc trade in general. In particular, we found that the trade effects of RTAs in the APEC region are much stronger than the general case covering all RTAs in the world. In addition, as we control the trade effect of a country's trade facilitation, which is ranked by the World Bank's logistic performance index, RTAs consisting of trade facilitation provisions are discriminatory for trade in final goods and non-discriminatory for trade in intermediate goods. Overall, we endeavor to "explain," instead of "hypothesizing," why most of the recent RTAs contain trade facilitation provisions, especially in light of the deepening regional interdependence through trade in parts and components under global value chains and support the necessity of multilateralizing RTAs by implementing non-discriminatory trade facilitation provisions.
... the Atlantic surfclam and ocean quahog Georges Bank Closure Area. This would continue research to... testing to obtain additional data in locations where toxin levels may be higher than were present during the pilot phase of the study. NMFS has made a preliminary determination that the exempted fishing...
... tagging, and model development to better evaluate the growth and reproductive performance of the... to initial logistical delays and additional time to complete research and funding components of this... study remain consistent with the Atlantic Deep-Sea Red Crab Fishery Management Plan. If approved, the...
Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.
Adams, Robyn; Sheppard, Lorraine; Jones, Anne; Lefmann, Sophie
To obtain stakeholder perspectives on factors influencing rural physiotherapy service provision and insights into decision making about service provision. Purposive sampling, open-ended survey questions and semi-structured interviews were used in this exploratory, qualitative study. A rural centre and its regional referral centre formed the pilot sites. Nine participant perspectives were obtained on rural physiotherapy services. Stakeholder perspectives on factors influencing rural physiotherapy service provision and service level decision making. Workforce capacity and capability, decision maker's knowledge of the role and scope of physiotherapy, consideration of physiotherapy within resource allocation decisions and proof of practice emerged as key issues. The latter three were particularly reflected in public sector participant comments. Business models and market size were identified factors in influencing private practice. Influencing factors described by participants both align and extend our understanding of issues described in the rural physiotherapy literature. Participant insights add depth and meaning to quantitative data by revealing impacts on local service provision. Available funding and facility priorities were key determinants of public sector physiotherapy service provision, with market size and business model appearing more influential in private practice. The level of self direction or choice about which services to provide, emerged as a point of difference between public and private providers. Decisions by public sector physiotherapists about service provision appear constrained by existing capacity and workload. Further research into service level decision making might provide valuable insights into rural health service delivery. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Eime, Rochelle M; Harvey, Jack; Charity, Melanie J; Casey, Meghan; Westerbeek, Hans; Payne, Warren R
Ecological models have been applied to investigate multiple domains influencing physical activity behaviour, including individual, social, organisational, community, environmental and policy factors. With regard to the built environment, research to date has been limited to small geographical areas and/or small samples of participants. This study examined the geographical association between provision of sport facilities and participation in sport across an entire Australian state, using objective total enumerations of both, for a group of sports, with adjustment for the effect of socioeconomic status (SES). De-identified membership registration data were obtained from state sport governing bodies of four popular team sports. Associations between participation rate, facility provision rate and SES were investigated using correlation and regression methods. Participation rate was positively associated with provision of facilities, although this was complicated by SES and region effects. The non-metropolitan region generally had higher participation rates and better provision of facilities than the metropolitan region. Better provision of sports facilities is generally associated with increased sport participation, but SES and region are also contributing factors. Implications for public health: Community-level analysis of the population, sport participation and provision of facilities should be used to inform decisions of investments in sports facilities. © 2017 The Authors.
Optical transport networks based on wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) are considered to be the most appropriate choice for future Internet backbone. On the other hand, future DOE networks are expected to have the ability to dynamically provision on-demand survivable services to suit the needs of various high performance scientific applications and remote collaboration. Since a failure in aWDMnetwork such as a cable cut may result in a tremendous amount of data loss, efficient protection of data transport in WDM networks is therefore essential. As the backbone network is moving towards GMPLS/WDM optical networks, the unique requirement to support DOE’s science mission results in challenging issues that are not directly addressed by existing networking techniques and methodologies. The objectives of this project were to develop cost effective protection and restoration mechanisms based on dedicated path, shared path, preconfigured cycle (p-cycle), and so on, to deal with single failure, dual failure, and shared risk link group (SRLG) failure, under different traffic and resource requirement models; to devise efficient service provisioning algorithms that deal with application specific network resource requirements for both unicast and multicast; to study various aspects of traffic grooming in WDM ring and mesh networks to derive cost effective solutions while meeting application resource and QoS requirements; to design various diverse routing and multi-constrained routing algorithms, considering different traffic models and failure models, for protection and restoration, as well as for service provisioning; to propose and study new optical burst switched architectures and mechanisms for effectively supporting dynamic services; and to integrate research with graduate and undergraduate education. All objectives have been successfully met. This report summarizes the major accomplishments of this project. The impact of the project manifests in many aspects: First
Dures, Emma; Almeida, Celia; Caesley, Judy; Peterson, Alice; Ambler, Nicholas; Morris, Marianne; Pollock, Jon; Hewlett, Sarah
The consequences of inflammatory arthritis can include depression, anxiety and low mood, reducing patients' quality of life and increasing pressure on the healthcare system. Treatment guidelines recommend psychological support, but data are lacking on the provision available. A postal survey concerning psychological support provision was sent to rheumatology units in 143 acute trusts across England. Nurses from 73 rheumatology units (51%) responded. Overall, 73% rated their unit's psychological support provision as 'inadequate' and only 4% rated it as 'good'. Few units believed that psychological support did not fall within their remit (12%), yet only 8% had a psychologist in the team. Most units (68%) did not routinely screen patients to identify psychological difficulties. Referral to other service providers was reported in 42% of units, with 3% very satisfied with this provision. Within units, services containing elements of psychological support ranged from occupational therapy (81%) to psychology/counselling (14%). Psychological approaches used by team members ranged from shared decision making (77%) to cognitive-behavioural approaches (26%). The current barriers to providing psychological support were lack of clinical time and available training (86% and 74%, respectively), and delivery costs (74%). Future facilitators included management support (74%) and availability of skills training (74%). Rheumatology units viewed psychological support provision as part of their remit but rated their overall provision as inadequate, despite some team members using psychological skills. To improve provision, clinicians' training needs must be addressed and organizational support generated, and further research needs to define adequate psychological support provision from the patient perspective. © 2014 The Authors. Musculoskeletal Care published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rolls, L; Payne, S
The purpose of the study was to identify the location, range and type of childhood bereavement service provision in the UK. A questionnaire was mailed to 127 services who were either solely dedicated to childhood bereavement or who offered a service within the range of work of a host organization and for which there was a supporting organizational structure. Responses were received from 108 services (a response rate of 85%). The findings identified that 85% of childhood bereavement services are located in the voluntary sector; 14% are dedicated childhood bereavement services, while 86% are offered as part of a host organization. Forty-four per cent of host organizations are hospices. The majority of services (73%) relied on both paid and unpaid staff, with 11% relying entirely on paid staff and 14% of services relying entirely on unpaid staff. The interventions offered ranged from individual family work (86%), individual child work (62%), groupwork with families (53%) and groupwork with children (45%). In addition, services offered prebereavement support (64%), a 'drop-in' service (17%), information and advice (95%), training (32%) and the provision of resources (88%). As well as offering a service to children and their families, 74% of childhood bereavement services provided a service to 'secondary users', such as schools (66%), the emergency services (28%) and other professionals (63%). In terms of funding, 12% of services relied solely on external sources of funding, including donations, legacies, revenue from the host organization or grants, while 12% of services relied solely on internal sources of funding, including fundraising and training. The majority of services (73%), however, gained income from a range of sources. The study identifies the diversity of provision that has implications for the evaluation of childhood bereavement services.
Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W
New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... clearinghouse to receive, process, or transmit a standard transaction may not charge fees or costs in excess of... RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS General Provisions for Transactions § 162.925 Additional... transaction as a standard transaction, the health plan must do so. (2) A health plan may not delay or reject a...
...) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2522(d)-1 Additional...) for provisions relating to the claim and allowance of the value of certain easements as a gift under... Housing and Urban Development Act (42 U.S.C. 3535), as added by section 905 of Pub. L. 91-609 (84 Stat...
Jayachandran N. Variyam; David S. Kraybill
We examine the relationship between employer size and the provision of fringe benefits in a large sample of rural businesses. A clear employer size-benefits relationship exists only in the case of health insurance, while other benefits are not strongly linked to employer size. The negative relationship between employer size and health insurance is weaker, though still existent, in businesses whose employees have relatively high skill levels. Single, independent establishments and sole proprie...
Bennedsen, Morten; Schultz, Christian
We analyze the economic consequences of strategic delegation of the right to decide between public or private provision of governmental service and/or the authority to negotiate and renegotiate with the chosen service provider. Our model encompass both bureaucratic delegation from a government...... contracts. The bargaining effect improves the bargaining position vis a vis a private firm with market power and leads to a lower price for the service...
Ekaterina P. Bochkareva
Full Text Available In the paper is given an approach to themanagement of components provision formachine building manufacturer based uponinternational standards and best practicesof leading international companies. Thecomplex expertise methods are used forthe development of the proposed machinebuilding manufacturer suppliers’ operational management method. At a strategic level is proposed a tool for planning the suppliers’portfolio and a machine building manufacturer supplier development methodology.
In W Song
Adequate loan classification practices are an essential part of a sound and effective credit risk-management process in a bank. Failure to identify deterioration in credit quality in a timely manner can aggravate and prolong the problem. Two key issues arise with regard to the use of collateral in the context of loan classification and provisioning. In particular, the questions arise whether collateral should be taken into account in classifying a collateralized loan, and whether it should be...
spent research reactor fuel to the country of origin under the U.S. Spent Fuel Acceptance Program and the Russian Research Reactor Fuel Return program. This includes the provision of handbooks on technical and administrative preparations for shipping the fuel, as well as training courses. In addition the IAEA provides evaluation of the current status, progress and trends of research reactor spent fuel storage projects or national programmes in this field, present proven technologies and/or organizational/managerial practices that can serve as models to solve specific issues. It also assists in specific areas such as: assessment of infrastructure required to plan and implement research reactor spent fuel storage (wet or dry), improvement of management practices, implementation of water quality programmes, implementation of corrosion surveillance programmes and assessment of costs associated with research reactors spent fuel storage
Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lopez, D.R.; Morales, A.; García-Espín, J.A.; Pearson, S.; Yee, G.
This chapter discusses conceptual issues, basic requirements and practical suggestions for designing dynamically configured security infrastructure provisioned on demand as part of the cloud-based infrastructure. This chapter describes general use cases for provisioning cloud infrastructure services
Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick
Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz
..., inspection Yes. § 63.6(g)(1)-(3) Alternative Standard Procedures for getting an alternative standard Yes... Applies to subpart PPPPP § 63.1(a)(1) Applicability General applicability of the General Provisions Yes. Additional terms defined in § 63.9375. § 63.1(a)(2)-(4) Applicability Applicability of source categories Yes...
Ozili, Peterson K
This study investigates the non-discretionary determinants of bank loan loss provisions in Africa after controlling for macroeconomic fluctuation, financial development and investor protection. We find that non-performing loans, loan-to-asset ratio and loan growth are significant non-discretionary drivers of bank provisions in the African region. We observe that bank provision is a positive function of non-performing loans up to a threshold beyond which bank provisions will no longer increase...
Wender, Ester H.
The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)
Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz .
We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz .
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper is to argue that there are a number of key drivers for Special Educational Needs (SEN provision that have to be met by Special Educational Needs Coordinators (SENCOs and teaching professionals so as to ensure optimal provision and inclusion for children with SEN in mainstream primary schools. Although the research has been carried out in England, there is a significant European Dimension to the issue, as a similar role to that of SENCOs in respect of SEN management already exists in countries such as Finland and Ireland, and is being considered in Italy. Methods: This paper focuses on the data gathered for the purpose of the author’s doctoral research in England, through questionnaires and interviews with SENCOs, head teachers and teachers. Thematic analysis was used to explore key drivers of SEN provision by practitioners who support children with SEN. Results: Data illustrate that the key drivers of SEN provision include time; teacher openness to change; target setting; evidence of tried interventions; empowerment; decision-making and approachability. The implementation of such drivers depend largely on practitioner skills and competencies. Conclusion: The main conclusion within this paper is to develop points of reference for planning and practice, with illustrations of optimal provision by all practitioners who work with children with SEN.
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Blueberry crop insurance provisions. 457.166 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.166 Blueberry crop insurance provisions. The Blueberry Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows...
McCluskey, Gillean; Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet
This paper examines findings from a recent study in Wales of school exclusion and alternative educational provision. Many, but not all, children in alternative provision have been excluded from school. The most recent statistics reveal that nearly 90% of pupils in alternative provision have special educational needs, nearly 70% are entitled to…
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern potato crop insurance provisions. The Northern Potato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Almond crop insurance provisions. 457.123 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.123 Almond crop insurance provisions. The Almond Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2008 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nursery crop insurance provisions. 457.162 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.162 Nursery crop insurance provisions. The Nursery Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2006 and succeeding crop years are as follows: FCIC...
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard sales provisions. 625.3 Section 625.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain...
Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J
Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.
Full Text Available The article describes the main problems that concern regulatory and legal provision of financial safety. The scientific groundwork of researchers of this matter in Ukraine is analyzed and its gaps are revealed. The state competences concerning the regulation of financial safety are investigated. The legal provision of financial safety in a retrospective section is considered. The short characteristic of the main legal instruments that make the subsoil for formation of financial safety environment is provided. The main stages of legislative process of ensuring financial safety are found out. The paradigm of financial safety formation is generalized. The possibilities of ensuring financial safety in different areas of the state financial policy through the definition of problem aspects and ways of their decision are defined. It is certain that the problem of protection of national interests in the economic sphere is rather actual, especially in formation of financial safety environment in modern conditions. This problem is subject to further investigation of both lawmakers and scientists-economists.
Robinson, James D; Tian, Yan
Research into the impact of social support on health-care patients has focused on the benefits of receiving social support. Although recipients benefit from social support, there are also potential benefits to the providers of social support that have gone relatively unexplored. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between the reception and provision of informational social support by cancer patients. Based on the work of Gouldner (1960), this investigation attempts to examine the role reciprocity plays within the social support process. The norm of reciprocity is conceptualized as a generalized moral belief rather than as a simple pattern of exchange between caregivers and care receivers. Use of reciprocity as a generalized moral belief instead of a pattern of behavioral exchange between providers and recipients of social support allows a more thorough integration theoretically and more methodical examination of the role the relationship between providers and recipients plays in this process. Specifically, this investigation employs the notion of optimal matching as part of the mechanism underlying the satisfactions derived from informational social support. The results of the logistic regression analyses suggest that reciprocity is a viable explanation of the mechanism underlying the desire to provide social support to others among cancer patients and among adults who have never been diagnosed with cancer. This relationship between the reception and the provision of informational social support remains even after controlling for age, education, gender, race, social integration, and cancer diagnosis. Implications for the social support literature are discussed.
Paula A White
Full Text Available Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014, this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.
White, Paula A; Belant, Jerrold L
Sport hunting has reportedly multiple benefits to economies and local communities; however, few of these benefits have been quantified. As part of their lease agreements with the Zambia Wildlife Authority, sport hunting operators in Zambia are required to provide annually to local communities free of charge i.e., provision a percentage of the meat obtained through sport hunting. We characterized provisioning of game meat to rural communities by the sport hunting industry in Zambia for three game management areas (GMAs) during 2004-2011. Rural communities located within GMAs where sport hunting occurred received on average > 6,000 kgs per GMA of fresh game meat annually from hunting operators. To assess hunting industry compliance, we also compared the amount of meat expected as per the lease agreements versus observed amounts of meat provisioned from three GMAs during 2007-2009. In seven of eight annual comparisons of these GMAs, provisioning of meat exceeded what was required in the lease agreements. Provisioning occurred throughout the hunting season and peaked during the end of the dry season (September-October) coincident with when rural Zambians are most likely to encounter food shortages. We extrapolated our results across all GMAs and estimated 129,771 kgs of fresh game meat provisioned annually by the sport hunting industry to rural communities in Zambia at an approximate value for the meat alone of >US$600,000 exclusive of distribution costs. During the hunting moratorium (2013-2014), this supply of meat has halted, likely adversely affecting rural communities previously reliant on this food source. Proposed alternatives to sport hunting should consider protein provisioning in addition to other benefits (e.g., employment, community pledges, anti-poaching funds) that rural Zambian communities receive from the sport hunting industry.
In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is
Sawmynaden, Prescilla; Atherton, Helen; Majeed, Azeem; Car, Josip
authors independently assessed the risk of bias of included studies and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We assessed risk of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. For continuous outcome measures, we report effect sizes as mean differences (MDs). For dichotomous outcome measures, we report effect sizes as odds ratios (ORs). We conducted a meta-analysis for one primary health service outcome, comparing email communication to standard mail, and report this result as an OR. We included six randomised controlled trials involving 8372 people. All trials were judged to be at high risk of bias for at least one domain. Four trials compared email communication to standard mail and two compared email communication to usual care. For the primary health service outcome of uptake of preventive screening, there was no difference between email and standard mail (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.69 to 1.24). For both comparisons (email versus standard mail and email versus usual care) there was no difference between the groups for patient or caregiver understanding and support. Results were inconclusive for patient or caregiver behaviours and actions. For email versus usual care only, there was no significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of patient health status and well-being. No data were reported relating to healthcare professionals or harms. The evidence on the use of email for the provision of information on disease prevention and health promotion was weak, and therefore inadequate to inform clinical practice. The available trials mostly provide inconclusive, or no evidence for the outcomes of interest in this review. Future research needs to use high-quality study designs that take advantage of the most recent developments in information technology, with consideration of the complexity of email as an intervention.
Becker, T.; Hülsmann, S.; Knudsen, H. C.; Martiny, K.; Amaddeo, F.; Herran, A.; Knapp, M.; Schene, A. H.; Tansella, M.; Thornicroft, G.; Vázquez-Barquero, J. L.
Background An increasing diversity of public, voluntary sector and private providers offer services for the mentally ill in the ongoing process of psychiatric reform. Good service description is one important prerequisite for mental health service research. Aims 1) To describe service provision for
Amakyi, Michael; Ampah-Mensah, Alfred
A survey research was conducted to find out if reported improvements in access to education in Ghana are reflected in comparable improvements in delivery of quality education. The study examined theoretical constructs on adequacy and quality assurance in education to ascertain the state of quality provision in education, and whether there is a…
de Waal, Esther; Theron, Tinie
This paper studies homeschooling as an alternative form of educational provision in South Africa and USA to determine what knowledge and experiences from research on homeschooling in the USA may be relevant to the South Africa situation. Homeschooling in the USA has a sound legal foundation and has become an acceptable educational alternative.…
Reilly, C.; Senior, J.; Murtagh, L.
Background: A number of neurogenetic syndromes have a high association with special educational needs including fragile X syndrome (FXS), Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), Williams syndrome (WS) and Velo-Cardio-Facial syndrome (VCFS). There is a paucity of research on educational provision for children affected by these syndromes. Method: Parents…
This contribution explains the main provisions governing radiological monitoring of gaseous effluents from LWR type nuclear power plants. KTA rule 1503.1 defines the measuring methods and tasks to be fulfilled by reactor operators in order to safeguard due monitoring and accounting of radioactive substances in the plants' gaseous effluents. The routine measurements are checked by a supervisory programme by an independent expert. The routine controls include analysis of filter samples, comparative measurement of radioactive noble gases, interlaboratory comparisons, and comparative evaluation of measured values. (DG) [de
Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja
The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates....
With its decision of November 19, 1979 - VIII IG 13/79 -, the Administrative Court of Hesse has refused the complaint of a Darmstadt resident whose application for a temporary provision interdicting further operation of the power plant units Biblis A and B had been refused by the Darmstadt Administrative Court. The costs of the procedure, including the extra-judicial costs of the witnesses heard, are to be paid by the plaintiff. The value in litigation was raised to DM 10 000,-. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 CKA [de
Experiences of mobile pastoralists often attest to a wide range of contradictions about the presumed advantages of formal education. While effort to 'reach' pastoralists has intensified under the global Education for All movement, there remain considerable difficulties in finding ways to make formal education relate to pastoralist livelihoods and complement endogenous knowledge. This paper examines how these dynamics play out across models of formal and non-formal education service provision, and identifies innovations that offer promising ways forward: Alternative Basic Education, Open and Distance Learning, and Pastoralist Field Schools.
Nigg, D.W.; Venhuizen, J.R.; Wheeler, F.J.; Wemple, C.A.; Tripard, G.E.; Gavin, P.R.
A new epithermal-neutron beam facility for BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) research and boronated agent screening in animal models is in the final stages of construction at Washington State University (WSU). A key distinguishing feature of the design is the incorporation of a new, high-efficiency, neutron moderating and filtering material, Fluental, developed by the Technical Research Centre of Finland. An additional key feature is the provision for adjustable filter-moderator thickness to systematically explore the radiobiological consequences of increasing the fast-neutron contamination above the nominal value associated with the baseline system. (author)
Bartlem, Kate M; Bowman, Jennifer A; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula M; McElwaine, Kathleen M; Wolfenden, Luke; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Gillham, Karen E; Wiggers, John H
People with a mental illness have higher prevalence of behavioral risks for chronic disease than the general population. Despite recommendations regarding the provision of preventive care by mental health services, limited research has examined the extent to which such care is provided. To examine mental health clinician provision of care for preventable chronic disease risks, and whether such care was associated with the availability of practice support strategies. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 151 community mental health clinicians in New South Wales, Australia regarding the provision of three elements of preventive care (i.e., assessment, brief advice, and referral/follow-up) for four health risk behaviors (i.e., tobacco smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity). Clinicians reported the availability of 16 strategies to support such care delivery. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Preventive care provision varied by both care element and risk behavior. Optimal care (each care element provided to at least 80% of clients for all health behaviors) was provided by few clinicians: assessment (8.6%), brief advice (24.5%), and referral/follow-up (9.9%). Less than half of clinicians reported more than four support strategies were available (44.4%). The availability of five or more strategies was associated with increased optimal preventive care. The provision of preventive care focused on chronic disease prevention in community mental health services is suboptimal. Interventions to increase the routine provision of such care should involve increasing the availability of evidence-based strategies to support care provision. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)
Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola
We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object...... of research by deploying Foucault’s notion of bio-politics - mainly to address the object “learning” - and Žižek’s ideology critique - to address the object “mathematics”. These theories, which have already been used in the field to research teaching and learning, have a great potential to contribute...... to a reflexivity of research on its discourses and effects. Furthermore, they enable us to present a clear distinction between what has been called the sociopolitical turn in mathematics education research and what we call a positioning of mathematics education (research) practices in the Political....
Feldner, Heather A; Logan, Samuel W; Galloway, James C
Rehabilitation professionals are increasingly recognizing mobility as a basic human right and endorsing the efficacy of early powered mobility for children with mobility impairments to foster independence, promote socialization with peers and facilitate participation in family and community life. However, the relationship between mobility and technology provision, when considered in the context of lived experiences of children with mobility impairments and their families, is complex and understudied. Perceptions of these experiences from children's own points of view are especially limited, as is the use of participatory research methods in describing these experiences. The purpose of this study was to empower children and families as co-researchers, investigating their experiences and perspectives of powered mobility provision processes and early use of their mobility technology in their own words and images. Methods: Two families in a major Midwest metropolitan area- one who was receiving a powered wheelchair and one who was receiving a modified powered ride-on toy car- participated as co-researchers from 2015-2016, documenting their experiences with a research camera and narrating their photos to describe meaningful or important aspects of their respective powered mobility provision processes and early use of their devices. Four themes emerged: (1) Dys/Function of Mobility Technology; (2) Daily Life, Play and Participation; (3) Emerging Self/Advocacy and (4) Complex Family/Industry Interplay. Conclusions: These themes and experiences may inform further innovation in powered mobility practices, generate new hypotheses about the role of technology in shaping disability identity and demonstrate the feasibility and impact of using participatory methods more broadly in rehabilitation research. Implications for Rehabilitation Participatory methods may be a useful and underutilized research tool in describing the impact of powered mobility provision processes on
Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J
Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.
Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.
Guinebretière, M; Huneau-Salaün, A; Huonnic, D; Michel, V
This experiment was designed to determine the effect of litter provision and lining in nests and pecking and scratching areas on health and zootechnical performances. Research was carried out in furnished cages, each housing 60 beak-trimmed ISA Brown hens. Four different treatments were compared in a factorial arrangement, including 2 different nest linings (artificial turf versus plastic mesh), either used alone or combined with the use of litter (wheat bran) spread over the rubber mat in the pecking and scratching area (PSA). An additional treatment using artificial turf mat in the PSA and nests (as commonly used in commercial flocks) was used to compare the effect of PSA lining in the other treatments. Zootechnical performances (laying rate, egg weight, and feed intake) were unaffected by PSA lining or by nest lining. The use of artificial turf mats in the PSA resulted in less feather loss than rubber mats, especially on breast and cloaca/vent areas. No consequences were observed on BW or mortality. However, the use of plastic mesh in nests was seen to increase mortality in comparison with artificial turf mats, without affecting plumage condition and BW. Although wheat bran provision did not influence feed intake and laying rate, litter provision did result in slightly higher mean egg weight. Moreover, BW tended to be lower when litter was distributed in cages, and neck and breast plumage condition improved. The distribution of litter was not seen to have any effect on mortality. The provision of litter and the lining of the PSA and nests to improve the welfare of caged laying hens have an effect on mortality, plumage quality, and some zootechnical performances. These results show the importance of choosing the most suitable linings and litter to obtain the best possible compromise between the ethological needs of laying hens, zootechnical performance, and animal health.
Herzog, Dirk; Seyda, Vanessa; Wycisk, Eric; Emmelmann, Claus
Additive Manufacturing (AM), the layer-by layer build-up of parts, has lately become an option for serial production. Today, several metallic materials including the important engineering materials steel, aluminium and titanium may be processed to full dense parts with outstanding properties. In this context, the present overview article describes the complex relationship between AM processes, microstructure and resulting properties for metals. It explains the fundamentals of Laser Beam Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Laser Metal Deposition, and introduces the commercially available materials for the different processes. Thereafter, typical microstructures for additively manufactured steel, aluminium and titanium are presented. Special attention is paid to AM specific grain structures, resulting from the complex thermal cycle and high cooling rates. The properties evolving as a consequence of the microstructure are elaborated under static and dynamic loading. According to these properties, typical applications are presented for the materials and methods for conclusion.
Bobbitt, III, John T.
Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.
Atari, Mohammad; Barbaro, Nicole; Sela, Yael; Shackelford, Todd K; Chegeni, Razieh
Individuals perform mate retention behaviors to minimize the risk of partner infidelity and relationship dissolution. The current study investigates whether consideration of cosmetic surgery can be conceptualized as part of a broader strategy of mate retention for women, but not men. We hypothesized that women's consideration of cosmetic surgery would be positively associated with performance frequencies of Benefit-Provisioning and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. We recruited 203 individuals (54% women) in committed heterosexual relationships from Tehran, Iran. Results indicate a positive association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Benefit-Provisioning mate retention behaviors for women, but not men. There was no association between consideration of cosmetic surgery and Cost-Inflicting mate retention behaviors. Women therefore may consider cosmetic surgery to improve their physical attractiveness as part of a Benefit-Provisioning strategy to retain a long-term mate. We discuss limitations of the study and highlight future directions for research from an evolutionary perspective.
Wood, Brian M; Marlowe, Frank W
We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers' households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 3-4 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others.
Wicks, E K; Curtis, R E; Haugh, K
In order to function effectively in post-reform healthcare markets, behavioral healthcare professionals must understand and interact with health purchasing alliances. Healthcare reform initiatives based upon the principles of managed competition envision an important role for cooperative health purchasing organizations, or "health alliances," that collect premiums and contract with health plans for the provision of comprehensive health services delivered within the framework of a standardized benefit package. Health purchasing alliances have already been implemented in eight states, and this trend is expected to grow. The following article illustrates the structure and authority of the health alliances that are already in operation, and is presented here to give Behavioral Healthcare Tomorrow journal readers an up-to-date overview of reforming healthcare markets. This matrix arrays recent state laws which we identify as clearly including components of managed competition or purchasing alliances. Other states undoubtedly have elements of reform that include some aspects of these concepts. For example, under legislation, a Vermont health care authority was established and, among other things, charged with developing two comprehensive reform proposals, one of which will involve multipayors and the other a single-payor system. Options will likely embody many of the activities of alliances. Vermont is not included in this matrix because these provisions are still in the developmental stage.
Gavkalova Nataliia L.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to substantiate the methodical approach to determining the level of formation and provision of enterprise personnel security. By analyzing, systematizing and generalizing scientific achievements of many scientists, approaches to the evaluation of personnel security at the enterprise were considered, a set of indices for evaluation of personnel security was defined. There justified the urgency of creating a comprehensive approach to evaluation of personnel security that includes implementation of the following stages: defining a list of indices corresponding to the level of formation and provision of personnel security with the help of the expert evaluation method; calculating integral indices of personnel security for each component and the corresponding level by means of the taxonomic analysis; grouping enterprises by the level of formation and provision of personnel security with the use of the cluster and discriminant analysis. It is found that the implementation of this approach will allow not only determining the level of formation and provision of personnel security at the enterprise, but also developing appropriate recommendations on improving its state. Prospects for further research in this direction are evaluation of conditions for formation and provision of personnel security at the enterprise, which will enable revealing negative destabilizing factors that influence personnel security
Thimm, Heiko; Rasmussen, Karsten Boye
Successful collaboration in business networks calls for well-informed network participants. Members who know about the many aspects of the network are an effective vehicle to successfully resolve conflicts, build a prospering collaboration climate and promote trust within the network. The importa......Successful collaboration in business networks calls for well-informed network participants. Members who know about the many aspects of the network are an effective vehicle to successfully resolve conflicts, build a prospering collaboration climate and promote trust within the network...... provisioning service. This article presents a corresponding modelling framework and a rule-based approach for the active system capabilities required. Details of a prototype implementation building on concepts of the research area of active databases are also reported....
Sudlow, C. M.; Rodgers, H.; Kenny, R. A.; Thomson, R. G.
Several large trials have shown that the risk of stroke in patients with non-valvar atrial fibrillation is reduced by treatment with warfarin. Implementing this research evidence requires not only an understanding of the trials' results and of the changes that they imply for clinicians' treatment decisions but also an appreciation of the organisation, quantity, and quality of services required to support these changes. Understanding of these implications is crucial for developing services that allow changes in practice to produce reductions in stroke incidence while minimising the risks of treatment. This article considers the developments in service provision that will probably be required to support the changes in clinical practice suggested by the trials' results. These services will be provided largely by doctors, and their development has implications for doctors in both primary and secondary care. Images FIG 1 PMID:7663216
Whelan, Jessica J; Willis, Karen
Access to safe drinking water is essential to human life and wellbeing, and is a key public health issue. However, many communities in rural and regional parts of Australia are unable to access drinking water that meets national standards for protecting human health. The aim of this research was to identify the key issues in and barriers to the provision and management of safe drinking water in rural Tasmania, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local government employees and public health officials responsible for management of drinking water in rural Tasmania. Participants were asked about their core public health duties, regulatory responsibilities, perceptions and management of risk, as well as the key barriers that may be affecting the provision of safe drinking water. This research highlights the effect of rural locality on management and safety of fresh water in protecting public health. The key issues contributing to problems with drinking water provision and quality identified by participants included: poor and inadequate water supply infrastructure; lack of resources and staffing; inadequate catchment monitoring; and the effect of competing land uses, such as forestry, on water supply quality. This research raises issues of inequity in the provision of safe drinking water in rural communities. It highlights not only the increasing need for greater funding by state and commonwealth government for basic services such as drinking water, but also the importance of an holistic and integrated approach to managing drinking water resources in rural Tasmania.
with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS...Hamilton • Beth Bimber Air Force Research Laboratory, Metals Branch • Eddie Schwalbach • Mike Groeber • Benjamin Leever • James Hardin...conducting more in-field, or point-of-need, manufacturing than ever before. Other areas of concentration include man- machine interface, capabilities
Dincă Luciana Laura
Full Text Available In this paper the benefits of using additive manufacturing technologies in maxillofacial reconstruction are highlighted. Based on a real clinical case, the paper describes the manufacture of an implant prototype replacing the right zygomatic bone and a part of maxilla using additive manufacturing technologies. The face is the most expressive part of the human body that makes us unique. It was shown that the maxillofacial prostheses help to improve the psychological state of patients affected by, because low self esteem feeling appears commonly to this patients with the facial defects. The aim of this paper is to show how using additive manufacturing technologies methods within this research, the producing a surgical model will help surgeon to improve the pre-operative planning. For this we used additive manufacturing technologies such as Stereolitography to achieve the biomodel and FDM-fused deposition modelling to obtain a prototype model because these technologies make it possible to obtain prosthesis according to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation.
... addition or deletion. 51-2.3 Section 51-2.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... or deletion. At least 30 days prior to the Committee's consideration of the addition or deletion of a... Register announcing the proposed addition or deletion and providing interested persons an opportunity to...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opinion letters on food additive status. 570.6... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Opinion letters on food additive status. 170.6... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 170.6 Opinion letters on food additive status. (a) Over the years the Food and Drug Administration has given informal...
Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.
Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB
Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)
The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.
Safety of nuclear power plants is determined by a deterministic approach complemented by probabilistic considerations. Much use has been made of the wealth of information from more than 6000 years of reactor operation. Design, construction and operation is governed by national and international safety standards and practices. The IAEA has prepared a set of Nuclear Safety Standards as recommendations to its Member States, covering the areas of siting, design, operations, quality assurance, and governmental organisations. In 1988 the IAEA published a report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group on Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, summarizing the underlying objectives and principles of excellence in nuclear safety and the way in which its aspects are interrelated. The paper will summarize some of the key safety principles and provisions, and results and uses of Probabilistic Safety Assessments. Some comments will be made on the safety of WWER 440/230 and WWER-1000 reactors which are operated on Bulgaria. 8 figs
In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
McWalter, Kirsty; Hasegawa, Lianne; Au, Sylvia Mann
Guam's geographic isolation and lack of community resources have resulted in unique healthcare needs. In 2006, the Western States Genetic Services Collaborative (WSGSC) conducted a genetics needs assessment and found that professional development is limited, families lack access to genetic services, and improved coverage of genetic testing is needed. With funding from the WSGSC, a Guam genetics outreach clinic was established and staffed by genetic counselors and a medical geneticist from Hawaii. Four clinics have been held to date. Although several challenges have been encountered, including minimal coverage of genetic testing by Guam insurance companies, limited referrals for families with private insurance, and inappropriate referral indications, the outreach clinic has been successful at increasing access to genetic services and improving professional development. With more collaborative work by staff from Guam, Hawaii, and the WSGSC, provision and reimbursement of genetic services and testing will continue to improve.
EU policies for rural development stress the importance of investments rather than subsidies and aim at integrating different sectoral policies in order to improve the coherence and effectiveness of public expenditure. Policies also emphasize a place-based approach for rural development and thereby...... hierarchies and considering local resources and place bound potentials. This paper draws on a study of rural municipalities in Denmark examining how service adjustments e.g. closing of local schools are managed by rural municipalities and local communities. The paper further discusses whether rural...... municipalities can plan strategically, manage service provision and support place bound potential in rural communities in light of a competitive framework for local development....
McBride, D K
Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.
In this short paper an overlook is given of the systems developed in Germany for filtered containment venting and their implementation in nuclear power plants. More information on the development can be found in the Proceedings of the DOE/NRC Aircleaning Conferences. In Germany, 28.8 % of the electric energy is produced by 19 nuclear power reactors. No new power reactor is expected to be built at least within the next ten years, but France and Germany cooperate in the development of a future European Power Reactor (ERP). This reactor type will be fitted with a core catcher and passive cooling in order to avoid serious consequences of a hypothetical core meltdown accident so that provisions for containment venting are not required. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Marshal, Sarah L; Oades, Lindsay G; Growe, Trevor P
One key component of recovery-oriented mental health services, typically overlooked, involves genuine collaboration between researchers and consumers to evaluate and improve services delivered within a recovery framework. Eighteen mental health consumers working with staff who had received training in the Collaborative Recovery Model (CRM) took part in in-depth focus group meetings, of approximately 2.5 hours each, to generate feedback to guide improvement of the CRM and its use in mental health services. Consumers identified clear avenues for improvement for the CRM both specific to the model and broadly applicable to recovery-oriented service provision. Findings suggest consumers want to be more engaged and empowered in the use of the CRM from the outset. Improved sampling procedures may have led to the identification of additional dissatisfied consumers. Collaboration with mental health consumers in the evaluation and improvement of recovery-oriented practice is crucial with an emphasis on rebuilding mental health services that are genuinely oriented to support recovery.
Smith, Susan P; Cosgrove, Joseph F; Driscoll, Peter J; Smith, Andrew; Butler, John; Goode, Peter; Waldmann, Carl; Vallis, Christopher J; Topham, Fiona; Mythen, Michael Monty
In the past three decades, mass casualty incidents have occurred worldwide at multiple sporting events and other mass gatherings. Organisational safety and healthcare provision can consequently be scrutinised post-event. Within the UK, such incidents in the 1980s provided incentives to improve medical services and subsequent high profile UK-based international sporting events (London Olympics and Paralympics 2012, Glasgow Commonwealth Games 2014, Rugby World Cup 2015) added a further catalyst for developing services. Furthermore in the aftermath of the abandoned France versus Germany association football match at the Stade de France ( Paris Terrorist Attacks, November 2015) and the 2016 UK report from HM Coroner on the Hillsborough Inquest , medical cover at sporting events is being further reviewed. Doctors providing spectator cover therefore need to have an awareness of their likely roles at sporting venues. Formal guidance exists in many countries for the provision of such cover but remains generic even though Events Medicine is increasingly recognised as a necessary service. The current evidence base is limited with best practice examples often anecdotally cited by acute care specialists (eg, emergency medicine) who provide cover. This article is therefore intended to present an overview for doctors of the knowledge and skills required to treat ill and injured spectators and enable them to adequately risk-assess venues in cooperation with other health and safety providers, including preparation for a major incident. It also gives guidance on how activity can be adequately assessed and how doctors can have management roles in Events Medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Badiola, Katrina A.; Bird, Colin; Brocklesby, William S.; Casson, John; Chapman, Richard T.; Coles, Simon J.; Cronshaw, James R.; Fisher, Adam; Gloria, Danmar; Grossel, Martin C.; Hibbert, D. Brynn; Knight, Nicola; Mapp, Lucy K.; Marazzi, Luke; Matthews, Brian; Milsted, Andy; Minns, Russell S.; Mueller, Karl T.; Murphy, Kelly; Parkinson, Tim; Quinnell, Rosanne; Robinson, John S.; Robertson, Murray N.; Robins, Michael; Springate, Emma; Tizzard, Graham; Todd, Matthew H.; Williamson, Alice E.; Willoughby, Cerys; Yang, Erica; Ylioja, Paul M.
Electronic Laboratory Notebooks (ELNs) are progressively replacing traditional paper books in both commercial research establishments and academic institutions. University researchers require specific features from ELNs, given the need to promote cross-institutional collaborative working, to enable the sharing of procedures and results, and to facilitate publication. The LabTrove ELN, which we use as our exemplar, was designed to be researcher-centric (i.e., not only aimed at the individual researcher's basic needs rather than to a specific institutional or subject or disciplinary agenda, but also able to be tailored because it is open source). LabTrove is being used in a heterogeneous set of academic laboratories, for a range of purposes, including analytical chemistry, X-ray studies, drug discovery and a biomaterials project. Researchers use the ELN for recording experiments, preserving data collected, and for project coordination. This perspective article describes the experiences of those researchers from several viewpoints, demonstrating how a web-based open source electronic notebook can meet the diverse needs of academic researchers. PMID:29308130
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 500 man-day provision. 780.305 Section 780.305 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.305 500 man-day provision. (a) Section 3(u) of the Act defines man-day to mean “any day during which an employee performs agricultural labor for not less than 1 hour.” 500 man-days...
Deepan C. Kamaraj
Conclusion: We believe that adoption of this conceptual framework could have broad applications in wheelchair provision globally to develop evidence-based practices. Such a perspective will help in the comparison of different strategies employed in wheelchair provision and further improve clinical guidelines. Further work is being conducted to test the efficacy of this conceptual framework to evaluate effectiveness of wheelchair service provision in various settings across the globe.
Slobodyanyuk Natalija O.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at assessing the current status of pension provision of Ukraine and substantiating further directions of its reforming. The main stages of carrying out pension reforms in Ukraine were systematized, which allowed to approve the parametric changes of the pension system components. The dynamics of changes in the average monthly wage, as well as the average amount of the accrued pension were researched. In order to ascertain performance by the State pension insurance as to the function of payment of part of the cost of labor, dynamics of the substitution coefficient during 2012–01.10.2017 was analyzed. The dynamics of financial indicators of the budget of the Pension fund of Ukraine (PFU was analyzed, determining its deficit for 2012–2017, defining a rapid growth of almost 5,2 times of the deficit of budget of the PFU at the end of the researched period, compared to 2012. The higher-than-anticipated growth of the deficit of the PFU over the GDP growth of the country as a whole has been diagnosed. It has been determined that the status of the pension system and the possibilities of its development are directly dependent on the demographic situation in the country. The dynamics of correlation of number of working persons and pensioners in Ukraine for 2012–2017 was researched and the steady tendency of reduction of number of occupied economically active population of Ukraine was revealed. Further ways of reforming the pension system of Ukraine on the basis of development of voluntary pension insurance as additional collateral to the State pension have been substantiated.
Full Text Available Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs are measurements required for study, reporting, and management of biodiversity change. They are being developed to support consistency, from the collection to the reporting of biodiversity data at the national, regional and global scales. However, "EBV stakeholders" need to strike a balance between 'doing innovative research' and 'having positive impact' on biodiversity management decisions. This paper reports on a workshop entitled Identifying joint pathways to address the challenges of biodiversity data provision and decision-making and presents the main workshop’s output, a “researcher’s brief” entitled Guiding principles for promoting the application of EBVs for current and future needs of decision-makers. These guiding principles are: Speak with a common voice; Clearly define what is an EBV and how it relates to indicators; Engage beyond the research world; Be realistic about what can be done now and later; Define criteria for good EBVs; Use EBV as a clearing house; Convey the limitations of EBVs; Clarify what impact EBVs should have; Be salient, credible, legitimate, iterative; Don't put an EBV skin on everything you do; Don't create too many EBVs; and Don't reduce EBVs to building blocks of indicators. This brief is of relevance to the wider GEO BON (Group on Earth Observation Biodoversity Observation Network community, and in particular those scientists/researchers interested in the application of EBVs.
Full Text Available The stages of the modern Russian scientiic school of comprehensive exploitation of mineral resourcesformation, the main directions of which were concentrated in the Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources are considered. The main directions of ICEMR scientiic activity and the most important results of fundamental and applied research are presented, which are the scientiic Ьasis of modern research related to the safety of mineral reserves use provision. The importance of studying the coal and methane interaction, gas dynamic phenomena in coal mines, coal seam degassing technologies and mine methane utilization, mathematical modeling and solving proЬlems in the ield of stressed-deformed state, strength, fracturing mechanics, thermal conductivity, hydromechanics, forced viЬration, etc. are outlined.The effectiveness analysis of the state, academic and industrial Ьranch scientiic centers, university science, design organizations and mining companies joint efforts to reduce industrial injuries in the mining sector of the Russian economy is conducted. The need for targeted measures to move to new technical-technological and regulatory levels of mining, allowing to prevent the accidents with massive fatal injuries, was determined. The solution of these tasks is possiЬle only Ьy comЬining the efforts of the specialized institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences, of the Ьranch science, of universities and mining companies through the implementation of the "Mining Safety" Scientiic Research Comprehensive Plan, coordinated Ьy ICEMR RAS.
Elsaesser, Linda-Jeanne; Bauer, Stephen M
PURPOSE. This article develops a standardised method for assistive technology service (ATS) provision and a logical basis for research to improve health care quality. The method is 'interoperable' across disabilities, disciplines, assistive technology devices and ATSs. BACKGROUND. Absence of a standardised and interoperable method for ATS provision results in ineffective communication between providers, manufacturers, researchers, policy-makers and individuals with disabilities (IWD), a fragmented service delivery system, inefficient resource allocation and sub-optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVES. Synthesise a standardised, interoperable AT service method (ATSM) fully consistent with key guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation. Express the ATSM using common and unambiguous language. RESULTS. Guidelines, systems, models and Federal legislation relevant to ATS provision are reviewed. These include the RESNA Guidelines for Knowledge and Skills for Provision of Assistive Technology Products and Services (RESNA Guidelines), IMPACT2 model, international classification of functioning, disability and health (ICF) and AT device classification (ATDC). Federal legislation includes the Assistive Technology Act of 2004, Americans with Disabilities Act of 2008 and Social Security Act. Based on these findings, the ATSM is synthesised and translated into common and accessible language. CONCLUSION. ATSM usage will improve communication between stakeholders, service delivery coherence, resource allocation and intervention outcomes.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recently world creating opportunities under appropriate circumstances for people to manipulate decisions that affect them will increase the sense of ownership and care that is why participation has become a question of concern for any public and private project development and sustainability. The purpose of this study was to assessing the challenges affecting participation in provision of public services in Arusha city council. The specific objective of this study was to find out the challenges affecting public consultations and involvement in provision of public services at Arusha city council. The researcher use survey design technique in studying 150 samples from 416442 which included public citizens mayor councilors and employees at the Arusha city council office. The sample was selected through non- probability sampling techniques which was purposive and convenience. The data was collected through questionnaire and structured interview schedule and data was qualitatively analyzed where the factual and logical interpretation was explained through using of table and percentages. From the findings of the study provision of effective public services in Arusha city council is less effective and unsatisfactory because of insufficient number of staff poor technology conservatism bureaucracy culture relationship politics and poor communication. In order to address the issues the researcher recommends that the governance is weak and it needed to be reviewed in order to enhance the effectiveness of the entire process in provision of effective public services.
..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Contracts for Transportation or for Transportation... sometimes within the same port, it is not practical to develop standard technical provisions covering all...
Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D
Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.
Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan
Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.
Fekri Ali Shawtari
Full Text Available The paper investigates whether there is a significance difference between the practices of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions between Islamic and conventional banks. Same time, the paper tests whether the efficiency may influence the behaviour of discretionary loans/finance loss provisions, taken into consideration other micro and macro variables. The study utilizes panel data runs over 1996–2011 with unbalanced observations for 16 banks, of which 4 Islamic banks. In order to achieve research objectives, the two-stage approach is adopted to examine the factors that may influence the behaviour of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions with specific emphasize on the efficiency. Furthermore, efficiency scores are estimated using Data Envelopment Windows Analysis. The findings of the research show that Islamic banks employ the discretionary loans/finance loss provisions to manage their earnings. However, the magnitude of discretion of accruals is significantly lower than conventional banks with exception for foreign banks which have reported lower discretionary loans/finance loss provisions than Islamic banks. Moreover, the analysis showed that efficiency affects the overall discretionary loans/finance loss provision positively, although this impact is shaped differently for Islamic and conventional banks.
Godard, Béatrice; Kääriäinen, Helena; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Tranebjaerg, Lisbeth; Coviello, Domenico; Aymé, Ségolène
This paper examines the professional and scientific views on the social, ethical and legal issues that impact on the provision of genetic services in Europe. Many aspects have been considered, such as the definition and the aims of genetic services, their organization, the quality assessment, public education, as well as the partnership with patients support groups and the multicultural aspects. The methods was primarily the analysis of professional guidelines, legal frameworks and other documents related to the organization of genetic services, mainly from Europe, but also from USA and international organizations. Then, the method was to examine the background data emerging from an updated report produced by the Concerted Action on Genetic Services in Europe, as well as the issues debated by 43 experts from 17 European countries invited to an international workshop organized by the European Society of Human Genetics Public and Professional Policy Committee in Helsinki, Finland, 8 and 9 September 2000. Some conclusions were identified from the ESHG workshop to arrive at outlines for optimal genetic services. Participants were concerned about equal accessibility and effectiveness of clinical genetic services, quality assessment of services, professional education, multidisciplinarity and division of tasks as well as networking. Within European countries, adherence to the organizational principles of prioritization, regionalization and integration into related health services would maximize equal accessibility and effectiveness of genetic actions. There is a need for harmonization of the rules involved in financial coverage of DNA tests in order to make these available to all Europeans. Clear guidelines for the best practice will ensure that the provision of genetic services develops in a way that is beneficial to its customers, be they health professionals or the public, especially since the coordination of clinical, laboratory and research perspectives within a
Benkner, S; Berti, G; Engelbrecht, G; Fingberg, J; Kohring, G; Middleton, S E; Schmidt, R
The European GEMSS Project is concerned with the creation of medical Grid service prototypes and their evaluation in a secure service-oriented infrastructure for distributed on demand/supercomputing. Key aspects of the GEMSS Grid middleware include negotiable QoS support for time-critical service provision, flexible support for business models, and security at all levels in order to ensure privacy of patient data as well as compliance to EU law. The GEMSS Grid infrastructure is based on a service-oriented architecture and is being built on top of existing standard Grid and Web technologies. The GEMSS infrastructure offers a generic Grid service provision framework that hides the complexity of transforming existing applications into Grid services. For the development of client-side applications or portals, a pluggable component framework has been developed, providing developers with full control over business processes, service discovery, QoS negotiation, and workflow, while keeping their underlying implementation hidden from view. A first version of the GEMSS Grid infrastructure is operational and has been used for the set-up of a Grid test-bed deploying six medical Grid service prototypes including maxillo-facial surgery simulation, neuro-surgery support, radio-surgery planning, inhaled drug-delivery simulation, cardiovascular simulation and advanced image reconstruction. The GEMSS Grid infrastructure is based on standard Web Services technology with an anticipated future transition path towards the OGSA standard proposed by the Global Grid Forum. GEMSS demonstrates that the Grid can be used to provide medical practitioners and researchers with access to advanced simulation and image processing services for improved preoperative planning and near real-time surgical support.
Li, Ping; Omani, Nina; Chaubey, Indrajeet; Wei, Xiaomei
Drought is one of the most widespread extreme climate events with a potential to alter freshwater availability and related ecosystem services. Given the interconnectedness between freshwater availability and many ecosystem services, including food provisioning, it is important to evaluate the drought implications on freshwater provisioning and food provisioning services. Studies about drought implications on streamflow, nutrient loads, and crop yields have been increased and these variables are all process-based model outputs that could represent ecosystem functions that contribute to the ecosystem services. However, few studies evaluate drought effects on ecosystem services such as freshwater and food provisioning and quantify these services using an index-based ecosystem service approach. In this study, the drought implications on freshwater and food provisioning services were evaluated for 14 four-digit HUC (Hydrological Unit Codes) subbasins in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (UMRB), using three drought indices: standardized precipitation index ( SPI ), standardized soil water content index ( SSWI ), and standardized streamflow index ( SSI ). The results showed that the seasonal freshwater provisioning was highly affected by the precipitation deficits and/or surpluses in summer and autumn. A greater importance of hydrological drought than meteorological drought implications on freshwater provisioning was evident for the majority of the subbasins, as evidenced by higher correlations between freshwater provisioning and SSI 12 than SPI 12. Food provisioning was substantially affected by the precipitation and soil water deficits during summer and early autumn, with relatively less effect observed in winter. A greater importance of agricultural drought effects on food provisioning was evident for most of the subbasins during crop reproductive stages. Results from this study may provide insights to help make effective land management decisions in responding to
... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...
R.J.J. van Oosterbosch (Renick)
textabstractExecutive summary Prior research suggests that banks have an incentive to smooth income through loan loss provisions (LLPs), but there has been no research on the effects of IFRS implementation on this. Using a sample of European banks and a single-stage regression that models the
Low, Mary; Samkin, Grant; Liu, Christina
This research examined the role of accounting education in the provision of soft skills to accounting graduates, and how this may be affected by the recent changes in academic requirements initiated by NZICA. A qualitative research method utilizing in-depth interviews was conducted with accounting graduates, partners of the Big4 accounting firms,…
The Model, or Additional, Protocol to the Model Safeguards Agreement, INFCIRC/153, contains, inter alia, provisions for expanded declarations from Member States to the IAEA. These provisions include earlier design information declarations and information on fuel cycles activities, such a mining and milling, that were not previously part of safeguards. The session discusses the extent of the expanded declarations and provides examples of the forms that will be used to provide the information to the Agency. (author)
The Additional Protocol between Japan and the IAEA entered into force in December 1999. To come into force a series of implementation trials of Additional Protocol was carried out at two Japanese representative nuclear research centers, i.e. Tokai Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and Oarai Engineering Center of Japan Nuclear Fuel Cycle Development Institute (JNC). These trials were proposed by Japan and were conducted in cooperation with the IAEA Secretariat. In addition, Japan amended 'the Law for the Regulation of Reactors etc.', to collect adequate information to submit to the IAEA, to arrange the surrounding for the complementary access, etc. In addition, Japan Submitted the Initial Declaration of the Additional Protocol within 180 days of the entry into force of the Protocol, in the middle of June, 2000
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed work is to investigate additive manufacturing techniques for Mg alloys. It will leverage off research being conducted at University of Florida and...
Andersen, Anne Holst
The aim of this paper is twofold. The first aim is to unfold the moral complexity of organic food consumption as part of household food provisioning. By acknowledging this complexity, and the difficulty of determining what is "good" and "right" in food provisioning, the idea is to allow for a better understanding of how organic…
..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR BREEDING POULTRY General Provisions § 145.4 General provisions for all participants. (a) Records of purchases and sales and... Agency. (b) Products, records of sales and purchase of products, and material used to advertise products...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision of services. 586.406 Section 586.406 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... & MONTENEGRO) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 586.406 Provision of services. (a) Except as...
The work discussed funding for libraries in selected public and private schools in Imo State as well as provision of resources in their libraries. The major aim of the work was that there is a corollary between funding and provision of resources such that the funding directly affects the resources of the library. The survey ...
... currency offers. Insert the provision at 52.225-17, Evaluation of Foreign Currency Offers, in solicitations that permit the use of other than a specified currency. Insert in the provision the source of the rate to be used in the evaluation of offers. (d) The contracting officer shall include in each...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provision. 828... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 828.106-72 Contract provision. Insert 852.228-72, Assisting Service-Disabled Veteran-Owned and Veteran-Owned Small...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract provision. 970... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Describing Agency Needs 970.1170-2 Contract provision. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 970.5211-1, Work authorization, in each...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special credit card provisions. 226.12 Section... SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Open-End Credit § 226.12 Special credit card provisions. (a) Issuance of credit cards. Regardless of the purpose for which a credit card is to be used, including...
... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true General provisions for food irradiation. 179.25... (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) IRRADIATION IN THE PRODUCTION, PROCESSING AND HANDLING OF FOOD Radiation and Radiation Sources § 179.25 General provisions for food irradiation. For the purposes...
Full Text Available The article highlights the implementation of outsourcing as a mean of service for security provision. Analysis is performed to describe the current issues affecting the management decision in favor of outsourcing. Investigation covers the processes of physical, information and economical security. The main recommendations to use outsourcing for security provision are described in the conclusion.
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Provision for overtime pay. 778.409 Section 778.409 Labor... Regular Rate Principles Guaranteed Compensation Which Includes Overtime Pay § 778.409 Provision for overtime pay. The section 7(f) contract must provide for compensation at not less than one and one-half...
Willis, Chris; Ingle, W. Kyle
A small number of districts in Ohio from a variety of locales have adopted merit pay provisions. Using Springer's (2009) taxonomy of teacher compensation, we analyzed compensation provisions of these districts. We asked: What are the characteristics of these districts? What criteria are used to determine merit? Who is determining who receives…
... alternating or mixed pattern. Marketable. Pear production acceptable for processing or other human consumption... irrigation water supply, if caused by an insured peril that occurs during the insurance period. (b) In... provisions of the Basic Provisions are not applicable. 13. Pear Quality Adjustment Endorsement (a) This...
Excellence in educational quality provisioning and accountability is an obligatory function for higher education. Currently certain scholars allege that poor provisioning and lack of accountability are rife in most higher education institutions. They cite varied reasons for the failures. Of note, African higher education institutions ...
... REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended General § 570.... The most important of the child labor provisions are contained in sections 12(a), 12(c), and 3(l) of...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special provisions for air contaminants. 1910.19 Section 1910.19 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... Standards § 1910.19 Special provisions for air contaminants. (a) Asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite, and...
The emphasis of copyright is on original literary works, films, sound recordings and others. The focus of this paper is to discuss the various provisions of the copyright law as they affect films, video and by extension video CD. The study examines the various interpretations of the provisions of the copyright law as they affect ...
Adherence to the policy guidelines and standards is necessary for family planning services. We compared public and private facilities in terms of provision of family planning services. We analyzed data from health facility questionnaire of the 2006 Tanzania Service Provision Assessment survey, based on 529 health ...
... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Aggregate batch vent stream provisions... § 63.1408 Aggregate batch vent stream provisions. (a) Emission standards. Owners or operators of aggregate batch vent streams at a new or existing affected source shall comply with either paragraph (a)(1...
... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan and loan guarantee provisions. 417.937 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.937 Loan and loan guarantee provisions. (a) Disbursement of loan proceeds. The principal amount of any loan made or...
The paper examined information provision in special libraries such as medical libraries. It provides an overview of evidence based practice as a concept for information provision by librarians. It specifically proffers meaning to the term evidence as used in evidence based practice and to evidence based medicine from where ...
... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline loading rack provisions. 63... loading rack provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (c) of this section, each owner or operator of a Group 1 gasoline loading rack classified under Standard Industrial Classification...
... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applicable provisions of law. 509.102 Section... UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.102 Applicable provisions of law. (a) General... reason of any alteration of law in relation to internal revenue. (b) Retroactivity of regulations or...
... Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of priority is as follows... insufficient or improper application of disease control measures; (e) Wildlife; (f) Earthquake; (g) Volcanic... the United States as being injurious to human or animal health. (3) Quality will be a factor in...
... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD EMPLOYEE RESPONSIBILITIES AND CONDUCT § 805.735-15 Miscellaneous statutory provisions. Each Member and employee shall acquaint himself with the statutory provisions in appendix I, attached hereto and made a part thereof, which relate to his ethical and other conduct as a Member and employee of...
... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment leak provisions. 63.1434... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1434 Equipment leak provisions. (a) The owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON equipment leak...
... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equipment leak provisions. 63.1410... leak provisions. The owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the requirements of 40 CFR part 63, subpart UU (national emission standards for equipment leaks (control level 2)) for all...
... Provisions in legal instruments. (a) The following documents shall contain provisions or statements requiring...) Approvals of financial institutions and other lenders as approved FHA mortgagees, (5) Requests for subdivision reports under home mortgage procedures and for preapplication analysis of multifamily and land...
....106 Section 9701.106 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES... SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM General Provisions § 9701.106 Relationship to other provisions....S.C. 5545(d); (iv) Recruitment, relocation, and retention payments under 5 U.S.C. 5753-5754; (v...
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General Acid Rain Program provisions. 76.3 Section 76.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.3 General Acid Rain Program provisions...
Amorim, Gláucia Maria; Quintão, Eliana Cardoso Vieira; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti
The scope of this paper was to evaluate the provision of building maintenance services in health units, by means of a descriptive, quantitative and cross-sectional study, considering the five types of facilities (Primary Health, Emergency, Specialty, Hospital and Mental Health Units). The research was approved by the Research Ethics Comittee of FHEMIG with the Terms of Agreement signed with the Unified Health System of Betim. Comparative analysis was conducted by checking the requirements of "Physical-Functional Structure Management" of the "Brazilian Hospital Accreditation Manual" of the National Accreditation Organization. Nonconformities were noted in the physical-functional management of the health centers, especially the primary health units. The assessment was important, considering that compliance with formal, technical and structural requirements, welfare activities, according to the service organization and appropriate to the profile and complexity, can collaborate to minimize the risks of users. To improve the quality of health care establishments, it is essential that managers, backed by "top management," prioritize financial, human and material resources in planning to ensure compliance with security requirements of users in buildings.
Full Text Available Although most people with Type 2 diabetes receive their diabetes care in primary care, only a limited amount is known about the quality of diabetes care in this setting. We investigated the provision and receipt of diabetes care delivered in UK primary care.Postal surveys with all healthcare professionals and a random sample of 100 patients with Type 2 diabetes from 99 UK primary care practices.326/361 (90.3% doctors, 163/186 (87.6% nurses and 3591 patients (41.8% returned a questionnaire. Clinicians reported giving advice about lifestyle behaviours (e.g. 88% would routinely advise about calorie restriction; 99.6% about increasing exercise more often than patients reported having received it (43% and 42% and correlations between clinician and patient report were low. Patients' reported levels of confidence about managing their diabetes were moderately high; a median (range of 21% (3% to 39% of patients reporting being not confident about various areas of diabetes self-management.Primary care practices have organisational structures in place and are, as judged by routine quality indicators, delivering high quality care. There remain evidence-practice gaps in the care provided and in the self confidence that patients have for key aspects of self management and further research is needed to address these issues. Future research should use robust designs and appropriately designed studies to investigate how best to improve this situation.
Giffels, M.; Hauth, T.; Polgart, F.; Quast, G.
Modern high-energy physics experiments rely on the extensive usage of computing resources, both for the reconstruction of measured events as well as for Monte-Carlo simulation. The Institut fur Experimentelle Kernphysik (EKP) at KIT is participating in both the CMS and Belle experiments with computing and storage resources. In the upcoming years, these requirements are expected to increase due to growing amount of recorded data and the rise in complexity of the simulated events. It is therefore essential to increase the available computing capabilities by tapping into all resource pools. At the EKP institute, powerful desktop machines are available to users. Due to the multi-core nature of modern CPUs, vast amounts of CPU time are not utilized by common desktop usage patterns. Other important providers of compute capabilities are classical HPC data centers at universities or national research centers. Due to the shared nature of these installations, the standardized software stack required by HEP applications cannot be installed. A viable way to overcome this constraint and offer a standardized software environment in a transparent manner is the usage of virtualization technologies. The OpenStack project has become a widely adopted solution to virtualize hardware and offer additional services like storage and virtual machine management. This contribution will report on the incorporation of the institute's desktop machines into a private OpenStack Cloud. The additional compute resources provisioned via the virtual machines have been used for Monte-Carlo simulation and data analysis. Furthermore, a concept to integrate shared, remote HPC centers into regular HEP job workflows will be presented. In this approach, local and remote resources are merged to form a uniform, virtual compute cluster with a single point-of-entry for the user. Evaluations of the performance and stability of this setup and operational experiences will be discussed.
This publication is a code of practice for the provision or radiological protection services for establishments in which, or in part of which, work is primarily with radiation sources. It was prepared with the help of an international panel of experts and representatives of international organizations which have an interest in this field and was promulgated by the Director General of the Agency under the authority of the Board of Governors of the Agency as a code of practice in the framework of the Agency's Safety Standards. The Board of Governors also authorized the Director General to recommend to Member States that the code of practice be taken into account in the formulation of national regulations or recommendations. The Appendix to the code contains a number of examples of the organization of radiological protection services that have been provided by the members of the panel of experts. These examples do not form a part of the code of practice, but are intended to illustrate the methods of organization which have been adopted in different countries.
Patalay, P; Gondek, D; Moltrecht, B; Giese, L; Curtin, C; Stanković, M; Savka, N
The role of schools in providing community-based support for children's mental health and well-being is widely accepted and encouraged. Research has mainly focused on designing and evaluating specific interventions and there is little data available regarding what provision is available, the focus and priorities of schools and the professionals involved in providing this support. The current study presents these data from schools in 10 European countries. Online survey of 1466 schools in France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Poland, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, UK and Ukraine. The participating countries were chosen based on their geographical spread, diversity of political and economic systems, and convenience in terms of access to the research group and presence of collaborators. Schools reported having more universal provision than targeted provision and there was greater reported focus on children who already have difficulties compared with prevention of problems and promotion of student well-being. The most common interventions implemented related to social and emotional skills development and anti-bullying programmes. Learning and educational support professionals were present in many schools with fewer schools reporting involvement of a clinical specialist. Responses varied by country with 7.4-33.5% between-country variation across study outcomes. Secondary schools reported less support for parents and more for staff compared with primary schools, with private schools also indicating more staff support. Schools in rural locations reported less student support and professionals involved than schools in urban locations. The current study provides up-to-date and cross-country insight into the approaches, priorities and provision available for mental health support in schools; highlighting what schools prioritise in providing mental health support and where coverage of provision is lacking.
Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg
to the incorporation of spatial factors into cost and benefit evaluation of FES provision. Focus is on assessing where forest ecosystem provision should be undertaken, determinants of private stakeholder provision efforts and welfare consequences of changes in the provision level. Provision of carbon sequestration...... estimates for the U.S. counties of the cost of carbon sequestration from afforestation (conversion of non-forest land to forest), when afforestation is restricted by Holdridge zone climatic conditions. Aside from assessing the overall marginal cost schedule, the spatial distribution of these are examined......, to assess where afforestation should be undertaken for given carbon prices. The second paper investigates the determinants of landowner participation in a Danish voluntary conservation program. Combining contract data of landowners’ actual choices, GIS information on area specific characteristics...
Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang; Suh, Namduk
The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement
Kang, Bongsuk; Yang, Huichang [TUEV Rheinland Korea Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Namduk [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
The purpose of this OPT is first to assure the DiD design during the licensing of Sf, but it will also contribute in evaluating the completeness of regulatory requirements under development by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS). Based on the definition of Defense-in-Depth (DiD) levels and safety functions for KALIMER Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor (SFR), suggested in the reference and, Objective Provision Trees (OPTs) of reactivity control function for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 DiD were developed and suggested in this paper. The challenges and mechanisms and provisions were briefly explained in this paper. Comparing the mechanisms and provisions with the requirements will contribute in identifying the missing requirements. Since the design of Prototype Gen-IV Sf (PGSFR) is not mature yet, the OPT is developed for KALIMER design. Developed level 1 to 4 OPTs in this study can be used for the identification of potential design vulnerabilities. When detailed identification of provisions in terms of design features were achieved through the next step of this study, it can contribute to the establishment of defense-in-depth evaluation frame for the regulatory reviews for the licensing process. In the next stage of this study, other safety function will be researched and findings can be suggested as recommendations for the safety improvement.
Antônio Maria Henri Beyle de Araújo
Full Text Available ABSTRACT A controversy involving loan loss provisions in banks concerns their relationship with the business cycle. While international accounting standards for recognizing provisions (incurred loss model would presumably be pro-cyclical, accentuating the effects of the current economic cycle, an alternative model, the expected loss model, has countercyclical characteristics, acting as a buffer against economic imbalances caused by expansionary or contractionary phases in the economy. In Brazil, a mixed accounting model exists, whose behavior is not known to be pro-cyclical or countercyclical. The aim of this research is to analyze the behavior of these accounting models in relation to the business cycle, using an econometric model consisting of financial and macroeconomic variables. The study allowed us to identify the impact of credit risk behavior, earnings management, capital management, Gross Domestic Product (GDP behavior, and the behavior of the unemployment rate on provisions in countries that use different accounting models. Data from commercial banks in the United Kingdom (incurred loss, in Spain (expected loss, and in Brazil (mixed model were used, covering the period from 2001 to 2012. Despite the accounting models of the three countries being formed by very different rules regarding possible effects on the business cycles, the results revealed a pro-cyclical behavior of provisions in each country, indicating that when GDP grows, provisions tend to fall and vice versa. The results also revealed other factors influencing the behavior of loan loss provisions, such as earning management.
Bowes, Alison; Avan, Ghizala; Macintosh, Sherry Bien
Previous research on mistreatment of older people in black and minority ethnic communities has identified limited service responses and the need to consider mistreatment as an issue not only for individuals but also for families, communities, and institutions. The impact of cultural factors on understandings, experiences, and remedies for mistreatment has been debated. Drawing on empirical research in the United Kingdom involving service providers and ethnically-diverse community members, the article explores implications of cultural variation for service provision. Clear gaps exist between service provision and people experiencing mistreatment due to structural and contextual factors; cultural factors have a relatively minor impact.
Kathleen C. Stosch
Full Text Available Ensuring water, food and energy security for a growing world population represents a 21st century catchment management challenge. Failure to recognise the complexity of interactions across ecosystem service provision can risk the loss of other key environmental and socioeconomic benefits from the natural capital of catchment systems. In particular, the ability of soil and water to meet human needs is undermined by uncertainties around climate change effects, ecosystem service interactions and conflicting stakeholder interests across catchments. This critical review draws from an extensive literature to discuss the benefits and challenges of utilising an ecosystem service approach for integrated catchment management (ICM. State-of-the-art research on ecosystem service assessment, mapping and participatory approaches is evaluated and a roadmap of the key short- and longer-term research needs for maximising landscape-scale ecosystem service provision from catchments is proposed.
Zadpoor, Amir A
Additive manufacturing (3D printing) has found many applications in healthcare including fabrication of biomaterials as well as bioprinting of tissues and organs. Additively manufactured (AM) biomaterials may possess arbitrarily complex micro-architectures that give rise to novel mechanical, physical, and biological properties. The mechanical behavior of such porous biomaterials including their quasi-static mechanical properties and fatigue resistance is not yet well understood. It is particularly important to understand the relationship between the designed micro-architecture (topology) and the resulting mechanical properties. The current special issue is dedicated to understanding the mechanical behavior of AM biomaterials. Although various types of AM biomaterials are represented in the special issue, the primary focus is on AM porous metallic biomaterials. As a prelude to this special issue, this editorial reviews some of the latest findings in the mechanical behavior of AM porous metallic biomaterials so as to describe the current state-of-the-art and set the stage for the other studies appearing in the issue. Some areas that are important for future research are also briefly mentioned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This Code of Practice (CoP) has been prepared to outline the standard of information that Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) should be required to produce in relation to the provision of network maps, schematic diagrams and specific network data. Network information from DNOs may be required by generators (and other customers) in order to assess the potential opportunities available for the connection of new generation plant. Seven Year Statements are published annually by the Transmission Licensees operating in Great Britain, i.e. The National Grid Company, Scottish Power and Scottish Hydro Electric, and contain all the network information relating to each transmission system, e.g. Generation Capacities, System Parameters and Plant Fault Levels. A similar arrangement for DNOs has been outlined in the Electricity Distribution Licence published by Ofgem. Under Condition 25 of the licence, 'The Long Term Development Statement', distribution licence holders are required to make available historic and planned network data. By providing sufficient network information, competition in generation will be improved. At the time of writing, any party interested in assessing distribution network information needs to make contact with the appropriate DNO, identifying the correct department and person. Written applications are then sent to that person, describing the type of network information that is required. Information required from embedded generators by DNOs is specified in detail in both of The Distribution Codes of England and Wales, and Scotland. However, there are no guidelines or details of network information to be provided by DNOs. This Code of Practise is designed to balance this situation and help DNOs, prospective generators and other applicants for information to achieve satisfaction by clarifying expectations. (Author)
Introduction. Quality management of audit services requires further theoretical research and development in the field of audit activity and quality of audit, continuous improvement of the organization and methodology in providing audit services. Purpose. The article deals with the theoretical and practical questions of assessing the quality of audit services that are different from the audit in order to identify ways to improve the methodological quality assurance in the provision of thes...
In support of such a shift, Congress has incrementally provided DOD with some 80 or more authorities, apart from those in Title 22, to interact with...Congressional Research Service enhanced budgeting transparency and reporting requirements to Congress; and required assessment, monitoring...decision-making. The incremental nature of Congress’s adjustments to DOD’s Title 10 authorities, however, has resulted in some 80 or more provisions
Patalay, P.; Gondek, D.; Moltrecht, B.; Giese, L.; Curtin, C.; Stankovi?, M.; Savka, N.
Background. The role of schools in providing community-based support for children's mental health and well-being is widely accepted and encouraged. Research has mainly focused on designing and evaluating specific interventions and there is little data available regarding what provision is available, the focus and priorities of schools and the professionals involved in providing this support. The current study presents these data from schools in 10 European countries. Methods. Online survey of...
... Applied Technology Education Programs? 400.9 Section 400.9 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... VOCATIONAL AND APPLIED TECHNOLOGY EDUCATION PROGRAMS-GENERAL PROVISIONS § 400.9 What additional requirements govern the Vocational and Applied Technology Education Programs? In addition to the Act, applicable...
McLemore, Monica R; Levi, Amy; James, E Angel
The purpose of this thematic analysis is to describe recruitment, retention and career development strategies for expert nurses in abortion care provision. Thematic analysis influenced by grounded theory methods were used to analyze interviews, which examined cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes associated with how nurses make decisions about participation in abortion care provision. The purposive sample consisted of 16 nurses, who were interviewed between November 2012 and August 2013, who work (or have worked) with women seeking abortions in abortion clinics, emergency departments, labor and delivery units and post anesthesia care units. Several themes emerged from the broad categories that contribute to successful nurse recruitment, retention, and career development in abortion care provision. All areas were significantly influenced by engagement in leadership activities and professional society membership. The most notable theme specific to recruitment was exposure to abortion through education as a student, or through an employer. Retention is most influenced by flexibility in practice, including: advocating for patients, translating one's skill set, believing that nursing is shared work, and juggling multiple roles. Lastly, providing on the job training opportunities for knowledge and skill advancement best enables career development. Clear mechanisms exist to develop expert nurses in abortion care provision. The findings from our study should encourage employers to provide exposure opportunities, develop activities to recruit and retain nurses, and to support career development in abortion care provision. Additionally, future workforce development efforts should include and engage nursing education institutions and employers to design structured support for this trajectory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
United States. Bonneville Power Administration.
This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.
... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting... including the manner by which it will be effected and the basis for settlement. In addition, such contracts...
... reasonable space and adequate visibility and acoustics, for public observation. No additional right to... pleaded, cited, or relied upon before the Commission or in any proceeding under part 2 of these...
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions. 457.148... pepper crop insurance provisions. The fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions for the 1999 and... Fresh Market Pepper Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...
The German system of making provisions for nuclear power has been the subject of frequent examinations, and has been approved in each case - by the German federal government, the European Commission, the Court of First Instance of the European Communities and, recently, also by the European Court of Justice. The article describes the basic legal principles entailing the obligation to make financial provisions for decommissioning and disposal by setting aside the required funds in line with current practice. The management of the assets balancing the provisions, the system of controls, the economic strength of the firms involved and, especially, the demand for the product they sell, i.e. electricity, ensure permanent availability of these funds. Numerous subsidiary legal provisions ensure transparency of these financial provisions. The external fund model analyzed as an alternative is the rejected both on account of drawbacks in its contents and for legal reasons. Attention is paid to the recommendation by the European Commission of October 2006 about financial provisions for decommissioning and disposal, to which the German system conforms and which does not require the establishment of external funds either. As the system of financial provisions has been operated successfully and reliably in Germany since the beginnings of the use of nuclear power, a plea is made in favor of upholding its structures and functions. (orig.)
... not limited to, the time within which the incumbent LEC provisions such access to unbundled network... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Just, reasonable and nondiscriminatory terms... Additional Obligations of Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers § 51.313 Just, reasonable and nondiscriminatory...
Marsh, D. T.
Provision for postsecondary higher education in Wales, the nature of the Welsh system, and future concerns are discussed. The roles of the Welsh Office and the Welsh Joint Education Committee contrast greatly with central organizations in England. There is one university in Wales, comprising seven constituent colleges. Additional institutions in…
... commenters requested that the NOP facilitate a means to obtain organic certification and grass-fed..., can elect to pursue claims, such as grass-fed, in addition to and separate from organic certification...-11-07] National Organic Program; Notice on the Ruminant Slaughter Stock Provision of the Access to...
Preventing pressure ulcers is complex and involves skin care, the provision of therapy mattresses, repositioning, the management of incontinence and adequate nutritional support. This article describes a model of therapy mattress provision that is based on non-powered products. Evaluating the efficiency of this model is challenging, due to the complexities of care, but Safety Thermometer data and incidents reports offer reassurance that non-powered therapy mattresses can provide adequate pressure ulcer prevention. Therapy mattress provision is only one of the five interventions and these are described in details to give readers a fuller picture of the model used at the author's trust.
Arnoult, Matthieu; Reynders, Suzanne; Dittmann, Marie; Lukac, Martin
The University of Reading (UK) has created an original massive online open course (MOOC) the concepts and practices of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA), a new approach to agriculture based on three principles: mitigation of climate change, adaptation to climate change, stable or increased productivity, and sustainable food security. Through 2 case studies (dairy farming and wine production) this MOOC is an opportunity to highlight the importance of soil conditions for farmers (e.g., organic matter content, erosion, leaching), an issue which had been overlooked but is now seen as an essential part of integrated farm management or techniques such as no-till farming. Furthermore, this 3-week course launching in January 2017 will be translated in several European languages in order to foster international interest in CSA from students across Europe, but also to create collaborative synergies with research partners. To that effect, collaborative work is under way between the University of Reading, INRA, and Agreenium to develop a soil-oriented MOOC, around the 4‰ Initiative to be launched by France in 2017/18. This session will present the existing MOOC material developed at Reading in the context of British and French farming, the current issues facing farmers with respect to soil, and how these will be addressed in the forthcoming MOOC to be developed in partnership with INRA and Agreenium. The use of online training provision to elicit interest in climate change in general and soil topics in particular will also be outlined.
Yun, Tae Sik; Park, Jong Hyuk; Hwang, Eui Youp; Yoo, Sung Soo; Kim, In Hwan
Spare parts, especially safety related items, being used in Korea Nuclear Power Plants are largely from the United States, Canada, France and the like, meaning the inventory policy, stocking and provision, should be influenced by those countries' nuclear industry situation in a direct or indirect manner. As a result of nuclear industry downturn practices, lots of spare supply corporations have gone broke, which gave immediate signals we have to resolve inventory purchases in need. It is known for that nuclear maintenance spare items are particularly composed of many kinds with small quantities, which makes matters worse to Korea nuclear operation company (KHNP) to purchase them. Hence, Korea nuclear business is trying to change its exinventory purchasing paradigm into innovative schemes it did not have to consider in the past. In order to implement a new stocking policy, it should be kept in mind the factors such as not only how much to stock for a smooth operation but also economic point of view. Even though it has done a lot of studies to optimize the inventory stocking level in an academic curiosity, it is not easy to apply the researches in a real world. Since it is so tough job to anticipate when and how large scale even occurs. Hence, it would be thought that the nuclear inventory should be dealt in a different manner from the general manufacturing industry
The author in detail covers the legal treatment of technological risks, especially the roles played by experts and those applying the law, when it comes to the application of uncertain legal terms and criteria of evaluating the principle of provision for damage. He finds that an increasingly more important role was played by the legal evaluation of risks stemming from large technical facilities, in addition to the (socio-)political assessment of the consequences of technologies. For risk assessment, engineers had a primary responsibility, but the evaluation of risk in an overall process of weighing legal assets was a responsibility of lawyers. The residual risk to be tolerated legally (without the compulsory need to make provisions for damage) was to be determined by weighing legal assets, by the principle of adequacy, and by comparative risk assessment. (HSCH) [de
The research employed a mixed method approach by collecting both quantitative and qualitative data which were analysed using descriptive analysis in SPSS. The results are ... critical examination of mass housing design in. Nigeria will show ...
... any potential risks to patient confidentiality posed by the disclosure of records. (b) A person... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... requirements of § 1.466 of this part (or more stringent requirements); and (ii) Will not be redisclosed except...
...] Information Collection; Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision AGENCY: General Services... collection requirement regarding Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision. Public comments... Information Collection 3090- 0294, Implementation of Information Technology Security Provision, by any of the...
Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Smari, W.W.; Fox, G.C.
Cloud technologies are emerging as a new way of provisioning virtualised computing and infrastructure services on-demand for collaborative projects and groups. Security in provisioning virtual infrastructure services should address two general aspects: supporting secure operation of the provisioning
..., et al. Student Assistance General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan Program, Federal Family Education Loan Program, and William D... General Provisions, Federal Perkins Loan (Perkins Loan) Program, Federal Family Education Loan (FFEL...
ic antiretroviral treatments, World Health Organization r all exposed infants to ... eir cell differentiation 4 plus ts. ... service provision was not uniformly initiated at all health facilities. ... or variance inflation rates (VIF) of greater than 10 as indicator ...
Lai, Tat-kei; Ng, Travis
's Workplace and Employee Survey, we find that increased competition is strongly associated with more training provision within workplace. We show that this association is unlikely to be driven by unobservable workplace heterogeneity, the specific measures used, and other relevant factors which can affect...... training provisions. To the extent that training is a significant source of human capital and industry competitiveness, our empirical results suggest increasing training is a significant channel through which competition raises productivity.......While standard models of training focus on how the structure of the input market affects training provisions of firms, this paper investigates the relationship between product market competition and training provision. Using the longitudinal and nationally representative data from Statistics Canada...
Pedersen, John Storm; Wilkinson, Adrian
The digital society has been announced and subconsequently, the digital welfare state. The digital society and the digital welfare state changes the provision of welfare services to the citizens as end-users. The article analyses how....
Yarrow, Allan; Millwater, Jan
This Australian perspective on the resource provision in primary schools offers a framework for conceptualizing resources; explores the notion of equality; and provides suggestions for making resourcing more equitable. (AEF)
SERVQUAL) for measuring the provision of information as an Extension Service. It explores agricultural Extension Services as a customer service and SERVQUAL as a service evaluation tool. The study aims to provide an adapted SERVQUAL instrument ...
The evolution of Cloud Computing brings advantages to both customers and service providers to utilize and manage computing and network resources more efficiently with virtualization, service-oriented architecture technologies, and automated on-demand resource provisioning. However, these advantages
Chu, Sandra Ka Hon
In September 2010, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice held that three provisions of the Criminal Code dealing with prostitution violated sex workers' constitutional rights, were not in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice and must be struck down.
... modify the language of a provision or clause mandated by statute (e.g., GSAR 552.203-5, Covenant Against... for Disabled Veterans and Veterans of the Vietnam Era; and 52.222-36, Affirmative Action for Workers...
... jurisdiction of surface coal mining and reclamation operations, petitions for rulemaking, and citizen suits... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement Notice of Proposed Information Collection; General Provisions AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement...
Forensic mental health services: Current service provision and planning for a prison mental health service in the Eastern Cape. Kiran Sukeri, Orlando A. Betancourt, Robin Emsley, Mohammed Nagdee, Helmut Erlacher ...
Nunes, João Pedro; Naranjo Quintanilla, Paula; Santos, Juliana Marisa; Serpa, Dalila; Carvalho-Santos, Cláudia; Rocha, João; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Keesstra, Saskia Deborah
Mediterranean landscapes have experienced extensive abandonment and reforestation in recent decades, which should have improved the provision of hydrological services such as flood mitigation, soil erosion protection and water quality regulation. However, these forests are fire-prone, and the
in pre-service and in-service HIV training to ensure sustainability. INTRODUCTION. Over the .... workers to ensure provision of quality service delivery. (1). HIV service delivery ... (internal migration) as well as 'brain drain' to wealthier countries ...
... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Arab League Boycott and Related Provisions 625.7002 Solicitation... accordance with DOSAR 625.7001(c): (a) 652.225-70, Arab League Boycott of Israel; and. (b) 652.225-71...
ouster of jurisdiction of the courts on pre-election matters and impeachment of the executive do constitute an ... NAUJILJ 9 (1) 2018. Page | .... Ouster clauses are general provisions, which preclude an organ of government from exercising its.
... uses, and the location, design and scope of any new developments, permitted under the regulations in..., no additional or increased commercial or industrial uses are permitted within these districts. Any existing nonconforming commercial or industrial uses shall be discontinued within 10 years from the date of...
... in the TANF work requirement applicable to a single custodial parent caring for a child under age six... for purposes of child care eligibility; and whether respite care is provided to custodial parents of... meet the needs of certain families specified at § 98.50(e). (5) Any additional eligibility criteria...
234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...
Stancil, Stephani L; Miller, Melissa; Briggs, Holley; Lynch, Daryl; Goggin, Kathy; Kearns, Gregory
Rates of adult women receiving contraceptive provision when simultaneously prescribed a known teratogen are alarmingly low. The prevalence of this behavior among pediatric providers and their adolescent patients is unknown. The objective of this study was to describe pediatric provider behaviors for prescribing teratogens concurrently with counseling, referral, and/or prescribing of contraception (collectively called contraceptive provision) in the adolescent population. A retrospective review was conducted examining visits in 2008-2012 by adolescents aged 14 to 25 years in which a known teratogen (US Food and Drug Administration pregnancy risk category D or X) was prescribed. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, evidence of contraceptive provision, and menstrual and sexual histories. The data were analyzed using standard statistical methods. Within 4172 clinic visits, 1694 females received 4506 prescriptions for teratogenic medications. The most commonly prescribed teratogens were topiramate, methotrexate, diazepam, isotretinoin, and enalapril. The subspecialties prescribing teratogens most frequently were neurology, hematology-oncology, and dermatology. Overall, contraceptive provision was documented in 28.6% of the visits. Whites versus nonwhites and older versus younger girls were more likely to receive contraceptive provision. The presence of a federal risk mitigation system for the teratogen also increased the likelihood of contraceptive provision. Our data demonstrate female adolescents prescribed teratogens receive inadequate contraception provision, which could increase their risk for negative pregnancy outcomes. Although the presence of a federal risk mitigation system appears to improve contraceptive provision, these systems are costly and, in some instances, difficult to implement. Efforts to improve provider practices are needed. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Vassev, Emil I. (Inventor); Hinchey, Bridget (Inventor); Sterrit, Roy (Inventor)
A biologically-inspired system and method is provided for self-adapting behavior of swarm-based exploration missions, whereby individual components, for example, spacecraft, in the system can sacrifice themselves for the greater good of the entire system. The self-sacrifice can involve donating resources or assets, such as power provisions, to a different component of an autonomous system. A receiving component of the system can benefit from receiving the donated resource or power provision.
Korol Svitlana Ya.
The article is aimed at developing the methodological foundations together with a scientific substantiation of the methodical recommendations for accounting and information provision of the non-financial reporting of enterprise. As a basis for this study have been taken recommendations by the Global Reporting Initiative. The indicators of non-financial report have been grouped with regard to their possible information provision. The article proves the possibility to use a single database to g...
Mehmeri, Victor; Wang, Xi; Basu, Shrutarshi
We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS).......We showcase demonstrations of “program & compile” styled optical networking as well as open platforms & standards based NFV service provisioning using a proof-of-concept implementation of the Software-Programmed Networking Operating System (SPN OS)....
This thesis treats of security provisions, which hotels are using to protect health and property of accommodated persons. In the opening part is caught the progress of attendance and capacities of hotels in the Czech republic during a specific time period. The next chapter focuses on possible threats, which are imminent to hotels during the operation. The third part of the thesis solves particular methods of application of security provisions, these are verified in two concrete hotels in the ...
Samad, Muna Hanim Abdul; Taib, Nooriati; Ying, Choo Siew
The Uniform Building By-law 1984 of Malaysia is the legal document governing fire safety requirements in buildings. Its prescriptive nature has made the requirements out dated from the viewpoint of current performance based approach in most developed countries. The means of escape provisions is a critical requirement to safeguard occupants' safety in fire especially in public buildings. As stipulated in the UBBL 1984, the means of escape provisions includes sufficient escape routes, travel distance, protection of escape routes, etc. designated as means to allow occupants to escape within a safe period of time. This research aims at investigating the effectiveness of those provisions in public buildings during evacuation process involving massive crowd during emergencies. This research includes a scenario-based study on evacuation processes using two software i.e. PyroSim, a crowd modelling software to conduct smoke study and Pathfinder to stimulate evacuation model of building in Malaysia and Singapore as comparative study. The results show that the buildings used as case study were designed according to Malaysian UBBL 1984 and Singapore Firecode, 2013 respectively provide relative safe means of escape. The simulations of fire and smoke and coupled with simulation of evacuation have demonstrated that although there are adequate exits designated according to fire requirements, the impact of the geometry of atriums on the behavior of fire and smoke have significant effect on escape time especially for unfamiliar user of the premises.
Turinsky Andrei L
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bluejay genome browser has been developed over several years to address the challenges posed by the ever increasing number of data types as well as the increasing volume of data in genome research. Beginning with a browser capable of rendering views of XML-based genomic information and providing scalable vector graphics output, we have now completed version 1.0 of the system with many additional features. Our development efforts were guided by our observation that biologists who use both gene expression profiling and comparative genomics gain functional insights above and beyond those provided by traditional per-gene analyses. Results Bluejay 1.0 is a genome viewer integrating genome annotation with: (i gene expression information; and (ii comparative analysis with an unlimited number of other genomes in the same view. This allows the biologist to see a gene not just in the context of its genome, but also its regulation and its evolution. Bluejay now has rich provision for personalization by users: (i numerous display customization features; (ii the availability of waypoints for marking multiple points of interest on a genome and subsequently utilizing them; and (iii the ability to take user relevance feedback of annotated genes or textual items to offer personalized recommendations. Bluejay 1.0 also embeds the Seahawk browser for the Moby protocol, enabling users to seamlessly invoke hundreds of Web Services on genomic data of interest without any hard-coding. Conclusion Bluejay offers a unique set of customizable genome-browsing features, with the goal of allowing biologists to quickly focus on, analyze, compare, and retrieve related information on the parts of the genomic data they are most interested in. We expect these capabilities of Bluejay to benefit the many biologists who want to answer complex questions using the information available from completely sequenced genomes.
Le Ngoc, B.
The European Union has assessed the provisions made by the nuclear plant operators to face the future costs of dismantling. The United-Kingdom and the Netherlands are the single E.U. members to have provisions covering the whole of the expenses (respectively 100% and 94%). The figure for France is very low 33% (far below the European average of 56%). According to French authorities the provisions for the dismantling of nuclear facilities are strictly defined by law: they must be made progressively till the decommissioning and they must be composed by dedicated assets. The costs of the dismantling is regularly re-assessed for taking into account technological progress and changes in regulation. Furthermore the French system limits the period in which provisions are made to the initial operating life of the plant: mostly 40 years which is a prudent measure. In other E.U. members like Germany, the provisions are not covered by dedicated assets which might endanger the capacity of the operator to face the future costs. The progressiveness of the French systems of provision-making is fair because the dismantling costs are spread equally over the entire operating period of the facility. (A.C.)
Full Text Available Recently there have been large advances in energy technologies for battery-operated systems, including green energy resources and high capacity batteries. The effective use of battery energy resources in wireless infrastructure networks to improve the versatility and reliability of wireless communications is an important issue. Emerging applications of smart cities, Internet of Things (IoT, and emergency responses highly rely on the basic communication network infrastructures that enable ubiquitous network connections. However, energy consumption by nodes in a wireless infrastructure network depends on the transmissions of other nodes in the network. Considering this inter-dependence is necessary to achieve efficient provision of energy in wireless networks. This paper studies the issue of energy provision for wireless relay nodes in Wireless Multihop Infrastructures (WMI assuming constraints on the total energy provision. We introduce a scheme of Energy Provision Matching (Matching-EP for WMI which optimizes energy provision based on matching of energy provision with estimates of differentiated position-dependent energy consumption by wireless nodes distributed in the network. The evaluation results show that Matching-EP with 4%–34% improvement in energy matching degree enables 10%–40% improvement of the network lifetime, and 5%–40% improvement of packet delivery compared with conventional WMI networks.
Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K
Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.
Kuada, Eric; Olesen, Henning
This paper proposes a social network approach to the provisioning and management of cloud computing services termed Opportunistic Cloud Computing Services (OCCS), for enterprises; and presents the research issues that need to be addressed for its implementation. We hypothesise that OCCS...... will facilitate the adoption process of cloud computing services by enterprises. OCCS deals with the concept of enterprises taking advantage of cloud computing services to meet their business needs without having to pay or paying a minimal fee for the services. The OCCS network will be modelled and implemented...... as a social network of enterprises collaborating strategically for the provisioning and consumption of cloud computing services without entering into any business agreements. We conclude that it is possible to configure current cloud service technologies and management tools for OCCS but there is a need...
Gu Junmin; Natarajan, Vijaya; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Katramatos, Dimitrios; Liu Xin; Yu Dantong; Bradley, Scott; McKee, Shawn
StorNet is a joint project of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) to research, design, and develop an integrated end-to-end resource provisioning and management framework for high-performance data transfers. The StorNet framework leverages heterogeneous network protocols and storage types in a federated computing environment to provide the capability of predictable, efficient delivery of high-bandwidth data transfers for data intensive applications. The framework incorporates functional modules to perform such data transfers through storage and network bandwidth co-scheduling, storage and network resource provisioning, and performance monitoring, and is based on LBNL's BeStMan/SRM, BNL's TeraPaths, and ESNet's OSCARS systems.
"Everyone Playing in Class" is an unstructured free play based provision for small classes or groups. The intervention involves training staff in attachment theory, presenting up-to-date research findings on the role of play in emotional well-being and relationship building, as well as teaching reflective communication skills. In this…
Ogbah, Enovwor Laura
This study is an assessment of Information Provision Services of Libraries in the 21st century in some selected academic libraries in Delta State. A descriptive survey was adopted in carrying out the research. The questionnaire was the instrument for data collection of which 62 were retrieved. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended…
This paper outlines current challenges facing healthcare providers and education providers in trying to ensure Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) are fit for practice, in a climate driven by financial constraints and service improvement directives from the Department of Health (DH). Research was undertaken in 2009 to investigate the current provision of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the southwest region of England. The purpose was to define exactly what problems existed with this provision, and to propose changes which could be implemented in order to ensure that the provision meets the needs of stakeholders in future years.
... Hydrostatic Testing Provision of the Portable Fire Extinguishers Standard; Extension of the Office of... the information collection requirements contained in the Hydrostatic Testing provision of the Portable... 48729
... aggregate amount of its outstanding equity investment (including retained earnings) in all financial... bank's outstanding equity investment (including retained earnings) in all financial subsidiaries from... outstanding equity investment (including retained earnings) in all financial subsidiaries from the bank's Tier...
... imposition of sanctions under the ISA. There are several possible sanctions that may be imposed under the ISA... three statutory authorities: (1) The Iran-Iraq Arms Nonproliferation Act of 1992 (Pub. L. 102-484); (2) the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act (Pub. L. 106-178); or (3) Section 11B(b)(1)(B)(i...
Araujo, Gonzalo; Lucey, Anna; Labaja, Jessica; So, Catherine Lee; Snow, Sally; Ponzo, Alessandro
This study represents the first description of whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, occurring at a provisioning site in Oslob, Cebu, Philippines. Frequent observations of sharks are often difficult, even at tourism sites, giving rise to provisioning activities to attract them. The present study provides repeated longitudinal data at a site where daily provisioning activities took place, and whale sharks were present every day. A total of 158 individual whale sharks were photographically identified between Mar 2012 and Dec 2013, with 129 males (82%), 19 females (12%) and 10 (6%) of undetermined sex. Mean estimated total length was 5.5 m (±1.3 m S.D.). Twenty individuals were measured with laser photogrammetry to validate researchers' estimated sizes, yielding a good correlation (r (2) = 0.83). Fifty-four (34%) individuals were observed being hand-fed by local fishermen (provisioned), through in-water behavioural observations. Maximum likelihood methods were used to model mean residency time of 44.9 days (±20.6 days S.E.) for provisioned R. typus contrasting with 22.4 days (±8.9 days S.E.) for non-provisioned individuals. Propeller scars were observed in 47% of the animals. A mean of 12.7 (±4.3 S.D.) R. typus were present in the survey area daily, with a maximum of 26 individuals (Aug 10 2013) and a minimum of 2 (Dec 6 2012). Twelve (8%) individuals were seen on at least 50% of survey days (n = 621), with a maximum residency of 572 days for one individual (P-396). Twenty four individuals were photographically identified across regional hotsposts, highlighting the species' migratory nature and distribution. Extended residency and differences in lagged identification rates suggest behavioural modification on provisioned individuals, underlying the necessity for proper management of this tourism activity.
-, č. 362 (2008), s. 1-31 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : informative advertising * tune-ins * television station Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp362.pdf
... essential in this situation in order to determine whether such requester has the capability and intention to disseminate the information to the public. Mere assertions of plans to author a book, researching a particular... in serving the public. Similarly, scholars writing books or engaged in other forms of academic...
Rygg, Knut Helge
The scalability of an information system describes the relationship between system ca-pacity and system size. This report studies the scalability of Microsoft Lync Server 2010 in order to provide guidelines for provisioning hardware resources. Optimal pro-visioning is required to reduce both deployment and operational costs, while keeping an acceptable service quality.All Lync servers in the test setup are virtualizedusingVMware ESXi 5.0 and the system runs on a Cisco Unified Computing System...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.13 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials...
..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indirect food additives resulting from packaging...
Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.
Johnson, F M
One generally assumes that chemical agents added to foods are reasonably free of risks to human health, and practically everyone consumes some additives in his or her food daily throughout life. In the United States, the 1958 Food Additives Amendment to the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 requires food manufacturers to demonstrate the safety of food additives to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The Amendment contains a provision that prohibits approval of an additive if it is found to cause cancer in humans or animals. In the present study, data from the National Toxicology Program rodent bioassay (NTPRB) were used to identify a sample of approximately 50 rodent-tested additives and other chemicals added to food that had been evaluated independently of the FDA/food industry. Surprisingly, the sample shows more than 40% of these food chemicals to be carcinogenic in one or more rodent groups. If this percentage is extrapolated to all substances added to food in the United States, it would imply that more than 1000 of such substances are potential rodent carcinogens. The NTP and FDA test guidelines use similar, though not necessarily identical, rodent test procedures, including near lifetime exposures to the maximum tolerated dose. The FDA specifies that test chemicals should be administered by the oral route. However, the oral route includes three methods of delivering chemicals, that is, mixed in the food or water or delivered by stomach tube (gavage). The NTP data show only 1 of 18 food chemicals mixed in the food are rodent carcinogens, but 16 of 23 gavage-administered food chemicals are carcinogenic to rodents. The distribution suggests that among orally delivered chemicals, those administered in the feed will more likely prove to be noncarcinogens than chemicals given by gavage. The rodent data also reveal that effects may vary according to dose and genotype, as well as by route of administration, to further complicate extrapolation to humans
Viacheslav M. Oleksenko
Full Text Available The article deals with the results of the research concerning the relevant information resources elaborated and introduced into the pedagogical process by the author. The peculiarities of the first in Ukraine dictionary on theory and practice of distance learning, distance course “Linear Algebra” and the course-book “Linear Algebra and Analytical Geometry”, which promote the raising in quality of education and training of specialists, are revealed.
Full Text Available This review aims to critically examine the present status of educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities in Thailand, in accordance with the enforcement of various laws over the past decade (1992-2008. The legal essence of laws such as the Constitution of The Kingdom of Thailand 1997, the Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons Act 1991, and the National Education Act 1999, was typologically compared to actual situations, in terms of educational provisions and facilities, by reviewing a total of 25 research papers.The findings showed that there had been no further educational provisions and facilities for students with disabilities, despite indications within the laws. There are discrepancies between legislations and practices due to the ineffectiveness of law enforcement, and the negative attitudes of service providers and society towards students with disabilities. Therefore, positive attitudes of stakeholders have to be promoted, alongside the new laws.
Full Text Available Cloud computing paradigm renders the Internet service providers (ISPs with a new approach to deliver their service with less cost. ISPs can rent virtual machines from the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS provided by the cloud rather than purchasing them. In addition, commercial cloud providers (CPs offer diverse VM instance rental services in various time granularities, which provide another opportunity for ISPs to reduce cost. We investigate a Coarse-grain QoS-aware Dynamic Instance Provisioning (CDIP problem for interactive workload in the cloud from the perspective of ISPs. We formulate the CDIP problem as an optimization problem where the objective is to minimize the VM instance rental cost and the constraint is the percentile delay bound. Since the Internet traffic shows a strong self-similar property, it is hard to get an analytical form of the percentile delay constraint. To address this issue, we purpose a lookup table structure together with a learning algorithm to estimate the performance of the instance provisioning policy. This approach is further extended with two function approximations to enhance the scalability of the learning algorithm. We also present an efficient dynamic instance provisioning algorithm, which takes full advantage of the rental service diversity, to determine the instance rental policy. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.
Lu, Xiaodong; Arfaoui, Helene; Mori, Kinji
In highly dynamic electronic commerce environment, the need for adaptability and rapid response time to information service systems has become increasingly important. In order to cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed. FIF is a distributed information service system architecture, sustained by push/pull mobile agents to bring high-assurance of services through a recursive demand-oriented provision of the most popular information closer to the users to make a tradeoff between the cost of information service allocation and access. In this paper, based on the analysis of the relationship that exists among the users distribution, information provision and access time, we propose the technology for FIF design to resolve the competing requirements of users and providers to improve users' access time. In addition, to achieve dynamic load balancing with changing users preference, the autonomous information reallocation technology is proposed. We proved the effectiveness of the proposed technology through the simulation and comparison with the conventional system.
AbstractBackgroundMental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities.MethodTwo methods of data collection were employed; (i) In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii) Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them.ResultsAcross the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision.ConclusionsWhile there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of homeless specific and generic
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are disproportionately higher amongst homeless people. Many barriers exist for homeless people with mental health problems in accessing treatment yet little research has been done on service provision and quality of care for this group. The aim of this paper is to assess current service provision and identify barriers to care for homeless people with mental health problems in 14 European capital cities. Method Two methods of data collection were employed; (i In two highly deprived areas in each of the 14 European capital cities, homeless-specific services providing mental health, social care or general health services were assessed. Data were obtained on service characteristics, staff and programmes provided. (ii Semi-structured interviews were conducted in each area with experts in mental health care provision for homeless people in order to determine the barriers to care and ways to overcome them. Results Across the 14 capital cities, 111 homeless-specific services were assessed. Input from professionally qualified mental health staff was reported as low, as were levels of active outreach and case finding. Out-of-hours service provision appears inadequate and high levels of service exclusion criteria were evident. Prejudice in the services towards homeless people, a lack of co-ordination amongst services, and the difficulties homeless people face in obtaining health insurance were identified as major barriers to service provision. Conclusions While there is variability in service provision across European capital cities, the reported barriers to service accessibility are common. Homeless-specific services are more responsive to the initial needs of homeless people with mental health problems, while generic services tend to be more conducive to long term care. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of different service delivery models, including the most effective coordination of
Byrn, Darcie, Comp.
In this annotated bibliography of acquisitions during 1968 appear 265 Extension studies on administrative organization and management; training and staff development; mobilizing participation in Extension work; local leadership; program content and planning procedures; general effectiveness and progress in Extension; teaching methods, techniques,…
Ustinova Yuliya Valerevna
Compressive strength of the dry mix containing 10 % of microsilica has been measured. In the event of hydraulic hardening, the compressive strength of the dry mix is 11.5 MPa, while the compressive strength of the water-saturated mix is equal to 12.0 MPa. In the aftermath of the air-setting procedure, the compressive strength of the dry mix is 10.0 MPa, while the compressive strength of the water-saturated mix is 21.0 MPa. The IR spectra of the specimen exhibit vibrations at 1100-400 cm-1 that correspond to the area of Si-O and Si-O-Me stretching vibrations, a peak at 1121-1119 cm-1 that can be assigned to Si-O-Si bond vibrations, and a peak at 474-472 characteristic of Si-O-Mg stretching vibrations. The areas of 3700-3000 cm-1 and 1650-1600 cm-1 are assigned to stretching and deformational vibrations of OH groups, respectively.
capabilities for modifying meshes. If the dinosaur model is too large to build on a RP machine, it can be split into several pieces, such that each piece...build complex, porous microstructures from biocompatible materials 3. build with living cells, genes, and proteins 4. build multiple, biocompatible...materials and cells/genes/ proteins together and separately on the same platform 5. build at resolutions below 10 microns over structures greater than
Adding new materials to pavement layers is a proven technique to : improve performance. Many types of additivesfrom engineered : polymers and acids to recycled pavement, crumb rubber, shingles : and glasshave been used to help construct better ...
Napier, Bruce A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Sandra F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arimescu, Carmen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models.
Townes, David A
In adventure racing, or multisporting, athletes perform multiple disciplines over a course in rugged, often remote, wilderness terrain. Disciplines may include, but are not limited to, hiking, trail running, mountain biking, caving, technical climbing, fixed-line mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating, and orienteering. While sprint races may be as short as 6 hours, expedition-length adventure races last a minimum of 36 hours up to 10 days or more and may cover hundreds of kilometres. Over the past decade, adventure racing has grown in popularity throughout the world with increasing numbers of events and participants each year. The provision of on-site medical care during these events is essential to ensure the health and safety of the athletes and thus the success of the sport. At present, there are no formal guidelines and a relatively small amount of literature to assist in the development of medical support plans for these events. This article provides an introduction to the provision of medical support for adventure races. Since a wide variety of illness and injury occur during these events, the medical support plan should provide for proper personnel, equipment and supplies to provide care for a wide range of illness and injury. Foot-related problems are the most common reasons for athletes to require medical attention during these events. This article also highlights some of the controversies involved in the provision of medical support for these events. Suggested penalties for acceptance of medical care during the event and strategies for removal of an athlete from the event for medical reasons are offered. In addition, some of the challenges involved in the provision of medical support, including communication, logistics and liability are discussed. This information should prove useful for medical directors of future, similar events. Because of their extreme nature, expedition-length adventure races represent a new and unique area of wilderness and
Hauptfleisch, J.; Meagher, T.M.; King, D.; López de Heredia, L.; Hughes, R.J.
Aim: To examine current out-of-hours magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provision through a snapshot survey of National Health Service (NHS) trusts and to assay how radiographer staffing cover was provided for out-of-hours services. Materials and methods: A snapshot postal survey was mailed to heads of service of all 234 trusts in England and Wales. A literature search on the models of service delivery and correlation with the authors' internal MRI rota, which has provided a full on-call service for 20 years was undertaken. Results: The response rate was 45.7% (107 of 234); 14% of responders provided full access to MRI 24 h a day; 63% provided extended weekday service, typically to 20.00 h; and 81% provided a weekend daytime service. The radiographers running the service were typically from the core MRI team. Approximately one-third (29.9%) of trusts provided training in basic brain and spine MRI to non-core MRI team members, but they typically did not participate in out-of-hours provision. Conclusion: There is currently a paucity of information on the provision of out-of-hours MRI in the NHS. However, there is increasing pressure to provide complex imaging out of hours, and in the future, trauma centres may be required to provide MRI to assess spinal injury. The authors describe a system to provide access to MRI at no additional cost to the organization based on 20 years of experience. A minority of surveyed acute NHS trusts have full out-of-hours access to MRI. Demand for MRI provision out of core hours is likely to increase