Sample records for proving grounds ypg

  1. MX Siting Investigation. Volume IIB. Geotechnical Report, Yuma Proving Grounds/Luke-Williams Bombing and Gunnery Range (YPG/LWBGR). (United States)


    parallel or en echelon faults (Mattick and others, 1973) in the vicinity of the Algodones fault. Shallow exploratory trenching across the Algodones fault...a El cm a A CAMJ -*c F a w 0 -w *w 7 - a - D ina /5MO I MA, nc .MNTI 5 7. Ownership and Cultural Features The first two overlays show non-specific...States and Mexico . Surface Water There are no known perennial surface water occurrences within the YPG/LWBGR boundaries (Shepard and others, 1955

  2. 3-D Characterization of Seismic Properties at the Smart Weapons Test Range, YPG

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Richard


    The Smart Weapons Test Range (SWTR) lies within the Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. SWTR is a new facility constructed specifically for the development and testing of futuristic intelligent battlefield sensor networks...

  3. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology


    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  4. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  5. Mean of the top ten percent of NDVI values in the Yuma Proving Ground during monsoon season, 1986-2011 (United States)

    Birtwistle, Amy N; Laituri, Melinda J.; Bledsoe, Brian P.; Friedman, Jonathan M.


    This study uses growth in vegetation during the monsoon season measured from LANDSAT imagery as a proxy for measured rainfall. NDVI values from 26 years of pre- and post-monsoon season Landsat imagery were derived across Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) in southwestern Arizona, USA. The LANDSAT imagery (1986-2011) was downloaded from USGS’s GlobeVis website ( Change in NDVI was calculated within a set of 2,843 Riparian Area Polygons (RAPs) up to 1 km in length defined in ESRI ArcMap 10.2.

  6. Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.


    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.

  7. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.


    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  8. Preparing for Mars: The Evolvable Mars Campaign 'Proving Ground' Approach (United States)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Rob P.; Sibille, Laurent; Vangen, Scott; Williams-Byrd, Julie


    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit, we are in the early stages of planning missions within the framework of an Evolvable Mars Campaign. Initial missions would be conducted in near-Earth cis-lunar space and would eventually culminate in extended duration crewed missions on the surface of Mars. To enable such exploration missions, critical technologies and capabilities must be identified, developed, and tested. NASA has followed a principled approach to identify critical capabilities and a "Proving Ground" approach is emerging to address testing needs. The Proving Ground is a period subsequent to current International Space Station activities wherein exploration-enabling capabilities and technologies are developed and the foundation is laid for sustained human presence in space. The Proving Ground domain essentially includes missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that will provide increasing mission capability while reducing technical risks. Proving Ground missions also provide valuable experience with deep space operations and support the transition from "Earth-dependence" to "Earth-independence" required for sustainable space exploration. A Technology Development Assessment Team identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support the cadence of exploration missions. Discussions among mission planners, vehicle developers, subject-matter-experts, and technologists were used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of required technologies and capabilities. Within System Maturation Teams, known challenges were identified and expressed as specific performance gaps in critical capabilities, which were then refined and activities required to close these critical gaps were identified. Analysis was performed to identify test and demonstration opportunities for critical technical capabilities across the Proving Ground spectrum of missions. This suite of critical capabilities is expected to

  9. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E. [and others


    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  10. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.


    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  11. The GOES-R Proving Ground: 2012 Update (United States)

    Gurka, J.; Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T.; Demaria, M.; Mostek, A.; Siewert, C.; Reed, B.


    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R will provide a great leap forward in observing capabilities, but will also offer a significant challenge to ensure that users are ready to exploit the vast improvements in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. To ensure user readiness, forecasters and other users must have access to prototype advanced products well before launch, and have the opportunity to provide feedback to product developers and computing and communications managers. The operational assessment is critical to ensure that the end products and NOAA's computing and communications systems truly meet their needs in a rapidly evolving environment. The GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) engages the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast, watch and warning community and other agency users in pre-operational demonstrations of select products with GOES-R attributes (enhanced spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution). In the PG, developers and forecasters test and apply algorithms for new GOES-R satellite data and products using proxy and simulated data sets, including observations from current and future satellite instruments (MODIS, AIRS, IASI, SEVIRI, NAST-I, NPP/VIIRS/CrIS, LIS), lightning networks, and computer simulated products. The complete list of products to be evaluated in 2012 will be determined after evaluating results from experiments in 2011 at the NWS' Storm Prediction Center, National Hurricane Center, Aviation Weather Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, and from the six NWS regions. In 2012 and beyond, the PG will test and validate data processing and distribution systems and the applications of these products in operational settings. Additionally developers and forecasters will test and apply display techniques and decision aid tools in operational environments. The PG is both a recipient and a source of training. Training materials are developed using various distance training tools in

  12. Pacific Proving Grounds radioisotope imprint in the Philippine Sea sediments. (United States)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Roos, Per; Qiao, Jixin; Geibert, Walter; Elvert, Marcus; Fischer, Helmut W


    Radionuclide concentrations were studied in sediment cores taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial Western Pacific. High resolution deposition records of anthropogenic radionuclides were collected at this site. Excess 210 Pb together with excess 228 Th and anthropogenic radionuclides provided information about accumulation rates. Concentrations of Am and Pu isotopes were detected by gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS. The Pu ratios indicate a high portion (minimum of 60%) of Pu from the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG). This implies that the transport of PPG derived plutonium with the Mindanao Current southward is similarly effective as the previously known transport towards the north with the Kuroshio Current. The record is compared to other studies from northwest Pacific marginal seas and Lombok basin in the Indonesian Archipelago. The sediment core top was found to contain a 6 cm thick layer dominated by terrestrial organic matter, which was interpreted as a result of the 2012 Typhoon Pablo-related fast deposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.


    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem ({plus_minus}2.4) to 0.04 mrem ({plus_minus}0.13) and translate to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} detriments to about 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site.

  14. 78 FR 60238 - Proposed Modification and Establishment of Restricted Areas; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    ...; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed..., within the existing restricted areas R-4001A and R- 4001B, at the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground in... nonparticipating aircraft from a hazard to navigation in the Aberdeen Proving Ground airspace. DATES: Comments must...

  15. NASA'S Space Launch System: Progress Toward the Proving Ground (United States)

    Jackman, Angie; Johnson, Les


    With significant and substantial progress being accomplished toward readying the Space Launch System (SLS) rocket for its first test flight, work is already also underway on preparations for the second flight – using an upgraded version of the vehicle – and beyond. Designed to support human missions into deep space, Space Launch System (SLS), is the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken, and together with the Orion spacecraft will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. For its first flight, SLS will deliver a near-term heavy-lift capability for the nation with its 70-metric-ton Block 1 configuration. Each element of the vehicle now has flight hardware in production in support of the initial flight of the SLS, which will propel Orion around the moon and back. For its second flight, SLS will be upgraded to the more-capable Block 1B configuration. While the Block 1 configuration is capable of delivering more than 70 metric tons to low Earth orbit, the Block 1B vehicle will increase that capability to 105 metric tons. For that flight, the new configuration introduces two major new elements to the vehicle – an Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) that will be used for both ascent and in-space propulsion, and a Universal Stage Adapter (USA) that serves as a “payload bay” for the rocket, allowing the launch of large exploration systems along with the Orion spacecraft. Already, flight hardware is being prepared for the Block 1B vehicle. Beyond the second flight, additional upgrades will be made to the vehicle. The Block 1B vehicle will also be able to launch 8.4-meter-diameter payload fairings, larger than any previously flown, and the Spacecraft Payload Integration and Evolution (SPIE) Element will oversee development and production of those fairings. Ultimately, SLS will be evolved to a Block 2 configuration, which will replace the solid rocket boosters on the Block

  16. 33 CFR 334.140 - Chesapeake Bay; U.S. Army Proving Ground Reservation, Aberdeen, Md. (United States)


    ... Island to Locust Point; thence along straight line from Locust Point to Turkey Point for a distance of... right to land nor to cut or procure pound net poles or stakes on the Aberdeen Proving Ground Reservation...

  17. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.


    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  18. Concept of Operations for a Prospective "Proving Ground" in the Lunar Vicinity (United States)

    Love, Stanley G.; Hill, James J.


    NASA is studying a "Proving Ground" near the Moon to conduct human space exploration missions in preparation for future flights to Mars. This paper describes a concept of operations ("conops") for activities in the Proving Ground, focusing on the construction and use of a mobile Cislunar Transit Habitat capable of months-long excursions within and beyond the Earth-Moon system. Key elements in the conops include the Orion spacecraft (with mission kits for docking and other specialized operations) and the Space Launch System heavy-lift rocket. Potential additions include commercial launch vehicles and logistics carriers, solar electric propulsion stages to move elements between different orbits and eventually take them on excursions to deep space, a node module with multiple docking ports, habitation and life support blocks, and international robotic and piloted lunar landers. The landers might include reusable ascent modules which could remain docked to in-space elements between lunar sorties. The architecture will include infrastructure for launch preparation, communication, mission control, and range safety. The conops describes "case studies" of notional missions chosen to guide the design of the architecture and its elements. One such mission is the delivery of a 10-ton pressurized element, co-manifested with an Orion on a Block 1B Space Launch System rocket, to the Proving Ground. With a large solar electric propulsion stage, the architecture could enable a year-long mission to land humans on a near-Earth asteroid. In the last case, after returning to near-lunar space, two of the asteroid explorers could join two crewmembers freshly arrived from Earth for a Moon landing, helping to safely quantify the risk of landing deconditioned crews on Mars. The conops also discusses aborts and contingency operations. Early return to Earth may be difficult, especially during later Proving Ground missions. While adding risk, limited-abort conditions provide needed practice

  19. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew


    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  20. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity (United States)

    Jedlovec, G.; Fuell, K.; Smith, M. R.; Stano, G. T.; Molthan, A.


    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT's activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  1. Satellite Proving Ground for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) (United States)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Gurka, James; Bruning, E. C.; Blakeslee, J. R.; Rabin, Robert; Buechler, D.


    The key mission of the Satellite Proving Ground is to demonstrate new satellite observing data, products and capabilities in the operational environment to be ready on Day 1 to use the GOES-R suite of measurements. Algorithms, tools, and techniques must be tested, validated, and assessed by end users for their utility before they are finalized and incorporated into forecast operations. The GOES-R Proving Ground for the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) focuses on evaluating how the infusion of the new technology, algorithms, decision aids, or tailored products integrate with other available tools (weather radar and ground strike networks; nowcasting systems, mesoscale analysis, and numerical weather prediction models) in the hands of the forecaster responsible for issuing forecasts and warning products. Additionally, the testing concept fosters operation and development staff interactions which will improve training materials and support documentation development. Real-time proxy total lightning data from regional VHF lightning mapping arrays (LMA) in Northern Alabama, Central Oklahoma, Cape Canaveral Florida, and the Washington, DC Greater Metropolitan Area are the cornerstone for the GLM Proving Ground. The proxy data will simulate the 8 km Event, Group and Flash data that will be generated by GLM. Tailored products such as total flash density at 1-2 minute intervals will be provided for display in AWIPS-2 to select NWS forecast offices and national centers such as the Storm Prediction Center. Additional temporal / spatial combinations are being investigated in coordination with operational needs and case-study proxy data and prototype visualizations may also be generated from the NASA heritage Lightning Imaging Sensor and Optical Transient Detector data. End users will provide feedback on the utility of products in their operational environment, identify use cases and spatial/temporal scales of interest, and provide feedback to the developers for adjusted or

  2. Ground-water flow and the possible effects of remedial actions at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Hughes, W.B.


    J-Field, located in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md, has been used since World War II to test and dispose of explosives, chemical warfare agents, and industrial chemicals resulting in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contami- nation. The U.S. Geological Survey finite-difference model was used to better understand ground-water flow at the site and to simulate the effects of remedial actions. A surficial aquifer and a confined aquifer were simulated with the model. A confining unit separates these units and is represented by leakance between the layers. The area modeled is 3.65 mi2; the model was constructed with a variably spaced 40 X 38 grid. The horizontal and lower boundaries of the model are all no-flow boundaries. Steady-state conditions were used. Ground water at the areas under investigation flows from disposal pit areas toward discharge areas in adjacent estuaries or wetlands. Simulations indicate that capping disposal areas with an impermeable cover effectively slows advective ground water flow by 0.7 to 0.5 times. Barriers to lateral ground-water flow were simulated and effectively prevented the movement of ground water toward discharge areas. Extraction wells were simulated as a way to contain ground-water contamination and to extract ground water for treatment. Two wells pumping 5 gallons per minute each at the toxic-materials disposal area and a single well pumping 2.5 gallons per minute at the riot-control-agent disposal area effectively contained contamination at these sites. A combi- nation of barriers to horizontal flow east and south of the toxic-materials disposal area, and a single extraction well pumping at 5 gallons per minute can extract contaminated ground water and prevent pumpage of marsh water.

  3. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas


    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  4. Hydrogeologic data for the Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, April 1986-March 1988 (United States)

    Oliveros, J.P.; Gernhardt, Patrice


    This report is a compilation of hydrologic and geologic data collected for the period April 1986 through March 1988 for the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Geologic data include lithologic logs for 73 sites and geophysical logs for 71 sites. Hydrologic data consist of hydrographs and synoptic water level measurements. The hydrographs were taken from eight wells that were equipped with continuous water level recorders, and the synoptic water-level measurements were made four times during the study. Well-construction data also are included for 149 observation wells. (USGS)

  5. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.


    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  6. Hydrogeologic setting, hydraulic properties, and ground-water flow at the O-Field area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Banks, W.S.; Smith, B.S.; Donnelly, C.A.


    The U.S. Army disposed chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at O-Field in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from before World War II until at least the 1950's. Soil, ground water, surface water,and wetland sediments in the O-Field area were contaminated from the disposal activity. A ground-water-flow model of the O-Field area was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 1989 to simulate flow in the central and southern part of the Gunpowder Neck. The USGS began an additional study of the contamination in the O-Field area in cooperation with the U.S. Army in 1990 to (1) further define the hydrogeologic framework of the O-Field area, (2) characterize the hydraulic properties of the aquifers and confining units, and (3) define ground-water flow paths at O-Field based on the current data and simulations of ground-water flow. A water-table aquifer, an upper confining unit, and an upper confined aquifer comprise the shallow ground-water aquifer system of the O-Field area. A lower confining unit, through which ground-water movement is negligible, is considered a lower boundary to the shallow aquifer system. These units are all part of the Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The model developed in the previous study was redesigned using the data collected during this study and emphasized New O-Field. The current steady-state model was calibrated to water levels of June 1993. The rate of ground-water flow calculated by the model was approximately 0.48 feet per day (ft/d) and the rate determined from chlorofluorocarbon dates was approximately 0.39 ft/d.

  7. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.


    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  8. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.


    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  9. Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Ehrlichieae) infection in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. (United States)

    Stromdahl, E Y; Randolph, M P; O'Brien, J J; Gutierrez, A G


    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME) is a sometimes fatal, emerging tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. It is frequently misdiagnosed because its symptoms mimic those of the flu. Current evidence indicates that Amblyomma americanum (L.), the lone star tick, is the major vector of HME. To determine if E. chaffeensis is present in ticks at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, questing A. americanum ticks were collected from 33 sites. Nucleic acid was extracted from 34 adult and 81 nymphal pools. Sequences diagnostic for E. chaffeensis from three different loci (16S rRNA, 120-kDa protein, and a variable-length polymerase chain reaction [PCR] target, or VLPT) were targeted for amplification by the PCR. Fifty-two percent of the collection sites yielded pools infected with E. chaffeensis, confirming the presence and widespread distribution of E. chaffeensis at Aberdeen Proving Ground. Analysis with the both the 120-kDa protein primers and the VLPT primers showed that genetic variance exists. A novel combination of variance for the two loci was detected in two tick pools. The pathogenic implications of genetic variation in E. chaffeensis are as yet unknown.

  10. Ground-water flow and the potential effects of remediation at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Fleck, W.B.


    Ground water in the east-central part of Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent test facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, is contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds. The U.S. Geological Survey's finite- difference model was used to help understand ground-water flow and simulate the effects of alternative remedial actions to clean up the ground water. Scenarios to simulate unstressed conditions and three extraction well con- figurations were used to compare alternative remedial actions on the contaminant plume. The scenarios indicate that contaminants could migrate from their present location to wetland areas within 10 years under unstressed conditions. Pumping 7 gal/min (gallons per minute) from one well upgradient of the plume will not result in containment or removal of the highest contaminant concentrations. Pumping 7 gal/min from three wells along the central axis of the plume should result in containment and removal of dissolved contami- nants, as should pumping 7 gal/min from three wells at the leading edge of the plume while injecting 7 gal/min back into an upgradient well.

  11. Natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Smith, Barrett L.; Johnson, Mark A.; Fleck, William B.


    Ground-water contaminant plumes that are flowing toward or currently discharging to wetland areas present unique remediation problems because of the hydrologic connections between ground water and surface water and the sensitive habitats in wetlands. Because wetlands typically have a large diversity of microorganisms and redox conditions that could enhance biodegradation, they are ideal environments for natural attenuation of organic contaminants, which is a treatment method that would leave the ecosystem largely undisturbed and be cost effective. During 1992-97, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated the natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC's) in a contaminant plume that discharges from a sand aquifer to a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Characterization of the hydrogeology and geochemistry along flowpaths in the wetland area and determination of the occurrence and rates of biodegradation and sorption show that natural attenuation could be a feasible remediation method for the contaminant plume that extends along the West Branch Canal Creek.

  12. An Overview of NASA SPoRT GOES-R JPSS Proving Ground Testbed Activities (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Stano, Geoffrey; Fuell, Kevin; Leroy, Anita; Mcgrath, Kevin; Molthan, Andrew; Schultz, Lori; Smith, Matthew; White, Kris; Schultz, Christopher; hide


    The Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center is funded by NASA's Earth Science Division and NOAA's JPSS and GOES-R Proving Grounds to transition satellite products and capabilities to the NWS to improve short term (0-48 hr) forecasts on a regional and local scale. SPoRT currently collaborates with 30+ NWS WFOs (at least one in each NWS region) and 5 National Centers/Testbeds. SPoRT matches user-identified forecast challenges to specific products, providing access to these data in AWIPS through new plug-in development, and generating applications-based training to use the products for their needs (R20). Upon transition, SPoRT collaborates with the user to assess the product impact in a real-world environment for feedback to product developers (O2R) and to benefit their peers.

  13. NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System's Proving Ground and Risk Reduction Program - Bringing New Capabilities to Operations! (United States)

    Sjoberg, B.


    This presentation will focus on the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program's Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) initiative and how it has prepared NOAA users to effectively utilize new polar-orbiting capabilities. The PGRR Program was established in 2012, following the launch of the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. Two sets of PGRR Projects have been established grouped together in thirteen different initiatives. Details about how these projects have been continually tailored through the years to meet user requirements, will be highlighted. The presenter will focus on how the success of the first set of PGRR projects have been used to evaluate a follow-on set of projects and focus on exactly what the JPSS user community needs to meet their mission requirements. Details on the Dec 2014 PGRR Call-for-Proposals and the projects selected for funding will be discussed.

  14. Optimization of ground-water withdrawal at the old O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Dillow, Jonathan J.A.


    The U.S. Army disposed of chemical agents, laboratory materials, and unexploded ordnance at the Old O-Field landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, beginning prior to World War II and continuing until at least the 1950?s. Soil, ground water, surface water, and wetland sediments in the Old O-Field area were contaminated by the disposal of these materials. The site is in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, and is characterized by a complex series of Pleistocene and Holocene sediments formed in various fluvial, estuarine, and marine-marginal hydrogeologic environments. A previously constructed transient finite-difference ground-water-flow model was used to simulate ground-water flow and the effects of a pump-and-treat remediation system designed to prevent contaminated ground water from flowing into Watson Creek (a tidal estuary and a tributary to the Gunpowder River). The remediation system consists of 14 extraction wells located between the Old O-Field landfill and Watson Creek.Linear programming techniques were applied to the results of the flow-model simulations to identify optimal pumping strategies for the remediation system. The optimal management objective is to minimize total withdrawal from the water-table aquifer, while adhering to the following constraints: (1) ground-water flow from the landfill should be prevented from reaching Watson Creek, (2) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate that exceeds its capacity, and (3) no extraction pump should be operated at a rate below its minimum capacity, the minimum rate at which an Old O-Field pump can function. Water withdrawal is minimized by varying the rate and frequency of pumping at each of the 14 extraction wells over time. This minimizes the costs of both pumping and water treatment, thus providing the least-cost remediation alternative while simultaneously meeting all operating constraints.The optimal strategy identified using this objective and constraint set involved operating 13 of the 14

  15. Ground-water and surface-water quality data for the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.


    This report presents ground-water and surface-water quality data from samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from November 1999 through May 2001 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network included two 4-inch wells, two 2-inch wells, sixteen 1-inch piezometers, one hundred thirteen 0.75-inch piezometers, two 0.25-inch flexible-tubing piezo-meters, twenty-seven 0.25-inch piezometers, and forty-two multi-level monitoring system depths at six sites. Ground-water profiler samples were collected from nine sites at 34 depths. In addition, passive-diffusion-bag samplers were deployed at four sites, and porous-membrane sampling devices were installed in the upper sediment at five sites. Surface-water samples were collected from 20 sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters and reduction-oxidation constituents, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents, during three sampling events in March?April and June?August 2000, and May 2001. Surface-water samples were collected from November 1999 through September 2000 during five sampling events for analysis of organic constituents. Ground-water profiler samples were collected in April?May 2000, and analyzed for field measure-ments, reduction-oxidation constituents, and inorganic constituents and organic constituents. Passive-diffusion-bag samplers were installed in September 2000, and samples were analyzed for organic constituents. Multi-level monitoring system samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements and reduction-oxidation con-stituents, inorganic constituents, and organic con-stituents in March?April and June?August 2000. Field measurements and organic constituents were collected from 0.25-inch

  16. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew


    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  17. Air monitoring for volatile organic compounds at the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, J.F.; O`Neill, H.J.; Raphaelian, L.A.; Tomczyk, N.A.; Sytsma, L.F.; Cohut, V.J.; Cobo, H.A.; O`Reilly, D.P.; Zimmerman, R.E.


    The US Army`s Aberdeen Proving Ground has been a test site for a variety of munitions, including chemical warfare agents (CWA). The Pilot Plant Complex (PPC) at Aberdeen was the site of development, manufacture, storage, and disposal of CWA. Deterioration of the buildings and violations of environmental laws led to closure of the complex in 1986. Since that time, all equipment, piping, and conduit in the buildings have been removed. The buildings have been declared free of surface CWA contamination as a result of air sampling using the military system. However, no air sampling has been done to determine if other hazardous volatile organic compounds are present in the PPC, although a wide range of toxic and/or hazardous materials other than CWA was used in the PPC. The assumption has been that the air in the PPC is not hazardous. The purpose of this air-monitoring study was to screen the indoor air in the PPC to confirm the assumption that the air does not contain volatile organic contaminants at levels that would endanger persons in the buildings. A secondary purpose was to identify any potential sources of volatile organic contaminants that need to be monitored in subsequent sampling efforts.

  18. An Evaluation of Activated Bismuth Isotopes in Environmental Samples From the Former Western Pacific Proving Grounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Brunk, J.A.; Jokela, T.A.


    {sup 207}Bi (t{sub 1/2}=32.2 y) was generated by activation of weapons material during a few ''clean'' nuclear tests at the U.S. Western Pacific Proving Grounds of Enewetak and Bikini Atolls. The radionuclides first appeared in the Enewetak environment during 1958 and in the environment of Bikini during 1956. Crater sediments from Bikini with high levels of {sup 207}Bi were analyzed by gamma spectrometry in an attempt to determine the relative concentrations of {sup 208}Bi (t{sup 1/2} = 3.68 x 10{sup 5} y). The bismuth isotopes were probably generated during the ''clean'', 9.3 Mt Poplar test held on 7/12/58. The atom ratio of {sup 208}Bi to {sup 207}Bi (R value) ranges from {approx}12 to over 200 in sections of core sediments from the largest nuclear crater at Bikini atoll. The presence of bismuth in the device is suggested to account for R values in excess of 10.

  19. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.


    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground , Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950' s. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well- cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. Bottom- sediment data include inorganic properties and constituents; organic chemistry; detection limits for organic chemicals; a compilation of information on acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water- level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. (USGS)

  20. Hydrogeology and soil gas at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Hughes, W.B.


    Disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has contaminated soil, groundwater and surface water. Seven exploratory borings and 38 observation wells were drilled to define the hydrogeologic framework at J-Field and to determine the type, extent, and movement of contaminants. The geologic units beneath J-Field consist of Coastal Plain sediments of the Cretaceous Patapsco Formation and Pleistocene Talbot Formation. The Patapsco Formation contains several laterally discontinuous aquifers and confining units. The Pleistocene deposits were divided into 3 hydrogeologic units--a surficial aquifer, a confining unit, and a confined aquifer. Water in the surficial aquifer flows laterally from topographically high areas to discharge areas in marshes and streams, and vertically to the underlying confined aquifer. In offshore areas, water flows from the deeper confined aquifers upward toward discharge areas in the Gunpowder River and Chesapeake Bay. Analyses of soil-gas samples showed high relative-flux values of chlorinated solvents, phthalates, and hydrocarbons at the toxic-materials disposal area, white-phosphorus disposal area, and riot-control-agent disposal area. The highest flux values were located downgradient of the toxic materials and white phosphorus disposal areas, indicating that groundwater contaminants are moving from source areas beneath the disposal pits toward discharge points in the marshes and estuaries. Elevated relative-flux values were measured upgradient and downgradient of the riot-control agent disposal area, and possibly result from soil and (or) groundwater contamination.

  1. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.


    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  2. Contamination source review for Building E1489, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmark, K.A.; Hayes, D.C.; Draugelis, A.K. [and others


    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E1489 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. This report may be used to assist the U.S. Army-in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. The field investigations were performed in 1994-1995. Building E1489 located in J-Field on the Gunpowder Peninsula in APG`s Edgewood Area housed a power generator that supplied electricity to a nearby observation tower. Building E1489 and the generator were abandoned in 1974, demolished by APG personnel and removed from real estate records. A physical inspection and photographic documentation of Building E1489 were completed by ANL staff during November 1994. In 1994, ANL staff conducted geophysical surveys in the immediate vicinity of Building E1489 by using several nonintrusive methods. Survey results suggest the presence of some underground objects near Building E1489, but they do not provide conclusive evidence of the source of geophysical anomalies observed during the survey. No air monitoring was conducted at the site, and no information on underground storage tanks associated with Building E1489 was available.

  3. Contamination source review for Building E3180, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.


    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review of Building E3180 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, collection of air samples, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with Building E3180. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994. Building,E3180 (current APG designation) is located near the eastern end of Kings Creek Road, north of Kings Creek, and about 0.5 miles east of the airstrip within APG`s Edgewood Area. The building was constructed in 1944 as a facsimile of a Japanese pillbox and used for the development of flame weapons systems until 1957 (EAI Corporation 1989). The building was not used from 1957 until 1965, when it was converted and used as a flame and incendiary laboratory. During the 1970s, the building was converted to a machine (metal) shop and used for that purpose until 1988.

  4. Contamination source review for Building E6891, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.


    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of various APG buildings. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E6891. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. This building is part of the Lauderick Creek Concrete Slab Test Site, located in the Lauderick Creek Area in the Edgewood Area. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances the potential exists` for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  5. Contamination source review for Building E3162, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.


    This report was prepared by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to document the results of a contamination source review for Building E3162 at the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) in Maryland. The report may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of this building. The review included a historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and collection of air samples. The field investigations were performed by ANL during 1994 and 1995. Building E3162 (APG designation) is part of the Medical Research Laboratories Building E3160 Complex. This research laboratory complex is located west of Kings Creek, east of the airfield and Ricketts Point Road, and south of Kings Creek Road in the Edgewood Area of APG. The original structures in the E3160 Complex were constructed during World War 2. The complex was originally used as a medical research laboratory. Much of the research involved wound assessment involving chemical warfare agents. Building E3162 was used as a holding and study area for animals involved in non-agent burns. The building was constructed in 1952, placed on inactive status in 1983, and remains unoccupied. Analytical results from these air samples revealed no distinguishable difference in hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent levels between the two background samples and the sample taken inside Building E3162.

  6. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.


    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  7. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.


    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  8. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.


    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  9. Simulation of ground-water flow and transport of chlorinated hydrocarbons at Graces Quarters, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Fleck, William B.


    Military activity at Graces Quarters, a former open-air chemical-agent facility at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons. As part of a ground-water remediation feasibility study, a three-dimensional model was constructed to simulate transport of four chlorinated hydrocarbons (1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform) that are components of a contaminant plume in the surficial and middle aquifers underlying the east-central part of Graces Quarters. The model was calibrated to steady-state hydraulic head at 58 observation wells and to the concentration of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane in 58 observation wells and 101direct-push probe samples from the mid-1990s. Simulations using the same basic model with minor adjustments were then run for each of the other plume constituents. The error statistics between the simulated and measured concentrations of each of the constituents compared favorably to the error statisticst,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane calibration. Model simulations were used in conjunction with contaminant concentration data to examine the sources and degradation of the plume constituents. It was determined from this that mixed contaminant sources with no ambient degradation was the best approach for simulating multi-species solute transport at the site. Forward simulations were run to show potential solute transport 30 years and 100 years into the future with and without source removal. Although forward simulations are subject to uncertainty, they can be useful for illustrating various aspects of the conceptual model and its implementation. The forward simulation with no source removal indicates that contaminants would spread throughout various parts of the surficial and middle aquifers, with the100-year simulation showing potential discharge areas in either the marshes at the end of the Graces Quarters peninsula or just offshore in the estuaries. The

  10. Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.] [and others


    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

  11. A Prochlorococcus proving ground for constraint-based metabolic modeling and multi-`omics data integration (United States)

    Casey, J.; Ji, B.; Shaoie, S.; Mardinoglu, A.; Sarathi Sen, P.; Jahn, O.; Reda, K.; Leigh, J.; Follows, M. J.; Nielsen, J.; Karl, D. M.


    Representatives of the oligotrophic marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus are the smallest free-living photosynthetic organisms, both in terms of physical size and genome size, yet are the most abundant photoautotrophic microbes in the oceans and profoundly influence global biogeochemical cycles. Physiological and regulatory control of nutrient and light stress has been observed in MED4 in culture and in its closely related `ecotype' eMED4 in the field, however its metabolism has not been investigated in detail. We present a genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction of the high-light adapted axenic strain MED4ax ("iJCMED4") for the quantitative analysis of a range of its metabolic phenotypes. The resulting structure is a proving ground for the incorporation of enzyme kinetics, biochemical and elemental compositional data, transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolomic, and fluxomic datasets which can be implemented within a constraint-based metabolic modeling environment. The iJCMED4 stoichiometric model consists of 523 metabolic genes encoding 787 reactions with 673 unique metabolites distributed in 5 sub-cellular compartments and is mass, charge, and thermodynamically balanced. Several variants of flux balance analysis were used to simulate growth and metabolic fluxes over the diel cycle, under various stress conditions (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, light), and within the framework of a global biogeochemical model (DARWIN). Model simulations accurately predicted growth rates in culture under a variety of defined medium compositions and there was close agreement of photosynthetic performance, biomass and energy yields and efficiencies, and transporter fluxes for iJCMED4 and culture experiments. In addition to a nearly optimal photosynthetic quotient and central carbon metabolism efficiency, MED4 has made dramatic alterations to redox and phosphorus metabolism across biosynthetic and intermediate pathways. We propose that reductions in phosphate reaction

  12. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.


    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  13. 155-mm M795 Aerofuze Test at the KOFA Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, 19 May 2015 (United States)


    Monday, May 18, 2015, at gun location GP19-1 at YPG, a John Douglas Associates Decommutator/Breakout Box (JDA DECOM/BOB) was set up in the...DECOM lock was established and relayed to the gun crew before the round was screwed onto the projectile, which was the second M795 spotter round...during the 1BB test. The round was fired approximately 3:09 min later, and the signal lock was retained throughout 51 sec of flight until impact

  14. An Analysis of the Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Arthur (2014) from a JPSS Proving Ground Perspective (United States)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Halverson, J. B.; Dunion, J. P.; Goldberg, M.


    As part of the GOES-R and JPSS Satellite Proving Grounds, multiple proxy and operational products were available to analyze and forecast the complex evolution of Hurricane Arthur (2014). The National Hurricane Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Weather Prediction Center, and NESDIS Satellite Analysis Branch were able to monitor the tropical and extratropical transition of Arthur using various convective and red, green, blue (RGB) products that have been introduced in recent years. During the extratropical transition, the Air Mass RGB (AM RGB) product and AIRS/CrIS ozone products were available as a compliment to water vapor imagery to identify the upper-level low with associated stratospheric drying that absorbed much of Arthur's energy. The AM RGB product provides forecasters with an enhanced view of various air masses that are combined into a single image and can help differentiate between possible stratospheric/tropospheric interactions, moist tropical air masses, and cool, continental/maritime air masses. Even though this product provides a wealth of qualitative information about the horizontal distribution of synoptic features, forecasters are also interested in more quantitative information such as the vertical distribution of temperature, moisture, and ozone which impact the coloring of the resulting AM RGB. Currently, NOAA Unique CrIS/ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) temperature and moisture soundings are available in AWIPS-II as a point-based display. Traditionally, soundings are used to anticipate and forecast severe convection, however unique and valuable information can be gained from soundings for other forecasting applications, such as extratropical transition, especially in data sparse regions. Additional research has been conducted to look at how NUCAPS soundings might help forecasters identify the pre-extratropical transition environment, leading to earlier diagnosis and better public advisories. NUCAPS soundings, AIRS soundings, NOAA G-IV GPS

  15. Inorganic and organic ground-water chemistry in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Lorah, M.M.; Vroblesky, D.A.


    Groundwater chemical data were collected from November 1986 through April 1987 in the first phase of a 5-year study to assess the possibility of groundwater contamination in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Water samples were collected from 87 observation wells screened in Coastal Plain sediments; 59 samples were collected from the Canal Creek aquifer, 18 from the overlying surficial aquifer, and 10 from the lower confined aquifer. Dissolved solids, chloride, iron, manganese, fluoride, mercury, and chromium are present in concentrations that exceed the Federal maximum contaminant levels for drinking water. Elevated chloride and dissolved-solids concentrations appear to be related from contaminant plumes but also could result from brackish-water intrusion. Excessive concentrations of iron and manganese were the most extensive water quality problems found among the inorganic constituents and are derived from natural dissolution of minerals and oxide coatings in the aquifer sediments. Volatile organic compounds are present in the Canal Creek and surficial aquifers, but samples from the lower confined aquifer do not show any evidence of contamination by inorganic or organic chemicals. The volatile organic contaminants detected in the groundwater and their maximum concentrations (in micrograms/L) include 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane (9,000); carbon tetrachloride (480); chloroform (460); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (80); 1,2-dichloroethane (990); 1,1-dichloroethane (3.1); tetrachloroethylene (100); trichloroethylene (1,800); 1,2-trans- dichloroethylene (1,200); 1,1-dichloroethylene (4.4); vinyl chloride (140); benzene (70); and chlorobenzene (39). On the basis of information on past activities in the study area, some sources of the volatile organic compounds include: (1) decontaminants and degreasers; (2) clothing-impregnating operations; (3) the manufacture of impregnite material; (4) the manufacture of tear gas; and (5) fuels used in garages and at

  16. Hydrogeology and water quality in the Graces Quarters area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Tenbus, Frederick J.; Blomquist, Joel D.


    Graces Quarters was used for open-air testing of chemical-warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water and surface water. The hydrogeology and water quality were examined at three test areas, four disposal sites, a bunker, and a service area on Graces Quarters. Methods of investigation included surface and borehole geophysics, water-quality sampling, water- level measurement, and hydrologic testing. The hydrogeologic framework is complex and consists of a discontinuous surficial aquifer, one or more upper confining units, and a confined aquifer system. Directions of ground-water flow vary spatially and temporally, and results of site investigations show that ground-water flow is controlled by the geology of the area. The ground water and surface water at Graces Quarters generally are unmineralized; the ground water is mildly acidic (median pH is 5.38) and poorly buffered. Inorganic constituents in excess of certain Federal drinking-water regulations and ambient water-quality criteria were detected at some sites, but they probably were present naturally. Volatile and semivolatile organic com- pounds were detected in the ground water and surface water at seven of the nine sites that were investi- gated. Concentrations of organic compounds at two of the nine sites exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations. Volatile compounds in concentrations as high as 6,000 m/L (micrograms per liter) were detected in the ground water at the site known as the primary test area. Concentrations of volatile compounds detected in the other areas ranged from 0.57 to 17 m/L.

  17. AMR Magnetometer Data on Moving Military Vehicles at Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States)



  18. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Operational Summary, Nevada Proving Grounds, 1 March - 9 June 1953 (United States)


    projaing stabi±izing agents were tested including sand-cementt sodium silicateg and lignin , The sand-cemnt test panels showed no damage to the effects of... Lignin proved its valua ana mohan.tc1a stabilizing agent in regions where the peak overpressure was less than 20 psi. Evaluation of these materials from a...selected officer volunp towns trained in culoulating the offscts of atomic wespona,, wase pomi~ tionod in trenches at 2W0 and AM0 Ids fr pom sex (a

  19. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.


    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  20. Hydrogeologic, soil, and water-quality data for j-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1989-94 (United States)

    Phelan, D.J.


    Disposal of chemical-warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, has resulted in ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination. This report presents data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from Novembr 1989 through September 1994 as part of a remedial investigation of J-Field in response to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Hydrogeologic data, soil-gas and soil-quality data, and water-qualtiy data are included.

  1. Finding and proving the exact ground state of a generalized Ising model by convex optimization and MAX-SAT (United States)

    Huang, Wenxuan; Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Dacek, Stephen T.; Rong, Ziqin; Urban, Alexander; Cao, Shan; Luo, Chuan; Ceder, Gerbrand


    Lattice models, also known as generalized Ising models or cluster expansions, are widely used in many areas of science and are routinely applied to the study of alloy thermodynamics, solid-solid phase transitions, magnetic and thermal properties of solids, fluid mechanics, and others. However, the problem of finding and proving the global ground state of a lattice model, which is essential for all of the aforementioned applications, has remained unresolved for relatively complex practical systems, with only a limited number of results for highly simplified systems known. In this paper, we present a practical and general algorithm that provides a provable periodically constrained ground state of a complex lattice model up to a given unit cell size and in many cases is able to prove global optimality over all other choices of unit cell. We transform the infinite-discrete-optimization problem into a pair of combinatorial optimization (MAX-SAT) and nonsmooth convex optimization (MAX-MIN) problems, which provide upper and lower bounds on the ground state energy, respectively. By systematically converging these bounds to each other, we may find and prove the exact ground state of realistic Hamiltonians whose exact solutions are difficult, if not impossible, to obtain via traditional methods. Considering that currently such practical Hamiltonians are solved using simulated annealing and genetic algorithms that are often unable to find the true global energy minimum and inherently cannot prove the optimality of their result, our paper opens the door to resolving longstanding uncertainties in lattice models of physical phenomena. An implementation of the algorithm is available at

  2. Interim progress report addendun - environmental geophysics: Building E5032 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground, January 1994 resurvey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, L.D.; Benson, M.A.; Borden, H.M.; Padar, C.A.


    Geophysical surveying around Building E5032 using three new continuously recording geophysical instruments - two types of electromagnetic induction instruments and a cesium vapor magnetometer that were unavailable at the time of the original survey - has provided additional information for defining the location of buried debris, vaults, tanks, and the drainage/sump system near the building. The dominant geophysical signature around Building E5032 consists of a complex pattern of linear magnetic, electrical-conductivity, and electromagnetic field anomalies that appear to be associated with drainage/sewer systems, ditches, past railway activity, the location for Building T5033 (old number 99A), and the probable location of Building 91. Integrated analysis of data acquired using the three techniques, plus a review of the existing ground-penetrating-radar data, allow a more thorough definition of the sources for the observed anomalies.

  3. Finding and proving the exact ground state of a generalized Ising model by convex optimization and MAX-SAT

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wenxuan; Dacek, Stephen; Rong, Ziqin; Urban, Alexander; Cao, Shan; Luo, Chuan; Ceder, Gerbrand


    Lattice models, also known as generalized Ising models or cluster expansions, are widely used in many areas of science and are routinely applied to alloy thermodynamics, solid-solid phase transitions, magnetic and thermal properties of solids, and fluid mechanics, among others. However, the problem of finding the true global ground state of a lattice model, which is essential for all of the aforementioned applications, has remained unresolved, with only a limited number of results for highly simplified systems known. In this article, we present the first general algorithm to find the exact ground states of complex lattice models and to prove their global optimality, resolving this fundamental problem in condensed matter and materials theory. We transform the infinite-discrete-optimization problem into a pair of combinatorial optimization (MAX-SAT) and non-smooth convex optimization (MAX-MIN) problems, which provide upper and lower bounds on the ground state energy respectively. By systematically converging th...

  4. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew


    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  5. Investigation of soil contamination at the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ying-Ya; Yuen, C.R.; Martino, L.


    A remedial investigation was conducted to identify soil contamination in the Riot Control Burning Pit area in J-field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The investigation included geophysical surveys to delineate the filled section of the pit, soil-gas surveys to locate the organic contamination area, field X-ray fluorescence measurements along the burning pit to identify the major metal contamination, and surface and subsurface soil analyses to investigate the nature and extent of contamination. This paper presents the results of this investigation

  6. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 1999 (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Spencer, Tracey A.


    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected 13 surface-water samples and 3 replicates from 5 sites in the West Branch Canal Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground from February through August 1999, as a part of an investigation of ground-water contamination and natural attenuation processes. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds, including trichloroethylene, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, which are the four major contaminants that were detected in ground water in the Canal Creek area in earlier USGS studies. Field blanks were collected during the sampling period to assess sample bias. Field replicates were used to assess sample variability, which was expressed as relative percent difference. The mean variability of the surface-water replicate analyses was larger (35.4 percent) than the mean variability of ground-water replicate analyses (14.6 percent) determined for West Branch Canal Creek from 1995 through 1996. The higher variability in surface-water analyses is probably due to heterogeneities in the composition of the surface water rather than differences in sampling or analytical procedures. The most frequently detected volatile organic compound was 1,1,2,2- tetrachloroethane, which was detected in every sample and in two of the replicates. The surface-water contamination is likely the result of cross-media transfer of contaminants from the ground water and sediments along the West Branch Canal Creek. The full extent of surface-water contamination in West Branch Canal Creek and the locations of probable contaminant sources cannot be determined from this limited set of data. Tidal mixing, creek flow patterns, and potential effects of a drought that occurred during the sampling period also complicate the evaluation of surface-water contamination.

  7. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.


    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  8. Temporal and vertical variation of hydraulic head in aquifers in the Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Donnelly, Colleen A.; Tenbus, Fredrick J.


    Water-level data and interpretations from previous hydrogeological studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, were compared to determine similarities and differences among the aquifers. Because the sediments that comprise the shallow aquifers are discontinuous, the shallow ground-water-flow systems are local rather than extensive across the Edgewood Area. Hydrogeologic cross sections, hydrographs of water levels, and vertical gradients calculated from previous studies in the Canal Creek area, Graces Quarters, the O-Field area, Carroll Island, and the J-Field area, over periods of record ranging from 1 to 10 years during 1986-97, were used to determine recharge and discharge areas, connections between aquifers, and hydrologic responses of aquifers to natural and anthropogenic stress. Each of the aquifers in the study areas exhibited variation of hydraulic head that was attributed to seasonal changes in recharge. Upward hydraulic gradients and seasonal reversals of vertical hydraulic gradients between aquifers indicate the potential for local ground-water discharge from most of the aquifers that were studied in the Edgewood Area. Hydraulic head in individual aquifers in Graces Quarters and Carroll Island responded to offsite pumping during part of the period of record. Hydraulic head in most of the confined aquifers responded to tidal loading effects from nearby estuaries.

  9. Environmental geophysics of the Pilot Plant on the west branch of Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Daudt, C.R.; Thompson, M.D.; Borden, H.; Benson, M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Reclamation Engineering and Geosciences Section; Wrobel, J. [Directorate of Safety, Health, and Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    Plans to demolish and remediate the Pilot Plant complex in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground have served to initiate a series of nonintrusive, environmental-geophysical studies. The studies are assisting in the location and identification of pipes, tanks, trenches, and liquid waste in the subsurface. Multiple databases have been integrated to provide support for detection of underground utilities and to determine the stratigraphy and lithology of the subsurface. The studies were conducted within the double security fence and exterior to the double fence, down gradient toward the west branch of Canal Creek. To determine if contaminants found in the creek were associated with the Pilot Plant, both the east and west banks were included in the study area. Magnetic, conductivity, inductive emf, and ground-penetrating-radar anomalies outline buried pipes, trenches, and various pieces of hardware associated with building activities. Ground-penetrating-radar imagery also defines a paleovalley cut 30 ft into Potomac Group sediments of Cretaceous age. The paleovalley crosses the site between Building E5654 and the Pilot Plant fence. The valley is environmentally significant because it may control the pathways of contaminants. The Pilot Plant complex was used to manufacture CC2 Impregnite and incapacitating agents; it also served as a production facility for nerve agents.

  10. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.


    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  11. Toxicity of sediments surrounding the Gunpowder Neck Superfund Site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report, August 1992-December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, M.V.; Anthony, J.S.; Chester, N.A.; Kurnas, C.W.


    From the late 1940s through the 1960s, the standard practice for disposing of toxic chemicals at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was open burning. This disposal site has since been placed on the National Priority List (NPt) by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the spring 1992, sediment samples were taken from waterways that surround that disposal area. Chemical analysis and sediment toxicity assays (Ampelisca abdita) were conducted. Toxicity comparison, with sediment leachate from an Adapted Toxicity Characteristic teaching Procedure (ATCLP), were made using Daphnia magna and a fluorescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum in MICROTOX assays. Amphipods showed a wide range of mortality in mud as well as coarser sediments indicating substrate preference is not critical to the outcome of the assay. Toxicity results from the leachates showed the sediments were not toxic to daphnia and MICROTOX assays.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin S. Fedorovsky


    Full Text Available The Olkhon region of the Western Pribaikalie is highly attractive for geologists due to the presence of diverse metamorphic complexes and highly complicated combinations of folded structures in this region. The Olkhon region is located within the area of the Pribaikalsky National Park of Russia. At abundant outcrops in the subject area, various geological aspects resulting from the Early Palaeozoic collision system can be studied in detail. By its parameters, the subject area can be considered a «geodynamic proving ground». In recent years, abundant aerospace materials on the area have been accumulated, and long-term field studies resulted in many discoveries and findings which encourage critical revision of the initial conceptions. The material available allows compilation of a new package of geological maps in hard and electronic versions.

  13. JPSS Proving Ground Activities with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center (United States)

    Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.


    Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed

  14. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.


    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  15. Ground-water, surface-water, and bottom-sediment contamination in the O-field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, and the possible effects of selected remedial actions on ground water (United States)

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Oliveros, James P.


    Disposal of munitions and chemical-warfare substances has introduced inorganic and organic contaminants to the ground water, surface water, and bottom sediment at O-Field, in the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contaminants include chloride, arsenic, transition metals, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic compounds, and organosulfur and organophosphorus compounds. The hydrologic effects of several remedial actions were estimated by use of a ground-water-flow model. The remedial actions examined were an impermeable covering, encapsulation, subsurface barriers, a ground-water drain, pumping of wells to manage water levels or to remove contaminated ground water for treatment, and no action.

  16. Lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected using Hoverprobe drilling techniques at the West Branch Canal Creek wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, April-May 2000 (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Senus, Michael P.; Olsen, Lisa D.


    This report presents lithologic and groundwater- quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and groundwater sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  17. Military Base Realignments and Closures: Army is Developing Plans to Transfer Functions from Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, but Challenges Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) close Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, and realign most of its technical functions to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, as one of 182 recommendations in the 2005 base realignment and closure (BRAC) round...

  18. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.


    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  19. Assessment of volatile organic compounds in surface water at Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, November 1999-September 2000 (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Senus, Michael P.; Spencer, Tracey A.


    The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence and distribution of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, from November 1999 through September 2000. The report describes the differences between years with below normal and normal precipitation, the effects of seasons, tide stages, and location on volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water, and provides estimates of volatile organic concentration loads to the tidal Gunpowder River. Eighty-four environmental samples from 20 surface-water sites were analyzed. As many as 13 different volatile organic compounds were detected in the samples. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds in surface-water samples ranged from below the reporting limit of 0.5 micrograms per liter to a maximum of 50.2 micrograms per liter for chloroform. Chloroform was detected most frequently, and was found in 55 percent of the environmental samples that were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (46 of 84 samples). Carbon tetrachloride was detected in 56 percent of the surface-water samples in the tidal part of the creek (34 of 61 samples), but was only detected in 3 of 23 samples in the nontidal part of the creek. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane was detected in 43 percent of the tidal samples (26 of 61 samples), but was detected at only two nontidal sites and only during November 1999. Three samples were collected from the tidal Gunpowder River about 300 feet from the mouth of Canal Creek in May 2000, and none of the samples contained volatile organic compound concentrations above detection levels. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water were highest in the reaches of the creek adjacent to the areas with the highest known levels of ground-water contamination. The load of total volatile organic compounds from Canal Creek to the Gunpowder River is approximately 1.85 pounds per day (0

  20. Changes in ground-water quality in the Canal Creek Aquifer between 1995 and 2000-2001, West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Phelan, Daniel J.; Fleck, William B.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Olsen, Lisa D.


    Since 1917, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland has been the primary chemical-warfare research and development center for the U.S. Army. Ground-water contamination has been documented in the Canal Creek aquifer because of past disposal of chemical and ordnance manufacturing waste. Comprehensive sampling for volatile organic compounds in ground water by the U.S. Geological Survey in the West Branch Canal Creek area was done in June?October 1995 and June?August 2000. The purpose of this report is (1) to compare volatile organic compound concentrations and determine changes in the ground-water contaminant plumes along two cross sections between 1995 and 2000, and (2) to incorporate data from new piezometers sampled in spring 2001 into the plume descriptions. Along the southern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in 1995 were determined to be highest in the landfill area east of the wetland (5,200 micrograms per liter), and concentrations were next highest deep in the aquifer near the center of the wetland (3,300 micrograms per liter at 35 feet below land surface). When new piezometers were sampled in 2001, higher carbon tetrachloride and chloroform concentrations (2,000 and 2,900 micrograms per liter) were detected deep in the aquifer 38 feet below land surface, west of the 1995 sampling. A deep area in the aquifer close to the eastern edge of the wetland and a shallow area just east of the creek channel showed declines in total volatile organic compound concentrations of more than 25 percent, whereas between those two areas, con-centrations generally showed an increase of greater than 25 percent between 1995 and 2000. Along the northern cross section, total concentrations of volatile organic compounds in ground water in both 1995 and 2000 were determined to be highest (greater than 2,000 micrograms per liter) in piezometers located on the east side of the section, farthest from the creek channel, and concentrations were progressively lower

  1. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04 (United States)

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.


    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  2. Constrained Parameterization of the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves Approach with Application at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona (United States)

    Schwenk, Jacob Tyler

    Field data from Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona was used to test the feasibility of merging common multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) processing routines with mode-consistent shear-wave refraction traveltime tomography and synthetic modeling to optimize and constrain inversion results. Shear-wave first-arrival refraction tomography was used to enhance layer-model resolution and refine the MASW layer model with independent body-wave information. Shear-wave tomograms suggested a high-velocity layer, not found in initial 'smooth' MASW velocity sections that were used as initial models for tomographic inversion. Increasing the stratification of the MASW layer model, to generally match tomogram structure, resulted in a higher-resolution MASW model constrained through joint analysis. This mutual analysis of shear-wave velocity (Vs) provided multiplicity to the structural interpretation of the site. Constrained-parameterization MASW results, compressional-wave tomography (Vp:Vs ratio), and density well logs populated a 2D model for numerical modeling, which was manually updated over several iterations to converge upon the site's first-arrival and dispersion characteristics. Further evaluation of the synthetic seismograms gave insight into the relationship between acquisition geometry (offset selection) and the associated dispersion-image character. Furthermore, modeling gave a secondary measurement on depth to half-space, velocity structure, and relative Vp:Vs ratios, which formulated a final MASW profile. The gradual change of the earth model, given an evolving hierarchy of constraint, is seen as the main finding of this thesis. The calculated movement towards a higher-resolution inversion based on joint geophysical measurements, analysis, and interpretation, engenders a constrained-parameterization solution with highest confidence.

  3. The U.S. Army Occupational and Environmental Medicine Residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: 1960-1996. (United States)

    Gaydos, Joel C; Mallon, Timothy M; Rice, William A


    Reorganization of the Army and critical assessment of Army Graduate Medical Education programs prompted the Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) Consultant to the Army Surgeon General to initiate a review of current Army OEM residency training. Available information indicated the Army OEM residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was the first and longest operating Army OEM residency. Describing this residency was identified as the first step in the review, with the objectives of determining why the residency was started and sustained and its relevance to the needs of the Army. Records possibly related to the residency were reviewed, starting with 1954 since certification of physicians as Occupation Medicine specialists began in 1955. Interviews were conducted with selected physicians who had strong affiliations with the Army residency and the practice of Army OEM. The Army OEM residency began in 1960 and closed in 1996 with the transfer of Army OEM residency training to the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD. Over 36 years, 47 uniformed residency graduates were identified; 44 were from the Army. Forty graduated between 1982 and 1996. The OEM residency was part of a dynamic cycle. Uniformed OEM leaders identified the knowledge and skills required of military OEM physicians and where these people should be stationed in the global Army. Rotations at military sites to acquire the needed knowledge and skills were integrated into the residency. Residency graduates were assigned to positions where they were needed. Having uniformed residents and preceptors facilitated the development of trust with military leaders and access to areas where OEM physician skills and knowledge could have a positive impact. Early reports indicated the residency was important in recruiting and retaining OEM physicians, with emphasis placed on supporting the Army industrial base. The late 1970s into the 1990s was a more dynamic period. There was

  4. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.


    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  5. Evaluation of a laser equipped rifle for the US Army Human Engineering Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, January 1977. Nonionizing radiation protection special study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, T.L.; Del Valle, P.F.


    A special study of the optical radiation hazards associated with the operation of a He-Ne laser mounted to an American International Corporation Model 180 Law Enforcement Rifle was performed by this Agency. Radiometric measurements were conducted on 11 January 1977, for the US Army Human Engineering Laboratory at Aberdeen Proving Ground. It was determined that the protection standards for momentary viewing were exceeded out to a hazard distance of 9 m and to 100 m when viewing through an optical instrument. Long-term staring at the laser from within the beam exceeded the protection standards out to a caution distance of 490 m. (Author)

  6. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, L.; Cho, E. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Wrobel, J. [US Army Directorate of Safety, Health, and the Environment, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers.

  7. Preliminary assessment of microbial communities and biodegradation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in wetlands at Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Spencer, Tracey A.


    A preliminary assessment of the microbial communities and biodegradation processes for chlorinated volatile organic compounds was con-ducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in wetlands at the Cluster 13, Lauderick Creek area at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The U.S. Geological Survey collected wetland sediment samples from 11 sites in the Lauderick Creek area for microbial analyses, and used existing data to evaluate biodegradation processes and rates. The bacterial and methanogen communities in the Lauderick Creek wetland sediments were similar to those observed in a previous U.S. Geological Survey study at the West Branch Canal Creek wet-land area, Aberdeen Proving Ground. Evaluation of the degradation rate of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and the daughter compounds produced also showed similar results for the two wetlands. How-ever, a vertical profile of contaminant concentra-tions in the wetlands was available at only one site in the Lauderick Creek area, and flow velocities in the wetland sediment are unknown. To better evaluate natural attenuation processes and rates in the wetland sediments at Lauderick Creek, chemi-cal and hydrologic measurements are needed along ground-water flowpaths in the wetland at additional sites and during different seasons. Nat-ural attenuation in the wetlands, enhanced biore-mediation, and constructed wetlands could be feasible remediation methods for the chlorinated volatile organic compounds discharging in the Lauderick Creek area. The similarities in the microbial communities and biodegradation pro-cesses at the Lauderick Creek and West Branch Canal Creek areas indicate that enhanced bioreme-diation techniques currently being developed for the West Branch Canal Creek wetland area would be transferable to this area.

  8. Water-quality and water-level data for a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, October 1998-September 1999 (United States)

    Spencer, Tracey A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Mount, Mastin M.


    This report presents water-quality data for ground-water and surface-water samples and water-level data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1998 through September 1999 at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The report also provides a description of the sampling and analytical methods that were used to collect and analyze the samples, and includes an evaluation of the quality-assurance data. The ground-water sampling network includes 88 wells or piezometers, including four 2-inch wells, two 4-inch wells, thirty 0.75-inch piezo-meters, and fifty-two 0.25-inch piezometers. Water levels were measured in 105 wells or piezometers. Surface-water samples were collected at five sites. Samples were collected from wells and 0.75-inch piezometers for measurement of field parameters, and analysis of inorganic and organic constituents during three sampling rounds: March, May through June, and July through August of 1999. Inorganic constituents and organic constituents were analyzed in samples collected from 0.25-inch piezometers during three sampling rounds in February through March, May, and September of 1999. Water levels were measured in October and November of 1998, and in February and May of 1999. Surface-water samples were collected between February and August of 1999 for analysis of organic constituents.

  9. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others


    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  10. Microbial Consortia Development and Microcosm and Column Experiments for Enhanced Bioremediation of Chlorinated Volatile Organic Compounds, West Branch Canal Creek Wetland Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Majcher, Emily H.; Jones, Elizabeth J.; Voytek, Mary A.


    Chlorinated solvents, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, carbon tetrachloride, and chloroform, are reaching land surface in localized areas of focused ground-water discharge (seeps) in a wetland and tidal creek in the West Branch Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, the U.S. Geological Survey is developing enhanced bioremediation methods that simulate the natural anaerobic degradation that occurs without intervention in non-seep areas of the wetland. A combination of natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation could provide a remedy for the discharging ground-water plumes that would minimize disturbance to the sensitive wetland ecosystem. Biostimulation (addition of organic substrate or nutrients) and bioaugmentation (addition of microbial consortium), applied either by direct injection at depth in the wetland sediments or by construction of a permeable reactive mat at the seep surface, were tested as possible methods to enhance anaerobic degradation in the seep areas. For the first phase of developing enhanced bioremediation methods for the contaminant mixtures in the seeps, laboratory studies were conducted to develop a microbial consortium to degrade 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and its chlorinated daughter products under anaerobic conditions, and to test biostimulation and bioaugmentation of wetland sediment and reactive mat matrices in microcosms. The individual components required for the direct injection and reactive mat methods were then combined in column experiments to test them under groundwater- flow rates and contaminant concentrations observed in the field. Results showed that both direct injection and the reactive mat are promising remediation methods, although the success of direct injection likely would depend on adequately distributing and maintaining organic substrate throughout the wetland sediment in the seep

  11. Effect of Fe(III) on 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane degradation and vinyl chloride accumulation in wetland sediments of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States)

    Jones, Elizabeth; Voytek, Mary; Lorah, Michelle


    1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (TeCA) contaminated groundwater at the Aberdeen Proving Ground discharges through an anaerobic wetland in West Branch Canal Creek (MD), where dechlorination occurs. Two microbially mediated pathways, dichloroelimination and hydrogenolysis, account for most of the TeCA degradation at this site. The dichloroelimination pathways lead to the formation of vinyl chloride (VC), a recalcitrant carcinogen of great concern. The goal of this investigation was to determine whether microbially-available Fe(III) in the wetland surface sediment influenced the fate of TeCA and its daughter products. Differences were identified in the TeCA degradation pathway between microcosms treated with amorphous ferric oxyhydroxide (AFO-treated) and untreated (no AFO) microcosms. TeCA degradation was accompanied by a lower accumulation of VC in AFO-treated microcosms than untreated microcosms. The microcosm incubations and subsequent experiments with the microcosm materials showed that AFO treatment resulted in lower production of VC by (1) shifting TeCA degradation from dichloroelimination pathways to production of a greater proportion of chlorinated ethane products, and (2) decreasing the microbial capability to produce VC from 1,2-dichloroethene (DCE). VC degradation was not stimulated in the presence of Fe(III). Rather, VC degradation occurred readily under methanogenic conditions and was inhibited under Fe(III)-reducing conditions.

  12. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.


    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  13. Use and Evaluation of Psuedo-Geostationary Lightning Mapping Data within the 2010 Experimental Warning Program and GOES-R Proving Ground (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. M.; Siewert, C.; Stano, G. T.; Bruning, E. C.; Kingfield, D.; Baranowski, B.


    The primary objective of the Experimental Warning Program (EWP) is to evaluate the accuracy and the operational utility of new science, technology, and products in a testbed setting in order to gain feedback for improvements prior to their potential implementation into National Weather Service (NWS) operations. A developmental product for the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) was demonstrated during the Spring 2010 EWP as part of the GOES-R Proving Ground. This product was created using data from ground-based Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) networks sorted into flashes and displayed at the 8 km resolution expected with the GLM. During the EWP, forecasters were able to examine the lightning data in AWIPS in conjunction with radar and other multi-sensor products as part of their warning-decision process for both real-time and archive events. Forecasters were then asked to provide feedback through both online surveys following the event and discussion with lead scientists. In general, the PGLM products provided a strong support tool for the forecasters and helped increase forecaster confidence to warn or not warn on a storm. Forecasters viewed future GLM data as a “great tool” or a possible “mainstream product” for “situational awareness.” Multiple forecaster comments echoed the idea of using the GLM data as an additional tool to radar, particularly during the early stages of storm development. Suggestions were given regarding display of the data as well as for future product integration. This feedback will help shape the design of the products and educational tools concerning lightning data ahead of the availability of GOES-R data in the local NWS offices. In addition to the individual forecaster feedback, all warnings issued by the forecasters during the EWP have been scored (POD, FAR) and compared with the official NWS warnings to determine what type of influence the GOES-R products may have had on the warning decision process as well as on

  14. Design and Performance of an Enhanced Bioremediation Pilot Test in a Tidal Wetland Seep, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Majcher, Emily H.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Phelan, Daniel J.; McGinty, Angela L.


    Because of a lack of available in situ remediation methods for sensitive wetland environments where contaminated groundwater discharges, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, conceived, designed, and pilot tested a permeable reactive mat that can be placed horizontally at the groundwater/surface-water interface. Development of the reactive mat was part of an enhanced bioremediation study in a tidal wetland area along West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where localized areas of preferential discharge (seeps) transport groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the Canal Creek aquifer to land surface. The reactive mat consisted of a mixture of commercially available organic- and nutrient-rich peat and compost that was bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium, WBC-2, developed for this study. Due to elevated chlorinated methane concentrations in the pilot test site, a layer of zero-valent iron mixed with the peat and compost was added at the base of the reactive mat to promote simultaneous abiotic and biotic degradation. The reactive mat for the pilot test area was designed to optimize chlorinated volatile organic compound degradation efficiency without altering the geotechnical and hydraulic characteristics, or creating undesirable water quality in the surrounding wetland area, which is referred to in this report as achieving geotechnical, hydraulic, and water-quality compatibility. Optimization of degradation efficiency was achieved through the selection of a sustainable organic reactive matrix, electron donor, and bioaugmentation method. Consideration of geotechnical compatibility through design calculations of bearing capacity, settlement, and geotextile selection showed that a 2- to 3-feet tolerable thickness of the mat was possible, with 0.17 feet settlement predicted for

  15. 3-D Waveguide Effects of Topographical Structural Variation on Full Waveform Propagation: 3-D Finite Difference Modeling Comparisons with Field Data From Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona (United States)

    Anderson, T. S.; Miller, R.; Greenfield, R.; Fisk, D.


    The propagation of seismic waves through regions of complex topography is not thoroughly understood. Surface waves, are of particular interest, as they are large in amplitude and can characterize the source depth, magnitude, and frequency content. The amplitude and frequency content of seismic waves that propagate in regions with large topographical variations are affected by both the scattering and blockage of the wave energy. The ability to predict the 3-d scattering due to topography will improve the understanding of both regional scale surface wave magnitudes, and refine surface wave discriminants as well as at the local scale (Smart Weapons Test Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The result of the KGS characterization study is a high-resolution 3-d model that is used in our seismic simulations. The velocities Vs, Vp are calculated by tomography and refraction, attenuation coefficients estimated from the surface wave and from p-waves and are provided in a model with attributes resolved in 3-d to 0.5 meters. In the present work, we present comparisons of synthetic data with seismic data collected at the Smart Weapons Test Range to benchmark the accuracy achieved in simulating 3-d wave propagation in the vicinity of a topographical anomaly (trench). Synthetic seismograms are generated using a 3-d 8th order staggered grid visco-elastic finite difference code that accounts for topography. The geologic model is based on the Yuma site characterization. The size of these calculations required use of the DoD High Performance Computers and parallelized code. Results are compared with field data. Preliminary results show an excellent match with field data using the 3-d fdtd technique.

  16. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.


    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  17. Stratigraphy and geophysical logs from a corehole drilled to bedrock at Robins Point, J-Field, Edgewood area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Powars, D.S.


    A continuous core was recovered from a 961-foot- deep stratigraphic corehole at Robins Point, located at the southeastern tip of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula, Harford County, Maryland. A 2-inch- diameter ground-water-quality observation well was installed with the screen set at a depth of 392 to 402 feet (ft). Geophysical logs obtained from thecorehole include: natural gamma, multipoint normal resistivity (16-inch and 64-inch), 4-ft-guard focused resistivity, acoustic (sonic) velocity, and caliper. Pollen analysis of 34 samples provided relativestratigraphic ages. Lithologies encountered in ascending order (surface elevation 4 ft above mean sea level), include: 72.4 ft of weatheredmetamorphic rock and saprolie, 711.4 ft of lower and upper Cretaceous fluvio-deltaic deposits, and 145.9 ft of Pleistocene and 31.3 ft of Holocene(?) fluvial and estuarine deposits. Aquifers and confining units identified include, in descending order: 41.8 ft of surficial aquifer, 90.9 ft of upper paleochannel confining unit, 28.8 ft of paleochannel confined aquifer, 15.7 ft of lower paleochannel confining unit, 123.7 ft of Upper Patapsco aquifer, 44.6 ft of Upper Patapsco confining unit, 92.8 ft of Middle Patapsco aquifer, 57.3 ft of Lower Patapsco confining unit, 151.7 ft of Lower Patapsco aquifer, 115.4 ft of Potomac confining unit, 126.4 ft of Patuxent aquifer, an aquifer of 23.4 ft of saprolite, and 48.7 ft of weathered-rock/saprolite confining unit.

  18. The proving grounds: combat nursing in Vietnam. (United States)

    Levasseur, Jeanne J


    The profession of nursing has been greatly influenced by war, and the heroic nature of the work of nursing is often emphasized during war. The purpose of this research was to examine the stories of nurses' experiences during combat in Vietnam and identify themes that would corroborate, refute, or expand prior historical research. A content analysis to determine recurrent themes was performed on 18 oral histories of military nurses who served in Vietnam that were previously collected and published. Analysis of these collections of oral histories was conducted, and thick quotes contextualize and substantiate the thematic claims. This research confirms the analysis of prior historical research on nursing in Vietnam by finding similar experiences recorded in oral histories and further claims that an authentic professional identity is often forged during the hardships and heroic opportunities of war.

  19. Additional Soil Evaluations at Yuma Proving Ground

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kurtz, James


    .... These tests were performed for the Army Research Laboratory. The objectives of this effort were primarily to characterize the soil conditions, particularly moisture and dielectric permittivity, in support of anticipated unexploded ordnance (UXO...

  20. On Mathematical Proving (United States)

    Stefaneas, Petros; Vandoulakis, Ioannis M.


    This paper outlines a logical representation of certain aspects of the process of mathematical proving that are important from the point of view of Artificial Intelligence. Our starting-point is the concept of proof-event or proving, introduced by Goguen, instead of the traditional concept of mathematical proof. The reason behind this choice is that in contrast to the traditional static concept of mathematical proof, proof-events are understood as processes, which enables their use in Artificial Intelligence in such contexts, in which problem-solving procedures and strategies are studied. We represent proof-events as problem-centered spatio-temporal processes by means of the language of the calculus of events, which captures adequately certain temporal aspects of proof-events (i.e. that they have history and form sequences of proof-events evolving in time). Further, we suggest a "loose" semantics for the proof-events, by means of Kolmogorov's calculus of problems. Finally, we expose the intented interpretations for our logical model from the fields of automated theorem-proving and Web-based collective proving.

  1. Interactive Theorem Proving and Verification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Research in the area of automated reasoning is largely concentrated around two major themes – Automated Theorem Proving and Interactive Theorem Proving. The goal of Auto- mated Theorem Proving, as the name suggests, is to try to prove a wide range of mathematical theorems using a computer in an automatic ...

  2. Anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and association with microbial communities in a freshwater tidal wetland, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland : laboratory experiments and comparisons to field data (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Voytek, Mary A.; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Jones, Elizabeth J.


    Defining biodegradation rates and processes is a critical part of assessing the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation as a remediation method for ground water containing organic contaminants. During 1998?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a microbial study at a freshwater tidal wetland along the West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, as part of an investigation of natural attenuation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the wetland sediments. Geochemical analyses and molecular biology techniques were used to investigate factors controlling anaerobic degradation of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TeCA), and to characterize the microbial communities that potentially are important in its degradation. Rapid TeCA and daughter product degradation observed in laboratory experiments and estimated with field data confirm that natural attenuation is a feasible remediation method at this site. The diverse microbial community that seems to be involved in TeCA degradation in the wetland sediments varies with changing spatial and seasonal conditions, allowing continued effective natural attenuation throughout the year. Rates of TeCA degradation in anaerobic microcosm experiments conducted with wetland sediment collected from two different sites (WB23 and WB30) and during three different seasons (March?April 1999, July?August 1999, and October?November 2000) showed little spatial variability but high seasonal variability. Initial first-order degradation rate constants for TeCA ranged from 0.10?0.01 to 0.16?0.05 per day (half-lives of 4.3 to 6.9 days) for March?April 1999 and October?November 2000 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius, whereas lower rate constants of 0 ? 0.03 and 0.06 ? 0.03 per day were obtained in July?August 1999 microcosms incubated at 19 degrees Celsius. Microbial community profiles showed that low microbial biomass and microbial diversity in the summer, possibly due to competition for nutrients by the

  3. Geometric inequalities methods of proving

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk


    This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .

  4. A Cyber Proving Ground: The Search for Cyber Genius (United States)


    medium but also the message.15 Media theorist Marshall McLuhan suggested that advanced technological com- munication mediums, such as the Internet or...telecommunication systems, have evolved into their own messages to share with the world. Furthermore, McLuhan the- orized that evolutions in

  5. Pacific Proving Grounds radioisotope imprint in the Philippine Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Roos, Per; Qiao, Jixin


    Radionuclide concentrations were studied in sediment cores taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial Western Pacific. High resolution deposition records of anthropogenic radionuclides were collected at this site. Excess 210Pb together with excess 228...

  6. ASTAMIDS minefield detection performance at Aberdeen Proving Ground test site (United States)

    Maksymonko, George B.; Breiter, Karin


    The airborne standoff minefield detection systems (ASTAMIDS) is an airborne imaging system designed for deployment as a modular mission payload on an unmanned aerial vehicle and capable of detecting surface and buried anti-tank mines under all-weather, day/night conditions. Its primary mission is to support a forward maneuver unit with real time intelligence regarding the existence and extent of minefields in their operational area. The ASTAMIDS development effort currently consists of two parallel technical approaches, passive thermal IR sensor technology in one case and an active multi-channel sensor utilizing passive thermal IR coregistered with a near IR laser polarization data for the other case. The minefield detection capability of this system is a result of signal processing of image data. Due to the large quantities of data generated by an imaging sensor even at modest speeds of an unmanned aerial vehicle, manual exploitation of this data is not feasible in a real time tactical environment and therefore computer aided target feature extraction is a necessity to provide detection cues. Our development efforts over the past several years have concentrated on mine and minefield detection algorithms, the hardware necessary to execute these algorithms in real time, and the tools with which to measure detection performance.

  7. Hydrogeology of the Canal Creek area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)

    Oliveros, J.P.; Vroblesky, D.A.


    Geologic and borehole geophysical logs made at 77 sites show that the hydrogeologic framework of the study area consists of a sequence of unconsolidated sediments typical of the Coastal Plain of Maryland. Three aquifers and two confining units were delineated within the study area. From the surface down, they are: (1) the surficial aquifer; (2) the upper confining unit; (3) the Canal Creek aquifer; (4) the lower confining unit; and (5) the lower confined aquifer. The aquifer materials range from fine sand to coarse sand and gravel. Clay lenses were commonly found interfingered with the sand, isolating parts of the aquifers. All the units are continuous throughout the study area except for the upper confining unit, which crops out within the study area but is absent in updip outcrops. The unit also is absent within a Pleistocene paleochannel, where it has been eroded. The surficial and Canal Creek aquifers are hydraulically connected where the upper confining unit is absent, and a substantial amount of groundwater may flow between the two aquifers. Currently, no pumping stresses are known to affect the aquifers within the study area. Under current conditions, downward vertical hydraulic gradients prevail at topographic highs, and upward gradients typically prevail near surface-water bodies. Regionally, the direction of groundwater flow in the confined aquifers is to the east and southeast. Significant water level fluctuations correspond with seasonal variations in rainfall, and minor daily fluctuations reflect tidal cycles. (USGS)

  8. Yuma Proving Ground GEM-3-E Data Collection (United States)


    severe desert environment. The soils in this region generally consist of calcium carbonate materials that tend to cement together in the soil, producing...desert region may have a horizon of calcium carbonates that tend to cement together in the soil, producing hard layers in the subsurface. The...determine the magnitude of the lag. The instrument was placed on a ferrite core calibration item (see Figure 8) with the DGPS streaming position data

  9. Edgewood Area - Aberdeen Proving Ground Five-Year Review (United States)


    STORAGE AREA-CL 12 IP 1995 EAOE16 M-FLD MINE-FLD/P-TYPE BLDG. STO AREA C16 IP EAOE19 FORT HOYLE TRAINING AREA-CLUSTER 19 IP 1994 1997 EAOE19 FORT HOYLE ...the presence of residual white phosphorus (WP). Due to the excavation not being backfilled, a 3.6-acre pond was created. Based on historical...The removal created a 3.6-acre pond where the excavation penetrated the water table. 2.3.2 Land and Resource Use Old O-Field, located in the

  10. Demonstration of MPV Sensor at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ (United States)


    data quality is similar – the receiver coils essentially behave like point receivers. Balsa wood was used instead of solid plastic; - Wood and...directly related to the acreage to be surveyed as well as the difficulty of the terrain (steep, rocky, very uneven, and wooded terrain will take...maneuverable and sturdier sensor head. Figure 27: Original MPV sensor head design (head weight: 23 lbs). The original design was built out of wood

  11. Terör Örgütlerinin Kimlik İnşasında Etkisi: PYD-YPG ve Suriye'de Kürt Kimliği


    DEMİREL, Gözde


    Arap Baharı ile başlayan Ortadoğu’daki ayaklanmalar, bölgedeki mevcut denkleme devlet dışı aktörleri de dahil ederek yapıyı daha da karmaşıklaştırmıştır. Suriye’de, Mart 2011’de başlayan devrime, devlet dışı bir aktör olarak PKK’nın Suriye kolu olan PYD (Demokratik Birlik Partisi)-YPG (Halk Savunma Birliği), bir yıl sonra Kamışlı’da başlayan eylemleriyle dahil olmuştur. Makale, PYD-YPG’nin bölgedeki stratejik, jeopolitik varlığı ve hedeflerinden ziyade, örgütün bölgede yürüttüğü kimlik inşa p...

  12. Proving allelopathy in crop-weed interactions (United States)

    Allelopathy (plant/plant chemical warfare) is difficult to prove, especially when competition for resources is the dominant component of plant/plant interference (interference = allelopathy +competition). This paper describes experimental approaches for proving allelopathy and points out common pit...

  13. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang


    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  14. APTE: An Algorithm for Proving Trace Equivalence


    Cheval, Vincent


    This paper presents APTE, a new tool for automatically proving the security of cryptographic protocols. It focuses on proving trace equivalence between processes, which is crucial for specifying privacy type properties such as anonymity and unlinkability.\\ud \\ud The tool can handle protocols expressed in a calculus similar to the applied-pi calculus, which allows us to capture most existing protocols that rely on classical cryptographic primitives. In particular, APTE handles private channels...

  15. Proving program inclusion using Hoare's logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Klop, J.W.


    We explore conservative refinements of specifications. These form a quite appropriate framework for a proof theory for program inclusion based on a proof theory for program correctness. We propose two formalized proof methods for program inclusion and prove these to be sound. Both methods are

  16. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process (United States)

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John


    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  17. Proving a Result in Combinatorics using Equations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 2. Proving a Result in Combinatorics using Equations. V Rajesh. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 2 February 2004 pp 85-87. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  18. On proving syntactic properties of CPS programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Dzafic, Belmina; Pfenning, Frank


    Higher-order program transformations raise new challenges for proving properties of their output, since they resist traditional, first-order proof techniques. In this work, we consider (1) the “one-pass” continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation, which is second-order, and (2) the occurrences...... of parameters of continuations in its output. To this end, we specify the one-pass CPS transformation relationally and we use the proof technique of logical relations....

  19. Automated theorem proving theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty


    As the 21st century begins, the power of our magical new tool and partner, the computer, is increasing at an astonishing rate. Computers that perform billions of operations per second are now commonplace. Multiprocessors with thousands of little computers - relatively little! -can now carry out parallel computations and solve problems in seconds that only a few years ago took days or months. Chess-playing programs are on an even footing with the world's best players. IBM's Deep Blue defeated world champion Garry Kasparov in a match several years ago. Increasingly computers are expected to be more intelligent, to reason, to be able to draw conclusions from given facts, or abstractly, to prove theorems-the subject of this book. Specifically, this book is about two theorem-proving programs, THEO and HERBY. The first four chapters contain introductory material about automated theorem proving and the two programs. This includes material on the language used to express theorems, predicate calculus, and the rules of...

  20. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene


    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  1. Has the Agrotherm method proved useful

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schikora, G.


    The author reports on the Agrotherm project. It was planned not to carry off the waste heat of power plants via conventional cooling towers but to use the heat for heating agricultural areas by conducting the hot waste water through pipes buried in the ground. One hopes to improve the yield by this measure.

  2. Interval logic. Proof theory and theorem proving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Marthedal


    of a direction of an interval, and present a sound and complete Hilbert proof system for it. Because of its generality, SIL can conveniently act as a general formalism in which other interval logics can be encoded. We develop proof theory for SIL including both a sequent calculus system and a labelled natural...... deduction system. We conduct theoretical investigations of the systems with respect to subformula properties, proof search, etc. The generic theorem proving system Isabelle is used as a framework for encoding both proof theoretical systems. We consider a number of examples/small case-studies and discuss...

  3. Resolution methods in proving the program correctness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markoski Branko


    Full Text Available Program testing determines whether its behavior matches the specification, and also how it behaves in different exploitation conditions. Proving of program correctness is reduced to finding a proof for assertion that given sequence of formulas represents derivation within a formal theory of special predicted calculus. A well-known variant of this conception is described: correctness based on programming logic rules. It is shown that programming logic rules may be used in automatic resolution procedure. Illustrative examples are given, realized in prolog-like LP-language (with no restrictions to Horn's clauses and without the final failure. Basic information on LP-language are also given. It has been shown how a Pascal-program is being executed in LP-system proffer.

  4. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design (United States)

    O'Leary, John


    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  5. Valutazione economica dello studio PROVE-IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G. Mantovani


    Full Text Available Introduction: the PROVE-IT (“Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes” was a comparison of pravastatin 40 mg/die versus atorvastatin 80 mg/die in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs usual-dose of pravastatin in Italian patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome. Methods: the analysis is conducted on the basis of clinical outcomes of the PROVE-IT study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus usual-dose of pravastatin (40 mg/die in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2006. Effects were measured in terms of mortality and morbidity reduction (number of deaths, life years gained and frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 24 months. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. We also conducted a threshold analysis. Results: the cost of pravastatin or atorvastatin therapy over the 2 years period amounted to approximately 1.3 millions euro and 870,000 euro per 1,000 patients respectively. Atorvastatin was more efficacious compared to pravastatin and the overall cost of care per 1,000 patients over 24 months of follow-up was estimated at 3.2 millions euro in the pravastatin and 2.5 millions euro in the atorvastatin group, resulting into a cost saving of about 700,000 euro that is 27% of total costs occurred in the pravastatin group. Discussion: this study demonstrates that high does atorvastatin treatment leads to a reduction of direct costs for the National Health System

  6. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY! (United States)

    Buttram, J. W.


    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  7. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving... (United States)


    ... Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air Force Base... Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving Ground Command, Eglin Air... regulations. (1) Experimental test operations will be conducted by the U.S. Air Force within the prohibited...

  8. Information Management for Installation Restoration with Focus on Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland (United States)


    would be identi- fied as an error during the data QA check. On the other hand, a typographi - cal error such as entering ൜" instead of 薘" ft for...input. This menu -driven, interacting program checks data as they are entered for compati- bility with the IRDMIS system. This is the same program used by...generated from reports written from IRDMIS. Standard reports exist in the IRDMIS IR menu , but tailored reports can also be written, as discussed in Part

  9. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Dugway Proving Ground. (United States)


    kangaroo rats, gophers, and other rodents. Rodent species composition varies between plant communities (Vest 1962), but carnivores and omnivores range more...conducted in the fall and winter, when the fur and meat was at prime. Gophers, an abundant source of food, were trapped or flooded out of their holes...sometimes located in the center with a smokehole at the top. Household goods consisted of mano and metates used for grinding seeds, insects, meat

  10. Historic American Landscapes Survey: Arco Naval Proving Ground (Idaho National Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Christina [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Holmer, Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Based on historical evaluations in 1993 and 1997, historians determined that the then-remaining Arco NPG structures were significant to the nation’s history through their association with World War II . Through ensuing discussions with the SHPO, it was further determined that the infrastructure and associated landscape were also significant. According to provisions of INL’s Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) as legitimized through a 2004 Programmatic Agreement between DOE-ID, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) historians identified the World War II structures as DOE “Signature Properties”. As defined by DOE-HQ, Signature Properties “denote its [DOE’s] most historically important properties across the complex…and/or those properties that are viewed as having tourism potential.” The INL is a secure site and the INL land and structures are not accessible to the public and, therefore have no “tourism potential”. Although DOE-ID actively sought other uses for the vacant, unused buildings, none were identified and the buildings present safety and health concerns. A condition assessment found lead based paint, asbestos, rodent infestation/droppings, small animal carcasses, mold, and, in CF-633, areas of radiological contamination. In early 2013, DOE-ID notified the Idaho SHPO, ACHP, and, as required by the INL CRMP and PA, DOE-Headquarters Federal Preservation Officer, of their intent to demolish the vacant buildings (CF-606, CF-607, CF-613, CF-632, and CF-633). The proposed “end-state” of the buildings will be either grass and/or gravel pads. Through the NHPA Section 106 consultation process, measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of demolition were determined and agreed to through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DOE-ID, SHPO, and ACHP. The measures include the development and installation of interpretive signs to be placed at a publicly accessible location, retention of original components of CF-633, and completion of this HALS standard format report. Buildings, infrastructure, and features that are not scheduled for removal are documented here as well as properties that are scheduled for removal and the overall Arco NPG landscape. The Arco NPG, located in the remote high-desert of eastern Idaho aided in the defense and eventual ally victory in the Pacific Theater of World War II, in addition to revising national standards for the safe storage and transport of conventional ordnance.

  11. A hierarchical approach to ecological assessment of contaminated soils at Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G.


    Despite the expansion of environmental toxicology studies over the past decade, soil ecosystems have largely been ignored in ecotoxicological studies in the United States. The objective of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a comprehensive methodology for assessing ecological impacts of soil contamination. A hierarchical approach that integrates biotic parameters and ecosystem processes was used to give insight into the mechanisms that lead to alterations in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in contaminated areas. This approach involved (1) a thorough survey of the soil biota to determine community structure, (2) laboratory and field tests on critical ecosystem processes, (3) toxicity trials, and (4) the use of spatial analyses to provide input to the decision-making, process. This methodology appears to, offer an efficient and potentially cost-saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.

  12. Assessment of Aberdeen Proving Ground - Army Contracting Command, Contract Management Processes (United States)


    transparency within public administration (Schapper et al., 2006). “ Value for money is the core principle governing public procurement and is supported...2008, p.782). In turn, public entities should strive to achieve the “ value for money ” for the public through use of elements to include customer...achieving value for money and providing the highest quality services and products to the customer (Cavanagh et al., 1999). Weele (2010) conducted a

  13. ESTCP Munitions Response Live Site Demonstrations, Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas Demonstration Report (United States)


    three transmitters and 21 receiver loops. The collected data were inverted and analyzed using the UX-Analyze Advanced module in Geosoft Oasis montaj ...on 2,116 targets. The static cued data were processed using Geosoft Oasis montaj software, Advanced UX-Analyze module to extract the three principal...converted to ASCII *.CSV files using Geometrics EM3D data conversion software. Converted data were then imported into Geosoft Oasis montaj for processing

  14. Conference on Receptor-Based Biosensors (3rd) Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, September 1987 (United States)


    residue, or a serine, threonine , %r cystidine. We looked at ATP hydrolysis with this and we didn’t gai any advantage. When we restricted it by...chosen, azobenzene is found in literature going back to about the early 1940’s. Azohenzene 92 is essentially nonpolar with no dipole moment in its normal...compatibility, and an azobenzene derived hydroxyMthylaorylamide monomer to give us this photo conformational property. A small amount of monomer with a reactive

  15. Jefferson Proving Ground, South of the Firing Line Health and Safety Plan, Volume 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    .... The purpose of this Site Health and Safety Plan (SHSP) is to assign SECD personnel health and safety responsibilities, to prescribe mandatory operating procedures, and to establish personal-protective-equipment (PPE...

  16. Personnel and Vehicle Data Collection at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and its Distribution for Research (United States)


    walker’s zig zag pattern...............................................................6 Fig. 7 Day 3 walker’s line horizontal pattern...m apart. Fig. 4 Day 3 walker’s heavy right wedge pattern 6 Fig. 5 Day 3 walker’s diamond pattern Fig. 6 Day 3 walker’s zig zag pattern

  17. Operation JANGLE. Nevada Proving Grounds, October-November 1951. Tests of Service Equipment and Operation (United States)


    ricrocurie of ejvln Sr 9 0 3--e retained in the body). a- PRO=EC 6.3-2 I T-. ii -T -O R I 05 a. 10-6 ISO are reandi tebd) I ii 26 I’~~lawI~ JioJE-T 6.3-2 was...Contaminated Water: Suspended Turbidity 1.7 4 x 10-2 38500 Disuolved 0.85 x 10-2 18820 Total 2.59 x 10-2 57320 After Slurrying with Pow- 0.86 x 10-2 19100... 38500 (suspended turbidity from laboratory f il- tration) 30.75 " " 32870 45.20 M 27036 69.75 " 19630 6.62 Contaminated water 18820 (filtrate from

  18. Design of a Control Moment Gyroscope Attitude Actuation System for the Attitude Control Subsystem Proving Ground (United States)


    control using a CMG array is prone to geometric singularities. Singularities are commonly avoided by limiting a vehicle’s performance via limitation of the...ball bearings, tolerancing and fitting, materials, or balancing. For help in these areas, where I had only general knowledge, we looked to experts

  19. Dugway Proving Ground: Closure Plan Module 2, for SWMUs 20, 164, 166 and 170 (United States)


    PAGE wApme Pubiner soll Moo"" NtIso doem~ me soW N mq Va S amoay uaggm 8=0 "porn soV b~ Someo a a" motra~ioofso -.,,d I, bi~mn bainowi amemminea fr...cross the placenta and accumulate in the amniotic fluid (Danielsson and others, 1986). Associated developmental effects of high doses of chloroform in...inhalation exposure to chromium (VI) compounds. Other effects observed following chromium (VI) exposure include effects on the immune system, nervous

  20. 25 CFR 11.702 - Proving and admitting will. (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proving and admitting will. 11.702 Section 11.702 Indians... ORDER CODE Probate Proceedings § 11.702 Proving and admitting will. (a) Upon initiating the probate of an estate, the will of the decedent shall be filed with the court. Such will may be proven and...

  1. Reasoning and Proving Opportunities in Textbooks: A Comparative Analysis (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi


    In this study, we analyzed and compared reasoning and proving opportunities in geometry lessons from American standard-based textbooks and Korean textbooks to understand how these textbooks provide student opportunities to engage in reasoning and proving activities. Overall, around 40% of exercise problems in Core Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP)…

  2. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It! (United States)

    Klinger, Art


    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  3. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death. (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  4. PROVE Surface albedo of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variations in field measurements of broadband albedo as related to the ground cover and under a range of...

  5. PROVE Surface albedo of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variations in field measurements of broadband albedo as related to the ground cover and under a...

  6. Lodox Statscan proves to be invaluable in forensic medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lodox Statscan proves to be invaluable in forensic medicine: forensic files. GJ Knobel, G Flash, GF Bowie. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Medical Journal Vol. 96(7) 2006: 593-594. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  7. Conditional and preferential logics proof methods and theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Pozzato, GL


    Contains a version of the author's PhD dissertation and focuses on proof methods and theorem proving for conditional and preferential logics. This book introduces proof methods (sequent and tableau calculi) for conditional and preferential logics, as well as theorem provers obtained by implementing the proposed calculi.

  8. Proving the correctness of client/server software

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , formal specification and verification of RPC mechanisms is a prerequisite for the verification of any such software. In this paper, we present a mathematical specification of an RPC mechanism and we outline how to prove the correctness of an ...

  9. Overcoming the Obstacle of Poor Knowledge in Proving Geometry Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Magajna


    Full Text Available Proving in school geometry is not just about validating the truth of a claim. In the school setting, the main function of the proof is to convince someone that a claim is true by providing an explanation. Students consider proving to be difficult; in fact, they find the very concept of proof demanding. Proving a claim in planar geometry involves several processes, the most salient being visual observation and deductive argumentation. These two processes are interwoven, but often poor observation hinders deductive argumentation. In the present article, we consider the possibility of overcoming the obstacle of a student’s poor observation by making use of computer-aided observation with appropriate software. We present the results of two small-scale research projects, both of which indicate that students are able to work out considerably more deductions if computer-aided observation is used. Not all students use computer-aided observation effectively in proving tasks: some find an exhaustive computer-provided list of properties confusing and are not able to choose the properties that are relevant to the task.

  10. Engaging Students in Proving: A Double Bind on the Teacher. (United States)

    Herbst, Patricio G.


    Explores what is involved in the teacher's work of engaging students in producing a proof. Analyzes what teachers do to create a task in which students can produce a proof and what teachers do to get students to prove a proposition. Indicates that traditional, formal, two-column proofs place contradictory demands on teachers regarding how ideas…

  11. Proof phenomenon as a function of the phenomenology of proving. (United States)

    Hipólito, Inês


    Kurt Gödel wrote (1964, p. 272), after he had read Husserl, that the notion of objectivity raises a question: "the question of the objective existence of the objects of mathematical intuition (which, incidentally, is an exact replica of the question of the objective existence of the outer world)". This "exact replica" brings to mind the close analogy Husserl saw between our intuition of essences in Wesensschau and of physical objects in perception. What is it like to experience a mathematical proving process? What is the ontological status of a mathematical proof? Can computer assisted provers output a proof? Taking a naturalized world account, I will assess the relationship between mathematics, the physical world and consciousness by introducing a significant conceptual distinction between proving and proof. I will propose that proving is a phenomenological conscious experience. This experience involves a combination of what Kurt Gödel called intuition, and what Husserl called intentionality. In contrast, proof is a function of that process - the mathematical phenomenon - that objectively self-presents a property in the world, and that results from a spatiotemporal unity being subject to the exact laws of nature. In this essay, I apply phenomenology to mathematical proving as a performance of consciousness, that is, a lived experience expressed and formalized in language, in which there is the possibility of formulating intersubjectively shareable meanings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Feedback theory extended for proving generation of contraction semigroups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurula, Mikael; Zwart, Hans


    Recently, the following novel method for proving the existence of solutions for certain linear time-invariant PDEs was introduced: The operator associated with a given PDE is represented by a (larger) operator with an internal loop. If the larger operator (without the internal loop) generates a

  13. Prove It! Putting Together the Evidence-Based Practice Puzzle (United States)

    Little, Hannah Byrd


    Why is it important to prove that school libraries add value to the school program? The National Center for Education Statistics reports that 20 percent of U.S. public schools lack a full or part-time certified librarian (NCES 2013). In California the ratio of certified school librarians to students is 1:7,374 (California Department of Education…

  14. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Geometri Ruang dengan Model Proving Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Eko Susilo


    Full Text Available Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif mahasiswa masih lemah. Hal ini ditemukan pada mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Geometri Ruang yaitu dalam membuktikan soal-soal pembuktian (problem to proof. Mahasiswa masih menyelesaikan secara algoritmik atau prosedural sehingga diperlukan pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran Geometri Ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model Proving Theorem. Dalam penelitian ini perangkat perkuliahan yang dikembangkan yaitu Silabus, Satuan Acara Perkuliahan (SAP, Kontrak Perkuliahan, Media Pembelajaran, Bahan Ajar, Tes UTS dan UAS serta Angket Karakter Konservasi telah dilaksanakan dengan baik dengan kriteria (1 validasi perangkat pembelajaran mata kuliah Geometri ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model proving theorem berkategori baik dan layak digunakan dan (2 keterlaksanaan RPP pada pembelajaran yang dikembangkan secara keseluruhan berkategori baik.Critical and creative thinking abilities of students still weak. It is found in students who take Space Geometry subjects that is in solving problems to to prove. Students still finish in algorithmic or procedural so that the required the development of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models. This is a research development which refers to the 4-D models that have been modified for the Space Geometry learning tools, second semester academic year 2014/2015. Instruments used include validation sheet, learning tools and character assessment questionnaire. In this research, the learning tools are developed, namely Syllabus, Lesson Plan, Lecture Contract, Learning Media, Teaching Material, Tests, and Character Conservation Questionnaire had been properly implemented with the criteria (1 validation of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models categorized good and feasible to use, and (2 the implementation of Lesson Plan on learning categorized

  15. Unicorns do exist: a tutorial on "proving" the null hypothesis. (United States)

    Streiner, David L


    Introductory statistics classes teach us that we can never prove the null hypothesis; all we can do is reject or fail to reject it. However, there are times when it is necessary to try to prove the nonexistence of a difference between groups. This most often happens within the context of comparing a new treatment against an established one and showing that the new intervention is not inferior to the standard. This article first outlines the logic of "noninferiority" testing by differentiating between the null hypothesis (that which we are trying to nullify) and the "nill" hypothesis (there is no difference), reversing the role of the null and alternate hypotheses, and defining an interval within which groups are said to be equivalent. We then work through an example and show how to calculate sample sizes for noninferiority studies.

  16. Programming and Proving Correctness of the Scanning Algorithm with Backtrack, (United States)


    components A, . A2,...An of the Cartesian product and that all eie- ments of the set A are generated sequentially from them. It is simplest to program how n...the gradual refine- ment of the program and proving its correctness and we do not work towards a meaningful program which will solve a given problem and...Privara, I..- " Teoria a aplikacia formalnej semantiky programovacich jazykov" LThe Theory and Application of ?ormal Semantics in Program- .m~ng

  17. Logic for computer science foundations of automatic theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Gallier, Jean H


    This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in fir

  18. Development of Spatially-Based Emission Factors from Real-Time Measurements of Gaseous Pollutants Using Cermet Sensors (United States)


    tungsten bismuth oxide YPG Yuma Proving Ground YSZ yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide v List of Figures Figure Page Figure 1a...H+ oxidation of adsorbed water (5) h+ + 2OH-(ads) •OH + OH- oxidation of adsorbed hydroxide ions (6) 8 •OH + R R• + H2O propagation... hydroxide radicals, powerful oxidizing species that in turn oxidize sorbed species (described by the mechanisms in Equations 5 through 8). A variety of

  19. Grounded theory


    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate app...

  20. Proving Causation With Epidemiological Evidence in Tobacco Lawsuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Goo Lee


    Full Text Available Recently, a series of lawsuits were filed in Korea claiming tort liability against tobacco companies. The Supreme Court has already issued decisions in some cases, while others are still pending. The primary issue in these cases is whether the epidemiological evidence submitted by the plaintiffs clearly proves the causal relationship between smoking and disease as required by civil law. Proving causation is difficult in tobacco lawsuits because factors other than smoking are involved in the development of a disease, and also because of the lapse of time between smoking and the manifestation of the disease. The Supreme Court (Supreme Court Decision, 2011Da22092, April 10, 2014 has imposed some limitations on using epidemiological evidence to prove causation in tobacco lawsuits filed by smokers and their family members, but these limitations should be reconsidered. First, the Court stated that a disease can be categorized as specific or non-specific, and for each disease type, causation can be proven by different types of evidence. However, the concept of specific diseases is not compatible with multifactor theory, which is generally accepted in the field of public health. Second, when the epidemiological association between the disease and the risk factor is proven to be significant, imposing additional burdens of proof on the plaintiff may considerably limit the plaintiff’s right to recovery, but the Court required the plaintiffs to provide additional information such as health condition and lifestyle. Third, the Supreme Court is not giving greater weight to the evidential value of epidemiological study results because the Court focuses on the fact that these studies were group-level, not individual-level. However, group-level studies could still offer valuable information about individual members of the group, e.g., probability of causation.

  1. On proving confluence modulo equivalence for Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne


    Previous results on proving confluence for Constraint Handling Rules are extended in two ways in order to allow a larger and more realistic class of CHR programs to be considered confluent. Firstly, we introduce the relaxed notion of confluence modulo equivalence into the context of CHR: while...... with meta-level restrictions that reflect the non-logical and incomplete predicates. This language represents subproofs as diagrams, which facilitates a systematic enumeration of proof cases, pointing forward to a mechanical support for such proofs. The Project is supported by The Danish...

  2. Grounded theory. (United States)

    Harris, Tina


    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  3. Model Checking Failed Conjectures in Theorem Proving: A Case Study (United States)

    Pike, Lee; Miner, Paul; Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo


    Interactive mechanical theorem proving can provide high assurance of correct design, but it can also be a slow iterative process. Much time is spent determining why a proof of a conjecture is not forthcoming. In some cases, the conjecture is false and in others, the attempted proof is insufficient. In this case study, we use the SAL family of model checkers to generate a concrete counterexample to an unproven conjecture specified in the mechanical theorem prover, PVS. The focus of our case study is the ROBUS Interactive Consistency Protocol. We combine the use of a mechanical theorem prover and a model checker to expose a subtle flaw in the protocol that occurs under a particular scenario of faults and processor states. Uncovering the flaw allows us to mend the protocol and complete its general verification in PVS.

  4. Formal Analysis of Soft Errors using Theorem Proving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiène Tahar


    Full Text Available Modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits has traditionally been done using computer simulations. Computer simulations cannot guarantee correctness of analysis because they utilize approximate real number representations and pseudo random numbers in the analysis and thus are not well suited for analyzing safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present a higher-order logic theorem proving based method for modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits. Our developed infrastructure includes formalized continuous random variable pairs, their Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF properties and independent standard uniform and Gaussian random variables. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach by modeling and analyzing soft errors in commonly used dynamic random access memory sense amplifier circuits.

  5. A Hybrid Approach to Proving Memory Reference Monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.


    Array references indexed by non-linear expressions or subscript arrays represent a major obstacle to compiler analysis and to automatic parallelization. Most previous proposed solutions either enhance the static analysis repertoire to recognize more patterns, to infer array-value properties, and to refine the mathematical support, or apply expensive run time analysis of memory reference traces to disambiguate these accesses. This paper presents an automated solution based on static construction of access summaries, in which the reference non-linearity problem can be solved for a large number of reference patterns by extracting arbitrarily-shaped predicates that can (in)validate the reference monotonicity property and thus (dis)prove loop independence. Experiments on six benchmarks show that our general technique for dynamic validation of the monotonicity property can cover a large class of codes, incurs minimal run-time overhead and obtains good speedups. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Ground Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis

    Political campaigns today are won or lost in the so-called ground war--the strategic deployment of teams of staffers, volunteers, and paid part-timers who work the phones and canvass block by block, house by house, voter by voter. Ground Wars provides an in-depth ethnographic portrait of two...... of ground war tactics for how we understand political campaigns and what it means to participate in them. He shows how ground wars are waged using resources well beyond those of a given candidate and their staff. These include allied interest groups and civic associations, party-provided technical...... of professionals. Yet he also quashes the romantic idea that canvassing is a purer form of grassroots politics. In today's political ground wars, Nielsen demonstrates, even the most ordinary-seeming volunteer knocking at your door is backed up by high-tech targeting technologies and party expertise. Ground Wars...

  7. Why prove it again? alternative proofs in mathematical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Jr , John W


    This monograph considers several well-known mathematical theorems and asks the question, “Why prove it again?” while examining alternative proofs.   It  explores the different rationales mathematicians may have for pursuing and presenting new proofs of previously established results, as well as how they judge whether two proofs of a given result are different.  While a number of books have examined alternative proofs of individual theorems, this is the first that presents comparative case studies of other methods for a variety of different theorems. The author begins by laying out the criteria for distinguishing among proofs and enumerates reasons why new proofs have, for so long, played a prominent role in mathematical practice.  He then outlines various purposes that alternative proofs may serve.  Each chapter that follows provides a detailed case study of alternative proofs for particular theorems, including the Pythagorean Theorem, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Desargues’ Theorem, the...

  8. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter


    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the character of a certain type of clay till and hereby find the necessary tool in future geographical mapping of the vulnerability of the ground water resources....

  9. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis. (United States)

    Şimşek, Abdullah; Yapıcı, İlhami; Babalık, Mesiha; Şimşek, Zekiye; Kolsuz, Mustafa


    To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both). Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%). Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%). Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF) was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%). Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%). Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%); bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%); fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%); and BAL, in 2 (11.1%). Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7%) of the 18 cases evaluated. In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB. Determinar a distribuição proporcional dos subtipos de tuberculose endobrônquica (TBEB) e avaliar os tipos de procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos que podem revelar inflamação granulomatosa. Este foi um estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes HIV negativos com TBEB comprovada

  10. Canal Creek Study Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Groundwater Monitoring Plan, Final Health and Safety Plan (United States)


    AýNL EE :>22020E 11N BREAST MILK dd. & ACCX2JSS5 PAGE 03 OF 06 * ~HEALTH EFFECTS AND FIRST AID I INHALATION; 1-ASCORBIC ACID: * ACUTE EXPOSURE...rJAOE’ UHTE EV1DEN-EA -iIMA 1NI-E E. ýL-N R ’RE RS jED 7,; - ), 4 ’Jh’ - THE S5 R-4i3 Jrr 15 J5 PRIZ’.: T - - - - - SLS itN N -L -S 4001>’ ’NAL C.A.T

  11. Operation IVY, Pacific Proving Grounds, November 1952. Project 11.5. Radiobiological Studies at Eniwetok before and after Mike Shot (United States)


    8 0.3 2 Urchin and 0 0.2 2 4 4 4 1 0.3 0.02 3 sand dollar Cucumber 0 0.02 0.1 2 0.08 0.08 0.3 1 0.6 0.5 Crustacean 0 0.04 0.03 0.5 0.08 2 0.6 to locality. Compari- son with 1949 findings at Eniwetok shows mutual tendencies toward high activities in samples of hydroids, sponges...Terns are not scavengers and do not eat refuse. The food of the shore birds is composed mostly of insects and small crustaceans found on the beaches

  12. Meeting on Solute/Solvent Interactions Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on May 29-30, 1991 (United States)


    0.55 6 Cysteine Ficin 1 0.57 6 Cysteine Ficin 1I 0.62 6 Cysteine Actinidin 1 0.74 6 Cysteine Bromelain B 1 0.70 6 Cys-Leine Bromelain B 1I 0.68 6...Cysteine Bromelain D 1 0.63 6 Cysteine Subtilisin 1 0.49 7 Serine Chymotrypsin 1 0.42 6.9 Serine Trypsin I Q21L 7 Serine Mean - 0.61 132 Table 11 Browse

  13. Celebrating Success: EPA Region 3 Greener Cleanup and Sustainable Reuse Award Winner: Aberdeen Proving Ground Federal Facility Superfund Site (United States)

    Greener Cleanup practices were implemented as part of a successful Time-Critical Removal Action (TCRA) completed at the APG Former NIKE Missile Site which has resulted in a reduced environmental footprint, accelerated site closure, and a cost savings.

  14. The Use of Succession Planning to Prepare Future Leaders in Selected Federal Agencies at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)


    11, January-February 2008). In the 2009 edition of their book, “Execution: The Discipline of Getting Things Done,” Larry Bossidy and Ram Charan make a...responsibilities. Ram Charan of “Execution” notes that 2 in 5 CEOs fail in their first 18 months on the job because of poor selection. The failure can...8 (Mathis, p. 288). the army civilian talent management program Bossidy and Charan make the case that given the many things businesses can’t control

  15. Focused Feasibility Study Final Health and Safety Plan. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. (United States)


    bite thoroughly with an antiseptic and seek medical attention as soon as possible. The various stages and symptoms of both diseases are well recognized...the bite . The extremely painful characteristics of a pit viper bite (e.g., rattlesnake, copperhead) 4 include rapid swelling that can be identified...Recognition of Symptoms and Signs ........................... 3-7 0 3.1.2 Hazard Communication Program Procedures .......................... 3-7 3.1.3

  16. ESTCP Munitions Response Live Site Demonstrations Southwest Proving Ground, Arkansas Andersen Air Force Base, Guam Cost and Performance Report (United States)


    Complete coverage of the demonstration site Footprint coverage calculated using UX-Process Footprint Coverage Quality Control (QC) tool; excludes...Complete coverage of the demonstration site Footprint coverage calculated using UX-Process Footprint Coverage QC tool; excludes inaccessible...installed  Vegetation thinned  IVS installation  37 seed items installed  Vegetation thinned  IVS installation Data Collection  11.23 acres

  17. Health Risk Assessment of Consuming Deer from Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Report and Appendices A-D (United States)


    acrocyanosis, angina pectoris, hypertension, myocardia! infarction, mesenicric thrombosis, systemic occlusive arterial disease, bronchiectasis, and...Columbia, MS. pp. 13-24. Borgono, J.M.; Vincent , P.; Venturino, H.; Infante, A. 1977. Arsenic in the drinking water of the city of Antofagast

  18. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan (United States)


    tetrachloroethane, TCE, and PCE. Dithlane is an organosulfur compound usually associated with the degradation of mustard. Elevated levels of iron and...34 :!II S!.. I S , I all I -- 1.... 1.. ..... ...I .S, .. .. "•.,. N TABLE A-5 CONCENTRATIONS OF SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC CONSTITUANTS AND ORGANOSULFUR

  19. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas (United States)


    PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Weston Solutions 1400 Weston Way West Chester, PA 19380 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10...centimeter DGM digital geophysical mapping DSB Defense Science Board EE /CA Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis EMI electromagnetic induction...presented in this section is taken from the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis ( EE /CA) [1 and 2]. More details can be obtained in the EE /CA and in

  20. Electrothermal-Chemical Modeling Workshop, Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 12-13 May 1993. Volume 1 (United States)


    141 PC 00 PCu PCU 6PC CPC PCU ~OWN 4E142 ZI POU) CICc S.•,p I I ’P I II P 04 3 143 "CBP EQUATIONS Ve-M ; - Vb =, .- -•)(1) z = 1 2pt 2 ZP 2 Z, - y (3...Phone: 813-578- 8239 Ft. Washington. PA 19034-3211 FAX: 813-578-8119 Phone: 215-542-1200 Mr. Michael Nusca Dr. C. -C Hsiao U.S. Army Research Laboratory

  1. 76 FR 7585 - General Motors Corporation Milford Proving Grounds Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adroit... (United States)


    ... workers of Hewlett Packard formerly known as EDS, Global Product Development, Non-IT Business Development... Packard formerly known as EDS, Global Product Development, Non-IT Business Development Team and..., CDI Professional Services, Engineering Labs, Inc., Global Technology Associates, LTD., IAV Automotive...

  2. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi


    A prominent strand within current migration research argues that, to understand the participation of immigrants in their host societies, we must focus on their incorporation into the cities in which they settle. This article narrows the perspective further by focusing on the role that immigrants...... play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements...

  3. Grounded Intersectionality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marfelt, Mikkel Mouritz


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to build on contemporary intersectional literature to develop a grounded methodological framework for the study of social differences. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic literature review serves as the foundation for a discussion of the challenges...... associated with intersectional research. The findings assist in positioning the proposed methodological framework within recent intersectional debates. Findings – The review shows a rise in intersectional publications since the birth of the “intersectionality” term in 1989. Moreover, the paper points to four...... tensions within the field: a tension between looking at or beyond oppression; a tension between structural-oriented and process-oriented perspectives; an apparent incommensurability among the macro, meso, and micro levels of analysis; and a lack of coherent methodology. Research limitations...

  4. Euthanasia: above ground, below ground. (United States)

    Magnusson, R S


    The key to the euthanasia debate lies in how best to regulate what doctors do. Opponents of euthanasia frequently warn of the possible negative consequences of legalising physician assisted suicide and active euthanasia (PAS/AE) while ignoring the covert practice of PAS/AE by doctors and other health professionals. Against the background of survey studies suggesting that anything from 4% to 10% of doctors have intentionally assisted a patient to die, and interview evidence of the unregulated, idiosyncratic nature of underground PAS/AE, this paper assesses three alternatives to the current policy of prohibition. It argues that although legalisation may never succeed in making euthanasia perfectly safe, legalising PAS/AE may nevertheless be safer, and therefore a preferable policy alternative, to prohibition. At a minimum, debate about harm minimisation and the regulation of euthanasia needs to take account of PAS/AE wherever it is practised, both above and below ground.

  5. Page 1 238 S Kesavan 5. Conclusion It has been proved that non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which has been used only to prove the existence of a solution via a priori estimates. Indeed this condition can be removed and replaced by any other which guarantees the existence of a non-singular solution of the homogenized problem alone. Then the method of this paper can be used to prove (without new hypotheses) ...

  6. Classificació de proves no paramètriques. Com aplicar-les en SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Berlanga-Silvente


    Full Text Available Les proves no paramètriques engloben una sèrie de proves estadístiques, que tenen com a denominador comú l'absència de assumpcions sobre la llei de probabilitat que segueix la població de la qual ha estat extreta la mostra. Per aquesta raó és comú referir-s'hi com a proves de distribució lliure. A l'article es descriuen i treballen les proves no paramètriques ressaltant el seu fonament i les indicacions per al seu ús quan es tracta d'una sola mostra (Chi-quadrat, de dues mostres amb dades independents (U de Mann-Whitney, de dues mostres amb dades relacionades (T de Wilcoxon, de diverses mostres amb dades independents (H de Kruskal-Wallis i de diverses mostres amb dades relacionades (Friedman.

  7. PROVE GOES-8 Images of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As part of the Prototype Validation Experiment (PROVE) at the Jornada Experimental Range, GOES-8 images were collected every 30 minutes for 15 days overlapping the...

  8. PROVE Land Cover and Leaf Area of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Field measurement of shrubland ecological properties is important for both site monitoring and validation of remote-sensing information. During the PROVE exercise on...

  9. The Development of the Proving Process Within a Dynamic Geometry Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danh Nam Nguyen


    Full Text Available In this paper we classify student’s proving level and design an interactive help system (IHS corresponding with these levels in order to investigate the development of the proving process within a dynamic geometry environment. This help system was also used to provide tertiary students with a strategy for proving and to improve their proving levels. The open-ended questions and explorative tasks in the IHS make a contribution to support students’ learning of proving, especially during the processes of realizing invariants, formulating conjectures, producing arguments, and writing proofs. This research wants to react on the well-known students’ difficulties in writing a formal proof. The hypothesis of this work is that these difficulties are based on the lack of students’ understanding the relationship between argumentation and proof. Therefore, we used Toulmin model to analyze student’s argumentation structure and examine the role of abduction in writing a deductive proof. Furthermore, this paper also provides mathematics teachers with three basic conditions for understanding the development of the proving process and teaching strategies for assisting their students in constructing formal proofs.

  10. Ground states of linearly coupled Schrodinger systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidong Liu


    Full Text Available This article concerns the standing waves of a linearly coupled Schrodinger system which arises from nonlinear optics and condensed matter physics. The coefficients of the system are spatially dependent and have a mixed behavior: they are periodic in some directions and tend to positive constants in other directions. Under suitable assumptions, we prove that the system has a positive ground state. In addition, when the L-infinity-norm of the coupling coefficient tends to zero, the asymptotic behavior of the ground states is also obtained.

  11. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  12. Formalizing and proving a typing result for security protocols in Isabelle/HOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Andreas Viktor; Modersheim, Sebastian


    or the positive output of a verification tool. However several of these works have used a typed model, where the intruder is restricted to "well-typed" attacks. There also have been several works that show that this is actually not a restriction for a large class of protocols, but all these results so far...... are again pen-and-paper proofs. In this work we present a formalization of such a typing result in Isabelle/HOL. We formalize a constraint-based approach that is used in the proof argument of such typing results, and prove its soundness, completeness and termination. We then formalize and prove the typing...... result itself in Isabelle. Finally, to illustrate the real-world feasibility, we prove that the standard Transport Layer Security (TLS) handshake satisfies the main condition of the typing result....

  13. Artocarpus altilis proving its worth in toxic metal removal from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artocarpus altilis proving its worth in toxic metal removal from the environment. PO Okolo, EEI Irabor, TP Abugu. Abstract. Nuts of breadfruit tree (Artocarpus altilis) obtained from Ugbowo Campus of University of Benin, Benin City, were dehusked and the husk thoroughly washed with distilled water, air-dried, pulverized and ...

  14. Using eternity variables to specify and prove a serializable database interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    Eternity variables are introduced to specify and verify serializability of transactions of a distributed database. Eternity variables are a new kind of auxiliary variables. They do not occur in the implementation but are used in specification and verification. Elsewhere it has been proved that

  15. The Secret Prover : Proving Possession of Arbitrary Files While not Giving Them Away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, Wouter


    The Secret Prover is a Java application which allows a user (A) to prove to another user (B), that A possesses a file. If B also possesses this file B will get convinced, and if B does not possess this file B will gain no information on (the contents of) this file. This is the first implementation

  16. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment with Undergraduate Student by Using Modified Moore Learning Approach (United States)

    Maya, Rippi; Sumarmo, Utari


    This paper reports findings of a post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach on improving students' mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subjects of study were 56 undergraduate students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course.…

  17. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.


    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near

  18. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.


    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  19. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Calle


    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements.

  20. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD


    AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist...

  1. Constructivist Grounded Theory?


    Glaser, Barney G.


    In meinem Beitrag greife ich zurück auf den ausgezeichneten und inspirierenden Artikel von CHARMAZ zu konstruktivistischer Grounded Theory, um an diesem Beispiel zu diskutieren, dass und warum die Grounded Theory kein konstruktivistisches Unterfangen ist. Ich versuche zu zeigen, dass "konstruktivistische Daten" bzw. konstruktivistische Anwendungen der Grounded Theory, sofern sie überhaupt existieren bzw. sinnvoll sein könnten, nur einen verschwindend kleinen Teil der Grounded Theory ausmachen...

  2. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD


    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  3. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  4. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya


    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI:

  5. Proving and Improving Wave Models in the Arctic Ocean and its MIZ (United States)


    scale, the Greenland Sea Odden which is important for deep convection. The increased open water area present in the autumn Arctic Ocean , particularly...263(5144), 218–221, doi:10.1126/science.263.5144.218. Hunkins, K. (1966), Ekman drift currents in the Arctic Ocean , Deep Sea Res., 13(4), 607–620...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Proving and Improving Wave Models in the Arctic Ocean

  6. Potential Discrepancies in Radar Signature Predictions for Ground Vehicles (United States)


    class of ground targets of interest for millimeter (MSRC) at Aberdeen Proving Ground (AIG), MD. wave radar applications . We summarize the unclassified...radar rays/wavelength in the shooting and bouncing ray ( SBR ) signatures. method. This represents a typical time for far-field calculations and the actual...eueteesuiu utibuc otiuin.We The virtual models include material descriptions but reduce these spurious multi-bounce contributions. When we remove the rubber

  7. Rigour and grounded theory. (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline


    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  8. Rice husk ash with high carbon content proves favourable for soil stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, P.V.; van der Star, WRL; van Paassen, L.A.; Ye, G.


    Rice husk ash is a promising pozzolanic material produced from rice husk burning and has significant potential a sustainable replacement for cement in construction and ground improvement applications. In this study the effect of burning conditions on the ash reactivity and its potential for soil

  9. Divide and conquer method for proving gaps of frustration free Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Lucia, Angelo


    Providing system-size independent lower bounds on the spectral gap of local Hamiltonian is in general a hard problem. For the case of finite-range, frustration free Hamiltonians on a spin lattice of arbitrary dimension, we show that a property of the ground state space is sufficient to obtain suc...

  10. On asymptotic stability in energy space of ground states of NLS in 2D


    Cuccagna, Scipio; Tarulli, Mirko


    We transpose work by K.Yajima and by T.Mizumachi to prove dispersive and smoothing estimates for dispersive solutions of the linearization at a ground state of a Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLS) in 2D. As an application we extend to dimension 2D a result on asymptotic stability of ground states of NLS proved in the literature for all dimensions different from 2.

  11. On asymptotic stability in energy space of ground states of NLS in 2D (United States)

    Cuccagna, Scipio; Tarulli, Mirko


    We transpose work by K.Yajima and by T.Mizumachi to prove dispersive and smoothing estimates for dispersive solutions of the linearization at a ground state of a Nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation (NLS) in 2D. As an application we extend to dimension 2D a result on asymptotic stability of ground states of NLS proved in the literature for all dimensions different from 2.

  12. How cytogenetical methods help victims prove radiation exposure and claim right for social support: NCERM experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksanin, S., E-mail: [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Slozina, N., E-mail: [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Neronova, E.; Smoliakov, E. [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)


    Russian citizens who were irradiated because of radiation disasters, nuclear weapons testing and some other sources have a right to some social support and financial compensation. In order to get this compensation people have to prove that they were irradiated. As it is, not all victims for a variety of reasons have formal documents. Thus they apply for cytogenetic investigation to prove irradiation months, years and even decades after irradiation. Since 1992 the cytogenetic investigations related to radiation exposure were performed in NRCERM for more than 700 people. At the beginning of this investigation FISH method was not certified as a biodosimenty test in Russia. Only dicentric analysis was approved as a proof of irradiation. It is known that the rate of dicentrics decrease in time, but the residual level of cytogenetical markers could be revealed a long time after a radiation accident. Thus the dicentric analysis was performed for the people who applied for biological indication of radiation exposure at that time. Rates of dicentrics exceeding control levels were revealed in half the people who applied for radiation conformation. Now FISH method is certified in Russia and both cytogenetic tests of biodosimetry (dicentrics and FISH) are available for all comers. Increased levels of translocations were found in 8 cases (the dose rate from 0.16 to 0.64 Gy). On the basis of the results of cytogenetic tests official documents were supplied to these people and they were entitled to apply for radiation exposure compensation. Thus cytogenetic tests are very effective and in some cases the only possible way for the victims to prove irradiation exposure and to apply for radiation exposure compensation a long time after an accident.

  13. Proving Unlawful Discrimination in Capital Cases: In Quest of an Adequate Standard of Proof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Maučec


    Full Text Available In spite of some early judicial, political and scholarly discussions, as well as more recent scientific explorations of the topic, problems and concerns with proving discrimination in individual capital cases continue to be among the most debatable issues in human rights and criminal justice. In general, domestic courts (in particular US courts seem to remain relatively perfunctory and hostile to individual discrimination challenges in capital trials. They normally require capital defendants alleging discrimination to prove something which is virtually impossible to prove. On the other hand, numerous capital defence attorneys, legal commentators and even some of the trial judges themselves lay strictures on the existing judicial approach which almost routinely rejects discrimination claims in capital cases. They contend that appropriate modifications in current legislative arrangements and mechanical adjudication policy and practice are urgent and indispensable for more equitable resolutions and for a truly even-handed criminal justice system. In particular, there are concerns regarding the adequate distribution of the burden of proof between the litigants. Moreover, no clear or uniform approach to this conundrum can be identified in the international jurisprudence. This article seeks to provide some definite answers to open and conceptual questions posed in an attempt to legally define ‘the minimum core content’ of the evidentiary standard – as implicitly contained in the relevant international human rights treaties’ provisions – to be applied in capital sentencing discrimination cases. Additionally, part of this same standard of proof can also qualify as a general principle of international law, particularly in relation to impartial, unbiased and non-discriminatory approaches and decision-making by the judges and jurors involved in complex capital cases.

  14. [Introduction to grounded theory]. (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy


    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  15. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    travels safely and efficiently through the airport. When an aircraft lands, a significant number of tasks must be performed by different groups of ground crew, such as fueling, baggage handling and cleaning. These tasks must be complete before the aircraft is able to depart, as well as check......-in and security services. These tasks are collectively known as ground handling, and are the major source of activity with airports. The business environments of modern airports are becoming increasingly competitive, as both airports themselves and their ground handling operations are changing to private...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators...

  16. A Simple Application of Lightweight Fusion to Proving the Equivalence of Abstract Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Millikin, Kevin


    We show how Ohori and Sasano's recent lightweight fusion by fixed-point promotion provides a simple way to prove the equivalence of the two standard styles of specification of abstract machines: (1) as a transition function together with a `driver loop' implementing the iteration of this transition...... function; and (2) as a function directly iterating upon a configuration until reaching a final state, if ever. The equivalence hinges on the fact that the latter style of specification is a fused version of the former one. The need for such a simple proof is motivated by our recent work on syntactic...... correspondences between reduction semantics and abstract machines, using refocusing...

  17. Respirometry applied to kinetic characterization of activated sludge; Caratterizzazione cinetica di fanghi attivi mediante prove respirometriche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricco, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Bari (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca sulle Acque; Tomei, M.C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca sulle Acque


    In this paper an experimental procedure to evaluate the biomass characterization parameters by utilizing respirometric tests is presented. Beside, a procedure for data analysis based on the kinetic, stoichiometric and mass balance equations describing the system in the various operating conditions required for the evaluation of the different parameters is proposed. Finally, the results of a first example of application to the sludge characterization of a civil waste water treatment plant are reported. [Italian] Viene presentato un primo esempio applicativo relativo alla caratterizzazione di un fango attivo proveniente da un impianto di trattamento di reflui civili utilizzando il modello cinetico di Monod con l'impiego di prove respirometriche.

  18. Proving the correctness of unfold/fold program transformations using bisimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Geoff W.; Jones, Neil


    proofs show the original and transformed programs are contextually equivalent, i.e., have the same termination behaviour in all closed contexts. Contextual equivalence can, however, be difficult to establish directly. Gordon and Howe use an alternative approach: to represent a program's behaviour...... to describe contextually, due to use of non-local information. We show that weak bisimulation on labelled transition systems gives an elegant framework to prove contextual equivalence of original and transformed programs. One reason is that folds can be seen in the context of corresponding unfolds....

  19. How to prove the validity of a complex ballot encryption to the voter and the public


    Joaquim, Rui


    One crucial aspect of any verifiable electronic voting system that uses encryption is the proof that the vote encryption is well-formed, i.e. the proof that the vote encryption encrypts a valid vote accordingly to the race specification. It makes no sense accepting an encrypted vote if, at the end of the election, the vote cannot be included in the tally because it is badly formed. Proving the validity of a complex vote encryption, without revealing the vote, is a hard problem. This paper...

  20. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I. [Seismic Engineering Center, NUPEC, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Universtity, Hachioji (Japan); Ishiwata, M. [Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi (Japan); Fujiwaka, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Yokohama (Japan); Yokota, H. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan)


    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  1. Electrical grounding prong socket (United States)

    Leong, Robert


    The invention is a socket for a grounding prong used in a three prong electrical plug and a receptacle for the three prong plug. The socket being sufficiently spacious to prevent the socket from significantly stretching when a larger, U-shaped grounding prong is inserted into the socket, and having a ridge to allow a snug fit when a smaller tubular shape grounding prong is inserted into the socket.

  2. From nature to grounding


    Jago, Mark


    Grounding is a powerful metaphysical concept; yet there is widespread scepticism about the intelligibility of the notion. In this paper, I propose an account of an entity’s nature or essence, which I then use to provide grounding conditions for that entity. I claim that an understanding of an entity’s nature, together with an account of how logically complex entities are grounded, provides all we need to understand how that entity is grounded. This approach not only allows us to say what grou...

  3. Proving the infringement of digital intellectual property rights: Overview of the Anglo-saxon legal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasić Vidoje


    Full Text Available The multifaceted process of identifying and proving the infringement of intellectual property rights is further complicated and aggravated in the so-called analogue environment. The development of Information Technologies has given rise to a new set of problems. The digital technology has facilitated the infringement of intellectual property rights and additionally aggravated the process of proving these infringements. Hence, it is the duty of digital forensics to identify relevant (valid evidence and present it in the court of law, which is not an easy task. In that course, the problems are twofold: legal and technical. First of all, the legislation in many countries is not adjusted to resolving the issues constantly emerging in the digital environment and there are apparent differences in the manner of regulating these issues. On the other hand, there is no standardized and unified technology which would provide for a uniform qualification and comprehensive treatment of these issues. Moreover, the place of commission of these criminal offences as a rule does not coincide with the place of occurring legal consequences. Yet, in spite of all these difficulties, there are technological methods and tools which facilitate the detection of cybercrime and provide evidence for securing relevant punishment. In the time to come, the developments in this area are expected to be aimed at strengthening the protection of legitimate interests of holders of intellectual property rights.

  4. The Annual Conference on HAN (Hydroxylammonium Nitrate) Based Liquid Propellants (3rd) Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 25-27 August 1987. (United States)


    ELECTROKINETICS *MASS TRANSPORT/SEPARATION *PARALLEL PLATE REACTOR *CONCLUSIONS 168 THE REDOX PROPERTIES OF HYDROXYLAMMONIUM NITRATE [NH3OH] IN031 PROVIDE...30-9644 US Army ARDEC New Haven, CT 06511 Picatinny Arsenal, NJ (203) 785-5242 07806-5000 (201) 724-5378/4776 Marshall Humphrey Jet Propulsion Lab Jim... Propulsion Lab Peter Spohn 4800 Oak Grove Drive University of Delaware Pasadena, CA Chemistry Dept (818) 354-8078 Newark, DE 19711 (302) 451-2459 239

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review (4th) Held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 30 May-1 June 1984 (United States)


    depression was accompanied by a persistent d oolarization of the endplate region. Recovery from depresion was observed after a 10 sec quiescent period...molecular forms (10) of human brain AChE have been reported in several neurological or genetic disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (11) or Down’s...Drosophila - . metanogaoteT. The genetics of the nervous system in Drosophila is well-characterized, and various mutants are available in which the

  6. Proceedings of the 1990 Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 25 - 28 June 1990 (United States)


    Using Electrodynamic Traps", Department of Chemistry, University of British Colombia , Vancouver, British Colombia , June 18, 1990. H) W. B. Whitten and...SMCCR- RSC -P/A. Brozena APG, MD 21010 423 CAMPILLO, ANTHONY COHOON, DAVID (202) 767-2057 (215) 436-2641 Naval Research Lab West Chester University ATTN

  7. Canal Creek Study Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Groundwater Monitoring Plan, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A (United States)


    Enclose each sample in a clear zip-seal plastic bag. 3.4 Place several layers of bubble wrap, or at least 1" of vermiculite on the bottom of the cooler...PTFE) liners * f. 5 % NaOH g. 5% Ultrex HNO 3 h. Deionized water i. Alconox detergent j. Hexane (Nanograde or equivalent) k. Acetone 1. Methelyne...Chloride 3.0 Procedures 3.1 Polyethylene bottles 3.1.1 Rinse bottles and lids sequentially with 5% NaOH , with deionized water, with 5% Ultrex nitric acid

  8. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Quality Assurance Project Plan, Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). Appendix A (United States)


    3.3 Enclose each sample in a clear zip-seal plastic bag. 3.4 Place several layers of bubble wrap, or at least 1" of vermiculite on the bottom of the...liners f. 5% NaOH g. 5% Ultrex HNO 3 h. Deionized water i. Alconox detergent j. Hexane (Nanograde or equivalent) k. Acetone 1. Methelyne Chloride 3.0...Procedures 3.1 Polyethylene bottles 3.1.1 Rinse bottles and lids sequentially with 5 % NaOH , with deionized water, with 5% Ultrex nitric acid, and

  9. Proceedings of the 1993 Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground on 22-24 Jun 1993 (United States)


    other nations with resource management plans for economic and ecological stability and medical care and food distribution as well as optimal running the paper of Frenklach, Wang. and Rabinowitz (129]) The paper of Smooke and Giovangigli ([70]) and Peters ([591) describe methane coi,’,b- sion. The...1981) [69] Smaller, Joel. Shock waves and reaceion diffusion equations New York: Springer Verlag (1983) [70] Smooke . Mitchell D. and Vincent

  10. Ideas from Future Technologies Workshop Held by ARL/TARDEC in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 9-11 June, 1993 (United States)


    you’d have a stronger reverse EMF field to work on the gun. And, also as well, you may have a mechanical representation (you certainly wouldn’t do it...Philosophical Comments sections to facilitate reader digestion. The categories are not exclusive as we really wanted cross- fertilization of ideas...further developed to controVrnanage suspensions, recoil mechanisms . Use electroceramic-controlled orifices for active recoil systems or suspensions

  11. Evaluation of Several Biological Monitoring Techniques for Hazard Assessment of Potentially Contaminated Groundwater at the Old O-Field Site at the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (United States)


    precipitate as follows: CODE DEFINICION CHARACTERISTICS OF BACKGROUND LAWN 1 Normal A healthy microcolony lawn. 2 Slightly A noticeable thinning of...Microbial Mutagenesis Date Department of Mol -icular and Cellular Toxicology I I I I 14544-1-401X 3 I A2 -3 I HAZLEECr4J WASHINGTON TABLE OF CONTENTS

  12. Operation Upshot-Knothole, Nevada Proving Grounds, March-June 1953. Project 8.5. Thermal Radiation Protection Afforded Test Animals by Fabric Assemblies (United States)


    wearing the Temperate uniform not treated for fire resistance sustained minor skin burns, but these resulted from exo- thermic reactions (flame or glow...number of ways, but they disappear rapidly. One method is to isolate the tar from the decomposition of fabric treated with brominated triallyl phosphate...3. The effect of the time-intensity relationship of thermal irradiation, the effect of smoke obscuration due to apparent endo- thermic decomposition

  13. Technology Description Sheets form the AMC 1990 Technology Expo Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 1-4 October 1990 (United States)


    contact Director U S Army Harry Diamond Laboratories Attn SLCHD-NW 9S, Mark Caruso 2800 Powder Mill Road Adelph MD 20783 1974-2290DNS 290.2290 or (301) 394...nuclear threat involves initial nuclear radiation (INR) which consists of ncutrons and gamma radiation. INR is very penetrating. Neutrons can easily

  14. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground (United States)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked to stratosphere-troposphere exchange (WMO, 1985).

  15. The Annual Conference on Han-Based Liquid Propellants (5th) Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground on 22-24 August 1989 (United States)


    Herrington Pethybridge, and Roffey, "Density of Aqueous Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Hydroxides from 25 to 75 deg C at 1 atm", J. Chem Eng. Data 1986, 31, 31...products development 4 Note: Titration - Typical acid-base titrimetry . IC - ion chromatography, ionic separation with a liquid eluant. SFC

  16. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 17-21 June 1985. (United States)


    1 FOR DETERMINING COMPLEX PERMEABILITY AND PERMITTIVITY H. H. Chung, G. A. Pfaff, and S. Y. Peng % Teledyne Micronetics San Diego, California 92120...section 2. . lThis paper is based on work performed at Teledyne Micronetics under the Contract No. IAAKll-83-C-0011 for the Chemical/Ballistics...Thomas Witkowski, Director of Engineering at Teledyne Micronetics , for their support and encouragement. Thanks are also due to Ms. Laura Peck for her

  17. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on June 22-25, 1992 (United States)


    Compatibility. Volume 30, Number 4 (November, 1988) pp 529 - 537. [50] Uhlenbeck, G. E. and L. S. Ornstein. "On the theory of Brownian Motion " Phys... multifractal nature of energy dissipation rate (Meneveau and Sreenivasan, 1987) and scalar dissipation rate (Prasad et al., 1988) in various turbulent flows...singularity spectrum F(a). The Fractal Dimension Db, is related to F(a) by Db = I - al + F(al), (1) where a, may be defined by F’(a,) = 1. A multifractal

  18. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 21-24 June 1988 (United States)


    CRDEC, U. S. Army, 1988 J. C. Carli anA T R. Brock. "Prnnagation of laser breakdown and detonation waves in transparent droplets", Optics. Letters 13...PHYSICS LAB APG, MD21010-5423 JOHN HOPKINS ROAD LAUREL, MD 20707 LORCAN FOLAN DAVID FREUD POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE OF NEW YORK (301) 792-6260 PHYSICS DEPT

  19. Operation IVY, Pacific Proving Ground, November 1952. Project 7.1. Electromagnetic Effects from Nuclear Explosions. Report to the Scientific Director (United States)


    stations at vary- ing distances from the detonation points. Encouraging results were obtained, at distances up to 4,700 km, from radio goniometry calculated above. If a reliable attenuation factor could be applied, one could estimate the total electromagnetic energy in the detonation at

  20. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coordinating Group on Modern Control Theory (2nd) 10-11 December 1980, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Part 1 (United States)


    autocorrelation coefficients by my program. so as to have compar:ible data), have been greatly reduced, Using the linear least chi-squarE pr gram :)n the same...t, dt (13) t 0 whwro S irnd Q are given syrmnet-ir non- negativo definite matrlices. S + Q poR i tivV dc,.knite, . to a positivedefinite matrix, and

  1. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup


    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  2. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds


    Wifalin, Michelle


    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  3. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens


    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...

  4. Communication, concepts and grounding. (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank


    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC


    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  6. A theorem proving framework for the formal verification of Web Services Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Papapanagiotou


    Full Text Available We present a rigorous framework for the composition of Web Services within a higher order logic theorem prover. Our approach is based on the proofs-as-processes paradigm that enables inference rules of Classical Linear Logic (CLL to be translated into pi-calculus processes. In this setting, composition is achieved by representing available web services as CLL sentences, proving the requested composite service as a conjecture, and then extracting the constructed pi-calculus term from the proof. Our framework, implemented in HOL Light, not only uses an expressive logic that allows us to incorporate multiple Web Services properties in the composition process, but also provides guarantees of soundness and correctness for the composition.

  7. Myoid hamartoma of the breast that proved difficult to diagnose: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizuta Naruhiko


    Full Text Available Abstract Myoid hamartomas of the breast are extremely rare breast lesions, with a poorly understood pathogenesis. We describe the case of a 38-year-old premenopausal woman who presenting with a mass in the left breast. Mammography revealed an oval mass that was partly indistinct, and ultrasonography showed a hypoechoic mass with a slightly irregular margin. Bilateral breast dynamic magnetic resonance imaging was performed for a more detailed evaluation. The images showed rapid initial enhancement and a microlobulated margin. Because the suspicion of malignancy was strong at that time, core needle biopsy was performed. Histologically, the tumor was identified as fibroadenoma. A case of myoid hamartoma of the breast that proved difficult to diagnose is reported, and discussed with reference to the literature.

  8. Calculus using proximities: a mathematical approach in which students can actually prove theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Donovan Richard


    Full Text Available Teaching and learning calculus are notoriously difficult and the didactic solutions may involve resorting to intuitive but vague definitions or informal gestures offered as proofs. The teaching literature is rife with examples of metaphors, adverb manipulations and descriptions of what happens “just before” the limit. It is then difficult to leave the domain of the mental image, thus losing the training in rigour. The author (with Karel Hrbacek and Olivier Lessmann has endeavoured a radically different approach with the objective of training students to prove theorems while preserving both intuition and mathematical rigour. Hence we change the mathematical setting rather than the didactic setting. The result (which is a by-product of nonstandard analysis has been used in several high schools in Geneva – Switzerland – for over ten years.

  9. An Abstract Model for Proving Safety of Multi-lane Traffic Manoeuvres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilscher, Martin; Linker, Sven; Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger


    We present an approach to prove safety (collision freedom) of multi-lane motorway traffic with lane-change manoeuvres. This is ultimately a hybrid verification problem due to the continuous dynamics of the cars. We abstract from the dynamics by introducing a new spatial interval logic based...... on the view of each car. To guarantee safety, we present two variants of a lane-change controller, one with perfect knowledge of the safety envelopes of neighbouring cars and one which takes only the size of the neighbouring cars into account. Based on these controllers we provide a local safety proof...... for unboundedly many cars by showing that at any moment the reserved space of each car is disjoint from the reserved space of any other car....

  10. Fractal geometry as a new approach for proving nanosimilarity: a reflection note. (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas; Pippa, Natassa


    Nanosimilars are considered as new medicinal outcomes combining the generic drugs and the nanocarrier as an innovative excipient, in order to evaluate them as final products. They belong to the grey area - concerning the evaluation process - between generic drugs and biosimilar medicinal products. Generic drugs are well documented and a huge number of them are in market, replacing effectively the off-patent drugs. The scientific approach for releasing them to the market is based on bioequivalence studies, which are well documented and accepted by the regulatory agencies. On the other hand, the structural complexity of biological/biotechnology-derived products demands a new approach for the approval process taking into consideration that bioequivalence studies are not considered as sufficient as in generic drugs, and new clinical trials are needed to support their approval process of the product to the market. In proportion, due to technological complexity of nanomedicines, the approaches for proving the statistical identity or the similarity for generic and biosimilar products, respectively, with those of prototypes, are not considered as effective for nanosimilar products. The aim of this note is to propose a complementary approach which can provide realistic evidences concerning the nanosimilarity, based on fractal analysis. This approach is well fit with the structural complexity of nanomedicines and smooths the difficulties for proving the similarity between off-patent and nanosimilar products. Fractal analysis could be considered as the approach that completely characterizes the physicochemical/morphological characteristics of nanosimilar products and could be proposed as a start point for a deep discussion on nanosimilarity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fake News: A Technological Approach to Proving the Origins of Content, Using Blockchains. (United States)

    Huckle, Steve; White, Martin


    In this article, we introduce a prototype of an innovative technology for proving the origins of captured digital media. In an era of fake news, when someone shows us a video or picture of some event, how can we trust its authenticity? It seems that the public no longer believe that traditional media is a reliable reference of fact, perhaps due, in part, to the onset of many diverse sources of conflicting information, via social media. Indeed, the issue of "fake" reached a crescendo during the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, when the winner, Donald Trump, claimed that The New York Times was trying to discredit him by pushing disinformation. Current research into overcoming the problem of fake news does not focus on establishing the ownership of media resources used in such stories-the blockchain-based application introduced in this article is technology that is capable of indicating the authenticity of digital media. Put simply, using the trust mechanisms of blockchain technology, the tool can show, beyond doubt, the provenance of any source of digital media, including images used out of context in attempts to mislead. Although the application is an early prototype and its capability to find fake resources is somewhat limited, we outline future improvements that would overcome such limitations. Furthermore, we believe that our application (and its use of blockchain technology and standardized metadata) introduces a novel approach to overcoming falsities in news reporting and the provenance of media resources used therein. However, while our application has the potential to be able to verify the originality of media resources, we believe that technology is only capable of providing a partial solution to fake news. That is because it is incapable of proving the authenticity of a news story as a whole. We believe that takes human skills.

  12. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory


    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm


    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  13. 76 FR 50771 - Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child, 3206-0206 (United States)


    ... MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child, 3206-0206 AGENCY: U.S... Dependency of a Child. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13, 44 U.S.C. chapter.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Evidence to Prove Dependency of a Child is designed to collect sufficient information...

  14. Testing the Data Assimilation Capability of the Profiler Virtual Module (United States)


    made every 3 h and noningested soundings were used for ground truth. The noningested YPG MET soundings were launched at intermediate times, and...10 Fig. 4 YPG soundings sites. Building 3555, Tower 31, and Tower M soundings were used in this study...Cross reference of samples by study date (all 2015) and study time for both with and without DA cases. The number within the cell indicates the number

  15. First ATRF Chili Contest Proves It’s Not Always about the Meat | Poster (United States)

    Wafting cumin through the building, 15 slow cookers full of chili lined an L-shaped conference room at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF), as voters strolled past “No electioneering” signs and the tasting began Feb. 29. Chili No. 13 came out of the gate with a spicy authority. “My tongue’s still tingling,” said one taster. “Just looking at it, you can tell how spicy it is,” said another judge. Thick with ground beef, with a smoky, peppery aroma, it was layered with black beans and corn, and it had a back-of-the-throat burn no other contestant’s offering could match. A nearby box of tissues served as a must-have for anyone sampling the sinus-clearing concoction.

  16. Outperforming whom? A multilevel study of performance-prove goal orientation, performance, and the moderating role of shared team identification. (United States)

    Dietz, Bart; van Knippenberg, Daan; Hirst, Giles; Restubog, Simon Lloyd D


    Performance-prove goal orientation affects performance because it drives people to try to outperform others. A proper understanding of the performance-motivating potential of performance-prove goal orientation requires, however, that we consider the question of whom people desire to outperform. In a multilevel analysis of this issue, we propose that the shared team identification of a team plays an important moderating role here, directing the performance-motivating influence of performance-prove goal orientation to either the team level or the individual level of performance. A multilevel study of salespeople nested in teams supports this proposition, showing that performance-prove goal orientation motivates team performance more with higher shared team identification, whereas performance-prove goal orientation motivates individual performance more with lower shared team identification. Establishing the robustness of these findings, a second study replicates them with individual and team performance in an educational context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Grounding, shielding, and bonding (United States)

    Catrysse, J.


    In the electromagnetic compatibility design (EMC) of systems and circuits, both grounding and shielding are related to the coupling mechanisms of the system with (radiated) electromagnetic fields. Grounding is more related to the source or victim circuit (or system) and determines the characteristic of the coupling mechanism between fields and currents/voltages. Shielding is a way of interacting in the radiation path of an electromagnetic field. The basic principles and practical design rules are discussed.

  18. A Tool Use Task Proves Enriching for a Captive Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepper R. Hanna


    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment is used to improve an animal’s physical and psychological well-being while housed in a captive environment. Alligood and Leighty (2015 suggested that enrichment that emulates the natural and preferred behaviors of the species may be optimal for improving welfare. Cognitive tasks that mirror challenges in an animal’s natural environment may prove especially beneficial (Washburn, 2015. The present study was designed to determine whether two sea otters (Enhydra lutis, Emma and Buck, were capable of learning to use a novel tool in a novel context. The otters’ time spent engaged with the apparatus was also examined to determine if such a task would be enriching to these animals. Although the sea otters were not successful in solving the tool use task, interaction with the apparatus appeared enriching to Emma. She spent on average 55.4% of each trial at the apparatus, whereas Buck spent only 6.2%. Only Emma’s interaction with the apparatus suggests that this device was very interesting and consequently enriching for her. Cognitive challenges, then, may be enriching even when animals fail to solve the intended problem.

  19. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali


    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  20. Atrial overdriving is beneficial in patients with atrial arrhythmias: first results of the PROVE Study. (United States)

    Funck, R C; Adamec, R; Lurje, L; Capucci, A; Ritter, P; Shekan, D; Slegers, L C; Tavernier, R; Ishikawa, T


    The AF Prevention by Overdriving (PROVE) trial is an ongoing prospective study of the effectiveness of atrial overdrive pacing combined with an Automatic Rest Rate function in the prevention of atrial arrhythmias. All patients who have received a Talent DR 213 pacemaker are eligible for enrollment into the study. After a 1-month monitoring period, the patients are divided into two groups. Group I includes patients with > or = 2 appropriate mode-switch (MS) episodes, or 1 MS episode of > or = 10 minutes, and/or > 300 atrial runs of > 5 beats/month. Group II includes all other patients. The number and duration of atrial arrhythmias are measured the pacemaker's Automatic Interpretation and Data Analysis software (AIDA). Patients' quality-of-life is measured by a validated functional status questionnaire. After having been grouped, the patients are randomly assigned, in a crossover design, to standard DDDR or overdrive pacing + Rest Rate, each programmed for a 3-month period. Preliminary results in 78 patients show a 34% reduction in the mean number of MS, and a mean 48% shortening of the overall duration of the episodes by overdrive pacing + Rest Rate, achieved by a mean 84% prevalence of atrial pacing. Overdrive pacing + Rest Rate was well tolerated and associated with a slight improvement in quality-of-life.

  1. The written mathematical communication profile of prospective math teacher in mathematical proving (United States)

    Pantaleon, K. V.; Juniati, D.; Lukito, A.; Mandur, K.


    Written mathematical communication is the process of expressing mathematical ideas and understanding in writing. It is one of the important aspects that must be mastered by the prospective math teacher as tool of knowledge transfer. This research was a qualitative research that aimed to describe the mathematical communication profile of the prospective mathematics teacher in mathematical proving. This research involved 48 students of Mathematics Education Study Program; one of them with moderate math skills was chosen as the main subject. Data were collected through tests, assignments, and task-based interviews. The results of this study point out that in the proof of geometry, the subject explains what is understood, presents the idea in the form of drawing and symbols, and explains the content/meaning of a representation accurately and clearly, but the subject can not convey the argument systematically and logically. Whereas in the proof of algebra, the subject describes what is understood, explains the method used, and describes the content/meaning of a symbolic representation accurately, systematically, logically, but the argument presented is not clear because it is insufficient detailed and complete.

  2. Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.). (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg


    Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.

  3. Ultrasonic Assessment of Females with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Proved by Nerve Conduction Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan M. Ajeena


    Full Text Available Introduction. Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most commonly diagnosed entrapment neuropathy of the upper extremity. The objective of this study was to diagnose CTS and to assess its severity using high resolution ultrasound (HRUS depending on the results of nerve conduction study (NCS. Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study, in which HRUS was performed at 63 wrists of 35 female patients with different severity of CTS (as proved by NCS. Furthermore, 40 healthy volunteers (80 wrists underwent the same tests as the patients and have been chosen to match the patients in gender, age, and body mass index (BMI. The cross section area (CSA of the median nerve (MN was obtained using HRUS at the carpal tunnel inlet by direct tracing method. Results. There was a significant difference in the CSA of the MN at the tunnel inlet in CTS patients when compared with the control group. In fact, the CSA of the control group showed a significant difference from each of patients subgroups. Furthermore, a significant difference in the CSA was seen in between these subgroups. In conclusion, the US examination of the MN seems to be a promising method in diagnosing and grading of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  4. Prefixation Ability Index and Verbal Grammar Correlation Index prove the reality of Buyeo group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander AKULOV


    Full Text Available All suggestions about reality of Buyeo group were based on the representation of a language as a heap of lexemes: such method allows different scholars to make different conclusions and doesn't suppose verification. Language is first of all structure/grammar, but not a heap of lexemes, so methods of comparative linguistics should be based on comparison of grammars. Prefixation Ability Index (PAI and Verbal Grammar Correlation Index (VGCI are typology based tools of comparative linguistics. PAI allows us to see whether languages are potentially related: if values of PAI differ more than fourfold, it's a sign of unrelatedness, if PAI values differ less than fourfold, there is a possibility for some further search to find proves of relatedness. VGCI completely answers questions about relatedness/unrelatedness: if VGCI value is 0.4 and more then languages are related, if VGCI is 0.3 and less then  languages are unrelated. PAI of Japanese is 0.13, PAI of Korean is 0.13; it means they can be related. VGCI of Japanese and Korean is 0.57, it's almost the same as VGCI of English and Afrikaans that is 0.56, so it means that Japanese and Korean belong to the same group, but not just to the same family.

  5. Near-surface shear-wave velocity measurements in unlithified sediment (United States)

    Richards, B.T.; Steeples, D.; Miller, R.; Ivanov, J.; Peterie, S.; Sloan, S.D.; McKenna, J.R.


    S-wave velocity can be directly correlated to material stiffness and lithology making it a valuable physical property that has found uses in construction, engineering, and environmental projects. This study compares different methods for measuring S-wave velocities, investigating and identifying the differences among the methods' results, and prioritizing the different methods for optimal S-wave use at the U. S. Army's Yuma Proving Grounds YPG. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves MASW and S-wave tomography were used to generate S-wave velocity profiles. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. A strong signal-to-noise ratio at the study site gives the MASW method promising resolution. S-wave first arrivals are picked on impulsive sledgehammer data which were then used for the tomography process. Three-component downhole seismic data were collected in-line with a locking geophone, providing ground truth to compare the data and to draw conclusions about the validity of each data set. Results from these S-wave measurement techniques are compared with borehole seismic data and with lithology data from continuous samples to help ascertain the accuracy, and therefore applicability, of each method. This study helps to select the best methods for obtaining S-wave velocities for media much like those found in unconsolidated sediments at YPG. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Research of Pre-Service Elementary Mathematics Teachers’ Beliefs in Proof, Proving Processes and Proof Evaluation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candaş Uygan


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to research pre-service elementary mathematics teachers’ beliefs on meaning and features of mathematical proof, their proving processes and their reasoning process while evaluating validities of proof examples. This study is a qualitative research. Participants of the study are three pre-service elementary mathematics teachers who continue to study in a state university from Central Anatolia Region. Participants’ beliefs on proof were researched with semi-structured interview whilst proving processes and evaluation processes of proof examples were researched with clinical interviews. Interviews were recorded with video camera and data were analyzed according to qualitative methods. When beliefs on proof were analyzed, it was indicated that participants see mathematical proofs as problem solving process and exploration of source of mathematical knowledge, and believe that proofs have to be deductive, apprehensible and have to include generalizable results. Also according to opinions of all three participants, they believe that their proving abilities are insufficient. Analyze results related to proving processes indicated that pre-service teachers considered conclusions of theorems as if they are conditions of theorems and also used proving strategies uncomprehendingly in proving process. Finally, analyze results related to proof evaluation process indicated that participants assessed computer based experimental verifications as valid mathematical proofs and had mistakes when they evaluated warrants used in verifications that break axiomatical structure of proofs.Key Words:    Beliefs in the context of proof, proving, proof evaluation, teacher education

  7. Ground Enterprise Management System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Emergent Space Technologies Inc. proposes to develop the Ground Enterprise Management System (GEMS) for spacecraft ground systems. GEMS will provide situational...

  8. Benefit of Intensive Statin Therapy in Women: Results from PROVE IT-TIMI 22 (United States)

    Truong, Quynh A.; Murphy, Sabina A; McCabe, Carolyn H.; Armani, Annemarie; Cannon, Christopher P.


    Background Despite the known benefit of intensive statin therapy for reducing future cardiovascular events, its effectiveness in women has been questioned by some. Methods and Results In the Pravastatin or Atorvastatin Evaluation and Infection Therapy–Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 22 (PROVE IT-TIMI 22) trial, 911 (21.9%) women and 3251 (78.1%) men were randomized to intensive statin (atorvastatin 80 mg) versus standard therapy (pravastatin 40 mg) for a median duration of 2.1 years. The primary endpoint was death, myocardial infarction (MI), unstable angina (UA), revascularization (occurring after 30 days) or stroke. Safety endpoints included elevations in liver function tests, creatine kinase and myalgias/myositis. Women had a reduction in LDL of 42.8% from baseline at 30 days (to a median of 60 mg/dL) in the intensive therapy arm with 88.8% reaching LDL goal of <100 mg/dL and 65.0% with <70 mg/dL as compared with a 16.8% reduction in LDL (to a median of 88 mg/dL) in the standard therapy. Women on intensive statin therapy had a significant 25% relative reduction over standard-dose (hazard ratio [HR] 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57-0.99; p=0.04) for primary composite endpoint, compared with a 14% reduction for men (HR 0.86; 95% CI 0.75-0.99; p=0.04), p-interaction=0.38. No differences were observed between genders for safety (all p-interaction ≥0.11). Conclusions This trial provides evidence that both women and men derived benefit from intensive statin therapy following ACS and thus gender should not be a factor in determining who should be treated with intensive statin therapy. PMID:21487089

  9. A theorem proving approach for automatically synthesizing visualizations of flow cytometry data. (United States)

    Raj, Sunny; Hussain, Faraz; Husein, Zubir; Torosdagli, Neslisah; Turgut, Damla; Deo, Narsingh; Pattanaik, Sumanta; Chang, Chung-Che Jeff; Jha, Sumit Kumar


    Polychromatic flow cytometry is a popular technique that has wide usage in the medical sciences, especially for studying phenotypic properties of cells. The high-dimensionality of data generated by flow cytometry usually makes it difficult to visualize. The naive solution of simply plotting two-dimensional graphs for every combination of observables becomes impractical as the number of dimensions increases. A natural solution is to project the data from the original high dimensional space to a lower dimensional space while approximately preserving the overall relationship between the data points. The expert can then easily visualize and analyze this low-dimensional embedding of the original dataset. This paper describes a new method, SANJAY, for visualizing high-dimensional flow cytometry datasets. This technique uses a decision procedure to automatically synthesize two-dimensional and three-dimensional projections of the original high-dimensional data while trying to minimize distortion. We compare SANJAY to the popular multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach for visualization of small data sets drawn from a representative set of benchmarks, and our experiments show that SANJAY produces distortions that are 1.44 to 4.15 times smaller than those caused due to MDS. Our experimental results show that SANJAY also outperforms the Random Projections technique in terms of the distortions in the projections. We describe a new algorithmic technique that uses a symbolic decision procedure to automatically synthesize low-dimensional projections of flow cytometry data that typically have a high number of dimensions. Our algorithm is the first application, to our knowledge, of using automated theorem proving for automatically generating highly-accurate, low-dimensional visualizations of high-dimensional data.

  10. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery (United States)

    Thomas, Gary; James, David


    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  11. Classical ground states of symmetric Heisenberg spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, H J


    We investigate the ground states of classical Heisenberg spin systems which have point group symmetry. Examples are the regular polygons (spin rings) and the seven quasi-regular polyhedra including the five Platonic solids. For these examples, ground states with special properties, e.g. coplanarity or symmetry, can be completely enumerated using group-theoretical methods. For systems having coplanar (anti-) ground states with vanishing total spin we also calculate the smallest and largest energies of all states having a given total spin S. We find that these extremal energies depend quadratically on S and prove that, under certain assumptions, this happens only for systems with coplanar S = 0 ground states. For general systems the corresponding parabolas represent lower and upper bounds for the energy values. This provides strong support and clarifies the conditions for the so-called rotational band structure hypothesis which has been numerically established for many quantum spin systems.

  12. Grounding of space structures (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.


    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  13. Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study: findings at 3 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy RK


    Full Text Available Rahul K Reddy,1 Maziar Lalezary,1 Stephen J Kim,1 Jeffrey A Kammer,1 Rachel W Kuchtey,1 Edward F Cherney,1 Franco M Recchia,2 Karen M Joos,1 Anita Agarwal,1 Janice C Law11Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Retina, PC, Nashville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the 3-month findings of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study.Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 participants undergoing vitrectomy were enrolled. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of the study (surgical and fellow (control eye that included: intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, cup-to-disc ratio measurement, color fundus and optic disc photography, automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve. Evaluation was repeated at 3 months. Main outcome measures were changes in macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and intraocular pressure.Results: All participants completed follow-up. Mean cup-to-disc ratio of study and fellow eyes at baseline was 0.43 ± 0.2 and 0.46 ± 0.2, respectively, and 13% of participants had undiagnosed narrow angles. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, or pattern standard deviation in study eyes compared with baseline or fellow eyes at 3 months. Vision improved in all study eyes at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.013, but remained significantly worse than fellow eyes (P < 0.001. Central subfield and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness were significantly greater in eyes with epiretinal membrane (P < 0.05, and resolution after surgery correlated with visual improvement (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The 3-month results do not indicate any increased risk for open-angle glaucoma but suggest that a relatively high percentage of eyes may be at risk of angle closure glaucoma. Temporal RNFL thickness and central subfield were increased

  14. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.


    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence, the proba......COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  15. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory (United States)

    Moghaddam, Alireza


    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  16. Grounding in Instant Messaging (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.


    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  17. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  18. Informed Grounded Theory (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert


    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  19. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD


    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  20. Korea's School Grounds Projects (United States)

    Park, Joohun


    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  1. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen


    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width and th...

  2. Users manual on database of the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) conducted Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purposes of those tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. After that piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic method followed until 1992. This report describes the users manual on databases about the test results using the large experimental facilities. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location. The research activities using large scale piping test facilities are described. The present report does the database about the test results pairing the former report. With these two reports, all the feature of Piping Reliability Proving Tests is made clear. Briefings of the tests are described also written in Japanese or English. (author)

  3. Ignoring Grounded Description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD


    Full Text Available Why is there so much grounded description? The simplest, direct answer is that to many a researcher this is GT. This view is supported by several factors. It is easy and natural to describe accurately. So slipping into grounded description comes naturally and is ok as GT. Also departmental support for description is strongly supported by perspective and academic rewards and history and routine QDA. Also many researchers and readers of research cannot conceptualize very well if at all. They want accurate description about the data in the study. They are not into taking a core category as a general category applicable to general implications applicable to much data elsewhere. Their study is about explaining processes the data, NOT in studying the implications of core and sub-core categories as they are integrated into an explanatory theory. I trust the reader can think of other sources of letting GT research slip into conceptual description.

  4. E-squared nine do-it-yourself energy experiments that prove your thoughts create your reality

    CERN Document Server

    Grout, Pam


    E-Squared is a lab manual with simple experiments to prove once and for all that there really is a good, loving, totally hip force in the universe. Rather than take it on faith, you are invited to conduct ten 48-hour experiments to prove each of the principles in this book. Yes, you read that right. It says prove. The experiments, each of which can be conducted with absolutely no money and very little time expenditure, demonstrate that spiritual principles are as dependable as gravity, as consistent as Newton's 2nd law of motion. For years, you've been hoping and praying that spiritual principles are true. Now, you can know.

  5. Remodeling Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.


    Full Text Available This paper outlines my concerns with Qualitative Data Analysis’ (QDAnumerous remodelings of Grounded Theory (GT and the subsequent eroding impact. I cite several examples of the erosion and summarize essential elements of classic GT methodology. It is hoped that the article will clarify my concerns with the continuing enthusiasm but misunderstood embrace of GT by QDA methodologists and serve as a preliminary guide to novice researchers who wish to explore the fundamental principles of GT.

  6. Implementation of ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas


    The ground penetrating radar and electrical resistivity tomography are two geophysical tools that have successful applications in archeological assessment. The two techniques were used in integration plan to assert the archeological potentiality of the studied site and to map the feasible tombs. Sum of 798 GPR profiles and 19 ERT cross sections was carried out over the study area. The results of them were analyzed to envisage these results in archeological terms.

  7. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded). (United States)


    ... VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.376... must be only one connection to ground, regardless of the number of power sources. This ground connection must be at the switchboard or at the common ground plate, which must be accessible. (b) Each...

  8. Ground Beef and Food Safety (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Ground Beef and Food Safety Questions about "ground meat" or "hamburger" have always ...

  9. Ground state entanglement and geometric entropy in the Kitaev model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamma, Alioscia [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Turin (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita Federico II, Via Cintia ed. G, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Ionicioiu, Radu [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Turin (Italy); Zanardi, Paolo [Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI), Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail:


    We study the entanglement properties of the ground state in Kitaev's model. This is a two-dimensional spin system with a torus topology and non-trivial four-body interactions between its spins. For a generic partition (A,B) of the lattice we calculate analytically the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix {rho}{sub A} in the ground state. We prove that the geometric entropy associated with a region A is linear in the length of its boundary. Moreover, we argue that entanglement can probe the topology of the system and reveal topological order. Finally, no partition has zero entanglement and we find the partition that maximizes the entanglement in the given ground state.

  10. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J


    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  11. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    Much recent research suggests that firms need to increase their level of delegation to better cope with, for example, the challenges introduced by dynamic rapid environments and the need to engage more with external knowledge sources. However, there is less insight into the organizational...... preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground...

  12. Designing as Middle Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian; Binder, Thomas


    The theoretical background in this chapter is science and technology studies and actor network theory, enabling investigation of heterogeneity, agency and perfor-mative effects through ‘symmetric’ analysis. The concept of design is defined as being imaginative and mindful to a number of actors in...... research is an articulation of design activity taking place as a middle ground and as an intermixture between a ‘scientific’ regime of knowledge transfer and a capital ‘D’ ‘Designerly’ regime of authoring....

  13. Empirical ground motion prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Archuleta


    Full Text Available New methods of site-specific ground motion prediction in the time and frequency domains are presented. A large earthquake is simulated as a composite (linear combination of observed small earthquakes (subevents assuming Aki-Brune functional models of the source time functions (spectra. Source models incorporate basic scaling relations between source and spectral parameters. Ground motion predictions are consistent with the entire observed seismic spectrum from the lowest to the highest frequencies. These methods are designed to use all the available empirical Green’s functions (or any subset of observations at a site. Thus a prediction is not biased by a single record, and different possible source-receiver paths are taken into account. Directivity is accounted for by adjusting the apparent source duration at each site. Our time-series prediction algorithm is based on determination of a non-uniform distribution of rupture times of subevents. By introducing a specific rupture velocity we avoid the major problem of deficiency of predictions around the main event's corner frequency. A novel notion of partial coherence allows us to sum subevents' amplitude spectra directly without using any information on their rupture times and phase histories. Predictions by this spectral method are not Jependent on details of rupture nucleation and propagation, location of asperities and other predominantly phase-affecting factors, responsible for uncertainties in time-domain simulations.

  14. A thermal ground cloak (United States)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei


    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object.

  15. Regional differences in subduction ground motions

    CERN Document Server

    Beauval, Céline; Abrahamson, N; Theodulidis, N; Delavaud, E; Rodriguez, L; Scherbaum, F; Haendel, A


    A few ground-motion prediction models have been published in the last years, for predicting ground motions produced by interface and intraslab earthquakes. When one must carry out a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis in a region including a subduction zone, GMPEs must be selected to feed a logic tree. In the present study, the aim is to identify which models provide the best fit to the dataset M6+, global or local models. The subduction regions considered are Japan, Taiwan, Central and South America, and Greece. Most of the data comes from the database built to develop the new BCHydro subduction global GMPE (Abrahamson et al., submitted). We show that this model is among best-fitting models in all cases, followed closely by Zhao et al. (2006), whereas the local Lin and Lee (2008) is well predicting the data in Taiwan and also in Greece. The Scherbaum et al. (2009) LLH method prove to be efficient in providing one number quantifying the overall fit, but additional analysis on the between-event and within-ev...

  16. Proving Refinement Using Transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Bengt; Pnueli, Amir; Rump, Camilla Østerberg


    We present a verification method, in which refinement between two systems is proven by constructing a transducer that inputs a computation of a concrete system and outputs a matching computation of the abstract system.......We present a verification method, in which refinement between two systems is proven by constructing a transducer that inputs a computation of a concrete system and outputs a matching computation of the abstract system....

  17. 'God' particle proves elusive

    CERN Document Server

    Radford, T


    For more than a decade, scientists at CERN have been hoping that a key theoretical particle called the Higgs boson, would turn up in a subatomic collision. Some of them are now though beginning to wonder if it has ever existed.

  18. A new lower bound for the total domination number in graphs proving a Graffiti.pc Conjecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Michael A.; Yeo, Anders


    the maximum distance in G of a vertex outside B to a vertex of B. The following conjecture is known as Graffiti.pc Conjecture #233 ( faculty/delavinae/research/wowII): if G is a connected graph of order at least two, then γt(G)≥2(ecc(B)+1)/3. We prove this conjecture. In fact...

  19. Seismic test facilities at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center; Prove sismiche con le tavole vibranti al centro ricerche Enea Casaccia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Canio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Servizi Tecnologici, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)


    The main experimental facilities for seismic tests at the ENEA C.R. Casaccia laboratories consist of two high performance shake table for three axial seismic tests of structures up to 10 ton mass and 3g acceleration applied at the Center of Gravity at 1m from the base table. The activities are principally devoted to the dynamic characterization and vibration tests for mechanical and aero spatial structures, and the experimental analysis of innovative systems for the seismic isolation and retrofitting of civil, industrial, and historical buildings; together with the seismic tests of sub-structures and scaled mock-ups, in order to evaluate the isolation/dissipation performance of the anti-seismic devices, and the failure modes of the structural parts of the building. [Italian] Le principali attrezzature per le prove sismiche presso i laboratori del C.R. Casaccia consistono di due tavole vibranti triassali per prove su strutture fino a 10t di peso con una accelerazione di 3g applicata al centro di gravita' posto ad 1 m di altezza dal piano della tavola. Le principali attivita' riguardano: (a) test di caratterizzazione dinamica e prove di vibrazioni per strutture meccaniche ed aerospaziali; (b) l'analisi sperimentale di sistemi innovativi per l'isolamento sismico ed il consolidamento di strutture civili, industriali e storico monumentali, e le prove sismiche di elementi strutturali e di modelli in scala per la valutazione della capacita' di dissipazione dei dispositivi antisismici e le modalita' di formazione delle fratture.

  20. Legal frame for proving the safety of rail energy supply; Rechtlicher Rahmen fuer den Sicherheitsnachweis bei der Bahnenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzke, C. [Deutsche Bahn AG, Berlin (Germany)


    The legal frame for proving the safety of rail energy supply is, as usual in technical and scientific matters, characterized by comparatively abstract expressions in the law and besides by reference to technical standards. Often only a view in the technical standards makes it possible to understand, what must be done to comply with the law and which behaviour must be judged as negligent under the law. For that reason ruling committees for technical standards bear a high responsibility. (orig.)

  1. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.


    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several...... targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...

  2. Applying Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD


    Full Text Available Application of grounded theory (GT is a relatively neglected topic by my colleagues. I have written several chapters in my books on applying GT. Two colleagues, Odis Simmons and Barbara Artinian (2009, as well as Dirks and Mills (2011, and Walsh (2014, have also written about applying GT. In the first two chapters of this book I discuss at length properties of generally applying GT and then professional issues and personal matters when applying of GT. There follows in this book nine chapters, four by me and one by Simmons and one by Artinian and one by Dirks and Mills, that are already published in books on GT, and one by Walsh. Thus, this book ends like a reader which publishes in one place already written work. The reader of this book may experience some redundancy in these chapters, but that is the nature of reader texts as different authors discuss the same ideas and topics.

  3. On slippery ground:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Nordentoft, Helle Merete


    , as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes......Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical complexity and dilemmas, which arise in the coproduction of knowledge between researchers and other participants. Design/methodology/approach The starting-point for the article is a narrative from a conference we attended where we...... in collaborative research. More specifically, at the conference, we sought to expose and discuss the gap between our good intentions and our own practice as researchers in a collaborative research project at a major hospital. However, instead of reflexive discussions with the research community, we experienced...

  4. On slippery ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Birgitte Ravn; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft


    , as researchers, found ourselves on slippery and emotionally charged ground. Using a critical, reflexive approach informed by poststructuralism, our ambition was to deconstruct gaps between rhetoric and practice and critique normative understandings of the nature of ethically sound coproduction processes......Purpose The purpose of this article is to discuss the ethical complexity and dilemmas, which arise in the coproduction of knowledge between researchers and other participants. Design/methodology/approach The starting-point for the article is a narrative from a conference we attended where we...... in collaborative research. More specifically, at the conference, we sought to expose and discuss the gap between our good intentions and our own practice as researchers in a collaborative research project at a major hospital. However, instead of reflexive discussions with the research community, we experienced...



    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar


    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  6. Learn, see, practice, prove, do, maintain: an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training in medicine. (United States)

    Sawyer, Taylor; White, Marjorie; Zaveri, Pavan; Chang, Todd; Ades, Anne; French, Heather; Anderson, JoDee; Auerbach, Marc; Johnston, Lindsay; Kessler, David


    Acquisition of competency in procedural skills is a fundamental goal of medical training. In this Perspective, the authors propose an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training. The framework was developed based on a review of the literature using a critical synthesis approach and builds on earlier models of procedural skill training in medicine. The authors begin by describing the fundamentals of procedural skill development. Then, a six-step pedagogical framework for procedural skills training is presented: Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, and Maintain. In this framework, procedural skill training begins with the learner acquiring requisite cognitive knowledge through didactic education (Learn) and observation of the procedure (See). The learner then progresses to the stage of psychomotor skill acquisition and is allowed to deliberately practice the procedure on a simulator (Practice). Simulation-based mastery learning is employed to allow the trainee to prove competency prior to performing the procedure on a patient (Prove). Once competency is demonstrated on a simulator, the trainee is allowed to perform the procedure on patients with direct supervision, until he or she can be entrusted to perform the procedure independently (Do). Maintenance of the skill is ensured through continued clinical practice, supplemented by simulation-based training as needed (Maintain). Evidence in support of each component of the framework is presented. Implementation of the proposed framework presents a paradigm shift in procedural skill training. However, the authors believe that adoption of the framework will improve procedural skill training and patient safety.

  7. The effect of herbal formula PROVE 1 and Stevia levels in diets on diet utilization of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooprasert, S.


    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of 0.2% antibiotic (ascomix-s®, one kilogram of which contains lincomycin hydrochloride 44 g and sulfamethazine 110 g or 0.25% herbal formulaPROVE 1, combined with five levels of Stevia supplementation in the diets on digestibility of pigs. Two factors; 1 type of drug (0.2% antibiotic and 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 and 2 five Stevia levels (0,0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% were investigated and 10 dietary treatments were used in this study. Ten related growing crossbred (Large White x Landrace barrow pigs (30±1.5 kg body weight were raised in individualmetabolism cages for three collecting periods (30, 40 and 50 kg body weight, each pig was fed one experimental diet throughout the collecting period.The results showed that pigs fed diet with either 0.2% antibiotic or 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 had similar digestibility of diet, crude protein (CP, fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE (89.01 vs 87.83,94.96 vs 94.23, 60.73 vs 59.03, 61.22 vs 60.44 and 93.28 vs 92.03%, respectively. Negligible differences were observed between 0 and 0.4% Stevia supplementation in diet, but levels showed better digestibility than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, and the diet with 0.4% Stevia supplementation had the highestdigestibility of diet, CP, fiber, ash and NFE (91.04, 96.43, 69.48, 70.47 and 94.07%, respectively. The diet with antibiotic combined with 0.4% Stevia had digestibility of diet, CP, fat and fiber better than the otherlevels of Stevia supplementation, especially digestibility of ash, which was significantly higher than that of diet with 0.2% Stevia, but not significantly different from the other levels of Stevia supplementation. A partof herbal formula PROVE1 combined with 0% Stevia had the highest digestibility of ash (72.90%, significantly higher than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, except the diet with herbal formula PROVE 1combined with 0.4% Stevia supplementation

  8. Earthquake ground motion: Chapter 3 (United States)

    Luco, Nicolas; Kircher, Charles A.; Crouse, C. B.; Charney, Finley; Haselton, Curt B.; Baker, Jack W.; Zimmerman, Reid; Hooper, John D.; McVitty, William; Taylor, Andy


    Most of the effort in seismic design of buildings and other structures is focused on structural design. This chapter addresses another key aspect of the design process—characterization of earthquake ground motion into parameters for use in design. Section 3.1 describes the basis of the earthquake ground motion maps in the Provisions and in ASCE 7 (the Standard). Section 3.2 has examples for the determination of ground motion parameters and spectra for use in design. Section 3.3 describes site-specific ground motion requirements and provides example site-specific design and MCER response spectra and example values of site-specific ground motion parameters. Section 3.4 discusses and provides an example for the selection and scaling of ground motion records for use in various types of response history analysis permitted in the Standard.

  9. Method of locating ground faults (United States)

    Patterson, Richard L. (Inventor); Rose, Allen H. (Inventor); Cull, Ronald C. (Inventor)


    The present invention discloses a method of detecting and locating current imbalances such as ground faults in multiwire systems using the Faraday effect. As an example, for 2-wire or 3-wire (1 ground wire) electrical systems, light is transmitted along an optical path which is exposed to magnetic fields produced by currents flowing in the hot and neutral wires. The rotations produced by these two magnetic fields cancel each other, therefore light on the optical path does not read the effect of either. However, when a ground fault occurs, the optical path is exposed to a net Faraday effect rotation due to the current imbalance thereby exposing the ground fault.

  10. Burial Ground Expansion Hydrogeologic Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaughan , T.F.


    Sirrine Environmental Consultants provided technical oversight of the installation of eighteen groundwater monitoring wells and six exploratory borings around the location of the Burial Ground Expansion.

  11. The ground truth about metadata and community detection in networks. (United States)

    Peel, Leto; Larremore, Daniel B; Clauset, Aaron


    Across many scientific domains, there is a common need to automatically extract a simplified view or coarse-graining of how a complex system's components interact. This general task is called community detection in networks and is analogous to searching for clusters in independent vector data. It is common to evaluate the performance of community detection algorithms by their ability to find so-called ground truth communities. This works well in synthetic networks with planted communities because these networks' links are formed explicitly based on those known communities. However, there are no planted communities in real-world networks. Instead, it is standard practice to treat some observed discrete-valued node attributes, or metadata, as ground truth. We show that metadata are not the same as ground truth and that treating them as such induces severe theoretical and practical problems. We prove that no algorithm can uniquely solve community detection, and we prove a general No Free Lunch theorem for community detection, which implies that there can be no algorithm that is optimal for all possible community detection tasks. However, community detection remains a powerful tool and node metadata still have value, so a careful exploration of their relationship with network structure can yield insights of genuine worth. We illustrate this point by introducing two statistical techniques that can quantify the relationship between metadata and community structure for a broad class of models. We demonstrate these techniques using both synthetic and real-world networks, and for multiple types of metadata and community structures.

  12. Ground state solutions for the nonlinear Schrödinger–Maxwell equations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Azzollini, A; Pomponio, A


    In this paper we study the nonlinear Schrodinger-Maxwell equations {-[DELTA]u+V(x)u+[phi]u=|u|.sup.p-1uin R.sup.3,-[DELTA][phi]=u.sup.2in R.sup.3. If V is a positive constant, we prove the existence of a ground state solution...

  13. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research. (United States)

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann


    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  14. Feasibility of using damage to body armour as evidence to prove the degree of intent of wounding


    Watson, Celia H.; Parker, Fiona; Horsfall, Ian; Fenne, Paul


    It has become standard practice for Police Authorities to issue stab resistant body armour to all officers who are placed at risk of knife assault. Subsequently if the officer is subjected to a knife attack it has been difficult to prove the degree of intent of wounding by a suspect. Arguments that no real harm could be intended, as the officer was protected by armour, are presented in court to mitigate any sentence of intent to wound. Several Police Forces have requested that damaged armour ...

  15. Epstein on Anchors and Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guala Francesco


    Full Text Available The distinction between anchors and grounds is one of the most innovative contributions of The Ant Trap. In this commentary I will argue that the distinction suffers from an ambiguity between tokens and types. This leads Epstein to endorse pluralism about anchors and grounds, a position that is not justified in the book and to which there are plausible alternatives.

  16. Ground water and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, R.G.; Scanlon, B.; Döll, P.; Rodell, M.; Beek, R. van; Wada, Y.; Longuevergne, L.; Leblanc, M.; Famiglietti, J.S.; Edmunds, M.; Konikow, L.; Green, T.R.; Chen, J.; Taniguchi, M.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; MacDonald, A.; Fan, Y.; Maxwell, R.M.; Yechieli, Y.; Gurdak, J.J.; Allen, D.M.; Shamsudduha, M.; Hiscock, K.; Yeh, Pat J.-F.; Holman, Ian; Treidel, Holger


    As the world’s largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate

  17. Grounding experiments on soft bottoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sterndorff, M.J.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    To verify a theoretical analysis procedure for calculation of the hull girder response of ships running aground, a series of large-scale ship grounding experiments was performed on an artificial island made of engineered fill. The tests were conducted by running a condemned fishing vessel up...... for grounding on soft bottoms....

  18. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.


    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  19. English for Airport Ground Staff (United States)

    Cutting, Joan


    This article describes part of a European Commission Leonardo project that aimed to design a multimedia course for English language learners seeking work as ground staff in European airports. The structural-functional analysis of the dialogues written from the course showed that, across the four trades explored (security guards, ground handlers,…

  20. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  1. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup


    regulations for design of bottom compartment layout with regard to grounding damages are largely based on statistical damage data. New and updated damage statistics holding 930 grounding accident records has been investigated. The bottom damage statistics is compared to current regulations for the bottom......The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current...... for the relation between the amount of deformed structure and the energy absorption. Finally, the paper shows how damage statistics for existing, conventional vessels can be used together with theoretical prediction methods for determining grounding damage distributions for new vessel types not included...

  2. On LHCb muon MWPC grounding

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchuk, A


    My goal is to study how a big MWPC system, in particular the LHCb muon system, can be protected against unstable operation and multiple spurious hits, produced by incorrect or imperfect grounding in the severe EM environment of the LHCb experiment. A mechanism of penetration of parasitic current from the ground loop to the input of the front-end amplifier is discussed. A new model of the detector cell as the electrical bridge is considered. As shown, unbalance of the bridge makes detector to be sensitive to the noise in ground loop. Resonances in ground loop are specified. Tests of multiple-point and single-point grounding conceptions made on mock-up are presented.

  3. Ship Collision and Grounding Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, e......, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events. The main goal of collision and grounding research should be to identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention and mitigation of collision and grounding events......It is the purpose of the paper to present a review of prediction and analysis tools for collision and grounding analyses and to outline a probabilistic procedure whereby these tools can be used by the maritime industry to develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human...

  4. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  5. Microprocessor control of a ground water heat pump. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This project was a demonstration of the energy savings available to a small well-insulated facility when a properly designed heat pump is operated against a source of constant temperature ground water or pond water. To date, we have assembled the electronic logging devices required to prove the resultant savings. Data to date, (15 November, 1980) is sparse as we are just entering a full heating season. It is expected that a complete data log will be submitted next spring. Initial energy savings computations follow - the system efficiency is impressive. A typical winter day savings is about $24.00 or $720.00 monthly. The system utilizes the 55/sup 0/F ground water directly for summer cooling. The summer savings are estimated to be about $18.00/day or $540.00 monthly. Circuits and diagrams of the microprocessor control system and data logger are presented. Some sample data are included. (WHK)

  6. Ground Control System Description Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Loros


    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  7. Ground water '89. Ground water and mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Over 30 papers are presented covering dewatering and ground water development, mine inflows, and ground water contamination. Abstracts from the poster presentations are also included. Papers of interest to the coal industry include evaluation of sodium lauryl sulphate, sodium benzoate and sorbic acid as inhibitors of acidification of South African coal waste, a hydrogeological investigation of the Grootegeluk mine and disposal of washing plant fines at Middelburg mine.

  8. Simulation Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Nonlinear Dynamics (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min


    In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.

  9. Ground Enterprise Management System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  10. The Modifiability of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvita K. Nathaniel, Ph.D., RN


    Full Text Available Grounded theories are powerful tools that fit empirical situations and provide “relevant predictions, explanations, interpretations, and applications” (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, p.1. Because of their real-world orientation, grounded theories are particularly appropriate for health care research. They can help professionals understand that certain patterns always seem to emerge, that particular people respond in predictable ways, and that actions produce predictable results (Nathaniel & Andrews, 2007. When physicians and nurses better understand patterns that affect patients, they can work towards altering harmful patterns to improve the quality of patient care. As time passes, one may ask, when do grounded theories become obsolete? When are they no longer useful? The purpose of this paper is to revisit the seminal grounded theory, Awareness of Dying, and compare it to contemporary conceptual and descriptive research on end-of-life care, asking the question, is the theory in need of modification?

  11. Ground Water and Climate Change (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide


    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  12. Seeing a Colleague Encourage a Student to Make an Assumption while Proving: What Teachers Put in Play when Casting an Episode of Instruction (United States)

    Nachlieli, Talli; Herbst, Patricio


    This article reports on an investigation of how teachers of geometry perceived an episode of instruction presented to them as a case of engaging students in proving. Confirming what was hypothesized, participants found it remarkable that a teacher would allow a student to make an assumption while proving. But they perceived this episode in various…

  13. 20 CFR 1002.33 - Does the employee have to prove that the employer discriminated against him or her in order to be... (United States)


    ... employer discriminated against him or her in order to be eligible for reemployment? 1002.33 Section 1002.33... have to prove that the employer discriminated against him or her in order to be eligible for reemployment? No. The employee is not required to prove that the employer discriminated against him or her...

  14. Ground fault protectionmethods for distribution systems


    Tavares, Hugo Ricardo dos Santos; Nogueira, Teresa Alexandre


    The system grounding method option has a direct influence on the overall performance of the entire medium voltage network as well as on the ground fault current magnitude. For any kind of grounding systems: ungrounded system, solidly and low impedance grounded and resonant grounded, we can find advantages and disadvantages. A thorough study is necessary to choose the most appropriate grounding protection system. The power distribution utilities justify their choices based on economic and t...

  15. Composite Grounding Application of Transmission Line Tower with Flexible Graphite Grounding Material (United States)

    Liu, Hongtao; Zhang, Lei; Xiong, Jia; Cui, Zhenxing; Yang, Qi


    To solve the metal corrosion problem of transmission line tower grounding grid, a composite grounding material technique based on flexible graphite grounding is proposed. Using CDEGS software, the power frequency grounding resistances with different soils layers and different ground network size of tower are simulated. The researches show that layered soil resistance can be reduced by laying vertical grounding body and uniform soil can reduce ground resistance by increasing grounding network size.

  16. Site-specific ground response analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. GovindaRaju; G. V. Ramana; C. HanumanthaRao; T. G. Sitharam


    ... modifications to the underlying motion. We highlight the engineering importance of site-specific ground response analysis and difficulties faced in conducting a complete ground response analysis...

  17. Combining Theorem Proving and Model Checking in the Safety-Critical Software Development through Translating Event-B to SMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Liang


    Full Text Available Model checking and theorem proving are two key vertification techniques in the formal method, but each has its advantages and disadvantages. In this paper, we first try to present the general model transformation rules from Event-B to SMV in order to realize complementary advantages, and then design the model converter of Event-B to SMV according to the rules. ProB is the only tool to implement Event-B model checking, but it lacks the real-time property verification, while nuXmv is able to verify temporal logic formulas with the real-time property for SMV models. After completing the model transformation, we use ProB and nuXmv to make the verification of LTL and CTL formulas for two equivalent models respectively. Compared to the experimental results, in solving the same problem, nuXmv has more advantages over memory consumption, time efficiency and so on than ProB, especially when the formula to be verified is very complex. Therefore, if complex verifications of system models need to be performed, it is necessary to implement the model transformation between Event-B and SMV by using our translation rules, which is of great significance for the development, design and verification of safety-critical system softwares.

  18. The “incredible” difficulty of proving “incredibility” – Example of fire-induced multiple spurious operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V., E-mail:


    “Risk-informed” regulation is often an alternative to “deterministically-based” regulation that offers relaxation in criteria for acceptability while possibly requiring greater analytical effort. “Risk-informed determinism” is an attempt to meld the best of both worlds by using risk information to set deterministic acceptance criteria a priori. A recent joint effort by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) originally endeavored to do this for several examples involving fire-induced multiple spurious operations (MSOs) in electrical circuits at nuclear power plants. While a noble effort, this did not consider the actual distributions involved in the events, originally limiting the analysis to mean values and, in some cases, qualitative considerations. A much more comprehensive and defensible approach is performed here where the probabilistic distributions for all the factors are considered via simulation to meet quantitative acceptance criteria related to the concept of “incredibility” that is often the figure of merit that must be met in a deterministic world. The effort demonstrates that it can be “incredibly” difficult to prove “incredibility” in this context.

  19. Nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membrane proves suitability in a preclinical assessment for treatment of soft tissue defects. (United States)

    Schulz, Simon; Angarano, Marco; Fabritius, Martin; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Dard, Michel; Obrecht, Marcel; Tomakidi, Pascal; Steinberg, Thorsten


    Standard preclinical assessments in vitro often have limitations regarding their transferability to human beings, mainly evoked by their nonhuman and tissue-different/nontissue-specific source. Here, we aimed at employing tissue-authentic simple and complex interactive fibroblast-epithelial cell systems and their in vivo-relevant biomarkers for preclinical in vitro assessment of nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membranes (NBMs) for treatment of soft tissue defects. NBMs were composed of electrospun gelatin and polycaprolactone nanofiber nonwovens. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with actin/focal contact integrin fluorescence revealed successful adhesion and proper morphogenesis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, along with cells' derived extracellular matrix deposits. The "feel-good factor" of cells under study on the NBM was substantiated by forming a confluent connective tissue entity, which was concomitant with a stratified epithelial equivalent. Immunohistochemistry proved tissue authenticity over time by abundance of the biomarker vimentin in the connective tissue entity, and chronological increase of keratins KRT1/10 and involucrin expression in epithelial equivalents. Suitability of the novel NBM as wound dressing was evidenced by an almost completion of epithelial wound closure in a pilot mini-pig study, after a surgical intervention-caused gingival dehiscence. In summary, preclinical assessment by tissue-authentic cell systems and the animal pilot study revealed the NBM as an encouraging therapeutic medical device for prospective clinical applications.

  20. Nonwoven-Based Gelatin/Polycaprolactone Membrane Proves Suitability in a Preclinical Assessment for Treatment of Soft Tissue Defects (United States)

    Schulz, Simon; Angarano, Marco; Fabritius, Martin; Mülhaupt, Rolf; Dard, Michel; Obrecht, Marcel; Tomakidi, Pascal


    Standard preclinical assessments in vitro often have limitations regarding their transferability to human beings, mainly evoked by their nonhuman and tissue-different/nontissue-specific source. Here, we aimed at employing tissue-authentic simple and complex interactive fibroblast-epithelial cell systems and their in vivo-relevant biomarkers for preclinical in vitro assessment of nonwoven-based gelatin/polycaprolactone membranes (NBMs) for treatment of soft tissue defects. NBMs were composed of electrospun gelatin and polycaprolactone nanofiber nonwovens. Scanning electron microscopy in conjunction with actin/focal contact integrin fluorescence revealed successful adhesion and proper morphogenesis of keratinocytes and fibroblasts, along with cells' derived extracellular matrix deposits. The “feel-good factor” of cells under study on the NBM was substantiated by forming a confluent connective tissue entity, which was concomitant with a stratified epithelial equivalent. Immunohistochemistry proved tissue authenticity over time by abundance of the biomarker vimentin in the connective tissue entity, and chronological increase of keratins KRT1/10 and involucrin expression in epithelial equivalents. Suitability of the novel NBM as wound dressing was evidenced by an almost completion of epithelial wound closure in a pilot mini-pig study, after a surgical intervention-caused gingival dehiscence. In summary, preclinical assessment by tissue-authentic cell systems and the animal pilot study revealed the NBM as an encouraging therapeutic medical device for prospective clinical applications. PMID:24494668

  1. No-go theorem for ground state cooling given initial system-thermal bath factorization. (United States)

    Wu, Lian-Ao; Segal, Dvira; Brumer, Paul


    Ground-state cooling and pure state preparation of a small object that is embedded in a thermal environment is an important challenge and a highly desirable quantum technology. This paper proves, with two different methods, that a fundamental constraint on the cooling dynamic implies that it is impossible to cool, via a unitary system-bath quantum evolution, a system that is embedded in a thermal environment down to its ground state, if the initial state is a factorized product of system and bath states. The latter is a crucial but artificial assumption included in numerous tools that treat system-bath dynamics, such as master equation approaches and Kraus operator based methods. Adopting these approaches to address ground state and even approximate ground state cooling dynamics should therefore be done with caution, considering the fundamental theorem exposed in this work.

  2. Caratterizzazione microstrutturale e prove di resilienza su giunti Friction Stir Welding e Linear Friction Welding di compositi a matrice metallica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Merlin


    Full Text Available In questo studio sono stati caratterizzati giunti Friction Stir Welding e Linear Friction Welding su compositi a matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare ceramico. Il processo FSW è stato applicato a due compositi ottenuti con processo fusorio, quindi estrusi e trattati termicamente T6: AA6061/20%vol.Al2O3p e AA7005/10%vol.Al2O3p. I giunti LFW sono stati invece realizzati su un composito con matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare in carburo di silicio, ottenuto mediante metallurgia delle polveri, quindi forgiato e trattato termicamente T4: AA2124/25%vol.SiCp. Sono stati esaminati gli effetti della saldatura sullecaratteristiche microstrutturali dei giunti, avvalendosi di tecniche di microscopia ottica con analisi di immagine e di microscopia elettronica in scansione (SEM con microsonda a dispersione di energia (EDS. Sono state quindi condotte prove di resilienza con pendolo strumentato Charpy. Lo studio dei meccanismi di danneggiamento è stato effettuato mediante analisi al SEM delle superfici di frattura. Entrambi i processi di saldatura hanno portato a giunti sostanzialmente esenti da difetti. La microstruttura dei cordoni è risultata dipendente sia dalle caratteristiche microstrutturali iniziali dei compositi considerati, sia dalla tipologia di processo di saldatura. Nel caso dei compositi AA6061/20%Al2O3p e AA7005/10%Al2O3p saldati FSW si è osservato un sostanziale incremento di resilienza, rispetto al materiale base, in conseguenza dell’affinamento dei grani della matrice, della riduzione della dimensione media delle particelle di rinforzo e della loro spigolosità, indotte dal processo di saldatura. Il composito AA2124/25%SiCp saldato LFW ha presentato valori di resilienza confrontabili con quelli del materiale base, in conseguenza, soprattutto, dei limitati effetti della saldatura su dimensione e distribuzione delle particelle di rinforzo.

  3. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  4. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates. (United States)

    Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W


    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  5. Cleansing crews in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meermann, H.


    Ground water contains a large quantity of bacteria, fungi and animals, and especially small crustaceans which carry out the biological purification process. These organsims are also able to cope with seeping waste water. However, the excessive supply of waste water or the seeping of toxicants e.g. heavy metals, can influence this biological self-purification device considerably or even suspend it. The microbiological fundamentals of this ecosystem had been investigated within the framework of a DFG project since 1973. The conversion of organic matter in ground water had been determined by /sup 14/C-labelled compounds.

  6. DGPS ground station integrity monitoring (United States)

    Skidmore, Trent A.; Vangraas, Frank


    This paper summarizes the development of a unique Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) ground station integrity monitor which can offer improved availability over conventional code-differential monitoring systems. This monitoring technique, called code/carrier integrity monitoring (CCIM), uses the highly stable integrated Doppler measurement to smooth the relatively noisy code-phase measurements. The pseudorange correction is therefore comprised of the integrated Doppler measurement plus the CCIM offset. The design and operational results of a DGPS ground station integrity monitor are reported. A robust integrity monitor is realized which is optimized for applications such as the Special Category I (SCAT-I) defined in the RTCA Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards.

  7. Airport Ground Access Planning Guide. (United States)


    particularly applicable to airports are pricing and employee ridesharing . Pricing- Pricing mechanisms can influence the number and type of vehicles using...terms of how they may be applicable for im- proving airport access. 4.2.1 Highway System The term "roadway" is normally applied to several functional 4 i4...flow. Since airport traffic is usually balanced, this technique would be applicable only to highways carrying a high percentage of commuter traffic

  8. 30 CFR 77.801 - Grounding resistors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 77.801 Section 77.801...-Voltage Distribution § 77.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the proper ohmic value to limit the voltage drop in the grounding circuit external to the resistor to not...

  9. Klein-Gordon lower bound to the semirelativistic ground-state energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Richard L., E-mail: rhall@mathstat.concordia.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Boulevard West, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1M8 (Canada); Lucha, Wolfgang, E-mail: [Institute for High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfergasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)


    For the class of attractive potentials V(r)<=0 which vanish at infinity, we prove that the ground-state energy E of the semirelativistic Hamiltonian H=sq root(m{sup 2}+p{sup 2})+V(r) is bounded below by the ground-state energy e of the corresponding Klein-Gordon problem (p{sup 2}+m{sup 2})phi=(V(r)-e){sup 2}phi. Detailed results are presented for the exponential and Woods-Saxon potentials.

  10. Aspects of ground effect modeling. (United States)

    Taraldsen, Gunnar; Jonasson, Hans


    A recently published one-parameter ground model based on Darcy's law is here generalized into a two-parameter model which depends on an effective flow resistivity and an effective layer depth. Extensive field measurements of the acoustic impedance of various ground types have been carried out for frequencies in the range from 200 Hz to 2.5 kHz. The model based on Darcy's law gives an improved fit to the measurements compared to the Delany-Bazley model. It is, in addition, argued on purely theoretical grounds that the suggested model is preferable. In contrast to the Delany-Bazley model it corresponds to a proper causal time-domain model. This is particularly relevant for extrapolation of the models to lower frequencies and for the recently developed harmonized methods intended for use in the implementation of the European Union directive on the assessment and management of environmental noise. The harmonized methods include frequencies down to the 25 Hz third octave band and have the Delany-Bazley ground impedance model as the default choice. The arguments presented here suggest that this default choice should be replaced by the more physically based model from the law of Darcy.

  11. The ground stones from Sphinx

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řídký, Jaroslav


    Roč. 2017, č. 21 (2017), s. 39-42 ISSN 1369-5770 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03207S Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : Sudan * Mesolithic * ground stones Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  12. Maintenance Sourcebook: Landscaping and Grounds. (United States)

    Macht, Carol; Gomulka, Ken; Harper, Wayne; Conry, Terry


    Asserts that facility managers need continual education in many subjects to keep their campuses in excellent condition, highlighting four areas related to landscaping and maintenance: landscaping care; athletic field care; grounds care; and equipment care. Lists of relevant professional organizations are included. (SM)

  13. Broadband Synthetic Ground Motion Records (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset contains broadband synthetic ground motion records for three events: 1) 1994 M6.7 Northridge, CA, 2) 1989 M7.0 Loma Prieta, CA, and 3) 1999 M7.5 Izmit,...

  14. Global trends on local grounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Jette Johanne


    and built upon similar efforts in Namibia in the 1990s. Steensen´s contribution stresses that any educational system will have to lie firmly on local grounds, that international trends must be analysed strategically as well as critically and that such analysis, for example through Critical Practitioner...

  15. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania


    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...

  16. The Importance of “Corpus Delicti” in Proving “Causation” in Homicide Cases in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Alili


    Full Text Available In homicide cases, it may be difficult to prove the cause of death if the body of the victim of an alleged murderous attack is not made available for medical examination. It is therefore obvious that there are instances and circumstances where persons accused of committing the offence of culpable homicide punishable with death take steps to destroy the body of their victims in order to avoid prosecution or conviction and punishment if prosecuted. It would seem that the legal perception and meaning of the body of the deceased in homicide cases otherwise called “corpus delicti” is largely misconstrued by lawyers and laymen alike. This paper examined this identified problem and attempted to correct same and also considered the importance of “corpus delicti” in criminal trials generally and in homicide cases in particular. It also considered the importance and relevance of the legal presumption of death which is of evidential value in both civil and criminal proceedings in bridging the gap that may be created by the absence of corpus delicti. The views of the courts in some decided cases to the effect that it is not in all homicide cases that the prosecution case may fail simply because the body of the deceased was not produced or medically examined, was challenged and it was argued that conviction in homicide cases in the absence of the corpus delicti can only be sustained where evidence of its destruction by the accused is established and this may also require the production of some parts or pieces of what was destroyed. It was observed that corpus delicti and causation are twin legal concepts in criminal law constituting the physical element (octus reus of result offences, such as culpable homicide punishable with death, with the result that one cannot exist in isolation from the other without a resultant miscarriage of justice. The courts were urged to sparingly and cautiously convict persons alleged to have committed culpable homicide

  17. CTP-based tissue outcome. Promising tool to prove the beneficial effect of mechanical recanalization in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewer-Gutland, F.; Niederstadt, T.U.; Heindel, W. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Inst. for Clinical Radiology; Kemmling, A. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Ligges, S. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Biostatistics and Clinical Research; Ritter, M.; Dziewas, R.; Ringelstein, E.B. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Hesselmann, V. [Asklepios-Clinic North, Hamburg (Germany). Radiology/Neuroradiology


    To prove the tissue-protecting effect of mechanical recanalization, we assessed the CT perfusion-based tissue outcome (''TO'') and correlated this imaging parameter with the 3-month clinical outcome (''CO''). 159 patients with large intracranial artery occlusions revealing mechanical recanalization were investigated by CCT, CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) upon admission. For the final infarct volume, native CCT was repeated after 24h. The ''TO'' (''percentage mismatch loss'' = %ML) was defined as the difference between initial penumbral tissue on CTP and final infarct volume on follow-up CCT. We monitored the three-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS), age, bleeding occurrence, time to recanalization, TICI score and collateralization grade, infarct growth and final infarct volume. Spearman's correlation and nominal regression analysis were used to evaluate the impact of these parameters on mRS Significant correlations were found for %ML and mRS (c=0.48, p<0.001), for final infarct volume and mRS (c=0.52, p<0.001), for TICI score and mRS (c=-0.35, p<0.001), for initial infarct core and mRS (c=0.14, p=0.039) as well as for age and mRS (c=0.37, p<0.001). According to the regression analysis, %ML predicted the classification of mRS correctly in 38.5% of cases. The subclasses mRS 1 and 6 could be predicted by %ML with 86.4% and 60.9% reliability, respectively. No correlations were found for time to recanalization and mRS, for collateralization grade and mRS, and for post-interventional bleeding and mRS. Better than the TICI score, CT-based TO predicts the clinical success of mechanical recanalization, showing that not recanalization, but reperfusion should be regarded as a surrogate parameter for stroke therapy.

  18. Initial Experiment in Using a Powered Parafoil for Employment of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolodny, Michael


    Experiments were run by the U.S. Army Research Laboratory at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ, on 10 and 12 June 2004 to obtain an initial assessment of the viability of using a powered parafoil as an unmanned air vehicle for employment...

  19. Classic Grounded Theory to Analyse Secondary Data: Reality and Reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine Andrews


    Full Text Available This paper draws on the experiences of two researchers and discusses how they conducted a secondary data analysis using classic grounded theory. The aim of the primary study was to explore first-time parents’ postnatal educational needs. A subset of the data from the primary study (eight transcripts from interviews with fathers was used for the secondary data analysis. The objectives of the secondary data analysis were to identify the challenges of using classic grounded theory with secondary data and to explore whether the re-analysis of primary data using a different methodology would yield a different outcome. Through the process of re-analysis a tentative theory emerged on ‘developing competency as a father’. Challenges encountered during this re-analysis included the small dataset, the pre-framed data, and limited ability for theoretical sampling. This re-analysis proved to be a very useful learning tool for author 1(LA, who was a novice with classic grounded theory.

  20. Ground Systems Integration Domain (GSID) Materials for Ground Platforms (United States)


    elastomers • High-strength fibers • Armors that spread the energy • Foams, lattice materials • Chemical manipulation • Unprecedented properties • Multi...TACOM LCMC (ASA(ALT)) ILSC ACQ Center Industrial Base PEO GCS PEO CS&CSS PEO Soldier PEO Integration Department of the Army...Vehicle Development & Integration Large Robotics Integration Cell Prototype Integration Ground Systems Power & Energy Lab Propulsion Laboratories 6

  1. Grounded theory in music therapy research. (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare


    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  2. Proceedings of the Chemical Research and Development Center’s Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research (1984) Held on 25-29 June 1984 at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. (United States)


    summarized findings or the extended analysis will also be submitted to Applied Optics for publica - tion. INTRODUCTION This article reports our first...action and Its Relacion to Particle Separation .in Coatings and Clouds (15) 2:05 Ariel (..., Lenard Cohen and Richard Haracz (Drexel University), Double

  3. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE, Nevada Proving Grounds, March-June 1953. Project 3.5 Tests on the Response of Wall and Roof Panels and the Transmission of Load to Supporting Structure (United States)


    Distribution unlimited.---------d HEADQUJARTERS FIELD COMMAND, ARMED FORCES SPECIAL WEAPONS PROJECT SANDIA BASE, ALBUOUERQUE, NEW MEXICO 󈨓- 08 21- 0-48...0.8 u’) .0.6 W a - I when LhJ0. 0.4 ll> 2.25h Pib :Pif + aO(Poib 3 P n ,u P if 0 0 i2 3 DISTANCE, 1/h UNITS Fig. B.40Overpressure Behind Inside

  4. Demonstration Report, Munitions Management Projects, ESTCP Project MR-200809, ALLTEM Multi-Axis Electromagnetic Induction System Demonstration and Validation, Aberdeen Proving Ground Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site, Version 1.0 (United States)


    Calibration and Blind Test Grids, the Direct Fire Area, and most of the Indirect Fire Area. Routines specifically developed for the ALLTEM in Oasis Montaj ...processed using custom Oasis Montaj ALLTEM gx’s. This is done fast and efficiently after acquisition but, currently, not during acquisition. 3. ALLTEM is...System (APARS) APARS is a software module incorporated into Geosoft Oasis Montaj that integrates GPS and AHRS data streams to provide coil-corner

  5. Environmental Assessment for the Continued Exclusive Use of Department of the Army Land Located at U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground by Members of the U.S. Air Force (United States)


    26  3.3.1  Topography ..........................................................................................27  3.3.2  Geology ...Function Date Constructed 1001 Universal Waste Storage Battery waste storage 1988 1002 Avery Tunnel Entrance Not used by the 388th 1952 1003...however, two large playas are located in the western and southern portions of DPG (DPG 2003). 3.3.2 Geology Mountain ranges within or adjacent to DPG

  6. Proceedings of the U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center Scientific Conference on Chemical Defense Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 14-17 November 1989 (United States)


    Scientific Conference on Chemical Defense Research, CRDEC-SP-013, Vol. 1, 407- 417 (1989). [4] C. D. Wagner, W. M. Riggs , L. E. Davis, J. F. Moulder, Handbook...requiring bioactivation to an ultimate carcinogenic form, some are thought to be direct acting genotoxic carcinogens while the sole apparent epigenetic

  7. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)


    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  8. Evaluating Autonomous Ground-Robots (United States)


    the paths taken by the multiple robots . The outer dimensions of the maze are about 25m x 25m. At the level of resolution shown in the main image...square meters). The system was also used to track the robots through the plywood walls of the maze , achieving similar accuracies. The system could not...Evaluating Autonomous Ground- Robots Anthony Finn 1 , Adam Jacoff 2 , Mike Del Rose 3 , Bob Kania 3 , Udam Silva 4 and Jon Bornstein 5

  9. VSTOL ground effects testing with flow visualization and image enhancement (United States)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Johns, Albert L.


    A remotely controlled high-energy fiber-optic light delivery technique is employed to examine the implementation of a laser-light-sheet flow-visualization system. During testing, video data are enhanced in real time using digital image processing techniques. A summary of test results for an advanced VSTOL configuration in ground effect, and techniques for the generation of 3D reconstructions for the flowfield are outlined. The system performed well during all phases of the test and proved to be an extremely useful asset to the overall test program. The most useful application of the flow visualization system was the interactive real-time flow field analysis made during the actual testing.

  10. Airport Ground Resource Planning Tool Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort undertakes the creation of an Airport Ground Resource Planning (AGRP) tool. Little or no automation is currently available to support airport ground...

  11. The Development of Constructivist Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mills


    Full Text Available Constructivist grounded theory is a popular method for research studies primarily in the disciplines of psychology, education, and nursing. In this article, the authors aim to locate the roots of constructivist grounded theory and then trace its development. They examine key grounded theory texts to discern their ontological and epistemological orientation. They find Strauss and Corbin's texts on grounded theory to possess a discernable thread of constructivism in their approach to inquiry. They also discuss Charmaz's landmark work on constructivist grounded theory relative to her positioning of the researcher in relation to the participants, analysis of the data, and rendering of participants' experiences into grounded theory. Grounded theory can be seen as a methodological spiral that begins with Glaser and Strauss' original text and continues today. The variety of epistemological positions that grounded theorists adopt are located at various points on this spiral and are reflective of their underlying ontologies.

  12. Airborne ground penetrating radar: practical field experiments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Michael


    Full Text Available The performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) under conditions where the ground coupling of the antenna is potentially compromised is investigated. Of particular interest is the effect of increasing the distance between the antennae...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.68 - Grounding. (United States)


    ... § 1918.68 Grounding. The frames of portable electrical equipment and tools, other than double insulated tools and battery operated tools, shall be grounded through a separate equipment conductor run with or enclosing the circuit conductors. ...

  14. Grounded for life: creative symbol-grounding for lexical invention (United States)

    Veale, Tony; Al-Najjar, Khalid


    One of the challenges of linguistic creativity is to use words in a way that is novel and striking and even whimsical, to convey meanings that remain stubbornly grounded in the very same world of familiar experiences as serves to anchor the most literal and unimaginative language. The challenge remains unmet by systems that merely shuttle or arrange words to achieve novel arrangements without concern as to how those arrangements are to spur the processes of meaning construction in a listener. In this paper we explore a problem of lexical invention that cannot be solved without a model - explicit or implicit - of the perceptual grounding of language: the invention of apt new names for colours. To solve this problem here we shall call upon the notion of a linguistic readymade, a phrase that is wrenched from its original context of use to be given new meaning and new resonance in new settings. To ensure that our linguistic readymades - which owe a great deal to Marcel Duchamp's notion of found art - are anchored in a consensus model of perception, we introduce the notion of a lexicalised colour stereotype.

  15. Empirically grounding grounded cognition: the case of color. (United States)

    Amsel, Ben D; Urbach, Thomas P; Kutas, Marta


    Grounded cognition theories hold that the neural states involved in experiencing objects play a direct functional role in representing and accessing object knowledge from memory. However, extant data marshaled to support this view are also consistent with an opposing view that perceptuo-motor activations occur only following access to knowledge from amodal memory systems. We provide novel discriminating evidence for the functional involvement of visuo-perceptual states specifically in accessing knowledge about an object's color. We recorded event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while manipulating the visual contrast of monochromatic words ("lime") in a semantic decision task: responses were made for valid colors ("green") and locations ("kitchen") and withheld for invalid colors and locations. Low contrast delayed perceptual processing for both color and location. Critically, low contrast slowed access to color knowledge only. This finding reveals that the visual system plays a functional role in accessing object knowledge and uniquely supports grounded views of cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 30 CFR 75.801 - Grounding resistors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors. 75.801 Section 75.801... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.801 Grounding resistors. The grounding resistor, where required, shall be of the proper ohmic value to limit the voltage...

  17. Identification of resonant earthquake ground motion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Resonant ground motion has been observed in earthquake records measured at several parts of the world. This class of ground motion is characterized by its energy being contained in a narrow frequency band. This paper develops measures to quantify the frequency content of the ground motion using the entropy ...

  18. 46 CFR 129.375 - System grounding. (United States)


    ... to the common ground plate. (e) Each insulated grounding-conductor of a cable must be identified by one of the following means: (1) Wrapping of the cable with green braid or green insulation. (2... exposed insulation of the grounding-conductor with green tape or green adhesive labels. (f) No vessel's...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1409 - Ground limestone. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ground limestone. 184.1409 Section 184.1409 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1409 Ground limestone. (a) Ground limestone consists essentially... classifying of naturally occurring limestone. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  20. 7 CFR 65.175 - Ground pork. (United States)


    ... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.175 Ground pork. Ground pork means comminuted... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground pork. 65.175 Section 65.175 Agriculture...

  1. Testing a top-down strategy for establishing a sustainable telemedicine program in a developing country: the Arizona telemedicine program-US Army-Republic of Panama Initiative. (United States)

    Vega, Silvio; Marciscano, Ivette; Holcomb, Michael; Erps, Kristine A; Major, Janet; Lopez, Ana Maria; Barker, Gail P; Weinstein, Ronald S


    Many developing countries have shown interest in embracing telemedicine and incorporating it into their healthcare systems. In 2000, the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) initiated a program to assist the Republic of Panama in establishing a demonstration Panamanian rural telemedicine program. YPG engaged the Arizona Telemedicine Program (ATP) to participate in the development and implementation of the program. The ATP recommended adoption of a "top-down" strategy for creating the program. Early buy-in of the Panamanian Ministry of Health and academic leaders was regarded as critical to the achievement of long-term success. High-level meetings with the Minister of Health and the Rectors (i.e., Presidents) of the national universities gained early program support. A telemedicine demonstration project was established on a mountainous Indian reservation 230 miles west of Panama City. Today, three rural telemedicine clinics are linked to a regional Ministry of Health hospital for teleconsultations. Real-time bidirectional videoconferencing utilizes videophones connected over Internet protocol networks at a data rate of 768 kilobits per second to the San Felix Hospital. Telepediatrics, tele-obstetrics, telepulmonology, teledermatology, and tele-emergency medicine services became available. Telemedicine services were provided to the three sites for a total of 1,013 cases, with numbers of cases increasing each year. These three demonstration sites remained in operation after discontinuation of the U.S. involvement in September 2009 and serve as a model program for other telemedicine initiatives in Panama. Access to the assets of a partner-nation was invaluable in the establishment of the first model telemedicine demonstration program in Panama. After 3 years, the Panamanian Telemedicine and Telehealth Program (PTTP) became self-sufficient. The successful achievement of sustainability of the PTTP after disengagement by the United States fits the Latifi-Weinstein model

  2. Leaders break ground for INFINITY (United States)


    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  3. Stochastic modeling for starting-time of phase evolution of random seismic ground motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongbo Peng


    Full Text Available In response to the challenge inherent in classical high-dimensional models of random ground motions, a family of simulation methods for non-stationary seismic ground motions was developed previously through employing a wave-group propagation formulation with phase spectrum model built up on the frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution. The present paper aims at extending the formulation to the simulation of non-stationary random seismic ground motions. The ground motion records associated with N—S component of Northridge Earthquake at the type-II site are investigated. The frequency components' starting-time of phase evolution of is identified from the ground motion records, and is proved to admit the Gamma distribution through data fitting. Numerical results indicate that the simulated random ground motion features zero-mean, non-stationary, and non-Gaussian behaviors, and the phase spectrum model with only a few starting-times of phase evolution could come up with a sound contribution to the simulation.

  4. Stability and Symmetry-Breaking Bifurcation for the Ground States of a NLS with a δ' Interaction (United States)

    Adami, Riccardo; Noja, Diego


    We determine and study the ground states of a focusing Schrödinger equation in dimension one with a power nonlinearity | ψ|2 μ ψ and a strong inhomogeneity represented by a singular point perturbation, the so-called (attractive) δ' interaction, located at the origin. The time-dependent problem turns out to be globally well posed in the subcritical regime, and locally well posed in the supercritical and critical regime in the appropriate energy space. The set of the (nonlinear) ground states is completely determined. For any value of the nonlinearity power, it exhibits a symmetry breaking bifurcation structure as a function of the frequency (i.e., the nonlinear eigenvalue) ω. More precisely, there exists a critical value ω* of the nonlinear eigenvalue ω, such that: if ω0 ground state and it is an odd function; if ω > ω* then there exist two non-symmetric ground states. We prove that before bifurcation (i.e., for ω ground state is orbitally stable. After bifurcation (ω = ω* + 0), ground states are stable if μ does not exceed a value {μ^star} that lies between 2 and 2.5, and become unstable for μ > μ*. Finally, for μ > 2 and {ω ≫ ω^*}, all ground states are unstable. The branch of odd ground states for ω ω*, obtaining a family of orbitally unstable stationary states. Existence of ground states is proved by variational techniques, and the stability properties of stationary states are investigated by means of the Grillakis-Shatah-Strauss framework, where some non-standard techniques have to be used to establish the needed properties of linearization operators.

  5. The grounding of temporal metaphors. (United States)

    Lai, Vicky T; Desai, Rutvik H


    Grounded cognition suggests that the processing of conceptual knowledge cued by language relies on the sensory-motor regions. Does temporal language similarly engage brain areas involved in time perception? Participants read sentences that describe the temporal extent of events with motion verbs (The hours crawled until the release of the news) and their static controls. Comparison conditions were fictive motion (The trail crawled until the end of the hills) and literal motion (The caterpillar crawled towards the top of the tree), along with their static controls. Several time sensitive locations, identified using a meta-analysis, showed activation specific to temporal metaphors, including in the left insula, right claustrum, and bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci. Fictive and literal motion contrasts did not show this difference. Fictive motion contrast showed activation in a conceptual motion sensitive area of the left posterior inferior temporal sulcus (ITS). These data suggest that language of time is at least partially grounded in experiential time. In addition, motion semantics has different consequences for events and objects: temporal events become animate, while static entities become motional. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grounding word learning in space. (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; Smith, Linda B; Perry, Lynn K; Spencer, John P


    Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  7. Common Ground Between Three Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehuda Peled


    Full Text Available The Triwizard program with Israel brought together students from three different communities: an Israeli Arab school, an Israeli Jewish school, and an American public school with few Jews and even fewer Muslims. The two Israeli groups met in Israel to find common ground and overcome their differences through dialogue and understanding. They communicated with the American school via technology such as video-conferencing, Skype, and emails. The program culminated with a visit to the U.S. The goal of the program was to embark upon a process that would bring about intercultural awareness and acceptance at the subjective level, guiding all involved to develop empathy and an insider's view of the other's culture. It was an attempt to have a group of Israeli high school students and a group of Arab Israeli students who had a fearful, distrustful perception of each other find common ground and become friends. TriWizard was designed to have participants begin a dialogue about issues, beliefs, and emotions based on the premise that cross-cultural training strategies that are effective in changing knowledge are those that engage the emotions, and actively develop empathy and an insider's views of another culture focused on what they have in common. Participants learned that they could become friends despite their cultural differences.

  8. 20 CFR 30.231 - How does a claimant prove employment-related exposure to a toxic substance at a DOE facility or a... (United States)


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a claimant prove employment-related exposure to a toxic substance at a DOE facility or a RECA section 5 facility? 30.231 Section 30.231 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ENERGY EMPLOYEES OCCUPATIONAL ILLNESS COMPENSATION PROGRAM ACT OF...

  9. Temporal resolution of figures and grounds. (United States)

    Hecht, Lauren N; Vecera, Shaun P


    Recent studies have demonstrated that establishing figure-ground organization influences other perceptual processes. Specifically, figures undergo perceptual processing earlier than ground regions (Lester, Hecht, & Vecera, 2009), and they are processed for longer durations relative to ground regions (Hecht & Vecera, 2011). One potential consequence of figures' extended processing is degraded temporal resolution compared to ground regions. To test this hypothesis, observers completed a modified flicker-fusion task while viewing either displays that contained well-defined figures and grounds or displays that were ambiguous. As evidenced by increased sensitivity for flickering targets on the ground regions, the current results support the claim that figures have poorer temporal resolution than ground regions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Characteristics of the ground vortex formed by a jet moving over a fixed ground plane (United States)

    Kemmerly, G. T.; Stewart, V. R.


    This paper discusses an experimental study conducted in the Langley Vortex Facility to investigate the effects on the ground vortex of the jet passing over a fixed ground board. A jet impacting the ground can form a vortex which may materially affect the aerodynamic characteristics of a STOL airplane operating near the ground. Several studies have been done with a stationary jet exiting near and perpendicular to fixed ground board. The resulting ground effects have been documented in terms of ground vortex and aerodynamic characteristics. The ground boundary layer created in a wind tunnel facility, however is thought to affect the extent of the ground vortex. This paper reports on an investigation utilizing an isolated moving jet to eliminate the ground boundary layer. The results are compared to the existing data base and show a 30 percent decrease in the vortex penetration shown by the stationary jet conditions.

  11. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence. (United States)

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel


    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed.

  12. Ground state and orbital stability for the NLS equation on a general starlike graph with potentials (United States)

    Cacciapuoti, Claudio; Finco, Domenico; Noja, Diego


    We consider a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) posed on a graph (or network) composed of a generic compact part to which a finite number of half-lines are attached. We call this structure a starlike graph. At the vertices of the graph interactions of δ-type can be present and an overall external potential is admitted. Under general assumptions on the potential, we prove that the NLS is globally well-posed in the energy domain. We are interested in minimizing the energy of the system on the manifold of constant mass (L 2-norm). When existing, the minimizer is called ground state and it is the profile of an orbitally stable standing wave for the NLS evolution. We prove that a ground state exists for sufficiently small masses whenever the quadratic part of the energy admits a simple isolated eigenvalue at the bottom of the spectrum (the linear ground state). This is a wide generalization of a result previously obtained for a star-graph with a single vertex. The main part of the proof is devoted to prove the concentration compactness principle for starlike structures; this is non trivial due to the lack of translation invariance of the domain. Then we show that a minimizing, bounded, H 1 sequence for the constrained NLS energy with external linear potentials is in fact convergent if its mass is small enough. Moreover we show that the ground state bifurcates from the vanishing solution at the bottom of the linear spectrum. Examples are provided with a discussion of the hypotheses on the linear part.

  13. Networked unattented ground sensors assesment (United States)

    Bouguereau, Julien; Gattefin, Christian; Dupuy, Gilles


    Within the framework of the NATO AC 323 / RTO TG 25 group, relating to advanced concepts of acoustic and seismic technology for military applications, Technical Establishment of Bourges welcomed and organized a joint campaign of experiment intending to demonstrate the interest of a networked unattented ground sensors for vehicles detection and tracking in an area defense context. Having reminded the principle of vehicles tracking, this paper describes the progress of the test campaign and details particularly sensors and participants deployment, the solution of interoperability chosen by the group and the instrumentation used to acquire, network, process and publish in real-time data available during the test: meteorological data, trajectography data and targets detection reports data. Finally, some results of the campaign are presented.

  14. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 1. (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John


    The decision to use grounded theory is not an easy one and this article aims to illustrate and explore the methodological complexity and decision-making process. It explores the decision making of one researcher in the first two years of a grounded theory PhD study looking at the psychosocial training needs of nurses and healthcare assistants working with people with dementia in residential care. It aims to map out three different approaches to grounded theory: classic, Straussian and constructivist. In nursing research, grounded theory is often referred to but it is not always well understood. This confusion is due in part to the history of grounded theory methodology, which is one of development and divergent approaches. Common elements across grounded theory approaches are briefly outlined, along with the key differences of the divergent approaches. Methodological literature pertaining to the three chosen grounded theory approaches is considered and presented to illustrate the options and support the choice made. The process of deciding on classical grounded theory as the version best suited to this research is presented. The methodological and personal factors that directed the decision are outlined. The relative strengths of Straussian and constructivist grounded theories are reviewed. All three grounded theory approaches considered offer the researcher a structured, rigorous methodology, but researchers need to understand their choices and make those choices based on a range of methodological and personal factors. In the second article, the final methodological decision will be outlined and its research application described.

  15. Space-based monitoring of ground deformation (United States)

    Nobakht Ersi, Fereydoun; Safari, Abdolreza; Gamse, Sonja


    Ground deformation monitoring is valuable to understanding of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Space-Based measurement systems such as Global Positioning System are useful tools for continuous monitoring of ground deformation. Ground deformation analysis based on space geodetic techniques have provided a new, more accurate, and reliable source of information for geodetic positioning which is used to detect deformations of the Ground surface. This type of studies using displacement fields derived from repeated measurments of space-based geodetic networks indicates how crucial role the space geodetic methods play in geodynamics. The main scope of this contribution is to monitor of ground deformation by obtained measurements from GPS sites. We present ground deformation analysis in three steps: a global congruency test on daily coordinates of permanent GPS stations to specify in which epochs deformations occur, the localization of the deformed GPS sites and the determination of deformations.

  16. Proving the Ocean Nourishment Concept (United States)

    Jones, I. S.


    Vast regions of the sea are barren because of a lack of essential nutrients. Ocean Nourishment is the concept of injecting nutrients into the photic zone of the ocean to store carbon and increase the base of the marine food web. It is elaborated in Jones & Young (1997). The first step in demonstrating this concept is to see if the limiting nutrients can be recognised and provided to the oligotrophic ocean. To this end water samples from three sites were collected in ultraclean polycarbonate culture bottles and enriched with various mixtures of nutrients. They were then placed in a water bath and subjected to natural sunlight for a number of days. Fluorescence levels were measured daily. Previously Thomas (1969) carried out enrichment experiments in and out of high nutrient water in the North Pacific and again Thomas (1970) cultured on the deck of his ship nutrient poor waters in the Pacific. He found nitrogen was the most important limiting nutrient in the poor waters but that micronutrients produced growth in the nutrient rich waters. Ryther and Dunstan (1971) in the Atlantic cultured coastal water with only nitrogen and phosphorus separately. The addition of nitrogen without phosphate produced growth in all cases. To increase the geographic coverage of enrichment experiments, samples were collected off Morocco twice, in the Tasman Sea and in the Sulu Sea. The samples enriched with different concentrations of urea (typically 10 microM) and phosphorous. An increase concentration of chlorophyll is the result of growth of phytoplankton exceeding death and grazing by zooplankton. At five sites an increase of chlorophyll was observed in the macronutrient enriched bottles over that in the control. At the sixth site the control grew at much the same rate as the enriched sample possibly due to contamination by the fluorometer. The maximum chlorophyll level was observed after 4 or 5 days. Replicate samples showed different levels of chlorophyll growths. It was concluded that there were sufficient micronutrients present to support some additional photosynthesis at the sites investigated. These results suggest that it will be practical to nourish broad regions of the ocean to increase primary production. References Jones, I. S. F. and H. E. Young (1997) Engineering a large sustainable world fishery.Environmental Conservation, 24, 99-104. Ryther, J.H. and W. M.Dunstan (1971) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Eutrophication in the coastal marine environment, Science, 171, 1008-1013. Thomas, W H (1970) Effect of Ammonium and Nitrate Concentration on Chlorophyll increase in Natural Tropical Pacific Phytoplankton Populations, Limnology and Oceanography, 15, 386-394. Thomas, W.H., (1969). Phytoplankton nutrient enrichment experiments off Baja California and in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean. J. Fish Res. Bd. Can., 26: 1133-1145. Acknowledgement A Eddington made a number of the obsevations. The Ocean Nourishment Corporation Pty Ltd funded some of the reearch.

  17. Combining norms to prove termination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genaim, S.; Codish, M.; Gallagher, John Patrick


    Automatic termination analysers typically measure the size of terms applying norms which are mappings from terms to the natural numbers. This paper illustrates howt o enable the use of size functions defined as tuples of these simpler norm functions. This approach enables us to simplify the problem...

  18. A Local Feud Proves Toxic (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda


    A school leadership crisis that has dragged on since last fall is threatening Clayton County public school system to lose its accreditation. Loss of this accreditation could mean future Clayton County graduates would have trouble being accepted to college or would miss out on merit scholarships. Clayton County's members have feuded with each…

  19. Project management skills prove invaluable. (United States)

    Corfield, Louise


    IHEEM business development manager Louise Corfield examines the role of project management in the skill set of today's healthcare estates and facilities manager, and explains how the Institute has joined forces with a number of organisations to offer members access to training in this increasingly vital area.

  20. A literature review on grounded theory



    M.A. When Glaser departed from the University of California, Strauss was left to answer to those who critiqued grounded theory for its seeming looseness, its lack of variation, and the tangled description of it in their joint book, Discovery of Grounded Theory (Stern, 1994). Strauss' need to respond to critics led him in 1987 and in 1990, together with Corbin, to modify their description of grounded theory from its original concept of emergence to a densely codified, structured operation (...

  1. Grounded Theory as a General Research Methodology


    Judith A. Holton, Ph.D.


    Since its inception over forty years ago, grounded theory has achieved canonical status in the research world (Locke, 2001, p.1). Qualitative researchers, in particular, have embraced grounded theory although often without sufficient scholarship in the methodology (Partington, 2000, p.93; 2002, p.136). The embrace renders many researchers unable to perceive grounded theory as a general methodology and an alternative to the dominant qualitative and quantitative research paradigms. The result i...

  2. Towards a Theory Grounded Theory of Language


    Prince, Christopher G.; Mislivec, Eric J.; Kosolapov, Oleksandr V.; Lykken, Troy R.


    In this paper, we build upon the idea of theory grounding and propose one specific form of theory grounding, a theory of language. Theory grounding is the idea that we can imbue our embodied artificially intelligent systems with theories by modeling the way humans, and specifically young children, develop skills with theories. Modeling theory development promises to increase the conceptual and behavioral flexibility of these systems. An example of theory development in children is the social ...

  3. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  4. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Anomaly Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop the capability to identify anomalous conditions (indications to potential impending system failure) in ground system operations before such...

  5. Ground Motion Models for Future Linear Colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seryi, Andrei


    Optimization of the parameters of a future linear collider requires comprehensive models of ground motion. Both general models of ground motion and specific models of the particular site and local conditions are essential. Existing models are not completely adequate, either because they are too general, or because they omit important peculiarities of ground motion. The model considered in this paper is based on recent ground motion measurements performed at SLAC and at other accelerator laboratories, as well as on historical data. The issues to be studied for the models to become more predictive are also discussed.

  6. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.


    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  7. A New Aroma Index to Determine the Aroma Quality of Roasted and Ground Coffee During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Marin


    Full Text Available The staling of ground roasted coffee blend was studied over one year of storage. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was carried out to identify and semi-quantify 40 volatile compounds. We focused on volatile compounds related to the ageing of coffee: methanethiol, propanal, 2-methylfuran, 2-butanone, 2,3-butanedione, 2-furfurylthiol and hexanal. Changes in sensory properties of coffee beverage prepared from the ground roasted coffee samples during storage in laminate packages (PET/ aluminium foil/PE under air atmosphere, under nitrogen or in punctured packages were determined. Samples were stored at (23±2 °C and (40±10 % relative humidity. The reference coffee was packed similarly in laminate packages under nitrogen and stored at (-20±1 °C. Applying a statistical assessment of the results, we found the loss of most volatile compounds from all stored coffee samples, including even those stored under freezing conditions. The ratios of 2-methylfuran/2-butanone and methanethiol/hexanal proved useful indicators of staling. Our new proposed aroma index, the ratio of 2-furfurylthiol/ hexanal, proved to be the most effective, giving high correlation coefficients (R≥0.80 with aroma freshness for coffee brews prepared from the ground roasted coffee stored under different conditions at room temperature.

  8. 30 CFR 77.701-3 - Grounding wires; capacity. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding wires; capacity. 77.701-3 Section 77... MINES Grounding § 77.701-3 Grounding wires; capacity. Where grounding wires are used to ground metallic sheaths, armors, conduits, frames, casings, and other metallic enclosures, such grounding wires will be...

  9. When People Push Water Deep Under Ground, It Can Cause Repeating Ground Shakes (United States)

    Brudzinski, M.; Skoumal, R.; Currie, B.


    We look for ground shakes that repeat many times using a fast computer. We can do this when people put out a box that senses ground waves and stores all of them in computer memory. When a ground shake happens, we take the wave form from the ground shake, and use the fast computer to look for any matching wave forms in all of the ground waves stored in memory. Repeating ground shakes can happen when people push water deep down into the ground, which makes it easier for rocks to slip past each other. Sometimes people really push water down deep to break tight rocks and get more stuff stored inside that we use for power. The left over water from breaking rocks is not clean so it often gets pushed down even deeper, far away from the water people drink. In 99 out of 100 cases, pushing the water deep down under ground does not cause ground shakes we can see, even with a computer. Even fewer cases can be felt by people. In the cases where the water causes ground shakes, very small repeating ground shakes often happen early on. We can use a fast computer to find these repeating ground shakes to help us know if larger ground shakes might happen.

  10. Infrasound from ground to space (United States)

    Bowman, Daniel Charles

    Acoustic detector networks are usually located on the Earth's surface. However, these networks suffer from shortcomings such as poor detection range and pervasive wind noise. An alternative is to deploy acoustic sensors on high altitude balloons. In theory, such platforms can resolve signals arriving from great distances, acquire others that never reach the surface at all, and avoid wind noise entirely. This dissertation focuses on scientific advances, instrumentation, and analytical techniques resulting from the development of such sensor arrays. Results from infrasound microphones deployed on balloon flights in the middle stratosphere are described, and acoustic sources such as the ocean microbarom and building ventilation systems are discussed. Electromagnetic noise originating from the balloon, flight system, and other payloads is shown to be a pervasive issue. An experiment investigating acoustic sensor calibration at low pressures is presented, and implications for high altitude recording are considered. Outstanding challenges and opportunities in sound measurement using sensors embedded in the free atmosphere are outlined. Acoustic signals from field scale explosions designed to emulate volcanic eruptions are described, and their generation mechanisms modeled. Wave forms recorded on sensors suspended from tethered helium balloons are compared with those detected on ground stations during the experiment. Finally, the Hilbert-Huang transform, a high time resolution spectral analysis method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series, is presented.

  11. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.


    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  12. The Roots of Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.


    Full Text Available I studied sociology at Stanford 1948 to 1952, which was partially fine but limited in those days. But then I knew I wanted to be a sociologist. Returning to the USA from the army in 1955 to study sociology at Columbia confirmed my goals. I bought the program 100% on doing sociology as my life work. All I do is sociology in every facet of life; work, recreation, family etc. My life is sociology driven and directed.Now let me give you a quote from Barton’s (1955, p.246 article of Paul F. Lazarsfeld [PFL], “Analyzing the logic of research operations to clarify concepts remained a key to PFL’s life”. It has been the key to my life also.“All is data” – that now sloganized tenet of Grounded Theory [GT] – clearly came from PFL per Barton’s words. Robert K. Merton’s [RKM] brief flicker of light – to admit to emergence (see Barton, p. 255 – became the key to GT’s theoretical stance.

  13. Ground Collision Avoidance System (Igcas) (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A (Inventor); Prosser, Kevin (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor)


    The present invention is a system and method for aircraft ground collision avoidance (iGCAS) comprising a modular array of software, including a sense own state module configured to gather data to compute trajectory, a sense terrain module including a digital terrain map (DTM) and map manger routine to store and retrieve terrain elevations, a predict collision threat module configured to generate an elevation profile corresponding to the terrain under the trajectory computed by said sense own state module, a predict avoidance trajectory module configured to simulate avoidance maneuvers ahead of the aircraft, a determine need to avoid module configured to determine which avoidance maneuver should be used, when it should be initiated, and when it should be terminated, a notify Module configured to display each maneuver's viability to the pilot by a colored GUI, a pilot controls module configured to turn the system on and off, and an avoid module configured to define how an aircraft will perform avoidance maneuvers through 3-dimensional space.

  14. Rational suicide: uncertain moral ground. (United States)

    Rich, Karen L; Butts, Janie B


    The ambiguities involving end-of-life issues, such as physician-assisted suicide and voluntary stopping of eating and drinking, have caused a blurring of the definition of rational suicide and have prompted rich dialogue with moral deliberations that seem to be on disparate paths among bioethicists and other health care professionals. With the evolution of advanced medical technology extending life expectancy in older, disabled, and terminally ill people, rational suicide has become a critical issue of debate. The purpose of this article is to address the ethical positions supporting and opposing rational suicide and to consider whether coherence can be achieved through an ethic of care. Attitudes towards suicide have been controversial, varying from acceptance to non-acceptance depending on social, political and religious influences. Nursing attitudes are no different from general societal attitudes and, consequently, nurses are treading on uncertain moral ground. Nurses who have not reflected on the moral issues involved with rational suicide may be unprepared psychologically and professionally when working with patients who may be contemplating such actions.

  15. Uniqueness of non-linear ground states for fractional Laplacians in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Lenzmann, Enno


    We prove uniqueness of ground state solutions Q = Q(|x|) ≥ 0 of the non-linear equation (−Δ)sQ+Q−Qα+1=0inR,where 0 fractional Laplacian in one dimension. In particular, we answer affirmatively an open question...... recently raised by Kenig–Martel–Robbiano and we generalize (by completely different techniques) the specific uniqueness result obtained by Amick and Toland for s=12 and α = 1 in [5] for the Benjamin–Ono equation. As a technical key result in this paper, we show that the associated linearized operator L...... + = (−Δ) s +1−(α+1)Q α is non-degenerate; i.e., its kernel satisfies ker L + = span{Q′}. This result about L + proves a spectral assumption, which plays a central role for the stability of solitary waves and blowup analysis for non-linear dispersive PDEs with fractional Laplacians, such as the generalized...

  16. Ground-water protection, low-level waste, and below regulatory concern: What`s the connection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruhlke, J.M.; Galpin, F.L. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Radiation Programs


    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a responsibility to protect ground water and drinking water under a wide variety of statutes. Each statute establishes different but specific requirements for EPA and applies to diverse environmental contaminants. Radionuclides are but one of the many contaminants subject to this regulatory matrix. Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and below regulatory concern (BRC) are but two of many activities falling into this regulatory structure. The nation`s ground water serves as a major source of drinking water, supports sensitive ecosystems, and supplies the needs of agriculture and industry. Ground water can prove enormously expensive to clean up. EPA policy for protecting ground water has evolved considerably over the last ten years. The overall goal is to prevent adverse effects to human health, both now and in the future, and to protect the integrity of the nation`s ground-water resources. The Agency uses the Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) under the Safe Drinking Water Act as reference points for protection in both prevention and remediation activities. What`s the connection? Both low-level waste management and disposal activities and the implementation of below regulatory concern related to low-level waste disposal have the potential for contaminating ground water. EPA is proposing to use the MCLs as reference points for low-level waste disposal and BRC disposal in order to define limits to the environmental contamination of ground water that is, or may be, used for drinking water.

  17. On the effectiveness of the vlf-em method For ground water prospecting in the Basement terrains, Sinai, Egypt


    Shendi, El-Arabi Hendi [العربيى هندي شندي


    The VLF-EM method is proved to be an effective, fast and inexpensive tool for ground water prospecting in the basement terrains of Southern Sinai. The resistive shallow alluvial deposits increase the penetration depth of the received VLF waves to as deep as 40 meters which is very reasonable to detect the water bearing alluvium in the studied areas. The measured horizontal and vertical components of the resultant VLF-EM field were used to calculate the apparent resistivities of the conductive...

  18. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism (United States)

    Age, Lars-Johan


    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  19. Procedures for ground-water investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This manual was developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to document the procedures used to carry out and control the technical aspects of ground-water investigations at the PNL. Ground-water monitoring procedures are developed and used in accordance with the PNL Quality Assurance Program.

  20. Interdisciplinary Common Ground: Techniques and Attentional Processes (United States)

    Arvidson, P. Sven


    Common ground in the interdisciplinary research process is the pivot from disciplinary to interdisciplinary perspective. As thinking moves from disciplinary to interdisciplinary, what is the shape or structure of attention, how does intellectual content transform in the attending process? Four common ground techniques--extension, redefinition,…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A synthesis of the results show that the ground subsidence is not precipitated by collapsed geologic feature such as sinkholes/ cavities but boiler load induced differential settlement arising from near surface incompetent (clayey) substratum, in the premises of the boilers. KEY WORDS: Ground subsidence, Vertical electrical ...

  2. 14 CFR 29.241 - Ground resonance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 29.241 Section 29.241 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  3. 14 CFR 27.241 - Ground resonance. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground resonance. 27.241 Section 27.241 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... resonance. The rotorcraft may have no dangerous tendency to oscillate on the ground with the rotor turning...

  4. 33 CFR 183.572 - Grounding. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 183.572 Section 183.572 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.572 Grounding. Each...

  5. 30 CFR 57.6601 - Grounding. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 57.6601 Section 57.6601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND...-Surface and Underground § 57.6601 Grounding. Electric blasting circuits, including powerline sources when...

  6. 46 CFR 105.20-15 - Grounding. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding. 105.20-15 Section 105.20-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Specific Requirements-Cargo Tanks § 105.20-15 Grounding. (a) All...

  7. 33 CFR 183.415 - Grounding. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 183.415 Section 183.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Electrical Systems Manufacturer Requirements § 183.415 Grounding...

  8. 30 CFR 56.6601 - Grounding. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding. 56.6601 Section 56.6601 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... § 56.6601 Grounding. Electric blasting circuits, including powerline sources when used, shall not be...

  9. Fresnel zones for ground-based antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J. Bach


    The ordinary Fresnel zone concept is modified to include the influence of finite ground conductivity. This is important for ground-based antennas because the influence on the radiation pattern of irregularities near the antenna is determined by the amplitude and phase of the groundwave. A new...

  10. Puzzling the Picture Using Grounded Theory (United States)

    Bennett, Elisabeth E.


    Since the first publication by Glaser and Strauss in 1967, Grounded Theory has become a highly influential research approach in the social sciences. The approach provides techniques and coding strategies for building theory inductively from the "ground up" as concepts within the data earn relevance into an evolving substantive theory.…

  11. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter de


    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project.

  12. Ground Truth Annotation in T Analyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    This video shows how to annotate the ground truth tracks in the thermal videos. The ground truth tracks are produced to be able to compare them to tracks obtained from a Computer Vision tracking approach. The program used for annotation is T-Analyst, which is developed by Aliaksei Laureshyn, Ph...

  13. 46 CFR 129.370 - Equipment grounding. (United States)


    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.370 Equipment grounding. (a) On a metallic vessel... instruments must be grounded. So must each secondary winding of instrument transformers. (c) Each equipment...

  14. Building Grounded Theory in Entrepreneurship Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mäkelä, Markus; Turcan, Romeo V.


    In this chapter we describe the process of building of theory from data (Glaser and Strauss 1967; Strauss and Corbin 1998). We discuss current grounded theory in relation to research in entrepreneurship and point out directions and potential improvements for further research in this field....... The chapter has two goals. First, we wish to provide an explicit paradigmatic positioning of the grounded theory methodology, discussing the most relevant views of ontology and epistemology that can be used as alternative starting points for conducting grounded theory research. While the chapter introduces...... our approach to grounded theory, we acknowledge the existence of other approaches and try to locate our approach in relation to them. As an important part of this discussion, we take a stand on how to usefully define ‘grounded theory’ and ‘case study research’. Second, we seek to firmly link our...

  15. Modernization of the Cassini Ground System (United States)

    Razo, Gus; Fujii, Tammy


    The Cassini Spacecraft and its ground system have been operational for over 16 years. Modernization presents several challenges due to the personnel, processes, and tools already invested and embedded into the current ground system structure. Every mission's ground system has its own unique complexities and challenges, involving various organizational units. As any mission from its inception to its execution, schedules are always tight. This forces GDS engineers to implement a working ground system that is not necessarily fully optimized. Ground system challenges increase as technology evolves and cyber threats become more sophisticated. Cassini's main challenges were due to its ground system existing before many security requirements were levied on the multi-mission tools and networks. This caused a domino effect on Cassini GDS tools that relied on outdated technological features. In the aerospace industry reliable and established technology is preferred over innovative yet less proven technology. Loss of data for a spacecraft mission can be catastrophic; therefore, there is a reluctance to make changes and updates to the ground system. Nevertheless, all missions and associated teams face the need to modernize their processes and tools. Systems development methods from well-known system analysis and design principles can be applied to many missions' ground systems. Modernization should always be considered, but should be done in such a way that it does not affect flexibility nor interfere with established practices. Cassini has accomplished a secure and efficient ground data system through periodic updates. The obstacles faced while performing the modernization of the Cassini ground system will be outlined, as well as the advantages and challenges that were encountered.

  16. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  17. Test of the electric vehicles at the roller bench; Prove al banco a rulli del veicolo elettrico porter Piaggio/Microvett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervati, L.; Cipolletta, L.; De Andreis, L.; Indiano, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia


    Starting from the existing international regulations on the test of the electric vehicles a series of specific test to carry out at the roller bench of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) has been defined. The paper presents the numeric result applying such procedures to the test on an electric vehicles, whose main performances are described. [Italian] Partendo dalle normative internazionali esistenti sulla prova dei veicoli elettrici sono state definite una serie di prove specifiche da effettuare presso il banco a rulli dell'ENEA. Il presente lavoro riporta i risultati ottenuti applicando le procedure ad un veicolo elettrico. Le principali prestazioni sono messe in evidenza.

  18. Journeys in the Country of the Blind: Entanglement Theory and the Effects of Blinding on Trials of Homeopathy and Homeopathic Provings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lionel R. Milgrom


    Full Text Available The idea of quantum entanglement is borrowed from physics and developed into an algebraic argument to explain how double-blinding randomized controlled trials could lead to failure to provide unequivocal evidence for the efficacy of homeopathy, and inability to distinguish proving and placebo groups in homeopathic pathogenic trials. By analogy with the famous double-slit experiment of quantum physics, and more modern notions of quantum information processing, these failings are understood as blinding causing information loss resulting from a kind of quantum superposition between the remedy and placebo.

  19. Characterisation of Ground Thermal and Thermo-Mechanical Behaviour for Shallow Geothermal Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vieira, Ana; Alberdi-Pagola, Maria; Christodoulides, Paul


    Increasing use of the ground as a thermal reservoir is expected in the near future. Shallow geothermal energy (SGE) systems have proved to be sustainable alternative solutions for buildings and infrastructure conditioning in many areas across the globe in the past decades. Recently novel solutions......-hydro-mechanical behaviour of soil is introduced and discussed. These coupled processes are important for confirming the structural integrity of energy geostructures, but routine methods for parameter determination are still lacking (Energies). Keywords: shallow geothermal systems; soil thermal behaviour; laboratory testing...

  20. Ground-dwelling arthropod (Araneae, Coleoptera: Carabidae, Isopoda: Oniscidea assemblages on Hungarian main road verges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vona-Túri Diána


    Full Text Available In this study, we research ground-dwelling arthropods along four road stretches, which represent the main verge habitats (arid grassland, agricultural area, forest, and wetland of Hungary. Besides the faunistic investigation of arthropod communities, we described and compared dominance relation and species composition. We identified 83 carabids, 81 spiders, and 4 isopod species. Seven beetle species and one spider species are included in the invertebrate Red List of Hungary. The registered species were dominant on main road verges bordering arid grassland and wetland. Main road verges proved to be a diverse habitat; hence, it is important to carry on more investigation.

  1. Positive ground state solutions to Schrodinger-Poisson systems with a negative non-local term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ping Gao


    Full Text Available In this article, we study the Schrodinger-Poisson system $$\\displaylines{ -\\Delta u+u-\\lambda K(x\\phi(xu=a(x|u|^{p-1}u, \\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, \\cr -\\Delta\\phi=K(xu^{2},\\quad x\\in\\mathbb{R}^3, }$$ with $p\\in(1,5$. Assume that $a:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ and $K:\\mathbb{R}^3\\to \\mathbb{R^{+}}$ are nonnegative functions and satisfy suitable assumptions, but not requiring any symmetry property on them, we prove the existence of a positive ground state solution resolved by the variational methods.

  2. Multiplex hologram representations of space-variant optical systems using ground-glass encoded reference beams. (United States)

    Jones, M I; Walkup, J F; Hagler, M O


    Multiplex holograms can accurately represent 2-D space-variant optical systems if hologram-to-hologram cross talk can be reduced to an acceptable level. In the experiments reported here the combination of ground-glass diffusers with chirped wave front illumination proved to be an effective means of suppressing this cross talk. The residual cross talk distribution and intensity depend both on the signal and the optical system. The experiments also show that overlapping outputs from multiplexed holograms add coherently in amplitude. In addition, an accurate holographic representation of an extremely space-variant system is presented.

  3. Ground state solutions for Choquard type equations with a singular potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang


    Full Text Available This article concerns the Choquard type equation $$ -\\Delta u+V(xu=\\Big(\\int_{\\mathbb{R}^N}\\frac{|u(y|^p}{|x-y|^{N-\\alpha}}dy\\Big |u|^{p-2}u,\\quad x\\in \\mathbb{R}^N, $$ where $N\\geq3$, $\\alpha\\in ((N-4_+,N$, $2\\leq p <(N+\\alpha/(N-2$ and V(x is a possibly singular potential and may be unbounded below. Applying a variant of the Lions' concentration-compactness principle, we prove the existence of ground state solution of the above equations.

  4. Microstrip linear phase low pass filter based on defected ground structures for partial response modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas


    We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing the characte......We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing...... the characteristic impedance of transmission lines. Experimental results prove that the proposed filter can successfully modulate a non‐return‐to‐zero (NRZ) signal into a five levels PR one....

  5. Grounding Headphones for Protection Against ESD (United States)

    Peters, John; Youngquist, Robert C.


    A simple alternative technique has been devised protecting delicate equipment against electrostatic discharge (ESD) in settings in which workers wear communication headsets. In the original setting in which the technique was devised, the workers who wear the headsets also wear anti-ESD grounding straps on their wrists. The alternative technique eliminates the need for the wrist grounding straps by providing for grounding through the headsets. In place of the electrically insulating foam pads on the headsets, one installs pads made of electrically conductive foam like that commonly used to protect electronic components. Grounding wires are attached to the conductive foam pads, then possibly to the shielding cable which may be grounded to the backshell on the connector. The efficacy of this technique in protecting against ESD has been verified in experiments. The electrical resistance of the pads is a few megohms - about the same as that of a human body between the fingers of opposite hands and, hence, low enough for grounding. The only drawback of the technique is that care must be taken to place the foam pads in contact with the user s skin: any hair that comes between the foam pads and the skin must be pushed aside because hair is electrically insulating and thus prevents adequate grounding.

  6. Navigating the grounded theory terrain. Part 2. (United States)

    Hunter, Andrew; Murphy, Kathy; Grealish, Annmarie; Casey, Dympna; Keady, John


    In this paper, the choice of classic grounded theory will be discussed and justified in the context of the first author's PhD research. The methodological discussion takes place within the context of PhD research entitled: Development of a stakeholder-led framework for a structured education programme that will prepare nurses and healthcare assistants to deliver a psychosocial intervention for people with dementia. There is a lack of research and limited understanding of the effect of psychosocial interventions on people with dementia. The first author thought classic grounded theory a suitable research methodology to investigate as it is held to be ideal for areas of research where there is little understanding of the social processes at work. The literature relating to the practical application of classic grounded theory is illustrated using examples relating to four key grounded theory components: Theory development: using constant comparison and memoing, Methodological rigour, Emergence of a core category, Inclusion of self and engagement with participants. Following discussion of the choice and application of classic grounded theory, this paper explores the need for researchers to visit and understand the various grounded theory options. This paper argues that researchers new to grounded theory must be familiar with and understand the various options. The researchers will then be able to apply the methodologies they choose consistently and critically. Doing so will allow them to develop theory rigorously and they will ultimately be able to better defend their final methodological destinations.

  7. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory. (United States)

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu


    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  8. Il Servizio Nazionale di Valutazione e le prove Invalsi. Stato dell’arte e proposte per una valutazione come agente di cambiamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Trinchero


    Full Text Available Qual è la funzione del Servizio Nazionale di Valutazione formativa degli istituti scolastici? A cosa servono davvero le prove Invalsi? Le critiche che spesso vengono mosse a queste prove sono veramente fondate? Come può la valutazione dell’offerta formativa scolastica costituire davvero un agente di miglioramento? Il presente articolo intende fornire alcune risposte a queste domande, partendo dalle istanze che hanno ispirato l’autonomia scolastica e offrendo spunti per un utilizzo non fazioso della valutazione. La valutazione può essere davvero agente di cambiamento a patto che: i sia attribuito ai dati il corretto significato; ii la scuola sia in grado di comprendere i potenziali suggerimenti che la valutazione può dare e si apra al cambiamento positivo. La valutazione applicata ad una “scuola che si difende” non può che provocare inutili esiti di facciata. La valutazione applicata ad una “scuola che apprende” può davvero aiutarla ad esplicare appieno tutte le proprie potenzialità.

  9. Drug-eluting or bare-metal stents for large coronary vessel stenting? The BASKET-PROVE (PROspective Validation Examination) trial: Study protocol and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfisterer, M.; Bertel, O.; Bonetti, P.O.


    Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove or r...... to cobalt-chromium bare-metal stents in this relevant, low-risk group of everyday patients. In addition, a comparison with similar BASKET patients will allow to estimate the impact of 12-versus 6-month dual antiplatelet therapy on these outcomes Udgivelsesdato: 2008/4......Background Based on a subgroup analysis of 18-month BAsel Stent Kosten Effektivitats Trial (BASKET) outcome data, we hypothesized that very late (>12 months) stent thrombosis occurs predominantly after drug-eluting stent implantation in large native coronary vessel stenting. Methods To prove...... or refute this hypothesis, we set up an 11-center 4-country prospective trial of 2260 consecutive patients treated with >= 3.0-mm stents only, randomized to receive Cypher (Johnson & Johnson, Miami Lakes, FL), Vision (Abbott Vascular, Abbott Laboratories, IL), or Xience stents (Abbott Vascular). Only...

  10. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds (United States)

    Blinová, Lenka; Bartošová, Alica; Sirotiak, Maroš


    The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  11. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology. (United States)

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N


    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  12. Biodiesel Production from Spent Coffee Grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinová Lenka


    Full Text Available The residue after brewing the spent coffee grounds is an oil-containing waste material having a potential of being used as biodiesel feedstock. Biodiesel production from the waste coffee grounds oil involves collection and transportation of coffee residue, drying, oil extraction, and finally production of biodiesel. Different methods of oil extraction with organic solvents under different conditions show significant differences in the extraction yields. In the manufacturing of biodiesel from coffee oil, the level of reaction completion strongly depends on the quality of the feedstock oil. This paper presents an overview of oil extraction and a method of biodiesel production from spent coffee grounds.

  13. Ground-Water Protection and Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.


    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the ground-water protection and monitoring program strategy for the Hanford Site in 1994. Two of the key elements of this strategy are to (1) protect the unconfined aquifer from further contamination, and (2) conduct a monitoring program to provide early warning when contamination of ground water does occur. The monitoring program at Hanford is designed to document the distribution and movement of existing ground-water contamination and provides a historical baseline for evaluating current and future risk from exposure to the contamination and for deciding on remedial action options.

  14. Surveillance of ground vehicles for airport security (United States)

    Blasch, Erik; Wang, Zhonghai; Shen, Dan; Ling, Haibin; Chen, Genshe


    Future surveillance systems will work in complex and cluttered environments which require systems engineering solutions for such applications such as airport ground surface management. In this paper, we highlight the use of a L1 video tracker for monitoring activities at an airport. We present methods of information fusion, entity detection, and activity analysis using airport videos for runway detection and airport terminal events. For coordinated airport security, automated ground surveillance enhances efficient and safe maneuvers for aircraft, unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) operating within airport environments.

  15. 46 CFR 111.05-15 - Neutral grounding. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Neutral grounding. 111.05-15 Section 111.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-15 Neutral grounding. (a) Each...

  16. 30 CFR 77.703-1 - Approved methods of grounding. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved methods of grounding. 77.703-1 Section... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.703-1 Approved methods of grounding. The methods of grounding stated in § 77.701-1 will be approved with respect to the grounding of frames of high-voltage equipment referred to...

  17. 30 CFR 75.703-2 - Approved grounding mediums. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved grounding mediums. 75.703-2 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.703-2 Approved grounding mediums. For purposes of grounding offtrack direct-current machines, the following grounding mediums are...

  18. 46 CFR 111.05-13 - Grounding connection. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grounding connection. 111.05-13 Section 111.05-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Equipment Ground, Ground Detection, and Grounded Systems § 111.05-13 Grounding...

  19. 30 CFR 77.701-4 - Use of grounding connectors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of grounding connectors. 77.701-4 Section 77.701-4 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... COAL MINES Grounding § 77.701-4 Use of grounding connectors. If ground wires are attached to grounded...

  20. 30 CFR 75.701-5 - Use of grounding connectors. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of grounding connectors. 75.701-5 Section... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Grounding § 75.701-5 Use of grounding connectors. The attachment of grounding wires to a mine track or other grounded power conductor will be...

  1. 24 CFR 3285.402 - Ground anchor installations. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ground anchor installations. 3285....402 Ground anchor installations. (a) Ground anchor certification and testing. Each ground anchor must... registered architect must certify, the ground anchor for use in a classified soil (refer to § 3285.202...

  2. Identifying structural damage with ground penetrating radar

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Schoor, Abraham M


    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistance tomography (ERT) surveys were conducted in an urban environment in an attempt to identify the cause of severe structural damage to a historically significant residential property...

  3. Enhanced Ground Control for ISS Robotics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will investigate and adapt aides which will increase the efficiency of ISS robotics ground control operations with the intent of creating more...

  4. Open System of Agile Ground Stations Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  5. Review Essay: A Journey through Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Krüger


    Full Text Available In "Constructing Grounded Theory", Kathy CHARMAZ guides the reader through the research process. Starting with a look back at the history of grounded theory, she explains how to gather rich data, code it, write memos, and compose the first draft. Through various examples from her own research CHARMAZ provides the reader not only with a theoretical description of how to construct a grounded theory but also with a way of seeing how new questions emerge from the data and new theory is built from it. She highlights central concepts, definitions, and useful questions, and offers the reader flexible guidelines to design and conduct a research project. Because of this, the book will be very useful for novices as well as for experts and (PhD- students in the late stages of their theses; it is a must-have for everyone who works with/on (constructivist grounded theory. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0701256

  6. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, G.H.


    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  7. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan


    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  8. Ground Viewing Perspective Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosario, Dalton; Romano, Joao


    ...., ground vehicles, camouflaged personnel) using passive hyperspectral (HS) devices. This report focuses on the first stage of a two-stage algorithm suite features autonomous clutter background characterization (ACBC...

  9. Puerto Rico Above Ground Biomass Map, 2000 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This image dataset details the U.S. Commonwealth of Puerto Rico above-ground forest biomass (AGB) (baseline 2000) developed by the United States (US) Environmental...

  10. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) analysis : Phase I. (United States)


    "The objective of this work is to evaluate the feasibility of expanding the MDT's Ground Penetrating : Radar (GPR) program to a broader range of pavement evaluation activities. Currently, MDT uses GPR in : conjunction with its Falling Weight Deflecto...

  11. Ground penetrating radar evaluation and implementation. (United States)


    Six commercial ground penetrating radar (GPR) : systems were evaluated to determine the state-of-the-art of GPR technologies for railroad track : substructure inspection. : Phase 1 evaluated GPR ballast inspection : techniques by performing testing a...

  12. Evaluation of pesticides in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, W.Y.; Honeycutt, R.C.; Nigg, H.N. (eds.)


    There are 32 typescript papers in this volume, grouped under the headings Physical and Chemical Parameters, Ground Water Monitoring Techniques, Modeling and Model Valuation, Risk Assessment and its Toxicological Significance, and Regulatory Aspects. The 16-page index is exemplary.

  13. Axial coding and the grounded theory controversy. (United States)

    Kendall, J


    The purpose of this article is to describe the similarities and differences between two approaches to grounded theory research: grounded theory as espoused by Glaser and grounded theory as espoused by Strauss and Corbin. The focus of the article is the controversy surrounding the use of axial coding. The author proposes a resolution to the controversy by suggesting that one does not need to view either approach as right or wrong; rather, the qualitative and grounded theory researcher can choose an approach, and that choice is based on the goal of the researcher's study. Examples of both approaches, from the author's research study on the experiences of living in a family with a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), are provided.

  14. Reagent removal of manganese from ground water (United States)

    Brayalovsky, G.; Migalaty, E.; Naschetnikova, O.


    The study is aimed at the technology development of treating drinking water from ground waters with high manganese content and oxidizability. Current technologies, physical/chemical mechanisms and factors affecting in ground treatment efficiency are reviewed. Research has been conducted on manganese compound removal from ground waters with high manganese content (5 ppm) and oxidizability. The studies were carried out on granular sorbent industrial ODM-2F filters (0.7-1.5 mm fraction). It was determined that conventional reagent oxidization technologies followed by filtration do not allow us to obtain the manganese content below 0.1 ppm when treating ground waters with high oxidizability. The innovative oxidation-based manganese removal technology with continuous introduction of reaction catalytic agent is suggested. This technology is effective in alkalization up to pH 8.8-9. Potassium permanganate was used as a catalytic agent, sodium hypochlorite was an oxidizer and cauistic soda served an alkalifying agent.

  15. American Woodcock Singing-ground Survey (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The American Woodcock Singing-Ground Survey, conducted by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, exploits the conspicuous courtship display of the male woodcock. The...

  16. Eroticism & Queer Attraction: A Grounded Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Regine O. Santos; Estilito Jacob; Romeo M. Sumayo Jr


    .... The researcher s used the Grounded Theory Method (GTM) and integrated the Queer Theory and Psychoanalytic approach in the textual analysis of selected Bicol lyric poetry in an attempt to explain the degree of eroticism and queer attraction of Bicolanos...

  17. (ajst) effects of ground insulation and greenhouse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of plastic digester to produce biogas under natural and greenhouse microenvironment. The specific objectives were to ... Therefore ground insulation of plastic biogas digester under greenhouse conditions significantly enhances biogas generation. ..... Utilization and Recycle of Agricultural waste and. Residues. Edition M.

  18. Collaborative funding to facilitate airport ground access. (United States)


    This report presents the findings and conclusions from a research study that has examined the challenges of funding airport ground access projects and the role of collaborative funding strategies between the different agencies that typically become i...

  19. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-peak ground acceleration is a 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  20. Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution - Peak Ground Acceleration (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Earthquake Hazard Distribution-Peak Ground Acceleration is a 2.5 by 2.5 minute grid of global earthquake hazards developed using Global Seismic Hazard Program...

  1. Electrical Ground Support Equipment Fabrication, Specification for (United States)

    Denson, Erik C.


    This document specifies parts, materials, and processes used in the fabrication, maintenance, repair, and procurement of electrical and electronic control and monitoring equipment associated with ground support equipment (GSE) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC).

  2. Differential productivity of Bristol Bay spawning grounds (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bristol Bay escapement surveys covering a period of several years show that, irrespective of fluctuations in total numbers on a system, certain grounds display a...

  3. The use of peracetic acid in drinking water systems: flow tests; L'acido peracetico in potabilizzazione: prove in flusso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragazzo, P. [Consorzio per l' Acquedotto del Basso Piave, San Dona' di Piave, VE (Italy); Navazio, G. [Padua Univ., Padua (Italy). Dipt. dei Processi Chimici dell' Ingegneria; Cavadone, A. [Solvay Chimica Italia S.p.A., Milan (Italy)


    In a previous research, a preliminary study was carried out on the disinfection efficiency of peracetic acid (PAA), comparing it to that of other disinfectants that are typically used, in batch tests with dosage values ranging from 0.5 to 5 ppm. The study was carried out on samples of water collected from several significant points of the treatment process at the main water treatment plant in Jesolo (Venice, Italy). On the basis of results (basically positive at that time) obtained from these tests, a 400 litre/hour pilot plant was built, as a lower scale reproduction of the drink water treatment system mentioned earlier, in order to study the characteristics of PAA even in tests that could more realistically simulate the flow of water along the process. These tests essentially confirmed the kinetics of the spontaneous hydrolysis to CH{sub 3} COOH+H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and those of dismutation to CH{sub 3}COOH+O{sub 2}, with half-life time values ranging from 3 to 12 hours, depending on the characteristics of the water (especially the pH factor) and the PAA concentration values. [Italian] In un precedente lavoro e' stato effettuato un preventivo studio sull'efficienza disinfettiva dell'acido peracetico, anche in confronto con gli altri piu' usuali disinfettanti, in prove condotte in batch, con dosaggi compresi tra 0.5 e 5 ppm, su campioni di acqua prelevati dai diversi punti significativi della linea di trattamento della centrale di Jesolo (Torre Caligo), gestita dal Consorzio Acquedottistico del Basso Piave di S. Dona' di Piave (Venezia). Sulla base dei risultati, sostanzialmente positivi, e' stato costruito un impianto pilota da 400l/h, riproducente, in scala, la linea di potabilizzazione su ricordata, per studiare le caratteristiche del PAA anche in prove piu' probanti condotte in flusso. In tali prove sono state sostanzialmente riconfermate le cinetiche delle reazioni spontanee di dirolisi a CH{sub 3}COOH+H{sub 2}O{sub 2} e di

  4. Text Localization for Unmanned Ground Vehicles


    Kirchhoff, Allan Richard


    Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are increasingly being used for civilian and military applications. Passive sensing, such as visible cameras, are being used for navigation and object detection. An additional object of interest in many environments is text. Text information can supplement the autonomy of unmanned ground vehicles. Text most often appears in the environment in the form of road signs and storefront signs. Road hazard information, unmapped route detours and tra...

  5. On the ground state of metallic hydrogen (United States)

    Chakravarty, S.; Ashcroft, N. W.


    A proposed liquid ground state of metallic hydrogen at zero temperature is explored and a variational upper bound to the ground state energy is calculated. The possibility that the metallic hydrogen is a liquid around the metastable point (rs = 1.64) cannot be ruled out. This conclusion crucially hinges on the contribution to the energy arising from the third order in the electron-proton interaction which is shown here to be more significant in the liquid phase than in crystals.

  6. Understanding grounded theory: principles and evaluation. (United States)

    Smith, K; Biley, F


    Grounded theory was developed initially by Glaser and Strauss as a means to enable the 'systematic discovery of theory from the data of social research' and was first presented in The Discovery of Grounded Theory'( 1 ). The methodology was developed in response to the overwhelming belief held by positivist thinkers that qualitative research was unscientific because it rejected controlled experiments and appeared to embrace interpretation.

  7. An Interdigitated Coupler with Defect Ground Structure (United States)


    power dividing and combining, sampling, signal injection and power monitoring in microwave communication sub-systems and radar [1]. The the ground plane cause of the defect in the ground. This disturbance will change characteristics of a transmission line such as line capacitance ...and inductance . As high performance, compact size and low cost often meet the stringent requirements of modern microwave communication systems, new

  8. Preliminary results of ground-motion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bozzoni


    Full Text Available The preliminary results are presented herein for the engineering applications of the characteristics of the ground motion induced by the May 20, 2012, Emilia earthquake. Shake maps are computed to provide estimates of the spatial distribution of the induced ground motion. The signals recorded at the Mirandola (MRN station, the closest to the epicenter, have been processed to obtain acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra. Ground-motion parameters from the MRN recordings are compared with the corresponding estimates from recent ground-motion prediction equations, and with the spectra prescribed by the current Italian Building Code for different return periods. The records from the MRN station are used to plot the particle orbit (hodogram described by the waveform. The availability of results from geotechnical field tests that were performed at a few sites in the Municipality of Mirandola prior to this earthquake of May 2012 has allowed preliminary assessment of the ground response. The amplification effects at Mirandola are estimated using fully stochastic site-response analyses. The seismic input comprises seven actual records that are compatible with the Italian code-based spectrum that refers to a 475-year return period. The computed acceleration response spectrum and the associated dispersion are compared to the spectra calculated from the recordings of the MRN station. Good agreement is obtained for periods up to 1 s, especially for the peak ground acceleration. For the other periods, the spectral acceleration of the MRN recordings exceeds that of the computed spectra.

  9. Thermal behavior of ground talc mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balek V.


    Full Text Available Microstructure development and thermal behavior of ground talc mineral samples (from locality Puebla de Lillo, Spain was characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy(SEM,surface area measurements differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetry and emanation thermal analysis (ETA.A vibratory mill and grinding time 5 min. was used to prepare the ground talc sample. It was found that grinding caused an increase in the surface area of the natural talc from 3 m2g-1 to 110 m2g-1. A decrease of particle size after sample grinding was observed by SEM. The increase of structure disorder of the ground sample and the crystallite size reduction from 40 to 10 nm were determined from the XRD results. ETA results revealed a closing up of surface micro-cracks and healing of microstructure irregularities on heating in the range 200-500ºC of both un-ground and ground talc samples. For the ground talc sample a crystallization of non-crystalline phase into orthorhombic enstatite was characterized as by a decrease of radon mobility in the range 785-825ºC and by a DTA exothermal effect with the maximum at 830ºC. ETA results were used for the assessment of transport properties of the talc samples on heating.

  10. Ground-motion prediction from tremor (United States)

    Baltay, Annemarie S.; Beroza, Gregory C.


    The widespread occurrence of tremor, coupled with its frequency content and location, provides an exceptional opportunity to test and improve strong ground-motion attenuation relations for subduction zones. We characterize the amplitude of thousands of individual 5 min tremor events in Cascadia during three episodic tremor and slip events to constrain the distance decay of peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV). We determine the anelastic attenuation parameter for ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) to a distance of 150 km, which is sufficient to place important constraints on ground-motion decay. Tremor PGA and PGV show a distance decay that is similar to subduction-zone-specific GMPEs developed from both data and simulations; however, the massive amount of data present in the tremor observations should allow us to refine distance-amplitude attenuation relationships for use in hazard maps, and to search for regional variations and intrasubduction zone differences in ground-motion attenuation.

  11. Motor sport in France: testing-ground for the world. (United States)

    Cofaigh, Eamon O


    The birth of the automobile in the late nineteenth century was greeted with a mixture of awe, scepticism and sometimes even disdain from sections of the European public. In this article, the steps taken in France to pioneer and promote this new invention are examined. Unreliable and noisy, the early automobile owes a debt of gratitude to the French aristocracy who organised and codified motor racing in an effort to test these new inventions while at the same time introduce them to a wider public. City-to-city races demonstrated the potential of the automobile before the initiative of Gordon Bennett proved to be the catalyst for the birth of international motor sport as we recognise it today. Finally this article looks at the special connection between Le Mans and the automobile. Le Mans has, through its 24-hour race, maintained a strong link with the development of everyday automobile tourism and offers the enthusiast an alternative to the machines that reach incredible speeds on modern-day closed circuits. This article examines how French roads were veritable testing grounds for the earliest cars and how the public roads of Le Mans maintain the tradition to this day.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Halimshah


    Full Text Available Water loss in town and suburban is currently a significant issue which reflect the performance of water supply management in Malaysia. Consequently, water supply distribution system has to be maintained in order to prevent shortage of water supply in an area. Various techniques for detecting a mains water leaks are available but mostly are time-consuming, disruptive and expensive. In this paper, the potential of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR as a non-destructive method to correctly and efficiently detect mains water leaks has been examined. Several experiments were designed and conducted to prove that GPR can be used as tool for water leakage detection. These include instrument validation test and soil compaction test to clarify the maximum dry density (MDD of soil and simulation studies on water leakage at a test bed consisting of PVC pipe burying in sand to a depth of 40 cm. Data from GPR detection are processed using the Reflex 2D software. Identification of water leakage was visually inspected from the anomalies in the radargram based on GPR reflection coefficients. The results have ascertained the capability and effectiveness of the GPR in detecting water leakage which could help avoiding difficulties with other leak detection methods.

  13. Cyber security risk management: public policy implications of correlated risk, imperfect ability to prove loss, and observability of self-protection. (United States)

    Oğüt, Hulisi; Raghunathan, Srinivasan; Menon, Nirup


    The correlated nature of security breach risks, the imperfect ability to prove loss from a breach to an insurer, and the inability of insurers and external agents to observe firms' self-protection efforts have posed significant challenges to cyber security risk management. Our analysis finds that a firm invests less than the social optimal levels in self-protection and in insurance when risks are correlated and the ability to prove loss is imperfect. We find that the appropriate social intervention policy to induce a firm to invest at socially optimal levels depends on whether insurers can verify a firm's self-protection levels. If self-protection of a firm is observable to an insurer so that it can design a contract that is contingent on the self-protection level, then self-protection and insurance behave as complements. In this case, a social planner can induce a firm to choose the socially optimal self-protection and insurance levels by offering a subsidy on self-protection. We also find that providing a subsidy on insurance does not provide a similar inducement to a firm. If self-protection of a firm is not observable to an insurer, then self-protection and insurance behave as substitutes. In this case, a social planner should tax the insurance premium to achieve socially optimal results. The results of our analysis hold regardless of whether the insurance market is perfectly competitive or not, implying that solely reforming the currently imperfect insurance market is insufficient to achieve the efficient outcome in cyber security risk management. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. GPM Ground Validation Duke Rain Gauges IPHEx V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Duke Rain Gauge data were collected during the GPM Ground Validation Integrated Precipitation and Hydrology Experiment (IPHEx) field...

  15. GPM Ground Validation Micro Rain Radar (MRR) OLYMPEX V1 (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Micro Rain Radar (MRR) OLYMPEX dataset was gathered during the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation OLYMPEX field...

  16. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.


    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  17. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)


    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  18. Ground Water Quality of Selected Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosher R. Ahmed


    Full Text Available In order to characterize ground water quality in Zaweta district / Dohuk governorate, eight wells are selected to represent their water quality. Monthly samples are collected from the wells for the period from October 2005 to April 2006. The samples are tested for conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, total hardness, chloride, alkalinity and nitrate according to the standard methods. The results of statistical analysis showed significant difference among the wells water quality in the measured parameters. Ground water quality of Zaweta district has high dissolved ions due to the nature of studied area rocks. Total dissolved solids of more than 1000 mg/l made the wells Gre-Qassroka, Kora and Swaratoka need to be treated to make taste palatable. Additionally high electrical conductivity and TDS made Zaweta ground water have a slight to moderate restriction to crop growth. The high alkalinity of Zaweta ground water indicated stabilized pH. The water quality of all the wells is found excessively hard. The nitrate concentration of Zaweta ground water ranged between 0.19-42.4 mg/l below the guidelines for WHO and the maximum nitrate concentration is recorded in Kora well .

  19. XML Flight/Ground Data Dictionary Management (United States)

    Wright, Jesse; Wiklow, Colette


    A computer program generates Extensible Markup Language (XML) files that effect coupling between the command- and telemetry-handling software running aboard a spacecraft and the corresponding software running in ground support systems. The XML files are produced by use of information from the flight software and from flight-system engineering. The XML files are converted to legacy ground-system data formats for command and telemetry, transformed into Web-based and printed documentation, and used in developing new ground-system data-handling software. Previously, the information about telemetry and command was scattered in various paper documents that were not synchronized. The process of searching and reading the documents was time-consuming and introduced errors. In contrast, the XML files contain all of the information in one place. XML structures can evolve in such a manner as to enable the addition, to the XML files, of the metadata necessary to track the changes and the associated documentation. The use of this software has reduced the extent of manual operations in developing a ground data system, thereby saving considerable time and removing errors that previously arose in the translation and transcription of software information from the flight to the ground system.

  20. Demystifying Theoretical Sampling in Grounded Theory Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Breckenridge BSc(Hons,Ph.D.Candidate


    Full Text Available Theoretical sampling is a central tenet of classic grounded theory and is essential to the development and refinement of a theory that is ‘grounded’ in data. While many authors appear to share concurrent definitions of theoretical sampling, the ways in which the process is actually executed remain largely elusive and inconsistent. As such, employing and describing the theoretical sampling process can present a particular challenge to novice researchers embarking upon their first grounded theory study. This article has been written in response to the challenges faced by the first author whilst writing a grounded theory proposal. It is intended to clarify theoretical sampling for new grounded theory researchers, offering some insight into the practicalities of selecting and employing a theoretical sampling strategy. It demonstrates that the credibility of a theory cannot be dissociated from the process by which it has been generated and seeks to encourage and challenge researchers to approach theoretical sampling in a way that is apposite to the core principles of the classic grounded theory methodology.