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Sample records for proving ground phase

  1. Renewable Energy Opportunties at Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Kora, Angela R.; Russo, Bryan J.; Horner, Jacob A.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Weimar, Mark R.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Nesse, Ronald J.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-05-31

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Dugway Proving Ground, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and ground source heat pumps (GSHPs). The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment.

  2. Unexploded ordnance issues at Aberdeen Proving Ground: Background information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.

    1996-11-01

    This document summarizes currently available information about the presence and significance of unexploded ordnance (UXO) in the two main areas of Aberdeen Proving Ground: Aberdeen Area and Edgewood Area. Known UXO in the land ranges of the Aberdeen Area consists entirely of conventional munitions. The Edgewood Area contains, in addition to conventional munitions, a significant quantity of chemical-munition UXO, which is reflected in the presence of chemical agent decomposition products in Edgewood Area ground-water samples. It may be concluded from current information that the UXO at Aberdeen Proving Ground has not adversely affected the environment through release of toxic substances to the public domain, especially not by water pathways, and is not likely to do so in the near future. Nevertheless, modest but periodic monitoring of groundwater and nearby surface waters would be a prudent policy.

  3. Preparing for Mars: The Evolvable Mars Campaign 'Proving Ground' Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobskill, Marianne R.; Lupisella, Mark L.; Mueller, Rob P.; Sibille, Laurent; Vangen, Scott; Williams-Byrd, Julie

    2015-01-01

    As the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prepares to extend human presence beyond Low Earth Orbit, we are in the early stages of planning missions within the framework of an Evolvable Mars Campaign. Initial missions would be conducted in near-Earth cis-lunar space and would eventually culminate in extended duration crewed missions on the surface of Mars. To enable such exploration missions, critical technologies and capabilities must be identified, developed, and tested. NASA has followed a principled approach to identify critical capabilities and a "Proving Ground" approach is emerging to address testing needs. The Proving Ground is a period subsequent to current International Space Station activities wherein exploration-enabling capabilities and technologies are developed and the foundation is laid for sustained human presence in space. The Proving Ground domain essentially includes missions beyond Low Earth Orbit that will provide increasing mission capability while reducing technical risks. Proving Ground missions also provide valuable experience with deep space operations and support the transition from "Earth-dependence" to "Earth-independence" required for sustainable space exploration. A Technology Development Assessment Team identified a suite of critical technologies needed to support the cadence of exploration missions. Discussions among mission planners, vehicle developers, subject-matter-experts, and technologists were used to identify a minimum but sufficient set of required technologies and capabilities. Within System Maturation Teams, known challenges were identified and expressed as specific performance gaps in critical capabilities, which were then refined and activities required to close these critical gaps were identified. Analysis was performed to identify test and demonstration opportunities for critical technical capabilities across the Proving Ground spectrum of missions. This suite of critical capabilities is expected to

  4. Geophysics: Building E5481 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5481 is one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The building is located on the northern margin of a landfill that was sited in a wetland. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill that had been used to raise the grade. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. A conductive zone trending northwest to southeast across the site is spatially related to an old roadbed. Higher resistivity areas in the northeast and east are probably representive of background values. Three high-amplitude, positive, rectangular magnetic anomalies have unknown sources. The features do not have equivalent electrical signatures, nor are they seen with radar imaging

  5. Geophysics: Building E5476 decommissiong, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.; McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1992-11-01

    Building E5476 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek and Westwood areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The large number of magnetic sources surrounding the building are believed to be contained in construction fill. The smaller anomalies, for the most part, were not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. Large magnetic anomalies near the southwest comer of the building are due to aboveground standpipes and steel-reinforced concrete. Two high-resistivity areas, one projecting northeast from the building and another south of the original structure, may indicate the presence of organic pore fluids in the subsurface. A conductive lineament protruding from the south wall that is enclosed by the southem, high-resistivity feature is not associated with an equivalent magnetic anomaly. Magnetic and electrical anomalies south of the old landfill boundary are probably not associated with the building. The boundary is marked by a band of magnetic anomalies and a conductive zone trending northwest to southeast. The cause of high resistivities in a semicircular area in the southwest comer, within the landfill area, is unexplained

  6. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys

  7. Evaluation of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Grounds, Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.; Myers, O.B.; Bestgen, H.T.; Jenkins, D.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1995-01-01

    This report represents an evaluation of depleted uranium (DU) introduced into the environment at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds (APG), Maryland and Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) Arizona. This was a cooperative project between the Environmental Sciences and Statistical Analyses Groups at LANL and with the Department of Fishery and Wildlife Biology at Colorado State University. The project represents a unique approach to assessing the environmental impact of DU in two dissimilar ecosystems. Ecological exposure models were created for each ecosystem and sensitivity/uncertainty analyses were conducted to identify exposure pathways which were most influential in the fate and transport of DU in the environment. Research included field sampling, field exposure experiment, and laboratory experiments. The first section addresses DU at the APG site. Chapter topics include bioenergetics-based food web model; field exposure experiments; bioconcentration by phytoplankton and the toxicity of U to zooplankton; physical processes governing the desorption of uranium from sediment to water; transfer of uranium from sediment to benthic invertebrates; spead of adsorpion by benthic invertebrates; uptake of uranium by fish. The final section of the report addresses DU at the YPG site. Chapters include the following information: Du transport processes and pathway model; field studies of performance of exposure model; uptake and elimination rates for kangaroo rates; chemical toxicity in kangaroo rat kidneys.

  8. Geophysics: Building E5375 decommissioning, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-08-01

    Building E5375 was one of ten potentially contaminated sites in the Canal Creek area of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar (GPR), were conducted around the perimeter of the building to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. Several anomalies wear, noted: (1) An underground storage tank located 25 ft east of Building E5375 was identified with magnetic, resistivity, and GPR profiling. (2) A three-point resistivity anomaly, 12 ft east of the northeast comer of Building E5374 (which borders Building E5375) and 5 ft south of the area surveyed with the magnetometer, may be caused by another underground storage tank. (3) A 2,500-gamma magnetic anomaly near the northeast corner of the site has no equivalent resistivity anomaly, although disruption in GPR reflectors was observed. (4) A one-point magnetic anomaly was located at the northeast comer, but its source cannot be resolved. A chaotic reflective zone to the east represents the radar signature of Building E5375 construction fill

  9. NASA SPoRT GOES-R Proving Ground Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedloec, Gary J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program is a partner with the GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) helping prepare forecasters understand the unique products to come from the GOES-R instrument suite. SPoRT is working collaboratively with other members of the GOES-R PG team and Algorithm Working Group (AWG) scientists to develop and disseminate a suite of proxy products that address specific forecast problems for the WFOs, Regional and National Support Centers, and other NOAA users. These products draw on SPoRT s expertise with the transition and evaluation of products into operations from the MODIS instrument and the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA). The MODIS instrument serves as an excellent proxy for the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) that will be aboard GOES-R. SPoRT has transitioned and evaluated several multi-channel MODIS products. The true and false color products are being used in natural hazard detection by several SPoRT partners to provide better observation of land features, such as fires, smoke plumes, and snow cover. Additionally, many of SPoRT s partners are coastal offices and already benefit from the MODIS sea surface temperature composite. This, along with other surface feature observations will be developed into ABI proxy products for diagnostic use in the forecast process as well as assimilation into forecast models. In addition to the MODIS instrument, the NALMA has proven very valuable to WFOs with access to these total lightning data. These data provide situational awareness and enhanced warning decision making to improve lead times for severe thunderstorm and tornado warnings. One effort by SPoRT scientists includes a lightning threat product to create short-term model forecasts of lightning activity. Additionally, SPoRT is working with the AWG to create GLM proxy data from several of the ground based total lightning networks, such as the NALMA. The evaluation will focus on the vastly improved spatial

  10. The GOES-R Proving Ground: 2012 Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, J.; Goodman, S. J.; Schmit, T.; Demaria, M.; Mostek, A.; Siewert, C.; Reed, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES)-R will provide a great leap forward in observing capabilities, but will also offer a significant challenge to ensure that users are ready to exploit the vast improvements in spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions. To ensure user readiness, forecasters and other users must have access to prototype advanced products well before launch, and have the opportunity to provide feedback to product developers and computing and communications managers. The operational assessment is critical to ensure that the end products and NOAA's computing and communications systems truly meet their needs in a rapidly evolving environment. The GOES-R Proving Ground (PG) engages the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast, watch and warning community and other agency users in pre-operational demonstrations of select products with GOES-R attributes (enhanced spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution). In the PG, developers and forecasters test and apply algorithms for new GOES-R satellite data and products using proxy and simulated data sets, including observations from current and future satellite instruments (MODIS, AIRS, IASI, SEVIRI, NAST-I, NPP/VIIRS/CrIS, LIS), lightning networks, and computer simulated products. The complete list of products to be evaluated in 2012 will be determined after evaluating results from experiments in 2011 at the NWS' Storm Prediction Center, National Hurricane Center, Aviation Weather Center, Ocean Prediction Center, Hydrometeorological Prediction Center, and from the six NWS regions. In 2012 and beyond, the PG will test and validate data processing and distribution systems and the applications of these products in operational settings. Additionally developers and forecasters will test and apply display techniques and decision aid tools in operational environments. The PG is both a recipient and a source of training. Training materials are developed using various distance training tools in

  11. Environmental geophysics at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daudt, C.R.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1994-11-01

    Geophysical data collected at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, were used in the characterization of the natural hydrogeologic framework of the J-Field area and in the identification of buried disturbances (trenches and other evidences of contamination). Seismic refraction and reflection data and electrical resistivity data have aided in the characterization of the leaky confining unit at the base of the surficial aquifer (designated Unit B of the Tertiary Talbot Formation). Excellent reflectors have been observed for both upper and lower surfaces of Unit B that correspond to stratigraphic units observed in boreholes and on gamma logs. Elevation maps of both surfaces and an isopach map of Unit B, created from reflection data at the toxic burning pits site, show a thickening of Unit B to the east. Abnormally low seismic compressional-wave velocities suggest that Unit B consists of gassy sediments whose gases are not being flushed by upward or downward moving groundwater. The presence of gases suggests that Unit B serves as an efficient aquitard that should not be penetrated by drilling or other activities. Electromagnetic, total-intensity magnetic, and ground-penetrating radar surveys have aided in delineating the limits of two buried trenches, the VX burning pit and the liquid smoke disposal pit, both located at the toxic burning pits site. The techniques have also aided in determining the extent of several other disturbed areas where soils and materials were pushed out of disposal pits during trenching activities. Surveys conducted from the Prototype Building west to the Gunpowder River did not reveal any buried trenches.

  12. Potential Cislunar and Interplanetary Proving Ground Excursion Trajectory Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Burke, Laura M.; MacDonald, Mark A.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Landau, Damon F.; Lantoine, Gregory; Hack, Kurt J.; Lopez, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    NASA has been investigating potential translunar excursion concepts to take place in the 2020s that would be used to test and demonstrate long duration life support and other systems needed for eventual Mars missions in the 2030s. These potential trajectory concepts could be conducted in the proving ground, a region of cislunar and near-Earth interplanetary space where international space agencies could cooperate to develop the technologies needed for interplanetary spaceflight. Enabled by high power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technologies, the excursion trajectory concepts studied are grouped into three classes of increasing distance from the Earth and increasing technical difficulty: the first class of excursion trajectory concepts would represent a 90-120 day round trip trajectory with abort to Earth options throughout the entire length, the second class would be a 180-210 day round trip trajectory with periods in which aborts would not be available, and the third would be a 300-400 day round trip trajectory without aborts for most of the length of the trip. This paper provides a top-level summary of the trajectory and mission design of representative example missions of these three classes of excursion trajectory concepts.

  13. Depleted uranium risk assessment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental Science Group at Los Alamos and the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) are assessing the risk of depleted uranium (DU) testing at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG). Conceptual and mathematical models of DU transfer through the APG ecosystem have been developed in order to show the mechanisms by which DU migrates or remains unavailable to different flora and fauna and to humans. The models incorporate actual rates of DU transfer between different ecosystem components as much as possible. Availability of data on DU transport through different pathways is scarce and constrains some of the transfer rates that can be used. Estimates of transfer rates were derived from literature sources and used in the mass-transfer models when actual transfer rates were unavailable. Objectives for this risk assessment are (1) to assess if DU transports away from impact areas; (2) to estimate how much, if any, DU migrates into Chesapeake Bay; (3) to determine if there are appreciable risks to the ecosystems due to DU testing; (4) to estimate the risk to human health as a result of DU testing

  14. Depleted uranium human health risk assessment, Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The risk to human health from fragments of depleted uranium (DU) at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG) was estimated using two types of ecosystem pathway models. A steady-state, model of the JPG area was developed to examine the effects of DU in soils, water, and vegetation on deer that were hunted and consumed by humans. The RESRAD code was also used to estimate the effects of farming the impact area and consuming the products derived from the farm. The steady-state model showed that minimal doses to humans are expected from consumption of deer that inhabit the impact area. Median values for doses to humans range from about 1 mrem (±2.4) to 0.04 mrem (±0.13) and translate to less than 1 x 10 -6 detriments (excess cancers) in the population. Monte Carlo simulation of the steady-state model was used to derive the probability distributions from which the median values were drawn. Sensitivity analyses of the steady-state model showed that the amount of DU in airborne dust and, therefore, the amount of DU on the vegetation surface, controlled the amount of DU ingested by deer and by humans. Human doses from the RESRAD estimates ranged from less than 1 mrem/y to about 6.5 mrem/y in a hunting scenario and subsistence fanning scenario, respectively. The human doses exceeded the 100 mrem/y dose limit when drinking water for the farming scenario was obtained from the on-site aquifer that was presumably contaminated with DU. The two farming scenarios were unrealistic land uses because the additional risk to humans due to unexploded ordnance in the impact area was not figured into the risk estimate. The doses estimated with RESRAD translated to less than 1 x 10 -6 detriments to about 1 x 10 -3 detriments. The higher risks were associated only with the farming scenario in which drinking water was obtained on-site

  15. Research Objectives for Human Missions in the Proving Ground of Cis-Lunar Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spann, James; Niles, Paul; Eppler, Dean; Kennedy, Kriss; Lewis, Ruthan; Sullivan, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: This talk will introduce the preliminary findings in support of NASA's Future Capabilities Team. In support of the ongoing studies conducted by NASA's Future Capabilities Team, we are tasked with collecting re-search objectives for the Proving Ground activities. The objectives could include but are certainly not limited to: demonstrating crew well being and performance over long duration missions, characterizing lunar volatiles, Earth monitoring, near Earth object search and identification, support of a far-side radio telescope, and measuring impact of deep space environment on biological systems. Beginning in as early as 2023, crewed missions beyond low Earth orbit will be enabled by the new capabilities of the SLS and Orion vehicles. This will initiate the "Proving Ground" phase of human exploration with Mars as an ultimate destination. The primary goal of the Proving Ground is to demonstrate the capability of suitably long dura-tion spaceflight without need of continuous support from Earth, i.e. become Earth Independent. A major component of the Proving Ground phase is to conduct research activities aimed at accomplishing major objectives selected from a wide variety of disciplines including but not limited to: Astronomy, Heliophysics, Fun-damental Physics, Planetary Science, Earth Science, Human Systems, Fundamental Space Biology, Microgravity, and In Situ Resource Utilization. Mapping and prioritizing the most important objectives from these disciplines will provide a strong foundation for establishing the architecture to be utilized in the Proving Ground. Possible Architectures: Activities and objectives will be accomplished during the Proving Ground phase using a deep space habitat. This habitat will potentially be accompanied by a power/propulsion bus capable of moving the habitat to accomplish different objectives within cis-lunar space. This architecture can also potentially support stag-ing of robotic and tele-robotic assets as well as

  16. Contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil, and evaluation of selected ground-water pumping alternatives in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Clark, Jeffrey S.

    1996-01-01

    Chemical manufacturing, munitions filling, and other military-support activities have resulted in the contamination of ground water, surface water, and soil in the Canal Creek area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Chlorinated volatile organic compounds, including 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and trichloroethylene, are widespread ground-water contaminants in two aquifers that are composed of unconsolidated sand and gravel. Distribution and fate of chlorinated organic compounds in the ground water has been affected by the movement and dissolution of solvents in their dense immiscible phase and by microbial degradation under anaerobic conditions. Detection of volatile organic contaminants in adjacent surface water indicates that shallow contaminated ground water discharges to surface water. Semivolatile organic compounds, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, are the most prevalent organic contaminants in soils. Various trace elements, such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and zinc, were found in elevated concentrations in ground water, surface water, and soil. Simulations with a ground-water-flow model and particle tracker postprocessor show that, without remedial pumpage, the contaminants will eventually migrate to Canal Creek and Gunpowder River. Simulations indicate that remedial pumpage of 2.0 million gallons per day from existing wells is needed to capture all particles originating in the contaminant plumes. Simulated pumpage from offsite wells screened in a lower confined aquifer does not affect the flow of contaminated ground water in the Canal Creek area.

  17. Work plan for conducting an ecological risk assessment at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland, and activities at the Edgewood Area since World War II have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. The J-Field site was used to destroy chemical agents and munitions by open burning and open detonation. This work plan presents the approach proposed to conduct an ecological risk assessment (ERA) as part of the RI/FS program at J-Field. This work plan identifies the locations and types of field studies proposed for each area of concern (AOC), the laboratory studies proposed to evaluate toxicity of media, and the methodology to be used in estimating doses to ecological receptors and discusses the approach that will be used to estimate and evaluate ecological risks at J-Field. Eight AOCs have been identified at J-Field, and the proposed ERA is designed to evaluate the potential for adverse impacts to ecological receptors from contaminated media at each AOC, as well as over the entire J-Field site. The proposed ERA approach consists of three major phases, incorporating field and laboratory studies as well as modeling. Phase 1 includes biotic surveys of the aquatic and terrestrial habitats, biological tissue sampling and analysis, and media toxicity testing at each AOC and appropriate reference locations. Phase 2 includes definitive toxicity testing of media from areas of known or suspected contamination or of media for which the Phase 1 results indicate toxicity or adverse ecological effects. In Phase 3, the uptake models initially developed in Phase 2 will be finalized, and contaminant dose to each receptor from all complete pathways will be estimated.

  18. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field

  19. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Remedial investigation results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuen, C. R.; Martino, L. E.; Biang, R. P.; Chang, Y. S.; Dolak, D.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R. A.; Patton, T. L.; Prasad, S.; Quinn, J.; Rosenblatt, D. H.; Vercellone, J.; Wang, Y. Y.

    2000-03-14

    This report presents the results of the remedial investigation (RI) conducted at J-Field in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), a U.S. Army installation located in Harford County, Maryland. Since 1917, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, and testing of chemical agents and munitions and the subsequent destruction of these materials at J-Field by open burning and open detonation. These activities have raised concerns about environmental contamination at J-Field. This RI was conducted by the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division, Directorate of Safety, Health and Environmental Division of APG, pursuant to requirements outlined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). The RI was accomplished according to the procedures developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). The RI provides a comprehensive evaluation of the site conditions, nature of contaminants present, extent of contamination, potential release mechanisms and migration pathways, affected populations, and risks to human health and the environment. This information will be used as the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions to be performed during the remedial action phase, which will follow the feasibility study (FS) for J-Field.

  20. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment

  1. Remedial investigation report for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 3: Ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.; Kuperman, R.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.

    2000-02-25

    The Environmental Management Division of the U.S. Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation (RI) and feasibility study (FS) of the J-Field area at APG, pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. As part of that activity, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted an ecological risk assessment (ERA) of the J-Field site. This report presents the results of that assessment.

  2. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Dugway Proving Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-29

    niches, particulary the lacustrine environment of the Great Basin (Baumhoff and Heizer 1965, Butler 1978, Heizer and Krieger 1956, Heizer and Harper...power that would capture the animals souls, rendering them docile and stupid (Steward 1970:34). Other large game was present, but were not numerous...uni versity. Baum, Bernard. 1947. Dugway Proving Ground. Aberdeen: U.S. Army Chemical Corps.* Bailmhoff, W.A. and R.F. Heizer . 1965. Postglacial

  3. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J.; Nelson, J.; Goldberg, M.; Sjoberg, W.

    2016-01-01

    The ocean prediction center at the national hurricane center's tropical analysis and forecast Branch, the Weather Prediction center and the Satellite analysis branch of NESDIS make up the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation and Satellite Analysis. These centers had early exposure to JPSS products using the S-NPP Satellite that was launched in 2011. Forecasters continue to evaluate new products in anticipation for the launch of JPSS-1 sometime in 2017.

  4. SPoRT's Participation in the GOES-R Proving Ground Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew; Stano, Geoffrey; Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The next generation geostationary satellite, GOES-R, will carry two new instruments with unique atmospheric and surface observing capabilities, the Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) and the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM), to study short-term weather processes. The ABI will bring enhanced multispectral observing capabilities with frequent refresh rates for regional and full disk coverage to geostationary orbit to address many existing and new forecast challenges. The GLM will, for the first time, provide the continuous monitoring of total lightning flashes over a hemispherical region from space. NOAA established the GOES-R Proving Ground activity several years ago to demonstrate the new capabilities of these instruments and to prepare forecasters for their day one use. Proving Ground partners work closely with algorithm developers and the end user community to develop and transition proxy data sets representing GOES-R observing capabilities. This close collaboration helps to maximize refine algorithms leading to the delivery of a product that effectively address a forecast challenge. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) program has been a participant in the NOAA GOES-R Proving Ground activity by developing and disseminating selected GOES-R proxy products to collaborating WFOs and National Centers. Established in 2002 to demonstrate the weather and forecasting application of real-time EOS measurements, the SPoRT program has grown to be an end-to-end research to operations activity focused on the use of advanced NASA modeling and data assimilation approaches, nowcasting techniques, and unique high-resolution multispectral data from EOS satellites to improve short-term weather forecasts on a regional and local scale. Participation in the Proving Ground activities extends SPoRT s activities and taps its experience and expertise in diagnostic weather analysis, short-term weather forecasting, and the transition of research and experimental

  5. Initial building investigations at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Objectives and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Dougherty, J.M.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1994-12-01

    As part of an environmental-contamination source-definition program at Aberdeen Proving Ground, detailed internal and external inspections of 23 potentially contaminated buildings are being conducted to describe and characterize the state of each building as it currently exists and to identify areas potentially contaminated with toxic or other hazardous substances. In addition, a detailed geophysical investigation is being conducted in the vicinity of each target building to locate and identify subsurface structures, associated with former building operations, that are potential sources of contamination. This report describes the objectives of the initial building inspections, including the geophysical investigations, and discusses the methodology that has been developed to achieve these objectives.

  6. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army's Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  7. Ecological survey of M-Field, Edgewood Area Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, J.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Fitzner, R.E.; Rogers, L.E.

    1991-12-01

    An ecological survey was conducted on M-Field, at the Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. M-Field is used routinely to test army smokes and obscurants, including brass flakes, carbon fibers, and fog oils. The field has been used for testing purposes for the past 40 years, but little documented history is available. Under current environmental regulations, the test field must be assessed periodically to document the presence or potential use of the area by threatened and endangered species. The M-Field area is approximately 370 acres and is part of the US Army`s Edgewood Area at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Harford County, Maryland. The grass-covered field is primarily lowlands with elevations from about 1.0 to 8 m above sea level, and several buildings and structures are present on the field. The ecological assessment of M-Field was conducted in three stages, beginning with a preliminary site visit in May to assess sampling requirements. Two field site visits were made June 3--7, and August 12--15, 1991, to identify the biota existing on the site. Data were gathered on vegetation, small mammals, invertebrates, birds, large mammals, amphibians, and reptiles.

  8. Interim progress report -- geophysics: Decommissioning of Buildings E5974 and E5978, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, M.G.; McGinnis, L.D.; Miller, S.F.; Thompson, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    Buildings E5974 and E5978, located near the mouth of Canal Creek, were among 10 potentially contaminated sites in the Westwood and Canal Creek areas of the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground examined by a geophysical team from Argonne National Laboratory in April and May of 1992. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including the complementary technologies of magnetics, electrical resistivity, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted around the perimeters of the buildings to guide a sampling program prior to decommissioning and dismantling. The magnetic anomalies and the electrically conductive areas around these buildings have a spatial relationship similar to that observed in low-lying sites in the Canal Creek area; they are probably associated with construction fill. Electrically conductive terrain is dominant on the eastern side of the site, and resistive terrain predominates on the west. The smaller magnetic anomalies are not imaged with ground radar or by electrical profiling. The high resistivities in the northwest quadrant are believed to be caused by a natural sand lens. The causes of three magnetic anomalies in the high-resistivity area are unidentified, but they are probably anthropogenic

  9. Remediation application strategies for depleted uranium contaminated soils at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandel, D.S.; Medina, S.M.; Weidner, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    The US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), located in the southwest portion of Arizona conducts firing of projectiles into the Gunpoint (GP-20) firing range. The penetrators are composed of titanium and DU. The purpose of this project was to determine feasible cleanup technologies and disposal alternatives for the cleanup of the depleted uranium (DU) contaminated soils at YPG. The project was split up into several tasks that include (a) collecting and analyzing samples representative of the GP-20 soils, (b) evaluating the data results, (c) conducting a literature search of existing proven technologies for soil remediation, and (0) making final recommendations for implementation of this technology to the site. As a result of this study, several alternatives for the separation, treatment, and disposal procedures are identified that would result in meeting the cleanup levels defined by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for unrestricted use of soils and would result in a significant cost savings over the life of the firing range

  10. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  11. GOES-R Proving Ground Activities at the NASA Short-Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molthan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    SPoRT is actively involved in GOES-R Proving Ground activities in a number of ways: (1) Applying the paradigm of product development, user training, and interaction to foster interaction with end users at NOAA forecast offices national centers. (2) Providing unique capabilities in collaboration with other GOES-R Proving Ground partners (a) Hybrid GOES-MODIS imagery (b) Pseudo-GLM via regional lightning mapping arrays (c) Developing new RGB imagery from EUMETSAT guidelines

  12. Contamination source review for Building E2370, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Reilly, D.P.; Glennon, M.A.; Draugelis, A.K.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from this review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, and geophysical investigation. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E2370. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot-scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  13. Hydrogeologic and chemical data for the O-Field area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoff, P.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    O-Field, located at the Edgewood area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, was periodically used for disposal of munitions, waste chemicals, and chemical-warfare agents from World War II through the 1950's. This report includes various physical, geologic, chemical, and hydrologic data obtained from well-core, groundwater, surface water, and bottom-sediment sampling sites at and near the O-Field disposal area. The data are presented in tables and hydrographs. Three site-location maps are also included. Well-core data include lithologic logs for 11 well-cluster sites, grain-size distributions, various chemical characteristics, and confining unit characteristics. Groundwater data include groundwater chemistry, method blanks for volatile organic carbon, available data on volatile and base/neutral organics, and compilation of corresponding method blanks, chemical-warfare agents, explosive-related products, radionuclides, herbicides, and groundwater levels. Surface-water data include field-measured characteristics; concentrations of various inorganic constituents including arsenic; selected organic constituents with method blanks; detection limits of organics; and a compilation of information on corresponding acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles; and method blanks corresponding to acids, volatiles, and semivolatiles. A set of 15 water-level hydrographs for the period March 1986 through September 1987 also is included in the report. 3 refs., 18 figs., 24 tabs

  14. Modeling exposure to depleted uranium in support of decommissioning at Jefferson Proving Ground, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Oxenburg, T.P. [Army Test and Evaluation Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Jefferson Proving Ground was used by the US Army Test and Evaluation Command for testing of depleted uranium munitions and closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This paper integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options.

  15. Contamination source review for Building E3236, Edgewood Area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Smits, M.P.; Draugelis, A.K.; Glennon, M.A.; Rueda, J.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    The US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to conduct a contamination source review to identify and define areas of toxic or hazardous contaminants and to assess the physical condition and accessibility of APG buildings. The information obtained from the review may be used to assist the US Army in planning for the future use or disposition of the buildings. The contamination source review consisted of the following tasks: historical records search, physical inspection, photographic documentation, geophysical investigation, and review of available records regarding underground storage tanks associated with each building. This report provides the results of the contamination source review for Building E3236. Many of the APG facilities constructed between 1917 and the 1960s are no longer used because of obsolescence and their poor state of repair. Because many of these buildings were used for research, development, testing, and/or pilot- scale production of chemical warfare agents and other military substances, the potential exists for portions of the buildings to be contaminated with these substances, their degradation products, and other laboratory or industrial chemicals. These buildings and associated structures or appurtenances may contribute to environmental concerns at APG.

  16. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  17. Ecological risk assessment of depleted uranium in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, W.H.; Kennedy, P.L.; Myers, O.B.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the effects of depleted uranium (DU) in the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) ecosystem and its potential for human health effects. An ecological risk assessment of DU should include the processes of hazard identification, dose-response assessment, exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Ecological risk assessments also should explicitly examine risks incurred by nonhuman as well as human populations, because risk assessments based only on human health do not always protect other species. To begin to assess the potential ecological risk of DU release to the environment we modeled DU transport through the principal components of the aquatic ecosystem at APG. We focused on the APG aquatic system because of the close proximity of the Chesapeake Bay and concerns about potential impacts on this ecosystem. Our objective in using a model to estimate environmental fate of DU is to ultimately reduce the uncertainty about predicted ecological risks due to DU from APG. The model functions to summarize information on the structure and functional properties of the APG aquatic system, to provide an exposure assessment by estimating the fate of DU in the environment, and to evaluate the sources of uncertainty about DU transport

  18. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires

  19. JPSS Preparations at the Satellite Proving Ground for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, M. J.; Berndt, E.; Clark, J.; Orrison, A.; Kibler, J.; Sienkiewicz, J. M.; Nelson, J. A., Jr.; Goldberg, M.

    2016-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Satellite Proving Ground (PG) for Marine, Precipitation, and Satellite Analysis (MPS) has been demonstrating and evaluating Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) products along with other polar-orbiting satellite platforms in preparation for the Joint Polar Satellite System - 1 (JPSS-1) launch in March 2017. The first S-NPP imagery was made available to the MPS PG during the evolution of Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and has since been popular in operations. Since this event the MPS PG Satellite Liaison has been working with forecasters on ways to integrate single-channel and multispectral imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)into operations to complement numerical weather prediction and geostationary satellite savvy National Weather Service (NWS) National Centers. Additional unique products have been introduced to operations to address specific forecast challenges, including the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) Layered Precipitable Water, the National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) Snowfall Rate product, NOAA Unique Combined Atmospheric Processing System (NUCAPS) Soundings, ozone products from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Cross-track Infrared Sounder/Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (CrIS/ATMS), and Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). In addition, new satellite domains have been created to provide forecasters at the NWS Ocean Prediction Center and Weather Prediction Center with better quality imagery at high latitudes. This has led to research projects that are addressing forecast challenges such as tropical to extratropical transition and explosive cyclogenesis. This presentation will provide examples of how the MPS PG has been introducing and integrating

  20. Environmental radiation monitoring plan for depleted uranium and beryllium areas, Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    This Environmental Radiation Monitoring Plan (ERM) discusses sampling soils, vegetation, and biota for depleted uranium (DU) and beryllium (Be) at Yuma Proving Ground (YPG). The existing ERM plan was used and modified to more adequately assess the potential of DU and Be migration through the YPG ecosystem. The potential pathways for DU and Be migration are discussed and include soil to vegetation, soil to animals, vegetation to animals, animals to animals, and animals to man. Sample collection will show DU deposition and will be used to estimate DU migration. The number of samples from each area varies and depends on if the firing range of interest is currently used for DU testing (GP 17A) or if the range is not used currently for DU testing (GP 20). Twenty to thirty-five individual mammals or lizards will be sampled from each transect. Air samples and samples of dust in the air fall will be collected in three locations in the active ranges. Thirty to forty-five sediment samples will be collected from different locations in the arroys near the impact areas. DU and Be sampling in the Hard Impact and Soft Impact areas changed only slightly from the existing ERM. The modifications are changes in sample locations, addition of two sediment transport locations, addition of vegetation samples, mammal samples, and air sampling from three to five positions on the impact areas. Analysis of samples for DU or total U by inductively-coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP/MS), cc spectroscopy, neutron activation analysis (NAA), and kinetic phosphorimetric analysis (KPA) are discussed, and analysis for Be by ICP/MS are recommended. Acquiring total U (no isotope data) from a large number of samples and analysis of those samples with relatively high total U concentrations results in fewer isotopic identifications but more information on U distribution. From previous studies, total U concentrations greater than about 3 times natural background are usually DU by isotopic confirmation

  1. Potential health impacts from range fires at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willians, G.P.; Hermes, A.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Hartmann, H.M.; Tomasko, D.

    1998-03-01

    This study uses atmospheric dispersion computer models to evaluate the potential for human health impacts from exposure to contaminants that could be dispersed by fires on the testing ranges at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. It was designed as a screening study and does not estimate actual human health risks. Considered are five contaminants possibly present in the soil and vegetation from past human activities at APG--lead, arsenic, trichloroethylene (TCE), depleted uranium (DU), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); and two chemical warfare agents that could be released from unexploded ordnance rounds heated in a range fire--mustard and phosgene. For comparison, dispersion of two naturally occurring compounds that could be released by burning of uncontaminated vegetation--vinyl acetate and 2-furaldehyde--is also examined. Data from previous studies on soil contamination at APG are used in conjunction with conservative estimates about plant uptake of contaminants, atmospheric conditions, and size and frequency of range fires at APG to estimate dispersion and possible human exposure. The results are compared with US Environmental Protection Agency action levels. The comparisons indicate that for all of the anthropogenic contaminants except arsenic and mustard, exposure levels would be at least an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding action levels. Because of the compoundingly conservative nature of the assumptions made, they conclude that the potential for significant human health risks from range fires is low. The authors recommend that future efforts be directed at fire management and control, rather than at conducting additional studies to more accurately estimate actual human health risk from range fires.

  2. Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bowers, J.F. (Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Personnel and Vehicle Data Collection at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and its Distribution for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    28 Magnetometer Applied Physics Model 1540-digital 3-axis fluxgate 5 Amplifiers Alligator Technologies USBPGF-S1 programmable instrumentation...Acoustic, Seismic, magnetic, footstep, vehicle, magnetometer , geophone, unattended ground sensor (UGS) 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION

  4. Adaptive ground implemented phase array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The simulation of an adaptive ground implemented phased array of five antenna elements is reported for a very high frequency system design that is tolerant to the radio frequency interference environment encountered by a tracking data relay satellite. Signals originating from satellites are received by the VHF ring array and both horizontal and vertical polarizations from each of the five elements are multiplexed and transmitted down to ground station. A panel on the transmitting end of the simulation chamber contains up to 10 S-band RFI sources along with the desired signal to simulate the dynamic relationship between user and TDRS. The 10 input channels are summed, and desired and interference signals are separated and corrected until the resultant sum signal-to-interference ratio is maximized. Testing performed with this simulation equipment demonstrates good correlation between predicted and actual results.

  5. Hydrogeology and chemical quality of water and soil at Carroll Island, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenbus, F.J.; Phillips, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    Carroll Island was used for open-air testing of chemical warfare agents from the late 1940's until 1971. Testing and disposal activities weresuspected of causing environmental contamination at 16 sites on the island. The hydrogeology and chemical quality of ground water, surface water, and soil at these sites were investigated with borehole logs, environmental samples, water-level measurements, and hydrologic tests. A surficial aquifer, upper confining unit, and upper confined aquifer were defined. Ground water in the surficial aquifer generally flows from the east-central part of the island toward the surface-water bodies, butgradient reversals caused by evapotranspiration can occur during dry seasons. In the confined aquifer, hydraulic gradients are low, and hydraulic head is affected by tidal loading and by seasonal pumpage from the west. Inorganic chemistry in the aquifers is affected by brackish-water intrusion from gradient reversals and by dissolution ofcarboniferous shell material in the confining unit.The concentrations of most inorganic constituents probably resulted from natural processes, but some concentrations exceeded Federal water-quality regulations and criteria. Organic compounds were detected in water and soil samples at maximum concentrations of 138 micrograms per liter (thiodiglycol in surface water) and 12 micrograms per gram (octadecanoic acid in soil).Concentrations of organic compounds in ground water exceeded Federal drinking-water regulations at two sites. The organic compounds that weredetected in environmental samples were variously attributed to natural processes, laboratory or field- sampling contamination, fallout from industrial air pollution, and historical military activities.

  6. Depleted uranium risk assessment for Jefferson Proving Ground using data from environmental monitoring and site characterization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Hansen, W.R.

    1996-10-01

    This report documents the third risk assessment completed for the depleted uranium (DU) munitions testing range at Jefferson Proving Ground (JPG), Indiana, for the U.S. Army Test and Evaluation command. Jefferson Proving Ground was closed in 1995 under the Base Realignment and Closure Act and the testing mission was moved to Yuma Proving Ground. As part of the closure of JPG, assessments of potential adverse health effects to humans and the ecosystem were conducted. This report integrates recent information obtained from site characterization surveys at JPG with environmental monitoring data collected from 1983 through 1994 during DU testing. Three exposure scenarios were evaluated for potential adverse effects to human health: an occasional use scenario and two farming scenarios. Human exposure was minimal from occasional use, but significant risk were predicted from the farming scenarios when contaminated groundwater was used by site occupants. The human health risk assessments do not consider the significant risk posed by accidents with unexploded ordnance. Exposures of white-tailed deer to DU were also estimated in this study, and exposure rates result in no significant increase in either toxicological or radiological risks. The results of this study indicate that remediation of the DU impact area would not substantially reduce already low risks to humans and the ecosystem, and that managed access to JPG is a reasonable model for future land use options

  7. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volume 1: Field Sampling Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland (Figure 1. 1). Since World War II activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA) (predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center [AEC]). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA -environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-002-1355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in data were collected to model, groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today.

  8. Work plan for focused feasibility study of the toxic burning pits area at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biang, C.; Benioff, P.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    The Environmental Management Division (EMD) of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study (RI/FS) of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCIA). J-Field is within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). Considerable archival information about J-Field exists as a result of efforts by APG staff to characterize the hazards associated with the site. Contamination of J-Field was first detected during an environmental survey of the Edgewood Area conducted in 1977 and 1978 by the US Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA)(predecessor to the US Army Environmental Center). As part of a subsequent USATHAMA environmental survey, 11 wells were installed and sampled at J-Field. Contamination at J-Field was also detected during a munitions disposal survey conducted by Princeton Aqua Science in 1983. The Princeton Aqua Science investigation involved the installation and sampling of nine wells and the collection and analysis of surficial and deep composite soil samples. In 1986, a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permit (MD3-21-0021355) requiring a basewide RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) and a hydrogeologic assessment of J-Field was issued by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In 1987, the US Geological Survey (USGS) began a two-phased hydrogeologic assessment in which data were collected to model groundwater flow at J-Field. Soil gas investigations were conducted, several well clusters were installed, a groundwater flow model was developed, and groundwater and surface water monitoring programs were established that continue today-

  9. Nuclear Bombs and Coral: Guam Coral Core Reveals Operation-Specific Radiocarbon Signals from the Pacific Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, A. H.

    2016-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analyses on a coral core extracted from the western Central Pacific (Guam) has revealed a series of early peaks in the marine bomb 14C record. The typical marine bomb 14C signal, one that is phase lagged and attenuated relative to atmospheric bomb 14C, is present in the coral core and is consistent with other North Pacific records. However, 14C levels that are well above what can be explained by air-sea diffusion alone punctuate this pattern. This anomaly has been demonstrated to a limited extent in other coral cores of the Indo-Pacific region, but is unmatched relative to the magnitude and temporal resolution recorded in the Guam coral core. Other records have shown an early Δ14C rise on the order of 40-50‰ above pre-bomb levels, with a subsequent decline before continuing the gradual Δ14C rise that is indicative of air-sea diffusion of 14CO2. The Guam coral Δ14C record provided three strong pulses in 1954-55, 1956-57, and 1958-59 that are superimposed on the pre-bomb to initial Δ14C rise from atmospheric bomb 14C. Each of these peaks can be directly linked to testing of thermonuclear devices in the Pacific Proving Grounds at Eniwetok and Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. The measurable lag in reaching Guam can be tied to ocean surface currents and can be traced to other regional Δ14C records from corals, providing a transport timeline to places as distant as the Indonesian throughflow, Okinawa and Palmyra.

  10. SPoRT Participation in the GOES-R and JPSS Proving Grounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary; Fuell, Kevin; Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    For the last several years, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) project at has been working with the various algorithm working groups and science teams to demonstrate the utility of future operational sensors for GOES-R and the suite of instruments for the JPSS observing platforms. For GOES-R, imagery and products have been developed from polar-orbiting sensors such as MODIS and geostationary observations from SEVIRI, simulated imagery, enhanced products derived from existing GOES satellites, and data from ground-based observing systems to generate pseudo or proxy products for the ABI and GLM instruments. The suite of products include GOES-POES basic and RGB hybrid imagery, total lightning flash products, quantitative precipitation estimates, and convective initiation products. SPoRT is using imagery and products from VIIRS, CrIS, ATMS, and OMPS to show the utility of data and products from their operational counterparts on JPSS. The products include VIIRS imagery in swath form, the GOES-POES hybrid, a suite of RGB products including the air mass RGB using water vapor and ozone channels from CrIS, and several DNB products. Over a dozen SPoRT collaborative WFOs and several National Centers are involved in an intensive evaluation of the operational utility of these products.

  11. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  12. Historical wildlife dynamics on Dugway Proving Ground: population and disease trends in jack rabbits over two decades. [Lepus californicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhardt, L.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1986-08-01

    In an effort to determine whether US Army activities on the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) have had an impact on resident wildlife, intensive studies have been conducted on the biology and ecology of the black-tailed jack rabbit (Lepus californicus) since 1965. in addition, the incidence of endemic diseases in several species of resident wildlife on the DPG have been studied from the late 1950s through the mid-1970s. The objectives of this report are to: (1) compile and summarize the jack rabbit data and some of the disease information that is presently contained only in annual reports; (2) compare the DPG jack rabbit data to data available on other jack rabbit populations; and (3) analyze the data for unusual or unexplained fluctuations in population densities or in incidence of disease.

  13. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments

  14. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-05-09

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km{sup 2} between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  15. JPSS Proving Ground Activities with NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, L. A.; Smith, M. R.; Fuell, K.; Stano, G. T.; LeRoy, A.; Berndt, E.

    2015-12-01

    Instruments aboard the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) series of satellites will provide imagery and other data sets relevant to operational weather forecasts. To prepare current and future weather forecasters in application of these data sets, Proving Ground activities have been established that demonstrate future JPSS capabilities through use of similar sensors aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, and the S-NPP mission. As part of these efforts, NASA's Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, Alabama partners with near real-time providers of S-NPP products (e.g., NASA, UW/CIMSS, UAF/GINA, etc.) to demonstrate future capabilities of JPSS. This includes training materials and product distribution of multi-spectral false color composites of the visible, near-infrared, and infrared bands of MODIS and VIIRS. These are designed to highlight phenomena of interest to help forecasters digest the multispectral data provided by the VIIRS sensor. In addition, forecasters have been trained on the use of the VIIRS day-night band, which provides imagery of moonlit clouds, surface, and lights emitted by human activities. Hyperspectral information from the S-NPP/CrIS instrument provides thermodynamic profiles that aid in the detection of extremely cold air aloft, helping to map specific aviation hazards at high latitudes. Hyperspectral data also support the estimation of ozone concentration, which can highlight the presence of much drier stratospheric air, and map its interaction with mid-latitude or tropical cyclones to improve predictions of their strengthening or decay. Proving Ground activities are reviewed, including training materials and methods that have been provided to forecasters, and forecaster feedback on these products that has been acquired through formal, detailed assessment of their applicability to a given forecast threat or task. Future opportunities for collaborations around the delivery of training are proposed

  16. Long-term fate of depleted uranium at Aberdeen and Yuma Proving Grounds: Human health and ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinger, M.H.; Beckman, R.J.; Myers, O.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kennedy, P.L.; Clements, W.; Bestgen, H.T. [Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Fishery and Wildlife Biology

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term consequences of depleted uranium (DU) in the environment at Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) and Yuma Proving Ground (YPG) for the Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) of the US Army. Specifically, we examined the potential for adverse radiological and toxicological effects to humans and ecosystems caused by exposure to DU at both installations. We developed contaminant transport models of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems at APG and terrestrial ecosystems at YPG to assess potential adverse effects from DU exposure. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of the initial models showed the portions of the models that most influenced predicted DU concentrations, and the results of the sensitivity analyses were fundamental tools in designing field sampling campaigns at both installations. Results of uranium (U) isotope analyses of field samples provided data to evaluate the source of U in the environment and the toxicological and radiological doses to different ecosystem components and to humans. Probabilistic doses were estimated from the field data, and DU was identified in several components of the food chain at APG and YPG. Dose estimates from APG data indicated that U or DU uptake was insufficient to cause adverse toxicological or radiological effects. Dose estimates from YPG data indicated that U or DU uptake is insufficient to cause radiological effects in ecosystem components or in humans, but toxicological effects in small mammals (e.g., kangaroo rats and pocket mice) may occur from U or DU ingestion. The results of this study were used to modify environmental radiation monitoring plans at APG and YPG to ensure collection of adequate data for ongoing ecological and human health risk assessments.

  17. Demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF): Apache Longbow - Hell Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    This ecological risk assessment for a testing program at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, is a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF; Suter et al. 2001). The demonstration is intended to illustrate how risk assessment guidance concerning-generic military training and testing activities and guidance concerning a specific type of activity (e.g., low-altitude aircraft overflights) may be implemented at a military installation. MERAF was developed with funding from the Strategic Research and Development Program (SERDP) of the Department of Defense. Novel aspects of MERAF include: (1) the assessment of risks from physical stressors using an ecological risk assessment framework, (2) the consideration of contingent or indirect effects of stressors (e.g., population-level effects that are derived from habitat or hydrological changes), (3) the integration of risks associated with different component activities or stressors, (4) the emphasis on quantitative risk estimates and estimates of uncertainty, and (5) the modularity of design, permitting components of the framework to be used in various military risk assessments that include similar activities. The particular subject of this report is the assessment of ecological risks associated with a testing program at Cibola Range of Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona. The program involves an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. Thus, the three component activities of the Apache-Hellfire test were: (1) helicopter overflight, (2) missile firing, and (3) tracked vehicle movement. The demonstration was limited, to two ecological endpoint entities (i.e., potentially susceptible and valued populations or communities): woody desert wash communities and mule deer populations. The core assessment area is composed of about 126 km 2 between the Chocolate and Middle Mountains. The core time of the program is a three-week period, including fourteen days of

  18. An optimized groundwater extraction system for the toxic burning pits area of J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, J.J.; Johnson, R.L.; Patton, T.L.; Martino, L.E.

    1996-06-01

    Testing and disposal of chemical warfare agents, munitions, and industrial chemicals at the J-Field area of the Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) have resulted in contamination of soil and groundwater. The discharge of contaminated groundwater to on-site marshes and adjacent estuaries poses a potential risk to ecological receptors. The Toxic Burning Pits (TBP) area is of special concern because of its disposal history. This report describes a groundwater modeling study conducted at J-Field that focused on the TBP area. The goal of this modeling effort was optimization of the groundwater extraction system at the TBP area by applying linear programming techniques. Initially, the flow field in the J-Field vicinity was characterized with a three-dimensional model that uses existing data and several numerical techniques. A user-specified border was set near the marsh and used as a constraint boundary in two modeled remediation scenarios: containment of the groundwater and containment of groundwater with an impermeable cap installed over the TBP area. In both cases, the objective was to extract the minimum amount of water necessary while satisfying the constraints. The smallest number of wells necessary was then determined for each case. This optimization approach provided two benefits: cost savings, in that the water to be treated and the well installation costs were minimized, and minimization of remediation impacts on the ecology of the marsh.

  19. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Missile Firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Daniel Steven; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter; Suter, Glenn; Pater, Larry

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the missile launch and detonation. The primary stressor associated with this activity was sound. Other minor stressors included the detonation impact, shrapnel, and fire. Exposure to desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) was quantified using the Army sound contour program BNOISE2, as well as distances from the explosion to deer. Few effects data were available from related studies. Exposure-response models for the characterization of effects consisted of human 'disturbance' and hearing damage thresholds in units of C-weighted decibels (sound exposure level) and a distance-based No Observed Adverse Effects Level for moose and cannonfire. The risk characterization used a weight-of-evidence approach and concluded that risk to mule deer behavior from the missile firing was likely for a negligible number of deer, but that no risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction is expected

  20. Remedial investigation sampling and analysis plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: Volume 2, Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, S.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.

    1995-03-01

    J-Field encompasses about 460 acres at the southern end of the Gunpowder Neck Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of APG (Figure 2.1). Since World War II, the Edgewood Area of APG has been used to develop, manufacture, test, and destroy chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning and open detonation (OB/OD). For the purposes of this project, J-Field has been divided into eight geographic areas or facilities that are designated as areas of concern (AOCs): the Toxic Burning Pits (TBP), the White Phosphorus Burning Pits (WPP), the Riot Control Burning Pit (RCP), the Robins Point Demolition Ground (RPDG), the Robins Point Tower Site (RPTS), the South Beach Demolition Ground (SBDG), the South Beach Trench (SBT), and the Prototype Building (PB). The scope of this project is to conduct a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) and ecological risk assessment to evaluate the impacts of past disposal activities at the J-Field site. Sampling for the RI will be carried out in three stages (I, II, and III) as detailed in the FSP. A phased approach will be used for the J-Field ecological risk assessment (ERA).

  1. Characterization of Preferential Ground-Water Seepage From a Chlorinated Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Aquifer to West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Emily H.; Phelan, Daniel J.; Lorah, Michelle M.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2007-01-01

    Wetlands act as natural transition zones between ground water and surface water, characterized by the complex interdependency of hydrology, chemical and physical properties, and biotic effects. Although field and laboratory demonstrations have shown efficient natural attenuation processes in the non-seep wetland areas and stream bottom sediments of West Branch Canal Creek, chlorinated volatile organic compounds are present in a freshwater tidal creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Volatile organic compound concentrations in surface water indicate that in some areas of the wetland, preferential flow paths or seeps allow transport of organic compounds from the contaminated sand aquifer to the overlying surface water without undergoing natural attenuation. From 2002 through 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Environmental Conservation and Restoration Division of the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, characterized preferential ground-water seepage as part of an ongoing investigation of contaminant distribution and natural attenuation processes in wetlands at this site. Seep areas were discrete and spatially consistent during thermal infrared surveys in 2002, 2003, and 2004 throughout West Branch Canal Creek wetlands. In these seep areas, temperature measurements in shallow pore water and sediment more closely resembled those in ground water than those in nearby surface water. Generally, pore water in seep areas contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds had lower methane and greater volatile organic compound concentrations than pore water in non-seep wetland sediments. The volatile organic compounds detected in shallow pore water in seeps were spatially similar to the dominant volatile organic compounds in the underlying Canal Creek aquifer, with both parent and anaerobic daughter compounds detected. Seep locations characterized as focused seeps contained the highest concentrations of chlorinated parent compounds

  2. The U.S. Army Occupational and Environmental Medicine Residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland: 1960-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaydos, Joel C; Mallon, Timothy M; Rice, William A

    2016-11-01

    Reorganization of the Army and critical assessment of Army Graduate Medical Education programs prompted the Occupational and Environmental Medicine (OEM) Consultant to the Army Surgeon General to initiate a review of current Army OEM residency training. Available information indicated the Army OEM residency at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was the first and longest operating Army OEM residency. Describing this residency was identified as the first step in the review, with the objectives of determining why the residency was started and sustained and its relevance to the needs of the Army. Records possibly related to the residency were reviewed, starting with 1954 since certification of physicians as Occupation Medicine specialists began in 1955. Interviews were conducted with selected physicians who had strong affiliations with the Army residency and the practice of Army OEM. The Army OEM residency began in 1960 and closed in 1996 with the transfer of Army OEM residency training to the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD. Over 36 years, 47 uniformed residency graduates were identified; 44 were from the Army. Forty graduated between 1982 and 1996. The OEM residency was part of a dynamic cycle. Uniformed OEM leaders identified the knowledge and skills required of military OEM physicians and where these people should be stationed in the global Army. Rotations at military sites to acquire the needed knowledge and skills were integrated into the residency. Residency graduates were assigned to positions where they were needed. Having uniformed residents and preceptors facilitated the development of trust with military leaders and access to areas where OEM physician skills and knowledge could have a positive impact. Early reports indicated the residency was important in recruiting and retaining OEM physicians, with emphasis placed on supporting the Army industrial base. The late 1970s into the 1990s was a more dynamic period. There was

  3. Proving the capabilities of the phased-array probe/ALOK inspection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohn, H.; Kroening, M.; Rathgeb, W.; Gebhardt, W.; Kappes, W.; Barbian, O.A.

    1987-01-01

    The capability of the ALOK phased-probe-array inspection technique results from the simplicity of the testing system structure, the reflector detection and identification by means of transit time curves, and the analytical capacity of the system. Testing times are shortened, with the test results meeting the current standards, and further possibilities being given: Areas that could so far only be inspected with difficulty of not at all, can be examined, thanks to the compact equipment and without having to modify the system, very informative analysis measurements for interpreting indications can be made. Furthermore, it may be expected from the testing practice that descriptions of indications will become more reliable and reproducible, due to transit time curve identification. In addition to conventional criteria for reflector evaluation, the potential of transit time curve identification, and flaw boundary imaging of the reconstruction image can be utilized. (orig.)

  4. Meeting on Solute/Solvent Interactions Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on May 29-30, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    the magnitudes of the nuclear charges and therefore cannot be assumed to indicate relative reactivities toward nucleophiles. There is accordingly no...APPENDIX 3 ORGANIZATIONS OF AUTHORS IN THESE PROCEEDINGS Central Michigan University 49 Instituto de Quimica Fisica 33 La Sierra University, Riverside 71...Aberdeen Proving Gd, MD Joxe-Luis Abbud Christopher Cramer Instituto de Quimica Fisica SMCCR-RSP-C "Rocasolano" U.S. Army Chemical RD&E Center Conajo

  5. In situ analysis of soil at an open burning/open detonation disposal facility: J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, L.; Cho, E.; Wrobel, J.

    1994-01-01

    Investigators have used a field-portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Analyzer to screen soils for a suite of metals indicative of the open burning and open detonation (OB/OD) activities that occurred at the J-Field site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The field XRF results were incorporated into a multiphase investigation of contaminants at the Toxic Burning Pits Area of Concern at J-Field. The authors determined that the field-portable XRF unit used for the study and the general concept of field XRF screening are invaluable tools for investigating an OB/OD site where intrusive sampling techniques could present unacceptable hazards to site workers

  6. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 17-21 June 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Chem. Engrs., 32, 35 (1954). 9. Littman, H., Vukovic , D.V., Zdansk, F.K., and Grabavtit, Z.B., Can. J . Chem. Eng., 54, 33 (1976). 10. Morgan, M.H...COMMAND Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5423 DISTRIBUTIONSTATEMENW A, Approvod iapublic releaB6~ s11 "’ftbui U o ited’ ^ J .. Di scl aimer The...PARTICLE COMPOSITION R. G. Keesee and A. W. Castleman, Jr ........ ........................ .13 NUCLEATION AND PARTICLE GROWTH " S. G. Kim and J . R

  7. NOAA's Joint Polar Satellite System's (JPSS) Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) Program - Bringing JPSS Science into Support of Key NOAA Missions!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, W.; McWilliams, G.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will focus on the continuity of the NOAA Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Program's Proving Ground and Risk Reduction (PGRR) and key activities of the PGRR Initiatives. The PGRR Program was established in 2012, following the launch of the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP) satellite. The JPSS Program Office has used two PGRR Project Proposals to establish an effective approach to managing its science and algorithm teams in order to focus on key NOAA missions. The presenter will provide details of the Initiatives and the processes used by the initiatives that have proven so successful. Details of the new 2017 PGRR Call-for-Proposals and the status of project selections will be discussed.

  8. Focused feasibility study for surface soil at the main pits and pushout area, J-field toxic burning pits area, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, T.; Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Butler, J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    The Environmental Management Division of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, is conducting a remedial investigation and feasibility study of the J-Field area at APG pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (CERCLA). J-Field is located within the Edgewood Area of APG in Harford County, Maryland. Since World War II, activities in the Edgewood Area have included the development, manufacture, testing, and destruction of chemical agents and munitions. These materials were destroyed at J-Field by open burning/open detonation. Portions of J-Field continue to be used for the detonation and disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) by open burning/open detonation under authority of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  9. Environmental geophysics: Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489 decommissioning - the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinnis, L.D.; Thompson, M.D.; Miller, S.F.

    1994-06-01

    Buildings E5485, E5487, and E5489, referred to informally as the open-quotes Ghost Townclose quotes complex, are potentially contaminated sites in the Edgewood section of Aberdeen Proving Ground. Noninvasive geophysical surveys, including magnetics, EM-31, EM-61, and ground-penetrating radar, were conducted to assist a sampling and monitoring program prior to decommissioning and dismantling of the buildings. The buildings are located on a marginal wetland bordering the west branch of Canal Creek. The dominant geophysical signature in the open-quotes Ghost Town close quotes complex is a pattern of northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast anomalies that appear to be associated with a trench/pipe/sewer system, documented by the presence of a manhole. Combinations of anomalies suggest that line sources include nonmetallic and ferromagnetic materials in trenches. On the basis of anomaly associations, the sewer lines probably rest in a trench, back-filled with conductive, amphibolitic, crushed rock. Where the sewer lines connect manholes or junctions with other lines, ferromagnetic materials are present. Isolated, unidentified magnetic anomalies litter the area around Building E5487, particularly to the north. Three small magnetic sources are located east of Building E5487

  10. Ground Enterprise Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft ground systems are on the cusp of achieving "plug-and-play" capability, i.e., they are approaching the state in which the various components can be...

  11. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.

    1998-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  12. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Introduction and Problem Formulation for a Multiple Stressor Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Peterson, Mark J.; Jones, Daniel Steven; Suter, Glenn

    2008-01-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework (MERAF). The focus of the assessment was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, i.e., M60-A1 tanks. The problem formulation for the assessment included conceptual models for three component activities of the test, helicopter overflight, missile firing, and tracked vehicle movement, and two ecological endpoint entities, woody desert wash communities and desert mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus crooki) populations. An activity-specific risk assessment framework was available to provide guidance for assessing risks associated with aircraft overflights. Key environmental features of the study area include barren desert pavement and tree-lined desert washes. The primary stressors associated with helicopter overflights were sound and the view of the aircraft. The primary stressor associated with Hellfire missile firing was sound. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased ponding, infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. A plan for estimating integrated risks from the three military activities was included in the problem formulation

  13. X-ray fluorescence investigation of heavy-metal contamination on metal surfaces in the Pilot Plant Complex, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Draugelis, A.K.; Schneider, J.F.; Billmark, K.A.; Zimmerman, R.E.

    1995-07-01

    A field program using a portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument was carried out to obtain data on loadings of RCRA-regulated heavy metals in paint on metal surfaces within the Pilot Plant Complex at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Measured loadings of heavy metals were sufficiently small that they do not present problems for either human exposure or the disposition of building demolition rubble. An attempt to develop an external calibration of the XRF instrument for cadmium, chromium, and lead was unsuccessful. Significant substrate effects were observed for cadmium and chromium; for accurate results for these elements, it appears necessary to calibrate by using a sample of the actual metal substrate on which the paint is located. No substrate effects were observed for lead, but the use of lead L-shell x-ray emission lines in the instrument mode utilized in this study appears to result in a significant underestimate of the lead loading due to self-absorption of these emissions.

  14. Concepts and procedures required for successful reduction of tensor magnetic gradiometer data obtained from an unexploded ordnance detection demonstration at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Robert E.; Brown, Philip J.

    2006-01-01

    On March 12, 2003, data were gathered at Yuma Proving Grounds, in Arizona, using a Tensor Magnetic Gradiometer System (TMGS). This report shows how these data were processed and explains concepts required for successful TMGS data reduction. Important concepts discussed include extreme attitudinal sensitivity of vector measurements, low attitudinal sensitivity of gradient measurements, leakage of the common-mode field into gradient measurements, consequences of thermal drift, and effects of field curvature. Spatial-data collection procedures and a spin-calibration method are addressed. Discussions of data-reduction procedures include tracking of axial data by mathematically matching transfer functions among the axes, derivation and application of calibration coefficients, calculation of sensor-pair gradients, thermal-drift corrections, and gradient collocation. For presentation, the magnetic tensor at each data station is converted to a scalar quantity, the I2 tensor invariant, which is easily found by calculating the determinant of the tensor. At important processing junctures, the determinants for all stations in the mapped area are shown in shaded relief map-view. Final processed results are compared to a mathematical model to show the validity of the assumptions made during processing and the reasonableness of the ultimate answer obtained.

  15. Ground state phase diagram of extended attractive Hubbard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaszkiewicz, S.; Chao, K.A.; Micnas, R.

    1980-08-01

    The ground state phase diagram of the extended Hubbard model with intraatomic attraction has been derived in the Hartree-Fock approximation formulated in terms of the Bogoliubov variational approach. For a given value of electron density, the nature of the ordered ground state depends essentially on the sign and the strength of the nearest neighbor coupling. (author)

  16. Design and Performance of an Enhanced Bioremediation Pilot Test in a Tidal Wetland Seep, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Emily H.; Lorah, Michelle M.; Phelan, Daniel J.; McGinty, Angela L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of a lack of available in situ remediation methods for sensitive wetland environments where contaminated groundwater discharges, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Garrison, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, conceived, designed, and pilot tested a permeable reactive mat that can be placed horizontally at the groundwater/surface-water interface. Development of the reactive mat was part of an enhanced bioremediation study in a tidal wetland area along West Branch Canal Creek at Aberdeen Proving Ground, where localized areas of preferential discharge (seeps) transport groundwater contaminated with carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, tetrachloroethene, trichloroethene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane from the Canal Creek aquifer to land surface. The reactive mat consisted of a mixture of commercially available organic- and nutrient-rich peat and compost that was bioaugmented with a dechlorinating microbial consortium, WBC-2, developed for this study. Due to elevated chlorinated methane concentrations in the pilot test site, a layer of zero-valent iron mixed with the peat and compost was added at the base of the reactive mat to promote simultaneous abiotic and biotic degradation. The reactive mat for the pilot test area was designed to optimize chlorinated volatile organic compound degradation efficiency without altering the geotechnical and hydraulic characteristics, or creating undesirable water quality in the surrounding wetland area, which is referred to in this report as achieving geotechnical, hydraulic, and water-quality compatibility. Optimization of degradation efficiency was achieved through the selection of a sustainable organic reactive matrix, electron donor, and bioaugmentation method. Consideration of geotechnical compatibility through design calculations of bearing capacity, settlement, and geotextile selection showed that a 2- to 3-feet tolerable thickness of the mat was possible, with 0.17 feet settlement predicted for

  17. The Apache Longbow-Hellfire Missile Test at Yuma Proving Ground: Ecological Risk Assessment for Tracked Vehicle Movement across Desert Pavement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Mark J; Efroymson, Rebecca Ann; Hargrove, William Walter

    2008-01-01

    A multiple stressor risk assessment was conducted at Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, as a demonstration of the Military Ecological Risk Assessment Framework. The focus was a testing program at Cibola Range, which involved an Apache Longbow helicopter firing Hellfire missiles at moving targets, M60-A1 tanks. This paper describes the ecological risk assessment for the tracked vehicle movement component of the testing program. The principal stressor associated with tracked vehicle movement was soil disturbance, and a resulting, secondary stressor was hydrological change. Water loss to washes and wash vegetation was expected to result from increased infiltration and/or evaporation associated with disturbances to desert pavement. The simulated exposure of wash vegetation to water loss was quantified using estimates of exposed land area from a digital ortho quarter quad aerial photo and field observations, a 30 30 m digital elevation model, the flow accumulation feature of ESRI ArcInfo, and a two-step process in which runoff was estimated from direct precipitation to a land area and from water that flowed from upgradient to a land area. In all simulated scenarios, absolute water loss decreased with distance from the disturbance, downgradient in the washes; however, percentage water loss was greatest in land areas immediately downgradient of a disturbance. Potential effects on growth and survival of wash trees were quantified by using an empirical relationship derived from a local unpublished study of water infiltration rates. The risk characterization concluded that neither risk to wash vegetation growth or survival nor risk to mule deer abundance and reproduction was expected. The risk characterization was negative for both the incremental risk of the test program and the combination of the test and pretest disturbances

  18. Antiferrodistortive phase transitions and ground state of PZT ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Dhananjai

    2013-01-01

    The ground state of the technologically important Pb(Zr x Ti (1-x) )O 3 , commonly known as PZT, ceramics is currently under intense debate. The phase diagram of this material shows a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) for x∼0.52 at 300K, across which a composition induced structural phase transition occurs leading to maximization of the piezoelectric properties. In search for the true ground state of the PZT in the MPB region, Beatrix Noheda and coworkers first discovered a phase transition from tetragonal (space group P4mm) to an M A type monoclinic phase (space group Cm) at low temperatures for x=0.52. Soon afterwards, we discovered yet another low temperature phase transition for the same composition in which the M A type (Cm) monoclinic phase transforms to another monoclinic phase with Cc space group. We have shown that the Cm to Cc phase transition is an antiferrodistortive (AFD) transition involving tilting of oxygen octahedra leading to unit cell doubling and causing appearance of superlattice reflections which are observable in the electron and neutron diffraction patterns only and not in the XRD patterns, as a result of which Noheda and coworkers missed the Cc phase in their synchrotron XRD studies at low temperatures. Our findings were confirmed by leading groups using neutron, TEM, Raman and high pressure diffraction studies. The first principles calculations also confirmed that the true ground state of PZT in the MPB region has Cc space group. However, in the last couple of years, the Cc space group of the ground state has become controversial with an alternative proposal of R3c as the space group of the ground state phase which is proposed to coexist with the metastable Cm phase. In order to resolve this controversy, we recently revisited the issue using pure PZT and 6% Sr 2+ substituted PZT, the latter samples show larger tilt angle on account of the reduction in the average cationic radius at the Pb 2+ site. Using high wavelength neutrons and high

  19. Microstrip linear phase low pass filter based on defected ground structures for partial response modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas

    2018-01-01

    We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing the characte......We report a high performance linear phase low pass filter (LPF) designed for partial response (PR) modulations. For the implementation, we adopted microstrip technology and a variant of the standard stepped‐impedance technique. Defected ground structures (DGS) are used for increasing...... the characteristic impedance of transmission lines. Experimental results prove that the proposed filter can successfully modulate a non‐return‐to‐zero (NRZ) signal into a five levels PR one....

  20. The Relationship between an Emerging Grounded Theory and the Existing Literature: Four phases for consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grounded theory researchers and the existing literature has become a red herring that even confuses some grounded theorists who have completed a study. Antoinette McCallin’s essay does a commendable job outlining the realities of the research terrain that make proceeding without some exposure to the literature unlikely and ill-advised in most situations. When embarking on my dissertation, I needed to know enough about the literature, both substantive and methodological, to argue for the use of classic grounded theory as opposed to many other choices within my field; yet my study benefited from the necessary tensions between the emerging grounded theory and the existing literature. In this brief essay I propose that the relationship between the existing literature and a developing grounded theory project goes through four discernible phases:noncommittal, comparative, integrative, and, if the analyst can push, a transcendent phase in which the theory is not simply one of a number of theories of a kind within the discipline’s literature. I explain the phases to make more explicit the under-recognized subversive potential of grounded theory to push pass disciplinary boundaries by broadening the ‘relevant’ literature. Barney Glaser has often admonished grounded theory researchers to put off the literature to avoid wasting time and energy with literature that may prove irrelevant. I have not found such literature to be irrelevant as much as limited, and in some cases restricted by what a particular discipline defines as the appropriate literature. Therefore, the question of what literature offers possibilities for literature review and comparisons that would allow for richer knowledge generation. I return to this matter toward the end of the essay.

  1. Vehicle Test Facilities at Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-06

    warehouse and rough terrain forklifts. Two 5-ton-capacity manual chain hoists at the rear of the table regulate its slope from 0 to 40 percent. The overall...Capacity at 24-Inch Load Center. 5. TOP/ HTP 2-2-608, Braking, Wheeled Vehicles, 15 Jav.&ry 1971. 6. TOP 2-2-603, Vehicle Fuel Consumption, 1 November 1977. A-1 r -. ’,’

  2. Historic Building Inventory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    installation into compliance with the National Historic Preservation Act of i9bo ana its amendments, and related federal laws and regulations. To this ena, the...century. OLD BALTIMORE The first formal authorization for the establishment of a Court House was the 1674 Act of Assembly for the construction of a Court...official recorded meeting at the Court House was in 1692, at which Thomas Heath, innkeeper , filed suit for expenses incurreo by tne Justices at the 1687

  3. Control Method of Single-phase Inverter Based Grounding System in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, L.; Zeng, X.

    2016-01-01

    of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks. An active grounding system based on single-phase inverter is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between output current of the system and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral......The asymmetry of the inherent distributed capacitances causes the rise of neutral-to-ground voltage in ungrounded system or high resistance grounded system. Overvoltage may occur in resonant grounded system if Petersen coil is resonant with the distributed capacitances. Thus, the restraint...

  4. Adaptive Magnetorheological Isolator for Ground Support Equipment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The minimization of vibration-induced damage has become a critical issue for rocket launch ground support electronics (GSE). In particular, the effect of high...

  5. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  6. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM)

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the technical assessment and advancement phase to the ground engineering phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the ground engineering phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase. 5 references

  7. Space nuclear power plant technology development philosophy for a ground engineering phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Trapp, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    The development of a space qualified nuclear power plant is proceeding from the Technical Assessment and Advancement Phase to the Ground Engineering Phase. In this new phase, the selected concept will be matured by the completion of activities needed before protoflight units can be assembled and qualified for first flight applications. This paper addresses a possible philosophy to arrive at the activities to be performed during the Ground Engineering Phase. The philosophy is derived from what we believe a potential user of nuclear power would like to see completed before commitment to a flight development phase

  8. DETERMINING HOW VAPOR PHASE MTBE REACHES GROUND WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 2 and ORD have funded a RARE project for FY 2005/2006 to evaluate the prospects that MTBE (and other fuel components) in vapors that escape from an underground storage tank (UST) can find its way to ground water produced by monitoring wells at a gasoline filling statio...

  9. Software-Defined Ground Stations - Enhancing Multi-Mission Support, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase 1 proposal to NASA requests $99,055.69 to enhance multiple mission support in ground stations through the use of software defined radios and virtual...

  10. Ground Processing Optimization Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ultimate goal is the automation of a large amount of KSC's planning, scheduling, and execution decision making. Phase II will result in a complete full-scale...

  11. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I effort demonstrated, through actual development and tests with a spacecraft system, the technical and programmatic feasibility of developing, within the...

  12. Principle and Design of a Single-phase Inverter-Based Grounding System for Neutral-to-ground Voltage Compensation in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Yan, Lingjie; Zeng, Xiangjun

    2017-01-01

    Neutral-to-ground overvoltage may occur in non-effectively grounded power systems because of the distributed parameters asymmetry and resonance between Petersen coil and distributed capacitances. Thus, the constraint of neutral-to-ground voltage is critical for the safety of distribution networks....... In this paper, an active grounding system based on single-phase inverter and its control parameter design method is proposed to achieve this objective. Relationship between its output current and neutral-to-ground voltage is derived to explain the principle of neutral-to-ground voltage compensation. Then...

  13. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  14. Ka-Band, MEMS Switched Line Phase Shifters Implemented in Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Ponchak, George E.; Varaljay, Nicholas C.

    2005-01-01

    Ka-band MEMS switched line phase shifters implemented in finite ground coplanar waveguide are described in this paper. The phase shifters are constructed of single-pole double-throw (SPDT) switches with additional reference and phase offset transmission line lengths. The one- and two-bit phase shifters are fabricated on high resistivity (HR) silicon with a dielectric constant, Epsilon(sub T) = 11.7 and a substrate thickness, t = 500microns. The switching architectures integrated within the phase shifters consist of MEMS switches that are doubly anchored cantilever beam capacitive switches with additional high inductive sections (MEMS LC device). The SPDT switch is composed of a T-junction with a MEMS LC device at each output port. The one-bit phase shifter described in this paper has an insertion loss (IL) and return loss (RL) of 0.9 dB and 30 dB while the two-bit described has an IL and RL of 1.8 dB and 30 dB respectively. The one-bit phase shifter's designed offset phase is 22.5deg and actual measured phase shift is 21.8deg. The two-bit phase shifter's designed offset phase is 22.5deg, 45deg, and 67.5deg and the actual measured phase shifts are 21.4deg, 44.2deg, and 65.8deg, respectively.

  15. Quantum double-well chain: Ground-state phases and applications to hydrogen-bonded materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Campbell, D.K.; Gubernatis, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Extrapolating the results of hybrid quantum Monte Carlo simulations to the zero temperature and infinite-chain-length limits, we calculate the ground-state phase diagram of a system of quantum particles on a chain of harmonically coupled, symmetric, quartic double-well potentials. We show that the ground state of this quantum chain depends on two parameters, formed from the ratios of the three natural energy scales in the problem. As a function of these two parameters, the quantum ground state can exhibit either broken symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all nonzero (as would be the case for a classical chain), or restored symmetry, in which the expectation values of the particle's coordinate are all zero (as would be the case for a single quantum particle). In addition to the phase diagram as a function of these two parameters, we calculate the ground-state energy, an order parameter related to the average position of the particle, and the susceptibility associated with this order parameter. Further, we present an approximate analytic estimate of the phase diagram and discuss possible physical applications of our results, emphasizing the behavior of hydrogen halides under pressure

  16. H-Bridge Transformerless Inverter with Common Ground for Single-Phase Solar-Photovoltaic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new single-phase H-Bridge transformerless inverter with common ground for grid-connected photovoltaic systems (hereafter it is called ‘Siwakoti-H’ inverter). The inverter works on the principle of flying capacitor and consists of only four power switches (two reverse blocking...... IGBT's (RB-IGBT) and two MOSFET's), a capacitor and a small filter at the output stage. The proposed topology share a common ground with the grid and the PV source. A Unipolar Sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulation (SPWM) technique is used to modulate the inverter to minimize switching loss, output current...

  17. Numerical study of the t-J model: Exact ground state and flux phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Poilblanc, D.

    1990-01-01

    Strongly correlated 2D electrons described by the t-J model are investigated numerically. Exact ground state for one and two holes in a finite cluster with periodic boundary conditions are obtained by using the Lanczos algorithm. The effects of Coulomb repulsion of the holes on the nearest neighbor sites are taken into account. Commensurate flux phases are investigated for the same size of clusters. They are shown to be a good approximation for the ground state specially in the intermediate value of J/t. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs

  18. The ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa

    2003-01-01

    The ground-state spin configurations are obtained for the spin-3/2 Ising model Hamiltonian with bilinear and biquadratic exchange interactions and a single-ion crystal field. The interactions are assumed to be only between nearest-neighbors. The calculated ground-state phase diagrams are presented on diatomic lattices, such as the square, honeycomb and sc lattices, and triangular lattice in the (Δ/z vertical bar J vertical bar ,K/ vertical bar J vertical bar) and (H/z vertical bar J vertical bar, K/ vertical bar J vertical bar) planes

  19. Exact ground-state phase diagrams for the spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Deviren, Bayram [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr

    2008-05-15

    We have calculated the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model using the method that was proposed and applied to the spin-1 Ising model by Dublenych (2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 012411). The calculated, exact ground-state phase diagrams on the diatomic and triangular lattices with the nearest-neighbor (NN) interaction have been presented in this paper. We have obtained seven and 15 topologically different ground-state phase diagrams for J>0 and J<0, respectively, on the diatomic lattice and have found the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate or non-uniform phases. We have also constructed the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the model on the triangular lattice and found 20 and 59 fundamental phase diagrams for J>0 and J<0, respectively, the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate phases have also been found.

  20. Extended random-phase approximation with three-body ground-state correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohyama, M.; Schuck, P.

    2008-01-01

    An extended random-phase approximation (ERPA) which contains the effects of ground-state correlations up to a three-body level is applied to an extended Lipkin model which contains an additional particle-scattering term. Three-body correlations in the ground state are necessary to preserve the hermiticity of the Hamiltonian matrix of ERPA. Two approximate forms of ERPA which neglect the three-body correlations are also applied to investigate the importance of three-body correlations. It is found that the ground-state energy is little affected by the inclusion of the three-body correlations. On the contrary, three-body correlations for the excited states can become quite important. (orig.)

  1. Exact ground-state phase diagrams for the spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canko, Osman; Keskin, Mustafa; Deviren, Bayram

    2008-01-01

    We have calculated the exact ground-state phase diagrams of the spin-3/2 Ising model using the method that was proposed and applied to the spin-1 Ising model by Dublenych (2005 Phys. Rev. B 71 012411). The calculated, exact ground-state phase diagrams on the diatomic and triangular lattices with the nearest-neighbor (NN) interaction have been presented in this paper. We have obtained seven and 15 topologically different ground-state phase diagrams for J>0 and J 0 and J<0, respectively, the conditions for the existence of uniform and intermediate phases have also been found

  2. A dual phased approach for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennel, N.D.; Maher, A.; Buckallew, B.

    1994-01-01

    A case study will be presented to demonstrate an effective and timely method of site remediation which yields complete contaminant destruction rather than the contaminant transfer that traditional ground water extraction and treatment techniques result in. By utilizing bioremediation at this site, the client was able to completely degrade the contamination beneath the property, and in the process avoid future liability from transfer of the contamination to another party (i.e. landfill) or phase (i.e. liquid to vapor through air stripping). The provisions of a real estate transaction involving a former service station site in Central Iowa stipulated that the site be remediated prior to title transfer. Previous Environmental Investigative activities revealed significant soil and ground water contamination resulting from over 50 years of diesel and gasoline fuel storage and dispensing operations at the site. Microbial Environmental Services, Inc. (MES) utilized a dual phased bioremediation approach to meet regulatory clean-up guidelines in order for a timely property transfer to occur. To facilitate and expedite ground water remediation, contaminated soil was excavated and remediated via Advanced Biological Surface Treatment (ABST) techniques. ABST techniques are utilized by MES to treat excavated soil in closed cell to control emissions and treatment conditions. Following contaminant source removal, ground water was extracted and treated in a submerged, fixed film, flow through 1,000 gallon fixed film bioreactor at a rate of 2.5 gallons per minute

  3. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  4. Geometric inequalities methods of proving

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakyan, Hayk

    2017-01-01

    This unique collection of new and classical problems provides full coverage of geometric inequalities. Many of the 1,000 exercises are presented with detailed author-prepared-solutions, developing creativity and an arsenal of new approaches for solving mathematical problems. This book can serve teachers, high-school students, and mathematical competitors. It may also be used as supplemental reading, providing readers with new and classical methods for proving geometric inequalities. .

  5. An equivalent ground thermal test method for single-phase fluid loop space radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Ning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal vacuum test is widely used for the ground validation of spacecraft thermal control system. However, the conduction and convection can be simulated in normal ground pressure environment completely. By the employment of pumped fluid loops’ thermal control technology on spacecraft, conduction and convection become the main heat transfer behavior between radiator and inside cabin. As long as the heat transfer behavior between radiator and outer space can be equivalently simulated in normal pressure, the thermal vacuum test can be substituted by the normal ground pressure thermal test. In this paper, an equivalent normal pressure thermal test method for the spacecraft single-phase fluid loop radiator is proposed. The heat radiation between radiator and outer space has been equivalently simulated by combination of a group of refrigerators and thermal electrical cooler (TEC array. By adjusting the heat rejection of each device, the relationship between heat flux and surface temperature of the radiator can be maintained. To verify this method, a validating system has been built up and the experiments have been carried out. The results indicate that the proposed equivalent ground thermal test method can simulate the heat rejection performance of radiator correctly and the temperature error between in-orbit theory value and experiment result of the radiator is less than 0.5 °C, except for the equipment startup period. This provides a potential method for the thermal test of space systems especially for extra-large spacecraft which employs single-phase fluid loop radiator as thermal control approach.

  6. Self-Tuning Threshold Method for Real-Time Gait Phase Detection Based on Ground Contact Forces Using FSRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel methodology for detecting the gait phase of human walking on level ground. The previous threshold method (TM sets a threshold to divide the ground contact forces (GCFs into on-ground and off-ground states. However, the previous methods for gait phase detection demonstrate no adaptability to different people and different walking speeds. Therefore, this paper presents a self-tuning triple threshold algorithm (STTTA that calculates adjustable thresholds to adapt to human walking. Two force sensitive resistors (FSRs were placed on the ball and heel to measure GCFs. Three thresholds (i.e., high-threshold, middle-threshold andlow-threshold were used to search out the maximum and minimum GCFs for the self-adjustments of thresholds. The high-threshold was the main threshold used to divide the GCFs into on-ground and off-ground statuses. Then, the gait phases were obtained through the gait phase detection algorithm (GPDA, which provides the rules that determine calculations for STTTA. Finally, the STTTA reliability is determined by comparing the results between STTTA and Mariani method referenced as the timing analysis module (TAM and Lopez–Meyer methods. Experimental results show that the proposed method can be used to detect gait phases in real time and obtain high reliability when compared with the previous methods in the literature. In addition, the proposed method exhibits strong adaptability to different wearers walking at different walking speeds.

  7. Pacific Proving Grounds radioisotope imprint in the Philippine Sea sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Roos, Per; Qiao, Jixin

    2018-01-01

    Radionuclide concentrations were studied in sediment cores taken at the continental slope of the Philippine Sea off Mindanao Island in the equatorial Western Pacific. High resolution deposition records of anthropogenic radionuclides were collected at this site. Excess 210Pb together with excess 2...

  8. Demonstration of MPV Sensor at Yuma Proving Ground, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    test plot in Ashland, OR, where magnetic soils have shown to have a significant effect on EMI sensors ( Pasion et al., 2008). The recorded signal...sensors was also investigated during that survey as part of SERDP MM-1573 (PI: Len Pasion , Sky Research). The MPV offers possibilities to defeat...of magnetic soils (Lhomme et al., 2008; Pasion et al., 2008). The MPV response due to sensor motion and topography over magnetic soil is predicable

  9. A Cyber Proving Ground: The Search for Cyber Genius

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    attractive to a variety of participants would need to em- brace cutting-edge, “massively multiplayer online role-playing game” ( MMORPG ) tech- nology with...Alfonso.indd 64 1/27/10 1:30:59 PM Spring 2010 | 65 Views & Analyses developing a viable CPG on par with the MMORPG World of Warcraft or the virtual...Most  MMORPGs , like World of Warcraft, have  rules against botting since it gives certain players an  unfair advantage over others, particularly in

  10. Edgewood Area - Aberdeen Proving Ground Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    CLUSTER 3L IP 1995 2007 EACC3M-A WASTEWATER TREATMENT AREA-CLUSTER 3M IP 2007 EACC3M-B B-FIELD DECON- DETOX INCINERATOR-CL 3M RCRA ES-23 EXHIBIT 2...Surface debris removed and placed in plastic-lined wooden boxes, shipped to decon/ detox facility, and thermally treated for final disposal. 7.3.5

  11. Detecting and Georegistering Moving Ground Targets in Airborne QuickSAR via Keystoning and Multiple-Phase Center Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Perry

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available SAR images experience significant range walk and, without some form of motion compensation, can be quite blurred. The MITRE-developed Keystone formatting simultaneously and automatically compensates for range walk due to the radial velocity component of each moving target, independent of the number of targets or the value of each target's radial velocity with respect to the ground. Target radial motion also causes moving targets in synthetic aperture radar images to appear at locations offset from their true instantaneous locations on the ground. In a multichannel radar, the interferometric phase values associated with all nonmoving points on the ground appear as a continuum of phase differences while the moving targets appear as interferometric phase discontinuities. By multiple threshold comparisons and grouping of pixels within the intensity and the phase images, we show that it is possible to reliably detect and accurately georegister moving targets within short-duration SAR (QuickSAR images.

  12. Common-Ground-Type Transformerless Inverters for Single-Phase Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam Prasad; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter at the o......This paper proposes a family of novel flying capacitor transformerless inverters for single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems. Each of the new topologies proposed is based on a flying capacitor principle and requires only four power switches and/or diodes, one capacitor, and a small filter...... at the output stage. A simple unipolar sinusoidal pulse width modulation technique is used to modulate the inverter to minimize the switching loss, output current ripple, and the filter requirements. In general, the main advantages of the new inverter topologies are: 1) the negative polarity of the PV...... description of the operating principle with modulation techniques, design guidelines, and comprehensive comparisons is presented to reveal the properties and limitations of each topology in detail. Finally, experimental results of 1-kVA prototypes are presented to prove the concept and theoretical analysis...

  13. Application of the random phase approximation to some atoms with ns2 ground state configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Atomic bound state properties such as excitation energies and oscillator strengths were calculated by the Random Phase Approximation (RPA), also known as the Time Dependent Hartree-Fock Approximation (TDHFA). The RPA is equivalent to describing excited states as the creation of particle-hole pairs and the application to atoms is important for two reasons: the wide range of densities in an atom will cause the physical interpretation and mathematical approximations to be much different than with a uniform density system, such as an electron gas; this method could detect the existence of collective states in atoms similar to those responsible for the giant dipole resonances in nuclei. The method is shown to be superior to the H-F method in three basic ways: (1) The RPA contains explicit correlations between the excited and ground states. These are not included in the H-F theory. One can apply this method to large atoms since only these correlations are explicitly included. (2) The RPA calculates excitation energies directly without recourse to highly correlated ground state wavefunctions. This is in contrast to the method of configuration mixing which is known to have slow convergence properties. (3) Oscillator strengths and photoionization cross sections can be calculated by finding the eigenvectors corresponding excitation energy eigenvalues. The strength of the RPA is that the excitation energies and oscillator strengths, which are relative quantities, are calculated directly. The results for the oscillator strengths show an improvement of up to 45 percent over the H-F values and an improvement over the RPA done with Hartree wavefunctions by as much as 65 percent. The work was limited to atoms with an ns 2 ground state configuration. These atoms were He, Be, Mg and Ca

  14. Determination and evaluation of the radiological situation using mobile measurements during the ground phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrecht, R.; Pohl, H.; Schneider, S.; Grimm, C. [Umweltministerium Baden-Wuerttemberg, Stuttgart (Germany); Neff, Ulrich; Coutinho, Paula; Mueller, Ulrich; Mandel, Carmen [Landesanstalt fuer Umweltschutz, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg, Karlsruhe (Germany); Wilbois, Thomas; Ren, Yongxiang [T-Systems GEI GmbH, Ulm (Germany); Chaves, Fernando [Fraunhofer Inst. IITB, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2009-08-15

    The nuclear reactor remote monitoring system of the state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Kernreaktor-Fernueberwachung Baden-Wuerttemberg - KFUeBW) is implemented according to the recently renewed ''recommendations for remote monitoring of nuclear power plants''. In Baden-Wuerttemberg, the application area of the system covers both, the surveillance of internal procedures on one hand, and the handling of incidents or accidents on the other. The following paper shows the role of the KFUeregarding the determination and evaluation of the radiological situation in the range of off-site emergency response. Progress is reported on the measurement conception and the technical possibilities for the investigation of the radiological situation after the end of the deposition of radio nuclides (ground phase). (orig.)

  15. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol to Support NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support extensive human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts have been tasked with developing the ground test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototype habitats will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational products, tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate the different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3.

  16. Ormosil Beads for Insulation of Ground Cryogenic Storage Tanks, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Organically modified silica (Ormosil) aerogel beads developed at Aspen Aerogels, Inc. offer several advantages for retrofitting perlite insulation in NASA's ground...

  17. Development of a Ground Test and Analysis Protocol for NASA's NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Beaton, Kara H.; Chappell, Steven P.; Bekdash, Omar S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Next Space Technologies for Exploration Partnerships (NextSTEP) program is a public-private partnership model that seeks commercial development of deep space exploration capabilities to support human spaceflight missions around and beyond cislunar space. NASA first issued the Phase 1 NextSTEP Broad Agency Announcement to U.S. industries in 2014, which called for innovative cislunar habitation concepts that leveraged commercialization plans for low-Earth orbit. These habitats will be part of the Deep Space Gateway (DSG), the cislunar space station planned by NASA for construction in the 2020s. In 2016, Phase 2 of the NextSTEP program selected five commercial partners to develop ground prototypes. A team of NASA research engineers and subject matter experts (SMEs) have been tasked with developing the ground-test protocol that will serve as the primary means by which these Phase 2 prototypes will be evaluated. Since 2008, this core test team has successfully conducted multiple spaceflight analog mission evaluations utilizing a consistent set of operational tools, methods, and metrics to enable the iterative development, testing, analysis, and validation of evolving exploration architectures, operations concepts, and vehicle designs. The purpose of implementing a similar evaluation process for the Phase 2 Habitation Concepts is to consistently evaluate different commercial partner ground prototypes to provide data-driven, actionable recommendations for Phase 3. This paper describes the process by which the ground test protocol was developed and the objectives, methods, and metrics by which the NextSTEP Phase 2 Habitation Concepts will be rigorously and systematically evaluated. The protocol has been developed using both a top-down and bottom-up approach. Top-down development began with the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) exploration objectives and ISS Exploration Capability Study Team (IECST) candidate flight objectives. Strategic

  18. Symbolic logic and mechanical theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Chin-Liang

    1969-01-01

    This book contains an introduction to symbolic logic and a thorough discussion of mechanical theorem proving and its applications. The book consists of three major parts. Chapters 2 and 3 constitute an introduction to symbolic logic. Chapters 4-9 introduce several techniques in mechanical theorem proving, and Chapters 10 an 11 show how theorem proving can be applied to various areas such as question answering, problem solving, program analysis, and program synthesis.

  19. Ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with competing single-ion anisotropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonegawa, T; Okamoto, K; Sakai, T; Kaburagi, M

    2009-01-01

    Employing various numerical methods, we determine the ground-state phase diagram of an (S, S') = (1, 2) spin-alternating chain with antiferromagnetic nearest-neighboring exchange interactions and uniaxial single-ion anisotropies. The resulting phase diagram consists of eight kinds of phases including two phases which accompany the spontaneous breaking of the translational symmetry and a ferrimagnetic phase in which the ground-state magnetization varies continuously with the uniaxial single-ion anisotropy constants for the S=1 and S =2 spins. The appearance of these three phases is attributed to the competition between the uniaxial single-ion anisotropies of both spins.

  20. Easy-to-Use UAV Ground Station Software for Low-Altitude Civil Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design and develop easy-to-use Ground Control Station (GCS) software for low-altitude civil Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations. The GCS software...

  1. Plug and Play Realtime Diagnosis for Ground Processing System Integration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's "Ground Systems Development and Operations Program" is moving towards transforming parts of the Kennedy Space Center from a historically government-only...

  2. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  3. Active Vibration Isolation System for Mobile Launch Platform Ground Support Equipment, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During our Phase I STTR effort, Balcones Technologies, LLC and The University of Texas Center for Electromechanics (CEM) successfully achieved all Phase I objectives...

  4. Proving productivity in infinite data structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Raffelsieper, M.; Lynch, C.

    2010-01-01

    For a general class of infinite data structures including streams, binary trees, and the combination of finite and infinite lists, we investigate the notion of productivity. This generalizes stream productivity. We develop a general technique to prove productivity based on proving context-sensitive

  5. A method of increasing the sensitivity of protection from single-phase short-circuits to ground in the 6 – 10 kV network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manilov, A. M.; Mel’nik, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    A method of increasing the sensitivity of protection from single-phase short-circuits to ground by acting on the signal with brief dummy grounding of the neutral is described. After determining the damage, the neutral is again grounded through a high resistance and an arc-quenching reactor. An increase in the protection sensitivity is thereby obtained, the damage detection time is shortened, and the probability of the single-phase short-circuit to ground converting into double and multipoint earth faults is reduced.

  6. Proving relations between modular graph functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    We consider modular graph functions that arise in the low energy expansion of the four graviton amplitude in type II string theory. The vertices of these graphs are the positions of insertions of vertex operators on the toroidal worldsheet, while the links are the scalar Green functions connecting the vertices. Graphs with four and five links satisfy several non-trivial relations, which have been proved recently. We prove these relations by using elementary properties of Green functions and the details of the graphs. We also prove a relation between modular graph functions with six links. (paper)

  7. Ground reaction forces and knee mechanics in the weight acceptance phase of a dance leap take-off and landing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Kornelia; Fietzer, Abbigail L; Popovich, John M

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic constraints allow dancers fewer technique modifications than other athletes to negotiate the demands of leaping. We examined vertical ground reaction force and knee mechanics during a saut de chat performed by healthy dancers. It was hypothesized that vertical ground reaction force during landing would exceed that of take-off, resulting in greater knee extensor moments and greater knee angular stiffness. Twelve dancers (six males, six females; age 18.9 ± 1.2 years, mass 59.2 ± 9.5 kg, height 1.68 ± 0.08 m, dance training 8.9 ± 5.1 years) with no history of low back pain or lower extremity pathology participated in the study. Saut de chat data were captured using an eight-camera Vicon system and AMTI force platforms. Peak ground reaction force was 26% greater during the landing phase, but did not result in increased peak knee extensor moments. Taking into account the 67% greater knee angular displacement during landing, this resulted in less knee angular stiffness during landing. In conclusion, landing was accomplished with less knee angular stiffness despite the greater peak ground reaction force. A link between decreased joint angular stiffness and increased soft tissue injury risk has been proposed elsewhere; therefore, landing from a saut de chat may be more injurious to the knee soft tissue than take-off.

  8. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  9. A search for the ground state structure and the phase stability of tantalum pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-Walton, S; Valencia-Balvín, C; Padilha, A C M; Dalpian, G M; Osorio-Guillén, J M

    2016-01-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta 2 O 5 ) is a wide-gap semiconductor that presents good catalytic and dielectric properties, conferring to this compound promising prospective use in a variety of technological applications. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the relations among its crystalline phases, as some of them are not even completely characterized and there is currently no agreement about which models better explain the crystallographic data. Additionally, its phase diagram is unknown. In this work we performed first-principles density functional theory calculations to study the structural properties of the different phases and models of Ta 2 O 5 , the equation of state and the zone-centered vibrational frequencies. From our results, we conclude that the phases that are built up from only distorted octahedra instead of combinations with pentagonal and/or hexagonal bipyramids are energetically more favorable and dynamically stable. More importantly, this study establishes that, given the pressure range considered, the B-phase is the most favorable structure and there is no a crystallographic phase transition to another phase at high-pressure. Additionally, for the equilibrium volume of the B-phase and the λ-model, the description of the electronic structure and optical properties were performed using semi-local and hybrid functionals. (paper)

  10. Impact of SSSC on Measured Impedance in Single Phase to Ground Fault Condition on 220 kV Transmission Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed ZELLAGUI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and compares the impact of SSSC on measured impedance for single phase to ground fault condition. The presence of Static Synchronous SSSC on a transmission line has a great influence on the ZRelay in distance protection. The protection of the high voltage 220 kV single circuit transmission line in eastern Algerian electrical transmission networks is affected in the case with resistance fault RF. The paper investigate the effect of Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC on the measured impedance (Relay taking into account the distance fault point (n and fault resistance (RF. The resultants simulation is performed in MATLAB software environment.

  11. Bateman's dual system revisited: quantization, geometric phase and relation with the ground-state energy of the linear harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, Massimo; Jizba, Petr

    2004-01-01

    By using the Feynman-Hibbs prescription for the evolution amplitude, we quantize the system of a damped harmonic oscillator coupled to its time-reversed image, known as Bateman's dual system. The time-dependent quantum states of such a system are constructed and discussed entirely in the framework of the classical theory. The corresponding geometric (Pancharatnam) phase is calculated and found to be directly related to the ground-state energy of the 1D linear harmonic oscillator to which the 2D system reduces under appropriate constraint

  12. Yet Another Puzzle of Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korbmacher, J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that any predicational theory of partial ground that extends a standard theory of syntax and that proves some commonly accepted principles for partial ground is inconsistent. We suggest a way to obtain a consistent predicational theory of ground.

  13. Coupling analysis on the soft ground settlement laws in Qinshan nuclear power phase I sea wall project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Feng; Pan Rong; Zhu Xiuyun; Zhang Dingli

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall project is a barrier engineering in defending the design basis flooding, which is of importance to the safety of NPP. The geological condition has the feature of high compressibility and low penetration, such as the soft ground of 1 + 450 section of Qinshan Nuclear Power Phase I sea wall. Based on parameters acquired from the site experiment, 3-D finite difference analysis is put forward to study the feature of consolidation settlement laws, which can embody the fluid-solid coupling interaction. The conclusions of numerical analysis agree well with the in-site measured data, and it, can contribute to the design and construction of raising sea wall project. (authors)

  14. Study of a phase-to-ground fault on a 400 kV overhead transmission line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagăr, A.; Popa, G. N.; Diniş, C. M.

    2018-01-01

    Power utilities need to supply their consumers at high power quality level. Because the faults that occur on High-Voltage and Extra-High-Voltage transmission lines can cause serious damages in underlying transmission and distribution systems, it is important to examine each fault in detail. In this work we studied a phase-to-ground fault (on phase 1) of 400 kV overhead transmission line Mintia-Arad. Indactic® 650 fault analyzing system was used to record the history of the fault. Signals (analog and digital) recorded by Indactic® 650 were visualized and analyzed by Focus program. Summary of fault report allowed evaluation of behavior of control and protection equipment and determination of cause and location of the fault.

  15. Gait Phases Recognition from Accelerations and Ground Reaction Forces: Application of Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rafajlović

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to test the applicability of accelerometer as the sensor for assessment of the walking. We present here the comparison of gait phases detected from the data recorded by force sensing resistors mounted in the shoe insoles, non-processed acceleration and processed acceleration perpendicular to the direction of the foot. The gait phases in all three cases were detected by means of a neural network. The output from the neural network was the gait phase, while the inputs were data from the sensors. The results show that the errors were in the ranges: 30 ms (2.7% – force sensors; 150 ms (13.6% – nonprocessed acceleration, and 120 ms (11% – processed acceleration data. This result suggests that it is possible to use the accelerometer as the gait phase detector, however, with the knowledge that the gait phases are time shifted for about 100 ms with respect the neural network predicted times.

  16. A Single Phase Doubly Grounded Semi-Z-Source Inverter for Photovoltaic (PV Systems with Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofael Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a single phase doubly grounded semi-Z-source inverter with maximum power point tracking (MPPT is proposed for photovoltaic (PV systems. This proposed system utilizes a single-ended primary inductor (SEPIC converter as DC-DC converter to implement the MPPT algorithm for tracking the maximum power from a PV array and a single phase semi-Z-source inverter for integrating the PV with AC power utilities. The MPPT controller utilizes a fast-converging algorithm to track the maximum power point (MPP and the semi-Z-source inverter utilizes a nonlinear SPWM to produce sinusoidal voltage at the output. The proposed system is able to track the MPP of PV arrays and produce an AC voltage at its output by utilizing only three switches. Experimental results show that the fast-converging MPPT algorithm has fast tracking response with appreciable MPP efficiency. In addition, the inverter shows the minimization of common mode leakage current with its ground sharing feature and reduction of the THD as well as DC current components at the output during DC-AC conversion.

  17. Derivation of the RPA (Random Phase Approximation) Equation of ATDDFT (Adiabatic Time Dependent Density Functional Ground State Response Theory) from an Excited State Variational Approach Based on the Ground State Functional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Tom; Krykunov, Mykhaylo; Autschbach, Jochen

    2014-09-09

    The random phase approximation (RPA) equation of adiabatic time dependent density functional ground state response theory (ATDDFT) has been used extensively in studies of excited states. It extracts information about excited states from frequency dependent ground state response properties and avoids, thus, in an elegant way, direct Kohn-Sham calculations on excited states in accordance with the status of DFT as a ground state theory. Thus, excitation energies can be found as resonance poles of frequency dependent ground state polarizability from the eigenvalues of the RPA equation. ATDDFT is approximate in that it makes use of a frequency independent energy kernel derived from the ground state functional. It is shown in this study that one can derive the RPA equation of ATDDFT from a purely variational approach in which stationary states above the ground state are located using our constricted variational DFT (CV-DFT) method and the ground state functional. Thus, locating stationary states above the ground state due to one-electron excitations with a ground state functional is completely equivalent to solving the RPA equation of TDDFT employing the same functional. The present study is an extension of a previous work in which we demonstrated the equivalence between ATDDFT and CV-DFT within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation.

  18. Generic Example Proving Criteria for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopp, David; Ely, Rob; Johnson­-Leung, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    We review literature that discusses generic example proving and highlight ambiguities that pervade our research community's discourse about generic example arguments. We distinguish between pedagogical advice for choosing good examples that can serve as generic examples when teaching and advice for developing generic example arguments. We provide…

  19. On proving syntactic properties of CPS programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Dzafic, Belmina; Pfenning, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Higher-order program transformations raise new challenges for proving properties of their output, since they resist traditional, first-order proof techniques. In this work, we consider (1) the “one-pass” continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation, which is second-order, and (2) the occurrences...

  20. SARS – Koch´Postulates proved.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – Koch´Postulates proved. Novel coronavirus identified from fluids of patients. Virus cultured in Vero cell line. Sera of patients have antibodies to virus. Cultured virus produces disease in Macaque monkeys. -produces specific immune response; -isolated virus is SARS CoV; -pathology similar to human.

  1. Ground state of the U{sub 2}Mo compound: Physical properties of the Ω-phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, E.L. [SIM3, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Garcés, J.E., E-mail: garces@cab.cnea.gov.ar [GIA, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    Using ab initio calculations, unexpected structural instability was recently found in the ground state of the U{sub 2} Mo compound. Instead of the unstable I4/mmm and the Pmmn structures, in this work the P6/mmm (#191) space group, usually called Ω-phase, is proposed as the fundamental state. Total energy calculations using Wien2k code slightly favoured the last structure. Electronic and elastic properties are studied in this work in order to characterize the physical properties of this new phase. The stability of the Ω-phase is studied by means of its elastic constants calculation and phonon dispersion spectrum. Analysis of isotropic indices shows that the new phase is a ductile material with a minimal degree of anisotropy, suggesting that U{sub 2} Mo in the P6/mmm structure is an elastic isotropic material. Analysis of charge density, density of electronic states (DOS) and the character of the bands revealed a high level of hybridization between d-molybdenum electronic states and d- and f-uranium ones.

  2. Ground-state phases of the spin-1 J1-J2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. H. Y.; Bishop, R. F.

    2016-06-01

    We study the zero-temperature quantum phase diagram of a spin-1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the honeycomb lattice with both nearest-neighbor exchange coupling J1>0 and frustrating next-nearest-neighbor coupling J2≡κ J1>0 , using the coupled cluster method implemented to high orders of approximation, and based on model states with different forms of classical magnetic order. For each we calculate directly in the bulk thermodynamic limit both ground-state low-energy parameters (including the energy per spin, magnetic order parameter, spin stiffness coefficient, and zero-field uniform transverse magnetic susceptibility) and their generalized susceptibilities to various forms of valence-bond crystalline (VBC) order, as well as the energy gap to the lowest-lying spin-triplet excitation. In the range 0 κc 2=0.340 (5 ) . Two different paramagnetic phases are found to exist in the intermediate region. Over the range κc1<κ<κci=0.305 (5 ) we find a gapless phase with no discernible magnetic order, which is a strong candidate for being a quantum spin liquid, while over the range κci<κ <κc 2 we find a gapped phase, which is most likely a lattice nematic with staggered dimer VBC order that breaks the lattice rotational symmetry.

  3. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  4. Brayton Isotope Power System. Phase I. (Ground demonstration system) Configuration Control Document (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration control document (CCD) defines the BIPS-GDS configuration. The GDS configuration is similar to a conceptual flight system design, referred to as the BIPS-FS, which is discussed in App. I. The BIPS is being developed by ERDA as a 500 to 2000 W(e), 7-y life, space power system utilizing a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine engine to convert thermal energy (from an isotope heat source) to electrical energy at a net efficiency exceeding 25 percent. The CCD relates to Phase I of an ERDA Program to qualify a dynamic system for launch in the early 1980's. Phase I is a 35-month effort to provide an FS conceptual design and GDS design, fabrication, and test. The baseline is a 7-year life, 450-pound, 4800 W(t), 1300 W(e) system which will use two multihundred watt (MHW) isotope heat sources being developed

  5. Proving Non-Deterministic Computations in Agda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Antoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate proving properties of Curry programs using Agda. First, we address the functional correctness of Curry functions that, apart from some syntactic and semantic differences, are in the intersection of the two languages. Second, we use Agda to model non-deterministic functions with two distinct and competitive approaches incorporating the non-determinism. The first approach eliminates non-determinism by considering the set of all non-deterministic values produced by an application. The second approach encodes every non-deterministic choice that the application could perform. We consider our initial experiment a success. Although proving properties of programs is a notoriously difficult task, the functional logic paradigm does not seem to add any significant layer of difficulty or complexity to the task.

  6. On proving syntactic properties of CPS programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Dzafic, Belmina; Pfenning, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Higher-order program transformations raise new challenges for proving properties of their output, since they resist traditional, first-order proof techniques. In this work, we consider (1) the “one-pass” continuation-passing style (CPS) transformation, which is second-order, and (2) the occurrences...... of parameters of continuations in its output. To this end, we specify the one-pass CPS transformation relationally and we use the proof technique of logical relations....

  7. Theorem Proving In Higher Order Logics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Editor); Munoz, Cesar A.; Tahar, Sofiene

    2002-01-01

    The TPHOLs International Conference serves as a venue for the presentation of work in theorem proving in higher-order logics and related areas in deduction, formal specification, software and hardware verification, and other applications. Fourteen papers were submitted to Track B (Work in Progress), which are included in this volume. Authors of Track B papers gave short introductory talks that were followed by an open poster session. The FCM 2002 Workshop aimed to bring together researchers working on the formalisation of continuous mathematics in theorem proving systems with those needing such libraries for their applications. Many of the major higher order theorem proving systems now have a formalisation of the real numbers and various levels of real analysis support. This work is of interest in a number of application areas, such as formal methods development for hardware and software application and computer supported mathematics. The FCM 2002 consisted of three papers, presented by their authors at the workshop venue, and one invited talk.

  8. Automated theorem proving theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Newborn, Monty

    2001-01-01

    As the 21st century begins, the power of our magical new tool and partner, the computer, is increasing at an astonishing rate. Computers that perform billions of operations per second are now commonplace. Multiprocessors with thousands of little computers - relatively little! -can now carry out parallel computations and solve problems in seconds that only a few years ago took days or months. Chess-playing programs are on an even footing with the world's best players. IBM's Deep Blue defeated world champion Garry Kasparov in a match several years ago. Increasingly computers are expected to be more intelligent, to reason, to be able to draw conclusions from given facts, or abstractly, to prove theorems-the subject of this book. Specifically, this book is about two theorem-proving programs, THEO and HERBY. The first four chapters contain introductory material about automated theorem proving and the two programs. This includes material on the language used to express theorems, predicate calculus, and the rules of...

  9. Reliability program plan for the Isotope Brayton Ground Demonstration System (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The reliability and quality assurance organizational relationships, the methods to be used, the tasks to be completed, and the documentation to be published are presented. The total program is intended to provide the necessary reliability and quality assurance associated with the design, fabrication, and testing of the GDS. It is consistent with the general objectives of the ERDA Quality Assurance (QA) program requirements document ''SNS-1'' dated April 1972 and reliability program requirements document ''SNS-2'' dated 17 June 1974 but has been specifically modified for the GDS with the intent of establishing background data for the subsequent Phase II effort

  10. Magnetization plateaus and ground-state phase diagrams of the S=1 Ising model on the Shastry Sutherland lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviren, Seyma Akkaya

    2017-02-01

    In this research, we have investigated the magnetic properties of the spin-1 Ising model on the Shastry Sutherland lattice with the crystal field interaction by using the effective-field theory with correlations. The effects of the applied field on the magnetization are examined in detail in order to obtain the magnetization plateaus, thus different types of magnetization plateaus, such as 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 3/5, 2/3 and 7/9 of the saturation, are obtained for strong enough magnetic fields (h). Magnetization plateaus exhibit single, triple, quintuplet and sextuple forms according to the interaction parameters, hence the magnetization plateaus originate from the competition between the crystal field (D) and exchange interaction parameters (J, J‧). The ground-state phase diagrams of the system are presented in three varied planes, namely (h/J, J‧/J), (h/J, D/J) and (D/J, J‧/J) planes. These phase diagrams display the Néel (N), collinear (C) and ferromagnetic (F) phases for certain values of the model parameters. The obtained results are in good agreement with some theoretical and experimental studies.

  11. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the second volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of failure modes and effects analysis; accident analysis; operational safety requirements; quality assurance program; ES&H management program; environmental, safety, and health systems critical to safety; summary of waste-management program; environmental monitoring program; facility expansion, decontamination, and decommissioning; summary of emergency response plan; summary plan for employee training; summary plan for operating procedures; glossary; and appendices A and B.

  12. Seismic proving test of BWR primary loop recirculation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, H.; Shigeta, M.; Karasawa, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic proving test of BWR Primary Loop Recirculation system is the second test to use the large-scale, high-performance vibration table of Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory. The purpose of this test is to prove the seismic reliability of the primary loop recirculation system (PLR), one of the most important safety components in the BWR nuclear plants, and also to confirm the adequacy of seismic analysis method used in the current seismic design. To achieve the purpose, the test was conducted under conditions and scale as near as possible to actual systems. The strength proving test was carried out with the test model mounted on the vibration table in consideration of basic design earthquake ground motions and other conditions to confirm the soundness of structure and the strength against earthquakes. Detailed analysis and analytic evaluation of the data obtained from the test was conducted to confirm the adequacy of the seismic analysis method and earthquake response analysis method used in the current seismic design. Then, on the basis of the results obtained, the seismic safety and reliability of BWR primary loop recirculation of the actual plants was fully evaluated

  13. Ground state, collective mode, phase soliton and vortex in multiband superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi-Zeng

    2014-12-10

    This article reviews theoretical and experimental work on the novel physics in multiband superconductors. Multiband superconductors are characterized by multiple superconducting energy gaps in different bands with interaction between Cooper pairs in these bands. The discovery of prominent multiband superconductors MgB2 and later iron-based superconductors, has triggered enormous interest in multiband superconductors. The most recently discovered superconductors exhibit multiband features. The multiband superconductors possess novel properties that are not shared with their single-band counterpart. Examples include: the time-reversal symmetry broken state in multiband superconductors with frustrated interband couplings; the collective oscillation of number of Cooper pairs between different bands, known as the Leggett mode; and the phase soliton and fractional vortex, which are the main focus of this review. This review presents a survey of a wide range of theoretical exploratory and experimental investigations of novel physics in multiband superconductors. A vast amount of information derived from these studies is shown to highlight unusual and unique properties of multiband superconductors and to reveal the challenges and opportunities in the research on the multiband superconductivity.

  14. Ground-State Gas-Phase Structures of Inorganic Molecules Predicted by Density Functional Theory Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Minenkov, Yury

    2017-11-29

    We tested a battery of density functional theory (DFT) methods ranging from generalized gradient approximation (GGA) via meta-GGA to hybrid meta-GGA schemes as well as Møller–Plesset perturbation theory of the second order and a single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD) theory for their ability to reproduce accurate gas-phase structures of di- and triatomic molecules derived from microwave spectroscopy. We obtained the most accurate molecular structures using the hybrid and hybrid meta-GGA approximations with B3PW91, APF, TPSSh, mPW1PW91, PBE0, mPW1PBE, B972, and B98 functionals, resulting in lowest errors. We recommend using these methods to predict accurate three-dimensional structures of inorganic molecules when intramolecular dispersion interactions play an insignificant role. The structures that the CCSD method predicts are of similar quality although at considerably larger computational cost. The structures that GGA and meta-GGA schemes predict are less accurate with the largest absolute errors detected with BLYP and M11-L, suggesting that these methods should not be used if accurate three-dimensional molecular structures are required. Because of numerical problems related to the integration of the exchange–correlation part of the functional and large scattering of errors, most of the Minnesota models tested, particularly MN12-L, M11, M06-L, SOGGA11, and VSXC, are also not recommended for geometry optimization. When maintaining a low computational budget is essential, the nonseparable gradient functional N12 might work within an acceptable range of error. As expected, the DFT-D3 dispersion correction had a negligible effect on the internuclear distances when combined with the functionals tested on nonweakly bonded di- and triatomic inorganic molecules. By contrast, the dispersion correction for the APF-D functional has been found to shorten the bonds significantly, up to 0.064 Å (AgI), in Ag halides, BaO, BaS, BaF, BaCl, Cu halides, and Li and

  15. Theorem Proving in Intel Hardware Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, John

    2009-01-01

    For the past decade, a framework combining model checking (symbolic trajectory evaluation) and higher-order logic theorem proving has been in production use at Intel. Our tools and methodology have been used to formally verify execution cluster functionality (including floating-point operations) for a number of Intel products, including the Pentium(Registered TradeMark)4 and Core(TradeMark)i7 processors. Hardware verification in 2009 is much more challenging than it was in 1999 - today s CPU chip designs contain many processor cores and significant firmware content. This talk will attempt to distill the lessons learned over the past ten years, discuss how they apply to today s problems, outline some future directions.

  16. Silver nanoplates with ground or metastable structures obtained from template-free two-phase aqueous/organic synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhelev, Doncho V., E-mail: dontcho.jelev@nih.gov; Zheleva, Tsvetanka S. [Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    Silver has unique electrical, catalytic, and plasmonic characteristics and has been widely sought for fabrication of nanostructures. The properties of silver nanostructures are intimately coupled to the structure of silver crystals. Two crystal structures are known for silver: the stable (ground) state cubic face centered 3C-Ag structure and the metastable hexagonal 4H-Ag structure. Recently, Chackraborty et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23, 325401 (2011)] discovered a low density, highly reactive metastable hexagonal 2H-Ag structure accessible during electrodeposition of silver nanowires in porous anodic alumina templates. This 2H-Ag structure has enhanced electrical and catalytic characteristics. In the present work we report template-free synthesis of silver nanoplates with the metastable 2H-Ag crystal structure, which appears together with the ground 3C-Ag and the metastable 4H-Ag structures in a two-phase solution synthesis with citric acid as the capping agent. The capacity of citric acid to stabilize both the stable and the metastable structures is explained by its preferential binding to the close packed facets of Ag crystals, which are the (111) planes for 3C-Ag and the (0001) planes for 4H-Ag and 2H-Ag. Nanoplate morphology and structure are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The synthesized nanoplates have thickness from 15 to 17 nm and edge length from 1 to 10 μm. Transmission electron microscopy selected area electron diffraction is used to uniquely identify and distinguish between nanoplates with 2H-Ag or 4H-Ag or 3C-Ag structures.

  17. Valutazione economica dello studio PROVE-IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo G. Mantovani

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the PROVE-IT (“Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes” was a comparison of pravastatin 40 mg/die versus atorvastatin 80 mg/die in patients with an acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs usual-dose of pravastatin in Italian patients with a history of acute coronary syndrome. Methods: the analysis is conducted on the basis of clinical outcomes of the PROVE-IT study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus usual-dose of pravastatin (40 mg/die in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2006. Effects were measured in terms of mortality and morbidity reduction (number of deaths, life years gained and frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 24 months. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. We also conducted a threshold analysis. Results: the cost of pravastatin or atorvastatin therapy over the 2 years period amounted to approximately 1.3 millions euro and 870,000 euro per 1,000 patients respectively. Atorvastatin was more efficacious compared to pravastatin and the overall cost of care per 1,000 patients over 24 months of follow-up was estimated at 3.2 millions euro in the pravastatin and 2.5 millions euro in the atorvastatin group, resulting into a cost saving of about 700,000 euro that is 27% of total costs occurred in the pravastatin group. Discussion: this study demonstrates that high does atorvastatin treatment leads to a reduction of direct costs for the National Health System

  18. a Test to Prove Cloud Whitening THEORY!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttram, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate science researchers believe our planet can possibly tolerate twice the present carbon dioxide levels with no upwards temperature change, IF we could increase the amount of energy reflected back out into space by about 2.0%. (c)Cloudtec basically alters a blend of seawater and applies heat derived from magma to it at a temperature exceeding 2,000 degrees F. The interaction of seawater and magma displaces the oxygen, causing the volume of water to vaporize and expand over 4,000 times - transforming billions of tons of seawater into thousands of cubic miles of white, maritime, stratocumulus clouds to reflect the incident Sun's rays back out into space. A 6 month test to prove Cloud Whitening Theory will cost 6 million dollars. (No profit added.) This study will enable everyone on the planet with a computer the transparency to use satellite imagery and check out for themselves - if and when Cloud Whitening is occurring. If Cloud Whitening Theory is validated, (c)Cloudtec's innovation can strategically create the clouds we need to reflect the Sun's rays back out into space and help neutralize the projected 3.6 degrees F rise in temperature. Based on reasonable calculations of anthropogenic global warming: this one move alone would be comparable to slashing global carbon dioxide emissions by over 60% over the next 40 years.

  19. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-05-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground.

  20. Evaluation of Elevated Tritium Levels in Groundwater Downgradient from the 618-11 Burial Ground Phase I Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, P.E.; Smith, R.M.; Williams, B.A.; Thompson, C.J.; Evans, J.C.; Hulstrom, L.C.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the results of the preliminary investigation of elevated tritium in groundwater discovered near the 618-11 burial ground, located in the eastern part of the Hanford Site. Tritium in one well downgradient of the burial ground was detected at levels up to 8,140,000 pCi/L. The 618-11 burial ground received a variety of radioactive waste from the 300 Area between 1962 and 1967. The burial ground covers 3.5 hectare (8.6 acre) and contains trenches, large diameter caissons, and vertical pipe storage units. The burial ground was stabilized with a native sediment covering. The Energy Northwest reactor complex was constructed immediately east of the burial ground

  1. Electronic phase diagrams and competing ground states of complex iron pnictides and chalcogenides. A Moessbauer spectroscopy and muon spin rotation/relaxation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamusella, Sirko

    2017-03-01

    In this thesis the superconducting and magnetic phases of LiOH(Fe,Co)(Se,S), CuFeAs/CuFeSb, and LaFeP{sub 1-x}As{sub x}O - belonging to the 11, 111 and 1111 structural classes of iron-based arsenides and chalcogenides - are investigated by means of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and muon spin rotation/relaxation (μSR). Of major importance in this study is the application of high magnetic fields in Moessbauer spectroscopy to distinguish and characterize ferro- (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) order. A user-friendly Moessbauer data analysis program was developed to provide suitable model functions not only for high field spectra, but relaxation spectra or parameter distributions in general. In LaFeP{sub 1-x}As{sub x}O the reconstruction of the Fermi surface is described by the vanishing of the Γ hole pocket with decreasing x. The continuous change of the orbital character and the covalency of the d-electrons is shown by Moessbauer spectroscopy. A novel antiferromagnetic phase with small magnetic moments of ∼ 0.1 μ{sub B} state is characterized. The superconducting order parameter is proven to continuously change from a nodal to a fully gapped s-wave like Fermi surface in the superconducting regime as a function of x, partially investigated on (O,F) substituted samples. LiOHFeSe is one of the novel intercalated FeSe compounds, showing strongly increased T{sub C} = 43 K mainly due to increased interlayer spacing and resulting two-dimensionality of the Fermi surface. The primary interest of the samples of this thesis is the simultaneously observed ferromagnetism and superconductivity. The local probe techniques prove that superconducting sample volume gets replaced by ferromagnetic volume. Ferromagnetism arises from magnetic order with T{sub C} = 10 K of secondary iron in the interlayer. The tendency of this system to show (Li,Fe) disorder is preserved upon (Se,S) substitution. However, superconductivity gets suppressed. The results of Moessbauer spectroscopy

  2. Computerized identification and classification of stance phases as made by front og hind feet of walking cows based on 3-dimensional ground reaction forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, F; Thorup, Vivi Mørkøre; do Nascimento, Omar Feix

    2013-01-01

    Lameness is a frequent disorder in dairy cows and in large dairy herds manual lameness detection is a time-consuming task. This study describes a method for automatic identification of stance phases in walking cows, and their classification as made by a front or a hind foot based on ground reaction...... phases, of these 1146 (62%) were automatically identified as full stance phases and classified as made by a front or hind foot. As intended, the procedures did not favour identification of stance phases of healthy cows over lame cows. In addition, a human observer evaluated the stance phases by visual...... inspection, revealing a very low discrepancy (3.5%) between manual and automated approaches. Further, a sensitivity test indicated large robustness in the automatic procedures. In conclusion, the experimental setup combined with the computerized procedures described in the present study resulted in a high...

  3. Unusual strong quasi-monochromatic ground Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations in the recovery phase of November 2003 superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kleimenova

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Unusually large-amplitude morning Pc5 magnetic pulsations during the recovery phase of the huge magnetic storm in November 2003 have been studied by using ground-based multi-point observations. Two main spectral Pc5 enhancements were observed: at f≈2 mHz, which featured slowly increasing frequency with decreasing latitude, and at f≈3 mHz, which was latitude independent. The Pc5 pulsations were observed at wide range of latitudes (more than 10° with the same very strong amplitude (up to 500nT and with the same polarization. Only the 3-mHz peak was clearly seen in the spectra of pulsating auroral radio absorption, as observed by the Finnish riometer chain. Short and localized bursts of PiB (f~50–100 mHz magnetic pulsations and simultaneous short bursts of energetic electron precipitation were observed in the morning sector, as well. The beginning of the large-amplitude morning Pc5 activity occurred simultaneously with a substorm onset in the evening and midnight sectors. However, the spectra of pulsations in the morning and evening sectors were different. They were compared with spectra of IMF and solar wind parameters, measured by ACE spacecraft. The similarity between the spectra of morning Pc5 and IMF By was found, but the spectra of evening Pi3 pulsations were similar to the spectra of solar wind density variations. The Pc5 and PiB pulsations, as well as bursts of the auroral radio absorption, suddenly disappeared, when the solar wind density abruptly dropped. We suppose that the ~2-mHz Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations could be attributed to field line resonance (FLR, however, the 3-mHz oscillations were apparently non-resonance origin.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction; Storms and substorms

  4. Unusual strong quasi-monochromatic ground Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations in the recovery phase of November 2003 superstorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kleimenova

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Unusually large-amplitude morning Pc5 magnetic pulsations during the recovery phase of the huge magnetic storm in November 2003 have been studied by using ground-based multi-point observations. Two main spectral Pc5 enhancements were observed: at f≈2 mHz, which featured slowly increasing frequency with decreasing latitude, and at f≈3 mHz, which was latitude independent. The Pc5 pulsations were observed at wide range of latitudes (more than 10° with the same very strong amplitude (up to 500nT and with the same polarization. Only the 3-mHz peak was clearly seen in the spectra of pulsating auroral radio absorption, as observed by the Finnish riometer chain. Short and localized bursts of PiB (f~50–100 mHz magnetic pulsations and simultaneous short bursts of energetic electron precipitation were observed in the morning sector, as well. The beginning of the large-amplitude morning Pc5 activity occurred simultaneously with a substorm onset in the evening and midnight sectors. However, the spectra of pulsations in the morning and evening sectors were different. They were compared with spectra of IMF and solar wind parameters, measured by ACE spacecraft. The similarity between the spectra of morning Pc5 and IMF By was found, but the spectra of evening Pi3 pulsations were similar to the spectra of solar wind density variations. The Pc5 and PiB pulsations, as well as bursts of the auroral radio absorption, suddenly disappeared, when the solar wind density abruptly dropped. We suppose that the ~2-mHz Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations could be attributed to field line resonance (FLR, however, the 3-mHz oscillations were apparently non-resonance origin. Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (MHD waves and instabilities; Solar wind-magnetosphere interaction; Storms and substorms

  5. Invariant protection of high-voltage electric motors of technological complexes at industrial enterprises at partial single-phase ground faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovich, B. N.; Sychev, Yu A.; Pelenev, D. N.

    2018-03-01

    Development results of invariant protection of high-voltage motors at incomplete single-phase ground faults are observed in the article. It is established that current protections have low action selectivity because of an inadmissible decrease in entrance signals during the shirt circuit occurrence in the place of transient resistance. The structural functional scheme and an algorithm of protective actions where correction of automatic zero sequence currents signals of the protected accessions implemented according to the level of incompleteness of ground faults are developed. It is revealed that automatic correction of zero sequence currents allows one to provide the invariance of sensitivity factor for protection under the variation conditions of a transient resistance in the place of damage. Application of invariant protection allows one to minimize damages in 6-10 kV electrical installations of industrial enterprises for a cause of infringement of consumers’ power supply and their system breakdown due to timely localization of emergency of ground faults modes.

  6. Timing differences in the generation of ground reaction forces between the initial and secondary landing phases of the drop vertical jump ☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A.; Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid impulse loads imparted on the lower extremity from ground contact when landing from a jump may contribute to ACL injury prevalence in female athletes. The drop jump and drop landing tasks enacted in the first and second landings of drop vertical jumps, respectively, have been shown to elicit separate neuromechanical responses. We examined the first and second landings of a drop vertical jump for differences in landing phase duration, time to peak force, and rate of force development. Methods 239 adolescent female basketball players completed drop vertical jumps from an initial height of 31 cm. In-ground force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. Findings Between the first and second landing, rate of force development experienced no change (P > 0.62), landing phase duration decreased (P = 0.01), and time to peak ground reaction force increased (P 0.12). Interpretation The current results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors. Rate of force development remained unchanged between first and second landings from equivalent fall height, while time to peak reaction force increased during the second landing. Neither factor was dependent on the total time duration of landing phase, which decreased during the second landing. Shorter time to peak force may increase ligament strain and better represent the abrupt joint loading that is associated with ACL injury risk. PMID:23899938

  7. Timing differences in the generation of ground reaction forces between the initial and secondary landing phases of the drop vertical jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-08-01

    Rapid impulse loads imparted on the lower extremity from ground contact when landing from a jump may contribute to ACL injury prevalence in female athletes. The drop jump and drop landing tasks enacted in the first and second landings of drop vertical jumps, respectively, have been shown to elicit separate neuromechanical responses. We examined the first and second landings of a drop vertical jump for differences in landing phase duration, time to peak force, and rate of force development. 239 adolescent female basketball players completed drop vertical jumps from an initial height of 31cm. In-ground force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. Between the first and second landing, rate of force development experienced no change (P>0.62), landing phase duration decreased (P=0.01), and time to peak ground reaction force increased (P0.12). The current results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors. Rate of force development remained unchanged between first and second landings from equivalent fall height, while time to peak reaction force increased during the second landing. Neither factor was dependent on the total time duration of landing phase, which decreased during the second landing. Shorter time to peak force may increase ligament strain and better represent the abrupt joint loading that is associated with ACL injury risk. © 2013.

  8. In situ remediation of Jet A in soil and ground water by high vacuum, dual phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshner, M.; Pressly, N.C.; Roth, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial results of subsurface remediation at Terminal 1, Kennedy International Airport, to remediate soil and ground water contaminated with Jet A fuel. The project was driven and constrained by the construction schedule of a major new terminal at the facility. The remediation system used a combination of ground water pumping, air injection, and soil vapor extraction. In the first five months of operation, the combined processes of dewatering, volatilization, and biodegradation removed a total of 36,689 pounds of total volatile and semivolatile organic jet fuel hydrocarbons from subsurface soil and ground water. The results of this case study have shown that 62% of the removal resulted from biodegradation, 27% occurred as a result of liquid removal, and 11% resulted from the extraction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

  9. Linking spawning ground extent to environmental factors - patterns and dispersal during the egg phase of four North Sea fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höffle, Hannes; van Damme, Cindy J. G.; Fox, Clive J.

    2018-01-01

    , the location of the spawning grounds appeared stable on the broad scale but centres of egg abundance varied between the surveyed years. Potential effects of long-term climate change and anthropogenic short-term disturbances, such as seismic surveys, on fish reproduction are discussed, pointing out the demand...... surveys in 2004 and 2009, the present study uses Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) to delimit these spawning grounds using the distribution of recently spawned eggs, investigates their relationship to specific environmental conditions and examines egg dispersal during their development. Results...

  10. Computational Power of Symmetry-Protected Topological Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, David T; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Prakash, Abhishodh; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Raussendorf, Robert

    2017-07-07

    We consider ground states of quantum spin chains with symmetry-protected topological (SPT) order as resources for measurement-based quantum computation (MBQC). We show that, for a wide range of SPT phases, the computational power of ground states is uniform throughout each phase. This computational power, defined as the Lie group of executable gates in MBQC, is determined by the same algebraic information that labels the SPT phase itself. We prove that these Lie groups always contain a full set of single-qubit gates, thereby affirming the long-standing conjecture that general SPT phases can serve as computationally useful phases of matter.

  11. The Role of Second Phase Intermetallic Particles on the Spall Failure of 5083 Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Bradley Survice Engineering Company, Aberdeen, MD A reprint from Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials. 2016;2:476–483...Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD, USA 2 Survice Engineering Company, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD, USA 123 J...2016) 2:476–483 479 123 ligaments between cracks and a second phase intermetallic particle (identified by black arrow) above the crack with an average

  12. Measurement of underground contamination of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) on the basis of the radon concentration in ground level air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.

    2001-01-01

    It was investigated whether measurements of radon concentrations in ground level air are a suitable method of detecting sub-surface soil contamination with non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs). The working postulation was that, due to the very high solubility of radon in NAPLs, and the resulting accumulation of radon in NAPLs, radon exhalation to the ground level air in the proximity of such NAPL contamination should be locally reduced, thus indicating contamination of sub-surface soils with NAPLs. The research work reported was to verify the working theory by way of experiments, and to finally develop a reliable detection method for NAPL contaminations. The investigations comprised theoretical studies, laboratory experiments, experiments in defined soil columns, and extensive field studies [de

  13. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 4, Health and Safety Plan (HSP); Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation report: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HSP) was developed for the Environmental Investigation of Ground-water Contamination Investigation at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio, based on the projected scope of work for the Phase 1, Task 4 Field Investigation. The HSP describes hazards that may be encountered during the investigation, assesses the hazards, and indicates what type of personal protective equipment is to be used for each task performed. The HSP also addresses the medical monitoring program, decontamination procedures, air monitoring, training, site control, accident prevention, and emergency response.

  14. Quantitative kHz to MHz Frame Rate Flow Diagnostics for Aerodynamic Ground Test Facilities, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I SBIR program will study the feasibility of building next-generation burst-mode laser diagnostics that will enable unparalleled planar imaging...

  15. Dugway Proving Ground: Closure Plan Module 2, for SWMUs 20, 164, 166 and 170

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    fighting, and/or singing. If the condition persists, a mask-like face, retropulsion or propulsion and a Parkinson -like syndrome develop (Mena et al...include pharyngitis, dysphagia , abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, bloody diarrhea, and shock. Later swelling of the salivary glands, stomatitis

  16. 76 FR 30319 - Real Property Master Plan Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, at Yuma Proving Ground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... Desert in southwestern Arizona and occupies portions of Yuma and La Paz counties. The mission at Yuma..., water resources, biological resources, cultural resources, socioeconomics, utilities, land use, and...

  17. Human genetics after the bomb: Archives, clinics, proving grounds and board rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindee, Susan

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I track the history of post-1945 human genetics and genomics emphasizing the importance of ideas about risk to the scientific study and medical management of human heredity. Drawing on my own scholarship as it is refracted through important new work by other scholars both junior and senior, I explore how radiation risk and then later disease risk mattered to the development of genetics and genomics, particularly in the United States. In this context I excavate one of the central ironies of post-war human genetics: while studies of DNA as the origin and cause of diseases have been lavishly supported by public institutions and private investment around the world, the day-to-day labor of intensive clinical innovation has played a far more important role in the actual human experience of genetic disease and genetic risk for affected families. This has implications for the archival record, where clinical interactions are less readily accessible to historians. This paper then suggests that modern genomics grew out of radiation risk; that it was and remains a risk assessment science; that it is temporally embedded as a form of both prediction and historical reconstruction; and that it has become a big business focused more on risk and prediction (which can be readily marketed) than on effective clinical intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effects of Hurricane Nora on Eomorphic Characteristics of Yuma Wash, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wohl, Ellen

    1999-01-01

    .... Repeat surveys conducted in January 1998 were compared to the 1995 survey to measure areas of cross-sectional scour and fill, net change in channel area, and change in thalweg depth along the channel...

  19. [Cytogenetic effects in Koeleria gracilis Pers. populations from the Semipalatinsk proving ground].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geras'kin, S A; Mozolin, E M; Dikarev, V G; Udalova, A A; Dikareva, N S; Spiridonov, S I; Teten'kin, V L

    2009-01-01

    The proliferative activity and the frequency of cytogenetic disturbances in apical meristem of coleoptile sprouts at germination of seeds collected from crested hairgrass populations inhabiting contrast in level of radioactive contamination sites of the Semipalatinsk test site (Kazakhstan) are studied. Sampling of biological material and soil was carrying out during three years (2005-2007). The absorbed dose to critical organs of crested hairgrass vary depending on a site from 2.8 up to 262.2 mGy/year. A sognificant correlation between the frequency of cytogenetic disturbances in apical meristem and dose absorbed in crested hairgrass critical organs is found. Devere aberrations such as single and double bridges make the main contribution to spectrum of structural mutations as well as lagging chromosomes. In spite of the fact that the crested hairgrass populations have occupied the sites with a high level of radioactive contamination for a long time, the data analysis fails to reveal radio-adaptation effect.

  20. Light nuclei: an experimental proving ground for the microscopic cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A selected review is given of comparisons of experimental data for low-mass nuclear systems with results of calculations using microscopic cluster models. Stress is on the mass-4, -7, and -8 systems. Topics include influence of components of the nucleon-nucleon force, some consequences of the Pauli principle, effects of the Coulomb-exchange interaction, specific distortion, absorption in elastic scattering, and future needs and directions. Some as yet unpublished results are presented

  1. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Operational Summary, Nevada Proving Grounds, 1 March - 9 June 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Office was superseded by a group of information representatives from the AEC, the FODA ., and the DOD under the direction of Mfr. Morse S&l31 bury, =E...tests designed for statistical analysis of effects. (5) Tactical coznznications systemax. (6) FOL installations. (7) Field madical installations...involved in the operation. The Silas Mason Company was the contractor responsible for drawing up the route line chart and installing the timing lines and

  2. Remedial Investigation Work Plan for J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, R.; Dolak, D.; Dunn, C.; Haffenden, R.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Wang, Y.; Yuen, C.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of an RI/FS is to characterize the nature and extent of the risks posed by contaminants present at a site and to develop and evaluate options for remedial actions. The overall objective of the RI is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of site conditions, types and quantities of contaminants present, release mechanisms and migration pathways, target populations, and risks to human health and the environment. The information developed during the RI provides the basis for the design and implementation of remedial actions during the FS. The purpose of this RI Work Plan is to define the tasks that will direct the remedial investigation of the J-Field site at APG.

  3. Mathematics Education as a Proving-Ground for Information-Processing Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Brian, Ed.; Verschaffel, Lieven, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Five papers discuss the current and potential contributions of information-processing theory to our understanding of mathematical thinking as those contributions affect the practice of mathematics education. It is concluded that information-processing theories need to be supplemented in various ways to more adequately reflect the complexity of…

  4. Historic American Landscapes Survey: Arco Naval Proving Ground (Idaho National Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Christina [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Holmer, Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gilbert, Hollie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Based on historical evaluations in 1993 and 1997, historians determined that the then-remaining Arco NPG structures were significant to the nation’s history through their association with World War II . Through ensuing discussions with the SHPO, it was further determined that the infrastructure and associated landscape were also significant. According to provisions of INL’s Cultural Resource Management Plan (CRMP) as legitimized through a 2004 Programmatic Agreement between DOE-ID, the Idaho State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP) historians identified the World War II structures as DOE “Signature Properties”. As defined by DOE-HQ, Signature Properties “denote its [DOE’s] most historically important properties across the complex…and/or those properties that are viewed as having tourism potential.” The INL is a secure site and the INL land and structures are not accessible to the public and, therefore have no “tourism potential”. Although DOE-ID actively sought other uses for the vacant, unused buildings, none were identified and the buildings present safety and health concerns. A condition assessment found lead based paint, asbestos, rodent infestation/droppings, small animal carcasses, mold, and, in CF-633, areas of radiological contamination. In early 2013, DOE-ID notified the Idaho SHPO, ACHP, and, as required by the INL CRMP and PA, DOE-Headquarters Federal Preservation Officer, of their intent to demolish the vacant buildings (CF-606, CF-607, CF-613, CF-632, and CF-633). The proposed “end-state” of the buildings will be either grass and/or gravel pads. Through the NHPA Section 106 consultation process, measures to mitigate the adverse impacts of demolition were determined and agreed to through a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) between DOE-ID, SHPO, and ACHP. The measures include the development and installation of interpretive signs to be placed at a publicly accessible location, retention of original components of CF-633, and completion of this HALS standard format report. Buildings, infrastructure, and features that are not scheduled for removal are documented here as well as properties that are scheduled for removal and the overall Arco NPG landscape. The Arco NPG, located in the remote high-desert of eastern Idaho aided in the defense and eventual ally victory in the Pacific Theater of World War II, in addition to revising national standards for the safe storage and transport of conventional ordnance.

  5. A hierarchical approach to ecological assessment of contaminated soils at Aberdeen Proving Ground, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, R.G.

    1995-12-31

    Despite the expansion of environmental toxicology studies over the past decade, soil ecosystems have largely been ignored in ecotoxicological studies in the United States. The objective of this project was to develop and test the efficacy of a comprehensive methodology for assessing ecological impacts of soil contamination. A hierarchical approach that integrates biotic parameters and ecosystem processes was used to give insight into the mechanisms that lead to alterations in the structure and function of soil ecosystems in contaminated areas. This approach involved (1) a thorough survey of the soil biota to determine community structure, (2) laboratory and field tests on critical ecosystem processes, (3) toxicity trials, and (4) the use of spatial analyses to provide input to the decision-making, process. This methodology appears to, offer an efficient and potentially cost-saving tool for remedial investigations of contaminated sites.

  6. Jefferson Proving Ground, South of the Firing Line Health and Safety Plan, Volume 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    .... The purpose of this Site Health and Safety Plan (SHSP) is to assign SECD personnel health and safety responsibilities, to prescribe mandatory operating procedures, and to establish personal-protective-equipment (PPE...

  7. Civilian Talent Management: A Proposed Approach for the Aberdeen Proving Ground Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    in the critical skills necessary for effective oversight . For example, over the past 10 years, the Department’s contractual obligations have nearly...managers—to conduct effective oversight (Department of Defense Quadrennial Defense Review Report, February 10, 2010, p. 76). This was also a key concern...policy so that older workers will not feel compelled to retire as soon as they are eligible. Concepts such as flextime, part-time, telecommuting , and

  8. 78 FR 60238 - Proposed Modification and Establishment of Restricted Areas; Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... regulatory, aeronautical, economic, environmental, and energy-related aspects of the proposal. Communications... two, has variable altitudes based on the time of day. R-4001A extends from the surface to unlimited...

  9. Strategies for cloud-top phase determination: differentiation between thin cirrus clouds and snow in manual (ground truth) analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Keith D.; Etherton, Brian J.; Topping, Phillip C.

    1996-12-01

    Quantitative assessments on the performance of automated cloud analysis algorithms require the creation of highly accurate, manual cloud, no cloud (CNC) images from multispectral meteorological satellite data. In general, the methodology to create ground truth analyses for the evaluation of cloud detection algorithms is relatively straightforward. However, when focus shifts toward quantifying the performance of automated cloud classification algorithms, the task of creating ground truth images becomes much more complicated since these CNC analyses must differentiate between water and ice cloud tops while ensuring that inaccuracies in automated cloud detection are not propagated into the results of the cloud classification algorithm. The process of creating these ground truth CNC analyses may become particularly difficult when little or no spectral signature is evident between a cloud and its background, as appears to be the case when thin cirrus is present over snow-covered surfaces. In this paper, procedures are described that enhance the researcher's ability to manually interpret and differentiate between thin cirrus clouds and snow-covered surfaces in daytime AVHRR imagery. The methodology uses data in up to six AVHRR spectral bands, including an additional band derived from the daytime 3.7 micron channel, which has proven invaluable for the manual discrimination between thin cirrus clouds and snow. It is concluded that while the 1.6 micron channel remains essential to differentiate between thin ice clouds and snow. However, this capability that may be lost if the 3.7 micron data switches to a nighttime-only transmission with the launch of future NOAA satellites.

  10. Wigner’s phase-space function and atomic structure: II. Ground states for closed-shell atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Springborg, Michael; Dahl, Jens Peder

    1987-01-01

    We present formulas for reduced Wigner phase-space functions for atoms, with an emphasis on the first-order spinless Wigner function. This function can be written as the sum of separate contributions from single orbitals (the natural orbitals). This allows a detailed study of the function. Here we...... display and analyze the function for the closed-shell atoms helium, beryllium, neon, argon, and zinc in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The quantum-mechanical exact results are compared with those obtained with the approximate Thomas-Fermi description of electron densities in phase space....

  11. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Metaphorical Perceptions towards Proof and Proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersen, Zeynep Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Since mathematical proof and proving are in the center of mathematics; preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions against these concepts have a great importance. Therefore, the study aimed to determine preservice mathematics teachers' perceptions towards proof and proving through metaphors. The participants consisted of 192 preservice…

  12. Proving termination of logic programs with delay declarations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Marchiori; F. Teusink (Frank)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we propose a method for proving termination of logic programs with delay declarations. The method is based on the notion of recurrent logic program, which is used to prove programs terminating wrt an arbitrary selection rule. Most importantly, we use the notion of bound

  13. 20 CFR 219.23 - Evidence to prove death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evidence to prove death. 219.23 Section 219... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.23 Evidence to prove death. (a) Preferred evidence of death. The best evidence of a person's death is— (1) A certified copy of or extract from the...

  14. A New Approach for Proving or Generating Combinatorial Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luis

    2010-01-01

    A new method for proving, in an immediate way, many combinatorial identities is presented. The method is based on a simple recursive combinatorial formula involving n + 1 arbitrary real parameters. Moreover, this formula enables one not only to prove, but also generate many different combinatorial identities (not being required to know them "a…

  15. Reasoning and Proving Opportunities in Textbooks: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed and compared reasoning and proving opportunities in geometry lessons from American standard-based textbooks and Korean textbooks to understand how these textbooks provide student opportunities to engage in reasoning and proving activities. Overall, around 40% of exercise problems in Core Plus Mathematics Project (CPMP)…

  16. The Earth is Flat, and I Can Prove It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Art

    1998-01-01

    Describes an educational program that asks students to attempt to prove that the earth is spherical and that it rotates. Presents tips to pique student interest and charts related to sensing the spin, nonrotation notions, flat earth fallacies, evidence that the earth is spherical and rotates, and the role of watersheds in proving that the earth…

  17. Effect of Five-Finger Shoes on Vertical Ground Reaction Force Loading Rates and Perceived Comfort during the Stance Phase of the Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Zeynab Hoseini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  Increased vertical ground reaction force loading rates and lack of comfort footwear in the early stance phase can increase the risk of overuse injuries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Five-finger shoes on vertical ground reaction force loading rate and perceived comfort during the stance phase of running. Methods: 15 male students (aged 24 ± 5/24 years, weight 75/8 ± 4/61 kg, height 178/6 ± 6/64 cm were selected. Subjects were asked to run over a force plate, in control shoe, five finger shoe and barefoot conditions. Loading rate using the slope of the vertical reaction force and perceived comfort were determined using a visual analogue scale. One factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to test the loading rate hypothesis and Paired t-tests was used to test the meaningfulness of perceived comfort (P<0/05. Results: The effect of shoes on loading rate was found to be not significant (P=0.1. However, comfort of control shoes increased by 10. 92% as compared to that of five-finger shoes (P=0.001.  Conclusion: The loading rate of five-finger shoes is the same as that of barefoot during running; however, as subjects did not perceive them as comfortable as regular shoes are five-finger shoes cannot be advised as a desirable choice in exercises.

  18. Ground states of quantum spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratteli, Ola; Kishimoto, Akitaka; Robinson, D.W.

    1978-07-01

    The authors prove that ground states of quantum spin systems are characterized by a principle of minimum local energy and that translationally invariant ground states are characterized by the principle of minimum energy per unit volume

  19. Three Smoking Guns Prove Falsity of Green house Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, P.

    2001-12-01

    Three observed facts: 1, the cloud coverage increased 4.1% in 50 years; 2. the precipitation increased 7.8% in 100 years; 3. the two rates are the same. {Interpretation}. 1, By the increased albedo of the clouds heat dissipation is increased 3.98 W/m2 by 2XCO2 time, canceling out greenhouse warming of 4 W/m{2}. Thus no global warming. 2, The precipitation increase show the increased release of latent heat of vaporization, which turns out to be equal to that absorbed by ocean due to increased evaporation by the greenhouse forcing. This all greenhouse heat is used up in evaporation and the warming of the earth is zero. 3, The identity of the two rates double-checked the two independent proofs. Therefore experimentally no greenhouse warming is triply proved. A new branch of science Pleistocene Climatology is developed to study the theoretical origin of no greenhouse warming. Climatology, like mechanics of a large number of particles, is of course complex and unwieldy. If totally order-less then there is no hope. However, if some regularity appears, then a systematic treatment can be done to simplify the complexity. The rigid bodies are subjected to a special simplifying condition (the distances between all particles are constant) and only 6 degrees of freedom are significant, all others are sidetracked. To study the spinning top there is no need to study the dynamics of every particle of the top by Newton's laws through super-computer. It only needs to solve the Euler equations without computer. In climate study the use of super-computer to study all degrees of freedom of the climate is as untenable as the study of the spinning top by super-computer. Yet in spite of the complexity there is strict regularity as seen in the ice ages, which works as the simplifying conditions to establish a new science Pleistocene climatology. See my book Greenhouse Warming and Nuclear Hazards just published (www.PeterFongBook.com). This time the special condition is the presence of a

  20. A Ground-Based Doppler Radar and Micropulse Lidar Forward Simulator for GCM Evaluation of Arctic Mixed-Phase Clouds: Moving Forward Towards an Apples-to-apples Comparison of Hydrometeor Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamer, K.; Fridlind, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Kollias, P.; Clothiaux, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    An important aspect of evaluating Artic cloud representation in a general circulation model (GCM) consists of using observational benchmarks which are as equivalent as possible to model output in order to avoid methodological bias and focus on correctly diagnosing model dynamical and microphysical misrepresentations. However, current cloud observing systems are known to suffer from biases such as limited sensitivity, and stronger response to large or small hydrometeors. Fortunately, while these observational biases cannot be corrected, they are often well understood and can be reproduced in forward simulations. Here a ground-based millimeter wavelength Doppler radar and micropulse lidar forward simulator able to interface with output from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE GCM is presented. ModelE stratiform hydrometeor fraction, mixing ratio, mass-weighted fall speed and effective radius are forward simulated to vertically-resolved profiles of radar reflectivity, Doppler velocity and spectrum width as well as lidar backscatter and depolarization ratio. These forward simulated fields are then compared to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) ground-based observations to assess cloud vertical structure (CVS). Model evalution of Arctic mixed-phase cloud would also benefit from hydrometeor phase evaluation. While phase retrieval from synergetic observations often generates large uncertainties, the same retrieval algorithm can be applied to observed and forward-simulated radar-lidar fields, thereby producing retrieved hydrometeor properties with potentially the same uncertainties. Comparing hydrometeor properties retrieved in exactly the same way aims to produce the best apples-to-apples comparisons between GCM ouputs and observations. The use of a comprenhensive ground-based forward simulator coupled with a hydrometeor classification retrieval algorithm provides a new perspective for GCM evaluation of Arctic mixed-phase

  1. On the problem of proving the existence of ''charmed'' particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyapkin, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    In order to search for ''charmed'' particles a possibility of performing an experiment is discussed in which one could observe a new particle and prove a necessity of introducting for this particle a new quantum number conserved in strong interactions

  2. On-ground testing of the role of adhesion in the LISA-Pathfinder test mass injection phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, D.; Zanoni, C.; Conklin, J. W.

    2017-05-01

    Many space missions share the need to fly a free-falling body inside the spacecraft, as a reference for navigation and/or as a probe for the local gravitational field. When a mechanism is required to cage such an object during the launch phase, the need arises to release it to free-fall once the operational phase must be initiated in orbit. The criticality of this phase increases when the mechanical interfaces between the body and the mechanism are affected by adhesion and the actuation authority of the control system on the free-falling body is limited. Both conditions are realized in the LISA Pathfinder mission, which aims at injecting a gold-coated 2 kg cubic test mass into a nearly perfect geodesic trajectory to demonstrate the readiness of the developed technology for in-space gravity wave detection. The criticality of adhesion is widely recognized in space technology, because it can affect and jeopardize the functionality of mechanisms, when arising between moving parts. In the LISA Pathfinder case, metallic adhesion potentially plays a relevant role, mainly for two reasons. First, thanks to its properties (ductility, high surface energy) the gold coating on the proof mass easily produces cold weldings, especially in vacuum conditions. Second, the detachment of the proof mass from the releasing device occurs abruptly and a relevant influence of the separation velocity is expected on the strength of the welding. This can produce an excessive velocity of the proof mass at the retraction of the releasing device for the following capture and centring phase on behalf of the control system. A testing activity is performed to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the adhesive bonds between the proof mass and the releasing device, which can be used to predict their contribution on the residual velocity of the proof mass after in-flight release. The study of such a dynamic phenomenon sets some challenging requirements on the measurement technique, both on the

  3. Models and Techniques for Proving Data Structure Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green

    In this dissertation, we present a number of new techniques and tools for proving lower bounds on the operational time of data structures. These techniques provide new lines of attack for proving lower bounds in both the cell probe model, the group model, the pointer machine model and the I...... bound of tutq = (lgd􀀀1 n). For ball range searching, we get a lower bound of tutq = (n1􀀀1=d). The highest previous lower bound proved in the group model does not exceed ((lg n= lg lg n)2) on the maximum of tu and tq. Finally, we present a new technique for proving lower bounds....../O-model. In all cases, we push the frontiers further by proving lower bounds higher than what could possibly be proved using previously known techniques. For the cell probe model, our results have the following consequences: The rst (lg n) query time lower bound for linear space static data structures...

  4. Analysis of the vertical ground reaction forces and temporal factors in the landing phase of a countermovement jump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Daniel Rojano; Rodríguez Bíes, Elisabeth C; Berral de la Rosa, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2) in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively) and the length of the impact absorption phase (T). Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v.1.0.9.0., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH) and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01) but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster. Key pointsIn the landing phase of a jump there are always sev-eral peak forces. The combination of these peaks forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produces a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury.In the most common two-footed landings usually appear two peak forces (F1 and F2) in the force-time curve and the second one is usually related to

  5. Seismic proving test of PWR reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Yoshikawa, T.; Tokumaru, Y.

    1987-01-01

    The seismic reliability proving tests of nuclear power plant facilities are carried out by Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NUPEC), using the large-scale, high-performance vibration of Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, and sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). In 1982, the seismic reliability proving test of PWR containment vessel started using the test component of reduced scale 1/3.7 and the test component proved to have structural soundness against earthquakes. Subsequently, the detailed analysis and evaluation of these test results were carried out, and the analysis methods for evaluating strength against earthquakes were established. Whereupon, the seismic analysis and evaluation on the actual containment vessel were performed by these analysis methods, and the safety and reliability of the PWR reactor containment vessel were confirmed

  6. Evaluation of the potential for artificial ground-water recharge in eastern San Joaquin County, California; Phase 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1987-01-01

    Infiltration tests were used to evaluate the potential of basin spreading surface water as a means of artificially recharging the aquifer system in eastern San Joaquin County, California. Two infiltration sites near Lockeford and Linden were selected on the basis of information collected during the first two phases of the study. Data from the infiltration tests indicate that the two sites are acceptable for recharge by the basin-spreading method. Infiltration rates ranged between 6.7 and 10.5 ft/day near Lockeford and between 2.6 and 11.2 ft/day near Linden. Interpretation of these data is limited by lack of information on the response of the saturated zone during testing and by the inherent difficulty in extrapolating the results of small-scale tests to larger long-term operations. Lithology is a major factor that controls infiltration rates at the test sites. The unsaturated zone is characterized by heterogeneous layers of coarse- and fine- grained materials. Clay layers of low hydraulic conductivity commonly form discontinuous lenses that may cause a transient perched water table to develop during recharge. Water level measurements from wells screened in the unsaturated zone indicate that the perched water table could reach the land surface after 2 and 5 months of recharge near Lockeford and Linden, respectively. These figures probably represent the minimum time necessary for saturation of the land. Another major factor that affects infiltration rates is the quality of the recharge water, particularly the suspended sediment content. The clogging action of suspended sediment may be minimized by: (1) pretreatment of recharge water in a settling pond, (2) adherence to a routine program of monitoring and maintenance, and (3) proper design of the recharge facility. Other factors that affect infiltration rates include basin excavation technique, basin shape, and maintenance procedures. Efficient operation of the recharge facility requires careful attention to the

  7. PROVE Surface albedo of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this study was to determine the spatial variations in field measurements of broadband albedo as related to the ground cover and under a range of...

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE VERTICAL GROUND REACTION FORCES AND TEMPORAL FACTORS IN THE LANDING PHASE OF A COUNTERMOVEMENT JUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rojano Ortega

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In most common bilateral landings of vertical jumps, there are two peak forces (F1 and F2 in the force-time curve. The combination of these peak forces and the high frequency of jumps during sports produce a large amount of stress in the joints of the lower limbs which can be determinant of injury. The aim of this study was to find possible relationships between the jump height and F1 and F2, between F1 and F2 themselves, and between F1, F2, the time they appear (T1 and T2, respectively and the length of the impact absorption phase (T. Thirty semi-professional football players made five countermovement jumps and the highest jump of each player was analyzed. They were instructed to perform the jumps with maximum effort and to land first with the balls of their feet and then with their heels. All the data were collected using a Kistler Quattro Jump force plate with a sample rate of 500 Hz. Quattro Jump Software, v.1.0.9.0., was used. There was neither significant correlation between T1 and F1 nor between T1 and F2. There was a significant positive correlation between flight height (FH and F1 (r = 0.584, p = 0.01 but no significant correlation between FH and F2. A significant positive correlation between F1 and T2 (r = 0.418, p < 0.05 and a significant negative correlation between F2 and T2 (r = -0.406, p < 0.05 were also found. There is a significant negative correlation between T2 and T (r = -0. 443, p < 0.05. T1 has a little effect in the impact absorption process. F1 increases with increasing T2 but F2 decreases with increasing T2. Besides, increasing T2, with the objective of decreasing F2, makes the whole impact absorption shorter and the jump landing faster.

  9. Exact ground-state correlation functions of an atomic-molecular Bose–Einstein condensate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Jon; Shen, Yibing

    2018-05-01

    We study the ground-state properties of an atomic-molecular Bose–Einstein condensate model through an exact Bethe Ansatz solution. For a certain range of parameter choices, we prove that the ground-state Bethe roots lie on the positive real-axis. We then use a continuum limit approach to obtain a singular integral equation characterising the distribution of these Bethe roots. Solving this equation leads to an analytic expression for the ground-state energy. The form of the expression is consistent with the existence of a line of quantum phase transitions, which has been identified in earlier studies. This line demarcates a molecular phase from a mixed phase. Certain correlation functions, which characterise these phases, are then obtained through the Hellmann–Feynman theorem.

  10. Proving test on the reliability for nuclear valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Yasuo; Tashiro, Hisao; Uga, Takeo; Maeda, Shunichi.

    1986-01-01

    Since valves are the most common components, they could be the most frequent causes of troubles in nuclear power plants. This proving test, therefore, has an important meaning to examine and verify the reliability of various valves under simulating conditions of abnormal and transient operations of the nuclear power plant. The test was performed mainly for the various types and pressure ratings of valves which were used in the primary and secondary systems in BWR and PWR nuclear power plants and which had major operating or safety related functions in those nuclear power plants. The results of the proving test, confirmed for more than four years, showed relatively favourable performance of the tested valves. It is concluded that performances of valves including operability, seat sealing and structural integrity were proved under the thermal cycling, vibration and pipe reaction load conditions. Operating functions during and after accident such as loss of coolant accident were satisfactory. From these results, it was considered that the purpose of this proving test was satisfactorily fulfilled. Several data accumulated by the test would be useful to get better reliability if it was evaluated with the actually experienced data of valves in the nuclear power plants. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Responsibility for proving and defining in abstract algebra class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukawa-Connelly, Timothy

    2016-07-01

    There is considerable variety in inquiry-oriented instruction, but what is common is that students assume roles in mathematical activity that in a traditional, lecture-based class are either assumed by the teacher (or text) or are not visible at all in traditional math classrooms. This paper is a case study of the teaching of an inquiry-based undergraduate abstract algebra course. In particular, gives a theoretical account of the defining and proving processes. The study examines the intellectual responsibility for the processes of defining and proving that the professor devolved to the students. While the professor wanted the students to engage in all aspects of defining and proving, he was only successful at devolving responsibility for certain aspects and much more successful at devolving responsibility for proving than conjecturing or defining. This study suggests that even a well-intentioned instructor may not be able to devolve responsibility to students for some aspects of mathematical practice without using a research-based curriculum or further professional development.

  12. Overcoming the Obstacle of Poor Knowledge in Proving Geometry Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Magajna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Proving in school geometry is not just about validating the truth of a claim. In the school setting, the main function of the proof is to convince someone that a claim is true by providing an explanation. Students consider proving to be difficult; in fact, they find the very concept of proof demanding. Proving a claim in planar geometry involves several processes, the most salient being visual observation and deductive argumentation. These two processes are interwoven, but often poor observation hinders deductive argumentation. In the present article, we consider the possibility of overcoming the obstacle of a student’s poor observation by making use of computer-aided observation with appropriate software. We present the results of two small-scale research projects, both of which indicate that students are able to work out considerably more deductions if computer-aided observation is used. Not all students use computer-aided observation effectively in proving tasks: some find an exhaustive computer-provided list of properties confusing and are not able to choose the properties that are relevant to the task.

  13. Pengembangan Perangkat Pembelajaran Geometri Ruang dengan Model Proving Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Eko Susilo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kemampuan berpikir kritis dan kreatif mahasiswa masih lemah. Hal ini ditemukan pada mahasiswa yang mengambil mata kuliah Geometri Ruang yaitu dalam membuktikan soal-soal pembuktian (problem to proof. Mahasiswa masih menyelesaikan secara algoritmik atau prosedural sehingga diperlukan pengembangan perangkat pembelajaran Geometri Ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model Proving Theorem. Dalam penelitian ini perangkat perkuliahan yang dikembangkan yaitu Silabus, Satuan Acara Perkuliahan (SAP, Kontrak Perkuliahan, Media Pembelajaran, Bahan Ajar, Tes UTS dan UAS serta Angket Karakter Konservasi telah dilaksanakan dengan baik dengan kriteria (1 validasi perangkat pembelajaran mata kuliah Geometri ruang berbasis kompetensi dan konservasi dengan model proving theorem berkategori baik dan layak digunakan dan (2 keterlaksanaan RPP pada pembelajaran yang dikembangkan secara keseluruhan berkategori baik.Critical and creative thinking abilities of students still weak. It is found in students who take Space Geometry subjects that is in solving problems to to prove. Students still finish in algorithmic or procedural so that the required the development of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models. This is a research development which refers to the 4-D models that have been modified for the Space Geometry learning tools, second semester academic year 2014/2015. Instruments used include validation sheet, learning tools and character assessment questionnaire. In this research, the learning tools are developed, namely Syllabus, Lesson Plan, Lecture Contract, Learning Media, Teaching Material, Tests, and Character Conservation Questionnaire had been properly implemented with the criteria (1 validation of Space Geometry learning tools based on competency and conservation with Proving Theorem models categorized good and feasible to use, and (2 the implementation of Lesson Plan on learning categorized

  14. Divide and conquer method for proving gaps of frustration free Hamiltonians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastoryano, Michael J.; Lucia, Angelo

    2018-01-01

    Providing system-size independent lower bounds on the spectral gap of local Hamiltonian is in general a hard problem. For the case of finite-range, frustration free Hamiltonians on a spin lattice of arbitrary dimension, we show that a property of the ground state space is sufficient to obtain...... such a bound. We furthermore show that such a condition is necessary and equivalent to a constant spectral gap. Thanks to this equivalence, we can prove that for gapless models in any dimension, the spectral gap on regions of diameter $n$ is at most $o\\left(\\frac{\\log(n)^{2+\\epsilon}}{n}\\right)$ for any...... positive $\\epsilon$....

  15. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  16. Unicorns do exist: a tutorial on "proving" the null hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streiner, David L

    2003-12-01

    Introductory statistics classes teach us that we can never prove the null hypothesis; all we can do is reject or fail to reject it. However, there are times when it is necessary to try to prove the nonexistence of a difference between groups. This most often happens within the context of comparing a new treatment against an established one and showing that the new intervention is not inferior to the standard. This article first outlines the logic of "noninferiority" testing by differentiating between the null hypothesis (that which we are trying to nullify) and the "nill" hypothesis (there is no difference), reversing the role of the null and alternate hypotheses, and defining an interval within which groups are said to be equivalent. We then work through an example and show how to calculate sample sizes for noninferiority studies.

  17. Logic for computer science foundations of automatic theorem proving

    CERN Document Server

    Gallier, Jean H

    2015-01-01

    This advanced text for undergraduate and graduate students introduces mathematical logic with an emphasis on proof theory and procedures for algorithmic construction of formal proofs. The self-contained treatment is also useful for computer scientists and mathematically inclined readers interested in the formalization of proofs and basics of automatic theorem proving. Topics include propositional logic and its resolution, first-order logic, Gentzen's cut elimination theorem and applications, and Gentzen's sharpened Hauptsatz and Herbrand's theorem. Additional subjects include resolution in fir

  18. IHSI [Induction Heating Stress Improvement] proves its worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, C.H.; Cofie, N.G.; Sheffield, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Based upon the wealth of experimental test data, extensive and successful in-plant application, and the decreasing cost of applying the process, IHSI is proving itself an important part of overall IGSCC mitigation programmes. Work is ongoing on the development of new temperature sensing systems, more efficient equipment immobilization/demobilization hardware configurations, and craft support management practices to further enhance the cost-effectiveness of IHSI. (author)

  19. Graphene ground states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuel; Stefanelli, Ulisse

    2018-06-01

    Graphene is locally two-dimensional but not flat. Nanoscale ripples appear in suspended samples and rolling up often occurs when boundaries are not fixed. We address this variety of graphene geometries by classifying all ground-state deformations of the hexagonal lattice with respect to configurational energies including two- and three-body terms. As a consequence, we prove that all ground-state deformations are either periodic in one direction, as in the case of ripples, or rolled up, as in the case of nanotubes.

  20. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-11-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in situ image cloud particles in a well-defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  1. HOLIMO II: a digital holographic instrument for ground-based in-situ observations of microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, J.; Fugal, J. P.; Stetzer, O.; Lohmann, U.

    2013-05-01

    Measurements of the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds with high spatial resolution are important to understand the processes inside these clouds. This work describes the design and characterization of the newly developed ground-based field instrument HOLIMO II (HOLographic Imager for Microscopic Objects II). HOLIMO II uses digital in-line holography to in-situ image cloud particles in a well defined sample volume. By an automated algorithm, two-dimensional images of single cloud particles between 6 and 250 μm in diameter are obtained and the size spectrum, the concentration and water content of clouds are calculated. By testing the sizing algorithm with monosized beads a systematic overestimation near the resolution limit was found, which has been used to correct the measurements. Field measurements from the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, are presented. The measured number size distributions are in good agreement with parallel measurements by a fog monitor (FM-100, DMT, Boulder USA). The field data shows that HOLIMO II is capable of measuring the number size distribution with a high spatial resolution and determines ice crystal shape, thus providing a method of quantifying variations in microphysical properties. A case study over a period of 8 h has been analyzed, exploring the transition from a liquid to a mixed-phase cloud, which is the longest observation of a cloud with a holographic device. During the measurement period, the cloud does not completely glaciate, contradicting earlier assumptions of the dominance of the Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen (WBF) process.

  2. On proving confluence modulo equivalence for Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2017-01-01

    -logical built-in predicates such as var/1 and incomplete ones such as is/2, that are ignored in previous work on confluence. To this end, a new operational semantics for CHR is developed which includes such predicates. In addition, this semantics differs from earlier approaches by its simplicity without loss......Previous results on proving confluence for Constraint Handling Rules are extended in two ways in order to allow a larger and more realistic class of CHR programs to be considered confluent. Firstly, we introduce the relaxed notion of confluence modulo equivalence into the context of CHR: while...

  3. Proving Test on the Reliability for Reactor Containment Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takumi, K.; Nonaka, A.

    1988-01-01

    NUPEC (Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center) has started an eight-year project of Proving Test on the Reliability for Reactor Containment Vessel since June 1987. The objective of this project is to confirm the integrity of containment vessels under severe accident conditions. This paper shows the outline of this project. The test Items are (1) Hydrogen mixing and distribution test, (2) Hydrogen burning test, (3) Iodine trapping characteristics test, and (4) Structural behavior test. Based on the test results, computer codes are verified and as the results of analysis and evaluation by the computer codes, containment integrity is to be confirmed

  4. Reasoning by analogy as an aid to heuristic theorem proving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kling, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    When heuristic problem-solving programs are faced with large data bases that contain numbers of facts far in excess of those needed to solve any particular problem, their performance rapidly deteriorates. In this paper, the correspondence between a new unsolved problem and a previously solved analogous problem is computed and invoked to tailor large data bases to manageable sizes. This paper outlines the design of an algorithm for generating and exploiting analogies between theorems posed to a resolution-logic system. These algorithms are believed to be the first computationally feasible development of reasoning by analogy to be applied to heuristic theorem proving.

  5. Case report 486: Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (SDT) (presumptively proved)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.D.; Childress, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    A 51 year old man with severe degenerative joint disease, short stature, barrel chest deformity, platyspondyly, a narrow pelvis, small iliac bones, dysplastic femoral heads and necks, notching of the patellae and flattening of the femoral intercondylar notches has been described as an example of Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda SDT. The entity was discussed in detail. The notching of the patellae has not been reported in association with SDT to the authors' knowledge. Characteristic features of SDT allow it to be differentiated from other arthropathies and dysplasias and these distinctions have been emphasized in the discussion. The diagnosis in this case can only be considered presumptively proved. (orig./MG)

  6. Determination of pharmaceutical compounds in surface- and ground-water samples by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J.D.; Furlong, E.T.; Burkhardt, M.R.; Kolpin, D.; Anderson, L.G.

    2004-01-01

    Commonly used prescription and over-the-counter pharmaceuticals are possibly present in surface- and ground-water samples at ambient concentrations less than 1 μg/L. In this report, the performance characteristics of a combined solid-phase extraction isolation and high-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS) analytical procedure for routine determination of the presence and concentration of human-health pharmaceuticals are described. This method was developed and used in a recent national reconnaissance of pharmaceuticals in USA surface waters. The selection of pharmaceuticals evaluated for this method was based on usage estimates, resulting in a method that contains compounds from diverse chemical classes, which presents challenges and compromises when applied as a single routine analysis. The method performed well for the majority of the 22 pharmaceuticals evaluated, with recoveries greater than 60% for 12 pharmaceuticals. The recoveries of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, a histamine (H2) receptor antagonist, and antihypoglycemic compound classes were less than 50%, but were retained in the method to provide information describing the potential presence of these compounds in environmental samples and to indicate evidence of possible matrix enhancing effects. Long-term recoveries, evaluated from reagent-water fortifications processed over 2 years, were similar to initial method performance. Method detection limits averaged 0.022 μg/L, sufficient for expected ambient concentrations. Compound-dependent matrix effects on HPLC/ESI-MS analysis, including enhancement and suppression of ionization, were observed as a 20–30% increase in measured concentrations for three compounds and greater than 50% increase for two compounds. Changing internal standard and more frequent ESI source maintenance minimized matrix effects. Application of the method in the national survey demonstrates that several

  7. Grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  8. A Hybrid Approach to Proving Memory Reference Monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2013-01-01

    Array references indexed by non-linear expressions or subscript arrays represent a major obstacle to compiler analysis and to automatic parallelization. Most previous proposed solutions either enhance the static analysis repertoire to recognize more patterns, to infer array-value properties, and to refine the mathematical support, or apply expensive run time analysis of memory reference traces to disambiguate these accesses. This paper presents an automated solution based on static construction of access summaries, in which the reference non-linearity problem can be solved for a large number of reference patterns by extracting arbitrarily-shaped predicates that can (in)validate the reference monotonicity property and thus (dis)prove loop independence. Experiments on six benchmarks show that our general technique for dynamic validation of the monotonicity property can cover a large class of codes, incurs minimal run-time overhead and obtains good speedups. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Formal Analysis of Soft Errors using Theorem Proving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiène Tahar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits has traditionally been done using computer simulations. Computer simulations cannot guarantee correctness of analysis because they utilize approximate real number representations and pseudo random numbers in the analysis and thus are not well suited for analyzing safety-critical applications. In this paper, we present a higher-order logic theorem proving based method for modeling and analysis of soft errors in electronic circuits. Our developed infrastructure includes formalized continuous random variable pairs, their Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF properties and independent standard uniform and Gaussian random variables. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach by modeling and analyzing soft errors in commonly used dynamic random access memory sense amplifier circuits.

  10. Safety objectives for next generation reactors: proving their achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguy, P.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Assuming that there is a consensus between regulatory bodies and nuclear operating organizations on safety objectives for future plants, how are we going to demonstrate that they have been achieved, with a reasonable certainty? Right from the beginning, I would like to underline the importance of convincing the public that high level safety objectives will be effectively achieved in future nuclear power plants. The mere fulfillment of administrative requirements might not be sufficient to obtain public acceptance. One has to take into account the changes that have occurred in the public preception of nuclear risks in the wake of the Chernobyl accident. Today public opinion rules out the possibility not only that such a catastrophic accident could recur, but also that any accident with detrimental health consequences off-site could occur. The nuclear industry has to reflect this concern in its safety demonstration, independently of proving the achievement of technical safety goals. The public opinion issue will be readdressed at the end of this paper. (orig.)

  11. Why prove it again? alternative proofs in mathematical practice

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Jr , John W

    2015-01-01

    This monograph considers several well-known mathematical theorems and asks the question, “Why prove it again?” while examining alternative proofs.   It  explores the different rationales mathematicians may have for pursuing and presenting new proofs of previously established results, as well as how they judge whether two proofs of a given result are different.  While a number of books have examined alternative proofs of individual theorems, this is the first that presents comparative case studies of other methods for a variety of different theorems. The author begins by laying out the criteria for distinguishing among proofs and enumerates reasons why new proofs have, for so long, played a prominent role in mathematical practice.  He then outlines various purposes that alternative proofs may serve.  Each chapter that follows provides a detailed case study of alternative proofs for particular theorems, including the Pythagorean Theorem, the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic, Desargues’ Theorem, the...

  12. Automated Theorem Proving in High-Quality Software Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Swanson, Keith (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The amount and complexity of software developed during the last few years has increased tremendously. In particular, programs are being used more and more in embedded systems (from car-brakes to plant-control). Many of these applications are safety-relevant, i.e. a malfunction of hardware or software can cause severe damage or loss. Tremendous risks are typically present in the area of aviation, (nuclear) power plants or (chemical) plant control. Here, even small problems can lead to thousands of casualties and huge financial losses. Large financial risks also exist when computer systems are used in the area of telecommunication (telephone, electronic commerce) or space exploration. Computer applications in this area are not only subject to safety considerations, but also security issues are important. All these systems must be designed and developed to guarantee high quality with respect to safety and security. Even in an industrial setting which is (or at least should be) aware of the high requirements in Software Engineering, many incidents occur. For example, the Warshaw Airbus crash, was caused by an incomplete requirements specification. Uncontrolled reuse of an Ariane 4 software module was the reason for the Ariane 5 disaster. Some recent incidents in the telecommunication area, like illegal "cloning" of smart-cards of D2GSM handies, or the extraction of (secret) passwords from German T-online users show that also in this area serious flaws can happen. Due to the inherent complexity of computer systems, most authors claim that only a rigorous application of formal methods in all stages of the software life cycle can ensure high quality of the software and lead to real safe and secure systems. In this paper, we will have a look, in how far automated theorem proving can contribute to a more widespread application of formal methods and their tools, and what automated theorem provers (ATPs) must provide in order to be useful.

  13. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Şimşek

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. Methods: This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. Results: The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both. Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%. Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%. Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%. Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%. Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%; bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%; fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%; and BAL, in 2 (11.1%. Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7% of the 18 cases evaluated. Conclusions: In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB.

  14. Bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures and microbiological examinations in proving endobronchial tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Abdullah; Yapıcı, İlhami; Babalık, Mesiha; Şimşek, Zekiye; Kolsuz, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    To determine the proportional distribution of endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) subtypes and to evaluate the types of bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures that can prove granulomatous inflammation. This was a retrospective study of 18 HIV-negative patients with biopsy-proven EBTB treated between 2010 and 2014. The most common EBTB subtypes, as classified by the bronchoscopic features, were tumorous and granular (in 22.2% for both). Sputum smear microscopy was performed in 11 patients and was positive for AFB in 4 (36.3%). Sputum culture was also performed in 11 patients and was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis in 10 (90.9%). Smear microscopy of BAL fluid (BALF) was performed in 16 patients and was positive for AFB in 10 (62.5%). Culture of BALF was also performed in 16 patients and was positive for M. tuberculosis in 15 (93.7%). Culture of BALF was positive for M. tuberculosis in 93.7% of the 16 patients tested. Among the 18 patients with EBTB, granulomatous inflammation was proven by the following bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures: bronchial mucosal biopsy, in 8 (44.4%); bronchial brushing, in 7 (38.8%); fine-needle aspiration biopsy, in 2 (11.1%); and BAL, in 2 (11.1%). Bronchial anthracofibrosis was observed in 5 (27.7%) of the 18 cases evaluated. In our sample of EBTB patients, the most common subtypes were the tumorous and granular subtypes. We recommend that sputum samples and BALF samples be evaluated by smear microscopy for AFB and by culture for M. tuberculosis, which could increase the rates of early diagnosis of EBTB. We also recommend that bronchial brushing be employed together with other bronchoscopic diagnostic procedures in patients suspected of having EBTB. Determinar a distribuição proporcional dos subtipos de tuberculose endobrônquica (TBEB) e avaliar os tipos de procedimentos diagnósticos broncoscópicos que podem revelar inflamação granulomatosa. Este foi um estudo retrospectivo com 18 pacientes HIV negativos com TBEB comprovada

  15. Beach Point Test Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Edgewood Area, Maryland. Focused Feasibility Study, Final Project Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Evialuatihwoat VMIOIU EMueat and Sidi .adroMe" ftae Cooamrnderg Sedimentnby CW4rChm liftwu m5 at o wTO &* MIVdLW* aInv0 .Irc-gres uf Engownnuen Ul C UM& jini ...Diwa C nesgtsiSxeSdea D80413 $Pak. Od &%1wrVU AST1W r. OP 976 pp 4%,J,. (US) We"h IN. WI ADMet. P. R.. a&W GAO &di 0. J.. -PankdeSiu I,"l.r r.r I Ah~abY

  16. 76 FR 7585 - General Motors Corporation Milford Proving Grounds Including On-Site Leased Workers From Adroit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    .... and Hewlett Packard (HP) FKA EDS, Global Product Development, Non-IT Business Development and...-IT Business Development Team and the Engineering Applications Support Team of the Global Product... known as EDS, Global Product Development, Non-IT Business Development Team and Engineering Applications...

  17. ESTCP Munitions Response Live Site Demonstrations Southwest Proving Ground, Arkansas Andersen Air Force Base, Guam Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this collection of information, including suggestions for...14  6.5  CUED INTERROGATION OF ANOMALIES ......................................................... 14  6.6  CORRECTLY...2x2 survey. Each of the 1,195 anomalies were reacquired and interrogated using cued data collection with the TEMTADS 2x2. All TOI were correctly

  18. 155-mm M795 Aerofuze Test at the KOFA Range, Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, 19 May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    the high -g accelerometers during flight Low-g Accelerometer (ADXL377) Low-G accelerometer data is available and was clean and complete throughout...temperature during flight High -rate Gyroscopes (3X ADXRS649) Data from the high -rate gyroscopes were available during the entire flight with no...Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED The views, opinions, and/or findings contained in this report

  19. Work Plan for the Feasibility Study for Remedial Action at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.

  20. MX Siting Investigation. Volume IIB. Geotechnical Report, Yuma Proving Grounds/Luke-Williams Bombing and Gunnery Range (YPG/LWBGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-30

    within YPG/LWBGR is largely transient and consists primarily of military, civil service, and contractual personnel totaling approximately 2000... Ingeneria Antisimica, Santiago, Chile, 1, p. 14-27. Algermissen, S. T., and Perkins, D. M., 1972, Technique for seismic zoning: general consideration...T P -- m.. SIA~gUN,. ,.. A- 45 SOURCES OF PERSONAL COMMUNICATION Ashley, John F., Civil Engineer, 58th Civil Engineer Squadron, Luke Air Force Base

  1. Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE. Report to the Test Director Aircraft Participation, Nevada Proving Grounds, March-June 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-04

    C b «> "a 4-t CO § » I . _a-S .^ v« •<-4 3 M ta M « -S v e a e -n b •s * s , .„ ^ £ « £ 5 5 H I o o I toco TT...Decontamination uaed after first reading, natural decay. 106 »0,000 toco i 5 S »00 «0 1 1 I I I lllj 1 TTTTTm NATURAL OCCAV i i

  2. Quality Control Methodologies for Advanced EMI Sensor Data Acquisition and Anomaly Classification - Former Southwestern Proving Ground, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    30 LIST OF APPENDICES Appendix A Points of Contact vii 10/2/2015 LIST OF ACRONYMS % percent µT micro Tesla cm...three orthogonal 1-square meter (m²) transmit coils and seven 10-centimeter (cm), three-component, orthogonal receiver coils (Figure 2-1). The system...navigation. The rover head was mounted directly over the center of the MetalMapper transmit coil . An inertial measurement unit (IMU) was installed

  3. Superconductivity, charge orderings, magnetism, and their phase separations in the ground state of lattice models of superconductor with very short coherence length

    OpenAIRE

    Kapcia, Konrad Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    This is an author-created, un-copyedited version of an article accepted for publication in Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism. We present the ground state results for lattice models of superconductor (SC) with extremely short coherence length, which also involve the interplay with charge (CO) and (anti-)ferromagnetic orderings. Our preliminary results at zero-temperature (derived by means of the variational approach which treats the on-site interaction term exactly and the in...

  4. Comparison of the Percentage Stance and Swing Phases and Ground Reaction Force between Young and Older Adults during Walking at different speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Brooshak

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: In general, the percentage of stance and swing phases of a gait cycle is similar between young and older adults. Lower VGRFs of weight acceptance and push off phases in the elders reflects the weakness of the knee extensor, hip extensors and ankle plantar flexors. It seems that older adults reduce the rate of force production during fast gait to achieve the necessary capacity for power generation and thereby, overcome the weakness of the lower extremity muscles.

  5. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: background and theory (introduction; fractionation in the hydrosphere; mobility factors; radioisotope evolution and aquifer classification; aquifer disequilibria and geochemical fronts); case studies (introduction; (a) conservative, and (b) non-conservative, behaviour); ground water dating applications (general requirements; radon and helium; radium isotopes; uranium isotopes). (U.K.)

  6. Ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The great variations in concentrations and activity ratios of 234 U/ 238 U in ground waters and the features causing elemental and isotopic mobility in the hydrosphere are discussed. Fractionation processes and their application to hydrology and other environmental problems such as earthquake, groundwater and aquifer dating are described. (UK)

  7. INERTIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEMS FOR STABILIZATION OF GROUND VEHICLES EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Sushchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The vibratory inertial technology is a recent modern inertial technology. It represents the most perspective approach to design of inertial sensors, which can be used in stabilization and tracking systems operated on vehicles of the wide class. The purpose of the research is to consider advantages of this technology in comparison with laser and fiber-optic ones. Operation of the inertial sensors on the ground vehicles requires some improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope with the goal to simplify information processing, increase reliability, and compensate bias. Methods: Improvement of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope includes introducing of the phase detector and additional excitation unit. The possibility to use the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in the stabilization systems operated on the ground vehicles is shown by means of analysis of gyroscope output signal. To prove efficiency of the Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization system the simulation technique is used. Results: The scheme of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope including the phase detector and additional excitation unit is developed and analyzed. The way to compensate bias is determined. Simulation of the stabilization system with the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope is carried out. Expressions for the output signals of the improved Coriolis vibratory gyroscope are derived. The error of the output signal is estimated and the possibility to use the modified Coriolis vibratory gyroscope in stabilization systems is proved. The results of stabilization system simulation are given. Their analysis is carried out. Conclusions: The represented results prove efficiency of the proposed technical decisions. They can be useful for design of stabilization platform with instrumental equipment operated on moving vehicles of the wide class.

  8. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Jun, Ssang Sun; Choi, Sejin; Clark, Simon M.

    2010-01-01

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order

  9. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  10. Seismic Safety Margins Research Program, Phase I. Project II: seismic input. Compilation, assessment and expansion of the strong earthquake ground motion data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouse, C B; Hileman, J A; Turner, B E; Martin, G R

    1980-04-01

    A catalog has been prepared which contains information for: (1) world-wide, ground-motion accelerograms, (2) the accelerograph sites where these records were obtained, and (3) the seismological parameters of the causative earthquakes. The catalog is limited to data for those accelerograms which have been digitized and published. In addition, the quality and completeness of these data are assessed. This catalog is unique because it is the only publication which contains comprehensive information on the recording conditions of all known digitized accelerograms. However, information for many accelerograms is missing. Although some literature may have been overlooked, most of the missing data has not been published. Nevertheless, the catalog provides a convenient reference and useful tool for earthquake engineering research and applications.

  11. Rotational foot placement specifies the lever arm of the ground reaction force during the push-off phase of walking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ahmet; Piazza, Stephen J

    2002-06-01

    The lever arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) about the talocrural joint axis is a functionally important indicator of the nature of foot loading. Walking initiation experiments (ten subjects; age, 23-29 years) were completed to demonstrate that rotational foot placement is a possible strategy to specify the lever arm. Externally-rotated foot placement resulted in larger lever arms during push-off. A computer simulation of push-off revealed that a decreased lever arm reduces the plantarflexion moment necessary to maintain a constant forward velocity, while increasing the required plantarflexion velocity. Shortening of the foot thus diminishes the muscular force demand but also requires high muscle fiber shortening velocities that may limit the force generating capacity of plantar flexors. Decreased plantar flexion moment and slow walking previously noted in partial-foot amputees may result from shortened lever arms in this manner.

  12. Assessment of Soil, Surface-Water, and Ground-Water Contamination at Selected Sites at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phelan, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    .... From shortly after World War II into the 1970's, chemical-warfare agents, high-explosive munitions, and industrial chemicals were tested and disposed of at J-Field by open-pit burning and by high-explosive demolition...

  13. Communication grounding facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gye Seong

    1998-06-01

    It is about communication grounding facility, which is made up twelve chapters. It includes general grounding with purpose, materials thermal insulating material, construction of grounding, super strength grounding method, grounding facility with grounding way and building of insulating, switched grounding with No. 1A and LCR, grounding facility of transmission line, wireless facility grounding, grounding facility in wireless base station, grounding of power facility, grounding low-tenton interior power wire, communication facility of railroad, install of arrester in apartment and house, install of arrester on introduction and earth conductivity and measurement with introduction and grounding resistance.

  14. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Jae Eun

    2010-02-01

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 °C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The evolution of strength and crystalline phases for alkali-activated ground blast furnace slag and fly ash-based geopolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jae Eun; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.; Jun, Ssang Sun; Choi, Sejin; Clark, Simon M.

    2010-01-01

    The increase in strength and evolution of crystalline phases in inorganic polymer cement, made by the alkali activation of slag, Class C and Class F fly ashes, was followed using compressive strength test and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. In order to increase the crystallinity of the product the reactions were carried out at 80 deg. C. We found that hydrotalcite formed in both the alkali-activated slag cements and the fly ash-based geopolymers. Hydroxycancrinite, one member of the ABC-6 family of zeolites, was found only in the fly ash geopolymers. Assuming that the predominantly amorphous geopolymer formed under ambient conditions relates to the crystalline phases found when the mixture is cured at high temperature, we propose that the structure of this zeolitic precursor formed in Na-based high alkaline environment can be regarded as a disordered form of the basic building unit of the ABC-6 group of zeolites which includes poly-types such as hydroxycancrinite, hydroxysodalite and chabazite-Na.

  16. Microbiological and chemical quality of ground water used as a source of public supply in southern Missouri : Phase II, April-July, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femmer, Suzanne R.

    2000-01-01

    The protection of public health through quality public ground-water systems is the responsibility of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the State of Missouri, through the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Program. Approximately 95 percent of the public-water supplies in Missouri use ground water as their source of drinking water through more than 3,700 public wells. Karst terrain, intensive agricultural operations, extensive numbers of on-site sewage systems, and poor well construction can lead to chemical and microbiological contamination of the contributing aquifers. Sitespecific studies and routine regulatory monitoring have produced information on the overall quality and potability of the State's public-drinking-water supplies, but little is known about the presence of viruses. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, sampled 109 public-water supplies to characterize the physical, chemical, bacterial, and viral conditions in southern Missouri. During April to July 1998, these wells were sampled for nutrients, total organic carbon, optical brighteners, indicator bacteria, enteric viruses, and ribonucleic acid and somatic coli phages. These constituents indicate possible surface contamination of the sampled aquifer. Selection of the wells to be sampled depended on the age of the well (pre-1970), land use, geohydrology, and well construction. None of the physical or chemical constituents measured or analyzed exceeded Missouri's Drinking Water Standards set by the Public Drinking Water Program of the Missouri Department of Natural Resources. The majority of ammonia plus organic nitrogen, nitrite, and phosphorus concentrations were below the laboratory's minimum reporting levels. There were a greater number of detects above the minimum reporting level with respect to the nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and total organic carbon concentrations. Analyses

  17. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  18. Phase contrast image synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, J.

    1996-01-01

    A new method is presented for synthesizing arbitrary intensity patterns based on phase contrast imaging. The concept is grounded on an extension of the Zernike phase contrast method into the domain of full range [0; 2 pi] phase modulation. By controlling the average value of the input phase funct...... function and by choosing appropriate phase retardation at the phase contrast filter, a pure phase to intensity imaging is accomplished. The method presented is also directly applicable in dark field image synthesis....

  19. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  20. Study of the unknown hemisphere of mercury by ground-based astronomical facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2011-08-01

    The short exposure method proved to be very productive in ground-based observations of Mercury. Telescopic observations with short exposures, together with computer codes for the processing of data arrays of many thousands of original electronic photos, make it possible to improve the resolution of images from ground-based instruments to almost the diffraction limit. The resulting composite images are comparable with images from spacecrafts approaching from a distance of about 1 million km. This paper presents images of the hemisphere of Mercury in longitude sectors 90°-180°W, 215°-350°W, and 50°-90°W, including, among others, areas not covered by spacecraft cameras. For the first time a giant S basin was discovered in the sector of longitudes 250°-290°W, which is the largest formation of this type on terrestrial planets. Mercury has a strong phase effects. As a result, the view of the surface changes completely with the change in the planetary phase. But the choice of the phase in the study using spacecrafts is limited by orbital characteristics of the mission. Thus, ground-based observations of the planet provide a valuable support.

  1. Proving the AGT relation for N f = 0, 1, 2 antifundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskólski, Zbigniew; Suchanek, Paulina

    2010-06-01

    Using recursive relations satisfied by Nekrasov partition functions and by irregular conformal blocks we prove the AGT correspondence in the case of mathcal{N} = 2 superconformal SU(2) quiver gauge theories with N f = 0, 1, 2 antifundamental hypermultiplets.

  2. Classificació de proves no paramètriques. Com aplicar-les en SPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Berlanga-Silvente

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Les proves no paramètriques engloben una sèrie de proves estadístiques, que tenen com a denominador comú l'absència de assumpcions sobre la llei de probabilitat que segueix la població de la qual ha estat extreta la mostra. Per aquesta raó és comú referir-s'hi com a proves de distribució lliure. A l'article es descriuen i treballen les proves no paramètriques ressaltant el seu fonament i les indicacions per al seu ús quan es tracta d'una sola mostra (Chi-quadrat, de dues mostres amb dades independents (U de Mann-Whitney, de dues mostres amb dades relacionades (T de Wilcoxon, de diverses mostres amb dades independents (H de Kruskal-Wallis i de diverses mostres amb dades relacionades (Friedman.

  3. “Deliberate distortion of facts” and the problem of proving bias:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    informed observer would reasonably perceive bias on the part of the officer .... represent an excellent illustration of what an Australian Chief Justice once .... the appellants prove that the Justice of Appeal who had no financial or other.

  4. PROVE Land Cover and Leaf Area of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Field measurement of shrubland ecological properties is important for both site monitoring and validation of remote-sensing information. During the PROVE exercise on...

  5. PROVE Land Cover and Leaf Area of Jornada Experimental Range, New Mexico, 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Field measurement of shrubland ecological properties is important for both site monitoring and validation of remote-sensing information. During the PROVE...

  6. Impact differences in ground reaction force and center of mass between the first and second landing phases of a drop vertical jump and their implications for injury risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Ford, Kevin R; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2013-04-26

    The drop vertical jump (DVJ) task is commonly used to assess biomechanical performance measures that are associated with ACL injury risk in athletes. Previous investigations have solely assessed the first landing phase. We examined the first and second landings of a DVJ for differences in the magnitude of vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and position of center of mass (CoM). A cohort of 239 adolescent female basketball athletes completed a series of DVJ tasks from an initial box height of 31 cm. Dual force platforms and a three dimensional motion capture system recorded force and positional data for each trial. There was no difference in peak vGRF between landings (p=0.445), but side-to-side differences increased from the first to second landing (p=0.007). Participants demonstrated a lower minimum CoM during stance in the first landing than the second landing (p<0.001). The results have important implications for the future assessment of ACL injury risk behaviors in adolescent female athletes. Greater side-to-side asymmetry in vGRF and higher CoM during impact indicate the second landing of a DVJ may exhibit greater perturbation and better represent in-game mechanics associated with ACL injury risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Miniature Ground Mapping LADAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a miniature solid state surface imaging LADAR, for imaging the landing areas providing precision...

  8. Ground states of a spin-boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amann, A.

    1991-01-01

    Phase transition with respect to ground states of a spin-boson Hamiltonian are investigated. The spin-boson model under discussion consists of one spin and infinitely many bosons with a dipole-type coupling. It is shown that the order parameter of the model vanishes with respect to arbitrary ground states if it vanishes with respect to ground states obtained as (biased) temperature to zero limits of thermic equilibrium states. The ground states of the latter special type have been investigated by H. Spohn. Spohn's respective phase diagrams are therefore valid for arbitrary ground states. Furthermore, disjointness of ground states in the broken symmetry regime is examined

  9. Ground collectors for heat pumps; Grondcollectoren voor warmtepompen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Krevel, A. [Techneco, Leidschendam (Netherlands)

    1999-10-01

    The dimensioning and cost optimisation of a closed vertical ground collector system has been studied. The so-called Earth Energy Designer (EED) computer software, specially developed for the calculations involved in such systems, proved to be a particularly useful tool. The most significant findings from the first part of the study, 'Heat extraction from the ground', are presented and some common misconceptions about ground collector systems are clarified. 2 refs.

  10. Ground water '89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings of the 5th biennial symposium of the Ground Water Division of the Geological Society of South Africa are presented. The theme of the symposium was ground water and mining. Papers were presented on the following topics: ground water resources; ground water contamination; chemical analyses of ground water and mining and its influece on ground water. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the papers presented. The remaining papers were considered outside the subject scope of INIS

  11. Technical report on the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) conducts Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan (STA) under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purpose of these tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the light water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. Presently piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic fracture mechanics method is being done. Until now annual reports concerning the proving tests were produced and submitted to STA, whereas this report summarizes the test results done during these 16 years. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the light water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location even if it ruptured suddenly. To attain these objectives (i) pipe fatigue tests, (ii) unstable pipe fracture tests, (iii) pipe rupture tests and also the analyses by computer codes were done. After carrying out these tests, it is verified that the piping is reliable throughout the service period. The authors of this report are T. Isozaki, K. Shibata, S. Ueda, R. Kurihara, K. Onizawa and A. Kohsaka. The parts they wrote are shown in contents. (author)

  12. Dimension changing phase transitions in instanton crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim; Sonnenschein, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    We investigate lattices of instantons and the dimension-changing transitions between them. Our ultimate goal is the 3D→4D transition, which is holographically dual to the phase transition between the baryonic and the quarkyonic phases of cold nuclear matter. However, in this paper (just as in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2012)047) we focus on lower dimensions — the 1D lattice of instantons in a harmonic potential V∝M 2 2 x 2 2 +M 3 2 x 2 2 +M 4 2 x 4 2 , and the zigzag-shaped lattice as a first stage of the 1D→2D transition. We prove that in the low- and moderate-density regimes, interactions between the instantons are dominated by two-body forces. This drastically simplifies finding the ground state of the instantons’ orientations, so we made a numeric scan of the whole orientation space instead of assuming any particular ansatz. We find that depending on the M 2 /M 3 /M 4 ratios, the ground state of instanton orientations can follow a wide variety of patterns. For the straight 1D lattices, we found orientations periodically running over elements of a ℤ 2 , Klein, prismatic, or dihedral subgroup of the SU(2)/ℤ 2 , as well as irrational but link-periodic patterns. For the zigzag-shaped lattices, we detected 4 distinct orientation phases — the anti-ferromagnet, another abelian phase, and two non-abelian phases. Allowing the zigzag amplitude to vary as a function of increasing compression force, we obtained the phase diagrams for the straight and zigzag-shaped lattices in the (force,M 3 /M 4 ), (chemical potential,M 3 /M 4 ), and (density,M 3 /M 4 ) planes. Some of the transitions between these phases are second-order while others are first-order. Our techniques can be applied to other types of non-abelian crystals

  13. Typhoon-Induced Ground Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyen, M.; Canitano, A.; Chao, B. F.; Hsu, Y.-J.; Steer, P.; Longuevergne, L.; Boy, J.-P.

    2017-11-01

    Geodetic instruments now offer compelling sensitivity, allowing to investigate how solid Earth and surface processes interact. By combining surface air pressure data, nontidal sea level variations model, and rainfall data, we systematically analyze the volumetric deformation of the shallow crust at seven borehole strainmeters in Taiwan induced by 31 tropical cyclones (typhoons) that made landfall to the island from 2004 to 2013. The typhoon's signature consists in a ground dilatation due to air pressure drop, generally followed by a larger ground compression. We show that this compression phase can be mostly explained by the mass loading of rainwater that falls on the ground and concentrates in the valleys towards the strainmeter sensitivity zone. Further, our analysis shows that borehole strainmeters can help quantifying the amount of rainwater accumulating and flowing over a watershed during heavy rainfalls, which is a useful constraint for building hydrological models.

  14. Proving the correctness of unfold/fold program transformations using bisimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Geoff W.; Jones, Neil

    2011-01-01

    by a labelled transition system whose bisimilarity relation is a congruence that coincides with contextual equivalence. Labelled transition systems are well-suited to represent global program behaviour. On the other hand, unfold/fold program transformations use generalization and folding, and neither is easy......This paper shows that a bisimulation approach can be used to prove the correctness of unfold/fold program transformation algorithms. As an illustration, we show how our approach can be use to prove the correctness of positive supercompilation (due to Sørensen et al). Traditional program equivalence...... to describe contextually, due to use of non-local information. We show that weak bisimulation on labelled transition systems gives an elegant framework to prove contextual equivalence of original and transformed programs. One reason is that folds can be seen in the context of corresponding unfolds....

  15. Formalizing and proving a typing result for security protocols in Isabelle/HOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hess, Andreas Viktor; Modersheim, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    or the positive output of a verification tool. However several of these works have used a typed model, where the intruder is restricted to "well-typed" attacks. There also have been several works that show that this is actually not a restriction for a large class of protocols, but all these results so far...... are again pen-and-paper proofs. In this work we present a formalization of such a typing result in Isabelle/HOL. We formalize a constraint-based approach that is used in the proof argument of such typing results, and prove its soundness, completeness and termination. We then formalize and prove the typing...... result itself in Isabelle. Finally, to illustrate the real-world feasibility, we prove that the standard Transport Layer Security (TLS) handshake satisfies the main condition of the typing result....

  16. The in-pile proving test for fuel assembly of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Dianshan; Zhang Shucheng; Kang Rixin; Wang Huarong; Chen Guanghan

    1989-10-01

    The in-pile proving test for fuel assembly of Qinshan nuclear power plant had been conducted in the experimental loop of HWRR at IAE (Institute of Atomic Energy) in Beijing, China, from January 1985 to December 1986. Average burnup of 27000 MWd/tU and peak burnup of 34000 MWd/tU of fuel rod had already been reached. The basic status of the experiment are described, emphasis is placed on the discussion of proving test parameters and analysis of experiment results

  17. Ground water and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    This national workshop on ground water and energy was conceived by the US Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Assessments. Generally, OEA needed to know what data are available on ground water, what information is still needed, and how DOE can best utilize what has already been learned. The workshop focussed on three areas: (1) ground water supply; (2) conflicts and barriers to ground water use; and (3) alternatives or solutions to the various issues relating to ground water. (ACR)

  18. Radioactive waste disposal into the ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Disposal into ground has sometimes proved to be an expedient and simple method. Where ground disposal has become an established practice, the sites have so far been limited to those remote from population centres; but in other respects, such as in climate and soil conditions, their characteristics vary widely. Experience gained at these sites has illustrated the variety of problems in radioactive waste migration and the resulting pollution and environmental radiation levels that may reasonably be anticipated at other sites, whether remote from population centres or otherwise.

  19. Geotechnics - the key to ground water protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Jens; Foged, Niels; Jørgensen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    During the past 5 to 10 years research into ground water protection has proved that fractures in clay till may increase the hydraulic conductivity and herby the vulnerability of the ground water considerably. However, research has not identified a non-expensive and efficient method to map...... the fracture conditions of the various clay tills. Tests performed at the Danish Geotechnical Institute with large undisturbed columns of clay till show that there is a relation between the strength of the clay till and the hydraulic conductivity. Geotechnical methods may therefore be the key to determine...

  20. Origin of choriocarcinoma in previous molar pregnancy proved by DNA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtassak, J.; Repiska, V.; Konecna, B.; Zajac, V.; Korbel, M.; Danihel, L.

    1996-01-01

    A 17-year old woman had in a short time period (seven months) a very exciting reproduction history. Molar pregnancy in December 1993, choriocarcinoma in January 1994 and induced abortion in June 1994. DNA analysis proved the origin of the choriocarcinoma in the previous molar pregnancy. (author)

  1. Automatically Proving Termination and Memory Safety for Programs with Pointer Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ströder, Thomas; Giesl, Jürgen; Brockschmidt, Marc

    2017-01-01

    While automated verification of imperative programs has been studied intensively, proving termination of programs with explicit pointer arithmetic fully automatically was still an open problem. To close this gap, we introduce a novel abstract domain that can track allocated memory in detail. We use...

  2. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near

  3. 20 CFR 416.1603 - How to prove you are a resident of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How to prove you are a resident of the United States. 416.1603 Section 416.1603 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... as— (1) Property, income, or other tax forms or receipts; (2) Utility bills, leases or rent payment...

  4. Using eternity variables to specify and prove a serializable database interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, Wim H.

    Eternity variables are introduced to specify and verify serializability of transactions of a distributed database. Eternity variables are a new kind of auxiliary variables. They do not occur in the implementation but are used in specification and verification. Elsewhere it has been proved that

  5. Proving termination of graph transformation systems using weighted type graphs over semirings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggink, H.J.S.; König, B.; Nolte, D.; Zantema, H.; Parisi-Presicce, F.; Westfechtel, B.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce techniques for proving uniform termination of graph transformation systems, based on matrix interpretations for string rewriting. We generalize this technique by adapting it to graph rewriting instead of string rewriting and by generalizing to ordered semirings. In this way we obtain a

  6. Proof and Proving: Logic, Impasses, and the Relationship to Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Milos

    2012-01-01

    Becoming a skillful prover is critical for success in advanced undergraduate and graduate mathematics courses. In this dissertation, I report my investigations of proof and the proving process in three separate studies. In the first study, I examined the amount of logic used in student-constructed proofs to help in the design of…

  7. The Secret Prover : Proving Possession of Arbitrary Files While not Giving Them Away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepe, Wouter

    2005-01-01

    The Secret Prover is a Java application which allows a user (A) to prove to another user (B), that A possesses a file. If B also possesses this file B will get convinced, and if B does not possess this file B will gain no information on (the contents of) this file. This is the first implementation

  8. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, Θ must satisfy the equation Θx = x(Θx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs

  9. Searching for fixed point combinators by using automated theorem proving: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wos, L.; McCune, W.

    1988-09-01

    In this report, we establish that the use of an automated theorem- proving program to study deep questions from mathematics and logic is indeed an excellent move. Among such problems, we focus mainly on that concerning the construction of fixed point combinators---a problem considered by logicians to be significant and difficult to solve, and often computationally intensive and arduous. To be a fixed point combinator, THETA must satisfy the equation THETAx = x(THETAx) for all combinators x. The specific questions on which we focus most heavily ask, for each chosen set of combinators, whether a fixed point combinator can be constructed from the members of that set. For answering questions of this type, we present a new, sound, and efficient method, called the kernel method, which can be applied quite easily by hand and very easily by an automated theorem-proving program. For the application of the kernel method by a theorem-proving program, we illustrate the vital role that is played by both paramodulation and demodulation---two of the powerful features frequently offered by an automated theorem-proving program for treating equality as if it is ''understood.'' We also state a conjecture that, if proved, establishes the completeness of the kernel method. From what we can ascertain, this method---which relies on the introduced concepts of kernel and superkernel---offers the first systematic approach for searching for fixed point combinators. We successfully apply the new kernel method to various sets of combinators and, for the set consisting of the combinators B and W, construct an infinite set of fixed point combinators such that no two of the combinators are equal even in the presence of extensionality---a law that asserts that two combinators are equal if they behave the same. 18 refs.

  10. Mathematical Understanding and Proving Abilities: Experiment With Undergraduate Student By Using Modified Moore Learning Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rippi Maya

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports findings of  a  post test experimental control group design conducted to investigate the role of modified Moore learning approach  on improving students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities. Subject of study were 56 undergradute students of one state university in Bandung, who took advanced abstract algebra course. Instrument of study were a set test of mathematical understanding ability, a set test of mathematical proving ability, and a set of students’ opinion scale on modified Moore learning approach. Data were analyzed by using two path ANOVA. The study found that proof construction process was more difficult than mathematical understanding  task  for all students, and students still posed some difficulties on constructing mathematical proof task.  The study also found there were not differences  between students’  abilities on mathematical understanding and on proving abilities of  the both classes, and both abilities were classified as mediocre. However, in modified Moore learning approach class there were more students who got above average grades on mathematical understanding than those of conventional class. Moreover, students performed positive  opinion toward  modified Moore learning approach. They  were  active in questioning and solving problems, and in explaining their works in front of class as well, while students of conventional teaching prefered to listen to lecturer’s explanation. The study also found that there was no interaction between learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability on mathematical understanding and proving abilities,  but  there were  quite strong  association between students’ mathematical understanding and proving abilities.Keywords:  modified Moore learning approach, mathematical understanding ability, mathematical proving ability. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.2.751.231-250

  11. Analysis of the error of the developed method of determination the active conductivity reducing the insulation level between one phase of the network and ground, and insulation parameters in a non-symmetric network with isolated neutral with voltage above 1000 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utegulov, B. B.

    2018-02-01

    In the work the study of the developed method was carried out for reliability by analyzing the error in indirect determination of the insulation parameters in an asymmetric network with an isolated neutral voltage above 1000 V. The conducted studies of the random relative mean square errors show that the accuracy of indirect measurements in the developed method can be effectively regulated not only by selecting a capacitive additional conductivity, which are connected between phases of the electrical network and the ground, but also by the selection of measuring instruments according to the accuracy class. When choosing meters with accuracy class of 0.5 with the correct selection of capacitive additional conductivity that are connected between the phases of the electrical network and the ground, the errors in measuring the insulation parameters will not exceed 10%.

  12. Impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the (poly)phenol content of wild blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; George, Trevor W; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-05-07

    Accumulating evidence suggests that diets rich in (poly)phenols may have positive effects on human health. Currently there is limited information regarding the effects of processing on the (poly)phenolic content of berries, in particular in processes related to the baking industry. This study investigated the impact of cooking, proving, and baking on the anthocyanin, procyanidin, flavonol, and phenolic acid contents of wild blueberry using HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Anthocyanin levels decreased during cooking, proving, and baking, whereas no significant changes were observed for total procyanidins. However, lower molecular weight procyanidins increased and high molecular weight oligomers decreased during the process. Quercetin and ferulic and caffeic acid levels remained constant, whereas increases were found for chlorogenic acid. Due to their possible health benefits, a better understanding of the impact of processing is important to maximize the retention of these phytochemicals in berry-containing products.

  13. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  14. Research in advanced formal theorem-proving techniques. [design and implementation of computer languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, B.; Fikes, R.; Waldinger, R.

    1973-01-01

    The results are summarised of a project aimed at the design and implementation of computer languages to aid in expressing problem solving procedures in several areas of artificial intelligence including automatic programming, theorem proving, and robot planning. The principal results of the project were the design and implementation of two complete systems, QA4 and QLISP, and their preliminary experimental use. The various applications of both QA4 and QLISP are given.

  15. Conceptualizing reasoning-and-proving opportunities in textbook expositions : Cases from secondary calculus

    OpenAIRE

    Bergwall, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Several recent textbook studies focus on opportunities to learn reasoning-and-proving. They typically investigate the extent to which justifications are general proofs and what opportunities exist for learning important elements of mathematical reasoning. In this paper, I discuss how a particular analytical framework for this might be refined. Based on an in-depth analysis of certain textbook passages in upper secondary calculus textbooks, I make an account for analytical issues encountered d...

  16. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 3, Appendix A, Draft standard operating procedures and elements: Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP): Phase 1, Task 4, Field Investigation, Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report presents information concerning field procedures employed during the monitoring, well construction, well purging, sampling, and well logging at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Activities were conducted in an effort to evaluate ground water contamination.

  17. The ground based plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents a report of ''The Ground Based Plan'' of the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council. The ground based plan is a plan for research in astronomy and planetary science by ground based techniques. The contents of the report contains a description of:- the scientific objectives and technical requirements (the basis for the Plan), the present organisation and funding for the ground based programme, the Plan, the main scientific features and the further objectives of the Plan. (U.K.)

  18. Constructivist Grounded Theory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, PhD, Hon. PhD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractI refer to and use as scholarly inspiration Charmaz’s excellent article on constructivist grounded theory as a tool of getting to the fundamental issues on why grounded theory is not constructivist. I show that constructivist data, if it exists at all, is a very, very small part of the data that grounded theory uses.

  19. Communication, concepts and grounding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Frank; van der Velde, F.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain

  20. Status of the Correlation Process of the V-HAB Simulation with Ground Tests and ISS Telemetry Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetner, P.; Roth, C.; Zhukov, A.; Czupalla, M.; Anderson, M.; Ewert, M.

    2013-01-01

    The Virtual Habitat (V-HAB) is a dynamic Life Support System (LSS) simulation, created for investigation of future human spaceflight missions. It provides the capability to optimize LSS during early design phases. The focal point of the paper is the correlation and validation of V-HAB against ground test and flight data. In order to utilize V-HAB to design an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) it is important to know the accuracy of simulations, strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, simulations of real systems are essential. The modeling of the International Space Station (ISS) ECLSS in terms of single technologies as well as an integrated system and correlation against ground and flight test data is described. The results of the simulations make it possible to prove the approach taken by V-HAB.

  1. Rice husk ash with high carbon content proves favourable for soil stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, P.V.; van der Star, WRL; van Paassen, L.A.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    Rice husk ash is a promising pozzolanic material produced from rice husk burning and has significant potential a sustainable replacement for cement in construction and ground improvement applications. In this study the effect of burning conditions on the ash reactivity and its potential for soil

  2. 76 FR 50771 - Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child, 3206-0206

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a...) 3206-0206, Evidence to Prove Dependency of a Child. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995... or faxed to (202) 395-6974. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Evidence to Prove Dependency of a Child is...

  3. Evaluation of permeability of compacted bentonite ground considering heterogeneity by geostatistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Kudo, Kohji; Hironaga, Michihiko; Nakagami, Motonori; Niwase, Kazuhito; Komatsu, Shin-ichi

    2007-01-01

    The permeability of the bentonite ground as an engineered barrier is possibly designed to the value which is lower than that determined in terms of required performance because of heterogeneous distribution of permeability in the ground, which might be considerable when the ground is created by the compaction method. The effect of heterogeneity in the ground on the permeability of the bentonite ground should be evaluated by overall permeability of the ground, whereas in practice, the effect is evaluated by the distribution of permeability in the ground. Thus, in this study, overall permeability of the bentonite ground is evaluated from the permeability of the bentonite ground is evaluated from the permeability distribution determined using the geostatistical method with the dry density data as well as permeability data of the undisturbed sample recovered from the bentonite ground. Consequently, it was proved through this study that possibility of overestimation of permeability of the bentonite ground can be reduced if the overall permeability is used. (author)

  4. Rigour and grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Adeline

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores ways to enhance and demonstrate rigour in a grounded theory study. Grounded theory is sometimes criticised for a lack of rigour. Beck (1993) identified credibility, auditability and fittingness as the main standards of rigour for qualitative research methods. These criteria were evaluated for applicability to a Straussian grounded theory study and expanded or refocused where necessary. The author uses a Straussian grounded theory study (Cooney, In press) to examine how the revised criteria can be applied when conducting a grounded theory study. Strauss and Corbin (1998b) criteria for judging the adequacy of a grounded theory were examined in the context of the wider literature examining rigour in qualitative research studies in general and grounded theory studies in particular. A literature search for 'rigour' and 'grounded theory' was carried out to support this analysis. Criteria are suggested for enhancing and demonstrating the rigour of a Straussian grounded theory study. These include: cross-checking emerging concepts against participants' meanings, asking experts if the theory 'fit' their experiences, and recording detailed memos outlining all analytical and sampling decisions. IMPLICATIONS FOR RESEARCH PRACTICE: The criteria identified have been expressed as questions to enable novice researchers to audit the extent to which they are demonstrating rigour when writing up their studies. However, it should not be forgotten that rigour is built into the grounded theory method through the inductive-deductive cycle of theory generation. Care in applying the grounded theory methodology correctly is the single most important factor in ensuring rigour.

  5. Discrimination of Closely-Spaced Geosynchronous Satellites - Phase Curve Analysis & New Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, P.

    2010-09-01

    Geosynchronous objects appear as unresolved blurs even when observed with the largest ground-based telescopes. Due to the lack of any spatial detail, two or more objects appearing at similar brightness levels within the spectral bandpass they are observed are difficult to distinguish. Observing a changing pattern of such objects from one time epoch to another showcases the deficiencies in associating individual objects before and after the configuration change. This paper explores solutions to this deficiency in the form of spectral (under small business innovative research) and phase curve analyses. The extension of the technique to phase curves proves to be a powerful new capability.

  6. How cytogenetical methods help victims prove radiation exposure and claim right for social support: NCERM experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksanin, S.; Slozina, N.; Neronova, E.; Smoliakov, E.

    2011-01-01

    Russian citizens who were irradiated because of radiation disasters, nuclear weapons testing and some other sources have a right to some social support and financial compensation. In order to get this compensation people have to prove that they were irradiated. As it is, not all victims for a variety of reasons have formal documents. Thus they apply for cytogenetic investigation to prove irradiation months, years and even decades after irradiation. Since 1992 the cytogenetic investigations related to radiation exposure were performed in NRCERM for more than 700 people. At the beginning of this investigation FISH method was not certified as a biodosimenty test in Russia. Only dicentric analysis was approved as a proof of irradiation. It is known that the rate of dicentrics decrease in time, but the residual level of cytogenetical markers could be revealed a long time after a radiation accident. Thus the dicentric analysis was performed for the people who applied for biological indication of radiation exposure at that time. Rates of dicentrics exceeding control levels were revealed in half the people who applied for radiation conformation. Now FISH method is certified in Russia and both cytogenetic tests of biodosimetry (dicentrics and FISH) are available for all comers. Increased levels of translocations were found in 8 cases (the dose rate from 0.16 to 0.64 Gy). On the basis of the results of cytogenetic tests official documents were supplied to these people and they were entitled to apply for radiation exposure compensation. Thus cytogenetic tests are very effective and in some cases the only possible way for the victims to prove irradiation exposure and to apply for radiation exposure compensation a long time after an accident.

  7. How cytogenetical methods help victims prove radiation exposure and claim right for social support: NCERM experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksanin, S., E-mail: Aleksanin@arcerm.spb.ru [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Slozina, N., E-mail: NataliaSlozina@peterlink.ru [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Neronova, E.; Smoliakov, E. [Nikiforov Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine EMERCOM of Russia, (NRCERM) ul. Akademika Lebedeva 4/2, 194044 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2011-09-15

    Russian citizens who were irradiated because of radiation disasters, nuclear weapons testing and some other sources have a right to some social support and financial compensation. In order to get this compensation people have to prove that they were irradiated. As it is, not all victims for a variety of reasons have formal documents. Thus they apply for cytogenetic investigation to prove irradiation months, years and even decades after irradiation. Since 1992 the cytogenetic investigations related to radiation exposure were performed in NRCERM for more than 700 people. At the beginning of this investigation FISH method was not certified as a biodosimenty test in Russia. Only dicentric analysis was approved as a proof of irradiation. It is known that the rate of dicentrics decrease in time, but the residual level of cytogenetical markers could be revealed a long time after a radiation accident. Thus the dicentric analysis was performed for the people who applied for biological indication of radiation exposure at that time. Rates of dicentrics exceeding control levels were revealed in half the people who applied for radiation conformation. Now FISH method is certified in Russia and both cytogenetic tests of biodosimetry (dicentrics and FISH) are available for all comers. Increased levels of translocations were found in 8 cases (the dose rate from 0.16 to 0.64 Gy). On the basis of the results of cytogenetic tests official documents were supplied to these people and they were entitled to apply for radiation exposure compensation. Thus cytogenetic tests are very effective and in some cases the only possible way for the victims to prove irradiation exposure and to apply for radiation exposure compensation a long time after an accident.

  8. Using aetnanova to formally prove that the Davis-Putnam satisfiability test is correct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio G. Omodeo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on using the ÆtnaNova/Referee proof-verification system to formalize issues regarding the satisfiability of CNF-formulae of propositional logic. We specify an “archetype” version of the Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland algorithm through the THEORY of recursive functions based on a well-founded relation, and prove it to be correct.Within the same framework, and by resorting to the Zorn lemma, we develop a straightforward proof of the compactness theorem.

  9. Application of proving-ring technology to measure thermally induced displacements in large boreholes in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, W.C.; Reactor, N.L.; Butkovich, T.R.

    1984-03-01

    A strain-gauged proving-ring transducer was designed and deployed to measure small diametral displacements in 0.61-m diameter boreholes in rock. The rock surrounding the boreholes was previously heated by storage of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and measurements during post-retrieval cooling of the rock were made. To accomplish this, a transducer was designed to measure displacements in the range of 10 to 100 μm, to function in a time-varying temperature regime of 30 0 to 60 0 C at a relative humidity of 100%, to be of low stiffness, and to be easily and quickly installed. 7 references, 6 figures, 1 table

  10. Seismic proving test of ultimate piping strength (current status of preliminary tests)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, K.; Namita, Y.; Abe, H.; Ichihashi, I.; Suzuki, K.; Ishiwata, M.; Fujiwaka, T.; Yokota, H.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998 Fiscal Year, the 6 year program of piping tests was initiated with the following objectives: i) to clarify the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping, ii) to ascertain the seismic safety margin of the current seismic design code for piping, and iii) to assess new allowable stress rules. In order to resolve extensive technical issues before proceeding on to the seismic proving test of a large-scale piping system, a series of preliminary tests of materials, piping components and simplified piping systems is intended. In this paper, the current status of the material tests and the piping component tests is reported. (author)

  11. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  12. Proving test on the performance of a Multiple-Excitation Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Katsuhisa; Ito, Tomohiro; Kojima, Nobuyuki; Sasaki, Yoichi; Abe, Hiroshi; Kuroda, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    Seismic excitation test on large scale piping systems is scheduled to be carried out by the Nuclear power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) using the large-scale, high-performance vibration table at the Tadotsu Engineering Laboratory, under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). In the test, the piping systems simulate the main steam piping system and the main feed water piping system in the nuclear power plants. In this study, a fundamental test was carried out to prove the performance of the Multiple Excitation Simulator which consists of the hydraulic actuator and the control system. An L-shaped piping system and a hydraulic actuator were installed on the shaking table. Acceleration and displacement generated by the actuator were measured. The performance of the actuator and the control system was discussed comparing the measured values and the target values on the time histories and the response spectrum of the acceleration. As a result, it was proved that the actuator and the control system have good performance and will be applicable to the verification test

  13. Seismic proving tests on the reliability for large components and equipment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Tokue; Tanaka, Nagatoshi

    1988-01-01

    Since Japan has destructive earthquakes frequently, the structural reliability for large components and equipment of nuclear power plants are rigorously required. They are designed using sophisticated seismic analyses and have not yet encountered a destructive earthquake. When nuclear power plants are planned, it is very important that the general public understand the structural reliability during and after an earthquake. Seismic Proving Tests have been planned by Ministry of International Trade and Industry (Miti) to comply with public requirement in Japan. A large-scale high-performance vibration table was constructed at Tasted Engineering Laboratory of Nuclear Power Engineering Test Center (NU PEC), in order to prove the structural reliability by vibrating the test model (of full scale or close to the actual size) in the condition of a destructive earthquake. As for the test models, the following four items were selected out of large components and equipment important to the safety: Reactor Containment Vessel; Primary Coolant Loop or Primary Loop Recirculation System; Reactor Pressure Vessel; and Reactor Core Internals. Here is described a brief of the vibration table, the test method and the results of the tests on PWR Reactor Containment Vessel and BWR Primary Loop Recirculation System (author)

  14. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  15. Proceedings of the Scientific Conference on Obscuration and Aerosol Research Held in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on June 22-25, 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    C. Carls) "Attachment of Ti02 powders to hollow glass microbeads:activity of the TiO2 -coated beads in the photoassisted oxidation of ethanol to...22) R. B. Gregory, and Y. Zhu, in Proc. 3rd Intl. Workshop on Positron and Positroniim Chemistry, edited by Y. C. Jean (World Scientific, Singapore...overlap in multicomponent systems. Factor analysis-rank annihilation (FARA) is an eigenanalysis technique 2-5 for analyzing two-dimensional data. FARA

  16. Operational Use of the AIRS Total Column Ozone Retrievals Along with the RGB Air Mass Product as Part of the GOES-R Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmer, Michael; Zavodsky, Bradley; Molthan, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Hydrometeorological Prediction Center (HPC) and Ocean Prediction Center (OPC) provide short-term and medium-range forecast guidance of heavy precipitation, strong winds, and other features often associated with mid-latitude cyclones over both land and ocean. As a result, detection of factors that lead to rapid cyclogenesis and high wind events is key to improving forecast skill. One phenomenon that has been identified with these events is the stratospheric intrusion that occurs near tropopause folds. This allows for deep mixing near the top of the atmosphere where dry air high in ozone concentrations and potential vorticity descends (sometimes rapidly) deep into the mid-troposphere. Observations from satellites can aid in detection of these stratospheric air intrusions (SAI) regions. Specifically, multispectral composite imagery assign a variety of satellite spectral bands to the red, green, and blue (RGB) color components of imagery pixels and result in color combinations that can assist in the detection of dry stratospheric air associated with PV advection, which in turn may alert forecasters to the possibility of a rapidly strengthening storm system. Single channel or RGB satellite imagery lacks quantitative information about atmospheric moisture unless the sampled brightness temperatures or other data are converted to estimates of moisture via a retrieval process. Thus, complementary satellite observations are needed to capture a complete picture of a developing storm system. Here, total column ozone retrievals derived from a hyperspectral sounder are used to confirm the extent and magnitude of SAIs. Total ozone is a good proxy for defining locations and intensity of SAIs and has been used in studies evaluating that phenomenon (e.g. Tian et al. 2007, Knox and Schmidt 2005). Steep gradients in values of total ozone seen by satellites have been linked to stratosphere-troposphere exchange (WMO, 1985).

  17. Proceedings of the Meeting of the Coordinating Group on Modern Control Theory (2nd) 10-11 December 1980, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-01

    rate) ar, and orare the azimuth and elevation angles referenced to the missile body, AtM is he missile’s a& bleved acceleration vec- tor referenced to...law for any general state, If T 0, th A* -est for lV i) is performed, If that is zero also, then the final test for (V 2 ) Is performed to deter- mine

  18. Ideas from Future Technologies Workshop Held by ARL/TARDEC in Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 9-11 June, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    goalie moving his stick to block a puck. The first estimates of the predicted impact point may be available around 1 s before impact, and positioning...Innovation thrives in a "technology push" environment, not in a "demand pull " siruation. • Micromanagement is lethal to innovation. • Very few...strongest of "demand pull " conditions imaginable-a management method that reduces innovation. This could be counterbalanced with a strong "Tech Base

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review (4th) Held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 30 May-1 June 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    318-324, 1954. .3 11. Finney, D.J., Probit Analysis, 3rd Ed., Cambridge University Press, 1971. 12. Thompson, W.R. and C.S. Weil, Biometrics 8, 51-58...824, 1980. 531 .4 Table 1. Abbreviations and Ligand Charges Abbreviation Name H 2-Proto2 Protoporphyr in-IX H 2-flemato 2 - Hemat opo rphyr in-IX -DPS4

  20. Recommendations for the Development of a Dust Suppressant Test Operations Procedure (TOP) Performed at the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    variety of bedrock types including: igneous ( basalt , granite, and rhyolite), metamorphic (schist and gneiss), and sedimentary rocks of Quaternary...TerraLOC® Standard formulation was applied. Chemical dust suppressant formulations vary widely, to include salts, oils, fiber mixtures and synthetic

  1. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian B. Martin, Ph.D.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Bookshelf will provide critical reviews and perspectives on books on theory and methodology of interest to grounded theory. This issue includes a review of Heaton’s Reworking Qualitative Data, of special interest for some of its references to grounded theory as a secondary analysis tool; and Goulding’s Grounded Theory: A practical guide for management, business, and market researchers, a book that attempts to explicate the method and presents a grounded theory study that falls a little short of the mark of a fully elaborated theory.Reworking Qualitative Data, Janet Heaton (Sage, 2004. Paperback, 176 pages, $29.95. Hardcover also available.

  2. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  3. Organic Rankine Kilowatt Isotope Power System. Final phase I report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    On 1 August 1975 under Department of Energy Contract EN-77-C-02-4299, Sundstrand Energy Systems commenced development of a Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) directed toward satisfying the higher power requirements of satellites of the 1980s and beyond. The KIPS is a 238 PuO 2 fueled organic Rankine cycle turbine power system which will provide design output power in the range of 500 to 2000 W/sub (e)/ with a minimum of system changes. The principal objectives of the Phase 1 development effort were to: conceptually design a flight system; design a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) that is prototypic of the flight system in order to prove the feasibility of the flight system design; fabricate and assemble the GDS; and performance and endurance test the GDS using electric heaters in lieu of the isotope heat source. Results of the work performed under the Phase 1 contract to 1 July 1978 are presented

  4. Seismic proving test of process computer systems with a seismic floor isolation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, S.; Niwa, H.; Kondo, H.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have carried out seismic proving tests for process computer systems as a Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) project sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). This paper presents the seismic test results for evaluating functional capabilities of process computer systems with a seismic floor isolation system. The seismic floor isolation system to isolate the horizontal motion was composed of a floor frame (13 m x 13 m), ball bearing units, and spring-damper units. A series of seismic excitation tests was carried out using a large-scale shaking table of NUPEC. From the test results, the functional capabilities during large earthquakes of computer systems with a seismic floor isolation system were verified

  5. Proving Continuity of Coinductive Global Bisimulation Distances: A Never Ending Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Romero-Hernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a notion of global bisimulation distance between processes which goes somehow beyond the notions of bisimulation distance already existing in the literature, mainly based on bisimulation games. Our proposal is based on the cost of transformations: how much we need to modify one of the compared processes to obtain the other. Our original definition only covered finite processes, but a coinductive approach allows us to extend it to cover infinite but finitary trees. After having shown many interesting properties of our distance, it was our intention to prove continuity with respect to projections, but unfortunately the issue remains open. Nonetheless, we have obtained several partial results that are presented in this paper.

  6. Fractal geometry as a new approach for proving nanosimilarity: a reflection note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas; Pippa, Natassa

    2015-04-10

    Nanosimilars are considered as new medicinal outcomes combining the generic drugs and the nanocarrier as an innovative excipient, in order to evaluate them as final products. They belong to the grey area - concerning the evaluation process - between generic drugs and biosimilar medicinal products. Generic drugs are well documented and a huge number of them are in market, replacing effectively the off-patent drugs. The scientific approach for releasing them to the market is based on bioequivalence studies, which are well documented and accepted by the regulatory agencies. On the other hand, the structural complexity of biological/biotechnology-derived products demands a new approach for the approval process taking into consideration that bioequivalence studies are not considered as sufficient as in generic drugs, and new clinical trials are needed to support their approval process of the product to the market. In proportion, due to technological complexity of nanomedicines, the approaches for proving the statistical identity or the similarity for generic and biosimilar products, respectively, with those of prototypes, are not considered as effective for nanosimilar products. The aim of this note is to propose a complementary approach which can provide realistic evidences concerning the nanosimilarity, based on fractal analysis. This approach is well fit with the structural complexity of nanomedicines and smooths the difficulties for proving the similarity between off-patent and nanosimilar products. Fractal analysis could be considered as the approach that completely characterizes the physicochemical/morphological characteristics of nanosimilar products and could be proposed as a start point for a deep discussion on nanosimilarity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Fake News: A Technological Approach to Proving the Origins of Content, Using Blockchains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, Steve; White, Martin

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we introduce a prototype of an innovative technology for proving the origins of captured digital media. In an era of fake news, when someone shows us a video or picture of some event, how can we trust its authenticity? It seems that the public no longer believe that traditional media is a reliable reference of fact, perhaps due, in part, to the onset of many diverse sources of conflicting information, via social media. Indeed, the issue of "fake" reached a crescendo during the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election, when the winner, Donald Trump, claimed that The New York Times was trying to discredit him by pushing disinformation. Current research into overcoming the problem of fake news does not focus on establishing the ownership of media resources used in such stories-the blockchain-based application introduced in this article is technology that is capable of indicating the authenticity of digital media. Put simply, using the trust mechanisms of blockchain technology, the tool can show, beyond doubt, the provenance of any source of digital media, including images used out of context in attempts to mislead. Although the application is an early prototype and its capability to find fake resources is somewhat limited, we outline future improvements that would overcome such limitations. Furthermore, we believe that our application (and its use of blockchain technology and standardized metadata) introduces a novel approach to overcoming falsities in news reporting and the provenance of media resources used therein. However, while our application has the potential to be able to verify the originality of media resources, we believe that technology is only capable of providing a partial solution to fake news. That is because it is incapable of proving the authenticity of a news story as a whole. We believe that takes human skills.

  8. Short-time variations of the ground water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lars Y.

    1977-09-01

    Investigations have demonstrated that the ground water level of aquifers in the Swedish bedrock shows shorttime variations without changing their water content. The ground water level is among other things affected by regular tidal movements occuring in the ''solid'' crust of the earth variations in the atmospheric pressure strong earthquakes occuring in different parts of the world These effects proves that the system of fissures in the bedrock are not stable and that the ground water flow is influenced by both water- and airfilled fissures

  9. Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wifalin, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds merupakan rumusan masalah yang diambil dalam penelitian ini. Efektivitas Instagram diukur menggunakan Customer Response Index (CRI), dimana responden diukur dalam berbagai tingkatan, mulai dari awareness, comprehend, interest, intentions dan action. Tingkatan respons inilah yang digunakan untuk mengukur efektivitas Instagram Common Grounds. Teori-teori yang digunakan untuk mendukung penelitian ini yaitu teori marketing Public Relations, teori iklan, efekti...

  10. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  11. The Grounded Theory Bookshelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Alvita Nathaniel, DSN, APRN, BC

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Grounded Theory Perspective III: Theoretical Coding, Barney G. Glaser (Sociology Press, 2005. Not intended for a beginner, this book further defi nes, describes, and explicates the classic grounded theory (GT method. Perspective III lays out various facets of theoretical coding as Glaser meticulously distinguishes classic GT from other subsequent methods. Developed many years after Glaser’s classic GT, these methods, particularly as described by Strauss and Corbin, adopt the grounded theory name and engender ongoing confusion about the very premises of grounded theory. Glaser distinguishes between classic GT and the adscititious methods in his writings, referring to remodeled grounded theory and its offshoots as Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA models.

  12. Communication, concepts and grounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velde, Frank

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses the relation between communication and conceptual grounding. In the brain, neurons, circuits and brain areas are involved in the representation of a concept, grounding it in perception and action. In terms of grounding we can distinguish between communication within the brain and communication between humans or between humans and machines. In the first form of communication, a concept is activated by sensory input. Due to grounding, the information provided by this communication is not just determined by the sensory input but also by the outgoing connection structure of the conceptual representation, which is based on previous experiences and actions. The second form of communication, that between humans or between humans and machines, is influenced by the first form. In particular, a more successful interpersonal communication might require forms of situated cognition and interaction in which the entire representations of grounded concepts are involved. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  14. 76 FR 22938 - Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT Submission for Review: RI 25-37, Evidence To Prove Dependency of a..., Evidence to Prove Dependency of a Child. As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13... Dependency of a Child, is designed to collect sufficient information for the Office of Personnel Management...

  15. Fourier phasing with phase-uncertain mask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fannjiang, Albert; Liao, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    Fourier phasing is the problem of retrieving Fourier phase information from Fourier intensity data. The standard Fourier phase retrieval (without a mask) is known to have many solutions which cause the standard phasing algorithms to stagnate and produce wrong or inaccurate solutions. In this paper Fourier phase retrieval is carried out with the introduction of a randomly fabricated mask in measurement and reconstruction. Highly probable uniqueness of solution, up to a global phase, was previously proved with exact knowledge of the mask. Here the uniqueness result is extended to the case where only rough information about the mask’s phases is assumed. The exponential probability bound for uniqueness is given in terms of the uncertainty-to-diversity ratio of the unknown mask. New phasing algorithms alternating between the object update and the mask update are systematically tested and demonstrated to have the capability of recovering both the object and the mask (within the object support) simultaneously, consistent with the uniqueness result. Phasing with a phase-uncertain mask is shown to be robust with respect to the correlation in the mask as well as the Gaussian and Poisson noises. (paper)

  16. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  17. The written mathematical communication profile of prospective math teacher in mathematical proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleon, K. V.; Juniati, D.; Lukito, A.; Mandur, K.

    2018-01-01

    Written mathematical communication is the process of expressing mathematical ideas and understanding in writing. It is one of the important aspects that must be mastered by the prospective math teacher as tool of knowledge transfer. This research was a qualitative research that aimed to describe the mathematical communication profile of the prospective mathematics teacher in mathematical proving. This research involved 48 students of Mathematics Education Study Program; one of them with moderate math skills was chosen as the main subject. Data were collected through tests, assignments, and task-based interviews. The results of this study point out that in the proof of geometry, the subject explains what is understood, presents the idea in the form of drawing and symbols, and explains the content/meaning of a representation accurately and clearly, but the subject can not convey the argument systematically and logically. Whereas in the proof of algebra, the subject describes what is understood, explains the method used, and describes the content/meaning of a symbolic representation accurately, systematically, logically, but the argument presented is not clear because it is insufficient detailed and complete.

  18. How to prove the Earth's daily and annual direction of its spinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Špoljarić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Every day, we can observe the Sun's apparent motion around the sky. It rises in the east, gets to its highest point above the horizon at noon, and sets in the west. The stars appear to be fixed on the sky and move around apparently together with the Sun. We have daytime1 and night. The apparent annual motion of the Sun results in seasons when we can see different stars. These directly visible daily and annual changes result from real Earth’s motions – the Earth’s daily and annual spinning (rotation and revolution and they are not easily explainable without understanding the Earth’s motions. In order to understand the apparent daily and annual motions and motion direction of the Sun and stars (night sky, it is very important to know where we are on the Earth, what is our geographic position, i.e. to know the cardinal points. At the same time, one should take into consideration also the direction of the Earth’s rotation and revolution. What is the Earth’s daily or annual direction of spinning as related to the direction of clock hands, and how do we prove it?

  19. The existence of propagated sensation along the meridian proved by neuroelectrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinsen; Zheng, Shuxia; Pan, Xiaohua; Zhu, Xiaoxiang; Hu, Xianglong

    2013-01-01

    Propagated sensation along the meridian can occur when acupoints are stimulated by acupuncture or electrical impulses. In this study, participants with notable propagated sensation along the dian were given electro-acupuncture at the Jianyu (LI15) acupoint of the large intestine meridian. When participants stated that the sensation reached the back of their hand, regular nervous system action discharge was examined using a physiological recording electrode placed on the superficial branch of the radial nerve. The topographical maps of brain-evoked potential in the primary cortical somatosensory area were also detected. When Guangming (GB37) acupoint in the lower limb and Hegu (LI4) acupoint in the upper limb were stimulated, subjects without propagated sensation along the meridian exhibited a high potential reaction in the corresponding area of the brain cortical so-matosensory area. For subjects with a notable propagated sensation along the meridian, the tion area was larger and extended into the face representative area. These electrophysiological measures directly prove the existence of propagated sensation along the meridian, and the pheral stimulated site is consistent with the corresponding primary cortical somatosensory area, which presents a high potential reaction. PMID:25206574

  20. Transgenic Drosophila simulans strains prove the identity of the speciation gene Lethal hybrid rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigent, Stéphane R; Matsubayashi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi

    2009-10-01

    Speciation genes are responsible for genetic incompatibilities in hybrids of incipient species and therefore participate in reproductive isolation leading to complete speciation. Hybrid males between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die at late larval or prepupal stages due to a failure in chromosome condensation during mitosis. However a mutant male of D. simulans, named Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr), produces viable hybrid males when crossed to females of D. melanogaster. Recently the Lhr gene has been proposed as corresponding to the CG18468 gene in D. melanogaster. However this identification relied on sequence characteristics more than on a precise mapping and the use of the GAL4/UAS system to drive the transgene in D. melanogaster might have increased the complexity of interaction. Thus here we propose an independent identification of the Lhr gene based on a more precise mapping and transgenic experiments in D. simulans. We have mapped the Lhr gene by using Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and identified within the candidate region the gene homologous to CG18468 as the Lhr gene as it was previously reported. Transgenic experiments in D. simulans with the native promoter of CG18468 prove that it is the Lhr gene of D. simulans by inducing the lethality of the hybrid males.

  1. Ground State Structure of a Coupled 2-Fermion System in Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    1997-05-01

    We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to theN=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like

  2. Ground state structure of a coupled 2-fermion system in supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, F.

    1997-01-01

    We prove the uniqueness of the ground state for a supersymmetric quantum mechanical system of two fermions and two bosons, which is closely related to the N=1 WZ-model. The proof is constructive and gives detailed information on what the ground state looks like. copyright 1997 Academic Press, Inc

  3. Kennedy Space Center Orion Processing Team Planning for Ground Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letchworth, Gary; Schlierf, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Topics in this presentation are: Constellation Ares I/Orion/Ground Ops Elements Orion Ground Operations Flow Orion Operations Planning Process and Toolset Overview, including: 1 Orion Concept of Operations by Phase 2 Ops Analysis Capabilities Overview 3 Operations Planning Evolution 4 Functional Flow Block Diagrams 5 Operations Timeline Development 6 Discrete Event Simulation (DES) Modeling 7 Ground Operations Planning Document Database (GOPDb) Using Operations Planning Tools for Operability Improvements includes: 1 Kaizen/Lean Events 2 Mockups 3 Human Factors Analysis

  4. Adding Theoretical Grounding to Grounded Theory: Toward Multi-Grounded Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Göran Goldkuhl; Stefan Cronholm

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to challenge some of the cornerstones of the grounded theory approach and propose an extended and alternative approach for data analysis and theory development, which the authors call multi-grounded theory (MGT). A multi-grounded theory is not only empirically grounded; it is also grounded in other ways. Three different grounding processes are acknowledged: theoretical, empirical, and internal grounding. The authors go beyond the pure inductivist approach in GT an...

  5. Grounding of SNS Accelerator Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    Description of site general grounding network. RF grounding network enhancement underneath the klystron gallery building. Grounding network of the Ring Systems with ground breaks in the Ring Tunnel. Grounding and Bonding of R&D accelerator equipment. SNS Building lightning protection.

  6. Developing a Guideline for Reporting and Evaluating Grounded Theory Research Studies (GUREGT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Grimshaw-Aagaard, Søsserr Lone Smilla; Hansen, Carrinna

    2018-01-01

    theory research studies. The study was conducted in three phases. Phase 1: A structured literature review in PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Libraries, PsycInfo and SCOPUS to identify recommendations for reporting and evaluating grounded theory. Phase 2: A selective review of the methodological grounded theory...

  7. Airfield Ground Safety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrescu, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... The system developed under AGS, called the Ground Safety Tracking and Reporting System, uses multisensor data fusion from in-pavement inductive loop sensors to address a critical problem affecting out nation's airports: runway incursions...

  8. Grounded meets floating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.

    2018-04-01

    A comprehensive assessment of grounding-line migration rates around Antarctica, covering a third of the coast, suggests retreat in considerable portions of the continent, beyond the rates expected from adjustment following the Last Glacial Maximum.

  9. Ground water and earthquakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ts' ai, T H

    1977-11-01

    Chinese folk wisdom has long seen a relationship between ground water and earthquakes. Before an earthquake there is often an unusual change in the ground water level and volume of flow. Changes in the amount of particulate matter in ground water as well as changes in color, bubbling, gas emission, and noises and geysers are also often observed before earthquakes. Analysis of these features can help predict earthquakes. Other factors unrelated to earthquakes can cause some of these changes, too. As a first step it is necessary to find sites which are sensitive to changes in ground stress to be used as sensor points for predicting earthquakes. The necessary features are described. Recording of seismic waves of earthquake aftershocks is also an important part of earthquake predictions.

  10. Experimental study of soil-structure interaction for proving the three dimensional thin layered element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Y.; Ogiwara, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Nakayama, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the earthquake response of a structure can be significantly affected by the dynamic interaction between the structure and the surrounding soil. Dynamic soil-structure interaction effects are usually analyzed by using a lumped mass model or a finite element model. In the lumped mass model, the soil is represented by springs and dashpots based on the half-space elastic theory. Each model has its advantages and limitations. The Three Dimensional Thin Layered Element Theory has been developed by Dr. Hiroshi Tajimi based on the combined results of the abovementioned lumped mass model and finite element model. The main characteristic of this theory is that, in consideration and can be applied in the analysis of many problems in soil-structure interaction, such as those involving radiation damping, embedded structures, and multi-layered soil deposits. This paper describes test results on a small scale model used to prove the validity of the computer program based on the Thin Layered Element Theory. As a numerical example, the response analysis of a PWR nuclear power plant is carried out using this program. The vibration test model is simplified and the scale is 1/750 for line. The soil layer of the model is made of congealed gelatine. The test soil layer is 80 cm long, 35 cm wide and 10 cm thick. The super structure is a one mass model made of metal sheet spring and solid mass metal. As fixed inputs, sinusoidal waves (10, 20 gal level) are used. The displacements of the top and base of the super structure, and the accelerations and the displacements of the shaking table are measured. The main parameter of the test is the shear wave velocity of the soil layer. (orig./RW)

  11. Integration between ground based and satellite SAR data in landslide mapping: The San Fratello case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Federica; Frodella, William; Ciampalini, Andrea; Bianchini, Silvia; Del Ventisette, Chiara; Gigli, Giovanni; Fanti, Riccardo; Moretti, Sandro; Basile, Giuseppe; Casagli, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    The potential use of the integration of PSI (Persistent Scatterer Interferometry) and GB-InSAR (Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry) for landslide hazard mitigation was evaluated for mapping and monitoring activities of the San Fratello landslide (Sicily, Italy). Intense and exceptional rainfall events are the main factors that triggered several slope movements in the study area, which is susceptible to landslides, because of its steep slopes and silty-clayey sedimentary cover. In the last three centuries, the town of San Fratello was affected by three large landslides, developed in different periods: the oldest one occurred in 1754, damaging the northeastern sector of the town; in 1922 a large landslide completely destroyed a wide area in the western hillside of the town. In this paper, the attention is focussed on the most recent landslide that occurred on 14 February 2010: in this case, the phenomenon produced the failure of a large sector of the eastern hillside, causing severe damages to buildings and infrastructures. In particular, several slow-moving rotational and translational slides occurred in the area, making it suitable to monitor ground instability through different InSAR techniques. PS-InSAR™ (permanent scatterers SAR interferometry) techniques, using ERS-1/ERS-2, ENVISAT, RADARSAT-1, and COSMO-SkyMed SAR images, were applied to analyze ground displacements during pre- and post-event phases. Moreover, during the post-event phase in March 2010, a GB-InSAR system, able to acquire data continuously every 14 min, was installed collecting ground displacement maps for a period of about three years, until March 2013. Through the integration of space-borne and ground-based data sets, ground deformation velocity maps were obtained, providing a more accurate delimitation of the February 2010 landslide boundary, with respect to the carried out traditional geomorphological field survey. The integration of GB-InSAR and PSI techniques proved to

  12. Assessing ground compaction via time lapse surface wave analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dal Moro, Giancarlo; Al-Arifi, N.; Moustafa, S.S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2016), s. 249-256 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Full velocity spectrum (FVS) analysis * ground compaction * ground compaction * phase velocities * Rayleigh waves * seismic data inversion * surface wave dispersion * surface waves Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  13. Purely temporal figure-ground segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, F I; Fahle, M

    2001-05-01

    Visual figure-ground segregation is achieved by exploiting differences in features such as luminance, colour, motion or presentation time between a figure and its surround. Here we determine the shortest delay times required for figure-ground segregation based on purely temporal features. Previous studies usually employed stimulus onset asynchronies between figure- and ground-containing possible artefacts based on apparent motion cues or on luminance differences. Our stimuli systematically avoid these artefacts by constantly showing 20 x 20 'colons' that flip by 90 degrees around their midpoints at constant time intervals. Colons constituting the background flip in-phase whereas those constituting the target flip with a phase delay. We tested the impact of frequency modulation and phase reduction on target detection. Younger subjects performed well above chance even at temporal delays as short as 13 ms, whilst older subjects required up to three times longer delays in some conditions. Figure-ground segregation can rely on purely temporal delays down to around 10 ms even in the absence of luminance and motion artefacts, indicating a temporal precision of cortical information processing almost an order of magnitude lower than the one required for some models of feature binding in the visual cortex [e.g. Singer, W. (1999), Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 9, 189-194]. Hence, in our experiment, observers are unable to use temporal stimulus features with the precision required for these models.

  14. Integration of a satellite ground support system based on analysis of the satellite ground support domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendley, R. D.; Scheidker, E. J.; Levitt, D. S.; Myers, C. R.; Werking, R. D.

    1994-11-01

    This analysis defines a complete set of ground support functions based on those practiced in real space flight operations during the on-orbit phase of a mission. These functions are mapped against ground support functions currently in use by NASA and DOD. Software components to provide these functions can be hosted on RISC-based work stations and integrated to provide a modular, integrated ground support system. Such modular systems can be configured to provide as much ground support functionality as desired. This approach to ground systems has been widely proposed and prototyped both by government institutions and commercial vendors. The combined set of ground support functions we describe can be used as a standard to evaluate candidate ground systems. This approach has also been used to develop a prototype of a modular, loosely-integrated ground support system, which is discussed briefly. A crucial benefit to a potential user is that all the components are flight-qualified, thus giving high confidence in their accuracy and reliability.

  15. Field Sampling Plan for the Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 Remedial Action, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Field Sampling Plan outlines the collection and analysis of samples in support of Phase IV of the Waste Area Group 10, Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04 remedial action. Phase IV addresses the remedial actions to areas with the potential for unexploded ordnance at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. The remedial action consists of removal and disposal of ordnance by high-order detonation, followed by sampling to determine the extent, if any, of soil that might have been contaminated by the detonation activities associated with the disposal of ordnance during the Phase IV activities and explosives during the Phase II activities.

  16. Response characteristics of reactor building on weathered soft rock ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Kazuta; Tochigi, Hitoshi

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the seismic stability of nuclear power plants on layered soft bedrock grounds, focusing on the seismic response of reactor buildings. In this case, the soft bedrock grounds refer to the weathered soft bedrocks with several tens meter thickness overlaying hard bedrocks. Under this condition, there are two subjects regarding the estimation of the seismic response of reactor buildings. One is the estimation of the seismic response of surface ground, and another is the estimation of soil-structure interaction characteristics for the structures embedded in the layered grounds with low impedandce ratio between the surface ground and the bedrock. Paying attention to these subjects, many cases of seismic response analysis were carried out, and the following facts were clarified. In the soft rock grounds overlaying hard bedrocks, it was proved that the response acceleration was larger than the case of uniform hard bedrocks. A simplified sway and rocking model was proposed to consider soil-structure interaction. It was proved that the response of reactor buildings was small when the effect of embedment was considered. (K.I.)

  17. Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study: findings at 3 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy RK

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rahul K Reddy,1 Maziar Lalezary,1 Stephen J Kim,1 Jeffrey A Kammer,1 Rachel W Kuchtey,1 Edward F Cherney,1 Franco M Recchia,2 Karen M Joos,1 Anita Agarwal,1 Janice C Law11Department of Ophthalmology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA; 2Tennessee Retina, PC, Nashville, TN, USABackground: The purpose of this paper is to report the 3-month findings of the Prospective Retinal and Optic Nerve Vitrectomy Evaluation (PROVE study.Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 participants undergoing vitrectomy were enrolled. Participants underwent baseline evaluation of the study (surgical and fellow (control eye that included: intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, gonioscopy, cup-to-disc ratio measurement, color fundus and optic disc photography, automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography of the macula and optic nerve. Evaluation was repeated at 3 months. Main outcome measures were changes in macula and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and intraocular pressure.Results: All participants completed follow-up. Mean cup-to-disc ratio of study and fellow eyes at baseline was 0.43 ± 0.2 and 0.46 ± 0.2, respectively, and 13% of participants had undiagnosed narrow angles. There was no significant change in intraocular pressure, cup-to-disc ratio, or pattern standard deviation in study eyes compared with baseline or fellow eyes at 3 months. Vision improved in all study eyes at 3 months compared with baseline (P = 0.013, but remained significantly worse than fellow eyes (P < 0.001. Central subfield and temporal peripapillary RNFL thickness were significantly greater in eyes with epiretinal membrane (P < 0.05, and resolution after surgery correlated with visual improvement (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The 3-month results do not indicate any increased risk for open-angle glaucoma but suggest that a relatively high percentage of eyes may be at risk of angle closure glaucoma. Temporal RNFL thickness and central subfield were increased

  18. A practical approach to proving waste metals suitable for consignment as radiologically exempt materials - 59266

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvel, Iain; Gunn, Richard D.; Orr, Christopher H.; Strange, Robin

    2012-01-01

    Building 220 at Harwell was built by the Ministry of Works as a Radiochemical Research and Development facility in the latter part of the 1940's. The facility has been operational since 1949 and has been extended several times, most notably the Plutonium Glove Box Wing in the 1950's and the Remote Handling Wing in the 1980's. Only the Remote Handling wing remains operational, processing Historic Waste which is being recovered from storage holes elsewhere on site. The remainder of the facility is undergoing progressive strip out and decommissioning. In the Plutonium Wing and associated areas the waste 'fingerprint' (nuclide vector) consists predominately of alpha emitting radionuclides. Decommissioning and Decontamination (D and D) operations often result in the production of large volumes of scrap metal waste with little or no radioactive contamination. Proving that the waste is clean can be costly and time consuming, as the shape and size of the metallic waste items often means that it is difficult or impossible to monitor all surfaces using conventional hand-held survey meters. This is a particular problem for alpha contamination measurement. Traditional radiological surveying techniques are very labour intensive and involve surveyors checking every surface using hand held instruments and smear sampling the hard to access areas. Even then 100% monitoring cannot be guaranteed. An alternative to traditional methods is the Long Range Alpha Detection (LRAD) technique which remotely detects and measures secondary ionization created in air by alpha particle interactions, allowing extremely low levels of alpha contamination to be measured. A survey system, IonSens R , using the LRAD technique, was developed by BNFL Instruments Ltd (now Babcock Nuclear) which allows rapid surveying of scrap metal for alpha contamination at very low levels. Two versions of this system exist but both essentially comprise a measurement chamber into which scrap metal is placed and sealed

  19. Current Flow in the Bubble and Stripe Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friess, B.; Umansky, V.; von Klitzing, K.; Smet, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    The spontaneous ordering of spins and charges in geometric patterns is currently under scrutiny in a number of different material systems. A topic of particular interest is the interaction of such ordered phases with itinerant electrons driven by an externally imposed current. It not only provides important information on the charge ordering itself but potentially also allows manipulating the shape and symmetry of the underlying pattern if current flow is strong enough. Unfortunately, conventional transport methods probing the macroscopic resistance suffer from the fact that the voltage drop along the sample edges provides only indirect information on the bulk properties because a complex current distribution is elicited by the inhomogeneous ground state. Here, we promote the use of surface acoustic waves to study these broken-symmetry phases and specifically address the bubble and stripe phases emerging in high-quality two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs /AlGaAs heterostructures as prototypical examples. When driving a unidirectional current, we find a surprising discrepancy between the sound propagation probing the bulk of the sample and the voltage drop along the sample edges. Our results prove that the current-induced modifications observed in resistive transport measurements are in fact a local phenomenon only, leaving the majority of the sample unaltered. More generally, our findings shed new light on the extent to which these ordered electron phases are impacted by an external current and underline the intrinsic advantages of acoustic measurements for the study of such inhomogeneous phases.

  20. Current status of ground source heat pumps and underground thermal energy storage in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanner, B. [Justus Liebig University, Giessen (Germany). Institute of Applied Geosciences; Karytsas, C.; Mendrinos, D. [Center for Renewable Energy Sources, Pikermi (Greece); Rybach, L. [Geowatt AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-12-01

    Geothermal Heat Pumps, or Ground Coupled Heat Pumps (GCHP), are systems combining a heat pump with a ground heat exchanger (closed loop systems), or fed by ground water from a well (open loop systems). They use the earth as a heat source when operating in heating mode, with a fluid (usually water or a water-antifreeze mixture) as the medium that transfers the heat from the earth to the evaporator of the heat pump, thus utilising geothermal energy. In cooling mode, they use the earth as a heat sink. With Borehole Heat Exchangers (BHE), geothermal heat pumps can offer both heating and cooling at virtually any location, with great flexibility to meet any demands. More than 20 years of R and D focusing on BUE in Europe has resulted in a well-established concept of sustainability for this technology, as well as sound design and installation criteria. Recent developments are the Thermal Response Test, which allows in-situ-determination of ground thermal properties for design purposes, and thermally enhanced grouting materials to reduce borehole thermal resistance. For cooling purposes, but also for the storage of solar or waste heat, the concept of underground thermal energy storage (UTES) could prove successful. Systems can be either open (aquifer storage) or can use BHE (borehole storage). Whereas cold storage is already established on the market, heat storage, and, in particular, high temperature heat storage (> 50{sup o}C) is still in the demonstration phase. Despite the fact that geothermal heat pumps have been in use for over 50 years now (the first were in the USA), market penetration of this technology is still in its infancy, with fossil fuels dominating the space heating market and air-to-air heat pumps that of space cooling. In Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, France and the USA, large numbers of geothermal heat pumps are already operational, and installation guidelines, quality control and contractor certification are now major issues

  1. Safety indicators used to prove the role of natural barrier for Saligny near surface disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, Ortenzia; Durdun, I.; Ionita, Gh.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The siting process for a near surface repository suitable for the radioactive waste resulted from Cernavoda NPP operation and decommissioning (low level radioactive waste with small amounts of long lived radionuclides) started in 1992 and it included the collection of data from specific field and laboratory works for each site selection stage as well as different safety performance evaluation. According to the IAEA standards (Safety Guide No.111-G-3.1, 1994), the purpose of the siting process is not to get the best solution but to find out 'an acceptable solution, with sufficient safety reserves'. Since 1996, detailed field and investigation works were performed in Saligny preferred site including an experimental area to test the improvement method proposed for the foundation ground of repository, as well as detailed performance assessments using specific computer codes. The paper presents the results of recent performance assessments for the natural barrier of disposal system. The calculations were done using HYDRUS 2D, FEHM and AMBER computer codes. The endpoint of the Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site [CITON and SCN, Safety Report for Siting a Near Surface Repository at Saligny Site, 2007, pages 8.2.1-1 to 8.2.1-22 and 8-63 to 8-70] was the assessment of safety indicators. Individual annual effective dose for exposed peoples (both workers and general public) was the main safety indicator. In the same document, the radionuclide concentration in the disposal system compartments has been evaluated, as supplementary safety indicator of repository barriers (especially to confirm the natural barrier performance). The results confirmed the performance of natural barrier: the maximum extension of H-3 and Co-60 contaminant plume after repository closure remains more above underground water level. In the aquifer, iodine concentration reaches a value of 10 -15 mol/l, at the same magnitude order with the admitted limit from CFR

  2. High-spin level structure and Ground-state phase transition in the odd-mass 103-109Rh isotopes in the framework of exactly solvable sdg interacting boson-fermion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghapanvari, M.; Ghorashi, A. H.; Ranjbar, Z.; Jafarizadeh, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the negative-parity states in the odd-mass 103 - 109Rh isotopes in terms of the sd and sdg interacting-boson fermion models were studied. The transitional interacting boson-fermion model Hamiltonians in sd and sdg-IBFM versions based on affine SU (1 , 1) Lie Algebra were employed to describe the evolution from the spherical to deformed gamma unstable shapes along with the chain of Rh isotopes. In this method, sdg-IBFM Hamiltonian, which is a three level pairing Hamiltonian was determined easily via the exactly solvable method. Some observables of the shape phase transitions such as energy levels, the two neutron separation energies, signature splitting of the γ-vibrational band, the α-decay and double β--decay energies were calculated and examined for these isotopes. The present calculation correctly reproduces the spherical to gamma-soft phase transition in the Rh isotopes. Some comparisons were made with sd-IBFM.

  3. Move of ground water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigehiko

    1983-01-01

    As a ground water flow which is difficult to explain by Darcy's theory, there is stagnant water in strata, which moves by pumping and leads to land subsidence. This is now a major problem in Japan. Such move on an extensive scale has been investigated in detail by means of 3 H such as from rainfall in addition to ordinary measurement. The move of ground water is divided broadly into that in an unsaturated stratum from ground surface to water-table and that in a saturated stratum below the water-table. The course of the analyses made so far by 3 H contained in water, and the future trend of its usage are described. A flow model of regarding water as plastic fluid and its flow as channel assembly may be available for some flow mechanism which is not possible to explain with Darcy's theory. (Mori, K.)

  4. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  5. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  6. Exchange of moisture between atmosphere and ground regarding tritium transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunnenberg, C.

    1980-09-01

    Two measuring equipment have been developed in the framework of this study which fulfill important conditions to avoid microclimatic interferences during measurement by using site-specific ground samples and embedding these in the ground surface. The beta-absorption lysimeter allows the detection of a minimum deposit height of 0.001 mm in a 1 mm sample layer. The conductivity moisture probe is to measure the moisture diffusion within the first 80 mm of the upper ground with a vertical spacial resolution of 2 mm. It is possible to measure a minimum water content increase of 0.02 wt% per 2 mm ground layer using this probe. The influences of single microclimatic parameter on condensation and evaporation were investigated and a transport equation was developed. Investigations in the Negev proved the application ability of the measuring equipment. The application of the transport equation showed very good agreement with the measured values. When the ground surface starts to cool in the afternoon, there is a countercurrent moisture transport from the atmosphere and the deeper ground layers which lead to a higher water content in the upper ground layer. At about 50 mm depth there is an overlapping layer of the two moisture flows which remains almost constant over the 24 h cycle. This exchange zone of atmospheric humidity and ground water must be paid great attention with regard to HTO transfer. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Approximating the ground state of gapped quantum spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamza, Eman [NON LANL; Nachtergaele, Bruno [NON LANL; Sims, Robert [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    We consider quantum spin systems defined on finite sets V equipped with a metric. In typical examples, V is a large, but finite subset of Z{sup d}. For finite range Hamiltonians with uniformly bounded interaction terms and a unique, gapped ground state, we demonstrate a locality property of the corresponding ground state projector. In such systems, this ground state projector can be approximated by the product of observables with quantifiable supports. In fact, given any subset {chi} {contained_in} V the ground state projector can be approximated by the product of two projections, one supported on {chi} and one supported on {chi}{sup c}, and a bounded observable supported on a boundary region in such a way that as the boundary region increases, the approximation becomes better. Such an approximation was useful in proving an area law in one dimension, and this result corresponds to a multi-dimensional analogue.

  8. Grounding the Underground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    By educating the workers party, Marxism educates the vanguard of the proletariat…”21 the idea being that by raising political consciousness, workers...Press, 1966), 41–42. 127 Frances Fox Piven and Richard A. Cloward, Poor People’s Movements: Why They Succeed, How They Fail (New York: Vintage...dogma, stressing those aspects that are well regarded by the people; don’t hesitate to interpret Marxism -Leninism in any way that proves beneficial. Soft

  9. Monitoring of arched sched ground layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Listjak, M.; Slaninka, A.; Rau, L.; Pajersky, P.

    2015-01-01

    Arched Shed was a part of controlled area of NPP A1 site in Jaslovske Bohunice (Slovakia). It had been used for temporary storage of loose radioactive waste (RAW) which has been characterized within the BIDSF project C13, Characterisation of Loose Radioactive Waste'. Stored RAW has been treated and sorted within the project ',Realization of the 2 nd stage of Decommissioning Project of NPP A1'. Area of Arched Shed represents approximately 270 m 2 (45 m x 6 m). Ground layer of the AS consists mostly of soil with solid elements (stones and gravel). The aim of monitoring was to remove the contaminated soil up to 1 m below ground level. Requirement for detail monitoring of the Arched Shed ground layer resulted from conclusions of the BIDSF project C13 which has proved that massic activity 137 Cs of soil was up to few thousands Bq·kg -1 in underground layer. Dominant easy to measure radionuclide in the soil is 137 Cs which has been used as a key radionuclide for methodology of in-situ soil monitoring. Following methods has been applied during characterization: dose rate survey, sampling from defined ground layer followed by laboratory gamma spectrometry analysis by the accredited testing laboratory of radiation dosimetry VUJE (S-219) and in-situ scintillation gamma spectrometry by 1.5''x1.5'' LaBr detector. Massic activity of the remaining soil (not excavated) comply the criteria for free release into the environment (Government Regulation of Slovak Republic 345/2006 Coll.). Area was filled up by non-contaminated soil up to the ground level of surroundings. Afterward the area was covered with geotextile and concrete panels and nowadays it is ready for further usage within the NPP A1 decommissioning project as a place for treatment, conditioning and disposal of contaminated soil and concrete. (authors)

  10. Artillery localization using networked wireless ground sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David C.

    2002-08-01

    This paper presents the results of an installation of four acoustic/seismic ground sensors built using COTS computers and networking gear and operating on a continuous basis at Yuma Proving Grounds, Arizona. A description of the design can be found as well, which is essentially a Windows 2000 PC with 24-bit data acquisition, GPS timing, and environmental sensors for wind and temperature. A 4-element square acoustic array 1.8m on a side can be used to detect the time and angle of arrival of the muzzle blast and the impact explosion. A 3-component geophone allows the seismic wave direction to be estimated. The 8th channel of the 24-bit data acquisition system has a 1-pulse-per-second time signal from the GPS. This allows acoustic/seismic 'snapshots' to be coherently related from multiple disconnected ground sensor nodes. COTS 2.4 GHz frequency hopping radios (802.11 standard) are used with either omni or yagi antennas depending on the location on the range. Localization of the artillery or impact can be done by using the time and angle of arrival of the waves at 2 or more ground sensor locations. However, this straightforward analysis can be significantly complicated by weather and wind noise and is also the subject of another research contract. This work will present a general description of the COTS ground sensor installation, show example data autonomously collected including agent-based atmospheric data, and share some of the lessons learned from operating a Windows 2000 based system continuously outdoors.

  11. Black hole Berry phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Papadodimas, K.; Verlinde, E.

    2009-01-01

    Supersymmetric black holes are characterized by a large number of degenerate ground states. We argue that these black holes, like other quantum mechanical systems with such a degeneracy, are subject to a phenomenon which is called the geometric or Berry’s phase: under adiabatic variations of the

  12. Low temperature FT-IR and molecular orbital study of N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester: Proof for different ground conformational states in gas phase and in condensed media

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Zavaglia, A.; Fausto, R.

    2002-01-01

    N,N-dimethylglycine methyl ester (DMG-Me) was studied by FT-IR spectroscopy under several experimental conditions, including low temperature solid state and isolated in low temperature inert gas matrices, and by molecular orbital calculations. In agreement with the theoretical predictions, the experimental data show that in the gaseous phase the most stable conformer (ASC) has the ester group in cis configuration and the N–C–CO and Lp–N–C–C (Lp=lone electron pair) dihedral angles equal to 0° ...

  13. Evidence for monoclinic distortion in the ground state phase of underdoped La_1_._9_5Sr_0_._0_5CuO_4: A single crystal neutron diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Anar; Schefer, Jürg; Frontzek, Matthias; Sura, Ravi; Conder, Kazimierz; Sibille, Romain F.; Ceretti, Monica; Paulus, Werner

    2016-01-01

    The existing controversy about the symmetry of the crystal structure of the ground state of the critical doped La_1_._9_5Sr_0_._0_5CuO_4 has been resolved by analyzing the single crystal neutron diffraction data collected between 5 and 730 K. We observed small but significant intensities for “forbidden” reflections given by extinction rules of the orthorhombic Bmab space group at low temperatures. A careful investigation of neutron diffraction data reveals that the crystal structure of La_1_._9_5Sr_0_._0_5CuO_4 at 5 K is monoclinic with B2/m (2/m 1 1) space group. The monoclinic structure emerges from the orthorhombic structure in a continuous way; however, the structure is stable below ∼120 K which agrees with other observed phenomena. Our results on symmetry changes are crucial for the interpretation of physical properties also in other high temperature superconductors with similar structures.

  14. Nuclear ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negele, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    The nuclear ground state is surveyed theoretically, and specific suggestions are given on how to critically test the theory experimentally. Detailed results on 208 Pb are discussed, isolating several features of the charge density distributions. Analyses of 208 Pb electron scattering and muonic data are also considered. 14 figures

  15. Informed Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  16. Mechanics of Ship Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1996-01-01

    In these notes first a simplified mathematical model is presented for analysis of ship hull loading due to grounding on relatively hard and plane sand, clay or rock sea bottoms. In a second section a more rational calculation model is described for the sea bed soil reaction forces on the sea bott...

  17. Singlet Ground State Magnetism:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loidl, A.; Knorr, K.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1979-01-01

    The magneticGamma 1 –Gamma 4 exciton of the singlet ground state system TbP has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering above the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature. Considerable dispersion and a pronounced splitting was found in the [100] and [110] directions. Both the band width...

  18. Grounding Anger Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odis E. Simmons, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the things that drew me to grounded theory from the beginning was Glaser and Strauss’ assertion in The Discovery of Grounded Theory that it was useful as a “theoretical foothold” for practical applications (p. 268. From this, when I was a Ph.D student studying under Glaser and Strauss in the early 1970s, I devised a GT based approach to action I later came to call “grounded action.” In this short paper I’ll present a very brief sketch of an anger management program I developed in 1992, using grounded action. I began my research by attending a two-day anger management training workshop designed for training professionals in the most commonly used anger management model. Like other intervention programs I had seen, this model took a psychologizing and pathologizing approach to the issue. Following this, I sat through the full course of an anger management program that used this model, observing the reactions of the participants and the approach of the facilitator. Following each session I conducted open-ended interviews with most of the participants, either individually or in groups of two or three. I had also done previous research in counseling and social work contexts that turned out to be very relevant to an anger management program design.

  19. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  20. Collison and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, G.; Ji, C.; Kuhala, P.

    2006-01-01

    COMMITTEE MANDATE Concern for structural arrangements on ships and floating structures with regard to their integrity and adequacy in the events of collision and grounding, with the view towards risk assessment and management. Consideration shall be given to the frequency of occurrence...

  1. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  2. MICROSTRUCTURE, MINERALOGY AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUND FLY ASH BASED GEOPOLYMERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Madai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the utilization of deposited fly ash as a main component of geopolymer. After determination of particle size distribution, moisture content, real and bulk density and specific surface area of the raw fly ash, mechanical activation was performed by laboratory scale ball mill. This step is introduced for improving the reactivity of raw material. Then test specimens were produced by geopoliomerisation using a caustic spent liquor (NaOH. Compressive strength was determined on cilindrical specimens. Finally, samples of the ground fly ash based geopolymer specimens were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. Results prove that geopolymer production with proper strength from the investigated F-type deposited fly ash is possible. The uniaxial compressive strength of obtained composites strongly depends on the fineness of the ground fly ash. XRD results show that comparing the crystalline components for different geopolymer samples, zeolite-A appears and its amount increases gradually from 0T sample till 30T and then decreases for 60T sample. The same trend holds for sodalite type structure phases, however its amount is much lower than for zeolite-A. SEM+EDS investigation revealed that Na-content is elevated in the interstitial fine-grained matrix, especially for the 30T sample when highest strength was observed. Si and Al are abundant mainly in anhedral and spherical grains and in rarely occurring grains resembling some crystal shape.

  3. Using a Full Complex Site Transfer Function to Estimate Strong Ground Motion in Port-au-Prince (Haiti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    ST Fleur, S.; Courboulex, F.; Bertrand, E.; Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Hough, S. E.; Boisson, D.; Momplaisir, R.

    2017-12-01

    To assess the possible impact of a future earthquake in the urban area of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), we have implemented a simulation approach for complex ground motions produced by an earthquake. To this end, we have integrated local site effect in the prediction of strong ground motions in Port-au-Prince using the complex transfer functions method, which takes into account amplitude changes as well as phase changes. This technique is particularly suitable for basins where a conventional 1D digital approach proves inadequate, as is the case in Port-au-Prince. To do this, we use the results of the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) approach of St Fleur et al. (2016) to estimate the amplitude of the response of the site to a nearby rock site. Then, we determine the phase difference between sites, interpreted as changes in the phase of the signal related to local site conditions, using the signals of the 2010 earthquake aftershocks records. Finally, the accelerogram of the simulated earthquake is obtain using the technique of the inverse Fourier transform. The results of this study showed that the strongest soil motions are expected in neighborhoods of downtown Port-au-Prince and adjacent hills. In addition, this simulation method by complex transfer functions was validated by comparison with recorded actual data. Our simulated response spectra reproduce very well both the amplitude and the shape of the response spectra of recorded earthquakes. This new approach allowed to reproduce the lengthening of the signal that could be generated by surface waves at certain stations in the city of Port-au-Prince. However, two points of vigilance must be considered: (1) a good signal-to-noise ratio is necessary to obtain a robust estimate of the site-reference phase shift (ratio at least equal to 10); (2) unless the amplitude and phase changes are measured on strong motion records, this technique does not take non-linear effects into account.

  4. Users manual on database of the Piping Reliability Proving Tests at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) conducted Piping Reliability Proving Tests from 1975 to 1992 based upon the contracts between JAERI and Science and Technology Agency of Japan under the auspices of the special account law for electric power development promotion. The purposes of those tests are to prove the structural reliability of the primary cooling piping constituting a part of the pressure boundary in the water reactor power plants. The tests with large experimental facilities had ended already in 1990. After that piping reliability analysis by the probabilistic method followed until 1992. This report describes the users manual on databases about the test results using the large experimental facilities. Objectives of the piping reliability proving tests are to prove that the primary piping of the water reactor (1) be reliable throughout the service period, (2) have no possibility of rupture, (3) bring no detrimental influence on the surrounding instrumentations or equipments near the break location. The research activities using large scale piping test facilities are described. The present report does the database about the test results pairing the former report. With these two reports, all the feature of Piping Reliability Proving Tests is made clear. Briefings of the tests are described also written in Japanese or English. (author)

  5. Distributed operating system for NASA ground stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John F.

    1987-01-01

    NASA ground stations are characterized by ever changing support requirements, so application software is developed and modified on a continuing basis. A distributed operating system was designed to optimize the generation and maintenance of those applications. Unusual features include automatic program generation from detailed design graphs, on-line software modification in the testing phase, and the incorporation of a relational database within a real-time, distributed system.

  6. Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan for Operable Units 6-05 and 10-04, Phase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. P. Wells

    2006-11-14

    This Phase IV Remedial Design/Remedial Action Work Plan addresses the remediation of areas with the potential for UXO at the Idaho National Laboratory. These areas include portions of the Naval Proving Ground, the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range, and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range. Five areas within the Naval Proving Ground that are known to contain UXO include the Naval Ordnance Disposal Area, the Mass Detonation Area, the Experimental Field Station, The Rail Car Explosion Area, and the Land Mine Fuze Burn Area. The Phase IV remedial action will be concentrated in these five areas. For other areas, such as the Arco High-Altitude Bombing Range and the Twin Buttes Bombing Range, ordnance has largely consisted of sand-filled practice bombs that do not pose an explosion risk. Ordnance encountered in these areas will be addressed under the Phase I Operations and Maintenance Plan that allows for the recovery and disposal of ordnance that poses an imminent risk to human health or the environment.

  7. Temporal variation of uranium in ground water with conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulhani, Vandana; Chaudhury, Moushumi D.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The concentration of uranium in drinking water sources is a matter of health concern since it has been proved to be chemo-toxic to humans. Uranium being a more soluble actinide is also very mobile in the environment. The effect of water quality parameters and their co-relation to uranium content in the water is an interesting study to understand and predict its behavior in ground water and subsequently to judge the hazard posed. Hence studies on spatial and temporal variation of uranium concentration with electrical conductivity, pH, total dissolved solids and salinity in ground water was carried out. (author)

  8. Triviality of the ground-state metastate in long-range Ising spin glasses in one dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, N.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional model of a spin glass with independent Gaussian-distributed random interactions, which have mean zero and variance 1/|i -j | 2 σ, between the spins at sites i and j for all i ≠j . It is known that, for σ >1 , there is no phase transition at any nonzero temperature in this model. We prove rigorously that, for σ >3 /2 , any translation-covariant Newman-Stein metastate for the ground states (i.e., the frequencies with which distinct ground states are observed in finite-size samples in the limit of infinite size, for given disorder) is trivial and unique. In other words, for given disorder and asymptotically at large sizes, the same ground state, or its global spin flip, is obtained (almost) always. The proof consists of two parts: One is a theorem (based on one by Newman and Stein for short-range two-dimensional models), valid for all σ >1 , that establishes triviality under a convergence hypothesis on something similar to the energies of domain walls and the other (based on older results for the one-dimensional model) establishes that the hypothesis is true for σ >3 /2 . In addition, we derive heuristic scaling arguments and rigorous exponent inequalities which tend to support the validity of the hypothesis under broader conditions. The constructions of various metastates are extended to all values σ >1 /2 . Triviality of the metastate in bond-diluted power-law models for σ >1 is proved directly.

  9. Grounding line processes on the Totten Glacier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, S.; Watson, C. S.; Galton-Fenzi, B.; Peters, L. E.; Coleman, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Totten Glacier has been an area of recent interest due to its large drainage basin, much of which is grounded below sea level and has a history of large scale grounding line movement. Reports that warm water reaches the sub-ice shelf cavity have led to speculation that it could be vulnerable to future grounding line retreat. Over the Antarctic summer 2016/17 an array of 6 GPS and autonomous phase-sensitive radar (ApRES) units were deployed in the grounding zone of the Totten Glacier. These instruments measure changes in ice velocity and thickness which can be used to investigate both ice dynamics across the grounding line, and the interaction between ice and ocean in the subglacial cavity. Basal melt rates calculated from the ApRES units on floating ice range from 1 to 17 m/a. These values are significantly lower than previous estimates of basal melt rate produced by ocean modelling of the subglacial cavity. Meanwhile, GPS-derived velocity and elevation on the surface of the ice show a strong tidal signal, as does the vertical strain rate within the ice derived from internal layering from the ApRES instruments. These results demonstrate the significance of the complex grounding pattern of the Totten Glacier. The presence of re-grounding points has significant implications for the dynamics of the glacier and the ocean circulation within the subglacial cavity. We discuss what can be learned from our in situ measurements, and how they can be used to improve models of the glacier's future behaviour.

  10. E-squared nine do-it-yourself energy experiments that prove your thoughts create your reality

    CERN Document Server

    Grout, Pam

    2013-01-01

    E-Squared is a lab manual with simple experiments to prove once and for all that there really is a good, loving, totally hip force in the universe. Rather than take it on faith, you are invited to conduct ten 48-hour experiments to prove each of the principles in this book. Yes, you read that right. It says prove. The experiments, each of which can be conducted with absolutely no money and very little time expenditure, demonstrate that spiritual principles are as dependable as gravity, as consistent as Newton's 2nd law of motion. For years, you've been hoping and praying that spiritual principles are true. Now, you can know.

  11. The effects of GeoGebra software on pre-service mathematics teachers' attitudes and views toward proof and proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Yılmaz

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of GeoGebra software on pre-service mathematics teachers' attitudes towards proof and proving and to determine pre-service teachers' pre- and post-views regarding proof. The study lasted nine weeks and the participants of the study consisted of 24 pre-service mathematics teachers. The study used the 'Attitude Scale Towards Proof and Proving' and an open-ended questionnaire that were administered before and after the intervention as data collection tools. Paired samples t-test analysis was used for the analysis of quantitative data and content and descriptive analyses were utilized for the analysis of qualitative data. As a result of the data analysis, it was determined that GeoGebra software was an effective tool in increasing pre-service teachers' attitudes towards proof and proving.

  12. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  13. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body

  14. TOPEX ground data system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, S. N.; Yamarone, C. A., Jr.

    The TOPEX Project is a proposed oceanographic mission to measure the topography of the sea surface for a period of three years. This mission is sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Measurements of topography are used to study ocean currents, tides, bathymetry and the oceanic geoid. Several of the primary goals of this mission are to process and verify the altimetric data, and distribute them within days to the science investigators. This paper describes the TOPEX end-to-end ground data system. In addition to controlling the TOPEX satellite, the ground data system has been designed to minimize the time from data acquisition to science processing and data distribution. A centralized design supports the favorable response time of the system and also allows for operational efficiencies. Networking of real time and non-real time elements of the data system provides for more effective data processing.

  15. Ibis ground calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, A.J.; Barlow, E.J.; Tikkanen, T.; Bazzano, A.; Del Santo, M.; Ubertini, P.; Blondel, C.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Di Cocco, G.; Malaguti, E.; Gabriele, M.; La Rosa, G.; Segreto, A.; Quadrini, E.; Volkmer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an overview of results obtained from IBIS ground calibrations. The spectral and spatial characteristics of the detector planes and surrounding passive materials have been determined through a series of calibration campaigns. Measurements of pixel gain, energy resolution, detection uniformity, efficiency and imaging capability are presented. The key results obtained from the ground calibration have been: - optimization of the instrument tunable parameters, - determination of energy linearity for all detection modes, - determination of energy resolution as a function of energy through the range 20 keV - 3 MeV, - demonstration of imaging capability in each mode, - measurement of intrinsic detector non-uniformity and understanding of the effects of passive materials surrounding the detector plane, and - discovery (and closure) of various leakage paths through the passive shielding system

  16. Ground motion effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blume, J A [John A. Blume and Associates, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  17. The LOFT Ground Segment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.

    2014-01-01

    targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT...... Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution...... we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book 1 . We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving...

  18. Ground motion effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.

    1969-01-01

    Ground motion caused by natural earthquakes or by nuclear explosion causes buildings and other structures to respond in such manner as possibly to have high unit stresses and to be subject to damage or-in some cases-collapse. Even minor damage may constitute a hazard to persons within or adjacent to buildings. The risk of damage may well be the governing restraint on the uses of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. Theory is advanced regarding structural-dynamic response but real buildings and structures are complex, highly variable, and often difficult to model realistically. This paper discusses the state of knowledge, the art of damage prediction and safety precautions, and shows ground motion effects from explosions of underground nuclear devices in the continental United States including events Salmon, Gasbuggy, Boxcar, Faultless and Benham. (author)

  19. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  20. Ground System Survivability Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    Avoidance Blast Mitigation Optimization Customer ILIR RDT&E Funding 5.0 % 0.5% GSS has a proven, technically proficient workforce that meets...Evaluation of Defensive-Aid Suites (ARMED) Common Automatic Fire Extinguishing System ( CAFES ) Transparent Armor Development Ground Combat Vehicle...Survey TRADOC (WFO, CNA, etc) Voice of the Customer Sy st em s En gi ne er in g Publish overarching MIL-STD, design guidelines, technical

  1. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  2. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Jie; Li, Xiao-Ping

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ molecular dynamics (MD) methods, commonly used in condensed matter physics, we have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. We include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations using MD methods has been performed to obtain the equilibrium crystalline beam structure. The effect of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Schiffer et al. depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  3. Crystalline beam ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, J.; Li, X.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to employ the Molecular Dynamics method, commonly used in condensed matter physics, the authors have derived the equations of motion for a beam of charged particles in the rotating rest frame of the reference particle. They include in the formalism that the particles are confined by the guiding and focusing magnetic fields, and that they are confined in a conducting vacuum pipe while interacting with each other via a Coulomb force. Numerical simulations has been performed to obtain the equilibrium structure. The effects of the shearing force, centrifugal force, and azimuthal variation of the focusing strength are investigated. It is found that a constant gradient storage ring can not give a crystalline beam, but that an alternating-gradient (AG) structure can. In such a machine the ground state is, except for one-dimensional (1-D) crystals, time-dependent. The ground state is a zero entropy state, despite the time-dependent, periodic variation of the focusing force. The nature of the ground state, similar to that found by Rahman and Schiffer, depends upon the density and the relative focusing strengths in the transverse directions. At low density, the crystal is 1-D. As the density increases, it transforms into various kinds of 2-D and 3-D crystals. If the energy of the beam is higher than the transition energy of the machine, the crystalline structure can not be formed for lack of radial focusing

  4. Phase transitions in two-dimensional uniformly frustrated XY models. I. antiferromagnetic model on a triangular lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, S.E.; Uimin, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    A most popular model in the family of two-dimensional uniformly-frustrated XY models is the antiferromagnetic model on a triangular lattice (AF XY(t) model). Its ground state is both continuously and twofold discretely degenerated. Different phase transitions possible in such systems are investigated. Relevant topological excitations are analyzed and a new class of such (vortices with a fractional number of circulation quanta) is discovered. Their role in determining the properties of the system proves itself essential. The characteristics of phase transitions related to breaking of discrete and continuous symmetries change. The phase diagram of the ''generalized'' AF XY(t) model is constructed. The results obtained are rederived in the representation of the Coulomb gas with half-interger charges, equivalent to the AF XY(t) model with the Berezinskii-Villain interaction

  5. Detecting and characterizing unroofed caves by ground penetrating radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čeru, Teja; Šegina, Ela; Knez, Martin; Benac, Čedomir; Gosar, Andrej

    2018-02-01

    The bare karst surface in the southeastern part of Krk Island (Croatia) is characterized by different surface karst features, such as valley-like shallow linear depressions and partially or fully sediment-filled depressions of various shapes and sizes. They were noticed due to locally increased thickness of sediment and enhanced vegetation but had not yet been systematically studied and defined. Considering only the geometry of the investigated surface features and the rare traces of cave environments detected by field surveys, it was unclear which processes (surface karstification and/or speleogenesis) contributed most to their formation. The low-frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR) method using a special 50 MHz RTA antenna was applied to study and describe these karst features. Three study sites were chosen and 5 km of GPR profiles were positioned to include various surface features. The results obtained from the GPR investigation lead to the following conclusions: (1) an increased thickness of sediment was detected in all the investigated depressions indicating their considerable depth; (2) areas between different depressions expressed as attenuated zones in GPR images reveal their interconnection; (3) transitions between surface and underground features are characterized by a collapsed passage visible in the GPR data; and (4) an underground continuation of surface valley-like depressions was detected, proving the speleogenetic origin of such features. Subsurface information obtained using GPR indicates that the valley-like depressions, irregular depressions completely or partially filled with sediment, and some dolines are associated with a nearly 4 km-long unroofed cave and developed as a result of karst denudation. In the regional context, these results suggest long-lasting karstification processes in the area, in contrast to the pre-karstic fluvial phase previously assumed to have occurred here. This research is the first application of the GPR method to

  6. 30 CFR 77.806 - Connection of single-phase loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.806 Connection of single-phase loads. Single-phase loads, such as transformer primaries, shall be connected phase to phase in resistance grounded systems. ...

  7. 30 CFR 77.905 - Connection of single-phase loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.905 Connection of single-phase loads. Single-phase loads shall be connected phase-to-phase in resistance grounded systems. ...

  8. Ground System Extensibility Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Greene, E.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners, such as NASA's Earth Observation System (EOS), NOAA's current POES, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's (JAXA) Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), and DoD's Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of national and international missions, including command and control, mission management, data acquisition and routing, and environmental data processing and distribution. The current suite of CGS-supported missions has demonstrated the value of interagency and international partnerships to address global observation needs. With its established infrastructure and existing suite of missions, the CGS is extensible to a wider array of potential new missions. This paper will describe how the inherent scalability and extensibility of the CGS enables the addition of these new missions, with an eye on global enterprise needs in the 2020's and beyond.

  9. Ground penetrating radar

    CERN Document Server

    Daniels, David J

    2004-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar has come to public attention in recent criminal investigations, but has actually been a developing and maturing remote sensing field for some time. In the light of recent expansion of the technique to a wide range of applications, the need for an up-to-date reference has become pressing. This fully revised and expanded edition of the best-selling Surface-Penetrating Radar (IEE, 1996) presents, for the non-specialist user or engineer, all the key elements of this technique, which span several disciplines including electromagnetics, geophysics and signal processing. The

  10. Predicting Ground Illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Tregoning, Brett D.; Hitchens, Alexandra E.

    2015-01-01

    Our Sun outputs 3.85 x 1026 W of radiation, of which roughly 37% is in the visible band. It is directly responsible for nearly all natural illuminance experienced on Earth's surface, either in the form of direct/refracted sunlight or in reflected light bouncing off the surfaces and/or atmospheres of our Moon and the visible planets. Ground illuminance, defined as the amount of visible light intercepting a unit area of surface (from all incident angles), varies over 7 orders of magnitude from day to night. It is highly dependent on well-modeled factors such as the relative positions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon. It is also dependent on less predictable factors such as local atmospheric conditions and weather.Several models have been proposed to predict ground illuminance, including Brown (1952) and Shapiro (1982, 1987). The Brown model is a set of empirical data collected from observation points around the world that has been reduced to a smooth fit of illuminance against a single variable, solar altitude. It provides limited applicability to the Moon and for cloudy conditions via multiplicative reduction factors. The Shapiro model is a theoretical model that treats the atmosphere as a three layer system of light reflectance and transmittance. It has different sets of reflectance and transmittance coefficients for various cloud types.In this paper we compare the models' predictions to ground illuminance data from an observing run at the White Sands missile range (data was obtained from the United Kingdom's Meteorology Office). Continuous illuminance readings were recorded under various cloud conditions, during both daytime and nighttime hours. We find that under clear skies, the Shapiro model tends to better fit the observations during daytime hours with typical discrepancies under 10%. Under cloudy skies, both models tend to poorly predict ground illuminance. However, the Shapiro model, with typical average daytime discrepancies of 25% or less in many cases

  11. TFTR grounding scheme and ground-monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viola, M.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) grounding system utilizes a single-point ground. It is located directly under the machine, at the basement floor level, and is tied to the building perimeter ground. Wired to this single-point ground, via individual 500 MCM insulated cables, are: the vacuum vessel; four toroidal field coil cases/inner support structure quadrants; umbrella structure halves; the substructure ring girder; radial beams and columns; and the diagnostic systems. Prior to the first machine operation, a ground-loop removal program was initiated. It required insulation of all hangers and supports (within a 35-foot radius of the center of the machine) of the various piping, conduits, cable trays, and ventilation systems. A special ground-monitor system was designed and installed. It actively monitors each of the individual machine grounds to insure that there are no inadvertent ground loops within the machine structure or its ground and that the machine grounds are intact prior to each pulse. The TFTR grounding system has proven to be a very manageable system and one that is easy to maintain

  12. A conception of ecological providing ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miroshkina, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Ecological proving ground is a multifunctional intersectoral and interterritorial complex. The proving ground is created to organize the work of the Regional System of Ecological Safety, its structure and elements, and their unification and conversion into national system. It's also created for the working out of some questions of technical policy and normative-legal regulation in the field of ecology. The main task is the elaboration of mechanisms for the co-operation of the legislative executive bodies and their regional structure in the process of creation adoption and working of the Complex Regional System of Ecological Safety. The directions of polygon's activity: 1. Sanitary-epidemic protection of population. 2. Radiational Safety. 3. Chemical Safety. 4. Monitoring of Ecological situation and normalization of the environment. 4.1. Control of contamination of the waters. 4.2. Control of contamination of the air. 4.3. Ecological monitoring of soil. 4.4. State and protection of flora and fauna. 5. Ecologically pure agricultural production on the territory of the polygon. 5.1. Radiational and chemical control of agricultural areas and production. 5.2. Production of pure products. 6. The creation of normative, legal, informational, methodical and metrological supply of polygon's activity. 7. Optimization of the models of ecological situation. 8. Ecological informational-educational activity. The choice of territory for the polygon is based on the following statements: the intensity of ecological situation; the topography of the environment; the density of population; the availability of scientific base; the intensity of social movements. Some experience, that would allow to improve existing ecological legislation and spread some tried methods of supply of ecological safety on the territory of Russia, will be gained as a result. (author)

  13. Ground state searches in fcc intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.; de Fontaine, D.; Ceder, G.; Dreysse, H.

    1991-12-01

    A cluster expansion is used to predict the fcc ground states, i.e., the stable phases at zero Kelvin as a function of composition, for alloy systems. The intermetallic structures are not assumed, but derived regorously by minimizing the configurational energy subject to linear constraints. This ground state search includes pair and multiplet interactions which spatially extend to fourth nearest neighbor. A large number of these concentration-independent interactions are computed by the method of direct configurational averaging using a linearized-muffin-tin orbital Hamiltonian cast into tight binding form (TB-LMTO). The interactions, derived without the use of any adjustable or experimentally obtained parameters, are compared to those calculated via the generalized perturbation method extention of the coherent potential approximation within the context of a KKR Hamiltonian (KKR-CPA-GPM). Agreement with the KKR-CPA-GPM results is quite excellent, as is the comparison of the ground state results with the fcc-based portions of the experimentally-determined phase diagrams under consideration

  14. A thermal ground cloak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Tianzhi; Wu, Qinghe; Xu, Weikai; Liu, Di; Huang, Lujun; Chen, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The thermal cloak has been a long-standing scientific dream of researchers and engineers. Recently thermal metamaterials with man-made micro-structure have been presented based on the principle of transformation optics (TO). This new concept has received considerable attention, which is a powerful tool for manipulating heat flux in thermal imaging systems. However, the inherent material singularity has long been a captivation of experimental realization. As an alternative method, the scattering-cancellation-based cloak (or bi-layer thermal cloak) has been presented to remove the singularity for achieving the same cloaking performance. Nevertheless, such strategy needs prerequisite knowledge (geometry and conductivity) of the object to be cloaked. In this paper, a new thermal ground cloak is presented to overcome the limitations. The device is designed, fabricated and measured to verify the thermal cloaking performance. We experimentally show that the remarkably low complexity of the device can fully and effectively be manipulated using realizable transformation thermal devices. More importantly, this thermal ground cloak is designed to exclude heat flux without knowing the information of the cloaked object. - Highlights: • We present the first thermal carpet cloak. • The carpet can thermally cloak any shaped object without knowing the properties of the object to be cloaked. • Excellent agreements between simulation and experiment are observed.

  15. Grounding for safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prud' homme, P. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.

    2006-07-01

    The importance of providing electrical grounds as a safety issue in the design of power transmission lines was discussed. Power transmission lines extend over several thousands of kilometers crossing various environments, including communities where electric utilities encourage the use of transmission rights-of-way passages for uses such as bicycle paths. In recent years, many new residential communities have been built at the border of power transmission rights-of-ways or substations. In view of this emerging trend, and the fact that internal statistics indicate that lightning strikes are responsible of about 50 to 60 per cent of transmission line faults, electric utilities are obligated to verify if their installations are safe. Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie's view on this subject was presented along with a review of international standards to determine if limits for touch voltage, step voltage and transferred potential close to transmission lines have been established by the international community. A variety of mitigation measures to control the increase in ground potential in the event of electrical faults were also proposed. tabs., figs.

  16. Non-linear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo, proved by feedback system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paor, A. M.

    Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ɛ has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.

  17. Non-linear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo, proved by feedback system theory

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. de Paor

    1998-01-01

    International audience; Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998) has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ? has the value 1 is proved via ...

  18. Seismic test facilities at the ENEA Casaccia Research Center; Prove sismiche con le tavole vibranti al centro ricerche Enea Casaccia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Canio, G. [ENEA, Divisione Servizi Tecnologici, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    The main experimental facilities for seismic tests at the ENEA C.R. Casaccia laboratories consist of two high performance shake table for three axial seismic tests of structures up to 10 ton mass and 3g acceleration applied at the Center of Gravity at 1m from the base table. The activities are principally devoted to the dynamic characterization and vibration tests for mechanical and aero spatial structures, and the experimental analysis of innovative systems for the seismic isolation and retrofitting of civil, industrial, and historical buildings; together with the seismic tests of sub-structures and scaled mock-ups, in order to evaluate the isolation/dissipation performance of the anti-seismic devices, and the failure modes of the structural parts of the building. [Italian] Le principali attrezzature per le prove sismiche presso i laboratori del C.R. Casaccia consistono di due tavole vibranti triassali per prove su strutture fino a 10t di peso con una accelerazione di 3g applicata al centro di gravita' posto ad 1 m di altezza dal piano della tavola. Le principali attivita' riguardano: (a) test di caratterizzazione dinamica e prove di vibrazioni per strutture meccaniche ed aerospaziali; (b) l'analisi sperimentale di sistemi innovativi per l'isolamento sismico ed il consolidamento di strutture civili, industriali e storico monumentali, e le prove sismiche di elementi strutturali e di modelli in scala per la valutazione della capacita' di dissipazione dei dispositivi antisismici e le modalita' di formazione delle fratture.

  19. Learn, see, practice, prove, do, maintain: an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Taylor; White, Marjorie; Zaveri, Pavan; Chang, Todd; Ades, Anne; French, Heather; Anderson, JoDee; Auerbach, Marc; Johnston, Lindsay; Kessler, David

    2015-08-01

    Acquisition of competency in procedural skills is a fundamental goal of medical training. In this Perspective, the authors propose an evidence-based pedagogical framework for procedural skill training. The framework was developed based on a review of the literature using a critical synthesis approach and builds on earlier models of procedural skill training in medicine. The authors begin by describing the fundamentals of procedural skill development. Then, a six-step pedagogical framework for procedural skills training is presented: Learn, See, Practice, Prove, Do, and Maintain. In this framework, procedural skill training begins with the learner acquiring requisite cognitive knowledge through didactic education (Learn) and observation of the procedure (See). The learner then progresses to the stage of psychomotor skill acquisition and is allowed to deliberately practice the procedure on a simulator (Practice). Simulation-based mastery learning is employed to allow the trainee to prove competency prior to performing the procedure on a patient (Prove). Once competency is demonstrated on a simulator, the trainee is allowed to perform the procedure on patients with direct supervision, until he or she can be entrusted to perform the procedure independently (Do). Maintenance of the skill is ensured through continued clinical practice, supplemented by simulation-based training as needed (Maintain). Evidence in support of each component of the framework is presented. Implementation of the proposed framework presents a paradigm shift in procedural skill training. However, the authors believe that adoption of the framework will improve procedural skill training and patient safety.

  20. Ground-atmosphere interactions at Gale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renno, N. O.; Martinez, G.; Ramos, M.; Hallet, B.; Gómez, F. G.; Jun, I.; Fisk, M. R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Hamilton, V. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Sletten, R. S.; Martin-Torres, J.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Vasavada, A. R.; Zorzano, M.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze variations in environmental parameters and regolith properties along Curiosity's track to determine the possible causes of an abrupt change in the thermal properties of the ground and the atmosphere observed around Sol 120, as the rover transitioned from an area of sandy soil (Rocknest) to an area of fractured bedrock terrain (Yellowknife). Curiosity is instrumented with the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) and the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) sensors to measure the air temperature, the ground temperature, and the hydrogen content of the shallow subsurface along Curiosity's track. Analysis of the REMS data is used to estimate the regolith's heat budget. This analysis suggests that the abrupt decrease in the ground and atmosphere temperature and the difference between ground and air temperatures observed around Sol 120 is likely caused by an increase in the soil thermal inertia. The changes in thermal inertia have been known for some time so confirming this by the REMS package provides ground truthing. A new unexpected finding is that the regolith water content, as indicated by DAN's detection of hydrogen content, is higher in the Yellowknife soil. Another interesting finding at this site are the holes and other signs of recent geological activity in the area of fractured terrain that may reflect large volumetric variations and facilitate gas exchange between the ground and atmosphere. Near-surface volumetric changes in soil and bedrock could reflect changes in the volume of subsurface H2O, or in the partitioning of H2O among its three phases. Volume increases could also result from salt crystal growth in rock pores and soil pores associated with the adsorption of water vapor. Crystallization in pores is a significant weathering process on Earth; it could well be active on Mars. Salts also inhibits the exchange of moisture between the ground and the atmosphere, and cements the soils of arid places such as in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in

  1. Reactions of Ground State Nitrogen Atoms N(4S) with Astrochemically-Relevant Molecules on Interstellar Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Lahouari; Nourry, Sendres

    2015-06-01

    In the last few years, ambitious programs were launched to probe the interstellar medium always more accurately. One of the major challenges of these missions remains the detection of prebiotic compounds and the understanding of reaction pathways leading to their formation. These complex heterogeneous reactions mainly occur on icy dust grains, and their studies require the coupling of laboratory experiments mimicking the extreme conditions of extreme cold and dilute media. For that purpose, we have developed an original experimental approach that combine the study of heterogeneous reactions (by exposing neutral molecules adsorbed on ice to non-energetic radicals H, OH, N...) and a neon matrix isolation study at very low temperatures, which is of paramount importance to isolate and characterize highly reactive reaction intermediates. Such experimental approach has already provided answers to many questions raised about some astrochemically-relevant reactions occurring in the ground state on the surface of dust grain ices in dense molecular clouds. The aim of this new present work is to show the implication of ground state atomic nitrogen on hydrogen atom abstraction reactions from some astrochemically-relevant species, at very low temperatures (3K-20K), without providing any external energy. Under cryogenic temperatures and with high barrier heights, such reactions involving N(4S) nitrogen atoms should not occur spontaneously and require an initiating energy. However, the detection of some radicals species as byproducts, in our solid samples left in the dark for hours at 10K, proves that hydrogen abstraction reactions involving ground state N(4S) nitrogen atoms may occur in solid phase at cryogenic temperatures. Our results show the efficiency of radical species formation stemming from non-energetic N-atoms and astrochemically-relevant molecules. We will then discuss how such reactions, involving nitrogen atoms in their ground states, might be the first key step

  2. The effect of herbal formula PROVE 1 and Stevia levels in diets on diet utilization of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooprasert, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effect of 0.2% antibiotic (ascomix-s®, one kilogram of which contains lincomycin hydrochloride 44 g and sulfamethazine 110 g or 0.25% herbal formulaPROVE 1, combined with five levels of Stevia supplementation in the diets on digestibility of pigs. Two factors; 1 type of drug (0.2% antibiotic and 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 and 2 five Stevia levels (0,0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% were investigated and 10 dietary treatments were used in this study. Ten related growing crossbred (Large White x Landrace barrow pigs (30±1.5 kg body weight were raised in individualmetabolism cages for three collecting periods (30, 40 and 50 kg body weight, each pig was fed one experimental diet throughout the collecting period.The results showed that pigs fed diet with either 0.2% antibiotic or 0.25% herbal formula PROVE 1 had similar digestibility of diet, crude protein (CP, fiber, ash and nitrogen free extract (NFE (89.01 vs 87.83,94.96 vs 94.23, 60.73 vs 59.03, 61.22 vs 60.44 and 93.28 vs 92.03%, respectively. Negligible differences were observed between 0 and 0.4% Stevia supplementation in diet, but levels showed better digestibility than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, and the diet with 0.4% Stevia supplementation had the highestdigestibility of diet, CP, fiber, ash and NFE (91.04, 96.43, 69.48, 70.47 and 94.07%, respectively. The diet with antibiotic combined with 0.4% Stevia had digestibility of diet, CP, fat and fiber better than the otherlevels of Stevia supplementation, especially digestibility of ash, which was significantly higher than that of diet with 0.2% Stevia, but not significantly different from the other levels of Stevia supplementation. A partof herbal formula PROVE1 combined with 0% Stevia had the highest digestibility of ash (72.90%, significantly higher than the other levels of Stevia supplementation, except the diet with herbal formula PROVE 1combined with 0.4% Stevia supplementation

  3. The application of GPS time information in the telemetry ground station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Songtao; Zhang Yusong; Sun Xiurui

    2001-01-01

    GPS time information is a kind of practicable information resource that can be shared all over the world. Now it is the most accurate wireless time information. The major of this paper is the application information of GPS time information in telemetry. The main point introduces how to make use of the GPS time information to produce GPS-IRIG-B time code for proving ground and how to send time information to related equipment in telemetry ground station

  4. Ground Vehicle Convoying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan

    1987-01-01

    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  5. Common Ground and Delegation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lyngsie, Jacob

    preconditions of increasing delegation. We argue that key HR practices?namely, hiring, training and job-rotation?are associated with delegation of decision-making authority. These practices assist in the creation of shared knowledge conditions between managers and employees. In turn, such a ?common ground......? influences the confidence with which managers delegate decision authority to employees, as managers improve their knowledge of the educational background, firm-specific knowledge, and perhaps even the possible actions of those to whom they delegate such authority. To test these ideas, we match a large......-scale questionnaire survey with unique population-wide employer-employee data. We find evidence of a direct and positive influence of hiring decisions (proxied by common educational background), and the training and job rotation of employees on delegation. Moreover, we find a positive interaction between common...

  6. Antenna characteristics and air-ground interface deembedding methods for stepped-frequency ground-penetrating radar measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Larsen, Jan; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2000-01-01

    The result from field-tests using a Stepped-Frequency Ground Penetrating Radar (SF-GPR) and promising antenna and air-ground deembedding methods for a SF-GPR is presented. A monostatic S-band rectangular waveguide antenna was used in the field-tests. The advantages of the SF-GPR, e.g., amplitude...... and phase information in the SF-GPR signal, is used to deembed the characteristics of the antenna. We propose a new air-to-ground interface deembedding technique based on Principal Component Analysis which enables enhancement of the SF-GPR signal from buried objects, e.g., anti-personal landmines...

  7. GROUNDED THEORY METHODOLOGY and GROUNDED THEORY RESEARCH in TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    ARIK, Ferhat; ARIK, Işıl Avşar

    2016-01-01

    This research discusses the historical development of the Grounded Theory Methodology, which is one of the qualitative research method, its transformation over time and how it is used as a methodology in Turkey. The Grounded Theory which was founded by Strauss and Glaser, is a qualitative methodology based on inductive logic to discover theories in contrast with the deductive understanding which is based on testing an existing theory in sociology. It is possible to examine the Grounded Theory...

  8. Ground water in Creek County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Richard Carlysle

    1937-01-01

    Creek County has been designated as a problem area by the Land Use Planning Section of the Resettlement Administration. Some of the earliest oil fields to brought into production were situated in and near this county, and new fields have been opened from time to time during the ensuing years. The production of the newer fields, however, has not kept pace with the exhaustion of the older fields, and the county now presents an excellent picture of the problems involved in adjusting a population to lands that are nearly depleted of their mineral wealth. Values of land have been greatly depressed; tax collection is far in arrears; tenancy is widespread; and in addition more people will apparently be forced to depend on the income from agriculture than the land seems capable of supporting. The county as a whole is at best indifferently suitable for general farming. The Land Use planning Section proposes to study the present and seemingly immanent maladjustments of population to the resources of the land, and make recommendations for their correction. The writer was detailed to the Land Use Planning Section of Region VIII for the purposes of making studies of ground water problems in the region. In Creek County two investigations were made. In September, 1936, the writer spent about ten days investigating the availability of ground water for the irrigation of garden crops during drouths. If it proved feasible to do this generally throughout the county, the Land Use Planning Section might be able to encourage this practice. The second investigation made by the writer was in regard to the extent to which ground water supplies have been damaged by oil well brines. He was in county for four days late in January 1937, and again in March, 1937. During part of the second field trip he was accompanied by R.M. Dixon, sanitary engineer of the Water Utilization Unit of the Resettlement Administration. (available as photostat copy only)

  9. Modeling of earthquake ground motion in the frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrainsson, Hjortur

    In recent years, the utilization of time histories of earthquake ground motion has grown considerably in the design and analysis of civil structures. It is very unlikely, however, that recordings of earthquake ground motion will be available for all sites and conditions of interest. Hence, there is a need for efficient methods for the simulation and spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In addition to providing estimates of the ground motion at a site using data from adjacent recording stations, spatially interpolated ground motions can also be used in design and analysis of long-span structures, such as bridges and pipelines, where differential movement is important. The objective of this research is to develop a methodology for rapid generation of horizontal earthquake ground motion at any site for a given region, based on readily available source, path and site characteristics, or (sparse) recordings. The research includes two main topics: (i) the simulation of earthquake ground motion at a given site, and (ii) the spatial interpolation of earthquake ground motion. In topic (i), models are developed to simulate acceleration time histories using the inverse discrete Fourier transform. The Fourier phase differences, defined as the difference in phase angle between adjacent frequency components, are simulated conditional on the Fourier amplitude. Uniformly processed recordings from recent California earthquakes are used to validate the simulation models, as well as to develop prediction formulas for the model parameters. The models developed in this research provide rapid simulation of earthquake ground motion over a wide range of magnitudes and distances, but they are not intended to replace more robust geophysical models. In topic (ii), a model is developed in which Fourier amplitudes and Fourier phase angles are interpolated separately. A simple dispersion relationship is included in the phase angle interpolation. The accuracy of the interpolation

  10. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  11. Non-linear quenching of current fluctuations in a self-exciting homopolar dynamo, proved by feedback system theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. de Paor

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hide (Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics, 1998 has produced a new mathematical model of a self-exciting homopolar dynamo driving a series- wound motor, as a continuing contribution to the theory of the geomagnetic field. By a process of exact perturbation analysis, followed by combination and partial solution of differential equations, the complete nonlinear quenching of current fluctuations reported by Hide in the case that a parameter ε has the value 1 is proved via the Popov theorem from feedback system stability theory.

  12. Ground-water travel time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, H.; Grisak, G.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Travel Time Subgroup are presented

  13. Regional ground-water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Containment and Isolation Working Group considered issues related to the postclosure behavior of repositories in crystalline rock. This working group was further divided into subgroups to consider the progress since the 1978 GAIN Symposium and identify research needs in the individual areas of regional ground-water flow, ground-water travel time, fractional release, and cumulative release. The analysis and findings of the Ground-Water Regime Subgroup are presented

  14. Suomi NPP Ground System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Bergeron, C.

    2013-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The first satellite in the JPSS constellation, known as the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) satellite, was launched on 28 October 2011, and is currently undergoing product calibration and validation activities. As products reach a beta level of maturity, they are made available to the community through NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS). CGS's data processing capability processes the satellite data from the Joint Polar Satellite System satellites to provide environmental data products (including Sensor Data Records (SDRs) and Environmental Data Records (EDRs)) to NOAA and Department of Defense (DoD) processing centers operated by the United States government. CGS is currently processing and delivering SDRs and EDRs for Suomi NPP and will continue through the lifetime of the Joint Polar Satellite System programs. Following the launch and sensor activation phase of the Suomi NPP mission, full volume data traffic is now flowing from the satellite through CGS's C3, data processing, and data delivery systems. Ground system performance is critical for this operational system. As part of early system checkout, Raytheon measured all aspects of data acquisition, routing, processing, and delivery to ensure operational performance requirements are met, and will continue to be met throughout the mission. Raytheon developed a tool to measure, categorize, and

  15. Ground Processing Optimization using Artificial Intelligence Techniques, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the most complex, enormous, difficult, diverse, distributed, and unique set of integrated scheduling problems in the world and it is...

  16. Innovative Ground Habitats for Lunar Operational Outpost (IGLOO), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NextGen Aeronautics, Inc. is proposing an alternate architecture for inflatable lunar habitats that takes advantage of inflatable beam technologies currently being...

  17. High Speed Lasercom Signal Processing and Ground Station, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space laser communications offer the promise and opportunity to downlink greatly increased data volumes from space as a supplement to radio frequency (RF) systems....

  18. Plenoptic Flow Imaging for Ground Testing, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Instantaneous volumetric flow imaging is crucial to aerodynamic development and testing. Simultaneous volumetric measurement of flow parameters enables accurate...

  19. Task-Specific Asteroid Simulants for Ground Testing, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will produce at least four asteroid simulants at high fidelity for mineral content and particle size, created through standardized inputs and documented...

  20. Intelligent Agents for Improved Ground-Test Operations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal outlines a research program for developing a novel soft-computing technology composed of an Artificial Immune System and Bayesian Belief Networks for...

  1. Correlation of Fault Size, Moment Magnitude, and Tsunami Height to Proved Paleo-tsunami Data in Sulawesi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julius, A. M.; Pribadi, S.

    2016-02-01

    Sulawesi (Indonesia) island is located in the meeting of three large plates i.e. Indo-Australia, Pacific, and Eurasia. This configuration surely make high risk on tsunami by earthquake and by sea floor landslide. NOAA and Russia Tsunami Laboratory show more than 20 tsunami data recorded in Sulawesi since 1820. Based on this data, determine of correlation between all tsunami parameter need to be done to proved all event in the past. Complete data of magnitudes, fault sizes and tsunami heights in this study sourced from NOAA and Russia Tsunami database and completed with Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) catalog. This study aims to find correlation between fault area, moment magnitude, and tsunami height by simple regression in Sulawesi. The step of this research are data collect, processing, and regression analysis. Result shows very good correlation, each moment magnitude, tsunami heights, and fault parameter i.e. long, wide, and slip are correlate linier. In increasing of fault area, the tsunami height and moment magnitude value also increase. In increasing of moment magnitude, tsunami height also increase. This analysis is enough to proved all Sulawesi tsunami parameter catalog in NOAA, Russia Tsunami Laboratory and PTWC are correct. Keyword: tsunami, magnitude, height, fault

  2. Becoming willing to role model. Reciprocity between new graduate nurses and experienced practice nurses in general practice in New Zealand: a constructivist grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarea, Karen J; Millsc, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Graduate nurses in general practice became a feature of New Zealand's health care system in 2008 following an expansion of the New Entrant to Practice Programme. General practice in New Zealand comprises general practitioner business owners who employ nursing and administration staff. Practice nurses are an ageing workforce in New Zealand, it is imperative therefore to attract younger nurses into general practice. This paper reports a section of the findings from a constructivist grounded theory study which examines the use of information by practice nurses in New Zealand. Initially data were collected using the ethnographic technique of observation and field notations in one general practice. Theoretical sensitivity to the value of role models was heightened by this first phase of data collection. A total of eleven practice nurses were interviewed from six general practices. One practice nurse agreed to a second interview; five of the interviewees were new graduate nurses and the other six were experienced practice nurses. The grounded theory constructed from this research was reciprocal role modelling which comprises the following three categories, becoming willing, realising potential and becoming a better practitioner. Graduate nurses and experienced practice nurses enter into a relationship of reciprocal role modelling. Becoming willing, the first core category of this grounded theory features three sub-categories: building respectful relationships, proving yourself and discerning decision making which are reported in this paper. Findings from this study may address the reported phenomenon of 'transition shock' of newly graduated nurses in the work place.

  3. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop an ultrasensitive, laser-based formaldehyde gas sensor system for airborne and ground-based...

  4. Virtual Sensor Test Instrumentation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Mobitrum has started the development of virtual sensor test instrumentation in Phase I for characterization and measurement of ground testing of propulsion systems....

  5. Evolution of the carabid ground beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, S; Su, Z H; Kim, C G; Okamoto, M; Tominaga, O; Imura, Y

    1999-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the carabid ground beetles have been estimated by analysing a large part of the ND5 gene sequences of more than 1,000 specimens consisting of the representative species and geographic races covering most of the genera and subgenera known in the world. From the phylogenetic analyses in conjunction with the mtDNA-based dating, a scenario of the establishment of the present habitats of the respective Japanese carabids has been constructed. The carabid diversification took place ca. 40 MYA as an explosive radiation of the major genera. During evolution, occasional small or single bangs also took place, sometimes accompanied by parallel morphological evolution in phylogenetically remote as well as close lineages. The existence of silent periods, in which few morphological changes took place, has been recognized during evolution. Thus, the carabid evolution is discontinuous, alternatively having a phase of rapid morphological change and a silent phase.

  6. Operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, O; Heydari, H

    2013-01-01

    The geometric phase has found a broad spectrum of applications in both classical and quantum physics, such as condensed matter and quantum computation. In this paper, we introduce an operational geometric phase for mixed quantum states, based on spectral weighted traces of holonomies, and we prove that it generalizes the standard definition of the geometric phase for mixed states, which is based on quantum interferometry. We also introduce higher order geometric phases, and prove that under a fairly weak, generically satisfied, requirement, there is always a well-defined geometric phase of some order. Our approach applies to general unitary evolutions of both non-degenerate and degenerate mixed states. Moreover, since we provide an explicit formula for the geometric phase that can be easily implemented, it is particularly well suited for computations in quantum physics. (paper)

  7. Ground Attenuation of Railroad Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makarewicz, R.; Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Kokowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of ground effect on railroad noise is described using the concept of the peak A-weighted sound exposure level, and A-weighted sound exposure level. The train is modelled by a continuous line of incoherent point sources that have a cosine directivity. The ground effect is included...

  8. Grounding Damage to Conventional Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Marie; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2003-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with rational design of conventional vessels with regard to bottom damage generated in grounding accidents. The aim of the work described here is to improve the design basis, primarily through analysis of new statistical data for grounding damage. The current regula...

  9. Ground-based photo monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick C. Hall

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based photo monitoring is repeat photography using ground-based cameras to document change in vegetation or soil. Assume those installing the photo location will not be the ones re-photographing it. This requires a protocol that includes: (1) a map to locate the monitoring area, (2) another map diagramming the photographic layout, (3) type and make of film such...

  10. Electrochemical stabilization of clayey ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzhanitzin, B.A.; Sokoloff, V.P.

    1947-01-01

    Recently developed new methods of stabilization of weak grounds (e.g. the silicate treatment) are based on injection of chemical solutions into the ground. Such methods are applicable accordingly only to the kinds of ground that have the coefficient of filtration higher than 2 meters per 24 hours and permit penetration of the chemical solutions under pressure. This limit, however, as it is shown by our experience in construction, excludes a numerous and an important class of grounds, stabilization of which is indispensable in many instances. For example, digging of trenches and pits in clayey, silty, or sandy ground shows that all these types act like typical "floaters" (sluds? -S) in the presence of the ground water pressure. There were several instances in the canalization of the city of Moskow where the laying of trenches below the ground water level has led to extreme difficulties with clayey and silty ground. Similar examples could be cited in mining, engineering hydrology, and railroad construction. For these reasons, the development of methods of stabilizing such difficult types of ground has become an urgent problem of our day. In 1936, the author began his investigations, at the ground Stabilization Laboratory of VODGEO Institute, with direct electrical current as the means of stabilization of grounds. Experiments had shown that a large number of clayey types, following passage of direct electrical current, undergoes a transformation of its physico-chemical properties. It was established that the (apparent -S) density of the ground is substantially increased in consequence of the application of direct electrical current. The ground loses also its capacity to swell and to soften in water. Later, after a more detailed study of the physico-chemical mechanism of the electrical stabilization, it became possible to develop the method so as to make it applicable to sandy and silty as well as to clayey ground. By this time (1941, S.), the method has already been

  11. On LHCb muon MWPC grounding

    CERN Document Server

    Kashchuk, A

    2006-01-01

    My goal is to study how a big MWPC system, in particular the LHCb muon system, can be protected against unstable operation and multiple spurious hits, produced by incorrect or imperfect grounding in the severe EM environment of the LHCb experiment. A mechanism of penetration of parasitic current from the ground loop to the input of the front-end amplifier is discussed. A new model of the detector cell as the electrical bridge is considered. As shown, unbalance of the bridge makes detector to be sensitive to the noise in ground loop. Resonances in ground loop are specified. Tests of multiple-point and single-point grounding conceptions made on mock-up are presented.

  12. On Grounding of Fast Ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with analysis of grounding of high-speed crafts. It is the purpose to present a comprehensive mathematical model for calculation of the overall dynamic ship response during grounding. This procedure is applied to derive the motions, the time varying sectional forces and the local...... loads during grounding on plane, sloping, sandy bottoms for six different designs of fast monohull ships made from steel, aluminium or GRP sandwich materials. The results show that the effect of the hull flexibility is to reduce the overall dynamic sectional loads on the hull girder. The considered...... numerical examples also indicate that, even with impact speeds of 40 knots against a 1:10 sloping bottom, the global strength of the hull girder is not exceeded by the grounding induced loads.For the local deformation of high-speed ship hulls at the point of contact with the ground, the paper presents...

  13. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of Earth tempering as a practice and of specific Earth sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground are included. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 20 locations in the United States.

  14. Regional analysis of ground and above-ground climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The regional suitability of underground construction as a climate control technique is discussed with reference to (1) a bioclimatic analysis of long-term weather data for 29 locations in the United States to determine appropriate above ground climate control techniques, (2) a data base of synthesized ground temperatures for the coterminous United States, and (3) monthly dew point ground temperature comparisons for identifying the relative likelihood of condensation from one region to another. It is concluded that the suitability of earth tempering as a practice and of specific earth-sheltered design stereotypes varies geographically; while the subsurface almost always provides a thermal advantage on its own terms when compared to above ground climatic data, it can, nonetheless, compromise the effectiveness of other, regionally more important climate control techniques. Also contained in the report are reviews of above and below ground climate mapping schemes related to human comfort and architectural design, and detailed description of a theoretical model of ground temperature, heat flow, and heat storage in the ground. Strategies of passive climate control are presented in a discussion of the building bioclimatic analysis procedure which has been applied in a computer analysis of 30 years of weather data for each of 29 locations in the United States.

  15. Ecological Aspects of Condition of Ground Deposits in Shershnevsky Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkanova, I. A.; Denisov, S. E.; Knutarev, D. Yu

    2017-11-01

    The article considers the aspects of the condition of ground deposits influencing the operating conditions of the water intake facilities in the Shershnevsky reservoir being the only source of the utility and drinking water supply in Chelyabinsk. The object of the research is a section near the Sosnovskie intake stations of the Shershnevsky reservoir. Based on the hydrometric surveys of the studied section and using the Kriging method and the Surfer suite, we calculated the volume of ground deposits. As a result of the analyses, the authors have proved that ground deposits in the studied section have a technology-related nature which is connected with the annual growth of the volume of ground deposits which is inadmissible in the operating conditions of the pump stations of water intake facilities whereas ground deposits will fully block the intake windows of pump stations. In case the bed area of the Shershnevsky reservoir is not timely treated, the ground deposits here will complicate the operation of the pump stations which will result in a technological problem of the treatment facilities operation up to a transfer of the pump station premises to other territories less exposed to the deposits. The treatment of the Shershnevsky reservoir from the ground deposits accumulated in the course of time will help to considerably increase its actual capacity, which will allow one to increase water circulation paths and to improve the water quality indices. In its turn, the water quality improvement will decrease the supply of suspended solids into the water intake facilities and cut the reagent costs in the course of the treatment water works operation.

  16. Filtered air plastic chamber as an experimental facility to prove visible damage of crops due to air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Y; Yoda, H; Omichi, S; Shiratori, K

    1975-01-01

    An experimental filtered air chamber was constructed to prove the visible damage of crops due to air pollution. The chamber was provided with another room into which non-filtered ambient air was introduced. The purified air was prepared by filtering ambient air with activated carbon. The average content of air pollutants in the purified air chamber was less than 10 to 20% of the ozone and 20% of the sulfur oxides in the ambient air. However, cultivated vegetables such as tobacco and spinach, which are susceptible to oxidant, showed no visible damage in the filtered air chamber, and showed the same damage in the nonfiltered air chamber as was seen in fields at the same time.

  17. Methodology of proving long-term safety of a salt dome repository with existing insecurities forming the background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storck, R.

    1992-01-01

    Existing methods to prove safety can consider the insecurities of input data within the framework of probabilistic analyses. The results of application calculations show that inspite of considerable band widths of input data the scattering widths of radiation exposures are comparably limited, and calculated radiation exposures are clearly below acceptable limits. Moreover it can be demonstrated that in the event of an assumed brine influx into the repository radionuclides are released only if parameter combinations are unfavourable. Therefore such incident in general does not have any radiological consequences. Insecurities in model approaches can be taken into consideration only partly so far by using alternative models, or indirectly through data insecurities. (orig./DG) [de

  18. 30 CFR 77.906 - Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage mobile equipment; ground wires and ground check...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... portable or mobile equipment from low-voltage three-phase resistance grounded power systems shall contain... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables supplying power to low-voltage... STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage...

  19. Proving tumour cells by acute nutritional/energy deprivation as a survival threat: a task for microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janečková, H.; Veselý, Pavel; Chmelík, R.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2009), s. 2339-2345 ISSN 0250-7005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour cell * nutritional deprivation * energy deprivation * cell survival * cell death * digital holographic microscopy * dynamic phase difference Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.428, year: 2009

  20. Classification of quantum phases and topology of logical operators in an exactly solved model of quantum codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Beni

    2011-01-01

    Searches for possible new quantum phases and classifications of quantum phases have been central problems in physics. Yet, they are indeed challenging problems due to the computational difficulties in analyzing quantum many-body systems and the lack of a general framework for classifications. While frustration-free Hamiltonians, which appear as fixed point Hamiltonians of renormalization group transformations, may serve as representatives of quantum phases, it is still difficult to analyze and classify quantum phases of arbitrary frustration-free Hamiltonians exhaustively. Here, we address these problems by sharpening our considerations to a certain subclass of frustration-free Hamiltonians, called stabilizer Hamiltonians, which have been actively studied in quantum information science. We propose a model of frustration-free Hamiltonians which covers a large class of physically realistic stabilizer Hamiltonians, constrained to only three physical conditions; the locality of interaction terms, translation symmetries and scale symmetries, meaning that the number of ground states does not grow with the system size. We show that quantum phases arising in two-dimensional models can be classified exactly through certain quantum coding theoretical operators, called logical operators, by proving that two models with topologically distinct shapes of logical operators are always separated by quantum phase transitions.

  1. Ground Control System Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Loros

    2001-01-01

    The Ground Control System contributes to the safe construction and operation of the subsurface facility, including accesses and waste emplacement drifts, by maintaining the configuration and stability of the openings during construction, development, emplacement, and caretaker modes for the duration of preclosure repository life. The Ground Control System consists of ground support structures installed within the subsurface excavated openings, any reinforcement made to the rock surrounding the opening, and inverts if designed as an integral part of the system. The Ground Control System maintains stability for the range of geologic conditions expected at the repository and for all expected loading conditions, including in situ rock, construction, operation, thermal, and seismic loads. The system maintains the size and geometry of operating envelopes for all openings, including alcoves, accesses, and emplacement drifts. The system provides for the installation and operation of sensors and equipment for any required inspection and monitoring. In addition, the Ground Control System provides protection against rockfall for all subsurface personnel, equipment, and the engineered barrier system, including the waste package during the preclosure period. The Ground Control System uses materials that are sufficiently maintainable and that retain the necessary engineering properties for the anticipated conditions of the preclosure service life. These materials are also compatible with postclosure waste isolation performance requirements of the repository. The Ground Control System interfaces with the Subsurface Facility System for operating envelopes, drift orientation, and excavated opening dimensions, Emplacement Drift System for material compatibility, Monitored Geologic Repository Operations Monitoring and Control System for ground control instrument readings, Waste Emplacement/Retrieval System to support waste emplacement operations, and the Subsurface Excavation System

  2. Introduction. Leave no stone unturned: Perspectives on ground stone artefact research

    OpenAIRE

    Danny Rosenberg; Yorke Rowan; Tatjana Gluhak

    2016-01-01

    Ground stone tools served in many physical and social contexts through millennia, reflecting a wide variety of functions. Although ground stone tool studies were neglected for much of early archaeology, the last few decades witnessed a notable international uptick in the way archaeologists confront this multifaceted topic. Today, with the advance of archaeology as a discipline, research into ground stone artefacts is moving into a new phase that integrates high resolution documentation with n...

  3. Developing and implementing institutional controls for ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulland, L.M.; Cooper, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE has initiated its Ground Water Project as the second phase of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project authorized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). In the Ground Water Project, the DOE must reduce risk from ground water contaminated by uranium mill processing activities at 24 inactive processing sites by meeting the US EPA standards. The UMTRCA also requires consistency with federal statutes such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The use of institutional controls to reduce risk from contaminated ground water is one element of compliance with standards and the protection of public health and the environment. Institutional controls are active or passive measures that reduce exposure to risks by preventing intrusion or restricting direct access to an area, or restricting access to the contamination through secondary means. Because of inconsistent regulations and multi-party authorities for ground water management, the key to selecting and implementing effective institutional controls lies with developing a consensus between the parties responsible for ground water remediation; those with authority to implement, monitor, and maintain institutional controls; and those facing the risks from contaminated ground water. These parties must develop a consensus for an institutional control program that meets minimum regulatory requirements and protects public health and the environment. Developing consensus and implementing a successful institutional controls program was achieved by the DOE during the cleanup of uranium mill tailings. An effective institutional controls program can also be developed to protect against risks from contaminated ground water. Consensus building and information transmission are the critical elements of an institutional control program that protects human health and the environment from risks associated with ground water contamination

  4. Alternatives for ground water cleanup

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    .... Yet recent studies question whether existing technologies can restore contaminated ground water to drinking water standards, which is the goal for most sites and the result expected by the public...

  5. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the AES Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units (IGODU) project is to demonstrate cost efficient cryogenic operations on a relevant...

  6. Imaging of Moving Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rihaczek, A

    1996-01-01

    ... requires that use be made of the complex image. The yaw/pitch/roll/bounce/flex motion of a moving ground vehicle demands that different motion compensations be applied to different parts of the vehicle...

  7. Humic substances in ground waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxeus, N.; Allard, B.; Olofsson, U.; Bengtsson, M.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of naturally occurring complexing agents that may enhance the migration of disposed radionuclikes and thus facilitate their uptake by plantsis a problem associated with the underground disposal of radioactive wastes in bedrock. The main purpose of this work is to characterized humic substances from ground water and compare them with humic substances from surface water. The humic materials isolated from ground waters of a borehole in Fjaellveden (Sweden) were characterized by elemental and functional group analyses. Spectroscopic properties, molecular weight distributions as well as acid-base properties of the fulvic and humic fractions were also studied. The ground water humic substances were found to be quite similar in many respects (but not identical) to the Swedish surface water humics concentrated from the Goeta River but appeared to be quite different from the American ground water humics from Biscayne Florida Aquifer or Laramie Fox-Hills in Colorado. The physico-chemical properties of the isolated humic materials are discussed

  8. Ground Water and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Richard G.; Scanlon, Bridget; Doell, Petra; Rodell, Matt; van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Longuevergne, Laurent; Leblanc, Marc; Famiglietti, James S.; Edmunds, Mike; hide

    2013-01-01

    As the world's largest distributed store of fresh water, ground water plays a central part in sustaining ecosystems and enabling human adaptation to climate variability and change. The strategic importance of ground water for global water and food security will probably intensify under climate change as more frequent and intense climate extremes (droughts and floods) increase variability in precipitation, soil moisture and surface water. Here we critically review recent research assessing the impacts of climate on ground water through natural and human-induced processes as well as through groundwater-driven feedbacks on the climate system. Furthermore, we examine the possible opportunities and challenges of using and sustaining groundwater resources in climate adaptation strategies, and highlight the lack of groundwater observations, which, at present, limits our understanding of the dynamic relationship between ground water and climate.

  9. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 days. If frozen, it should keep its quality for about 4 months. When reheating fully cooked patties or casseroles containing ground beef, be sure the internal temperature reaches 165 °F (73.9 °C). Why ...

  10. Seeing a Colleague Encourage a Student to Make an Assumption while Proving: What Teachers Put in Play when Casting an Episode of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachlieli, Talli; Herbst, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation of how teachers of geometry perceived an episode of instruction presented to them as a case of engaging students in proving. Confirming what was hypothesized, participants found it remarkable that a teacher would allow a student to make an assumption while proving. But they perceived this episode in various…

  11. 20 CFR 1002.33 - Does the employee have to prove that the employer discriminated against him or her in order to be...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... employer discriminated against him or her in order to be eligible for reemployment? 1002.33 Section 1002.33... have to prove that the employer discriminated against him or her in order to be eligible for reemployment? No. The employee is not required to prove that the employer discriminated against him or her...

  12. Influence of foundation type and soil stratification on ground vibration - a parameter study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Prins, Joeri Nithan; Persson, Kent

    2016-01-01

    a significant influence. Thus, in order to achieve fair accuracy in the prediction of ground vibration caused by sources vibrating on a foundation, accurate models of the ground and foundation may be required. However, for assessment of vibration in the design phase, simple models may be preferred. The paper...

  13. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  14. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  15. The “incredible” difficulty of proving “incredibility” – Example of fire-induced multiple spurious operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V.

    2016-01-01

    “Risk-informed” regulation is often an alternative to “deterministically-based” regulation that offers relaxation in criteria for acceptability while possibly requiring greater analytical effort. “Risk-informed determinism” is an attempt to meld the best of both worlds by using risk information to set deterministic acceptance criteria a priori. A recent joint effort by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) originally endeavored to do this for several examples involving fire-induced multiple spurious operations (MSOs) in electrical circuits at nuclear power plants. While a noble effort, this did not consider the actual distributions involved in the events, originally limiting the analysis to mean values and, in some cases, qualitative considerations. A much more comprehensive and defensible approach is performed here where the probabilistic distributions for all the factors are considered via simulation to meet quantitative acceptance criteria related to the concept of “incredibility” that is often the figure of merit that must be met in a deterministic world. The effort demonstrates that it can be “incredibly” difficult to prove “incredibility” in this context.

  16. The “incredible” difficulty of proving “incredibility” – Example of fire-induced multiple spurious operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallucci, Raymond H.V., E-mail: Ray.Gallucci@nrc.gov

    2016-11-15

    “Risk-informed” regulation is often an alternative to “deterministically-based” regulation that offers relaxation in criteria for acceptability while possibly requiring greater analytical effort. “Risk-informed determinism” is an attempt to meld the best of both worlds by using risk information to set deterministic acceptance criteria a priori. A recent joint effort by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) originally endeavored to do this for several examples involving fire-induced multiple spurious operations (MSOs) in electrical circuits at nuclear power plants. While a noble effort, this did not consider the actual distributions involved in the events, originally limiting the analysis to mean values and, in some cases, qualitative considerations. A much more comprehensive and defensible approach is performed here where the probabilistic distributions for all the factors are considered via simulation to meet quantitative acceptance criteria related to the concept of “incredibility” that is often the figure of merit that must be met in a deterministic world. The effort demonstrates that it can be “incredibly” difficult to prove “incredibility” in this context.

  17. Simulation Analysis of Helicopter Ground Resonance Nonlinear Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan; Lu, Yu-hui; Ling, Ai-min

    2017-07-01

    In order to accurately predict the dynamic instability of helicopter ground resonance, a modeling and simulation method of helicopter ground resonance considering nonlinear dynamic characteristics of components (rotor lead-lag damper, landing gear wheel and absorber) is presented. The numerical integral method is used to calculate the transient responses of the body and rotor, simulating some disturbance. To obtain quantitative instabilities, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is conducted to estimate the modal frequencies, and the mobile rectangular window method is employed in the predictions of the modal damping in terms of the response time history. Simulation results show that ground resonance simulation test can exactly lead up the blade lead-lag regressing mode frequency, and the modal damping obtained according to attenuation curves are close to the test results. The simulation test results are in accordance with the actual accident situation, and prove the correctness of the simulation method. This analysis method used for ground resonance simulation test can give out the results according with real helicopter engineering tests.

  18. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....

  19. Eyes On the Ground: Year 2 Assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brost, Randolph; Little, Charles Q.; McDaniel, Michael; McLendon, William C.,; Wade, James Rokwel

    2018-03-01

    The goal of the Eyes On the Ground project is to develop tools to aid IAEA inspectors. Our original vision was to produce a tool that would take three-dimensional measurements of an unknown piece of equipment, construct a semantic representation of the measured object, and then use the resulting data to infer possible explanations of equipment function. We report our tests of a 3-d laser scanner to obtain 3-d point cloud data, and subsequent tests of software to convert the resulting point clouds into primitive geometric objects such as planes and cylinders. These tests successfully identified pipes of moderate diameter and planar surfaces, but also incurred significant noise. We also investigated the IAEA inspector task context, and learned that task constraints may present significant obstacles to using 3-d laser scanners. We further learned that equipment scale and enclosing cases may confound our original goal of equipment diagnosis. Meanwhile, we also surveyed the rapidly evolving field of 3-d measurement technology, and identified alternative sensor modalities that may prove more suitable for inspector use in a safeguards context. We conclude with a detailed discussion of lessons learned and the resulting implications for project goals. Approved for public release; further dissemination unlimited.

  20. Ground-state fidelity in the BCS-BEC crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Ayan; Pieri, Pierbiagio

    2009-01-01

    The ground-state fidelity has been introduced recently as a tool to investigate quantum phase transitions. Here, we apply this concept in the context of a crossover problem. Specifically, we calculate the fidelity susceptibility for the BCS ground-state wave function, when the intensity of the fermionic attraction is varied from weak to strong in an interacting Fermi system, through the BCS-Bose-Einstein Condensation crossover. Results are presented for contact and finite-range attractive potentials and for both continuum and lattice models. We conclude that the fidelity susceptibility can be useful also in the context of crossover problems.

  1. A strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, F.

    1992-07-01

    Established pump and treat ground water remediation has a reputation for being too expensive and time consuming, especially when cleanup standards are set at very low levels, e.g., 50 ft below ground surface) widespread ground water contamination. The perceived shortcomings of pump and treat result from the (1) tendency of most contaminants to sorb to formation materials, thus retarding contaminant removal; (2) geologic complexity, which requires detailed characterization for the design of optimal extraction systems within available resources; and (3) failure to apply dynamic well field management techniques. An alternative strategy for improving pump and treat ground water remediation consists of (1) detailed characterization of the geology, hydrology, and chemistry; (2) use of computer-aided data interpretation, data display, and decision support systems; (3) removal of sources, if possible; (4) initial design for plume containment and source remediation; (5) phased installation of the well field; (6) detailed monitoring of the remediation; (7) active ongoing re-evaluation of the operating well field, including redesign as appropriate (dynamic management); (8) re-injection of treated ground water to speed the flushing of contaminants; and (9) setting of appropriate cleanup levels or goals. Use of some or all of these techniques can dramatically reduce the time required to achieve cleanup goals and thus the cost of ground water remediation

  2. From Darwin to constructivism: the evolution of grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Helen; Griffiths, Debra; McKenna, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    To explore the evolution of grounded theory and equip the reader with a greater understanding of the diverse conceptual positioning that is evident in the methodology. Grounded theory was developed during the modernist phase of research to develop theories that are derived from data and explain human interaction. Its philosophical foundations derive from symbolic interactionism and were influenced by a range of scholars including Charles Darwin and George Mead. Rather than a rigid set of rules and procedures, grounded theory is a way of conceptualising data. Researchers demonstrate a range of perspectives and there is significant variation in the way the methodology is interpreted and executed. Some grounded theorists continue to align closely with the original post-positivist view, while others take a more constructivist approach. Although the diverse interpretations accommodate flexibility, they may also result in confusion. The grounded theory approach enables researchers to align to their own particular world view and use methods that are flexible and practical. With an appreciation of the diverse philosophical approaches to grounded theory, researchers are enabled to use and appraise the methodology more effectively.

  3. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  4. Caratterizzazione microstrutturale e prove di resilienza su giunti Friction Stir Welding e Linear Friction Welding di compositi a matrice metallica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Merlin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In questo studio sono stati caratterizzati giunti Friction Stir Welding e Linear Friction Welding su compositi a matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare ceramico. Il processo FSW è stato applicato a due compositi ottenuti con processo fusorio, quindi estrusi e trattati termicamente T6: AA6061/20%vol.Al2O3p e AA7005/10%vol.Al2O3p. I giunti LFW sono stati invece realizzati su un composito con matrice in lega di alluminio e rinforzo particellare in carburo di silicio, ottenuto mediante metallurgia delle polveri, quindi forgiato e trattato termicamente T4: AA2124/25%vol.SiCp. Sono stati esaminati gli effetti della saldatura sullecaratteristiche microstrutturali dei giunti, avvalendosi di tecniche di microscopia ottica con analisi di immagine e di microscopia elettronica in scansione (SEM con microsonda a dispersione di energia (EDS. Sono state quindi condotte prove di resilienza con pendolo strumentato Charpy. Lo studio dei meccanismi di danneggiamento è stato effettuato mediante analisi al SEM delle superfici di frattura. Entrambi i processi di saldatura hanno portato a giunti sostanzialmente esenti da difetti. La microstruttura dei cordoni è risultata dipendente sia dalle caratteristiche microstrutturali iniziali dei compositi considerati, sia dalla tipologia di processo di saldatura. Nel caso dei compositi AA6061/20%Al2O3p e AA7005/10%Al2O3p saldati FSW si è osservato un sostanziale incremento di resilienza, rispetto al materiale base, in conseguenza dell’affinamento dei grani della matrice, della riduzione della dimensione media delle particelle di rinforzo e della loro spigolosità, indotte dal processo di saldatura. Il composito AA2124/25%SiCp saldato LFW ha presentato valori di resilienza confrontabili con quelli del materiale base, in conseguenza, soprattutto, dei limitati effetti della saldatura su dimensione e distribuzione delle particelle di rinforzo.

  5. Phases of Ca from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, S L; Marcus, P M

    2009-01-01

    Structures and properties of many of the phases of Ca under pressure are calculated from first principles by a systematic procedure that minimizes total energy E with respect to structure under the constraint of constant volume V. The minima of E are followed on successive sweeps of lattice parameters for 11 of 14 Bravais symmetries for one-atom-per-cell structures. The structures include the four orthorhombic phases. Also included are the hexagonal close-packed and cubic diamond phases with two atoms per primitive cell. No uniquely orthorhombic phases are found; all one-atom orthorhombic phases over a mega-bar pressure range are identical to higher-symmetry phases. The simple cubic phase is shown to be stable where it is the ground state. The number of distinct one-atom phases reduces to five plus the two two-atom phases. For each of these phases the Gibbs free energy at pressure p, G(p), is calculated for a non-vibrating lattice; the functions G(p) give the ground state at each p, the relative stabilities of all phases and the thermodynamic phase transition pressures for all phase transitions over a several-megabar range.

  6. Modeled ground water age distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfenden, Linda R.; Ginn, Timothy R.

    2009-01-01

    The age of ground water in any given sample is a distributed quantity representing distributed provenance (in space and time) of the water. Conventional analysis of tracers such as unstable isotopes or anthropogenic chemical species gives discrete or binary measures of the presence of water of a given age. Modeled ground water age distributions provide a continuous measure of contributions from different recharge sources to aquifers. A numerical solution of the ground water age equation of Ginn (1999) was tested both on a hypothetical simplified one-dimensional flow system and under real world conditions. Results from these simulations yield the first continuous distributions of ground water age using this model. Complete age distributions as a function of one and two space dimensions were obtained from both numerical experiments. Simulations in the test problem produced mean ages that were consistent with the expected value at the end of the model domain for all dispersivity values tested, although the mean ages for the two highest dispersivity values deviated slightly from the expected value. Mean ages in the dispersionless case also were consistent with the expected mean ages throughout the physical model domain. Simulations under real world conditions for three dispersivity values resulted in decreasing mean age with increasing dispersivity. This likely is a consequence of an edge effect. However, simulations for all three dispersivity values tested were mass balanced and stable demonstrating that the solution of the ground water age equation can provide estimates of water mass density distributions over age under real world conditions.

  7. Free Swimming in Ground Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran-Carney, Jackson; Wagenhoffer, Nathan; Zeyghami, Samane; Moored, Keith

    2017-11-01

    A free-swimming potential flow analysis of unsteady ground effect is conducted for two-dimensional airfoils via a method of images. The foils undergo a pure pitching motion about their leading edge, and the positions of the body in the streamwise and cross-stream directions are determined by the equations of motion of the body. It is shown that the unconstrained swimmer is attracted to a time-averaged position that is mediated by the flow interaction with the ground. The robustness of this fluid-mediated equilibrium position is probed by varying the non-dimensional mass, initial conditions and kinematic parameters of motion. Comparisons to the foil's fixed-motion counterpart are also made to pinpoint the effect that free swimming near the ground has on wake structures and the fluid-mediated forces over time. Optimal swimming regimes for near-boundary swimming are determined by examining asymmetric motions.

  8. Compensation for incoherent ground motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeru, Takeda; Hiroshi, Matsumoto; Masakazu, Yoshioka; Yasunori, Takeuchi; Kikuo, Kudo; Tsuneya, Tsubokawa; Mitsuaki, Nozaki; Kiyotomo, Kawagoe

    1999-01-01

    The power spectrum density and coherence function for ground motions are studied for the construction of the next generation electron-positron linear collider. It should provide a center of mass energy between 500 GeV-1 TeV with luminosity as high as 10 33 to 10 34 cm -2 sec -1 . Since the linear collider has a relatively slow repetition rate, large number of particles and small sizes of the beam should be generated and preserved in the machine to obtain the required high luminosity. One of the most critical parameters is the extremely small vertical beam size at the interaction point, thus a proper alignment system for the focusing and accelerating elements of the machine is necessary to achieve the luminosity. We describe recent observed incoherent ground motions and an alignment system to compensate the distortion by the ground motions. (authors)

  9. The automated ground network system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Miles T.; Militch, Peter N.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of the Automated Ground Network System (AGNS) project is to reduce Ground Network (GN) station life-cycle costs. To accomplish this goal, the AGNS project will employ an object-oriented approach to develop a new infrastructure that will permit continuous application of new technologies and methodologies to the Ground Network's class of problems. The AGNS project is a Total Quality (TQ) project. Through use of an open collaborative development environment, developers and users will have equal input into the end-to-end design and development process. This will permit direct user input and feedback and will enable rapid prototyping for requirements clarification. This paper describes the AGNS objectives, operations concept, and proposed design.

  10. Lattice and Phase Diagram in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Maria Paola

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations have produced a number of very interesting expectations for the QCD Phase Diagram, and the task of a lattice calculations is to put these studies on a quantitative grounds. I will give an overview of the current status of the lattice analysis of the QCD phase diagram, from the quantitative results of mature calculations at zero and small baryochemical potential, to the exploratory studies of the colder, denser phase.

  11. 46 CFR 183.376 - Grounded distribution systems (neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 183.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... propulsion, power, lighting, or distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral... generator to ground before the generator is connected to the bus, except the neutral of an emergency power...

  12. 46 CFR 120.376 - Grounded distribution systems (Neutral grounded).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....376 Section 120.376 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS... distribution system having a neutral bus or conductor must have the neutral grounded. (c) The neutral or each...

  13. Ground-truth measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, R.; Seliga, T. A.; Lhermitte, R. M.; Nystuen, J. A.; Cherry, S.; Bringi, V. N.; Blackmer, R.; Heymsfield, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    Ground-truth measurements of precipitation and related weather events are an essential component of any satellite system designed for monitoring rainfall from space. Such measurements are required for testing, evaluation, and operations; they provide detailed information on the actual weather events, which can then be compared with satellite observations intended to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about them. Also, very comprehensive ground-truth observations should lead to a better understanding of precipitation fields and their relationships to satellite data. This process serves two very important functions: (a) aiding in the development and interpretation of schemes of analyzing satellite data, and (b) providing a continuing method for verifying satellite measurements.

  14. The Mirror in the Ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shepherd, Nick

    An important and original contribution to the study of the archive, The Mirror in the Ground approaches the discipline of archaeology in South Africa from the perspective of an interest in visualities. Author Nick Shepherd argues that it makes sense to talk about an archaeological aesthetics...... at the University of Cape Town, where he convenes a graduate programme on Public Culture and Heritage. The Mirror in the Ground is the first volume in the relaunched Series in Visual Histories, produced by the Centre for Curating the Archive (CCA) at the University of Cape Town....

  15. Simultaneous perineal ultrasound and vaginal pressure measurement prove the action of electrical pudendal nerve stimulation in treating female stress incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyou; Zhang, Shujing

    2012-11-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES) are two commonly used forms of conservative treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). PFMT may build up the structural support of the pelvis, but many SUI patients are unable to perform PFMT effectively and its primary disadvantage is lack of long-term patient compliance. TES is a passive treatment that produces PFM contraction and patient compliance with it is good; however, its effect is not as good as that of PFMT when performed correctly. Electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) combines the advantages of PFMT and TES and incorporates the technique of deep insertion of long needles. In this study, simultaneous perineal ultrasound and vaginal pressure measurement prove that EPNS can contract the PFM and simulate PFMT. It is shown that EPNS is an alternative therapy for female SUI patients who fail PFMT and TES and the therapy can also be used for severe SUI. • To prove that electrical pudendal nerve stimulation (EPNS) can contract the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) and simulate pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT). • To show that EPNS is an alternative therapy for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) that does not respond effectively to PFMT and transvaginal electrical stimulation (TES). • Thirty-five female patients with SUI who did not respond effectively to PFMT and TES (group I) were enrolled and 60 other female patients with SUI were allocated to group II (30 patients) and group III (30 patients). • Long needles were deeply inserted into four sacral points and electrified to stimulate the pudendal nerves. Group I and group II were treated by a doctor skilled in performing EPNS and group III, by a doctor unskilled in performing EPNS. • When EPNS was performed in group I, perineal ultrasonographic PFM movements, vaginal pressure (VP) and PFM

  16. Safety analysis methodologies for radioactive waste repositories in shallow ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The report is part of the IAEA Safety Series and is addressed to authorities and specialists responsible for or involved in planning, performing and/or reviewing safety assessments of shallow ground radioactive waste repositories. It discusses approaches that are applicable for safety analysis of a shallow ground repository. The methodologies, analysis techniques and models described are pertinent to the task of predicting the long-term performance of a shallow ground disposal system. They may be used during the processes of selection, confirmation and licensing of new sites and disposal systems or to evaluate the long-term consequences in the post-sealing phase of existing operating or inactive sites. The analysis may point out need for remedial action, or provide information to be used in deciding on the duration of surveillance. Safety analysis both general in nature and specific to a certain repository, site or design concept, are discussed, with emphasis on deterministic and probabilistic studies

  17. MINTEQ, Geochemical Equilibria in Ground Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupka, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MINTEQ is a geochemical program to model aqueous solutions and the interactions of aqueous solutions with hypothesized assemblages of solid phases. It was developed for the Environmental Protection Agency to perform the calculations necessary to simulate the contact of waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified wastes. MINTEQ can calculate ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. MINTEQ can accept a finite mass for any solid considered for dissolution and will dissolve the specified solid phase only until its initial mass is exhausted. This ability enables MINTEQ to model flow-through systems. In these systems the masses of solid phases that precipitate at earlier pore volumes can be dissolved at later pore volumes according to thermodynamic constraints imposed by the solution composition and solid phases present. The ability to model these systems permits evaluation of the geochemistry of dissolved traced metals, such as low-level waste in shallow land burial sites. MINTEQ was designed to solve geochemical equilibria for systems composed of one kilogram of water, various amounts of material dissolved in solution, and any solid materials that are present. Systems modeled using MINTEQ can exchange energy and material (open systems) or just energy (closed systems) with the surrounding environment. Each system is composed of a number of phases. Every phase is a region with distinct composition and physically definable boundaries. All of the material in the aqueous solution forms one phase. The gas phase is composed of any gaseous material present, and structurally distinct solid forms a separate phase. 2 - Method of solution: MINTEQ applies the fundamental principles of thermodynamics to solve geochemical equilibria from a set of mass balance equations, one for each component. Because the

  18. 14 CFR 417.109 - Ground safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground safety. 417.109 Section 417.109... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Launch Safety Responsibilities § 417.109 Ground safety. (a) Ground safety... 417.115(c), and subpart E of this part provide launch operator ground safety requirements. ...

  19. A Generalised Fault Protection Structure Proposed for Uni-grounded Low-Voltage AC Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duong Minh; Chen, Shi-Lin; Lien, Keng-Yu; Jiang, Jheng-Lun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents three main configurations of uni-grounded low-voltage AC microgrids. Transient situations of a uni-grounded low-voltage (LV) AC microgrid (MG) are simulated through various fault tests and operation transition tests between grid-connected and islanded modes. Based on transient simulation results, available fault protection methods are proposed for main and back-up protection of a uni-grounded AC microgrid. In addition, concept of a generalised fault protection structure of uni-grounded LVAC MGs is mentioned in the paper. As a result, main contributions of the paper are: (i) definition of different uni-grounded LVAC MG configurations; (ii) analysing transient responses of a uni-grounded LVAC microgrid through line-to-line faults, line-to-ground faults, three-phase faults and a microgrid operation transition test, (iii) proposing available fault protection methods for uni-grounded microgrids, such as: non-directional or directional overcurrent protection, under/over voltage protection, differential current protection, voltage-restrained overcurrent protection, and other fault protection principles not based on phase currents and voltages (e.g. total harmonic distortion detection of currents and voltages, using sequence components of current and voltage, 3I0 or 3V0 components), and (iv) developing a generalised fault protection structure with six individual protection zones to be suitable for different uni-grounded AC MG configurations.

  20. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    large chunks of permafrost. Volumetric ice contents between 30 and 70% were measured in the till. In addition, low lying areas where till thickness exceeds ca 5 m contain polygons with ice wedges up to 2 m wide. Colluviums on slopes laid by sheet flow have been accumulating on two sectors of the study area, the source material being eroded clay at higher elevations; these slope sediments contain alternating layers of buried organics (C-14 date of 2300 BP at base of the sequence), silt and lenses of aggradational ice. Although the surface geophysical methods (electrical resistivity,GPR) were essential for mapping ice rich permafrost, the detailed appraisal of ground ice conditions was made truly possible by drilling and extracting intact cores. The use of the Cat-scan method proved very efficient for the precise and rapid measurement of ground ice contents and for imaging cryostructures on a large number of samples, thus providing exact information on permafrost composition and for interpreting permafrost history. The Salluit study also involves climate monitoring, thermal analysis and modeling, and intense community consultations.