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Sample records for provincial park canada

  1. Patterns of wolf pack movements prior to kills as read from tracks in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ont., Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, Jan Hilco

    1977-01-01

    From data, gathered by the author and his students, during a wolf study in Algonquin Provincial Park, Canada, six kills of white-tailed deer by wolf packs are described. Case histories are reconstructed by means of interpreting tracks. In one case a wolf was also killed, this animal turned out to

  2. The Perceived Implications of an Outsourcing Model on Governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles ( P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  3. The perceived implications of an outsourcing model on governance within British Columbia Provincial Parks in Canada: a quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, Paul; Havitz, Mark; McCutcheon, Bonnie; Buteau-Duitschaever, Windekind; Glover, Troy

    2010-06-01

    Good governance is of paramount importance to the success of parks and protected areas. This research utilized a questionnaire for 10 principles of governance to evaluate the outsourcing model used by British Columbia Provincial Parks, where profit-making corporations provide all front country visitor services. A total of 246 respondents representing five stakeholder groups evaluated the model according to each principle, using an online survey. Principal component analysis resulted in two of the 10 principles (equity and effectiveness) each being split into two categories, leading to 12 governance principles. Five of the 12 criteria received scores towards good governance: effectiveness outcome; equity general; strategic vision; responsiveness; and effectiveness process. One criterion, public participation, was on the neutral point. Six criteria received scores below neutral, more towards weak governance: transparency; rule of law; accountability; efficiency; consensus orientation; and, equity finance. The five stakeholder groups differed significantly on 10 of the 12 principles (P < .05). The 2 exceptions were for efficiency and effectiveness process. Seven of the 12 criteria followed a pattern wherein government employees and contractors reported positive scores, visitors and representatives of NGOs reported more negative scores, and nearby residents reported mid-range scores. Three criteria had government employees and contractors reporting the most positive scores, residents and visitors the most negative scores, and NGO respondents reporting mid-range scores. This research found evidence that perceptions of governance related to this outsourcing model differed significantly amongst various constituent groups.

  4. Tourism and recreation system planning in Alberta provincial parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F.J. Eagles; Angela M. Gilmore; Luis X. Huang; Denise A. Keltie; Kimberley Rae; Hong Sun; Amy K. Thede; Meagan L. Wilson; Jennifer A. Woronuk; Ge Yujin

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, system planning in parks and protected areas concentrated on biogeographical concepts, while neglecting tourism and recreation. The existing system plan for parks and protected areas in Alberta, Canada, divides the province into six natural regions based on a geographic classifi cation system (Grassland, Parkland, Foothills, Rocky Mountains, Boreal...

  5. Flora of vascular plants in the Chilgapsan Provincial Park, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ro-Young Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Chilgapsan Provincial Park in Cheongyang-gun (Chungcheongnam-do, Korea was surveyed from 2000 to 2014. In 19 field surveys, vascular plants were revealed 490 taxa belonging to 97 families, 309 genera, 433 species, four subspecies, 48 varieties, and five forms. Plants of various categories were discovered in this study. For the Korean endemic plants 15 taxa were recorded, and 11 taxa designated by the Korean Forest Service as rare plants were investigated in this region. The plants above the third degree among the floristic regional indicator plants designated by the Korean Ministry of Environment were 10 taxa. In addition, 33 taxa of naturalized and 73 taxa of cultivated plants were recorded.

  6. LBA-ECO LC-01 National, Provincial, and Park Boundaries, Ecuador

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the national and provincial boundaries of Ecuador as well as the boundaries of two national parks: the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and the...

  7. LBA-ECO LC-01 National, Provincial, and Park Boundaries, Ecuador

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the national and provincial boundaries of Ecuador as well as the boundaries of two national parks: the Cuyabeno Wildlife Reserve and...

  8. Ionizing radiation protection regulation in Canada: the role of the Federal Provincial Territorial Radiation Protection Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, Christopher H.

    2008-01-01

    Canada has one of the broadest and most mature nuclear industries in the world, and is a world leader in uranium mining, and in the production of medical radioisotopes. The Canadian nuclear industry also includes: uranium milling, refining, and fuel fabrication facilities; nuclear generating stations; research reactors and related facilities; waste management facilities; and the use of radioactive materials in medicine and industry. Regulation of this broad and dynamic industry is a complex and challenging task. Canada has a cooperative system for the regulation of ionizing radiation protection covering federal, provincial, territorial, and military jurisdictions. A Federal/Provincial/Territorial Radiation Protection Committee (FPTRPC) exists to aid in cooperation between the various agencies. Their mandate encompasses regulation and guidance on all aspects of radiation protection: federal and provincial; NORM and anthropogenic; ionizing and non-ionizing. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) is the federal nuclear regulator whose mandate includes radiation protection regulation of most occupational and public exposures. The CNSC does not regulate medical (patient) exposures, some aspects of NORM, or military applications. Provincial authorities are the primary regulators with respect to doses to patients and occupational doses arising from X-rays. Health Canada plays a role in X-ray device certification, development of national guidance (e.g. on radon) and direct regulation of certain federal facilities. NORM is regulated provincially, with varying regulatory mechanisms across the provinces and territories. Radiation protection regulation for National Defence and the Canadian Armed Forces is performed by the Director General Nuclear Safety. This paper gives an overview of the structure of the regulation of ionizing radiation protection in Canada, and shares lessons learned, particularly with respect to the usefulness of the FPTRPC in helping coordinate and

  9. Pricing of alcohol in Canada: A comparison of provincial policies and harm-reduction opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesbrecht, Norman; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Thomas, Gerald; Stockwell, Tim; Thompson, Kara; April, Nicole; Asbridge, Mark; Cukier, Samantha; Mann, Robert; McAllister, Janet; Murie, Andrew; Pauley, Chris; Plamondon, Laurie; Vallance, Kate

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol pricing is an effective prevention policy. This paper compares the 10 Canadian provinces on three research-based alcohol pricing policies-minimum pricing, pricing by alcohol content and maintaining prices relative to inflation. The selection of these three policies was based on systematic reviews and seminal research papers. Provincial data for 2012 were obtained from Statistics Canada and relevant provincial ministries, subsequently sent to provincial authorities for verification, and then scored by team members. All provinces, except for Alberta, have minimum prices for at least one beverage type sold in off-premise outlets. All provinces, except for British Columbia and Quebec, have separate (and higher) minimum pricing for on-premise establishments. Regarding pricing on alcohol content, western and central provinces typically scored higher than provinces in Eastern Canada. Generally, minimum prices were lower than the recommended $1.50 per standard drink for off-premise outlets and $3.00 per standard drink in on-premise venues. Seven of 10 provinces scored 60% or higher compared to the ideal on indexing prices to inflation. Prices for a representative basket of alcohol products in Ontario and Quebec have lagged significantly behind inflation since 2006. While examples of evidence-based alcohol pricing policies can be found in every jurisdiction in Canada, significant inter-provincial variation leaves substantial unrealised potential for further reducing alcohol-related harm and costs. This comparative assessment of alcohol price policies provides clear indications of how individual provinces could adjust their pricing policies and practices to improve public health and safety. [Giesbrecht N, Wettlaufer A, Thomas G, Stockwell T, Thompson K, April N, Asbridge M, Cukier S, Mann R, McAllister J, Murie A, Pauley C, Plamondon L, Vallance K. Pricing of alcohol in Canada: A comparison of provincial policies and harm-reduction opportunities. Drug Alcohol Rev

  10. A current landscape of provincial perinatal data collection in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Kiran A; Magee, Laura A; Dale, Sheryll; Claydon, Jennifer; Morris, Tara J; von Dadelszen, Peter; Liston, Robert M; Ansermino, J Mark

    2009-03-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Network (CPN) was launched in 2005 as a national perinatal database project designed to identify best practices in maternity care. The inaugural project of CPN is focused on interventions that optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with threatened preterm birth at 22+0 to 28+6 weeks' gestation. To examine existing data collection by perinatal health programs (PHPs) to inform decisions about shared data collection and CPN database construction. We reviewed the database manuals and websites of all Canadian PHPs and compiled a list of data fields and their definitions. We compared these fields and definitions with those of CPN and the Canadian Minimal Dataset, proposed as a common dataset by the Canadian Perinatal Programs Coalition of Canadian PHPs. PHPs collect information on 2/3 of deliveries in Canada. PHPs consistently collect information on maternal demographics (including both maternal and neonatal personal identifiers), past obstetrical history, maternal lifestyle, aspects of labour and delivery, and basic neonatal outcomes. However, most PHPs collect insufficient data to enable identification of obstetric (and neonatal) practices associated with improved maternal and perinatal outcomes. In addition, there is between-PHP variability in defining many data fields. Construction of a separate CPN database was needed although harmonization of data field definitions with those of the proposed Canadian Minimal Dataset was done to plan for future shared data collection. This convergence should be the goal of researchers and clinicians alike as we construct a common language for electronic health records.

  11. Tourism climatology for camping: a case study of two Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel; Gough, William A.

    2015-08-01

    Climate and weather act as central motivators for the travel decisions of tourists. Due to their seasonality, these factors determine the availability and quality of certain outdoor recreational activities. Park visitation in Ontario, Canada, has been identified as a weather sensitive tourism and recreation activity. This study used a survey-based approach to identify and compare stated weather preferences and thresholds, as well as weather-related decision-making for campers at two provincial parks in Ontario, Canada. The two parks were selected for differing physical and environmental characteristics (forested lake versus coastal beach). Statistically significant differences were detected between the two parks in relation to the importance of weather and weather-based decision-making. Specific temperatures that were considered ideal and thresholds that were too cool and too warm were identified for both parks, both during the day and the night. Heavy rain and strong winds were the most influential factors in weather-related decision-making and on-site behavioural adaptations. Beach campers placed greater importance on the absence of rain and the presence of comfortable temperatures compared to forest campers. In addition, beach campers were more likely to leave the park early due to incremental weather changes. The results of this study suggest that beach campers are more sensitive to weather than forest campers.

  12. Ideology and wildlands management: The case of Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, D. L.; Nelson, J. G.

    1980-03-01

    This is a critical examination of some of the basic concepts that have guided management of parks and related reserves, often termed wildlands. Study is focussed on Rondeau Provincial Park, Ontario, and on concepts such as wilderness, primeval forest, and the Carolinian forest. Deer culling and other management policies and practices have been based upon the idea that the highly valued sassafras, tulip, and other species of the Carolinian forest are decreasing due to browsing. Field mapping and analysis of historic vegetation records indicate that this trend is not in fact occurring. Historic research also reveals difficulties in defining the Carolinian or other perceived types of forest for management purposes. A major reassessment of ideology and management policy and practice seem to be required in Rondeau and other wildlands. Vague or general concepts such as wilderness or preservation should be strongly complemented and supported by more precise statements of objectives, a learning attitude, and experimentation and research. As a result of the technical uncertainties and value judgments frequently involved, management should also be based upon the expressed preferences and continuing involvement of citizens.

  13. Cardiac arrest while exercising on mountains in national or provincial parks: A national observational study from 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Eujene; Park, Jeong Ho; Kong, So Yeon; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Shin, Sang Do

    2017-12-20

    Previous studies on cardiac arrest in mountainous areas were focused on environmental features such as altitude and temperature. However, those are limited to factors affecting the prognosis of patients after cardiac arrest. We analyzed the cardiac arrests in national or provincial parks located in the mountains and determined the factors affecting the prognosis of patients after cardiac arrest. This study included all emergency medical service (EMS) treated patients over the age of 40 experiencing out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) of presumed cardiac etiology during exercise, between January 2012 and December 2015. The main focus of interest was the location of cardiac arrest occurrence (national mountain parks and provincial parks vs. other sites). The main outcome was survival to discharge and multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for possible confounding effects. A total 1835 patients who suffered a cardiac arrest while exercising were included. From these, 68 patients experienced cardiac arrest in national or provincial parks, and 1767 occurred in other locations. The unadjusted and adjusted ORs (95% CI) for a good cerebral performance scale (CPC) were 0.09 (0.01-0.63) and 0.08(0.01-0.56), survival discharges were 0.13(0.03-0.53) and 0.11 (0.03-0.48). Cardiac arrests occurring while exercising in the mountainous areas have worse prognosis compared to alternative locations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. 76 FR 44604 - Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY... availability of the Draft Anacostia Park Wetland and Resident Canada Goose Management Plan/Environmental Impact... resident Canada geese. Action is needed at this time to manage the restored wetlands at the Park. The Plan...

  15. Evaluating human papillomavirus vaccination programs in Canada: should provincial healthcare pay for voluntary adult vaccination?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith? Robert J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, provincial health programs in Canada and elsewhere have begun rolling out vaccination against human papillomavirus for girls aged 9–13. While vaccination is voluntary, the cost of vaccination is waived, to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated. Adult women who are eligible for the vaccine may still receive it, but at a cost of approximately CAN$400. Given the high efficacy and immunogenicity of the vaccine, the possibility of eradicating targeted types of the virus may be feasible, assuming the vaccination programs are undertaken strategically. Methods We develop a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination against human papillomavirus, accounting for a widespread childhood vaccination program that may be supplemented by voluntary adult vaccination. A stability analysis is performed to determine the stability of the disease-free equilibrium. The critical vaccine efficacy and immunogenicity thresholds are derived, and the minimum level of adult vaccination required for eradication of targeted types is determined. Results We demonstrate that eradication of targeted types is indeed feasible, although the burden of coverage for a childhood-only vaccination program may be high. However, if a small, but non-negligible, proportion of eligible adults can be vaccinated, then the possibility of eradication of targeted types becomes much more favourable. We provide a threshold for eradication in general communities and illustrate the results with numerical simulations. We also investigate the effects of suboptimal efficacy and immunogenicity and show that there is a critical efficacy below which eradication of targeted types is not possible. If eradication is possible, then there is a critical immunogenicity such that even 100% childhood vaccination will not eradicate the targeted types of the virus and must be supplemented with voluntary adult vaccination. However, the level of adult

  16. Climate change scenarios for Canada's national parks : a users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.; Wun, N.; Scott, D.; Barrow, E.

    2003-01-01

    A screening level impact assessment has shown that the implications of climate change for Canada's national parks are considerable. Climate change scenarios will be an important component in examining the potential climate change impacts and the implications of adaptation strategies. Most climate change scenarios are based on vulnerability, impact and adaptation research. This user's manual describes the development of 3 types of climate change scenarios including scenarios from global climate models (GCMs), bioclimate scenarios and daily scenarios for use by Parks Canada. The manual offers advice to first-time climate change scenario users in choosing and interpreting climate change, bioclimate and daily scenarios. It also addresses the theoretical and practical foundations of each climate scenario and shows how to access data regarding the various scenarios. Hands-on exercises are included as an interpretive aid. 20 refs., 4 tabs., 19 figs

  17. Assessment of climate change effects on Canada's National Park system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suffling, Roger; Scott, Daniel

    2002-03-01

    To estimate the magnitude of climate change anticipated for Canada's 38 National Parks (NPs) and Park Reserves, seasonal temperature and precipitation scenarios were constructed for 2050 and 2090 using the Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis (CCCma) coupled model (CGCM1). For each park, we assessed impacts on physical systems, species, ecosystems and people. Important, widespread changes relate to marine and freshwater hydrology, glacial balance, waning permafrost, increased natural disturbance, shorter ice season, northern and upward altitudinal species and biome shifts, and changed visitation patterns. Other changes are regional (e.g., combined East coast subsidence and sea level rise increase coastal erosion and deposition, whereas, on the Pacific coast, tectonic uplift negates sea level rise). Further predictions concern individual parks (e.g., Unique fens of Bruce Peninsular NP will migrate lakewards with lowered water levels, but structural regulation of Lake Huron for navigation and power generation would destroy the fens). Knowledge gaps are the most important findings. For example: we could not form conclusions about glacial mass balance, or its effects on rivers and fjords. Likewise, for the East Coast Labrador Current we could neither estimate temperature and salinity effects of extra iceberg formation, nor the further effects on marine food chains, and breeding park seabirds. We recommend 1) Research on specific large knowledge gaps; 2) Climate change information exchange with protected area agencies in other northern countries; and 3) incorporating climate uncertainty into park plans and management. We discuss options for a new park management philosophy in the face of massive change and uncertainty.

  18. Diseases and parasites in wolves of the Riding Mountain National Park region, Manitoba, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronen, Astrid V; Sallows, Tim; Forbes, Graham J; Wagner, Brent; Paquet, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    We examined wolf (Canis lupus) blood and fecal samples from the Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP) region of Manitoba, Canada. In 601 fecal samples collected during two study periods in RMNP and the Duck Mountain Provincial Park and Forest (DMPPF) we found gastrointestinal helminth eggs from Alaria sp. (15.5%), Capillaria sp. (1.0%), taeniid tapeworms (30.8%), Toxascaris sp. (1.7%), Toxocara sp. (0.2%), Trichuris sp. (2.2%), and Moniezia sp. (0.5%). In addition, we found Demodex sp. (0.2%) and the protozoal cysts/oocysts of Sarcocystis sp. (37.3%), Cryptosporidium sp. (1.2%), coccidia (Isospora sp. or Eimeria sp.) (1.7%), and Giardia sp. (29.5%). No fecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV, n=387) was detected. All 18 blood samples collected in RMNP showed CPV exposure and eight of 18 blood samples indicated canine distemper virus (CDV) exposure. One wolf died from CDV. Our results are consistent with previous findings on pathogens affecting wolves and with high Giardia sp. prevalence in wolves inhabiting agricultural regions.

  19. Inter-Provincial Migration Intentions of Family Physicians in Canada: The Roles of Income and Community Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Haizhen; Olfert, M Rose

    2015-11-01

    The inter-provincial migration patterns of family physicians in canada show that some provinces like newfoundland and saskatchewan experience persistent net out-migration, while others, including ontario and british columbia, are destinations more often than origins of migrants. Governments in provinces exhibiting net out-migration have responded with a number of incentive and recruitment programs. In this study, we investigate the determinants of the stated interprovincial migration intentions of 3,995 rural and urban family physicians in the 2010 wave of the national physician survey. We consider a range of physician characteristics, community attributes and working conditions. We find that in the intention to move, higher compensation has a modest effect, while the community characteristics have a consistently important influence. Our results suggest that policy and program designers should acknowledge the critical role of community-level living and working conditions in their family physician recruitment and retention efforts. Copyright © 2015 Longwoods Publishing.

  20. NEGOTIATING STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY FOLLOWING REGULATORY CHANGES TO A PROVINCIAL METHADONE PROGRAM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, MJ; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of socialstructural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose® (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of ‘structural vulnerability’. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose® precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and codispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  1. The role of Canada's national parks in a changed climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1991-01-01

    There is a requirement to manage national parks for completeness or wholeness, to maintain a functional ecosystem with all its parts, including processes, and to maintain biological diversity. Climate change has the potential to affect vegetation distribution, and will not merely manifest itself as a change in zones, but will be characterized by a flora with new dominants. Canadian national parks within the Prairie provinces are on or near ecotones, the transition from forest to tundra and grasslands. Forest fire frequency and severity is likely to increase, with the potential of transforming the boreal forest into remnant units. A flexible national system of designating areas must be devised to provide protection for the ephemeral biological systems which will be transformed and moved in response to climatic change. The adoption of adaptive management is critical, and should include monitoring, communication, protection through networks, and park service leadership. Benign neglect management must be replaced with management for wilderness. 15 refs

  2. Differential temperature preferences and thresholds among summer campers in Ontario's southern provincial parks: a Canadian case study in tourism climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.

    2017-08-01

    Weather and climate are important factors in relation to outdoor recreation and tourism. Camping and park visitation are weather sensitive activities very likely to be impacted by projected climate change. Temperature is the weather variable that has received the greatest attention within the tourism climatology literature and was the greatest predictor of park visitation within previous assessments. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach, relying on survey-based data, to explore differences for temperature preferences and thresholds among campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences (at the 95% confidence level) in mean values for temperature preferences and thresholds were recorded based on various camper characteristics, such as the following: activity selection, age, gender, distance travelled, length of stay, life cycle stage, camping experience, and camping equipment. Swimmers preferred warmer day-time temperatures. Older campers preferred cooler temperatures and were more sensitive to heat stress, in the day and night time. Females preferred warmer temperatures and were less sensitive to heat stress during the night time. Campers who had travelled further distances to reach the park or planned to stay for longer periods were less sensitive to heat stress. Campers with children in their group preferred warmer temperatures and were less sensitive to heat stress, in the day and at night. Respondents with higher levels of camping experience preferred warmer temperatures at night. Tent campers were less sensitive to heat stress, in the day and at night. The results of this study have direct implications for previous and future climate change impact assessments on park visitation.

  3. Distribution of Phoxinus eos, Phoxinus neogaeus, and their asexually-reproducing hybrids (Pisces: Cyprinidae in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan A Mee

    Full Text Available Hybrid Phoxinus are one of the few asexually reproducing vertebrates species. The distribution of hybrid Phoxinus among lakes in Algonquin Park, Ontario, was evaluated relative to the distribution of parental species and relative to physiochemical lake characteristics. No association between the distribution of hybrids and the distribution of parental species was found, suggesting that the hybrids can successfully coexist with either parental species. In addition, we found no association between hybrid distribution and the physiochemical characteristics of lakes, suggesting that the hybrids are generalists with respect to the ecological niches available in Algonquin Park. There was a difference between the physiochemical characteristics of lakes with and without the parental species P. neogaeus. The lakes containing P. neogaeus were lower elevation than the lakes containing the other parental species, P. eos. The difference in distribution between the parental species may therefore be due to different dispersal abilities, to later arrival following post-glacial dispersal, or to differences in ecology. These results suggest that asexual reproduction is a successful strategy for hybrid Phoxinus in Algonquin Park because these sperm-dependent asexual hybrids are able to survive and persist regardless of which parental species is present, and regardless of the physiochemical characteristics of their habitat.

  4. Provincial hydro expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froschauer, K J

    1993-01-01

    A study of the development of five provincial hydroelectric utilities in Canada indicates that power companies and the state invited manufacturers to use hydroelectricity and natural resources in order to diversify provincial economies. These hydro expansions also show that utilities and government designed hydro projects to serve continental requirements; serving both objectives became problematic. It is argued that when the Canadian state and firms such as utilities use hydro expansions to serve both continentalism and industrialization, then at best they foster dependent industrialization and staple processing. At worst, they overbuild the infrastructure to generate provincial surplus energy for continental, rather than national, integration. Hydro developments became subject to state intervention in Canada mainly through the failures of private utilities to provide power for the less-lucrative industrial markets within provincial subregions. Although the state and utilities invited foreign firms to manufacture hydro equipment within the provinces and others to use electricity to diversify production beyond resource processing, such a diversification did not occur. Since 1962, ca 80% of industrial energy was used to semi-process wood-derived products, chemicals, and metals. The idea for a national power network became undermined by interprovincial political-economic factors and since 1963, the federal national/continential power policy prevailed. 187 refs., 6 figs., 52 tabs.

  5. Sediment trace metal profiles in lakes of Killarney Park, Canada from regional to continental influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belzile, Nelson; Chen Yuwei; Gunn, John M.; Dixit, Sushil S.

    2004-01-01

    The lakes in Killarney Provincial Park (KPP) located 40-60 km southwest of Sudbury, Ontario are beginning to recover after decades of being severely affected by acidification and atmospheric pollutants. Detailed profiles of acid-recoverable trace elements (As. Cd, Cu, Co. Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were obtained after aqua regia digestion and ICP-OES analysis of sediment cores taken from six Park lakes. Results permitted the identification of two types of profiles. The first type applies to elements such as Fe, Mn, As and Co for which historical deposition and recent recovery are strongly masked by diagenetic remobilization. The second type of profile applies to elements such as Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn on which the history of industrialisation in North America and mining activities in Sudbury can be superimposed. Based on sediment data of trace elements less affected by diagenetic remobilization (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), chemical recovery indices can be estimated from depth profiles. Indices of maximum (C p ) and surface (C s ) contamination were calculated by dividing the concentration of a given metal by the pre-industrial level. The ratio of the two indices provided a simple estimation of the chemical recovery of lakes that does not consider the influence of the watershed or the lake pH. Profiles of metals in sediment of KPP complement the water quality monitoring data and tend to indicate that this area is in transition from dominant influence of regional pollution sources to becoming controlled by continental atmospheric deposition. - Lakes in Killarney Park are in transition from being impacted by regional pollution to being controlled by continental atmospheric deposition

  6. Is there an association between spatial access to parks/green space and childhood overweight/obesity in Calgary, Canada?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potestio Melissa L

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increase in childhood obesity is expected to add significantly to the prevalence of chronic diseases. We used multivariate multilevel analysis to examine associations between parks/green space and childhood overweight/obesity across communities in Calgary, Canada, a city characterized by intensified urban sprawl and high car use. Methods Body Mass Index was calculated from measured height and weight data obtained from 6,772 children (mean age = 4.95 years attending public health clinics for pre-school vaccinations. Each child's home postal code was geocoded using ESRI ArcGIS 9.2. We examined four measures of spatial access to parks/green space (based on Geographic Information Systems: 1 the number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents, 2 the area of parks/green space as a proportion of the total area within a community, 3 average distance to a park/green space, and 4 the proportion of parks/green space service area as a proportion of the total area within a community. Analyses were adjusted for dissemination area median family income (as a proxy for an individual child's family income community-level education, and community-level proportion of visible minorities. Results In general, parks/green space at the community level was not associated with overweight/obesity in Calgary, with the exception of a marginally significant effect whereby a moderate number of parks/green spaces per 10,000 residents was associated with lower odds of overweight/obesity. This effect was non-significant in adjusted analyses. Conclusion Our null findings may reflect the popularity of car travel in Calgary, Canada and suggest that the role built environment characteristics play in explaining health outcomes may differ depending on the type of urban environment being studied.

  7. Human perspectives and conservation of grizzly bears in Banff National Park, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Emily C; Rutherford, Murray B; Gibeau, Michael L

    2012-06-01

    Some conservation initiatives provoke intense conflict among stakeholders. The need for action, the nature of the conservation measures, and the effects of these measures on human interests may be disputed. Tools are needed to depolarize such situations, foster understanding of the perspectives of people involved, and find common ground. We used Q methodology to explore stakeholders' perspectives on conservation and management of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in Banff National Park and the Bow River watershed of Alberta, Canada. Twenty-nine stakeholders participated in the study, including local residents, scientists, agency employees, and representatives of nongovernmental conservation organizations and other interest groups. Participants rank ordered a set of statements to express their opinions on the problems of grizzly bear management (I-IV) and a second set of statements on possible solutions to the problems (A-C). Factor analysis revealed that participants held 4 distinct views of the problems: individuals associated with factor I emphasized deficiencies in goals and plans; those associated with factor II believed that problems had been exaggerated; those associated with factor III blamed institutional flaws such as disjointed management and inadequate resources; and individuals associated with factor IV blamed politicized decision making. There were 3 distinct views about the best solutions to the problems: individuals associated with factor A called for increased conservation efforts; those associated with factor B wanted reforms in decision-making processes; and individuals associated with factor C supported active landscape management. We connected people's definitions of the problem with their preferred solutions to form 5 overall problem narratives espoused by groups in the study: the problem is deficient goals and plans, the solution is to prioritize conservation efforts (planning-oriented conservation advocates); the problem is flawed

  8. Is Ontario Moving to Provincial Negotiation of Teaching Contracts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2008-01-01

    In Canada, the statutes governing public school teachers' collective bargaining are a combination of the provincial Labour Relations Act or Code and the respective provincial Education/School/Public Schools Act. As education is within the provincial, not federal, domain of legal responsibility, the specifics of each act or code can vary.…

  9. Ungulate management in national parks of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarais, S.; Cornicelli, L.; Kahn, R.; Merrill, E.; Miller, C.; Peek, J.M.; Porter, W.F.; Sargeant, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Enabling legislation—that which gives appropriate officials the authority to implement or enforce the law—impacts management of ungulates in national parks of Canada and the United States (U.S.). The initial focus of such legislation in both countries centered on preserving natural and culturally significant areas for posterity. Although this objective remains primary, philosophies and practices have changed. A Canadian vision for ungulate management emerged during the latter half of the 20th century to protect and maintain or restore the ecological integrity of representative samples of the country’s 39 distinct landscapes, and to include provisions for traditional hunting and fishing practices representative of past cultural impacts on the environment. The current ungulate management approach in the U.S. relies on natural (ecological) processes, as long as normal conditions are promoted and there is no impairment of natural resources. Emphasizing natural processes as the basis has been a challenge because ecosystem dynamics are complex and management is multi-jurisdictional. Additionally, natural regulation typically will not prevent ungulates from reaching and sustaining densities that are incompatible with preservation or restoration of native flora and fauna, natural processes, or historical landscapes.

  10. Prescribed burning effects on summer elk forage availability in the subalpine zone, Banff National Park, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachro, L L; Strong, W L; Gates, C C

    2005-11-01

    The effects of prescribed burning on forage abundance and suitability for elk (Cervus elaphus) during the snow-free season was evaluated in east-central Banff National Park, Canada. Six coniferous forest and mixed shrub-herb plant communities (n=144 plots), and 5223ha of burned (n=131) vegetation Burning coniferous forest stands reduced woody biomass, and increased herbaceous forage from 146 to 790 kg/ha. Increases commonly occurred in the percent cover of hairy wild rye (Leymus innovatus (Beal) Pigler) and fireweed (Chamerion angustifolium (L.) Holub.). The herbaceous components of mixed shrub-herb communities increased from 336-747 kg/ha to 517-1104 kg/ha in response to burning (Por=220% (Pburned vegetation-types were assessed as low and moderate, respectively. Potential summer carrying capacity, based on forage availability, increased from eight to 28 elk/100 km2 within burned areas, whereas spring grazing potential rose from 13 to 45 elk/100 km2. Most of the increase (73%) was attributable to changes within burned Engelmann Spruce stands, which composed 58% of the burned area.

  11. Coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú (Misiones, Argentina Aquatic and semiaquatic Coleoptera from Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú Provincial Park (Misiones, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana A. Fernández

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de la recolección de coleópteros acuáticos y semiacuáticos del Parque Provincial Salto Encantado y Valle del Cuñá Pirú, con el objeto de contribuir al conocimiento de la biodiversidad del área protegida mencionada, de la provincia de Misiones. Los sitios de muestreo incluyeron ambientes lóticos y lénticos. Se registraron 74 especies de coleópteros, distribuidas en 44 géneros y 14 familias: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae y Elmidae. Se mencionan nuevas citas para la provincia y para la Argentina, así como la presencia de especies nuevas para la ciencia.This paper presents a list of aquatic and semiaquatic Coleoptera collected during a biodiversity study carried out in Salto Encantado and Valle del Cuñá Pirú Provincial Park. This study aims to improve the knowledge of this protected area located in Misiones Province. Permanent and semi-permanent lotic and lentic habitats were sampled. Seventy-four species of beetles in 44 genera and 14 families were recorded: Haliplidae, Noteridae, Dytiscidae, Gyrinidae, Hydrochidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, Staphylinidae, Scirtidae, Psephenidae, Limnichidae, Lutrochidae, Dryopidae and Elmidae. New records for the province and for Argentina are listed, and the presence of new species is mentioned.

  12. Fire Regime in Marginal Jack Pine Populations at Their Southern Limit of Distribution, Riding Mountain National Park, Central Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Tardif

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Canada, long fire history reconstructions are rare. In a context where both anthropogenic and climate influences on fire regime have changed, Parks Canada has a mandate to maintain ecological integrity. Here we present a fire history derived from fire-scarred jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb. trees growing at their southern distribution limit in Riding Mountain National Park (RMNP. In Lake Katherine Fire Management Unit (LKFMU, a subregion within the park, fire history was reconstructed from archival records, tree-ring records, and charcoal in lake sediment. From about 1450 to 1850 common era (CE the fire return intervals varied from 37 to 125 years, according to models. During the period 1864–1930 the study area burned frequently (Weibull Mean Fire Intervals between 2.66 and 5.62 years; this period coincided with the end of First Nations occupation and the start of European settlement. Major recruitment pulses were associated with the stand-replacing 1864 and 1894 fires. This period nevertheless corresponded to a reduction in charcoal accumulation. The current fire-free period in LKFMU (1930–today coincides with RMNP establishment, exclusion of First Nations land use and increased fire suppression. Charcoal accumulation further decreased during this period. In the absence of fire, jack pine exclusion in LKFMU is foreseeable and the use of prescribed burning is advocated to conserve this protected jack pine ecosystem, at the southern margins of its range, and in the face of potential climate change.

  13. Vulnerability assessment of skiing-dependent businesses to the effects of climate change in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David Michael

    This qualitative study examines the potential positive and negative socio-economic impacts that may emerge from the long-term effects of climate change on skiing-dependent businesses in Banff and Jasper National Parks, Canada. My goal was to determine whether or not skiing-related tourism in the parks in the 2020s and 2050s is more or less socio-economically vulnerable to the effects of climate change on snow cover, temperatures and ski season length at ski resorts in the parks. My study explored the level of awareness and personal perceptions of 60 skiing-dependent business managers about how the impact of climate change on ski resorts may influence future socio-economics of ski tourism businesses. I employed a vulnerability assessment approach and adopted some elements of grounded theory. My primary data sources are interviews with managers and the outcome of the geographical factors index (GFI). Supporting methods include: an analysis and interpretation of climate model data and an interpretation of the economic analysis of skiing in the parks. The interview data were sorted and coded to establish concepts and findings by interview questions, while the GFI model rated and ranked 24 regional ski resorts in the Canadian Cordillera. The findings answered the research questions and helped me conclude what the future socio-economic vulnerability may be of skiing-dependent businesses in the parks. The interviews revealed that managers are not informed about climate change and they have not seen any urgency to consider the effects on business. The GFI revealed that the ski resorts in the parks ranked in the top ten of 24 ski resorts in the Cordillera based on 14 common geographical factors. The economic reports suggest skiing is the foundation of the winter economy in the parks and any impact on skiing would directly impact other skiing-dependent businesses. Research indicates that the effects of climate change may have less economic impact on skiing

  14. Differences in the importance of weather and weather-based decisions among campers in Ontario parks (Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewer, Micah J.; Scott, Daniel J.; Gough, William A.

    2017-10-01

    Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified as an on-going need for future research in the field of tourism climatology. Furthermore, very little is known about the interrelationships between personal characteristics and socio-demographics with weather preferences and behavioural thresholds. This study uses a stated climate preferences approach (survey responses) to explore differences in the importance of weather and related weather-based decisions among summer campers in Ontario parks. Statistically significant differences were found among campers for each of the four dependent variables tested in this study. Physically active campers placed greater importance on weather but were still more tolerant of adverse weather conditions. Older campers placed greater importance on weather. Campers travelling shorter distances placed greater importance on weather and were more likely to leave the park early due to adverse weather. Campers staying for longer periods of time were less likely to leave early due to weather and were willing to endure longer durations of adverse weather conditions. Beginner campers placed greater importance on weather, were more likely to leave early due to weather and recorded lower temporal weather thresholds. The results of this study contribute to the study of tourism climatology by furthering understanding of how personal characteristics such as gender, age, activity selection, trip duration, distance travelled, travel experience and life cycles affect weather preferences and decisions, focusing this time on recreational camping in a park tourism context.

  15. How and why is aquatic quality changing at Nahanni National Park Reserve, NWT, Canada?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, Douglas R; Catto, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Nahanni National Park Reserve is located at southwestern NWT-Yukon border. One of the first UNESCO World Heritage sites, Nahanni lies within Taiga Cordillera and Taiga Shield Ecozones. Base and precious metal mining occurred upstream of Nahanni prior to park establishment. Nahanni waters, sediments, fish, and caribou have naturally elevated metals levels. Baseline water, sediment and fish tissue quality data were collected and analyzed throughout Nahanni during 1988-91 and 1992-97. These two programs characterized how aquatic quality variables are naturally varying in space and time, affected by geology, stream flow, seasonality, and extreme meteorological and geological events. Possible anthropogenic causes of aquatic quality change were examined. Measured values were compared to existing Guidelines and site-specific objectives were established.

  16. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thexton, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    The development of CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) type reactors in Canada is traced. What is CANDU? and how does it differ from a pressurized water reactor? Whey did Canada adopt this design? What factors have led to its success? These questions are asked and answered. First the design itself is explained. Technical problems are considered and figures on operating reliability presented. The economic advantages of CANDU are shown by comparing electricity generating costs at CANDU stations with those at coal-fired stations. Future CANDU options are discussed and prospects for CANDU considered. (U.K.)

  17. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2 landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  18. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  19. Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-13

    Recruitment drive for nurse gradutates British Columbia (BC), the westernmost Canadian province, urgently needs 1,500 qualified nurses graduates to staff longterm care and assisted-living beds as well as home care clients. The provincial government has launched a $160,000 (£78,600) marketing campaign called BC Cares. Craig Hebert, dean of development and access training at Northern Lights College in BC, said: 'The industry needs to get the message out to students that there has never been a better time to start a career in senior health care. Graduates who study for about one year, sometimes less, will have their pick of jobs in a number of service environments and can advance relatively quickly to the nursing profession.'

  20. Forging Provincial Reconstruction Teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Honore, Russel L; Boslego, David V

    2007-01-01

    The Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) training mission completed by First U.S. Army in April 2006 was a joint Service effort to meet a requirement from the combatant commander to support goals in Afghanistan...

  1. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.

    1991-01-01

    Canada, while professing a non-nuclear policy for its own armed forces, is, none the less, a member of a nuclear alliance. The security gained through participation in such arrangements does not come cost-free, despite the common view that countries such as Canada enjoy a free ride. Being under the nuclear umbrella, as this paper seeks to illustrate, does generate its own problems and costs. For example, does influence stem from the actual possession of nuclear weapons (albeit under US control), from support of the concept of nuclear deterrence and its infrastructure, or from possessing territory that is of strategic importance to a more powerful ally? Does the Canadian experience serve as a model for countries that are in close proximity to an existing or threshold nuclear power? Much depends on the willingness of a country to participate in the nuclear infrastructure associated with the acquisition of nuclear weapons for security purposes. It must accept the underlying rationale or logic of nuclear deterrence and the constraints on alternative security options that this imposes and it must also recognize that reliance on nuclear deterrence for military security seven if one seeks to emulate Canada and become a non-nuclear weapon state in a nuclear alliance can produce strains in its own right. The case of Canada shows that a country seeking security through such means should be aware of, and reflect upon, the fact that what appears to be a free ride does not come free of charge. However, a country may have other options in it, military security that have neither historically or geostrategically been available to Canada

  2. Provincial government performance on climate change: 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    2000-01-01

    This assessment of provincial government performance on climate change is intended as a 'baseline' prior to the implementation of the National Implementation Strategy on Climate Change, (NIS) scheduled to be signed by the federal and provincial Ministers of Energy and Environment in Quebec City in October 2000. Participants are also expected to agree on a 'First Business Plan' for the NIS at that same meeting, including identification of measures each of the provincial governments plan to institute to address climate change issues over the next two to three years. The report is based on performance of government activity in climate change in Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Ontario and Quebec , the five provinces that together account for 89 per cent of Canada's total GHG emissions, against the greenhouse gas emission measures identified by the various provincial governments on various occasions over the past 10 years. Nine areas of potential activity to address climate change with a total of 38 criteria were used. Each criterion was used to determine whether or not a provincial government has implemented a specific measure that will likely be an integral component of a national effort to address climate change. The nine categories forming the base of the assesment were: transportation, electricity generation,buildings, industry, readiness to facilitate emissions trading, 'own house in order' other sources of GHG, promoting GHG reduction technology development, and enhancing awareness and public education. All provincial governments received a very poor, failing grade . (The 'best': British Columbia with 30.5 per cent; the 'worst': Saskatchewan with 20.5 per cent). The report characterizes the last 10 years as 'the lost decade' with respect to government action on the issue of climate change. It points out that time is running out; provincial governments have to make the effort to be part of the solution to climate change, or they will have solutions

  3. Vegetation response to climate change : implications for Canada's conservation lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.; Lemieux, C.

    2003-01-01

    Studies have shown that Canada's national parks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A wide range of biophysical climate change impacts could affect the integrity of conservation lands in each region of Canada. This report examines the potential impact of climate change on landscape alterations and vegetation distribution in Canada's wide network of conservation lands. It also presents several ways to integrate climate change into existing conservation policy and adaptation strategies. Canada's conservation lands include provincial parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, national wildlife areas and wildlife protected areas. This is the first study to examine biome changes by applying an equilibrium Global Vegetation Model (GVM) to Canada's network of national park systems. Some of the policy and planning challenges posed by changes in landscape level vegetation were also addressed. The report indicates that in terms of potential changes to the biome classification of Canada's national forests, more northern biomes are projected to decrease. These northern biomes include the tundra, taiga and boreal conifer forests. 56 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciej, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the Canadian oil and natural gas sector is in for another grim year in 1992. Further streamlining to enhance operating efficiencies and control costs is the first order of the day. About $4 billion worth of producing properties remains on the market, as corporate focus continues to shift to core properties. New management structures put in place in the last two years will be severely tested to improve the sector's financial performance. Massive write-downs in 1990 and 1991 have put balance sheets in much better shape for improved financial performance in the future. Although new long-term debt exceeded redemptions in 1991, largely because of debt- financing of major capital projects, individually most companies are in better shape through significant debt repayment or restructuring. The substantial reductions in interest rates will also help to enhance discretionary cash flow. At this stage, everything appears to be in place to expect that 1992 will represent the bottom of the down-cycle for Canada

  5. Bi-Provincial Upgrader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Husky Oil's Bi-Provincial Upgrader is located in the rural municipality of Wilton, east of Lloydminster, Saskatchewan. It is jointly owned by Husky Oil and the Saskatchewan government. The upgrader is designed to produce 7.300 m 3 /cd of synthetic crude from 8.440 m 3 /cd of diluted Lloyd blend and distillates from the existing Lloydminster refinery. The designed coke and sulphur production is 415 t/day and 240 t/day respectively. Chronology of the Bi-Provincial Upgrader project was presented, along with details of the heavy oil feedstock properties for Cold Lake, Lloydminster and Lloyd Blend. Upgrader production history since start-up, synthetic crude oil customers, and the evolution of prices for Edmonton light vs. Husky LLB at Hardisty were also reviewed. 3 tabs., 9 figs

  6. Provincialism within limits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Jens

    2015-01-01

    of cosmopolitanism and provincialism in relation to music is developed with reference to Franz Liszt, who in the context of this article comes to function as a sort of ‘cosmopolitan’ mirror image of the ‘provincial’ Danish composer, Henrik Rung (1807-1871). Rung’s work Slaget ved Fredericia (1850) – a piece...... of nationalist political propaganda, in effect – is analysed, and it is suggested that while it is certainly suffused with patriotic rhetoric (such as the occasion demanded), Rung nevertheless at the same time took the opportunity to incorporate a number of significant international musical influences, notably...... from Felicien David’s symphonic ode, Le désert, Meyerbeer’s Les huguenots and from the vocal music of the Italian renaissance. These influences are interpreted as indicative of an international outlook, differing quite markedly from that of his internationally renowned contemporary, Niels W. Gade...

  7. Vegetation response to climate change : implications for Canada's conservation lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Adaptation and Impact Research Group; Lemieux, C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2003-05-01

    Studies have shown that Canada's national parks are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. A wide range of biophysical climate change impacts could affect the integrity of conservation lands in each region of Canada. This report examines the potential impact of climate change on landscape alterations and vegetation distribution in Canada's wide network of conservation lands. It also presents several ways to integrate climate change into existing conservation policy and adaptation strategies. Canada's conservation lands include provincial parks, migratory bird sanctuaries, national wildlife areas and wildlife protected areas. This is the first study to examine biome changes by applying an equilibrium Global Vegetation Model (GVM) to Canada's network of national park systems. Some of the policy and planning challenges posed by changes in landscape level vegetation were also addressed. The report indicates that in terms of potential changes to the biome classification of Canada's national forests, more northern biomes are projected to decrease. These northern biomes include the tundra, taiga and boreal conifer forests. 56 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  8. Decision-support model to explore the feasibility of using translocation to restore a woodland caribou population in Pukaskwa National Park, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily K. Gonzales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and abundance of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou have declined dramatically in the past century. Without intervention the most southern population of caribou in eastern North America is expected to disappear within 20 years. Although translocations have reintroduced and reinforced some populations, approximately half of caribou translocation efforts fail. Translocations are resource intensive and risky, and multiple interrelated factors must be considered to assess their potential for success. Structured decision-making tools, such as Bayesian belief networks, provide objective methods to assess different wildlife management scenarios by identifying the key components and relationships in an ecosystem. They can also catalyze dialogue with stakeholders and provide a record of the complex thought processes used in reaching a decision. We developed a Bayesian belief network for a proposed translocation of woodland caribou into a national park on the northeastern coast of Lake Superior, Ontario, Canada. We tested scenarios with favourable (e.g., good physical condition of adult caribou and unfavourable (e.g., high predator densities conditions with low, medium, and high numbers of translocated caribou. Under the current conditions at Pukaskwa National Park, augmenting the caribou population is unlikely to recover the species unless wolf densities remain low (<5.5/1000 km2 or if more than 300 animals could be translocated.

  9. New accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages for the Mazama tephra layer from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallett, D.J.; Hills, L.V.; Clague, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Charcoal fragments recovered from the Mazama air-fall tephra layer in cores from Dog and Cobb lakes, Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, yielded accelerator mass spectrometry ages of 6720 ± 70 and 6760 ± 70 14 C years BP, respectively. These two new ages, together with other previously published radiocarbon ages on charcoal and twig fragments from Mazama air-fall deposits, indicate that the climatic eruption of Mount Mazama occurred 6730 ± 40 14 C years BP. (author)

  10. The Provincialism problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Smith

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The system through which art is created, exhibited, collected, interpreted, and, in some special cases, enters the history of art is not a 'natural' order built around the development of Art as such. It is profoundly shaped by an inequitable distribution of reputation-conferring power that is centered on the New York artworld. While artists, critics, curators and others living elsewhere are subject to the provincialising effects of distance from the centre, those working at the centre are also provincials in that they are subject to an internal hierarchy that confers star status on just a few artists at a time. The article explores the patterns of artmaking at peripheries through the example of Australian art, and at the centre through its institutionalized acceptance of 'accelerated avant-gardism'. Can the provincialist bind be broken? Only through exceptional acts of critical reflexivity on the part of artists, critics and curators. This must occur at all points in this iniquitous, self-perpetuating system––something that, at the moment, does not seem likely.

  11. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Results Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Conclusions Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the

  12. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Evans, David C; Ryan, Michael J; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-04-04

    Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the herbivores in terms of relative

  13. Climate change and protected area policy and planning in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, D. [Canada Research Chairs, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Lemieux, C. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography

    2005-10-01

    Challenges concerning climate change for agencies involved the management of Canada's protected areas were reviewed. Most protected areas have been designed to represent specific natural features, species and ecological communities, and are the most common and most important strategy for biodiversity conservation. It remains undecided whether adaptation should be a matter of responding to climate change as it manifests, or whether initiatives should be taken in advance to anticipate the potential effects of climate change. There are growing concerns that emergency adaptation will be less effective and more costly than anticipatory or precautionary adaptation over the long-term. Species extinction could result. It was noted that the northward shift of species from the United States will meet Parks Canada's existing definition of alien species in need of management interventions. The conservation objectives of individual protected areas would also be affected by projected biome and species changes, particularly as each of Canada's national parks is responsible for protecting ecosystems representative of the natural region within which it is located. All 6 vegetation change scenarios examined in a recent study projected the eventual loss of boreal forest in the Prince Albert National Park, suggesting that the park's current mandate to protect the ecological integrity of the area would no longer be viable. An overview of the policy and planning implications of climate change for protected areas in Canada was presented using examples from national and provincial park systems. A portfolio of climate change adaptation options in conservation literature was reviewed. Recommended strategies included system planning and policy development; active, adaptive ecosystem management; research and monitoring; and capacity building and awareness. It was concluded that governments will need to make major new investments in protected area establishment, personnel

  14. Provincial land use planning in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, W.

    1998-01-01

    The efforts being made to include Aboriginal communities in land use planning in British Columbia are discussed. British Columbia is in the midst of historic changes with respect to land and resource allocation, use and management. Historic trends in land use allocation and management are contrasted with land use planning and resource management of today. The impact of provincial government moves to double park space within the province, and the Protected Areas Strategy initiative will have on the natural gas and petroleum industry is discussed. New efforts being made to include First Nations directly in land use planning discussions in ways that do not prejudice treaty negotiations, are reviewed. Creation of a new Oil and Gas Commission in the Fort St. John area, is cited as the most recent example of the interconnections between First Nations communities and other public and industry stakeholders in land use planning in the province

  15. Wait times in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Janice Christine

    2017-07-01

    A significant barrier to accessing healthcare in Canada is long waiting lists, which can be linked to the way that Medicare was structured. After significant pressure, provincial governments began to address wait times. An example of a successful strategy to reduce wait times for elective surgery is the Saskatchewan Surgical Initiative, which saw wait times in the province change from being among the longest in Canada to the shortest.

  16. Provincial resource development research policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, D L

    1976-01-01

    In Alberta, there is an abundance of oil, natural gas, and coal. But only a small portion of the Alberta oil sands and coal resources are commercially accessible to surface-mining techniques. It is quite apparent that some in-situ technological breakthrough will be required, which will mean a concerted research effort at the provincial level. It is the purpose of this paper to present certain concepts and recommendations for a coordinated provincial resource development research policy for the Province of Alberta. Research as discussed in this paper covers basic and applied research and development. (MCW)

  17. Canada's Fusion Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Canada's fusion strategy is based on developing specialized technologies in well-defined areas and supplying these technologies to international fusion projects. Two areas are specially emphasized in Canada: engineered fusion system technologies, and specific magnetic confinement and materials studies. The Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project focuses on the first of these areas. It tritium and fusion reactor fuel systems, remote maintenance and related safety studies. In the second area, the Centre Canadian de fusion magnetique operates the Tokamak de Varennes, the main magnetic fusion device in Canada. Both projects are partnerships linking the Government of Canada, represented by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, and provincial governments, electrical utilities, universities and industry. Canada's program has extensive international links, through which it collaborates with the major world fusion programs, including participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor project

  18. National Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — National Park Service unit boundaries (NTAD). These park boundaries signify legislative boundary definitions and local park names have been consolidated according to...

  19. A Re-Evaluation of the Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid Genus Chasmosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Dinosaur Park Formation of Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James A; Ryan, Michael J; Holmes, Robert B; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J

    2016-01-01

    The chasmosaurine ceratopsid Chasmosaurus is known from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Dinosaur Park Formation of southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Two valid species, Chasmosaurus belli and C. russelli, have been diagnosed by differences in cranial ornamentation. Their validity has been supported, in part, by the reported stratigraphic segregation of chasmosaurines in the Dinosaur Park Formation, with C. belli and C. russelli occurring in discrete, successive zones within the formation. An analysis of every potentially taxonomically informative chasmosaurine specimen from the Dinosaur Park Formation indicates that C. belli and C. russelli have indistinguishable ontogenetic histories and overlapping stratigraphic intervals. Neither taxon exhibits autapomorphies, nor a unique set of apomorphies, but they can be separated and diagnosed by a single phylogenetically informative character-the embayment angle formed by the posterior parietal bars relative to the parietal midline. Although relatively deeply embayed specimens (C. russelli) generally have relatively longer postorbital horncores than specimens with more shallow embayments (C. belli), neither this horncore character nor epiparietal morphology can be used to consistently distinguish every specimen of C. belli from C. russelli. Kosmoceratops is purportedly represented in the Dinosaur Park Formation by a specimen previously referred to Chasmosaurus. The reassignment of this specimen to Kosmoceratops is unsupported here, as it is based on features that are either influenced by taphonomy or within the realm of individual variation for Chasmosaurus. Therefore, we conclude that Kosmoceratops is not present in the Dinosaur Park Formation, but is instead restricted to southern Laramidia, as originally posited.

  20. Parking taxes : evaluating options and impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    In addition to encouraging the use of alternative modes of transport, parking taxes can help to reduce congestion, air pollution, and urban sprawl. Various types of parking taxes were evaluated in this paper, as well as their impacts on parking supply, prices and travel patterns. Examples of various parking tax programs in major cities in Canada, Europe, the United States and Australia were presented. Parking tax programs were divided into 2 main categories: (1) per-space parking levies which distribute cost burdens and encourage property owners to manage parking supply more efficiently and (2) commercial parking taxes on parking rental transactions which discourage the pricing of parking and concentrate impacts in limited areas. Worksite parking levies were discussed, as well stormwater fees and employee parking as a taxable benefit. Typical parking facility financial costs were reviewed and best practices for structuring and implementing parking taxes to increase public acceptability were outlined. It was suggested that the tax base should be broad and well-defined. Local governments should increase parking prices to market rates before imposing special parking taxes, and taxes and fees should be structured to avoid undesirable land use. Parking tax reforms should be part of an overall parking and mobility management program. Stakeholders should be consulted to insure that regulations, administrative procedures and enforcement policies are efficient and fair. The establishment of an evaluation program to determine tax impacts on parking supply and pricing, economic activity, traffic and spillover problems was also recommended. 42 refs., 4 tabs., 1 fig

  1. Mapping the Typology of Transition Systems in a Liberal Market Economy: The Case of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Christine Helen; Wheelahan, Leesa; Moodie, Gavin; Beaulieu, Jacqueline; Taylor-Cline, Jean-Claude

    2018-01-01

    This research explores links between tertiary education institutions and between tertiary education and the labour market as determinants of provincial and national transition patterns in Canada. The study consists of a provincial analysis that maps the typology of transition systems across Canada's devolved federated tertiary education structure.…

  2. Evaluation of environmental risks associated with dumping of hydrocarbons into the sea: Application in Forillon National Park, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boivin, D. J.; El-Sabh, M. I.; Quenneville, R.; Lauzier, D.; Chasse, R.

    1996-01-01

    A methodology to evaluate the environmental risk of marine oil spills was described. The method proposed provides the ability to classify homogeneous shoreline zones based on geomorphology and granulometry of the sediments in respect of the kinetic energy of the repeating waves, thus identifying shoreline zones where autocleaning by wave action is slow, and marking them for special action. By using the method proposed here, several scenarios of high risks for Forillon National Park were identified which led to the preparation of strategies to protect the Park's natural resources and biodiversity. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs

  3. Taxation and regulation of uranium mining in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Government taxation and regulation have a profound influence on mineral operations. In Canada, taxation occurs both on the federal and provincial levels. In addition, both federal and provincial regulations also affect mine operations, sometimes with overlapping, or conflicting, legislation and jurisdiction. Three broad areas of regulation affect the mine production of uranium in Canada: (1) mining law or mineral rights; (2) the licensing procedures; and (3) regulation of occupational health and safety

  4. Nature Conservation Division, Transvaal Provincial Administration.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nature Conservation Division, Transvaal Provincial Administration. ... The surrogate mothers consisted of a wooden box base covered with 12 gauge iron mesh. This .... Data available for F at the age of five months are included in this table for.

  5. The Political Economy of Provincial TV Stations in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    My master thesis aims to examine how a Chinese political economy context has shaped the media landscape in China, especially in the domain of provincial television. The key issues are: 1) what the role of private profit accumulation is for provincial TV stations in China; 2) Whom the ownership of provincial TV stations in China belongs to; 3) how global capitalism influence provincial TV stations today; 4) how government regulation influence provincial TV stations today. Theoretically, we fol...

  6. Monitoring the impact of the Gordon C. Leitch oil spill on the breeding bird populations of the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve, (QC) Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, B.; Chapdelaine, G.

    2000-01-01

    Results of a monitoring study of the impact of a 1999 oil spill on the breeding bird population in the Mingan Archipelago National Park Reserve in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Quebec, are discussed. The common eider, the black guillemot and the bald eagle were the three species studied by observing and comparing the status of these bird populations on islands located inside and outside of the contaminated area. Data from before and after the oil spill were compared. Results show that an estimated 211 to 777 breeding birds have died as a result of the oil spill, however, the overall impact on the reproductive potential of the breeding bird population was insignificant. Various protective measures to mitigate the effects of future oil spills are proposed. 38 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  7. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis

  8. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  9. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  10. Network analysis of Chinese provincial economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoqi; An, Haizhong; Liu, Xiaojia

    2018-02-01

    Global economic system is a huge network formed by national subnetworks that contains the provincial networks. As the second largest world economy, China has "too big to fail" impact on the interconnected global economy. Detecting the critical sectors and vital linkages inside Chinese economic network is meaningful for understanding the origin of this Chinese impact. Different from tradition network research at national level, this paper focuses on the provincial networks and inter-provincial network. Using Chinese inter-regional input-output table to construct 30 provincial input-output networks and one inter-provincial input-output network, we identify central sectors and vital linkages, as well as analyze economic structure similarity. Results show that (1) Communication Devices sector in Guangdong and that in Jiangsu, Transportation and Storage sector in Shanghai play critical roles in Chinese economy. (2) Advanced manufactures and services industry occupy the central positions in eastern provincial economies, while Construction sector, Heavy industry, and Wholesale and Retail Trades sector are influential in middle and western provinces. (3) The critical monetary flow paths in Chinese economy are Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Guangdong, Metals Mining sector to Iron and Steel Smelting sector in Henan, Communication Devices sector to Communication Devices sector in Jiangsu, as well as Petroleum Mining sector in Heilongjiang to Petroleum Processing sector in Liaoning. (4) Collective influence results suggest that Finance sector, Transportation and Storage sector, Production of Electricity and Heat sector, and Rubber and Plastics sector in Hainan are strategic influencers, despite being weakly connected. These sectors and input-output relations are worthy of close attention for monitoring Chinese economy.

  11. Provincial corruption and local development bank performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murharsito Murharsito

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of provincial corruption on the performance of local development bank, specifically to the profitability and credit quality. We use the data of 26 local development banks in 2012 and 2013. For the provincial corruption measurement we use “Public Institution Openness Index”. Results of this study are first, corruption significantly has a negative effect on the profitability of local development bank. Second, corruption doesn’t affect the credit quality of local development bank. These results are expected to enrich the within country corruption effect to the economic studies, particularly to the local development bank which is infrequently investigated.

  12. 2012-2013 CAUT Almanac of Post-Secondary Education in Canada = 2012-2013 Almanach de l'enseignement postsecondaire au Canada de l'ACPPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In previous editions of the CAUT Almanac, data for provincial postsecondary education expenditures, total expenditures and university and college revenues and expenditures was reported from Statistics Canada's Financial Management System (FMS), which Statistics Canada last published for the 2008-2009 fiscal year. Statistics Canada will be adopting…

  13. Canada's International Education Strategy: Focus on Scholarships. CBIE Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Based on a survey of approximately 40 professionals involved in various disciplines associated with international education across Canada, this study examines Canada's (federal, provincial, and territorial government) offering of scholarships to international students. Focused at the university level, the study elaborates on relevant international…

  14. Canadian energy and climate policies: A SWOT analysis in search of federal/provincial coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertel, Camille; Bahn, Olivier; Vaillancourt, Kathleen; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Canadian energy and climate policies in terms of the coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. After briefly describing the institutional, energy, and climate contexts, we perform a SWOT analysis on the themes of energy security, energy efficiency, and technology and innovation. Within this analytical framework, we discuss the coherence of federal and provincial policies and of energy and climate policies. Our analysis shows that there is a lack of consistency in the Canadian energy and climate strategies beyond the application of market principles. Furthermore, in certain sectors, the Canadian approach amounts to an amalgam of decisions made at a provincial level without cooperation with other provinces or with the federal government. One way to improve policy coherence would be to increase the cooperation between the different jurisdictions by using a combination of policy tools and by relying on existing intergovernmental agencies. - Highlights: • We perform a SWOT analysis of the Canadian energy and climate policies. • We analyse policy coherence between federal and provincial/territorial strategies. • We show that a lack of coordination leads to a weak coherence among policies. • The absence of cooperation results in additional costs for Canada

  15. Provincial logistics capability and economic development in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study involves the determination of Provincial Logistics Capability for South African provinces. Provincial Logistic Capability (PLC) is the effectiveness and efficiency of a province in facilitating logistics activities both within the province...

  16. Consequences of a refuge for the predator-prey dynamics of a wolf-elk system in Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joshua F; Hebblewhite, Mark; Bardsley, John

    2014-01-01

    Refugia can affect predator-prey dynamics via movements between refuge and non-refuge areas. We examine the influence of a refuge on population dynamics in a large mammal predator-prey system. Wolves (Canis lupus) have recolonized much of their former range in North America, and as a result, ungulate prey have exploited refugia to reduce predation risk with unknown impacts on wolf-prey dynamics. We examined the influence of a refuge on elk (Cervus elaphus) and wolf population dynamics in Banff National Park. Elk occupy the Banff townsite with little predation, whereas elk in the adjoining Bow Valley experience higher wolf predation. The Banff refuge may influence Bow Valley predator-prey dynamics through source-sink movements. To test this hypothesis, we used 26 years of wolf and elk population counts and the Delayed Rejection Adaptive Metropolis Markov chain Monte Carlo method to fit five predator-prey models: 1) with no source-sink movements, 2) with elk density-dependent dispersal from the refuge to the non-refuge, 3) with elk predation risk avoidance movements from the non-refuge to the refuge, 4) with differential movement rates between refuge and non-refuge, and 5) with short-term, source-sink wolf movements. Model 1 provided the best fit of the data, as measured by Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). In the top model, Banff and Bow Valley elk had median growth rates of 0.08 and 0.03 (95% credibility intervals [CIs]: 0.027-0.186 and 0.001-0.143), respectively, Banff had a median carrying capacity of 630 elk (95% CI: 471.9-2676.9), Bow Valley elk had a median wolf encounter rate of 0.02 (95% CI: 0.013-0.030), and wolves had a median death rate of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.146-0.335) and a median conversion efficiency of 0.07 (95% CI: 0.031-0.124). We found little evidence for potential source-sink movements influencing the predator-prey dynamics of this system. This result suggests that the refuge was isolated from the non-refuge.

  17. Wheeling in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fytche, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    The quest for economic efficiency, or lowest cost, in the electricity supply industry is furthered by trading between high and low cost utilities, one aspect being transporting or wheeling power through the transmission system of a third party. Some of the pressures and constraints limiting wheeling are discussed. A simple formula is presented for determining whether trading and wheeling are worthwhile. It is demonstrated for assumed capital and operating cost levels, the viability of nine cases where bulk power or economy energy would need to be wheeled across provincial boundaries in order to reach potential buyers. Wheeling in Canada is different from the situation in the USA, due to large distances spanned by Canadian utilities and because most are provincial crown corporations, with different territorial interests and profit motivations than investor-owned utilities. Most trading in electricity has been between contiguous neighbours, for mutual advantage. New technology allows power transmission over distances of up to 1000 miles, and the economics of Canada's electrical supply could be improved, with means including access to low cost coal of Alberta, and remote hydro in British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec and Labrador. Nuclear plants could be located anywhere but suffer from an unfriendly public attitude. A bridge across the Prairies appears uneconomic due to cost of transmission, and also due to low valuation given to Alberta coal. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  18. A cross-sectional study examining the prevalence and risk factors for anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in domestic dogs that frequent dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, T D; Pearl, D L; Finley, R L; Leonard, E K; Janecko, N; Reid-Smith, R J; Weese, J S; Peregrine, A S; Sargeant, J M

    2014-06-01

    Anti-microbial resistance can threaten health by limiting treatment options and increasing the risk of hospitalization and severity of infection. Companion animals can shed anti-microbial-resistant bacteria that may result in the exposure of other dogs and humans to anti-microbial-resistant genes. The prevalence of anti-microbial-resistant generic Escherichia coli in the faeces of dogs that visited dog parks in south-western Ontario was examined and risk factors for shedding anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli identified. From May to August 2009, canine faecal samples were collected at ten dog parks in three cities in south-western Ontario, Canada. Owners completed a questionnaire related to pet characteristics and management factors including recent treatment with antibiotics. Faecal samples were collected from 251 dogs, and 189 surveys were completed. Generic E. coli was isolated from 237 of the faecal samples, and up to three isolates per sample were tested for anti-microbial susceptibility. Eighty-nine percent of isolates were pan-susceptible; 82.3% of dogs shed isolates that were pan-susceptible. Multiclass resistance was detected in 7.2% of the isolates from 10.1% of the dogs. Based on multilevel multivariable logistic regression, a risk factor for the shedding of generic E. coli resistant to ampicillin was attending dog day care. Risk factors for the shedding of E. coli resistant to at least one anti-microbial included attending dog day care and being a large mixed breed dog, whereas consumption of commercial dry and home cooked diets was protective factor. In a multilevel multivariable model for the shedding of multiclass-resistant E. coli, exposure to compost and being a large mixed breed dog were risk factors, while consumption of a commercial dry diet was a sparing factor. Pet dogs are a potential reservoir of anti-microbial-resistant generic E. coli; some dog characteristics and management factors are associated with the prevalence of anti

  19. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  20. Physician recruitment in Ontario Provincial Psychiatric Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, R; Galbraith, D; Frost, B

    1989-11-01

    Recruitment of Physicians/Psychiatrists to staff the Ontario Provincial Psychiatric Hospitals remains an ongoing problem despite the introduction of measures such as University Affiliation and Incentive Grants. Historically there has been heavy reliance upon Foreign Medical Graduates (GOFM's) who have been denied the possibility of professional mobility and advancement because of restrictive licences. Recent changes in regulations have severely restricted the recruitment of GOFM's. During 1987, details of all physicians employed in the provincial hospitals during the preceeding five years were entered into a computerized data base. This paper presents some initial analyses which indicate that Canadian graduates have provided low levels of service, especially outside major urban centres, quite insufficient to replace the GOFM's. These findings raise urgent social and professional concerns.

  1. Park It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2010-01-01

    Many artists visit national parks to draw, paint and take photographs of some of the most amazing scenery on earth. Raw nature is one of the greatest inspirations to an artist, and artists can be credited for helping inspire the government to create the National Park System. This article features Thomas Moran (1837-1926), one of the artists who…

  2. Centrarchid fish as paratenic hosts of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782), in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, L N; Anderson, R C

    1985-01-01

    Infective larvae of Dioctophyma renale were found in the hypaxial musculature of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus L.) from three lakes in Algonquin Provincial Park, Ontario, Canada. This represents the first report of D. renale in centrarchid fish. In the three lakes surveyed prevalence and mean intensity ranged from 5 to 23% and one to two larvae respectively. Larvae elicited a mild granulomatous reaction in pumpkinseed. Two ferrets were each given five larvae from pumpkinseed. Adult D. renale were recovered from the right kidney capsule of ferrets 108 and 134 days post-infection. An opening in the ventral surface of the right kidney capsule was present in one ferret. Chronic peritonitis was associated with eggs of D. renale and cellular debris which probably entered the abdominal cavity from the right kidney capsule.

  3. Parks & benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Holmes, Esbern

    2011-01-01

    conservation. Increasing visitor flows and cuts in staff resources has put focus on the management of visitor carrying capacities and their relation to landscape structure and zoning. At the same time park authorities face falling public appropriations and receding focus on their conservation functions...... compared to recreation and settlement. The constant priority of the balancing of nature protection and economic utilization gives rise to various experience with land use and visitor management relevant for sustainable development also outside the parks. In European nature parks the handling of visitor...... carrying capacities related to Natura2000-sites and their included habitat type areas is a priority theme for the sustainable management of nature parks. A comparative analysis of conditions and initiatives related to visitor carrying capacities in 8 nature parks in the Baltic region has been carried out...

  4. Canada report on bioenergy 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, D.

    2008-06-01

    Canada is a nation rich in fossil fuel resources. Canada has a large, well-developed forest sector and is one of the world's largest exporters of wood products. Although national bioenergy policies exist, provincial policies regarding forest resources are necessary because 77 per cent of Canada's forests are under provincial jurisdiction. This report presented an update on Canada's bioenergy policy and resources. The report discussed biomass resources such as woody biomass; agricultural residues; and municipal waste. The use of biomass was presented with particular reference to heat and power; biofuels production; pyrolysis oil; wood pellets; and trends in biomass production and consumption. Current biomass users and biomass prices were also examined. Last, the report addressed imports and exports of ethanol, biodiesel, pyrolysis oil, and wood pellets as well as barriers and opportunities to trade. A list of Canadian bioenergy initiatives and programs was also provided. It was concluded that the greatest opportunities for trade are to succeed in research on super-densified pellets; raise ocean shipping capacity to bring down rates; and to establish and entire biomass industry in Newfoundland Labrador. 20 tabs., 8 figs., 1 appendix

  5. 78 FR 16493 - ExxonMobil Canada Energy, Flint Hills Resources Canada, LP, Imperial Oil, NOVA Chemical (Canada...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    .... Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., United Refining Company v. Enbridge Energy..., Inc., Phillips 66 Canada ULC, St. Paul Park Refining Co. LLC, Suncor Energy Marketing, Inc., and... assistance with any FERC Online service, please email [email protected] , or call (866) 208-3676...

  6. Nuclear emergency preparedness in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The preparedness of utilities and government agencies at various levels for dealing with nuclear emergencies occurring at nuclear reactors in Canada is reviewed and assessed. The review is centered on power reactors, but selected research reactors are included also. Emergency planning in the U.S.A., Germany and France, and international recommendations on emergency planning are reviewed to provide background and a basis for comparison. The findings are that Canadians are generally well protected by existing nuclear emergency plans at the electric utility and provincial levels but there are improvements that can be made, mainly at the federal level and in federal-provincial coordination. Ten issues of importance are identified: commitment to nuclear emergency planning by the federal government; division of federal and provincial roles and responsibilities; auditing of nuclear emergency preparedness of all levels of government and of electric utilities; the availability of technical guidance appropriate to Canada; protective action levels for public health and safety; communication with the public; planning and response for the later phases of a nuclear emergency; off-site exercises and training; coordination of international assistance; and emergency planning for research reactors. (L.L.) 79 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-01-01

    positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking

  8. Comparison of provincial prescription drug plans and the impact on patients' annual drug expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Virginie; Melo, Magda; Jackevicius, Cynthia; Cox, Jafna; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Rinfret, Stéphane; Humphries, Karin H; Johansen, Helen; Tu, Jack V; Pilote, Louise

    2008-02-12

    Reimbursement for outpatient prescription drugs is not mandated by the Canada Health Act or any other federal legislation. Provincial governments independently establish reimbursement plans. We sought to describe variations in publicly funded provincial drug plans across Canada and to examine the impact of this variation on patients' annual expenditures. We collected information, accurate to December 2006, about publicly funded prescription drug plans from all 10 Canadian provinces. Using clinical scenarios, we calculated the impact of provincial cost-sharing strategies on individual annual drug expenditures for 3 categories of patients with different levels of income and 2 levels of annual prescription burden ($260 and $1000). We found that eligibility criteria and cost-sharing details of the publicly funded prescription drug plans differed markedly across Canada, as did the personal financial burden due to prescription drug costs. Seniors pay 35% or less of their prescription costs in 2 provinces, but elsewhere they may pay as much as 100%. With few exceptions, nonseniors pay more than 35% of their prescription costs in every province. Most social assistance recipients pay 35% or less of their prescription costs in 5 provinces and pay no costs in the other 5. In an example of a patient with congestive heart failure, his out-of-pocket costs for a prescription burden of $1283 varied between $74 and $1332 across the provinces. Considerable interprovincial variation in publicly funded prescription drug plans results in substantial variation in annual expenditures by Canadians with identical prescription burdens. A revised pharmaceutical strategy might reduce these major inequities.

  9. Assessing accuracy of an electronic provincial medication repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Price Morgan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jurisdictional drug information systems are being implemented in many regions around the world. British Columbia, Canada has had a provincial medication dispensing record, PharmaNet, system since 1995. Little is known about how accurately PharmaNet reflects actual medication usage. Methods This prospective, multi-centre study compared pharmacist collected Best Possible Medication Histories (BPMH to PharmaNet profiles to assess accuracy of the PharmaNet profiles for patients receiving a BPMH as part of clinical care. A review panel examined the anonymized BPMHs and discrepancies to estimate clinical significance of discrepancies. Results 16% of medication profiles were accurate, with 48% of the discrepant profiles considered potentially clinically significant by the clinical review panel. Cardiac medications tended to be more accurate (e.g. ramipril was accurate >90% of the time, while insulin, warfarin, salbutamol and pain relief medications were often inaccurate (80–85% of the time. 1215 sequential BPMHs were collected and reviewed for this study. Conclusions The PharmaNet medication repository has a low accuracy and should be used in conjunction with other sources for medication histories for clinical or research purposes. This finding is consistent with other, smaller medication repository accuracy studies in other jurisdictions. Our study highlights specific medications that tend to be lower in accuracy.

  10. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 23 figs., 95 tabs

  11. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1991 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Appended information is presented on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  12. Electric power in Canada 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The electric power industry in Canada in 1993 is reviewed. Items discussed include: the international context of Canadian electricity; regulatory structures; electricity and the environment; electricity consumption; electricity generation; generating capacity and reserve; electricity trade; transmission; electric utility investment and financing; costing and pricing; electricity outlook; demand-side management; and non-utility generation. Information is appended on installed capacity and electrical energy consumption in Canada, installed generating capacity, conventional thermal capacity by principal fuel type, provincial electricity imports and exports, Canadian electricity exports by exporter and importer, generation capacity by type, installed generating capacity expansion in Canada by station, federal environmental standards and guidelines, and prices paid by major electric utilities for non-utility generation. 26 figs., 90 tabs

  13. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  14. Provincial geology and the Industrial Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneer, Leucha

    2006-06-01

    In the early nineteenth century, geology was a new but rapidly growing science, in the provinces and among the gentlemen scientists of London, Oxford and Cambridge. Industry, particularly mining, often motivated local practical geologists, and the construction of canals and railways exposed the strata for all to see. The most notable of the early practical men of geology was the mineral surveyor William Smith; his geological map of England and Wales, published in 1815, was the first of its kind. He was not alone. The contributions of professional men, and the provincial societies with which they were connected, are sometimes underestimated in the history of geology.

  15. Presentation of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedley, Dianne E.

    1997-01-01

    In contingency of a nuclear emergency event, requiring application of intervention measures on a federal scale, Canada has of a plan ensuring the compatibility of the plans of different provinces and serving as interface between federal and provincial authorities. Exclusive of a nuclear attack against North America, by nuclear emergency it is understood an accident resulting in radionuclide release. This is called the Plan of federal intervention in case of nuclear emergency. 'Sante Canada' is the federal authority responsible for intervention in case of nuclear emergency and it has the task of preparing and coordinating the actions on a federal scale.Should the plan be set in action and if the emergency has repercussions upon the agricultural sector, the sustaining organism will be 'Agriculture and agroalimentaire Canada' which in case of emergency acts through the channels of the National System of intervention in the agro-alimentary sector (SNIUA). The paper presents the objectives, the principles of organization and operation, the responsibilities and the plans which SNIUA has in its charge to implement in case of emergency

  16. Caribou nursery site habitat characteristics in two northern Ontario parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha L. Carr

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available To prevent further range recession, habitat features essential to the life-history requisites of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou such as calving and nursery sites need to be protected for the persistence of the species. Woodland caribou may minimize predation risk during calving by either spacing out or spacing away from predators in the forest to calve on islands, wetlands, or shorelines. Our objective was to determine the characteristics of shoreline habitats used as calving and nursery sites by female woodland caribou in northern Ontario. Detailed vegetation and other site characteristics were measured at nursery sites used by cow-calf pairs in Wabakimi and Woodland Caribou Provincial Parks for comparison with shoreline sites that were not used by caribou within each park. Differences in habitat variables selected by female caribou in the two study areas reflect broad ecoregional differences in vegetation and topography. In Wabakimi Provincial Park, understorey tree density and ground detection distance played key roles in distinguishing nursery sites from sites that were not used. In Woodland Caribou Provincial Park, groundcover vegetation and shrub density were important in the selection of nursery sites by female caribou. Generally, female caribou in both parks selected nursery sites with greater slope, lower shrub density but thicker groundcover vegetation, including greater lichen abundance, and higher densities of mature trees than shoreline sites that were not used. The identification of these important features for caribou nursery sites provides a basis for improving their protection in future management policies and legislation.

  17. Heterogeneous Parking Market Subject to Parking Rationing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Asadi Bagloee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Different types of drivers and parking spaces delineate a heterogeneous parking market for which the literature has yet to provide a model applicable to the real world. The main obstacle is computational complexities of considering various parking restrictions along with traffic congestion on the road network. In this study, the heterogeneity aspects are considered within a Logit parking choice model. A mathematical programming problem was introduced to explicitly consider parking capacities and parking rationing constraints. The parking rationing is defined as any arrangement to reserve parking space for some specific demand such as parking permit, private parking, VIP parking, and different parking durations. Introduction of parking rationing in the presence of other constraints is a unique factor in this study which makes the model more realistic. The algorithm was tested on a central business district case study. The results prove that the algorithm is able to converge rapidly. Among the algorithm’s output are shadow prices of the parking capacity and parking rationing constraints. The shadow prices contain important information which is key to addressing a variety of parking issues, such as the location of parking shortages, identification of fair parking charges, viability of parking permits, and the size of reserved parking.

  18. ParkIndex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczynski, Andrew T; Schipperijn, Jasper; Hipp, J Aaron

    2016-01-01

    using ArcGIS 9.3 and the Community Park Audit Tool. Four park summary variables - distance to nearest park, and the number of parks, amount of park space, and average park quality index within 1 mile were analyzed in relation to park use using logistic regression. Coefficients for significant park......, planners, and citizens to evaluate the potential for park use for a given area. Data used for developing ParkIndex were collected in 2010 in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO). Adult study participants (n=891) reported whether they used a park within the past month, and all parks in KCMO were mapped and audited...

  19. Maryon Park

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoli, Giasco

    2018-01-01

    Tiré du site Internet de Onestar Press: "Maryon Park is the place Michelangelo Antonioni chose, in 1966, to shoot the scenes that would become cult images from his film "Blow Up", and deservedly so. The park is located in Charlton, southeast of London, a place that's hardly changed since Antonioni shot there. I first went there to shoot a series of photos on March 7 and 8, 2007. I returned again on March 7, 2014. I called the series “Maryon Park”. I used a medium format, six by seven inch col...

  20. No More Provincialism: Art and Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Barker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the writing and personalities surrounding the 1981 establishment of the Australian art magazine, Art & Text, and traces its progression under Paul Taylor’s editorship up to his relocation to New York. During this period, Art & Text published Taylor’s own essays and, more importantly, those of other writers and artists — Meaghan Morris, Paul Foss, Philip Brophy, Imants Tillers, Rex Butler, Edward Colless — all articulating a consistent and complex postmodern position. The magazine’s founder and editor, Paul Taylor, personified the shattering impact of postmodernism upon the Australian art world as well as postmodernism’s limitations. Taylor facilitated a new theoretical framework for the discussion of Australian art, one that continues to dominate the internationalist aspirations of Australian art writers. He produced temporarily convincing solutions to problems that earlier critics had wrestled with unsuccessfully, in particular the twin problems of provincialism, and the relationship of Australian to international art.

  1. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  2. Reinventing primary care: lessons from Canada for the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starfield, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    Canada is, in many respects, culturally and economically similar to the United States, and until relatively recently, the two countries had similar health systems. However, since passage of the Canada Health Act in the 1970s, that nation's health statistics have become increasingly superior. Although the costs of Canada's health system are high by international standards, they are much lower than U.S. costs. This paper describes several factors likely to be responsible for Canada's better health at lower cost: universal financial coverage through a so-called single payer; features conducive to a strong primary care infrastructure; and provincial autonomy under general principles set by national law.

  3. Programa provincial de lectura del Chubut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Alejandra Alaniz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del proyecto “Dispositivos pedagógicos en las dinámicas de lavida escolar en contexto de pobreza urbana” lo que se propuso investigar es la forma de implementación del Programa de Lectura de la provincia de Chubut. El mismo fue creado por Resolución Ministerial N° 1044/ 08, a partir de diversos trabajos que comenzaron en el año 2003 a través de la Ley de Educación 26. 026, y que posteriormente se incorporaron a nivel provincial mediante la Resolución N ° 174/12 para revalorizar las trayectorias escolares de cada niño/a. El programa consiste en poner el énfasis en el vínculo pedagógico mediante la adecuación de los espacios curriculares, de tal modo que se pueda lograr una articulación entre los diferentes niveles educativos, desde el nivel inicial al secundario. Articulando para ello recursos materiales y humanos que posibiliten el acompañamiento del proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje de lectura.A partir de esto, el objetivo de este trabajo fue indagar cómo perciben los docentes de una escuela pública la implementación del Programa Provincial de Lectura, lo que implico utilizar metodologías y técnicas de investigación apropiadas para obtener las experiencias actuales en el territorio y en la cotidianidad de los propios actores escolares. Teniendo en consideración que el dispositivo pedagógico es una construcción histórica, que produce subjetividades, y por consiguiente formas de ver y entender el mundo.

  4. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Enis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government's clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among stake-holders. They recommend decentralized governance and restructuring for better management and more citizen participation. Although Canada's health care system remains committed to safeguarding its guiding principles, the balance of power may be shifting from providers to citizens and "technocrats". Also, all provinces are likely to increase their pressure on physicians by means of salary caps, by exploring payment methods such as capitation, limiting access to costly technology, and by demanding practice changes based on evidence of cost-effectiveness.

  5. An analysis of the performance of Black African junior provincial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been investigated. 1. It was found that these processes were effective in increasing participation of senior black provincial players between. 1996 and 2008. There were ... players were performing at junior provincial level but have not been afforded the ..... batsmen have performed consistently well between 2004 and 2010.

  6. Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilisation of Antenatal Services at the Provincial Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria. AAG Jimoh. Abstract. This prospective study was carried out to evaluate the utilisation of antenatal care at the Provincial Specialist Hospital, Mongomo, Guinea Equatoria, paying close attention to the confounding factors affecting ...

  7. An Evaluation of Provincial Infectious Disease Surveillance Reports in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ellen; Barnes, Morgan E; Sharif, Omar

    Public Health Ontario (PHO) publishes various infectious disease surveillance reports, but none have yet been formally evaluated. PHO evaluated its monthly and annual infectious disease surveillance reports to assess public health stakeholders' current perception of the products and to develop recommendations for improving future products. An evaluation consisting of an online survey and a review of public Web sites of other jurisdictions with similar annual reports. For the online survey, stakeholder organizations targeted were the 36 local public health units and the Health health ministry in Ontario, Canada. Survey participants included epidemiologists, managers, directors, and other public health practitioners from participating organizations. Online survey respondents' awareness and access to the reports, their rated usefulness of reports and subsections, and suggestions for improving usefulness; timeliness of select annual reports from other jurisdictions based on the period from data described to report publication. Among 57 survey respondents, between 74% and 97% rated each report as useful; the most common use was for situational awareness. Respondents ranked timeliness as the most important attribute of surveillance reports, followed by data completeness. Among 6 annual reports reviewed, the median time to publication was 11.5 months compared with 23.2 months for PHO. Recommendations based on this evaluation have already been applied to the monthly report (eg, focusing on the most useful sections) and have become key considerations when developing future annual reports and other surveillance reporting tools (eg, need to provide more timely reports). Other public health organizations may also use this evaluation to inform aspects of their surveillance report development and evaluation. The evaluation results have provided PHO with direction on how to improve its provincial infectious disease surveillance reporting moving forward, and formed a basis for

  8. The Counselling and Psychotherapy Profession in Canada: Regulatory Processes and Current Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lorna; Turcotte, Michel; Matte, Laurent; Shepard, Blythe

    2013-01-01

    Like the Canadian landscape and culture, the status of professional regulation for counselling and psychotherapy is a mosaic reflecting the unique cultural, linguistic and contextual realities of Canada. Statutory regulation in Canada is constitutionally a provincial/territorial matter. In the past five years, a major movement towards professional…

  9. The Structure and Presentation of Provincial Budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Provincial governments seem to consider it only natural to finance public infrastructure using debt. There is a standard arsenal of arguments used to justify the practice, to the point where there are scarcely any political voices willing to dissent from the tradition. Financing a bridge or school with debt is like a family buying a house, goes one common rationalization, or like a business taking out a loan for equipment. Others argue that infrastructure investment can stimulate the economy and pays for itself over time. Another justification insists that it is only fair for future generations to shoulder some of the burden of infrastructure purchased today, since they will continue to enjoy it after living generations are gone. Still another holds that debt financing infrastructure offers the necessary smoothing of the tax rate over time. These arguments are widely repeated and accepted as these arguments are, but under closer scrutiny they hold almost no water at all. On the contrary, the economic analysis casts doubts on financing infrastructure using debt. If provinces want to build more roads, bridges, schools, airports, hospitals, and other infrastructure, they would do taxpayers a much bigger favour by financing it through current income. Building a government hospital is not the same as a couple taking out a home mortgage; that couple cannot increase its revenues the way a government can through higher taxes, and that couple has an earning life cycle (rising until the earners are in their mid-50s, and then declining until their income is largely comprised of public and private pensions and savings. Businesses primarily fund new investments using retained earnings; their use of debt is motivated largely by tax incentives that allow interest deductibility. Neither of these are reasonable comparisons for a government’s financing rationale. The fiscal stimulus argument is weak to begin with, as the timing of infrastructure spending is

  10. The political economy of Canadian hydro-electricity : between old provincial hydros and neoliberal regional energy regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Netherton, A.

    2007-01-01

    In economic terms, hydro-electricity is considered as a quasi-staple, as it prone to the classic staples problem of excess capacity. However, neither water nor hydroelectricity in Canada is produced primarily for export markets. Hydroelectric systems are often thought of as politicized monopolies. This paper discussed changes that have occurred in hydroelectric organizations over time, as they have been governed by a formative mixed regime; postwar provincial hydro systems; a megaprojects regime; and an emerging sustainability regionalization regime. The origins of electricity generation and transmission in Canada were discussed, as well as the ecological footprint of large mega-projects on rivers. The development of provincial hydro monopolies during the mid- to late- twentieth century was also outlined, as well as the sustainability and regionalization regime that developed after 1990. During the mature staples period of the mid-century, rents in hydro-electric organizations were distributed through cheap rates to subsidize and facilitate the development of mass production and mass consumption. However, post-staples consumption has now replaced mass consumption, and demand side management is replacing earlier cheap power policies. Nonetheless, the lack of systematic integration of networks has led to inefficiencies. Provincial grids are now being integrated into interconnected North American regional networks regulated by the United States. It was concluded that the Canadian electricity regime is increasingly influenced by the the supranational role that the United States is playing in structuring markets. 83 refs

  11. Conservation status of crayfishes of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Taylor; Melvin L. Warren; J. F. Fitzpatrick; Horton H. Hobbs; Raymond F. Jezerinac; William L. Pflieger; Henry W. Robinson

    1996-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) Endangered Species Committee herein provides a list of all crayfishes (families and Cambaridae) in the United States and Canada that includes state provincial distributions; a comprehensive review of the conservation status of all taxa; and references on biology, conservation, and...

  12. PUBLIC SECTOR OF CANADA: RATING RESEARCH OF LABOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesia Leontiivna TOTSKA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available n this article an author conducted the analysis of labour in the public sector of Canada after such nine subgroups of establishments: 1 federal general government; 2 provincial and territorial general government; 3 health and social service institutions (provincial and territorial; 4 universities, colleges, vocational and trade institutes (provincial and territorial; 5 local general government; 6 local school boards; 7 federal government business enterprises; 8 provincial and territorial government business enterprises; 9 local government business enterprises. On the basis of statistical information about these sub-groups for 2007-2011 from a web-site «Statistics Canada» the maximal and minimum values of such three indexes are found: amount of employees, general annual sums of wages and annual sums of wages per employee. Rating for nine sub-groups of establishments of public sector of Canada on these indexes is certain. The got results testify, that during an analysable period most of the employees of public sector was concentrated in health and social service institutions, the least – in local government business enterprises. In 2007– 2011 a most general sum was earned also by the employees of health and social service institutions, the least – by the employees of local government business enterprises. At the same time in an analysable period among the state employees of Canada a most wage in a calculation on one person was got by the employees of federal general government, the least – by the employees of local general government.

  13. The comparative analyses of selected aspects of conservation and management of Vietnam’s national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thanh An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The national parks in Vietnam are protected areas in the national system of special-use forests created to protect natural resources and biodiversity. In order to improve the effectiveness of management of national parks, the study assesses some current aspects of conservation and management of natural resources with respect to management plans, financial sources, staff, cooperative activities, causes of limited management capacity and threats to natural resources. Out of the total of 30 national parks, six are under the responsibility of the Vietnam Administration of Forestry (VNFOREST and 24 national parks are managed by provincial authorities. It was found that most of the national parks have updated their management plans. Financial sources of funding for national parks mainly originated from the central and provincial budgets, with an average of 51% and 76% respectively. Fifty percent of national parks spent 40–60% of their total funding on conservation activities. About 85% of national parks’ staff had academic degrees, typically in the fields of forestry, agriculture and fisheries. Biodiversity conservation was considered a priority cooperative action in national parks with scientific institutes. Major causes of a limited management capacity of national parks included human population growth and pressure associated with resources use, lack of funding, limited human and institutional capacity and land use conflict/land grab. Illegal hunting, trapping, poaching and fishing, the illegal wildlife trade, illegal logging and firewood collecting appeared to be the most serious threats to the conservation and management of natural resources. In addition to these results, significant differences were found between the VNFOREST and provincial parks in terms of financial sources, staff and the threat of illegal logging and firewood collecting. The authors’ findings offer useful information for national park planners and managers, as well as

  14. Network analysis of inter-organizational relationships and policy use among active living organizations in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loitz, Christina C; Stearns, Jodie A; Fraser, Shawn N; Storey, Kate; Spence, John C

    2017-08-09

    Coordinated partnerships and collaborations can optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of service and program delivery in organizational networks. However, the extent to which organizations are working together to promote physical activity, and use physical activity policies in Canada, is unknown. This project sought to provide a snapshot of the funding, coordination and partnership relationships among provincial active living organizations (ALOs) in Alberta, Canada. Additionally, the awareness, and use of the provincial policy and national strategy by the organizations was examined. Provincial ALOs (N = 27) answered questions regarding their funding, coordination and partnership connections with other ALOs in the network. Social network analysis was employed to examine network structure and position of each ALO. Discriminant function analysis determined the extent to which degree centrality was associated with the use of the Active Alberta (AA) policy and Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20) strategy. The funding network had a low density level (density = .20) and was centralized around Alberta Tourism Parks and Recreation (ATPR; degree centralization = 48.77%, betweenness centralization = 32.43%). The coordination network had a moderate density level (density = .31), and was low-to-moderately centralized around a few organizations (degree centralization = 45.37%, betweenness centrality = 19.92%). The partnership network had a low density level (density = .15), and was moderate-to-highly centralized around ATPR. Most organizations were aware of AA (89%) and AC 20/20 (78%), however more were using AA (67%) compared to AC 20/20 (33%). Central ALOs in the funding network were more likely to use AA and AC 20/20. Central ALOs in the coordination network were more likely to use AC 20/20, but not AA. Increasing formal and informal relationships between organizations and integrating disconnected or peripheral organizations could increase the capacity of the

  15. Network analysis of inter-organizational relationships and policy use among active living organizations in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Loitz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated partnerships and collaborations can optimize the efficiency and effectiveness of service and program delivery in organizational networks. However, the extent to which organizations are working together to promote physical activity, and use physical activity policies in Canada, is unknown. This project sought to provide a snapshot of the funding, coordination and partnership relationships among provincial active living organizations (ALOs in Alberta, Canada. Additionally, the awareness, and use of the provincial policy and national strategy by the organizations was examined. Methods Provincial ALOs (N = 27 answered questions regarding their funding, coordination and partnership connections with other ALOs in the network. Social network analysis was employed to examine network structure and position of each ALO. Discriminant function analysis determined the extent to which degree centrality was associated with the use of the Active Alberta (AA policy and Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20 strategy. Results The funding network had a low density level (density = .20 and was centralized around Alberta Tourism Parks and Recreation (ATPR; degree centralization = 48.77%, betweenness centralization = 32.43%. The coordination network had a moderate density level (density = .31, and was low-to-moderately centralized around a few organizations (degree centralization = 45.37%, betweenness centrality = 19.92%. The partnership network had a low density level (density = .15, and was moderate-to-highly centralized around ATPR. Most organizations were aware of AA (89% and AC 20/20 (78%, however more were using AA (67% compared to AC 20/20 (33%. Central ALOs in the funding network were more likely to use AA and AC 20/20. Central ALOs in the coordination network were more likely to use AC 20/20, but not AA. Conclusions Increasing formal and informal relationships between organizations and integrating disconnected or

  16. Smart parking barrier

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.

    2016-05-06

    Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.

  17. Industrial wind turbine post-construction bird and bat monitoring: A policy framework for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisé, Jason; Walker, Tony R

    2017-10-01

    Electricity generation from wind energy has proliferated throughout North America and will continue to grow. Given Canada's expected increase in wind energy capacity, consideration of the potential adverse impacts to bird and bat populations is prudent given their sensitivity to these projects. The province of Ontario, Canada is currently the leading jurisdiction for wind energy development, and for provincial guidance on pre- and post-construction monitoring. With uniform monitoring guidance in Ontario, wind energy proponents, and third-party consultants, have developed post-construction monitoring protocols that meet provincial guidance, while also providing standardized reporting. In Atlantic Canada, post-construction guidelines vary between provinces, depending mostly on guidance from the Environment Canada Canadian Wildlife Service and relevant provincial agencies. To ensure quality post-construction monitoring results in Atlantic Canada and other provinces, it is imperative that all Canadian provinces adopt similar approaches to those employed in Ontario. This paper reviews major causes of bird and bat mortalities; reviews Canadian federal and Ontario provincial bird and bat monitoring guidelines to elucidate gaps between environmental assessment (EA) theory and application; summarizes post-construction monitoring protocols from eight bird and bat post-construction monitoring programs used in Ontario; and, proposes recommendations to support future wind development opportunities across Canada and specifically in Atlantic Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Search for Stability: Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wardle, Russel

    2004-01-01

    ... and international bodies as well as the military. Provincial Reconstruction Teams (PRTs), as employed in Afghanistan, are used as a vehicle to examine the wide range of activities necessary for Nation Building...

  19. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jay; Wang, Peng; Qin, Xuezheng; Zhang, Shufang

    2013-01-01

    The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE) is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  20. Disparity and convergence: Chinese provincial government health expenditures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Pan

    Full Text Available The huge regional disparity in government health expenditures (GHE is a major policy concern in China. This paper addresses whether provincial GHE converges in China from 1997 to 2009 using the economic convergence framework based on neoclassical economic growth theory. Our empirical investigation provides compelling evidence of long-term convergence in provincial GHE within China, but not in short-term. Policy implications of these empirical results are discussed.

  1. Fusion Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This first issue of a quarterly newsletter announces the startup of the Tokamak de Varennes, describes Canada's national fusion program, and outlines the Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Program. A map gives the location of the eleven principal fusion centres in Canada. (L.L.)

  2. Examining fiscal federalism, regionalization and community-based initiatives in Canada's health care delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Pierre-Gerlier; Palley, Howard A

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on the ability of Canadian provinces to shape in different ways the development of various provincial health delivery systems within the constraints of the mandates of the federal Canada Health Act of 1984 and the fiscal revenues that the provinces receive if they comply with these mandates. In so doing, it will examine the operation of Canadian federalism with respect to various provincial health systems. This study applies a comparative analysis framework developed by Heisler and Peters to facilitate an understanding of the dimensionality of provincial health delivery systems as applied to the case of provincial regionalization and community-based initiatives. The three sets of relationships touched upon are: first, the levels of government and the nature of their involvement in public policy concerning the provincial health care delivery systems; and secondly, understanding of the factors influencing provincial governments' political dispositions to act in various directions. A third dimension that is taken are the factors influencing the "timing" of particular decisions. A fourth area noted by Heisler and Peters and other comparative analysts is the nature and characteristics of public and private sector activities in health care and other social policy areas. While the evolving nature of public and private sector health care delivery activities within Canada's provincial and territorial systems is a significant policy matter in the Canadian context, due to the space limitations of this article, they are not discussed herein.

  3. Canada's carbon capture and storage initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malone, Alexandra; Mitrovic, Milenka; Grant, Andrea

    2010-09-15

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical technology for Canada to make meaningful emissions reductions in the fossil fuels sector. Canada is a global leader in CCS, and both federal and provincial governments are taking action to advance the deployment of this technology, including allocating over CAD 3.5 billion in public funding to CCS. These investments support several interdependent initiatives focusing on addressing the challenges facing CCS, supporting innovation, accelerating deployment, and facilitating information sharing. Canada is also committed to working internationally to ensure that our efforts at home contribute to the overall global advancement of CCS.

  4. Federal-Provincial Business Tax Reforms: A Growth Agenda with Competitive Rates and a Neutral Treatment of Business Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As the federal and provincial governments look to create jobs and attract business investment, productivity-enhanced business tax structures are in high order. Tax structures that combine internationally competitive tax rates on neutral tax bases foster long-term economic growth and generate sustainable tax revenue. This report examines tax policy in Canada over the past few years, specifically its impact on capital investment, labour and the cost of doing business across provinces and industries. Suggestions for tax reform are provided.

  5. Empirical Study of China’s Provincial Carbon Responsibility Sharing: Provincial Value Chain Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of global warming, China has vowed to meet a series of carbon emissions reduction targets and plans to launch a national carbon emissions rights trading market by 2017. Therefore, from the provincial value chain perspective, using input-output tables from China in 2002, 2007, and 2010, this study constructs models to calculate the CO2 emissions responsibility of each province under the production, consumption, and value capture principles, respectively. Empirical results indicate that Shandong, Hebei, Jiangsu, Guangdong, and Henan bear the most responsibility for CO2 emissions under the three principles in China, while Hainan and Qinghai have the least responsibility. However, there is a great difference in the proportion of carbon emissions responsibility for each province during the same period under different principles or different periods under the same principle. For consumption-oriented areas such as Beijing, Tianjin, Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Guangdong, the production principle is more favorable, and the consumption principle is more beneficial for production-oriented provinces such as Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. However, the value capture principle strikes a compromise of the CO2 emissions responsibility of each province between the production and consumption principles, and it shares the CO2 emissions responsibility based on the actual value captured by each province in the provincial value chain. The value capture principle is conducive to the fair and reasonable division of CO2 emissions rights of each province by sectors, as well as the construction of a standardized carbon emissions rights trading market.

  6. A successful Charter challenge to medicare? Policy options for Canadian provincial governments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Colleen M; Thomas, Bryan

    2018-03-26

    In September 2016, a case went to trial in British Columbia that seeks to test the constitutionality of provincial laws that (1) ban private health insurance for medically necessary hospital and physician services; (2) ban extra-billing (physicians cannot charge patients more than the public tariff); and (3) require physicians to work solely for the public system or 'opt-out' and practice privately. All provinces have similar laws that have been passed to meet the requirements of federal legislation, the Canada Health Act (and thus qualify for federal funds). Consequently, a finding of unconstitutionality of one or more of these laws could have a very significant impact on the future of Canada's single-payer system ('medicare'). However, should the court find that a particular law is not in compliance with the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the baton is then passed back to the government which may respond with other laws or policies that they believe to be constitutionally compliant. The ultimate impact of any successful Charter challenge to laws protecting medicare from privatization will thus significantly depend on how Canadian governments respond. Provincial governments could allow privatization to undercut equity and access, or they could respond creatively with new legal and policy solutions to both improve equity and access and tackle some of the problems that have long bedeviled Canadian medicare. This paper provides an understanding - grounded in comparative health systems evidence - of law and policy options available to Canadian lawmakers for limiting two-tier care in the wake of any successful challenge to existing laws. The paper presents the results of a large inter-disciplinary, comparative study, started in 2015, that systematically reviewed the legal and broader regulatory schemes used to regulate the public/private divide in 15 Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development countries with a particular eye to what the effect of

  7. Restructuring of Canada's nuclear utilities: recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guindon, S.

    1998-01-01

    Business decisions relating to the electric power sector are a provincial responsibility in Canada. The federal government looks to the three nuclear utilities to manage their nuclear assets and maintain them in a way that maximizes their reliability, efficiency and overall performance. A significant development in Canada's nuclear sector in the past year was the Ontario Hydro Nuclear Asset Optimization Plan. Structural change in the North American electricity market is a major impetus for decisions regarding nuclear assets by Canada's electric power utilities. The Ontario government is now taking steps to introduce competition in the Ontario Electricity market. The province of New Brunswick, which has one reactor at Point Lepreau which supplies one-third of the province's electricity, is also taking measures to introduce competition in its electricity market. (author)

  8. Making Canada a destination for medical tourists: why Canadian provinces should not try to become "Mayo Clinics of the North".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-05-01

    When Canadian researchers examine the subject of medical tourism, they typically focus on ethical, social, public health and health policy issues related to Canadians seeking health services in other countries. They emphasize study of Canada as a departure point for medical tourists rather than as a potential destination for international patients. Several influential voices have recently argued that provincial healthcare systems in Canada should market health services to international patients. Proponents of marketing Canada as a destination for medical tourists argue that attracting international patients will generate revenue for provincial healthcare systems. Responding to such proposals, I argue that there are at least seven reasons why provincial health systems in Canada should not dedicate institutional, financial and health human resources to promoting themselves as destinations for medical tourists.

  9. Provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China under different principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Youguo

    2015-01-01

    By applying a multi-regional input–output model, the study compares the provincial responsibility for carbon emissions and provincial carbon multipliers in China under seven responsibility-allocating principles, including three basic principles, the production, income and consumption principles, and four shared responsibility principles, the income-weighted, consumption weighted, comprehensive, and weighted comprehensive principles. Empirical results indicate that carbon multipliers of provinces under these principles are significantly different from one another. The carbon multipliers of provinces with higher ratios of carbon intensive sectors in their outputs are also larger. At the same time, the carbon multipliers of the same sector in the provinces are significantly different from one another. Changing the principle causes significant changes in the responsibility for carbon emissions of some provinces, but only slight changes in the responsibilities of some other provinces. However, the responsibilities of provinces with large economic sizes (output) are always the largest, whereas provinces with the smallest economic sizes are always the smallest regardless of the principles. Further, this study proposes a series of regional policies for carbon mitigation according to provincial carbon multipliers and responsibility allocation features under the different principles. - Highlights: • We link regional environmental responsibility to seven benefit principles. • We analyze provincial responsibility for carbon emissions in China. • We also report provincial carbon multipliers under different principles. • We compare the seven principles from the regional perspective. • Policy implications of the study are discussed.

  10. National parks, ecological integrity and climatic change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopoukhine, N.

    1990-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change on the national parks of Canada are discussed. There is a requirement to protect and manage national parks to maintain a functioning ecosystem with all its parts and processes. An active management regime is necessary, with objectives of ecological diversity/integrity clearly stated. The national parks located in the Canadian Prairie provinces are on or near transitions from forest to tundra and grasslands, and are likely to exhibit the most dramatic changes. The change in vegetation of such parks and in others will not manifest itself simply as a shift of zones but will be accompanied by a flora with new dominants. The boreal forest within the Prairie provinces is fire dependent and has the potential of being transformed into remnant units should post-fire germination be hampered by climatic change. A rapid change in climate would render national parks unable to provide protection of representative elements of Canada's landscapes as presently known. A threefold increase in the area dedicated to protection is a basic component of the sustainable development prescription. All government and private lands dedicated to protection should be forged into a network, to provide core protection for immigrating and emigrating communities and individual species displaced by a changing climate. 20 refs., 2 figs

  11. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  12. Provincial labour market study : mould remediation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-06-01

    Indoor exposure to mold can be problematic to human health, and some molds are considered to be toxigenic. The emergent mold remediation industry in Ontario is fragmented, with various different standards, training and certification processes. This report investigated the labour market for mold remediation workers, with particular reference to training needs and priorities. Research was derived from a literature review in order to analyze the economic, legal, technical and social context of the mold remediation industry. Data on the organized work force were obtained from records of the International Union of Painters and Allied Trades, the Labour Force Historical Review 2002, and various publications. Population data from the Ontario government and Statistics Canada were also used. Surveys of workers and employers were conducted with questionnaires. Results of the surveys indicated that mold remediation projects currently constitute a minority share of most companies' business. However, the importance of mold remediation projects is expected to increase, and industry self-regulation is the most likely scenario for the development of standards and related training programs. It was suggested that the creation of an industry body representing key stakeholder constituencies or the legitimization of an existing industry organization will reduce fragmentation and facilitate research, standard setting and certification, as well as improve marketing and education. If the demand for mold remediation services increases as anticipated, the industry will face the challenge of remaining competitive in the province's projected labour market due to shortages in personnel. There was a strong consensus between employers and workers in the mold remediation industry regarding the need for skills upgrading and compulsory certification. It was concluded that leadership is needed in the development and delivery of training programs, standard setting, recruitment and retention and

  13. Mapping Collaborative Relations among Canada's Chronic Disease Prevention Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Maximova, Katerina; Paradis, Gilles; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    In the field of chronic disease prevention (CDP), collaborations between organizations provide a vital framework for intersectoral engagement and exchanges of knowledge, expertise and resources. However, little is known about how the structures of preventive health systems actually articulate with CDP capacity and outcomes. Drawing upon data from the Public Health Organizational Capacity Study – a repeat census of all public health organizations in Canada – we used social network analysis to map and examine interorganizational collaborative relationships in the Canadian preventive health system. The network of relationships obtained through our study shows that provincial boundaries remain a major factor influencing collaborative patterns. Not only are collaborations scarce on the interprovincial level but they are also mostly limited to links with federal and multi-provincial organizations. Given this finding, federal or multi-provincial organizations that occupy central bridging positions in the Canadian CDP collaborative structure should serve as key players for shaping CDP practices in the country. PMID:27585030

  14. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Arbour

    Full Text Available Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park, and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  15. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  16. The regional control of the canadian energy production; Le contraste provincial de la production energetique canadienne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petitlaurent, S.; Sarrazin, J

    2004-12-01

    This document provides information and presents data on the energy situation in many regions of Canada. The first part deals with the petroleum and the bitumen shales of Alberta (reserves, exploitation and production, environmental impacts), the second part discusses with the hydroelectricity choice of Quebec and the 2004 crisis. The nuclear situation of Ontario is presented in the third part (nuclear park, programs, uranium reserves, research and development on Candu reactors), while the fourth part deals with the renewable energies (wind power and biomass). The canadian situation facing the Kyoto protocol is discussed in the last part. (A.L.B.)

  17. Motorcycle Accident injuries seen at Kakamega Provincial Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Injuries related to motorcycles contribute significantly to the number of road traffic injuries This study was aimed at determining the pattern of injuries caused by motorcycle crash among patients seen at Kakamega provincial hospital in Kenya... Methods: This was a cross sectional study which was conducted in ...

  18. Functional classification of the Gauteng provincial road network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The built environment consists of various land uses and activities connected by a road network. The efficiency and effectiveness of the road network directly impacts economic growth and societal movement. This study involved the functional classification of the Gauteng provincial road network using the South African Road ...

  19. Hernia Surgery in Nyeri Provincial General Hospital, Kenya: Our 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The average length of hospital stay was 3 days. Of the inguinal ... on hernia disease with reference to prevalence, pattern and management at a provincial general hospital in Kenya. Methods. After obtaining permission from the hospital administration, we .... financial constraint on hospitals, length of hospital stay and enable ...

  20. Canada's Approach to School Funding: The Adoption of Provincial Control of Education Funding in Three Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The academic success of Finland, South Korea, and others on recent international tests has sparked a renewed interest among educators and those concerned with education policy in the United States in looking to other countries for examples of how we might improve our education system. Teacher training and quality in leading countries has received…

  1. Potential markets for thermal coal in Canada 1978-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This paper evaluates thermal coal demand by industrial consumers such as cement plants and pulp and paper plants and, on a provincial basis, by thermal electric generating plants. Transportation costs to the identified market locations from four representative coal supply areas in Canada are estimated and used to calculate net-back figures attainable at coal mine sites. Transportation methods considered are rail, ship, truck, intermodal terminals, coal slurry pipeline, and electric transmission from mine-mouth.

  2. Parks of Chapel Hill

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Hours, location, and amenity information for Chapel Hill parks as shown on the Town of Chapel Hill's website. Includes a map with points for each park location.

  3. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  4. Ethanol research with representatives of provincial/territorial governments and ethanol retailers : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    This paper provided the results of a survey conducted to obtain feedback from retailers and provincial and territorial governments concerning the promotion of ethanol use. A key objective of the research was to determine whether local and provincial governments and retailers are interested in cooperating with the federal government in promoting ethanol use. Thirteen government representatives were interviewed as well as 11 retailers. Results of the study suggested that approaches to collaboration with the diverse stakeholders involved in the promotion of ethanol will require a tailored approach. The needs and interests of jurisdictions and provinces varied widely. Outlets selling ethanol-blended gasoline were concentrated in Ontario, Quebec, and Saskatchewan. Retailers who embraced the alternative fuel tended to be well-established in the ethanol market, and did not require assistance from the Government of Canada. Retailers who were reluctant to embrace ethanol stated that they were only likely to enter the market when required to do so by law. Many stakeholders felt that consumers entertained common misperceptions concerning ethanol, and that consumers were unsure of the effect of ethanol on their vehicles. Many retailers had taken steps to communicate with consumers about the relative benefits of ethanol-blended gasoline. Results indicated that the federal government can assist provinces and retailers by providing promotional tools such as flyers, pamphlets and brochures. Interest among retailers in collaborating with the government was only moderate. It was recommended that retailers be provided with accurate information on ethanol. It was concluded that strategies should be developed by the federal government to increase public awareness of ethanol use.

  5. Radiation oncology and medical physicists quality assurance in British Columbia Cancer Agency Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Mira; Morris, William James; Spadinger, Ingrid; Araujo, Cynthia; Cheung, Arthur; Chng, Nick; Crook, Juanita; Halperin, Ross; Lapointe, Vince; Miller, Stacy; Pai, Howard; Pickles, Tom

    2013-01-01

    To describe in detail British Columbia (BC) Cancer Agency (BCCA) Provincial Prostate Brachytherapy (PB) Quality Assurance (QA) Program. The BCCA PB Program was established in 1997. It operates as one system, unified and supported by electronic and information systems, making it a single PB treatment provider for province of BC and Yukon. To date, >4000 patients have received PB (450 implants in 2011), making it the largest program in Canada. The Program maintains a large provincial prospective electronic database with records on all patients, including disease characteristics, risk stratification, pathology, preplan and postimplant dosimetric data, follow-up of prostate-specific antigen, and toxicity outcomes. QA was an integral part of the program since its inception. A formal QA Program was established in 2002, with key components that include: unified eligibility criteria and planning system, comprehensive database, physics and oncologist training and mentorship programs, peer review process, individual performance outcomes and feedback process, structured continuing education and routine assessment of the program's dosimetry, toxicity and prostate-specific antigen outcomes, administration and program leadership that promotes a strong culture of patient safety. The emphasis on creating a robust, broad-based network of skilled providers has been achieved by the program's requirements for training, education, and the QA process. The formal QA process is considered a key factor for the success of cancer control outcomes achieved at BCCA. Although this QA model may not be wholly transferable to all PB programs, some of its key components may be applicable to other programs to ensure quality in PB and patient safety. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SMART VEHICLE PARKING

    OpenAIRE

    S.Bharath Ram

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this project is to count the number of empty car parking areas and to display them in a Website. This system consists of sensors attached to several parking areas. These sensors located in different parking area’s detects the presence of vehicle and sends information to Microcontroller, which calculates the number of available empty parking areas and uploads them in a website. This basically works on the principle of Internet of Things here the sensors are connected to internet.

  7. Canada's Sub-Central Coverage Under the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    Discusses Canada's failure to include its provincial governments in its commitments to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement. Canada is one of the only developed states that has not opened government contracts to international competition. This may be linked to a strong sense of regionalism where government contracts are typically awarded to contractors within each province as well as a reluctance of governments to privatize traditional state purchasing generally.

  8. Interview with Steve Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…

  9. Provincial nuclear regulatory authority?: The case of the province of Cordoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Hugo; Ocana, F.; Scoles, R.

    1999-01-01

    The evolution of social and political events in the province of Cordoba after the Law 8157 of 1992, that establishes the provincial nuclear policy, are analysed as well as the recent sanction and veto of the Law 8775, which creates the provincial Nuclear Regulatory Authority. The authors conclude that is necessary and convenient to enforce provincial nuclear regulations and controls

  10. Making Canada a Destination for Medical Tourists: Why Canadian Provinces Should Not Try to Become “Mayo Clinics of the North”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Leigh

    2012-01-01

    When Canadian researchers examine the subject of medical tourism, they typically focus on ethical, social, public health and health policy issues related to Canadians seeking health services in other countries. They emphasize study of Canada as a departure point for medical tourists rather than as a potential destination for international patients. Several influential voices have recently argued that provincial healthcare systems in Canada should market health services to international patients. Proponents of marketing Canada as a destination for medical tourists argue that attracting international patients will generate revenue for provincial healthcare systems. Responding to such proposals, I argue that there are at least seven reasons why provincial health systems in Canada should not dedicate institutional, financial and health human resources to promoting themselves as destinations for medical tourists. PMID:23634159

  11. Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This is the main report of the task force on the broad subjects of taxation of nonrenewable resources, a survey of oil and gas reserves, a survey of other mineral resources, and the development of an oil and gas energy plan for Canada. Individual reports on the subjects above were issued as separate appendices to this main report. The preliminary draft of the report was published in early 1976. The introductory chapter surveys the critical choices and their costs for Canada, followed by chapters on Canadian resources; availability of private resource capital investments and returns; the tax position of the nonrenewable resource industry; and Federal-provincial conflicts over resource revenue and jurisdiction. It is concluded that the future is likely to yield only possibly adequate returns after massive commitments of capital and the acceptance of large risks by all concerned; further, that a climate of cooperation between government and industry is needed. (MCW)

  12. Teacher Pension Plans in Canada: A Force to Be Reckoned With.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the status of teacher pension plans in Canada's 10 provinces and considers their current role in renewing and downsizing educational systems in some provinces. Discusses pensions' use as economic instruments for provincial and national development and questions assumptions underlying the rhetoric celebrating their contribution to the…

  13. Conservation status of the freshwater mussels of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. Williams; Melvin L. Warren; Kevin S. Cummings; John L. Harris; Richard J. Neves

    1992-01-01

    The American Fisheries Society (AFS) herein provides a list of all native freshwater mussels (families Margaritiferidae and Unionidae) in the United States and Canada. This report also provides state and provincial distributions; a comprehensive review of the conservation status of all taxa; and references on biology, conservation, and distribution of freshwater...

  14. Meanings of Success and Successful Leadership in Ontario, Canada, in Neo-Liberal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue; Pollock, Katina

    2016-01-01

    The provincial government of Ontario, Canada, has committed itself to raising student achievement, closing achievement gaps, and increasing the public's confidence in public education. It has introduced many policies, including the Ontario Leadership Strategy (OLS), to support these goals. Our study examined how teachers, administrators, support…

  15. Trading in Education: The "Agreement on Internal Trade," Labour Mobility and Teacher Certification in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Dick; Young, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Canada's provincial and territorial governments are committed to implement the Labour Mobility chapter of the "Agreement on Internal Trade" (AIT) in 2009. This article examines the implications of this agreement for teacher certification and teacher education programs. It argues that the full impact of AIT will not be immediately…

  16. Eastern Canada natural gas developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, A.

    2001-01-01

    This power point presentation addressed the following topics regarding development of natural gas in eastern Canada: (1) the 18 Tcf of proven natural gas reserves at Sable Island, (2) Canadian markets benefiting from the Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline (M and NP), (3) a 20 year franchise agreement between Enbridge Gas and the government of New Brunswick, (4) the 25 year provincial franchise agreement by Sempra Atlantic Gas, and (5) Sable Island's influence on central Canada. The Sable Offshore Energy Project (SOEP) is now producing about 540,000 MMBtu/day from 6 fields. Plans for Tier 2 expansion are underway. Firm contracts for the M and NP are scheduled to transport gas from the SOEP to markets in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Maine and New Hampshire. Sable gas is also a potential supply for the Quebec market. Gaz Metropolitain and Enbridge have proposed to build the Cartier Pipeline from the Quebec/New Brunswick border to Quebec City. It is unlikely that Sable Island supply will directly serve the Ontario market. Canadian customers for Sable gas and M and NP service include pulp and paper companies, oil refineries, power generators and local distribution companies (LDC), with the majority of demand coming form the electric power industry. tabs., figs

  17. Pricing electricity for sustainability : climate change and Canada's electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The electricity sector is Canada's largest single source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper discussed electricity and carbon pricing approaches to reducing GHG emissions in the electricity sector. An overview of the links between electricity pricing and climate change was presented, and current and emerging trends in electricity pricing related to encouraging energy conservation were reviewed. Market prices and failures were discussed. Approaches to pricing electricity included an increase in block prices; time-of-use prices; demand-side management and energy efficiency; and carbon pricing in Canada and electricity pricing signals. The study showed that several provincial utilities in Canada are experimenting with market-based pricing approaches for electricity and carbon that may help to reduce GHG emissions over time. Concerns over electricity supply and the negative environmental impacts of electricity production may lead to the full social pricing of electricity in some regions of Canada. 46 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Carbon dioxide for enhanced oil recovery in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, S.; Manbybura, F.; Sparks, N.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the potential for carbon dioxide as a major miscible solvent in Canada and describes Shell Canada's carbon dioxide exploration efforts over the last few years. Enhanced oil recovery, specifically miscible flooding, has been recognized as a technically and economically feasible method for adding reserves and productive capacity to Canada's light and medium oil. The fiscal regime has been altered by both the federal and provincial governments to encourage miscible flooding development. As a result many projects have been initiated with others being evaluated and designed. This paper analyzes the history and the direction of miscible flooding in the United States, where carbon dioxide is becoming the predominant miscible solvent. The potential for future use of carbon dioxide in Canada is specifically addressed: potential oil recovery solvent supply, and economics. Shell's carbon dioxide exploration play currently underway is also discussed.

  19. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  20. Iraq Provincial Reconstruction Team Handbook: Observations, Insights, and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    with Inma have included joint efforts in training, farmer association strengthening, and increased productivity involving two large fish farms, 10...beef and lamb feedlots, five forage sites, two packing sheds, six feed mills, an olive factory, 10 strawberry farms, 20 farmer associations, over 500...vegetables, and fodder. There are also a large number of orchards , and the province has 2.5 million palm 69 IRAQ PROVINCIAL RECONSTRUCTION TEAM trees

  1. Grizzly bears as a filter for human use management in Canadian Rocky Mountain national parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Petersen

    2000-01-01

    Canadian National Parks within the Rocky Mountains recognize that human use must be managed if the integrity and health of the ecosystems are to be preserved. Parks Canada is being challenged to ensure that these management actions are based on credible scientific principles and understanding. Grizzly bears provide one of only a few ecological tools that can be used to...

  2. Investor sentiment and stock returns: Evidence from provincial TV audience rating in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjie; Zhang, Yuzhao; Shen, Dehua; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we advocate the provincial TV audience rating as the novel proxy for the provincial investor sentiment (PIS) and investigate its relation with stock returns. The empirical results firstly show that the PIS is positively related to stock returns. Secondly, we provide direct evidence on the existence of home bias in China by observing that the provincial correlation coefficient is significantly larger than the cross-provincial correlation coefficient. Finally, the PIS can explain a large proportion of provincial comovement. To sum up, all these findings support the role of the non-traditional information sources in understanding the ;anomalies; in stock market.

  3. Parking Navigation for Alleviating Congestion in Multilevel Parking Facility

    OpenAIRE

    Kenmotsu, Masahiro; Sun, Weihua; Shibata, Naoki; Yasumoto, Keiichi; Ito, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    Finding a vacant parking space in a large crowded parking facility takes long time. In this paper, we propose a navigation method that minimizes the parking time based on collected real-time positional information of cars. In the proposed method, a central server in the parking facility collects the information and estimates the occupancy of each parking zone. Then, the server broadcasts the occupancy data to the cars in the parking facility. Each car then computes a parking route with the sh...

  4. Climate Change in Voyageurs National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Voyageurs National Park was created in 1975. This beautifully forested and lake-dominated landscape shared between Minnesota and Canada has few roads and must be seen by water. The islands and Kabetogama Peninsula are part of the Canadian Shield, some of the oldest exposed rock in the world. Voyageurs National Park boasts many unique landscape and climatic attributes, and like most mid-latitude regions of the northern hemisphere climate change is in play there. The statistical signals of change in the climate record are evident from both temperature and precipitation measurements. The history of these measurements goes back over 100 years. Additionally, studies and measurements of the lakes and general ecosystem already show some consequences of these climate changes. Mean temperature measurements are generally warmer than they once were, most notably in the winter season. Minimum temperatures have changed more than maximum temperatures. Precipitation has trended upward, but has also changed in character with greater frequency and contribution from thunderstorm rainfalls across the park. In addition variability in annual precipitation has become more amplified, as the disparity between wet and dry years has grown wider. Some changes are already in evidence in terms of bird migration patterns, earlier lake ice-out dates, warmer water temperatures with more algal blooms, decline in lake clarity, and somewhat longer frost-free seasons. Climate change will continue to have impacts on Voyageurs National Park, and likely other national parks across the nation. Furthermore scientists may find that the study, presentation, and discussion about climate impacts on our national parks is a particularly engaging way to educate citizens and improve climate literacy as we contemplate what adaptation and mitigation policies should be enacted to preserve the quality of our national parks for future generations.

  5. Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser McLeod

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an in-depth analysis of selective land use and resource management policies in the Province of Ontario, Canada. It examines their relative capacity to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and their treaty rights, as well as their embodiment of past Crown–First Nations relationships. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the manifest and latent content of 337 provincial texts, including 32 provincial acts, 269 regulatory documents, 16 policy statements, and 5 provincial plans. This comprehensive document analysis classified and assessed how current provincial policies address First Nation issues and identified common trends and areas of improvement. The authors conclude that there is an immediate need for guidance on how provincial authorities can improve policy to make relationship-building a priority to enhance and sustain relationships between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

  6. Logistical aspects of competitiveness of technological parks (on the example of Elbląg Technology Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Waśniewski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Elblag is the second largest city in Warmia-Mazury region, which suffers mainly from high unemployment. The increase in unemployment occurred after the loss of the provincial capital city status due to the country's administrative reform and the restructuring of enterprises. The city authorities, wanting to improve the social and economic situation of the inhabitants, brought to life Elbląg Technology Park. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the use of logistic aspects in order to enhance the competitiveness of the region.

  7. Canada and global warming: Meeting the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Canada accounts for ca 2% of total world emissions of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide emissions are by far the largest greenhouse gas source in Canada, primarily from energy consumption. On a per capita basis, Canada ranks second among industrialized countries in terms of energy related carbon dioxide emissions. Canada's northern geography and climate, its export-oriented economy with energy-intensive resource industries, and its relatively small population dispersed over a wide land mass contribute to this high per-capita value. The effects of global warming induced by greenhouse gases are outlined, including a reduction in water supplies, droughts affecting agriculture and forestry, and large-scale thawing of permafrost. A national strategy to respond to global warming has been developed which includes limiting and reducing greenhouse gas emissions, preparing for potential climatic changes, and improving scientific understanding and predictive capabilities with respect to climate change. Details of this strategy are outlined, including provincial and territorial strategies in partnership with the national strategy. 11 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Pulsars at Parkes

    OpenAIRE

    Manchester, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    The first pulsar observations were made at Parkes on March 8, 1968, just 13 days after the publication of the discovery paper by Hewish and Bell. Since then, Parkes has become the world's most successful pulsar search machine, discovering nearly two thirds of the known pulsars, among them many highly significant objects. It has also led the world in pulsar polarisation and timing studies. In this talk I will review the highlights of pulsar work at Parkes from those 1968 observations to about ...

  9. Reforming health care in Canada: current issues La reforma del sistema de atención a la salud en Canadá: situación actual

    OpenAIRE

    Enis Baris

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the current health care reform issues in Canada. The provincial health insurance plans of the 1960s and 1970s had the untoward effects of limiting the federal government’s clout for cost control and of promoting a system centered on inpatient and medical care. Recently, several provincial commissions reported that the current governance structures and management processes are outmoded in light of new knowledge, new fiscal realities and the evolution of power among sta...

  10. Progress in electronic medical record adoption in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    To determine the rate of adoption of electronic medical records (EMRs) by physicians across Canada, provincial incentives, and perceived benefits of and barriers to EMR adoption. Data on EMR adoption in Canada were collected from CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, the Health Council of Canada, Canada Health Infoway, government websites, regional EMR associations, and health professional association websites. After removal of duplicate articles, 236 documents were found matching the original search. After using the filter Canada, 12 documents remained. Additional documents were obtained from each province's EMR website and from the Canada Health Infoway website. Since 2006, Canadian EMR adoption rates have increased from about 20% of practitioners to an estimated 62% of practitioners in 2013, with substantial regional disparities ranging from roughly 40% of physicians in New Brunswick and Quebec to more than 75% of physicians in Alberta. Provincial incentives vary widely but appear to have only a weak relationship with the rate of adoption. Many adopters use only a fraction of their software's available functions. User-cited benefits to adoption include time savings, improved record keeping, heightened patient safety, and confidence in retrieved data when EMRs are used efficiently. Barriers to adoption include financial and time constraints, lack of knowledgeable support personnel, and lack of interoperability with hospital and pharmacy systems. Canadian physicians remain at the stage of EMR adoption. Progression in EMR use requires experienced, knowledgeable technical support during implementation, and financial support for the transcription of patient data from paper to electronic media. The interoperability of EMR offerings for hospitals, pharmacies, and clinics is the rate-limiting factor in achieving a unified EMR solution for Canada.

  11. Toward a harmonized approach to animal welfare law in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David; Koralesky, Katherine E; Urton, Geoff

    2018-03-01

    Animal protection law in Canada varies across the country. Federal animal protection law exists in the Criminal Code, in regulations for the transport of animals, and in regulations for humane handling and slaughter at abattoirs that are inspected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Provincial animal protection laws often include provisions that i) describe a duty of care toward animals; ii) prohibit causing or permitting animal "distress;" iii) specify exemptions from prosecution; and iv) reference various national and other standards. Inconsistencies lead to duplication of effort, create difficulty in working across jurisdictions, and may erode public trust. A more consistent approach might be achieved by i) referencing a common suite of standards in provincial statutes; ii) citing the federal transport and humane slaughter regulations in provincial regulations; iii) establishing agreements so provincial authorities may enforce federal regulations; iv) wider and more uniform adoption of enforcement tools that require people to take immediate action to protect animal welfare; v) developing new standards; and vi) national consultation to define frequently used terms.

  12. Action plan for electric mobility in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.; Cormier, A.; Lavallee, P.

    2005-01-01

    Electric mobility is an important emerging industry in Canada, where there is significant expertise in electric and hybrid vehicles, batteries, hybrid technologies, grid-connected technologies and fuel cell vehicles. This paper presented a case for the formation of Electric Mobility Canada, a proposed network of private companies and public sector agencies that aims to stimulate industry and provide support to government agencies involved with meeting Canada's obligations under the Kyoto Protocol, as well as in new industry sectors. The environmental, health, economic and industrial benefits of electric mobility were outlined. Current programs for electric mobility were reviewed, and details of financial incentives and initiatives were presented. An overview of electric mobility programs in the United States and Europe was provided. Research and development needs were evaluated. The former Electric Vehicle Association of Canada was discussed. An organizational structure for the proposed network was presented, along with a mission statement and outline of future goals. Recommendations for the future of the network included identifying short and long-term market opportunities for electric mobility technologies for all surface transport modes in Canada; determining research and development needs and appropriate funding and investment opportunities; determining other actions necessary to allow the electric mobility industry to play a growing role in meeting Canada's transport needs; and raising public awareness of the importance of electric mobility trends. It was concluded that the federal government should be approached for start-up funds for the network, which will be followed by further investment from provincial and business interests once the network is in place and functioning. 84 refs

  13. Kyoto and the absence of leadership in Canada's capitals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquhart, I. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Political Science, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-01-01

    A critique of Alberta's response to the Kyoto Protocol is presented. According to this author, Alberta's approach rests on a dubious foundation and is therefore 'wrongheaded'. Rather than being the economic disaster as characterized by the provincial government and the oil industry, the implementation costs of the Kyoto Protocol are likely to be much more incremental than Alberta's apocalyptic scenario suggests. With respect to cost, the author bolsters his case by citing the experience of British Petroleum Limited which has already reduced GHG emissions to 10 per cent below 1990 levels at 'no economic cost'. He argues that the 'made-in-Canada' environmental policy suggested by Alberta is no more likely to succeed than did the 'made-in-Canada' oil price policy in 1980. He makes a strong argument for the Kyoto Protocol as an opportunity to create federal-provincial strategies for all of Canada, and makes a strong case for institutional changes that would respect the legitimacy of federal and provincial interests in environmental policy issues. Given genuine effective leadership in Ottawa and in the provincial capitals, such changes could be an important step in the direction of increased reliance on one another as we try to secure a better future for all Canadians, and at the same time doing our bit in ensuring the survival of the planet.

  14. Authorities and organizations involved with geographic names - 1989: United States, Canada, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for accurate and standard geographic names usage in all levels of government, industry, commerce, communications, education, and research. There is also a growing number of organizations in North America that are, fully or partly, involved in the scholarly study of geographic names. This report is a list of official national, State/Provincial, and regional provincial authorities concerned with name standardization, and of organizations involved with the study of geographic names, in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The appendixes are copies of documents that provide additional information about the organization, policies, procedures, and publications of some of these organizations.

  15. iPark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Bin; Fantini, Ernesto Nicolas; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    where the geo-spatial aspect is not just a tag on other content, but is the primary content, e.g., a city street map with up-to-date road construction data. Along these lines, the iPark system aims to turn volumes of GPS data obtained from vehicles into information about the locations of parking spaces...

  16. THE SCHOOL PARK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISCHER, JOHN H.

    TO ASSIST IN DESEGREGATION, VARIOUS MODELS FOR THE SCHOOL PARK ARE PROPOSED--(1) ASSEMBLING ALL STUDENTS AND SCHOOLS OF A SMALL OR MEDIUM-SIZED COMMUNITY ON A SINGLE CAMPUS, (2) SERVING ONE SECTION OF A LARGE CITY, (3) CENTERING ALL SCHOOL FACILITIES FOR A SINGLE LEVEL OF EDUCATION ON A SINGLE SITE, AND (4) ESTABLISHING RINGS OF SCHOOL PARKS ABOUT…

  17. Parking Space Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg Peter Jensen, Troels; Thomsen Schmidt, Helge; Dyremose Bodin, Niels

    2018-01-01

    system, based on a Convolutional Neural Network, that is capable of determining if a parking space is occupied or not. A benchmark database consisting of images captured from different parking areas, under different weather and illumination conditions, has been used to train and test the system...

  18. Bicycle Parking and Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    . This article contributes with new insights into parking and locking - ‘moorings’ - to cycling literature. It presents an ethnography of ‘design moorings’ and practices associated with parking and locking bikes. The main case study is the very pro-cycling city of Copenhagen. Yet to explore what is unique about...

  19. The Investigation of the Patent Resources of Main Provincial Academies of Sciences and Its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng Jing

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose/significance] The provincial academy of sciences is an important part of national-wide scientific academies and regional innovation system. Promoting the transformation of the intellectual property is an important work for provincial academy of sciences. Nobody has ever revealed the status of the intellectual property resources and its management strategy of the provincial academy of sciences. [Method/process] With the methods of bibliometrics and investigations, this paper revealed ...

  20. From Toques to Tokes: Two challenges facing nationwide legalization of cannabis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    In 2015, a new Liberal Government came to power in Canada, elected on a platform that included legalization and regulation of cannabis for recreational purposes. Their legislation, based on recommendations from a Federal Task Force on Marijuana Legalization and Regulation, is due in early April 2017. This commentary utilizes Canadian Federal policy papers, previous literature, and internal and international agreements to examine two key areas critical to the development of a nationwide regulated market for cannabis in Canada; the need to overcome restrictions to legalizing cannabis in United Nations' drug control treaties, and the unique challenges that non-medical cannabis creates for navigating interprovincial trade policies in Canada. Irrespective of UN conventions that appear to prohibit legalization of cannabis the Government is preparing to bring forward legislation as this article goes to print. At the same time significant squabbles impede the selling of even beer and wine inter-provincially in Canada. This paper identifies the challenges facing Canadian legalization efforts, but also shows how the legalization legislation may provide opportunities to engender significant change beyond the simple legalization of a specific drug. This commentary does not argue for any specific course of action for Canada, but rather explores the nuance of legalization absent from the declaration in the Liberal party platform. The paper argues that Canada's efforts may hasten the dismantling of the UN drug control structure, and provide renewed opportunities for intern-provincial trade in Canada. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Disciplinary and Legal Actions Against Dermatologists in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Eiman

    2016-01-01

    Dermatologists face a litany of professional and legal risks in practice. To review cases of disciplinary and legal action against dermatologists in Canada. The Canadian Medical Protective Association, all 10 provincial medical colleges, and the Canadian Legal Information Institute were contacted to obtain data on legal or disciplinary action taken against dermatologists in their records. A literature review was performed regarding litigation against dermatologists in other countries. Six dermatologists in Canada faced disciplinary action in the last 5 to 30 years. Seven dermatologists and 5 other specialists in Canada faced lawsuits relating to dermatology in the last 1 to 144 years. Procedures and therapy are the most frequently sources of lawsuits against dermatologists both at home and abroad. Dermatologists need to remain vigilant to avoid disciplinary action and lawsuits from their increasing and varied interactions with patients. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. A system dynamics model of coordinated development of central and provincial economy and oil enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Feng-Long; Fan, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of oil exploration and development and the inherent rule of a coordinated development of central and provincial economy and oil enterprises in oil producing provinces, this paper addresses the principal questions that determine the coordinated development of the central economy, provincial economy and oil enterprises, and establishes a dynamic model for the above three variables. The research takes Shaanxi Province as an example and makes analogue simulation of the situations from 2006 to 2020. The results indicate that China's provincial governments need to share more tax income, reform some taxes on oil enterprises, and China's oil industry needs to be open to both provincial state-owned enterprise and private enterprise. Meanwhile, this research also provides policy proposals for the coordinated development of central and provincial economy and oil enterprises regarding taxation and sustainable development in China's market-oriented economy. - Highlights: • Chinese provincial government should share more oil enterprises' income tax. • Diversifying sources of investment is able to boost provincial economic development. • Compensation for environment relieves provincial governments' financial pressure. • People's welfare hinges on oil enterprises, provincial governments and tax reform

  3. State of Canada's forests, 1991: Second report to parliament: Environmental, social and economic indicators. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    Second annual report on the state of Canada's forests, including national and provincial profiles of the forests; environmental, economic and social indicators; public opinions about forestry issues; competition in forest products in world markets; forestry research and development; and performance indicators. A glossary is included.

  4. Parks and their users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Goličnik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with urban parks and their use(rs. It focuses on usage-spatial relationships from two different angles. Firstly, it discusses the actual uses mapped in places, using repeated observation on different days, times and weather conditions. Secondly, it addresses designers’ views and beliefs about usage and design of urban parks. However, the paper shows that designers’ beliefs and awareness about uses in places, in some aspects, differ from actual use. It stresses the use of empirical knowledge about usage-spatial relationships, which can be gained by using observation and behavioural mapping, in decision-making processes for parks design.

  5. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-03-16

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens.

  6. Basic principles of radiation protection in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    The major goal of radiation protection in Canada is to ensure that individuals are adequately protected against the harm that might arise from unwarranted exposure to ionizing radiation. This report deals with the basic principles and organizations involved in protection against ionizing radiation. Three basic principles of radiation protection are: 1) that no practice shall be adopted unless its introduction produces a positive net benefit for society, 2) that all exposures shall be kept as low as reasonably achievable, relevant economic and social factors being taken into account, and 3) that doses to individuals should not exceed specified annual limits. The limit for radiation workers is currently 50 mSv per year, and exposures of the general public should not exceed a small fraction of that of radiation workers. Other specific areas in radiation protection which have received considerable attention in Canada include limitations on collective dose (the sum of the individual doses for all exposed individuals), exemption rules for extremely small radiation doses or amounts of radioactive materials, occupational hazards in uranium mining, and special rules for protection of the foetus in pregnant female radiation workers. Implementation of radiation protection principles in Canada devolves upon the Atomic Energy Control Board, the Department of National Health and Welfare, provincial authorities, licensees and radiation workers. A brief description is given of the roles of each of these groups

  7. An emissions trading regime for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, over twelve papers were published on emissions trading regimes in Canada by the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy (NRTEE), a federal government agency whose members represent stakeholders as varied as business, environmental groups, academics, aboriginal groups and others. One of the recommendations that emerged was for the computer modelling of the possibilities that had been identified for a domestic trading regime in Canada for greenhouse gases. It is unclear whether the modelling was ever performed as the file was taken over by the Finance Department under the umbrella of a special emission trading table that examined Canada's commitment under the Kyoto Protocol. The author examined questions pertaining to whether a domestic trading regime is essential, and what its characteristics should be in case it was deemed essential or advisable to have one. The upstream versus downstream application was looked at, as well as grand-fathering versus auction. Provincial issues were then addressed, followed by meshing with a credit system. International systems were reviewed. Early action was discussed, whereby an emitter seeks credit for action taken toward reductions since the original reference year of 1990. The case of emitters having bought or sold permits since the original reference years will also want those trades recognized under a trading regime. The author indicated that it seems probable that an emission trading system will eventually be implemented and that a debate on the issue should be initiated early

  8. Clinical neuropsychology practice and training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Laura A; Guger, Sharon

    2016-11-01

    This invited paper provides information about professional neuropsychology issues in Canada and is part of a special issue addressing international perspectives on education, training, and practice in clinical neuropsychology. Information was gathered from literature searches and personal communication with other neuropsychologists in Canada. Canada has a rich neuropsychological history. Neuropsychologists typically have doctoral-level education including relevant coursework and supervised practical experience. Licensure requirements vary across the 10 provinces and there are regional differences in salary. While training at the graduate and internship level mirrors that of our American colleagues, completion of a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in neuropsychology is not required to obtain employment in many settings and there are few postdoctoral training programs in this country. The majority of neuropsychologists are employed in institutional settings (e.g. hospitals, universities, rehabilitation facilities), with a growing number entering private practice or other settings. There are challenges in providing neuropsychological services to the diverse Canadian population and a need for assessment measures and normative data in multiple languages. Canadian neuropsychologists face important challenges in defining ourselves as distinct from other professions and other psychologists, in maintaining funding for high-quality training and research, in establishing neuropsychology-specific training and practice standards at the provincial or national level, and ensuring the clinical care that we provide is efficient and effective in meeting the needs of our patient populations and consumers, both within and outside of the publically funded health care system.

  9. Canada: variations on a common theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa B. Deber

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Canada faces health care challenges common to all industrialized countries – how to ensure timely access to high quality care, close to home, at an affordable cost. Addressing these challenges is complicated by interjurisdictional variation in both how health care is managed and delivered, and in health outcomes. Canada can be described as a non-system of 10 provincial and three territorial health insurance plans which mandate publicly-funded coverage for medically necessary hospital and physician services, based upon common principles and shaped by a federal governance structure that affords substantial power and autonomy to the provinces/territories over matters of health and health care. This article first examines the structural context of the health care system in Canada, including the range of services publicly funded, the public-private mix, and the complexities of current governance arrangements. It then discusses several issues affecting health policy reform: costs versus access; questions of sustainability, quality, and performance; human resources capacity; and the provision of public and population health services.

  10. Doctrinal Debates in the Fourth Mexican Provincial Council (1771

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Luque Alcaide

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on  the  most  important sources  of The  Fourth Mexican Provincial  Council  (1771 —specifically its decrees, dairies and catechism for the use of priests— the author reviews the main topics debated along the sessions. The article stresses the discussion over  the  main currents  of theological  and political  thought by “modern” ecclesiastics  who  favoured catholic  Enlightenment, and  those  favourable  to  “traditional” perspectives.  This  paper deals with  regalism,  conciliarist  v.s. episcopalist  views, certain traces of the auxiliis controversy as well as antijesuit policies.

  11. Electricity exports: Discussion of provincial economic benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A review was conducted by the British Columbia Energy Council to assess the economic and social impacts of the export of long-term firm electricity to the USA and the distribution of these impacts. The objectives of, and the differences between, benefit-cost and socio-economic impact analysis are discussed as they apply to potential electricity export projects. Provincial export project review requirements (project justification, environmental impacts, socio-economic impact assessment) and proposed legislative changes are first reviewed. The concepts and objectives of value added, economic rent, opportunity costs, economic (benefit-cost) analysis, and socio-economic impact analysis are explained. Employment issues including unemployed labor, employment benefits, and regional and occupational considerations are then discussed, as well as transfers to various levels of government in the form of taxes, subsidies, resource royalties, and depletion costs. 8 refs., 4 tabs

  12. [Operation directions by comparing financial ratio of 22 provincial hospitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J Y; Ko, Y C; Wang, J W; Jan, L C; Chang, F M; Lin, K C

    1996-12-01

    Even more restrictive regulations and reimbursement limits seem to be a very heavy burden and stress for most provincial hospitals, especially after the National Health Insurance System has been introduced. The purpose of this project to find a better, universal direction for these hospitals through three steps: 1) Using different financial and accounting ratio indexes to evaluate the general business performance of each hospital. 2) Taking a comprehensive questionnaire with senior managers of each hospital to know their concepts and attitudes concerning external environment and internal operation. 3) Comparing data's correlation and differentiation to ascertain better trends for future operation for all hospitals. The database for this project comes from two resources: 1) Government finance and budget reports of 22 provincial hospitals for the 1994 accounting calendar year. 2) The results of questionnaires returned by 274 senior managers of hospitals, and analysis of these by chi-square test. Through statistical comparison, a number of conclusions can be made: 1) Most hospitals have better operation efficiency if any professional hospital administrator is working for them. 2) The hospital with more comprehensive personnel system shows better business performance. 3) The hospital with routine and formal financial analysis reports always has better business performance. 4) The hospital with poor operational efficiency tends to get rid of restriction or limitation from government's system. 5) The hospital with good operational efficiency has more confidence and desire to improve and change. 6) The hospital with poor operational efficiency is more dependent on outside support from government. 7) The hospital with better business performance has more concern about the impact of malpractice around the hospital. In short, a hospital with poor business efficiency always has more pessimistic attitude and tends to rely on outside resource support. On the other hand, a

  13. ISLAM IN PROVINCIAL INDONESIA: Middle Class, Lifestyle, and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorhaidi Hasan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Islamic symbols have flourished in the public spaces of Indonesian provincial towns after Suharto. This phenomenon has occurred in parallel with the  significant shifts in the social, economic and political fields, which is tied to the mounting impact of Islamization, social mobility, economic growth, and democratization occurring among town people. It is as if we see a parallel move between Islamization, modernization, globalization and democratization. Key concepts associated with these trends are appropriated with those rooted in tradition and local culture to inform the whole dynamics of Indonesian provincial towns today. The key player in this process is the new middle class, who look to Islam for inspiration both to claim distinction and social status and to legitimize their consumptive lifestyle. They are newly pious who act as active negotiators between the global and the local as well as the cosmopolitan centre and the hinterland. They also play a pivotal role as an agency that liberalizes religion from its traditionally subservient, passive and docile posture by turning it into a source of moral legitimacy and distinction to represent a modern form of life. Given its intimate relationship with locality, tradition, modernity as well as globalization, Islam has increasingly assumed a greater importance for local politics. Political elites have used Islamic symbols for the instrumental purpose of extending their political legitimacy and mobilizing constituency support, in a political environment of open competition and increased public participation in decision making. In this process religious symbols have irrefutably been distanced from their religious moorings and narrow, Islamist understandings, in favor of pragmatic political purposes. Keywords: Islamic symbols, middle class, globalization, lifestyle, local politics

  14. Versailles' park taasavatud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Osa Pariisi lähedase Versailles' lossi pargist avati jaanuari alguses uuesti publikule. 17.-18. sajandi prantsuse stiilis park suleti avalikkusele detsembris 1999 pärast parki laastanud hiigeltormi, mis murdis ligemale 10000 puud.

  15. New Mexico Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the locations of parks in New Mexico, in point form, with limited attributes, compiled using available data from a...

  16. New Mexico State Parks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset provides an initial version of the generalized physical boundaries of New Mexico State Parks, in polygonal form with limited attributes, compiled using...

  17. Allegheny County Parks Outlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the size and shape of the nine Allegheny County parks. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data Center’s open data portal...

  18. State Park Statutory Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Legislative statutory boundaries for sixty six state parks, six state recreation areas, and eight state waysides. These data are derived principally from DNR's...

  19. The Spatiotemporal Trend of City Parks in Mainland China between 1981 and 2014: Implications for the Promotion of Leisure Time Physical Activity and Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available City parks, important environments built for physical activity, play critical roles in preventing chronic diseases and promoting public health. We used five commonly used park indicators to investigate the spatiotemporal trend of city parks in mainland China between 1981 and 2014 at three scales: national, provincial and city class. City parks in China increased significantly with a turning point occurring around the year 2000. Up until the end of 2014, there were 13,074 city parks totaling 367,962 ha with 0.29 parks per 10,000 residents, 8.26 m2 of park per capita and 2.00% of parkland as a percentage of urban area. However, there is still a large gap compared to the established American and Japanese city park systems, and only 5.4% of people aged above 20 access city parks for physical activity. The low number of parks per 10,000 residents brings up the issue of the accessibility to physical activity areas that public parks provide. The concern of spatial disparity, also apparent for all five city park indicators, differed strongly at provincial and city class scales. The southern and eastern coastal provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang and Shandong have abundant city park resources. At the scale of the city classes, mega-city II had the highest of the three ratio indicators and the large city class had the lowest. On one hand, the leading province Guangdong and its mega-cities Shenzhen and Dongguan had park indicators comparable to the United States and Japan. On the other hand, there were still five cities with no city parks and many cities with extremely low park indicators. In China, few cities have realized the importance of city parks for the promotion of leisure time physical activity. It is urgent that state and city park laws or guidelines are passed that can serve as baselines for planning a park system and determining a minimum standard for city parks with free, accessible and safe physical activity areas and sports facilities.

  20. The Spatiotemporal Trend of City Parks in Mainland China between 1981 and 2014: Implications for the Promotion of Leisure Time Physical Activity and Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Jianjun

    2017-09-29

    City parks, important environments built for physical activity, play critical roles in preventing chronic diseases and promoting public health. We used five commonly used park indicators to investigate the spatiotemporal trend of city parks in mainland China between 1981 and 2014 at three scales: national, provincial and city class. City parks in China increased significantly with a turning point occurring around the year 2000. Up until the end of 2014, there were 13,074 city parks totaling 367,962 ha with 0.29 parks per 10,000 residents, 8.26 m² of park per capita and 2.00% of parkland as a percentage of urban area. However, there is still a large gap compared to the established American and Japanese city park systems, and only 5.4% of people aged above 20 access city parks for physical activity. The low number of parks per 10,000 residents brings up the issue of the accessibility to physical activity areas that public parks provide. The concern of spatial disparity, also apparent for all five city park indicators, differed strongly at provincial and city class scales. The southern and eastern coastal provinces of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang and Shandong have abundant city park resources. At the scale of the city classes, mega-city II had the highest of the three ratio indicators and the large city class had the lowest. On one hand, the leading province Guangdong and its mega-cities Shenzhen and Dongguan had park indicators comparable to the United States and Japan. On the other hand, there were still five cities with no city parks and many cities with extremely low park indicators. In China, few cities have realized the importance of city parks for the promotion of leisure time physical activity. It is urgent that state and city park laws or guidelines are passed that can serve as baselines for planning a park system and determining a minimum standard for city parks with free, accessible and safe physical activity areas and sports facilities.

  1. Analysis of operating criteria: Multiple lakes at Voyageurs National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flug, M.; Kallemeyn, L.W.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of lake and river regulation at Voyageurs National Park, which resides on the Minnesota-Ontario border, is given to demonstrate how water policy agreements can work. In 1905 the United States and Canada authorized private dams with turbines on the Rainy River. The International Joint Commission regulates these dams. The National Park Service is mandated to preserve the natural environment for future generations. State, private, and public sector interests are tourism, flood protection, the pulp and paper industry, native wild rice growth; etc. Rule curves for regulating reservoirs have changed and committee with broad representation is cooperating to better manage the waters of Namakan Reservoir and Rainy Lake

  2. Attitudes of Employees of Provincial Directorates of National Education and School Administrators towards Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkurt, Yahya

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the attitudes of employees of Provincial Directorates of National Education and school administrators towards strategic planning. The research was designed as a survey model study. The population of the research consisted of employees of Provincial Directorate of National Education of Kutahya and school…

  3. Analyzing the present Yunnan provincial condition and countermeasure of radioactive environmental management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianping; Sun Ye; Zhou Liqiang

    2005-01-01

    Being aware of the present Yunnan provincial realities of the nuclear technology application, the present supervision conditions on nuclear safety and radioactive environment are analysed. Some suggestions, such as constituting Yunnan supervision structure of radioactive environment, demonstrating radiation supervisions in critical regions, and speeding up the system development of Yunnan provincial supervision on radiation environment, are brought out to the details. (authors)

  4. Toxic substances: Federal-provincial control. Revised edition. Current issue review No. 88-11E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, K; Johansen, D

    1993-01-01

    There is widespread public concern about the effect of toxic substances on human health and the environment. This document looks at the federal-provincial control on toxic substances. It specifically examines the control of toxic substances under the Canadian constitution; the political arena; the federal- provincial co-operation; the Green Plan; and the 1991 Auditor General's Report.

  5. Student research in Canada's north

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Admas, P [ed.; Johnson, P G [ed.

    1988-01-01

    A conference was organized in Canada to allow a large number of students with northern interests to meet together to present the results of their work and to discuss many other matters of mutual interset. In addition, this conference allowed students from many disciplines in the natural and social sciences to advance northern scholarship, and to foster a multidisciplinary approach to northern studies. A wide range of topics from the physical, biological, and social sciences were covered, including Inuit music, traditional medicine, mammoth bones, fossil trees, icebreaker design, archaeology, caves, naturally acid and other lakes, glaciers, bogs, Inuit clothing, education, northern parks, river ice jams, geology, marine science including large marine mammals, and global strategy. Separate abstracts have been prepared for twelve papers from this conference.

  6. Perspectives on dam safety in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, R.

    2004-01-01

    Canadian dam safety issues were reviewed from the perspective of a water resources engineer who is not a dam safety practitioner. Several external factors affecting dam safety were identified along with perceived problems in dam safety administration. The author claims that the main weakness in safety practices can be attributed to provincial oversights and lack of federal engagement. Some additions to the Canadian Dam Safety Guidelines were proposed to address these weaknesses. Canada has hundreds of large dams and high hazard dams whose failure would result in severe downstream consequences. The safety of dams built on boundary waters shared with the United States have gained particular attention from the International Joint Commission. This paper also examined safety criteria for concerns such as aging dams, sabotage and global climate change that may compromise the safety of a dam. 26 refs

  7. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Milutinović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of science and technology parks is necessarily accompanied by the establishment of a base of professional staff as the foundation of the park and the base of the potential management that will manage the park and the professional staff. Science and Technology Park is a broader term used to describe a variety of attempts directed at enhancing the entrepreneurship development by means of establishing knowledge – based, small and medium-sized enterprises. The enterprise at the top of the technology pyramid receives support in the form of capital, administration, space and access to new information technologies. The overall objective of the development of industrial enterprises in the technology park is the introduction of economically profitable production with the efficient usage of nonrenewable resources and the application of the highest environmental standards. Achieving the primary developmental objective of the Technology Park includes: creating a favorable business atmosphere in the local community, attractive to both foreign and domestic investors – providing support to the establishment of small and medium-sized enterprises using different models of joint ventures and direct foreign investment.

  8. Effect of a provincial system of stroke care delivery on stroke care and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Moira K.; Fang, Jiming; Silver, Frank L.; Hall, Ruth; Stamplecoski, Melissa; O’Callaghan, Christina; Tu, Jack V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Systems of stroke care delivery have been promoted as a means of improving the quality of stroke care, but little is known about their effectiveness. We assessed the effect of the Ontario Stroke System, a province-wide strategy of regionalized stroke care delivery, on stroke care and outcomes in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We used population-based provincial administrative databases to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for acute stroke and transient ischemic attack from Jan. 1, 2001, to Dec. 31, 2010. Using piecewise regression analyses, we assessed the effect of the full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 on the proportion of patients who received care at stroke centres, and on rates of discharge to long-term care facilities and 30-day mortality after stroke. Results: We included 243 287 visits by patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack. The full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 was associated with an increase in rates of care at stroke centres (before implementation: 40.0%; after implementation: 46.5%), decreased rates of discharge to long-term care facilities (before implementation: 16.9%; after implementation: 14.8%) and decreased 30-day mortality for hemorrhagic (before implementation: 38.3%; after implementation: 34.4%) and ischemic stroke (before implementation: 16.3%; after implementation: 15.7%). The system’s implementation was also associated with marked increases in the proportion of patients who received neuroimaging, thrombolytic therapy, care in a stroke unit and antithrombotic therapy. Interpretation: The implementation of an organized system of stroke care delivery was associated with improved processes of care and outcomes after stroke. PMID:23713072

  9. Canada's green plan: Summary. Le plan vert du Canada: Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of Canada's Green Plan, a comprehensive action plan to ensure a healthy environment for the future. The plan defines targets and schedules which will drive federal environmental initiatives, and incorporates concepts of sustainable development. Elements of the plan include initiatives to combat and prevent water pollution; control ocean dumping; control smog-causing emissions; provide tighter air pollution standards; provide for sound waste management according to the principles of reduce, reuse, recycle, and recover; assess and control chemical wastes; sustain Canadian forests and maintain their diversity while shifting forest management from sustained yield to sustainable development; maintain and enhance environmental sustainability in the agro-food sector and the fishery sector; preserve and protect national parks and wildlife; and preserve and enhance the integrity, health, biodiversity and productivity of Arctic ecosystems. With respect to global-scale problems, measures will be taken to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, limit acid rain-related emissions, and phase out the use of ozone-depleting substances. The plan also intends to improve Canada's capability to respond to environmental emergencies, improve environmental decision-making by strengthening and building of partnerships, promote environmental science research and development, and make effective and balanced use of enviromental laws, with market-based approaches for environmental protection.

  10. ASA24-Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Canadian adaptation of the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Assessment Tool (ASA24-Canada), developed by the Food Directorate at Health Canada in collaboration with NCI, has been freely available since April 2014.

  11. Fusion Canada issue 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada`s participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs.

  12. The Spatio-Temporal Characteristics and Modeling Research of Inter-Provincial Migration in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Fan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The national census data during 1995 and 2000 and during 2005 and 2010 are selected in this paper to make an analysis of the spatio-temporal characteristics of the inter-provincial population migration in China. In addition, the general regression model, the extension regression model considering the historical dependent variable and the spatial lag model are established based on the gravity model to make the regression model on China’s inter-provincial population migration over two periods of time. The results show that: (1 the inter-provincial population migration increases rapidly in size with strong geographical proximity; (2 China’s inter-provincial population migration is still in the primary stage of the general process of population migration. In other words, the inter-provincial population emigration and immigration levels have increased greatly with the economic development; (3 Statistically, the inter-provincial population migration is negatively correlated with the level of economic development in the emigrant place and the migration distance and positively correlated with the level of economic development in the immigrant place and the population scale in the emigrant and immigrant places; and (4 The spatio-temporal factor is an important explanatory variable of population migration. The introduction of the historical dependent variable and the spatial lag factor can improve the regression effect of the gravity model greatly, and the historical variable and the spatial factor have strong explanatory power for the inter-provincial population migration.

  13. Geology of National Parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    This is a set of two sheets of 3D images showing geologic features of many National Parks. Red-and-cyan viewing glasses are need to see the three-dimensional effect. A search on the World Wide Web will yield many sites about anaglyphs and where to get 3D glasses. Red-blue glasses will do but red-cyan glasses are a little better. This publication features a photo quiz game: Name that park! where you can explore, interpret, and identify selected park landscapes. Can you identify landscape features in the images? Can you explain processes that may have helped form the landscape features? You can get the answers online.

  14. Natural gas resources in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Natural gas is an important component in many of the technologies aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In order to understand the role that natural gas can play, it is important to know how much may be present, where it is, when can it be accessed and at what cost. The Canadian Gas Potential Committee has completed its second report 'Natural Gas Potential in Canada - 2001' (CGPC, 2001). This comprehensive study of exploration plays in Canada addresses the two issues of 'how much may be present' and 'where is it'. The Report deals with both conventional gas and non-conventional gas. One hundred and seven Established Conventional Exploration Plays, where discoveries of gas exist, have been assessed in all of the sedimentary basins in Canada. In addition, where sufficient information was available, twelve Conceptual Exploration Plays, where no discoveries have been made, were assessed. Sixty-five other Conceptual Plays were described and qualitatively ranked. An experienced volunteer team of exploration professionals conducted assessments of undiscovered gas potential over a four-year period. The team used technical judgment, statistical techniques and a unique peer review process to make a comprehensive assessment of undiscovered gas potential and estimates of the size of individual undiscovered gas accumulations. The Committee assessed all gas in place in individual exploration plays. For Established Plays, estimates of Undiscovered Nominal Marketable Gas are based on the percentage of the gas in place that is marketable gas in the discovered pools in a play. Not all of the Nominal Marketable Gas will be available. Some underlies areas where exploration is not possible, such as parks, cities and other closed areas. Some will be held in gas pools that are too small to be economic and some of the pools will never be found. In some areas no production infrastructure will be available. Detailed studies of individual exploration plays and basins will be required

  15. Constructing Indicators for Measuring Provincial Sustainable Development Index in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Van Canh; Lisowski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable development is zeitgeist of our age. It is one kind of development that in this trajectory humanity can create a stable and developed socio-economic foundations, conserve environment and therefore able to continue for a long time. Using indicators is one of the best ways to monitor and measure the progress toward sustainable development. In this paper we have proposed the way to create indicators for measuring provincial sustainable development index in Vietnam. We firstly made a framework of elements for economic, social and environmental component and compiled a list of indicators of 20 national and international agencies in the world. We then applied the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-related) to choose indicators which will be relevant for Vietnam and put them back to the elements. We then have 39 relevant indicators with 12 indicators for economy, 17 indicators for social and 10 indicators for environmental component. Finally, we have established the way to determine the worst and best value for each indicator from available data for countries in the world.

  16. Usability inspection to improve an electronic provincial medication repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitson, Nicole A; Price, Morgan; Bowen, Michael; Lau, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Medication errors are a significant source of actual and potential harm for patients. Community medication records have the potential to reduce medication errors, but they can also introduce unintended consequences when there is low fit to task (low cognitive fit). PharmaNet is a provincially managed electronic repository that contains the records for community-based pharmacy-dispensed medications in British Columbia. This research explores the usability of PharmaNet, as a representative community-based medication repository. We completed usability inspections of PharmaNet through vendor applications. Vendor participants were asked to complete activity-driven scenarios, which highlighted aspects of medication management workflow. Screen recording was later reviewed. Heuristics were applied to explore usability issues and improvement opportunities. Usability inspection was conducted with four PharmaNet applications. Ninety-six usability issues were identified; half of these had potential implications for patient safety. These were primarily related to login and logout procedures; display of patient name; display of medications; update and display of alert information; and the changing or discontinuation of medications. PharmaNet was designed primarily to support medication dispensing and billing activities by community pharmacies, but is also used to support care providers with monitoring and prescribing activities. As such, some of the features do not have a strong fit for other clinical activities. To improve fit, we recommend: having a Current Medications List and Displaying Medication Utilization Charts.

  17. A Methodology to Institutionalise User Experience in Provincial Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cobus Pretorius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Problems experienced with website usability can prevent users from accessing and adopting technology, such as e-Government. At present, a number of guidelines exist for e-Government website user experience (UX design; however, the effectiveness of the implementation of these guidelines depends on the expertise of the website development team and on an organisation’s understanding of UX. Despite the highlighted importance of UX, guidelines are rarely applied in South African e-Government website designs. UX guidelines cannot be implemented if there is a lack of executive support, trained staff, budget and user-centred design processes. The goal of this research is to propose and evaluate a methodology (called the “Institutionalise UX in Government (IUXG methodology” to institutionalise UX in South African Provincial Governments (SAPGs. The Western Cape Government in South Africa was used as a case study to evaluate the proposed IUXG methodology. The results show that the IUXG methodology can assist SAPGs to establish UX as standard practice and improve the UX maturity levels.

  18. El nacimiento de la hacienda provincial alavesa (1463-1537

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramón DÍAZ DE DURANA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available En una época de afirmación de la autonomía local y provincial como la que vivimos, resulta paradójico constatar cómo el origen y primeros pasos de algunas instituciones locales o provinciales es todavía un tema mal conocido. Un buen ejemplo es el de las instituciones forales alavesas, aunque no sean escasos, sin embargo, los trabajos de carácter general donde se aborda el problema. Estudios que, desde luego, describen con perfección, más o menos milimétrica, el funcionamiento puntual de aquéllas en etapas históricas y especialmente en el momento en que fueron escritos. Pero esos trabajos, amén de haber contribuido a alimentar más de un tópico y alguna que otra interesada interpretación, pecan por defecto en una cuestión de gran interés para entender por qué los acontecimientos se desarrollaron como lo hicieron, al mostrarnos una imagen demasiado estática de esas instituciones.

  19. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  20. Energy Policies of IEA Countries - Canada -- 2009 Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-12

    Canada, with its diverse and balanced portfolio of energy resources, is one of the largest producers and exporters of energy among IEA member countries. The energy sector plays an increasingly important role for the Canadian economy and for global energy security, as its abundant resource base has the potential to deliver even greater volumes of energy. The federal, provincial and territorial governments of Canada are all strongly committed to the sustainable development of the country's natural resources and have a long-standing and informed awareness of the need for each to contribute to the development of the energy sector. Furthermore, the government of Canada seeks to achieve a balance between the environmentally responsible production and use of energy, the growth and competitiveness of the economy, and secure and competitively priced energy and infrastructure. Nonetheless, the long-term sustainability of the sector remains a challenge. Due to climatic, geographic and other factors, Canada is one of the highest per-capita CO2 emitters in the OECD and has higher energy intensity than any IEA member country. A comprehensive national energy efficiency strategy, coupled with a coordinated climate change policy targeted at the key emitting sectors, is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a priority for the federal government and presents Canada with an opportunity to develop a new technology that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions on a large scale. The IEA recommends that Canada provide international leadership in the development of CCS technology. This review analyses the energy challenges facing Canada and provides sectoral critiques and recommendations for further policy improvements. It is intended to help guide Canada towards a more sustainable energy future.

  1. Government of Canada Action Plan 2000 on Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In this first National Climate Change Business Plan the Government of Canada affirms its intention to invest up to $500 million over five years on specific actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This sum is in addition to the action plans being put forward by the provincial and territorial governments and in addition to the $625 million investment over five years announced in Budget 2000. Action Plan 2000 targets key sectors, and the measures announced are expected to take Canada one third of the way to achieving the target established in the Kyoto Protocol by reducing Canada's GHG emissions by 65 megatonnes per year during the 2008-2012 commitment period. The key sectors targeted include the areas of transportation, oil, gas and electricity production, industry, buildings, forestry and agriculture, i. e. sectors that together account for over 90 per cent of Canada's GHG emissions.The Action Plan focuses on reducing GHG emissions in a cost effective way; draws extensively on the best ideas put forward by the provinces, territories and other stakeholders; encourages action by industry and consumers; complements measures and actions by the provinces and territories to address regional issues; and sets the stage for long-term behavioural, technological and economic changes. The remainder of Canada's Kyoto commitments will be addressed by actions in future plans which are currently in the process of being developed, together with the development of further details of this first National Climate Change Business Plan

  2. "South Park" vormistab roppused muusikalivormi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Animafilm "South Park : suurem, pikem ja lõikamata" ("South Park . Bigger, Longer & Uncut") : Stsenaristid Trey Parker, Matt Stone ja Pam Brady : režissöör Trey Parker : Ameerika Ühendriigid 1999

  3. Allegheny County Park Rangers Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Launched in June 2015, the Allegheny County Park Rangers program reached over 48,000 people in its first year. Park Rangers interact with residents of all ages and...

  4. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Station, a dry deciduous forest within Ankarafantsika National. Park. We set Sherman ... dry deciduous forests compared to research in the eastern rainforests (Goodman et al. .... the ground, this rat was observed on both the ground and trees. We tentatively .... Conservation International, Washington DC. Carleton, M. D. ...

  5. fantsika National Park

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We often observed domestic mammals such as cattle, cats and dogs in the forest at Ampijoroa. Although the primary forest in Ampijoroa is managed by Madagascar National Parks, local people leave these domestic animals in the forest. Introduced animals may be a threat to endemic animals. Cattle can be transmitters of ...

  6. Lucas Heights technology park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The proposed Lucas Heights Technology Park will pound together the applied research programs of Government, tertiary and industry sectors, aiming to foster technology transfer particularly to the high-technology manufacturing industry. A description of the site is given along with an outline of the envisaged development, existing facilities and expertise. ills

  7. Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board : annual report 1996-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Operations of the Canada-Newfoundland Offshore Petroleum Board during 1996-1997 were reviewed, summarizing activities in rights management, exploration, reservoir management, environmental affairs, operations and safety, Canada-Newfoundland benefits and financial matters. The Board manages the petroleum resources in the Newfoundland offshore area on behalf of the federal government of Canada and the provincial government of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Board ensures that resource development is conducted in accordance with good oilfield practices to optimize recovery and avoid waste, and that the operators' procurement decisions are consistent with their obligations and agreements with governments to provide economic and social benefits to Canada, and in particular to Newfoundland. The report summarizes energy resource activities, and presents a picture of revenues and expenditures. Current objectives and future plans under each heading are also reviewed. tabs., figs

  8. Research on carbon emission driving factors of China’s provincial construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Mei; Dong, Rui; Fu, Yujie; Hao, Wentao

    2018-03-01

    As a pillar industry of the national economy, the damage to the environment by construction industry can not be ignored. In the context of low carbon development, identifying the main driving factors for the carbon emission of the provincial construction industry are the key for the local government to formulate the development strategy for construction. In the paper, based on the Kaya factor decomposition method, the carbon intensity of the energy structure, energy intensity and the impact of the construction output on the carbon emission of provincial construction industry are studied, and relevant suggestions for low carbon development of provincial construction industry are proposed. The conclusion of this paper provides a theoretical basis for the early realization of low-carbon development in China’s provincial construction industry.

  9. Command and Control Analysis of the South West Provincial Regional Emergency Operations Centre during Vancouver 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Venue Site WACC - Whistler Area Command Centre OTHER GPPAG - Government Partners Public Affairs Group 18 ANNEX B. Interview questions...Vancouver Vancouver Richmond WACC Decision Authority Link Information Sharing Link DOC’s 2010 Provincial Games Secretariat GPPAG CCG

  10. L'etat, C'est Moi: Why provincial Intra-governmental disputes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'etat, C'est Moi: Why provincial Intra-governmental disputes in Shout Africa remain ungoverned by the final constitution and the Intergovernmental Relations Framework Act - and how we can best resolve them.

  11. Measuring Effective Tax Rates for Oil and Gas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to provide cost of capital formulae for assessing the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest in oil and gas industries in Canada. The analysis is based on the assumption that businesses invest in capital until the after-tax rate of return on capital is equal to the tax-adjusted cost of capital. The cost of capital in absence of taxation is the inflation-adjusted cost of finance. The after-tax rate of return on capital is the annualized profit earned on a project net of the taxes paid by the businesses. For this purpose, we include corporate income, sales and other capital-related taxes as applied to oil and gas investments. For oil and gas taxation, it is necessary to account for royalties in a special way. Royalties are payment made by businesses for the right to extract oil and gas from land owned by the property holder. The land is owned by the province so the royalties are a rental payment for the benefit received from extracting the product from provincial lands. Thus, provincial royalty payments are a cost to oil and gas companies for using public property. However, since the provincial government is responsible for the royalty regime and could use taxes like the corporate income tax to extract revenue, one might think of royalties as part of the overall fiscal regime to raise revenue. In principle, one should subtract the rental benefit received from oil and gas businesses from taxes and royalty payments to assess the overall fiscal impact. This is impossible to do without measuring some explicit rental rate for use of provincial property. Further, royalty payments may distort economic decisions unlike a payment based on the economic rents earned on oil and gas projects. Instead, for comparability across jurisdictions, one might calculate the aggregate tax and royalty effective tax rates (such as between Alberta and Texas.

  12. THE SOCIOLOGICAL PORTRAIT OF PROVINCIAL UNIVERSITY ENTRANTS ON THE EXAMPLE OF UST-ILIMSK CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipp Rozanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of sociological study carried out to obtain a general model of ideas, expectations and preferences of provincial students in their attitude to higher education. The received results are presented in the form of diagrams. Provides a general interpretation of the data and on their basis are proposed recommendations for development marketing strategy and campaign to attract university entrants to the provincial university.

  13. The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    14 Revolution, is an excellent account of social, economic, and political factors in colonial America that influenced the concept of the citizen ...THE MYTH OF THE CITIZEN -SOLDIER: RHODE ISLAND PROVINCIAL SOLDIERS IN THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A thesis presented to the...From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Myth of the Citizen Soldier: Rhode Island Provincial Soldiers in the French and Indian War

  14. Federal and Provincial Responsibilities to Implement Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David; Sharpe, Gilbert; Lauks, Rebeka

    2016-02-01

    In the most significant constitutional decision of the last generation, Carter v. Canada, the Supreme Court of Canada reversed itself and decided that it was possible for Parliament to enact safeguards that would be adequate to protect persons who are vulnerable in times of weakness, then proceeded to declare that Canadians were entitled to a s. 7 Charter right to physician-assisted death. David Baker and Gilbert Sharpe accepted the challenge issued by the Court and drafted a Bill to amend the Criminal Code in a manner they believed would strike a constitutional balance between providing access to the right declared by the Court and protecting the vulnerable. This article represents their attempt, along with co-author Rebeka Lauks, to explain many of the key provisions in their draft. Amongst the most noteworthy are their attempts to ensure that those choosing PAD are informed about quality of life, as well as treatment choices; to define vulnerability and to install safeguards adequate to protect persons while vulnerable; and finally a prior review process that would ensure both ready access to the Charter right declared by the Court and consistent and transparent application of the law. The authors have attempted to establish an alternative model to that currently in effect in the Benelux countries, which they regard as having been ineffective in achieving any of these objectives.

  15. Regulatory Framework for Conducting Clinical Research in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Josmar K; Godlovitch, Glenys; Mohan, Connie M; Jelinski, Shelly A; Khan, Aneal A

    2017-09-01

    Research in human subjects is at the core of achieving improvements in health outcomes. For clinical trials, in addition to the peer review of the results before publication, it is equally important to consider whether the trial will be conducted in a manner that generates data of the highest quality and provides a measure of safety for the participating subjects. In Canada, there is no definitive legislation that governs the conduct of research involving human subjects, but a network of regulations at different levels does provide a framework for both principal investigators and sponsors. In this paper, we provide an overview of the federal, provincial and institutional legislation, guidelines and policies that will inform readers about the requirements for clinical trial research. This includes a review of the role of the Food and Drug Regulations under the Food and Drugs Act and the Tri-Council Policy Statement (TCPS2), an overview of provincial legislation across the country, and a focus on selected policies from institutional research ethics boards and public health agencies. Many researchers may find navigation through regulations frustrating, and there is a paucity of information that explains the interrelationship between the different regulatory agencies in Canada. Better understanding the process, we feel, will facilitate investigators interested in clinical trials and also enhance the long-term health of Canadians.

  16. Economic evaluation of vaccines in Canada: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chit, Ayman; Lee, Jason K H; Shim, Minsup; Nguyen, Van Hai; Grootendorst, Paul; Wu, Jianhong; Van Exan, Robert; Langley, Joanne M

    2016-05-03

    Economic evaluations should form part of the basis for public health decision making on new vaccine programs. While Canada's national immunization advisory committee does not systematically include economic evaluations in immunization decision making, there is increasing interest in adopting them. We therefore sought to examine the extent and quality of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada. We conducted a systematic review of economic evaluations of vaccines in Canada to determine and summarize: comprehensiveness across jurisdictions, studied vaccines, funding sources, study designs, research quality, and changes over time. Searches in multiple databases were conducted using the terms "vaccine," "economics" and "Canada." Descriptive data from eligible manuscripts was abstracted and three authors independently evaluated manuscript quality using a 7-point Likert-type scale scoring tool based on criteria from the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). 42/175 articles met the search criteria. Of these, Canada-wide studies were most common (25/42), while provincial studies largely focused on the three populous provinces of Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. The most common funding source was industry (17/42), followed by government (7/42). 38 studies used mathematical models estimating expected economic benefit while 4 studies examined post-hoc data on established programs. Studies covered 10 diseases, with 28/42 addressing pediatric vaccines. Many studies considered cost-utility (22/42) and the majority of these studies reported favorable economic results (16/22). The mean quality score was 5.9/7 and was consistent over publication date, funding sources, and disease areas. We observed diverse approaches to evaluate vaccine economics in Canada. Given the increased complexity of economic studies evaluating vaccines and the impact of results on public health practice, Canada needs improved, transparent and consistent processes

  17. Are TODs Over-Parked?

    OpenAIRE

    Cervero, Robert; Adkins, Arlie; Sullivan, Cathleen

    2009-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the proposition that TOD, and specifically housing near suburban rail stops, is “over-parked†in the U.S. This is done by comparing parking generation rates for 31 housing complexes near rail stops in the San Francisco Bay Area and Portland, Oregon with on-site parking supplies and with ITE parking generation rates. Factors that explain parking demand for transit-oriented housing are also investigated, both statistically and through case analyses. The re...

  18. Fusion Canada issue 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on Canada's plans to participate in the Engineering Design Activities (EDA), bilateral meetings with Canada and the U.S., committee meeting with Canada-Europe, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on Plasma Biasing experiments and boronized graphite tests, fusion materials research at the University of Toronto using a dual beam accelerator and a review of the CFFTP and the CCFM. 2 figs

  19. The cost of vision loss in Canada. 2. Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruess, Alan F; Gordon, Keith D; Bellan, Lorne; Mitchell, Scott; Pezzullo, M Lynne

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted to provide the financial underpinnings necessary for effective planning for the provision of eye health services in Canada. Canada is facing an aging demographic and all the major eye diseases are diseases associated with aging. It is essential that we have information based on the best available data to support national and provincial vision health plans. The design associated with the prevalence-based approach used in this study was outlined previously in detail in The Cost of Vision Loss in Canada: Methodology. The methods associated with the prevalence-based approach used in this study were previously outlined in detail in The Cost of Vision Loss in Canada: Methodology. The financial cost of VL in Canada in 2007 was estimated to be $15.8 billion per annum: $8.6 billion (54.6%) represents direct health system expenditure; $4.4 billion (28.0%) was productivity lost due to lower employment, higher absenteeism, and premature death of Canadians with VL; $1.8 billion (11.1%) was the dead weight losses (DWL) from transfers including welfare payments and taxation forgone; $0.7 billion (4.4%) was the value of the care for people with VL; $305 million (1.9%) was other indirect costs such as aids and home modifications and the bring forward of funeral costs. Additionally, the value of the lost well-being (disability and premature death) was estimated at a further $11.7 billion. In per capita terms, this amounts to a financial cost of $19370 per person with VL per annum. Including the value of lost well-being, the cost is $33704 per person per annum. There is a growing awareness in Canada and around the world of the impact of VL on health costs and on the economy in general. This awareness is supported by the growing number of independent studies on the cost of vision loss both nationally and globally. Because most of these studies are limited by the minimal amount of available data, the overall cost of vision loss is likely underestimated

  20. Modelling parking behaviour considering heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Martin, G.A.; Ibeas Portilla, A.; Alonso Oreña, B.; Olio, L. del

    2016-07-01

    Most of motorized trips in cities of middle and small size are made in public transport and mainly in private vehicle, this has caused a saturation in parking systems of the cities, causing important problems to society, one of the most important problems is high occupancy of public space by parking systems. Thus, is required the estimation of models that reproduce users’ behaviour when they are choosing for parking in cities, to carry out transport policies to improve transport efficiency and parking systems in the cities. The aim of this paper is the specification and estimation of models that simulate users’ behaviour when they are choosing among alternatives of parking that there are in the city: free on street parking, paid on street parking, paid on underground parking and Park and Ride (now there isn´t). For this purpose, is proposed a multinomial logit model that consider systematic and random variations in tastes. Data of users’ behaviour from the different alternatives of parking have been obtained with a stated preference surveys campaign which have been done in May 2015 in the principal parking zones of the city of Santander. In this paper, we provide a number of improvements to previously developed methodologies because of we consider much more realism to create the scenarios stated preference survey, obtaining better adjustments. (Author)

  1. Chlamydia and lymphogranuloma venereum in Canada: 2003-2012 Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totten, S; MacLean, R; Payne, E; Severini, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Chlamydia continues to be the most commonly reported sexually transmitted infection in Canada. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV), caused by certain serovars of Chlamydia trachomatis, is becoming established in some populations in a number of Western countries. Objective To identify trends in reported cases of chlamydia and LGV in Canada from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2012. Methods Notifiable disease data on chlamydia were submitted to the Public Health Agency of Canada by provincial and territorial epidemiological units and summarized at the national level by age and sex. Confirmatory testing for suspected LGV cases and serovar subtyping were performed by the National Microbiology Laboratory (NML). Where possible, provincial/territorial health authorities use a standardized national case report form to collect enhanced epidemiological data on each case and to submit the data to the Agency. Results Rates of reported cases of chlamydia increased by 57.6%, from 189.6 to 298.7 per 100,000 between 2003 and 2012. The rate of reported cases of chlamydia among females (383.5 per 100,000) was almost twice as high as that among males (212.0 per 100,000), although the highest relative rate increase occurred among males. In both males and females, the rates of chlamydia were highest in those aged 20 to 24 years. From 2004 to 2012, 170 cases of LGV were reported to the Agency by provincial health authorities (including 104 confirmed and 66 probable cases). In 2012, case reports were received on 12 confirmed and probable cases, compared to 38 laboratory-positive cases confirmed by the NML. Conclusion In Canada, as in many countries, chlamydia rates have markedly increased over the last 10 years, in part due to improved diagnosis through nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) testing. Consistent with trends in Europe and other countries, LGV is emerging in Canada among men who have sex with men (MSM). PMID:29769927

  2. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material

  3. Transport of radioactive material in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    In this report, the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Safety (ACNS) presents the results of its study on how the system of the transport of radioactive material (TRM) in Canada is regulated, how it operates, and how it performs. The report deals with the transport of packages, including Type B packages which are used to carry large quantities of radioactive material, but not with the transport of spent nuclear fuel or with the transport of low-level historical waste. The ACNS has examined the Canadian experience in the TRM area, the regulatory framework in Canada with respect to the TRM some relevant aspects of training workers and monitoring compliance with regulatory requirements, the state of the emergency preparedness of organizations involved in the TRM and the process of updating present regulations by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). As a result of this study, the ACNS concludes that the current Canadian regulatory system in the TRM is sound and that the TRM is, for the most part, conducted safely. However, improvements can be made in a number of areas, such as: determining the exposures of workers who transport radioactive material; rewording the proposed Transport Regulations in plain language; training all appropriate personnel regarding the AECB and Transport Canada (TC) Regulations; enforcing compliance with the regulations; and increasing the level of cooperation between the federal agencies and provincial authorities involved in the inspection and emergency preparedness aspects of the TRM. It is also noted that Bill C-23, the Nuclear Safety and Control Act, imposes a new requirement, subject to the Regulations, for a licence for a carrier to transport some types of radioactive material.

  4. Pachybrachis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cryptocephalinae) of Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert J.; LeSage, Laurent; Savard, Karine

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen Pachybrachis species occurring in eastern Canada [Ontario (ON), Québec (QC), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), and Prince Edward Island (PE)] are treated by the authors. Two new national records were discovered, both from southernmost Ontario: P. cephalicus Fall and P. luctuosus Suffrian. Four species were new provincial records: P. cephalicus (ON), P. luctuosus (ON, QC), P. obsoletus Suffrian (NB), P. peccans (PE). A fully illustrated key to the Pachybrachis of eastern Canada is provided and supported with extensive photographs, distribution maps, and plant associations. Three species were distributed from southern Ontario into at least one province in the Maritimes (P. nigricornis (Say), P. obsoletus Suffrianand P. peccans Suffrian). Six species were distributed along the shores of the Great Lakes (Erie, Michigan, and Ontario) and rivers (Ottawa, Saguenay and St. Lawrence), but unknown from central and northern ON and QC (P. bivittatus (Say), P. hepaticus hepaticus (F. E. Melsheimer), P. othonus othonus (Say), P. pectoralis (F. E. Melsheimer), P. spumarius Suffrianand P. trinotatus (F. E. Melsheimer)). Seven species were rare, five being found exclusively from southern ON (P. calcaratus Fall, P. cephalicus, P. luridus (Fabricius), P. subfasciatus (J. E. LeConte)and P. tridens (F. E. Melsheimer)), with two having, in addition, a disjunct population in QC (P. atomarius (F. E. Melsheimer)and P. luctuosus). One species was found to be the northern most extension of an eastern United States (US) distribution into the eastern townships of QC (P. m-nigrum (F. E. Melsheimer)). There were no Pachybrachis that could be considered arctic, subarctic, or boreal species; no specimens were found from Labrador and Newfoundland, and all species had southern affinities. Pachybrachis atomarius, P. calcaratus, P. luridus, P. subfaciatus, and P. tridens, not seen over the last 30–70 years, may be extirpated from eastern Canada. PMID:24163583

  5. Mount Rainier National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert; Woodward, Andrea; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Griffin, Paul C.; Adams, Michael J.; Hagar, Joan; Cummings, Tonnie; Duriscoe, Dan; Kopper, Karen; Riedel, Jon; Samora, Barbara; Marin, Lelaina; Mauger, Guillaume S.; Bumbaco, Karen; Littell, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Natural Resource Condition Assessments (NRCAs) evaluate current conditions for a subset of natural resources and resource indicators in national parks. NRCAs also report on trends in resource condition (when possible), identify critical data gaps, and characterize a general level of confidence for study findings. The resources and indicators emphasized in a given project depend on the park’s resource setting, status of resource stewardship planning and science in identifying high-priority indicators, and availability of data and expertise to assess current conditions for a variety of potential study resources and indicators. Although the primary objective of NRCAs is to report on current conditions relative to logical forms of reference conditions and values, NRCAs also report on trends, when appropriate (i.e., when the underlying data and methods support such reporting), as well as influences on resource conditions. These influences may include past activities or conditions that provide a helpful context for understanding current conditions and present-day threats and stressors that are best interpreted at park, watershed, or landscape scales (though NRCAs do not report on condition status for land areas and natural resources beyond park boundaries). Intensive cause-andeffect analyses of threats and stressors, and development of detailed treatment options, are outside the scope of NRCAs. It is also important to note that NRCAs do not address resources that lack sufficient data for assessment. For Mount Rainier National Park, this includes most invertebrate species and many other animal species that are subject to significant stressors from climate change and other anthropogenic sources such as air pollutants and recreational use. In addition, we did not include an analysis of the physical hydrology associated with streams (such as riverine landforms, erosion and aggradation which is significant in MORA streams), due to a loss of staff expertise from the USGS

  6. Reforming the Tax Mix in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bev Dahlby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Periodically, tax systems need major reforms to remove the “barnacles” that accumulate under the short-term pressures of political expediency and to adapt to the long-term forces of technological and economic change. The current fiscal and economic problems that confront the provinces require an assessment of much-needed reforms. Raising tax revenue imposes large costs on our society, not only because of the administration and compliance costs of collecting taxes, but because taxes distort economic decisions in the private sector. This is especially true of provincial corporate income taxes. Taxing highly mobile corporate capital and corporate profits encourages firms to shift their investments and profits across provincial and international boundaries. The provinces would enjoy significant boosts to economic growth and efficiency gains by enacting a revenue-neutral switch from corporate to sales or personal income taxes. For Alberta, such a shift would yield up to $40 per dollar of tax revenue shifted from corporate to personal income taxes; for fiscal year 2011-12, this would amount to a percapita welfare gain of roughly $19,000. Other options for tax reform are also discussed in this paper, including the adoption of a penny tax to the GST to fund infrastructure spending by municipalities. However, we think this would saddle the private sector with significant compliance costs and create major economic distortions between neighbouring municipalities by creating an incentive to shop where the penny tax proposal was not adopted. In surveying the most pressing tax reform issues facing Canada, we offer policymakers a firm basis for coming to grips with them, so they can treat tax dollars with the care and foresight Canadians expect.

  7. Energy productivity and Chinese local officials’ promotions: Evidence from provincial governors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiude; Qin, Quande; Wei, Y.-M.

    2016-01-01

    Improving energy productivity is one of the most cost-effective ways to achieve a sustainable development target. The existing literature has shown some factors that have driven the improvement in China’s energy productivity. However, these studies do little to tackle the role of Chinese local officials. Political promotions can be seen as the most important career incentive for Chinese local officials. Hence, we intend to study whether energy productivity affects Chinese local officials’ promotions in this paper. The data of position changes for the 31 provincial governors during 1978‐2012 are utilized. We adopted probit models to empirically examine the correlation between provincial governors’ political promotions and energy productivity. The empirical results demonstrate that (1) energy productivity has a significantly positive impact on provincial governors’ political promotions in China, meaning that the provincial governors have the momentum to improve energy productivity; and (2) the effect of energy productivity on provincial governors’ political promotions has evolved, dynamically changing along with the transformation of the economic growth mode and the adjustment of the local officials’ promotion mechanism. The results are helpful in understanding the drivers of the improvement in China’s energy productivity and provide insightful implications for conducting energy policy in China. - Highlights: •The data of position changes for China’s provincial governors during 1978–2012 are utilized. •Energy productivity has a positive impact on provincial governors’ promotion in China. •Political incentive is an important driver of the improvement in China’s energy productivity. •The correlation between energy productivity and local officials’ promotions was evolved.

  8. An overview of radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liblong, S.W.; Wong, C.F.

    2014-01-01

    As a Tier I nuclear nation, with a comprehensive nuclear sector whose beginnings date back to the 1940's, Canada is faced with radioactive waste management challenges for a diverse range of radioactive material - from very low-level to high-level. The nuclear fuel cycle is fully realized in Canada, from uranium mines and mills through to significant reliance on nuclear energy thorough to a broad-based science & technology platform. Natural Resources Canada is responsible for Canadian nuclear policy, while the provincial governments decide on the management of their resources and energy mix within their jurisdictions. While the fundamental policy regarding responsibility for radioactive waste places the onus on the generator, the means by which this is accomplished is not prescriptive beyond meeting regulatory requirements. As a result, approaches to dealing with radioactive waste have evolved according to the needs and abilities of the various generators. This paper will provide an overview of radioactive waste management in Canada, highlighting the approaches used within various sectors for the different classifications of waste, and will also look at plans for future waste management capabilities being developed at this time (including issues related to disposal vs. management). Challenges to the development of an effective and comprehensive 'Canadian solution' will also be discussed. (author)

  9. Global warming and the forest fire business in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocks, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The current forest fire situation in Canada is outlined, and an attempt is made to predict the impact of global warming on the forest fire business in Canada. Despite the development of extremely sophisticated provincial and territorial fire management systems, forest fires continue to exert a tremendous influence on the Canadian forest resource. Research into the relationship between climate warming and forest fires has fallen into two categories: the effect of future global warming on fire weather severity, and the current contribution of forest fires to global atmospheric greenhouse gas budgets. A 46% increase in seasonal fire severity across Canada is suggested under a doubled atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration scenario. Approximately 89% of carbon released to the atmosphere by forest fire burning is in the form of carbon dioxide, 9% is carbon monoxide, and the remaining carbon is released as methane or non-methane hydrocarbons. It is estimated that forest fires in northern circumpolar countries contribute from 1-2% of the carbon released globally through biomass burning. Fire may be the agent by which a northerly shift of forest vegetation in Canada occurs. 13 refs., 2 figs

  10. Mathematical model of parking space unit for triangular parking area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrini, Intan; Sundari, Teti; Iskandar, Taufiq; Halfiani, Vera; Munzir, Said; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Parking space unit (PSU) is an effective measure for the area size of a vehicle, including the free space and the width of the door opening of the vehicle (car). This article discusses a mathematical model for parking space of vehicles in triangular shape area. An optimization model for triangular parking lot is developed. Integer Linear Programming (ILP) method is used to determine the maximum number of the PSU. The triangular parking lot is in isosceles and equilateral triangles shape and implements four possible rows and five possible angles for each field. The vehicles which are considered are cars and motorcycles. The results show that the isosceles triangular parking area has 218 units of optimal PSU, which are 84 units of PSU for cars and 134 units of PSU for motorcycles. Equilateral triangular parking area has 688 units of optimal PSU, which are 175 units of PSU for cars and 513 units of PSU for motorcycles.

  11. Fusion Canada issue 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs

  12. Fusion Canada issue 8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are Canada-ITER contributions, NET Fuel Processing Loop, Bilateral Meeting for Canada-Europe, report from Tokamak de Varennes and a report from the University of Toronto on materials research for Fusion Reactors. 3 figs.

  13. Fusion Canada issue 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue Europe proposes Canada's participation in ITER, tritium for JET, CCFM/TdeV-Tokamak helium pumping and TdeV update, ITER-related R and D at CFFTP, ITER Deputy Director visits Canada, NFP Director to Chair IFRC, Award for Akira Hirose. 3 figs

  14. Fusion Canada issue 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on a fusion cooperation agreement between Japan and Canada, an update at Tokamak de Varennes on plasma biasing experiments and boronization tests and a collaboration between Canada and the U.S. on a compact toroid fuelling gun. 4 figs

  15. Recreation and Park Education Curriculum Catalog, 1974-1975 Biennial Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Society of Park and Recreation Educators, Arlington, VA.

    This catalog lists general, curriculum, and financial assistance information about park and recreation programs for 119 colleges and universities in the U.S. and Canada. General information includes the location and mailing address of the institution, enrollment data, and tuition and fees. Curriculum information includes the program title,…

  16. Canada's hydrocarbon processing evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.; Horton, R.

    2000-01-01

    The development of petroleum refining, petrochemicals and natural gas industries in Canada are discussed together with future issues and prospects. Figures give data on (a) refined products trade 1998; (b) refining capacity; (c) product demand 1980-1999; (d) refinery crude runs and capacity; (e) refining and marketing, historical returns 1993-1999; (f) processing power index for Canada and USA; (g) ethylene capacity; (eye) Montreal petrochemical capacities; (j) Sarnia petrochemical capacities in 2000; (k) Alberta petrochemicals capacities 2001; (l) ethylene net equivalent trade; (m) ethylene costs 1999 for W. Canada and other countries. It was concluded that the hydrocarbon processing business continues to expand in Canada and natural gas processing is likely to increase. Petrochemicals may expand in W. Canada, possibly using feed stock from the Far North. Offshore developments may stimulate new processing on the E. Coast

  17. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    This discussion paper was prepared by the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada to provide information about Canada's resource potential, the contribution of energy to the Canadian economy, Canada's place in the world energy market, and the outlook for the development of Canadian energy resources. In addition, it provides background information on issues such as: energy and the environment, energy security, Canadian ownership of energy resources, energy R and D, and energy conservation. Finally, it concludes with an indication of some of the key challenges facing the energy sector. The paper is intended to inform the public and to serve as a reference document for those participating in the review of Canada's energy options. The paper was prepared before Canada and the U.S. agreed in principle on a free trade agreement (FTA) and does not include a discussion of the FTA or its potential impacts on the energy sector

  18. A Survey of Intelligent Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Faheem; S.A. Mahmud; G.M. Khan; M. Rahman; H. Zafar

    2013-01-01

    The industrialization of the world, increase in population, slow paced city development and mismanagement of the available parking space has resulted in parking related problems. There is a dire need for a secure, intelligent, efficient and reliable system which can be used for searching the unoccupied parking facility, guidance towards the parking facility, negotiation of the parking fee, along with the proper management of the parking facility. Intelligent Parking Service is a part of Intel...

  19. parkITsmart: minimization of cruising for parking

    OpenAIRE

    Tsiaras, Christos; Hobi, Livio; Hofstetter, Fabian; Liniger, Samuel; Stiller, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Finding a parking space in urban areas is a daily challenge for drivers across the world, due to the increasing amount of vehicles and the limited amount of parking spaces. Drivers who are looking for a parking space in peak hours are often forced to drive around city blocks until they spot a free parking space. This process is termed in literature “cruising for parking” and is proven to (a) cost a lot of time and gas for drivers, (b) generate unnecessary traffic load, and (c) affect the envi...

  20. Incorporating Cognitive Behavioural Therapy into a Public Health Care System: Canada and England Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noushon Farmanara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the second half of the 2000s, Canada and England have instituted differing reforms to address the inadequate provision and quality of mental health services in both nations. With growing evidence demonstrating the success and cost-effectiveness of psychotherapy, the English reform sought to expand the delivery of psychological services through the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies program (IAPT focusing on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT. In contrast, Canadian interventions at the federal level were centred on knowledge exchange and advocacy, primarily through the Mental Health Commission of Canada. While significant improvements were made during this period to increase CBT access in England, there continues to be an insufficient availability of psychological services to meet the growing need in Canada. While a national roll-out akin to the IAPT program in England is unlikely in Canada, similar reforms could be initiated at the provincial level of government. Indeed, several provincial governments have acknowledged the need for an expansion of CBT services and, over the last decade, some have tried to make CBT techniques more widely accessible. We review the case of the Bounce Back program developed in British Columbia (BC to illustrate this potential in the Canadian context. Best practices indicate that care is needed beyond the provision of psychiatric services and pharmacotherapy alone, and the initial results of both the IAPT program and BC’s Bounce Back program strongly suggest that it is possible to provide these cost-effective services in a public system.

  1. Accounting and Accountability by Provincial Councils in Fiji: the Case of Namosi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacanieli Rika

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly to examine how the concepts of accounting andaccountability are understood by indigenous Fijians; and secondly to examine the role ofaccounting in the accountability of provincial councils.Provincial councils are part of the Fijian Administration, which runs alongside the centralgovernment but applies only to indigenous Fijians. The Fijian Administration was introducedby the British colonial administration in the late 1800s as a mechanism for controllingindigenous Fijians. It has undergone several reviews resulting from criticisms that it has failedto fulfill the aspirations of indigenous Fijians.There is evidence of implied and actual accountability by indigenous Fijians in Namosi. Thisis supported by monitoring mechanisms established by provincial offices. On the other hand,neither the Fijian Affairs Board nor the Namosi Provincial Council appears to take seriousresponsibility for accounting to indigenous Fijians in the province. Sadly, there is littleevidence to demonstrate an explicit accountability to indigenous Fijians. Significant scopeexists for improving the standard of accounting and accountability by provincial councils.This study contributes to understanding the role of accounting among indigenous peoples, inthe context of inherited colonial structures. It also represents accounting research conductedby indigenous academics, primarily in the Fijian language. This enables an examination ofhow language frames understanding of accounting concepts.

  2. Government of Canada Initiatives in Support of the Joint Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.A.; Metcalfe, D.E.; Lojk, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Government of Canada strongly supported international efforts to bring into force the Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (the Joint Convention), and was the second country to ratify it. The Joint Convention places a number of obligations on Contracting Parties aimed at achieving and maintaining a high level of safety worldwide in spent fuel and radioactive waste management, ensuring that effective defenses against potential hazards are in place during all management stages, preventing accidents with radiological consequences and mitigating their consequences should they occur. In addition to establishing and maintaining a modem regulatory framework and an independent regulatory body through the 2000 Nuclear Safety and Control Act, the Government of Canada has implemented a number of initiatives that address its responsibilities and serve to further enhance Canada's compliance with the Joint Convention. For nuclear fuel waste, the Government of Canada brought into force the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act in 2002 to require waste owners to develop, fund, organize and implement a long-term solution for Canada's nuclear fuel waste. The Act clearly reserves for Government the decision on the solution to be implemented in the best interests of Canadians, as well as oversight to ensure that waste owners are fulfilling their responsibilities. In the case of low-level radioactive waste, long-term solutions are being developed to ensure the protection of health, safety, and the environment, both now and in the future. Regarding uranium mine and mill tailings, current operators have state-of-the-art waste management facilities in place. The Government of Canada works with provincial governments to ensure that any potential abandoned or legacy mines sites where no owner can be held responsible are safely decommissioned and managed over the long term. (authors)

  3. Regulatory challenges of historic uranium mines in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.H.; Stenson, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    The radium and uranium mining industry began in Canada in 1930 with the discovery of the Port Radium deposit in the Northwest Territories. During the 1950s more uranium mines opened across Canada. Most of these mines ceased operation by the end of the 1960s. Some were remediated by their owners, while others were abandoned. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), predecessor to the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), was created in 1946. However, it was not until the mid-1970s that the AECB took an active role in regulating health, safety and environmental aspects of uranium mining; so many of the older mines have never been licensed. With the coming into force of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA) in May 2000, this situation has been reviewed. The NSCA requires a licence for the possession of nuclear substances (including uranium mine tailings), or the decommissioning of nuclear facilities (including uranium mines and mills). Furthermore, governments (federal and provincial) are also subject to the NSCA, a change from the previous legislation. The CNSC has an obligation to assess these sites, regardless of ownership, and to proceed with licensing or other appropriate regulatory action. The CNSC has reviewed the status of the twenty sites in Canada where uranium milling took place historically. Eight are already licensed. Licensing actions are being pursued at the other sites. A review of nearly 100 small uranium mining or exploration sites is also underway to determine the most appropriate regulatory approach. This paper focuses on regulatory issues surrounding the historic mining and milling sites, and the regulatory approach being taken, including licensing provincial and federal government bodies who own some of the sites, and ensuring the safe management of sites that were abandoned. (author)

  4. Provincial practice: adopting the new reference levels for Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christine; Johnson, Darryl

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In June 2007 new reference levels for radon gas were announced from Health Canada. These new levels brought new attention to the issue of radon gas exposure in the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Research in radon gas exposure has a long history in the fluorspar mines of the Burin Peninsula, indeed, occupational data from the 1950 's and 60 's had been included in Darby et al. large scale occupational meta analyses. Radon was also implicated in a royal commission of occupational mining hazards in Newfoundland in 1968. Although, the occupational exposures of miners have been well documented, very little is known about population exposures in indoor spaces. Geological maps are currently being composed for national areas, but data for this province is not yet published. Information about mining tailings used in construction materials or as fill is very poor (unlike the data known for uranium mining tailings in Ontario and Manitoba). The challenges of estimating radon exposures for the province are myriad and these are explored here in this narrative study of how new information has to be generated, and then incorporated into new environmental public health policies for a population. The process by which new scientific information informs public health policy is described in this study of radon in Newfoundland and Labrador. Anticipated regulations for new buildings are discussed. (author)

  5. The today nuclear park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Ph.; Marignac, Y.; Tassart, J.

    2000-03-01

    This economic analysis of the nuclear industry, takes stock on the french nuclear park, the nuclear materials flux, the operating and in construction from 1970 to 1998 reactors, the storage and the wastes reprocessing. The second part proposes many scenario in function of the reactors lifetime and the industrial policy of fuel reprocessing. This analysis shows the interest of extending the power plants lifetime and evaluates the consequences of a reprocessing-recycling policy facing the stop of such a policy in 2010. (A.L.B.)

  6. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  7. Orlice Nature Park - environmental themes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanus, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this abstract is to outline the main characteristics of Orlice Nature Park and of the procedure of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and to evaluate public interest in the nature park and in nature protection in general. Orlice Nature Park was instituted in 1996. The function of the park is to protect the character of the area of landscape around the River Orlice. Orlice Natural Park covers an area of 115 sq. km. The main environmental risks to the park are: intensive agriculture, forest mono-culture, industry, transport, channel improvement, the building of holiday cottages, sport, and recreation. Among the conflicts of interest in the park are: nature protection, water management, building constrictions, business, fishery, water sports and recreation. During the process of Environmental Impact Assessment in Hradec Kralove, the public voiced its opinion against the building of a supermarket within the grounds of of the nature park. In this case the public showed its interest in the value of nature and landscape, the value of human health and the value of plant species. In general, the public and the local media show an interest in the park only in exceptional circumstances. (author)

  8. America's gas tank : the high cost of Canada's oil and gas export strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.; Bennett, J.

    2002-10-01

    The high environmental cost of exporting oil and gas from Canada to the United States is discussed. The increased demand for fossil fuels by the United States has coincided with Canada's deregulation of the energy industry and a greater control of Canadian energy companies by American interests. The authors note that most of the oil and gas produced in Canada is exported to the United States, where many of the extraction and production decisions affecting Canadians and the Canadian environment are made. It was cautioned that if the current trend continues, oil and gas development will degrade habitat for endangered species and greenhouse gases will escalate. This is because the fossil fuel industry, particularly the development of Alberta's tar sands, is helping to increase greenhouse gas emissions outside of Canada by selling fossil fuels that are burned outside of Canada. It is recommended that federal and provincial governments in Canada should shift their policies away from fossil fuel production and promote renewable energy production. The United States plans to increase Canadian oil and gas imports in the coming decade, requiring more wells to be drilled and pipelines to carry it. If the fossil fuel industry proceeds with the current plans, greenhouse gas emissions in Canada will grow to 827 million tonnes by 2010, 44 per cent beyond the Kyoto target, having an overall negative impact on public health, wildlife and fresh water supplies. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Lessons for a national pharmaceuticals strategy in Canada from Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeLorier, Jacques; Rawson, Nugek S B

    2007-07-01

    The provincial formulary review processes in Canada lead to the slow and inequitable availability of new products. In 2004, the exploration of a national pharmaceuticals strategy (NPS) was announced. The pricing policies of New Zealand and Australia have been suggested as possible models for the NPS. To compare health care indexes and health care use information from Canada, Australia and New Zealand. The 2006 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development health data were used to compare health and health care indexes from Canada, Australia and New Zealand between 1994 and 2002 to 2004. The principal focus of the evaluation was cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Although the mortality rate from acute myocardial infarction decreased in each country from 1994, it levelled off in New Zealand in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Between 1994 and 2003, the average length of hospital stay for any cause and for cardiovascular disorders was stable in Australia and Canada, but increased in New Zealand, while the rate of hospital discharges for cardiovascular diseases decreased in Canada and Australia, but strongly increased in New Zealand. Over the same period, sales of cardiovascular drugs decreased in New Zealand, while sharply increasing in Canada and Australia. Although only circumstantial, our results suggest an association between decreasing cardiovascular drug sales and markers of declining cardiovascular health in New Zealand. Careful consideration must be given to the potential consequences of any model for an NPS in Canada, as well as to opportunities provided for discussion and input from health care professionals and patients.

  10. ATLAS-Canada Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gable, I; Sobie, R J [HEPnet/Canada, Victoria, BC (Canada); Bedinelli, M; Butterworth, S; Groer, L; Kupchinsky, V [University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Caron, B; McDonald, S; Payne, C [TRIUMF Laboratory, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Chambers, R [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Fitzgerald, B [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Hatem, R; Marshall, P; Pobric, D [CANARIE Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Maddalena, P; Mercure, P; Robertson, S; Rochefort, M [McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); McWilliam, D [BCNet, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Siegert, M [Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], E-mail: igable@uvic.ca (and others)

    2008-12-15

    The ATLAS-Canada computing model consists of a WLCG Tier-1 computing centre located at the TRIUMF Laboratory in Vancouver, Canada, and two distributed Tier-2 computing centres in eastern and western Canadian universities. The TRIUMF Tier-1 is connected to the CERN Tier-0 via a 10G dedicated circuit provided by CANARIE. The Canadian institutions hosting Tier-2 facilities are connected to TRIUMF via 1G lightpaths, and routing between Tier-2s occurs through TRIUMF. This paper discusses the architecture of the ATLAS-Canada network, the challenges of building the network, and the future plans.

  11. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  12. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  13. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Canada's hydrogen energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    Canada produces the most hydrogen per capita of any Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) country. The majority of this hydrogen is produced by steam methane reforming for industrial use (predominantly oil upgrading and fertilizer production). Canada also has a world leading hydrogen and fuel cell sector. This sector is seeking new methods for making hydrogen for its future energy needs. The paper will discuss Canada's hydrogen and fuel cell sector in the context of its capabilities, its demonstration and commercialization activities and its stature on the world stage. (author)

  15. Male marriage squeeze and inter-provincial marriage in central China: evidence from Anhui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lige; Brown, Melissa J.; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage. PMID:26594102

  16. Male marriage squeeze and inter-provincial marriage in central China: evidence from Anhui.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lige; Jin, Xiaoyi; Brown, Melissa J; Feldman, Marcus W

    Since the 1990s, inter-provincial female migration for marriage has become important in central and eastern rural China. Using survey data from X County in rural Anhui Province, we explore the arrangement of inter-provincial marriages, as well as the characteristics of husbands and wives, marital satisfaction, and marital stability for these marriages. We find that inter-provincial marriage is an important option for local men to respond to the marriage squeeze and the increasing expense of marriage. It helps to relieve the shortage of marriageable women in the local marriage market. Because this kind of marriage is based on economic exchange, but not affection, it is often subject to a higher risk of marriage instability, and can lead to such illegal behaviors as marriage fraud and mercenary marriage.

  17. Parking Spoorzone Delft : Addressing expected parking challenges 2015-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piccot, C.; Groenendijk, L.; Rot, M.; Van der Meijs, P.; Rakers, T.; Negenborn, R.R.; Annema, J.A.; Pel, A.; Vleugel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This project is carried out on request of the BVOW, the interest group of the neighbourhoods Olofsbuurt and Westerkwartier in Delft, in order to propose solutions for the parking issue of Spoorzone Delft expected between 2015 and 2017. They are worried that parking disturbances will emerge in their

  18. Energy conservation in China: Key provincial sectors at two-digit level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Hua; Du, Jian; Wei, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We identify the keys for energy conversation across China’s 31 provinces × 65 sectors. ► The results are visualized in map and matrix tables, and easy for use. ► 39 Industrial sectors by province are classified into three categories for conservation. ► There is large energy wasting in the public management sector. ► There are both urban–rural gap and provincial inequality on electricity consumption. - Abstract: In March 2011, China’s central government set a new challenging target of reducing its energy intensity by 16% during 2011–2015, after it had achieved a reduction of 19.1% during 2006–2010. And this new target was assigned to provincial authorities in August 2011. However, China’s provincial energy-economic developments are unbalanced and different provinces have different key sectors for energy conservation. Most previous studies focused on provincial energy efficiency at the aggregate level, or the three-industry level (or one-digit level). However, whether for policy decision or academic research, it is necessary to further subdivide the sectors. In this paper, we use three indicators (Gini Coefficient, energy consumption share and energy intensity) to compare provincial energy conservation potentials at the two-digit sector level. To our knowledge, this paper is the first one to identify the keys for energy conversation across the 31 provinces × 65 sectors. And the results are shown in visualized maps and matrix tables to help identify the key province × sectors for energy conservation easier. This also helps the central and provincial governments to distinguish key sectors when they monitor the energy conservation progress

  19. A Declining Region: Provincial Renaissance Revisited (Case of Volgograd Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdova Yuliya

    2014-12-01

    context the author suggests changing the trajectory of development, building a positive image of the Volgograd region, enhancing the investment attractiveness of the region, improving the quality of life, building on the advantageous geographic and historical situation (the region’s past, natural and climatic conditions, natural resources, economic and geographic situation, agrarian conditions, prestigious universities, building trust in the authorities due to the efforts on the part of regional and municipal administration and improving the reputation of public servants, which would promote the strategy of adjusting inter-regional inequality and a renaissance of a provincial region.

  20. Canada's gas taxes = highway robbery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    This report was prepared for the second annual 'gas honesty day' (May 18, 2000) in an effort to draw attention to the frustration of Canadian taxpayers with gasoline retailers and the petroleum industry for the inordinately and unjustifiably high prices for gasoline at the pump. The report points out that the public outcry is, in fact, misdirected since the largest profiteers at the pumps, the federal government, remains largely unscathed. It is alleged in the report that gas taxes are tantamount to highway robbery. Ostensibly collected for road construction and maintenance, of the almost $ 5 billion collected in 1999, only a paltry $ 194 million was returned to the provinces for roadway and highway spending. The 10-year average of federal returns to the the provinces from tax on gasoline is a meager 4.7 per cent, which fell even further to 4.1 per cent in 1998-1999. Gasoline tax revenues continue to climb, while government commitment to real roadway and highway spending continues to decline. This document attempts to shed some light on the pricing structure for gasoline. Without defending or explaining the non-tax portion of the pump price charged by Canada's oil companies, which is a task for the oil companies to undertake, the document makes a concerted effort to raise public awareness and focus public attention on government's involvement, namely that gas taxes represent on average about 50 per cent of the pump price and that the majority of the taxes collected are not put back into road and highway improvements. The Canadian Taxpayers Federation, authors of this report, expect that by focusing debate on the issue of gasoline taxes a broad support for a lowering of the overall tax burden on motorists will result. Among other things, the CTF advocates reduction of federal and provincial fuel taxes to levels commensurate with highway funding; dedication of fuel tax revenues to highway construction and maintenance; elimination of the sales and goods

  1. Canada's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peden, W.

    1976-01-01

    Although Canada has developed the CANDU type reactor, and has an ambitious programme of nuclear power plant construction, there has been virtually no nuclear controversy. This progress was seen as a means to bring Canada out of the 'resource cow' era, and onto a more equal footing with technologically elite nations. However the Indian nuclear explosion test, waste storage problems, contamination problems arising from use of uranium ore processing waste as land fill and subsidised sale of nuclear power plants to Argentina and South Korea have initiated public and parliamentary interest. Some economists have also maintained that Canada is approaching over-supply of nuclear power and over-investment in plant. Canada has no official overall energy production plan and alternative sources have not been evaluated. (JIW)

  2. Fusion Canada issue 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    Fusion Canada's publication of the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is the CFFTP Industrial Impact Study, CCFM/TdeV Update:helium pumping, research funds, and deuterium in beryllium - high temperature behaviour. 3 figs

  3. Canada's radiation scandal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    In July 1990, Greenpeace distributed a 16-page treatise entitled 'Canada's Radiation Scandal' to a wide audience. The bottom line of the Greenpeace critique was that 'Canada's radiation limits are among the worst in the developed world'. This is a commentary on the Greenpeace pamphlet from the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), the body that sets and enforces radiation standards covering the use of nuclear energy in Canadian industry, science and medicine

  4. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    In 1974 the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources (EMR) established a Uranium Resource Appraisal Group (URAG) within EMR to audit annually Canada's uranium resources for the purpose of implementing the federal government's uranium export policy. A major objective of this policy was to ensure that Canadian uranium supplies would be sufficient to meet the needs of Canada's nuclear power program. As projections of installed nuclear power growth in Canada over the long term have been successively revised downwards (the concern about domestic security of supply is less relevant now than it was 10 years ago) and as Canadian uranium supply capabilities have expanded significantly. Canada has maintained its status as the western world's leading exporter of uranium and has become the world's leading producer. Domestic uranium resource estimates have increased to 551 000 tonnes U recoverable from mineable ore since URAG completed its last formal assessment (1982). In 1984, Canada's five primary uranium producers employed some 5800 people at their mining and milling operations, and produced concentrates containing some 11 170 tU. It is evident from URAG's 1984 assessment that Canada's known uranium resources, recoverable at uranium prices of $150/kg U or less, are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuelling requirements of those reactors that are either in opertaion now or committed or expected to be in-service by 1995. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources, recoverable within the same price range, is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Sales worth close to $1 billion annually are assured. Uranium exploration expenditures in Canada in 1983 and 1984 were an estimated $41 million and $35 million, respectively, down markedly from the $128 million reported for 1980. Exploration drilling and surface development drilling in 1983 and 1984 were reported to be 153 000 m and 197 000 m, respectively, some 85% of which was in

  5. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  6. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space

  7. Pedelec, the electric assisted bike : market and product opportunities in Canada 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russel, A.

    2002-01-01

    The mission statement of Airstream Technologies Corp. is to become the Canadian leader in marketing and distribution of advanced personal hybrid electric vehicles. This Power Point presentation describes the trends of the bicycle industry, with reference to environment, air pollution and urban transport. A new role is emerging for the bicycle as society ages and peoples' attitudes towards health awareness changes. A graph depicting the bicycle market size in major countries around the world showed that China is the world leader in market size, followed by the European Union, United States and Japan, with Canada ranking at number 12 out of 17 countries. The paper presented the Pedelec electric bike, a completely new class of vehicle which is neither a motorcycle nor a bicycle. The idea was first developed by Panasonic/National Bicycle Co. in 1978. Since then, the technology has evolved, enabling lightweight, long-range bikes. In a Pedelec, the motor is linked to muscle power, unlike a classic electric bike in which the motor is independent from pedalling. The pedal electric cycle helps the user by delivering aid when pedaling becomes strenuous. The electric motor augments the pedaling action and is only active while pedaling. The intelligent battery system allows for greater range and more precise readout of remaining charge. In major cities in Japan and China, there are currently many parking facilities with outlets for charging these bikes. The environmental benefits of these bikes include zero emission transportation and no noise. The bikes range in price from $1500 to $3000 CDN. They are perceived to be just as safe as regular bicycles. The market outlook for the bikes appears promising with potential buyers being enthusiastic baby boomers, retirees, and youth. The paper describes some of the current and future models suitable for the Canadian marketplace and describes a possible rental infrastructure. Pedelec is already federally legislated. The bikes are legal

  8. Is ‘Charter-City Status’ a Solution for Financing City Services in Canada — or Is That a Myth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Kitchen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the province of Ontario effectively granted Toronto “charter-city status,” handing the municipal government a new arsenal of tools it could use to raise additional revenue. Charter-city status has often been held up as a reasonable way to help satisfy municipal-financing demands without cities relying on property taxes and provincial transfers — something municipal politicians have been known to say they very much need. Since Toronto got its charter, however, the city has barely touched these tools. Free to impose municipal levies on bars, cars, land sales, parking lots, billboards and road tolls, the city has so far only implemented a tax on billboards and land transfers. It tried taxing vehicle registrations, but that tax was soon cancelled. Toronto is not unique in that it has been given special legislation to levy municipal taxes beyond traditional property taxes: There are nearly a dozen cities across Canada that now benefit from similar legislation. They have proven even less inclined to use additional revenue tools. Calgary and Edmonton signed a memorandum of understanding with the Alberta government to gain charter-city status; the process has gone no further than that. Most often, the reason Canada’s so-called charter cities do not seize the apparent opportunity provided by this special legislation is that it typically does not provide them that many additional tools. Toronto is, in fact, exceptional in the range of taxes it can use. One possible reason that Canadian charters have been kept within rather confining bounds is that provinces tend to be reluctant to share their tax bases more than they already do through property tax sharing. But if Toronto is any guide, even having a wider scope of taxing powers does not mean a city will take advantage of them. It may be that local politicians relish the idea of new taxes in theory, but recoil at the political reaction the new taxes are sure to provoke. After all, former

  9. Terrorism in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollek, Daniel

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews terrorism in Canada, assessing the incidence and nature of terrorist activity, the potential targets of terrorist attacks, risk factors to Canadian nationals and institutions, and the responses of the Canadian government in dealing with the threat and the effectiveness of those responses. Despite the fact that there have been no recent high-profile terrorist events in Canada, this country has a serious terrorism problem, the key manifestation of which is the multitude of terrorist organizations that have designated Canada as a base of operations. In addition, Canadians have been attacked overseas and Canadian organizations, both local and abroad, are potential targets of terrorist activity. Canadian attempts to deal with terrorism through foreign and domestic policy have been ineffective, primarily because the policies have been poorly enforced. Until recently, terrorist organizations legally could raise funds in Canada, in direct contravention of international treaties signed by Canada. It is possible that the ineffectiveness in enforcing the anti-terrorism legislation stems from hope that placating terrorist organizations, and the countries that support them, will prevent Canada from becoming a target. Unfortunately evidence from other countries has shown this strategy to be ineffective.

  10. Does public reporting measure up? Federalism, accountability and child-care policy in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lynell; Findlay, Tammy

    2010-01-01

    Governments in Canada have recently been exploring new accountability measures within intergovernmental relations. Public reporting has become the preferred mechanism in a range of policy areas, including early learning and child-care, and the authors assess its effectiveness as an accountability measure. The article is based on their experience with a community capacity-building project that considers the relationship between the public policy, funding and accountability mechanisms under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements related to child-care. The authors argue that in its current form, public reporting has not lived up to its promise of accountability to citizens. This evaluation is based on the standards that governments have set for themselves under the federal/provincial/territorial agreements, as well as guidelines set by the Public Sector Accounting Board, an independent body that develops accounting standards over time through consultation with governments.

  11. Improving Surveillance of the Impact of Influenza and Its Prevention in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Fedson

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The organization of Canada’s provincial health care systems and the administrative databases that sustain them provide physicians, epidemiologists and public health officials with unique opportunities to improve surveillance of influenza and its prevention. These databases can be used to measure the impact of influenza on excess mortality, hospitalization and costs to the health care system. They can also be used to study the epidemiology of influenza vaccination practices. Studies using the administrative database for the province of Manitoba have established the epidemiological rationale for hospital-based vaccination and have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination. As pneumococcal vaccination becomes widespread in Canada, provincial databases should also prove useful in assessing the impact of the pneumococcal infections and their prevention with pneumococcal vaccine.

  12. Taxation of non-renewable resources: Appendix A to Canada's resources and the national interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-11-01

    This report includes all revisions made in legislation and other developments up to May 1976 at both the Federal and provincial level that affect the taxation of the nonrenewable resource industries. The report is divided into four sections. Section I is a brief summary of the principal conclusions; Section II presents recent developments in the Taxation of Mining, Oil, and Gas in Canada; Section III provides estimated Federal and provincial government revenues from nonrenewable resources during the six years 1970/71 to 1975/76; and Section IV analyzes briefly the various methods used by governments to obtain additional revenues and the likely effect of these methods on the future development of the industry. (MCW)

  13. CERN in the park

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN will be the centre of debate at a 'Café scientifique' on Monday 29 April. The aim of the Cafés scientifiques, which are organised by the association of Bancs Publics, is to kindle discussion between ordinary people and specialists in a scientific field. This Monday, Maurice Bourquin, President of the CERN Council, Hans Hoffmann, Director of Technology Transfer and Scientific Computing at CERN, Gilbert Guignard, a physicist at CERN, and Ruhal Floris, who teaches mathematical didactics at the University of Geneva, will explain the usefulness and contributions to science of the world's biggest laboratory for particle physics. What is CERN for? Monday 29 April at 18.30 Musée d'histoire des sciences, Geneva (in the park Perle du Lac) Entry free Wine and buffet after the discussion

  14. Yellowcake National Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagget, D.

    1985-01-01

    Exploration for and mining of uranium ore is going on within 10 miles of the Grand Canyon National Park. The current rush started in 1980, when a Denver-based company, Energy Fuels Nuclear, took over a claim in Hack Canyon and uncovered a very rich deposit of uranium ore. Recent explorations have resulted in some 1300 claims in the area around the Grand Canyon, many of them in the Arizona Strip, the land between the Canyon and Utah. The center of current controversy is the 1872 Mining Law. Replacement of the law with a leasing system similar to that used for leasable minerals such as coal, oil shale, oil and gas, potash, and phosphate is advocated. 1 figure

  15. Incidence of social resistance in provincial mining legislation. The cases of Córdoba and Catamarca (2003-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Christel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade in Argentina, the growth of open pit mining has faced strong social resistance and provincial laws prohibiting such activity. This work aims to analyse the ways in which the different subnational political regimes and economic systems impact upon the possibility of incidence of social resistance on provincial mining legislation, looking at the cases of Cordoba and Catamarca.

  16. Toxic substances: Federal-provincial control -- rev. revised edition. Current issue review No. 88-11E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, K

    1994-12-31

    This document provides a background and analysis on federal-provincial control of toxic substances, including their control under the Canadian Constitution, legislation passed by both levels of government, political aspects, federal-provincial cooperation, the Green Plan, and the Auditor General`s report. Parliamentary action taken and a chronology of events are also included.

  17. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  18. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    Canadian uranium exploration and development efforts in 1985 and 1986 resulted in a significant increase in estimates of measured uranium resources. New discoveries have more than made up for production during 1985 and 1986, and for the elimination of some resources from the overall estimates, due to the sustained upward pressure on production costs and the stagnation of uranium prices in real terms. Canada possesses a large portion of the world's uranium resources that are of current economic interest and remains the major focus of inter-national uranium exploration activity. Expenditures for uranium exploration in Canada in 1985 and 1986 were $32 million and $33 million, respectively. Although much lower than the $130 million total reported for 1979, expenditures for 1987 are forecast to increase. Exploration and surface development drilling in 1985 and 1986 were reported to be 183 000 m and 165σ2 000 m, respectively, 85 per cent of which was in Saskatchewan. Canada has maintained its position as the world's leading producer and exporter of uranium. By the year 2000, Canada's annual uranium requirements will be about 2 100 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are either in operation now or expected to be in service by the late 1990s. A substantial portion of Canada's identified uranium resources is thus surplus to Canadian needs and available for export. Annual sales currently approach $1 billion, of which exports account for 85 per cent. Forward domestic and export contract commitments totalled 73 000 tU and 62 000 tU, respectively, as of early 1987

  19. Visual Means of Communication in a Contemporary Provincial Town (on the Example of Kurgan Graffiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Maiseeva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article considers graffiti as a means of communication in the contemporary urban environment of a provincial town. The author provides several basic approaches to the definition of graffiti and gives some key classifications of graffiti that are used as a basis for analyzing and ranking the empirical data of the research.

  20. Bridge management system for the Western Cape provincial government, South Africa: implementation and utilization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nell, AJ

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation and utilization of the bridge management system (BMS) of the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape Provincial Government. The implementation of the BMS as well as the visual assessment...

  1. Business and politics in provincial Indonesia: The batik and construction sector in Pekalongan, Central Java

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savirani, A.

    2015-01-01

    After the fall of Soeharto in 1998, and an increased connection to the global world, politics at the local level in Indonesia have changed significantly. This has contributed to a change in how business is conducted in provincial towns. This thesis explores the changing relationship between the

  2. Impact of urban structure on personal transportation in the context of a large Danish provincial city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results from a detailed study of the land use ? transport connection, with special emphasis on the location of residences, in the context of a larger Danish provincial city (the city of Aalborg with approx. 120.000 inhabitants, situated in North Jutland). The study was car...

  3. A hybrid method for provincial scale energy-related carbon emission allocation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Hongtao; Zhang, Yingxuan; Wang, Huizhi; Huang, Yanying; Xu, He

    2014-01-01

    Achievement of carbon emission reduction targets proposed by national governments relies on provincial/state allocations. In this study, a hybrid method for provincial energy-related carbon emissions allocation in China was developed to provide a good balance between production- and consumption-based approaches. In this method, provincial energy-related carbon emissions are decomposed into direct emissions of local activities other than thermal power generation and indirect emissions as a result of electricity consumption. Based on the carbon reduction efficiency principle, the responsibility for embodied emissions of provincial product transactions is assigned entirely to the production area. The responsibility for carbon generation during the production of thermal power is borne by the electricity consumption area, which ensures that different regions with resource endowments have rational development space. Empirical studies were conducted to examine the hybrid method and three indices, per capita GDP, resource endowment index and the proportion of energy-intensive industries, were screened to preliminarily interpret the differences among China's regional carbon emissions. Uncertainty analysis and a discussion of this method are also provided herein.

  4. Physical activity opportunities in Canadian childcare facilities: a provincial/territorial review of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia; Ismail, Ali; van Zandvroort, Melissa M

    2012-05-01

    Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces'/territories' childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure. A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines. PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space. All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.

  5. Chemistry 300. Administration Manual for Supervising Teachers, Provincial Examination, Answer Key--Multiple-Choice and Written-Answer Questions, and Provincial Summary Report = Chimie 300. Guide d'administration a l'intention des surveillants d'examen, Examen provincial, Cle de correction--Questions choix multiple et Questions responses ouvertes, et Rapport sommaire provincial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This collection of manuals contains the Manitoba Provincial Chemistry Examination for students seeking credit in Senior 4 Chemistry (Chemistry 300) and instructions for its use and grading. The examination is based on the Core Topics of the Senior 4 Chemistry course and accounts for 30% of the student's final grade in the course. The examination…

  6. Towards Cyber City: DKI Jakarta and Surabaya Provincial Government Digital Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Angeline

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to do a comparative study on the use of information technology in DKI Jakarta Provincial Government through Jakarta.go.id website and Surabaya City Local Government through Surabaya.go.id website. This research focused on public services and interactive use of communication media. Research method used was descriptive qualitative. Data were collected through a depth interview with Jakarta.go.id and Surabaya.go.id website administrators, observation of digital data, literature review, and through secondary data. Data analysis was done through a constant comparative technique. The results indicates that diffusion innovation theory is used by provincial government to give digital public services. It means that the government is seeking people to adopt the use of information technology in the interaction with the government. Local and Provincial Government provides a media center for public services, which the public can access information and provide input to the government. Some of the challenges show that society is not fully ready to change from conventional public services to digital public services received from the government. There is a massive need to educate society while also providing free mobile internet services. Other than that, there is also a gap in internal governmental human resources skill and competences. As a solution to some of these problems, both DKI Jakarta and Surabaya Provincial Government need to apply information technology to achieve e-government and cyber city. 

  7. Recente vondsten van breedbladige fonteinkruiden (Groenlandia en Potamogeton spec.) in de provincie Noord-Brabant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der J.; Poelmans, W.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1987 the distribution of many plant species in the central and eastern parts of the province Noord-Brabant has been mapped for country use planning by the Provincial Authorities. Distribution maps (with a 5 x 5 km² grid) of the Potamogeton (broad-leaved pondweed) species, which are important

  8. Achieving focused infrastructure investment in South Africa: Technical advances in provincial spatial planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meiklejohn, C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available for The Presidency, and in making a contribution towards addressing some of the weaknesses of provincial-level spatial planning identified in this assessment. The specific focus is on specialist services (spatial analysis and policy advice) undertaken by CSIR Built...

  9. Post-match recovery methods used by U19 and U21 provincial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to identify the most preferred post-match recovery methods utilized by U19 and U21 provincial rugby union players (n=97; Mean age: ± 20.2 years) in Gauteng Province of South Africa. Questionnaire-based data were collected from a purposive sample size of 97 rugby players. The findings ...

  10. Choosing greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demerse, C.; Bramley, M.; Craig, L.

    2008-10-01

    There is a growing consensus in Canada that climate change needs to be addressed through concrete actions. The implementation of specific policies have been impeded by concerns over economic costs. However, uncertainty over the course of policy creates a cost since businesses have little idea how to factor future environmental policies into their planning. This report examined the policy tools that federal and provincial governments have at their disposal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including carbon pricing (through cap-and-trade systems or carbon taxes), regulated standards, subsidies, infrastructure spending, research and development, and voluntary initiatives. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of these policy options, the study assessed them against a set of criteria that included environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, fairness and cost-effectiveness. The report also reviewed the real-world experience with the implementation of these policy options in Canada and internationally. In particular, the report examined carbon pricing mechanisms in detail and explored the best ways to use revenues raised through carbon pricing, and the best options to mitigate any reduced international competitiveness that Canadian industries may encounter. The report concluded with a discussion of areas for further research. It was concluded that climate policy in Canada raises a host of jurisdictional questions that would benefit from further research. 7 tabs., 2 appendices

  11. Assessing the role of large hydro in Canada's electricity future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Pochih

    1992-01-01

    Electric power in Canada was first generated by steam in the 1880s. The use of hydroelectricity spread rapidly due to abundant water resources and the nationalization of power companies by the provinces; by 1920, 97% of Canadian electricity production came from hydroelectric plants. Thermal generation became competitive by the 1960s, when most of the best hydro sites had been developed, and nuclear generation also started gaining a share of the market. By 1991, hydroelectricity's share of Canadian power production had declined to around 60%. Hydroelectric power has long been used as an instrument of Canadian industrial policy. Given the amount and importance of utility capital expenditures, it was recognized that hydropower development could serve such policy objectives as job creation, industrial development, and macroeconomic stabilization. Creation of provincially owned utilities led to construction of large hydroelectric projects, notably in Quebec, British Columbia, Manitoba, and Newfoundland. The 20 largest hydroelectric power plants in Canada have a total installed capacity of 35,704 MW, representing ca 59% of Canada's total 1991 hydro capacity. The construction of such large projects is not expected to proceed as quickly as in the past because of environmental concerns. However, a number of factors favor continuation of development of hydro resources: a remaining potential estimated at ca 44,000 MW; simplification of electricity export regulations; more stringent air pollution standards that favor non-polluting energy sources; and a moratorium on nuclear power plants in Ontario. 4 tabs

  12. 78 FR 29199 - Avani International Group, Inc., Birch Mountain Resources Ltd., Capital Reserve Canada Ltd...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Mountain Resources Ltd., Capital Reserve Canada Ltd., Dynasty Gaming, Inc. (n/k/a Blue Zen Memorial Parks, Inc.), IXI Mobile, Inc., Laureate Resources & Steel Industries Inc., Millennium Energy Corp., Shannon... a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Dynasty Gaming, Inc. (n/k/a...

  13. Partnerships in Sustainable Tourism Development: The Case of Canmore, Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianne Draper

    1992-01-01

    A variety of formal and informal "partnerships" have evolved in the course of planning for the first two of several large-scale, multi-million dollar private sector tourism development projects proposed for the small town of Canmore, adjacent to Banff National Park, Canada. This paper briefly identifies the major impetuses for and the nature of these...

  14. Understanding parking habits at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    The SMB department is setting up a monitoring system in certain CERN car parks in order to evaluate their occupancy rates and subsequently make them easier to use.    Vehicle registration plate readers (red triangles) are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Le Cèdres car park (in orange) and of the Building 4 and 5 one (in blue). The 2 other car parks (Building 40 in violet and “high-voltage” in green) will be equipped at a later stage. Vehicle registration plate readers are now installed at the entrances and exits of the Les Cèdres car park and of the Building 4 and 5 car park, both on the Meyrin site. The information collected by these readers will allow the occupancy levels of these car parks to be analysed throughout the day, establishing periods of peak usage and the pattern of vehicle movements. “We have been experiencing parking problems at CERN for several years n...

  15. Aftermath of Griffith Park Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In mid-May 2007, wind-driven flames raced through Griffith Park in Los Angeles, forcing hasty evacuations and threatening numerous famous landmarks and tourist spots, such as the Los Angeles Zoo and the Hollywood Sign. Ultimately, no one was injured in the fire, which may have been started by a cigarette. About 800 acres burned in the urban park, which is itself a Hollywood landmark, having been the location for several movies, including Rebel Without A Cause. This image of the park was captured by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite on June 6, 2007, about a month after the fire. ASTER detects both visible and infrared wavelengths of light, and both kinds have been used to make this image. Vegetation appears in various shades of red, while the burned areas appear charcoal. Roads and dense urban areas appear purplish-gray or white. Water is dark blue. Large burned areas are evident in the northwest and southeast parts of the park, with scattered smaller patches along the southern margin. Some botanical gardens and parts of a bird sanctuary, as well as some park structures like restrooms, were destroyed. The park's unburned, natural vegetation appears brick red, while the irrigated golf courses adjacent to the park are bright red. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  16. Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Driezen, Pete; Azagba, Sunday; Burkhalter, Robin

    2015-09-01

    To examine youth exposure to smoking in cars following 7 provincial bans on smoking in cars with children in Canada. Repeated cross-sectional data from the 2004-2012 Youth Smoking Survey (n=91,800) were examined. Using a quasi-experimental design, contrasts of the interaction of survey year and province included in the logistic regression analyses were used to test whether exposure significantly declined pre-post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars relative to control provinces not implementing a ban. Exposure across all provinces declined from 26.5% in 2004 to 18.2% of youth in 2012. Exposure declined significantly from pre to post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars with children in Ontario at time 1 post ban (Pre-Ban=20.4% T1post=10.3%, OR=0.45), time 2 post ban (12.1%, OR=0.61) and time 3 post ban (11.6%, OR=0.58) relative to control provinces that did not implement a ban. In British Columbia exposure to smoking in cars declined significantly at pre-post ban time 3 compared to the control group (Pre-Ban=21.2%, T3post=9.6%, OR=0.51). No other provinces had a significant change in exposure pre-post ban relative to the control provinces. Although rates declined, significant differences were only found in Ontario relative to control provinces in the immediate and long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Overview of four prescription monitoring/review programs in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Andrea D; MacDougall, Peter; Pellerin, Denise; Shaw, Karen; Spitzig, Doug; Wilson, Galt; Wright, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Prescription monitoring or review programs collect information about prescription and dispensing of controlled substances for the purposes of monitoring, analysis and education. In Canada, it is the responsibility of the provincial institutions to organize, maintain and run such programs. To describe the characteristics of four provincial programs that have been in place for >6 years. The managers of the prescription monitoring⁄review programs of four provinces (British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia) were invited to present at a symposium at the Canadian Pain Society in May 2012. In preparation for the symposium, one author collected and summarized the information. Three provinces have a mix of review and monitoring programs; the program in British Columbia is purely for review and education. All programs include controlled substances (narcotics, barbiturates and psychostimulants); however, other substances are differentially included among the programs: anabolic steroids are included in Saskatchewan and Nova Scotia; and cannabinoids are included in British Columbia and Nova Scotia. Access to the database is available to pharmacists in all provinces. Physicians need consent from patients in British Columbia, and only professionals registered with the program can access the database in Alberta. The definition of inappropriate prescribing and dispensing is not uniform. Double doctoring, double pharmacy and high-volume dispensing are considered to be red flags in all programs. There is variability among Canadian provinces in managing prescription monitoring⁄review programs.

  18. Infection control practices across Canada: do dentists follow the recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, G M; Koval, J J; John, M A; MacDonald, J K

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated provincial and territorial differences in dentists' compliance with recommended infection control practices in Canada (1995). Questionnaires were mailed to a stratified random sample of 6,444 dentists, of whom 66.4% responded. Weighted analyses included Pearson's chi-square test and multiple logistic regression. Significant provincial and territorial differences included testing for immune response after hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination, HBV vaccination for all clinical staff, use of infection control manuals and post-exposure protocols, biological monitoring of heat sterilizers, handwashing before treating patients, using gloves and changing them after each patient, heat-sterilizing handpieces between patients, and using masks and uniforms to protect against splatter of blood and saliva. Excellent compliance (compliance with a combination of 18 recommended infection control procedures) ranged from 0% to 10%; the best predictors were more hours of continuing education on infection control in the last two years, practice location in larger cities (> 500,000) and sex (female). Clearly, improvements in infection control are desirable for dentists in all provinces and territories. Extending mandatory continuing education initiatives to include infection control may promote better compliance with current recommendations.

  19. Categorizing Two Taiwanese Major Political Parties From Their Faces: The Influence of Provincial Appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Kai Chang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available People go beyond the inferences afforded by a person’s observable features to make guesses about personality traits or even social memberships such as political affiliations. The present study extended Hu et al. (2016 to further investigate the influence of provincial appearance on differentiating KMT (Kuomintang and DPP (Democratic Progressive Party candidates by headshot photos with three experiments. In Experiment 1 (Membership categorization task, participants categorized the photos from the pilot study (where the difference between the perceived age of KMT and DPP candidates was reduced and divided into four blocks by their perceived age. We found that participants were able to distinguish KMT from DPP candidates significantly better than chance, even when the perceived age difference between the two parties was minimized. In Experiment 2 (Trait rating task, we asked young and middle-aged adults to rate six traits on candidate’s photos. We found that “provincial appearance” is the core trait differentiating the two parties for both young and older participants, while “facial maturity” is another trait for older participants only. In Experiment 3 (Double categorization task, we asked participants to categorize the photos from the Exp. 1 on their membership (KMT or DPP and on provincial appearance (mainlander or native Taiwanese in two separate sessions. Results showed that young adults were likely to use the “provincial appearance” as the main characteristic cue to categorize candidates’ political membership. In sum, our study showed that Taiwanese adults could categorize the two parties by their headshot photos when age cue was eliminated. Moreover, provincial appearance was the most critical trait for differentiating between KMT and DPP candidates, which may reflect a piece of significant history during the development of the two parties.

  20. Canada's uranium policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.L.; Williams, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the Canadian Government policies which affect the uranium industry and, where appropriate, to provide some background on the development of these policies. This review is timely because of two recent announcements by the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources - one concerning the Canadian Government's renewed commitment to maintain the nuclear power option for Canada, and the other concerning some adjustments to Canada's uranium export policy. The future of Canada's nuclear industry was subject to a thorough review by the Canadian Government during 1989. This review occurred at a time when environmental issues were attracting increasing attention around the world, and the environmental advantages of nuclear power were becoming increasingly recognised. The strong support for the nuclear industry in Canada is consistent with the government's long-standing efforts to maintain Canada's position as a reliable and competitive supplier of uranium. This paper is particularly devoted to an outline of the results of the uranium export policy review. (author)

  1. Building Canada: Phase One

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2004-04-15

    The 'Building Canada' program modelled after the 'Building America' program, aims at increasing energy efficiency and affordability, primarily for single family homes. The program takes a holistic and whole house view, employing a systems approach and is committed to continuous improvement through testing, evaluation, retesting and novel construction practices. The program's objective is to re-engineer house designs so that builders can take advantage of advanced products and achieve maximum efficiency. Building Canada aims to achieve its objectives through partnership with the housing industry, focusing on increasing energy efficiency while reducing construction time, using and wasting fewer materials, forestalling call backs, and reducing overall costs. The Building Canada procedures encompass marketing, research of builder's operations, re-engineering mechanical systems, framing components and techniques, moisture control and thermal performance, construction, resolution of problems in re-engineered homes, and discussion of results in demonstration homes. The program as a whole is built on the feasibility study of a Building Canada program carried out in Nova Scotia and Ontario. Some of the results of this pilot study summarized in this report indicate that the Building Canada is not suitable for use by small builders. Benefits are most likely to be realized by only by builders constructing more than 100 homes annually.

  2. The future role of the automobile in Canada. Le role future de l'automobile au Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1982-03-01

    This paper describes the future role of the automobile from an intercity transportation perspective in multimodal contexts; it identifies courses of action open to Transport Canada officials in support of the suggested role. Discussed here is the automobile's multifaceted role, focussing mainly on its use as a mode of door-to-door travel for short trips, a feeder as well as an adjunct to public modes, a means of avoiding excessible public expenditure in highly subsidized public modes (e.g., rail), and a means for providing basic mobility in regional travel contexts. This study goes beyond the 1979 Transport Canada report with the same title by recommending courses of action that might assist officials in formulating policy, planning and other endeavours. At the outset, updated information is provided on the current status and future outlook of selected important factors that affect the future transportation role of the automobile. Against this background, the relevance of major findings of the 1979 automobile report are reviewed and gaps in knowledge identified. On the basis of this information, a future role for the automobile is discussed, with appropriate courses of action recommended. These recommendations and their institutional/program implications are addressed to Transport Canada in the areas of strategic planning and policy, energy planning, safety and coordination of actions/programs with other federal government departments and provincial governments. 48 refs., 8 tabs.

  3. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenyu Mei; Ye Tian; Dongping Li

    2012-01-01

    Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS) often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs). By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constru...

  4. Economic and social implications of biofuel use and production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, K.

    2005-01-01

    The potential role of biofuels in meeting Canadian commitments to greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The characteristics of various biofuels were presented, including ethanol, methanol, biodiesel and biogas. Benefits of biofuels included a reduction in air contaminants as well as lower greenhouse gas emissions. Federal and provincial programs are currently in place to encourage production and use of biofuels. The Federal Ethanol Expansion Plan was outlined with reference to its target to increase ethanol production from 238 m litres to 1400 m litres by 2010. The main instruments of the program include excision of the gasoline tax exemption, ethanol expansion and the fact that ethanol can operate a polyfuels vehicle fleet. Provincial policies on ethanol were outlined, driven by characteristics of provincial economies. Provincial tax exemptions for ethanol were provided and an overview of the global ethanol market was presented. A map of existing and projected ethanol projects in Canada was presented, along with a forecast of Canadian ethanol production capacity. A time-line of Nebraska's ethanol production from the years 1985 to 2004 was provided. Economic drivers for ethanol include additional markets for products of agricultural, marine and forestry industries; the enhancement and diversification of rural and regional economies; employment; and energy security. Challenges to growth in biofuel production include technological knowledge and a lack of public awareness concerning the benefits of biofuel. The production and use of biofuels may increase environmental amenities but decrease economic growth. Issues concerning the economics of biofuel research were reviewed. The demand for biofuels has grown slowly in Canada, but has been promoted or mandated federally and in several provinces. The costs of biofuel production were reviewed, with a chart presenting ethanol production costs by plant size. Barriers to trade include the complexity of provincial tax

  5. Public Drug Plan Coverage for Children Across Canada: A Portrait of Too Many Colours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Wendy J; Witkos, Maciej

    2005-01-01

    Background: As debate continues regarding pharmacare in Canada, little discussion has addressed appropriate drug plan coverage for vulnerable populations, such as children. The primary objective of this study was to determine the extent of medication coverage for children in publicly administered programs in each province across Canada. Methods: Data were collected on provincial, territorial and federal government drug plans, and 2003 formulary updates were obtained. A simulation model was constructed to demonstrate costs to a low-income family with an asthmatic child in each province. Programs were compared descriptively. The extent of interprovincial variation in 2003 formulary approvals was summarized statistically. Results: There was 39% variation between provinces with respect to 2003 formulary approvals (chi-square p Canada, only 8% of 2003 formulary approvals were indicated primarily for paediatric conditions. In the simulation model, costs were less than or equal to 3% of household income in provinces with plans for low-income families, catastrophic costs (Ontario) or for the population. Families who failed to qualify for low income plans or who resided in New Brunswick or Newfoundland faced costs up to 7% of household income. Interpretation: With regard to pharmaceutical benefits for children, provincial drug programs vary considerably in terms of whom they cover, what drugs are covered and how much subscribers must pay out of pocket. Unlike seniors and social assistance recipients, the provinces do not agree on the importance of providing comprehensive coverage for all children. For many Canadian children, significant financial barriers exist to medication access. PMID:19308106

  6. An environmental scan of policies in support of chronic disease self-management in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, C; Mill, K

    2014-02-01

    The evidence supporting chronic disease self-management warrants further attention. Our aim was to identify existing policies, strategies and frameworks that support self-management initiatives. This descriptive study was conducted as an environmental scan, consisting of an Internet search of government and other publicly available websites, and interviews with jurisdictional representatives identified through the Health Council of Canada and academic networking. We interviewed 16 representatives from all provinces and territories in Canada and found 30 publicly available and relevant provincial and national documents. Most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management. Alberta and British Columbia have the most detailed policies. Both feature primary care prominently and are not disease specific. Both also have provincial level implementation of chronic disease self-management programming. Canada's northern territories all lacked specific policies supporting chronic disease self-management despite a significant burden of disease. Engaging patients in self-management of their chronic diseases is important and effective. Although most provinces and territories have policies that incorporate aspects of chronic disease self-management, they were often embedded within other initiatives and/or policy documents framed around specific diseases or populations. This approach could limit the potential reach and effect of self-management.

  7. The wind resource assessment program in Quebec Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahawita, R.; Bilodeau, L.; Gaudette, M.; Gratton, Y.; Noel, R.; Quach, T.T.

    1982-09-01

    This paper provides an overview of the wind resource assessment programme undertaken by the provincial power utility Hydro-Quebec, in Quebec, Canada. The methodology used in different phases of the project is enunciated and explained and the results discussed. Supplementary studies of airflow over complex terrain using numerical modelling are described and the results evaluated. Since the program is still far from completion, conclusive statements cannot, at this time, be made about the viability of the wind energy resource. However, tentative conclusions are that wind energy as an alternate source of energy for the province is likely to be commerciaally viable since two of the most important requirements viz, the presence of a good wind regime and the availability of suitable land are satisfied in many regions.

  8. The Mycetophagidae (Coleoptera of the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mycetophagidae (hairy fungus beetles of the Maritime Provinces of Canada are surveyed. Seven species in the genera Mycetophagus, Litargus, and Typhaea are found in the region. Six new provincial records are reported including Mycetophagus punctatus and Mycetophagus flexuosus, whichare newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces. The distribution of all species is mapped, colour habitus photographs of all species are figured, and an identification key to species is provided. The discussion notes that four of the species found in the region are apparently rare, possibly due to the history of forest management practices in the region; a situation similar to that of a significant proportion of other saproxylic beetles found in the Maritime Provinces.

  9. Some economic implications of population dispersion in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridler, N B

    1982-01-01

    In New Brunswick, as in the rest of Atlantic Canada, the quality of life is highly prized, and for many inhabitants this means a rural life style. New Brunswick (with the exception of Prince Edward Island) is the most rural of the Canadian provinces. In addition, over time it is becoming more rural. This paper examines some of the economic implications arising from the rural life style. The provincial government also has expressed concern over rural dispersion in New Brunswick, hence this paper is predominantly policy-oriented. It argues that social costs are considerable, and advocates increased emphasis on user-pay pricing. The intention is not to prohibit rural non-farm residence, but merely to charge rural dwellers a portion of the social costs they impose. The political feasibility of such a policy is open to question, but the alternatives may be increased tax rates or a reduced level of service, and these may be even more politically unpopular.

  10. Influence of Parking Price on Parking Garage Users’ Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Simićević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Parking charge is a powerful tool for solving parking and traffic congestion problems. In order to achieve the expected effects without any adverse impact it is necessary to understand well the users’ responses to this policy. This paper, based on a sample of interviewed parking garage users, has developed binary logit model for identification and quantification of characteristics of users and trips, on which the acceptance of parking price is dependent. In addition, multinomial logit model has been made in order to predict what the users will opt for when faced with an increase in parking price. For the first time the parameter “shorten duration” has been introduced which has shown to be the most significant in making behaviour-related decisions. The results show that the users with the purpose work are the most sensitive to an increase in parking charge, what can be deemed positive for policy makers. However, great sensitivity of the users with the purpose shopping should cause their concern. The results of the multinomial model show that they would not discontinue coming into the area after all.

  11. Canada's domestic nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Interfaith Program for Public Awareness of Nuclear Issues (IPPANI) is a committee of representatives of religious groups in Toronto, a group of people concerned about the moral and ethical implications of the operation of Canada's nuclear industry and of its exports to other countries. The faith groups represented are the Anglican Diocese of Toronto, the Baha'i Community of Canada, the Jewish Community of Toronto, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto and the United Church of Canada Toronto Conference. Wishing to encourage the Canadian government to enquire into this broad question, the faith groups established IPPANI and assigned to it the task of enhancing their knowledge of the nuclear industry. IPPANI was to develop an effective set of questions to be placed before governments and to promote public discussion so that governments might become more responsive to these issues

  12. Cardiac Rehabilitation Series: Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Sherry L.; Bennett, Stephanie; Ardern, Chris I.; Clark, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity in Canada. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a long robust history here, and there are established clinical practice guidelines. While the effectiveness of CR in the Canadian context is clear, only 34% of eligible patients participate, and strategies to increase access for under-represented groups (e.g., women, ethnic minority groups) are not yet universally applied. Identified CR barriers include lack of referral and physician recommendation, travel and distance, and low perceived need. Indeed there is now a national policy position recommending systematic inpatient referral to CR in Canada. Recent development of 30 CR Quality Indicators and the burgeoning national CR registry will enable further measurement and improvement of the quality of CR care in Canada. Finally, the Canadian Association of CR is one of the founding members of the International Council of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, to promote CR globally. PMID:24607018

  13. Canada Among Nations 2014. Crisis and Reform: Canada and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mai 2014 ... This 28th edition of the Canada Among Nations series examines the 2008 global financial crisis, its impact on Canada, and the country's historic and current role in the international financial system.

  14. Structure of a forested urban park: implications for strategic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Andrew A; Sabir, Senna

    2010-11-01

    Informed management of urban parks can provide optimal conditions for tree establishment and growth and thus maximize the ecological and aesthetic benefits that trees provide. This study assesses the structure, and its implications for function, of the urban forest in Allan Gardens, a 6.1 ha downtown park in the City of Toronto, Canada, using the Street Tree Resource Analysis Tool for Urban Forest Managers (STRATUM). Our goal is to present a framework for collection and analysis of baseline data that can inform a management strategy that would serve to protect and enhance this significant natural asset. We found that Allan Garden's tree population, while species rich (43), is dominated by maple (Acer spp.) (48% of all park trees), making it reliant on very few species for the majority of its ecological and aesthetic benefits and raising disease and pest-related concerns. Age profiles (using size as a proxy) showed a dominance of older trees with an inadequate number of individuals in the young to early middle age cohort necessary for short- to medium-term replacement. Because leaf area represents the single-most important contributor to urban tree benefits modelling, we calculated it separately for every park tree, using hemispheric photography, to document current canopy condition. These empirical measurements were lower than estimates produced by STRATUM, especially when trees were in decline and lacked full canopies, highlighting the importance of individual tree condition in determining leaf area and hence overall forest benefits. Stewardship of natural spaces within cities demands access to accurate and timely resource-specific data. Our work provides an uncomplicated approach to the acquisition and interpretation of these data in the context of a forested urban park. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multinational underground nuclear parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, C.W. [Nuclear Engineering and Nonproliferation Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS F650, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Giraud, K.M. [Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, 1550 Oxen Lane NE, P.O. Box 411, Burlington, KS 66839-0411 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Newcomer countries expected to develop new nuclear power programs by 2030 are being encouraged by the International Atomic Energy Agency to explore the use of shared facilities for spent fuel storage and geologic disposal. Multinational underground nuclear parks (M-UNPs) are an option for sharing such facilities. Newcomer countries with suitable bedrock conditions could volunteer to host M-UNPs. M-UNPs would include back-end fuel cycle facilities, in open or closed fuel cycle configurations, with sufficient capacity to enable M-UNP host countries to provide for-fee waste management services to partner countries, and to manage waste from the M-UNP power reactors. M-UNP potential advantages include: the option for decades of spent fuel storage; fuel-cycle policy flexibility; increased proliferation resistance; high margin of physical security against attack; and high margin of containment capability in the event of beyond-design-basis accidents, thereby reducing the risk of Fukushima-like radiological contamination of surface lands. A hypothetical M-UNP in crystalline rock with facilities for small modular reactors, spent fuel storage, reprocessing, and geologic disposal is described using a room-and-pillar reference-design cavern. Underground construction cost is judged tractable through use of modern excavation technology and careful site selection. (authors)

  16. Architectural heritage or theme park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignasi Solà-Morales

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The growing parallelism between the perception and the consumer use of theme parks and architectural heritage gives rise to a reflection about the fact that the architectural object has been turned into a museum piece, stripped  of its original value and its initial cultural substance to become images exposed to multiple gazes, thus producing what the author calis the "Theme Park effect", with consequences on protected architecture.

  17. Historical changes in caribou distribution and land cover in and around Prince Albert National Park: land management implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Arlt

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In central Saskatchewan, boreal woodland caribou population declines have been documented in the 1940s and again in the 1980s. Although both declines led to a ban in sport hunting, a recovery was only seen in the 1950s and was attributed to wolf control and hunting closure. Recent studies suggest that this time, the population may not be increasing. In order to contribute to the conservation efforts, historical changes in caribou distribution and land cover types in the Prince Albert Greater Ecosystem (PAGE, Saskatchewan, were documented for the period of 1960s to the present. To examine changes in caribou distribution, survey observations, incidental sightings and telemetry data were collated. To quantify landscape changes, land cover maps were created for 1966 and 2006 using current and historic forest resources inventories, fire, logging, and roads data. Results indicate that woodland caribou are still found throughout the study area although their distribution has changed and their use of the National Park is greatly limited. Results of transition prob¬abilities and landscape composition analyses on the 1966 and 2006 land cover maps revealed an aging landscape for both the National Park and provincial crown land portions of the PAGE. In addition, increased logging and the development of extensive road and trail networks on provincial crown land produced significant landscape fragmentation for woodland caribou and reduced functional attributes of habitat patches. Understanding historical landscape changes will assist with ongoing provincial and federal recovery efforts for boreal caribou, forest management planning activities, and landscape restoration efforts within and beyond the Park boundaries.

  18. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catania, Peter; Wilson, Malcolm

    1999-01-01

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m 3 . The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m 3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m 3 . Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m 3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at

  19. Exploring en-route parking type and parking-search route choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Bekhor, Sholomo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the first phase of an on-going research investigating the joint choice of parking type, parking facility and cruising-for-parking route. The importance of this issue derives from the significant share of cruising-for-parking traffic in urban areas, the relevance of parking po...

  20. Policy silences: why Canada needs a National First Nations, Inuit and Métis health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Josée G

    2013-12-27

    Despite attempts, policy silences continue to create barriers to addressing the healthcare needs of First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The purpose of this article is to answer the question, if what we have in Canada is an Aboriginal health policy patchwork that fails to address inequities, then what would a Healthy Aboriginal Health Policy framework look like? The data collected included federal, provincial and territorial health policies and legislation that contain Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit and/or Métis-specific provisions available on the internet. Key websites included the Parliamentary Library, federal, provincial and territorial health and Aboriginal websites, as well as the Department of Justice Canada, Statistics Canada and the Aboriginal Canada Portal. The Indian Act gives the Governor in Council the authority to make health regulations. The First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) of Health Canada historically provided health services to First Nations and Inuit, as a matter of policy. FNIHB's policies are few, and apply only to Status Indians and Inuit. Health legislation in 2 territories and 4 provinces contain no provision to clarify their responsibilities. In provinces where provisions exist, they broadly focus on jurisdiction. Few Aboriginal-specific policies and policy frameworks exist. Generally, these apply to some Aboriginal peoples and exclude others. Although some Aboriginal-specific provisions exist in some legislation, and some policies are in place, significant gaps and jurisdictional ambiguities remain. This policy patchwork perpetuates confusion. A national First Nation, Inuit and Métis policy framework is needed to address this issue.

  1. Consumer energy-conservation policy in Canada: behavioural and institutional obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G. (Wilfrid Laurier Univ., Waterloo, Ontario); Mank, R.B.

    1982-09-01

    This paper posits that if consumer energy-conservation policy is to succeed in Canada, both behavioral and institutional obstacles must be identified and overcome. The behavioral barriers, identified through a national household survey, include consumer resistance to policies that affect their lifestyles. The institutional barriers obtained from a series of interviews with government officials, include weak federal-provincial relations. Viewed from a federal perspective, these obstacles are discussed and then linked to policy types. A prior understanding of the obstacles that a particular program type is likely to face should allow more-effective execution of the program and enhance the probability of success. 11 references, 7 tables.

  2. Wireless based Smart Parking System using Zigbee

    OpenAIRE

    Hamzah Asyrani Bin Sulaiman; Mohd Fareez Bin Mohd Afif; Mohd Azlishah Bin Othman; Mohamad Harris Bin Misran; Maizatul Alice Binti Meor Said

    2013-01-01

    One of main issues of developing big parking space for shopping complexes, office complexes and other types of building that requires large parking space is to notify the visitors of occupied and nonoccupied parking space. Most of the visitors might spending up to 30 to 45 minutes just to find an empty parking space. In most recent technology, some parking lot system offered a system that could automatically count when the car entering the empty car space and blocking an infrared signal thus ...

  3. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  4. Fusion Canada issue 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs

  5. Fusion Canada issue 17

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs

  6. Fusion Canada issue 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs.

  7. Suicide in Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leenaars, Antoon A

    1998-01-01

    ... provides long-awaited information that focuses specifically on Canada. It addresses suicide as a multidimensional problem with biological, psychological, cultural, sociological, personal, and philosophical aspects. The contributions integrate both critical analysis and personal experience. There are accounts from Inuit elders, fr...

  8. Fusion Canada issue 22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs

  9. Fusion Canada issue 28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue the Canada - US fusion meeting in Montreal, fusion breeder work in Chile, new management at CFFTP, fast electrons in tokamaks: new data from TdeV, a program review of CCFM and Velikhov to address Montreal fusion meeting. 1 fig

  10. Fusion Canada issue 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on increased funding for the Canadian Fusion Program, news of the compact Toroid fuelling gun, an update on Tokamak de Varennes, the Canada - U.S. fusion meeting, measurements of plasma flow velocity, and replaceable Tokamak divertors. 4 figs.

  11. Coal in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salaff, S.

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the potential market for coal-fired independent power projects in western Canada. The topics of the article include emissions issues, export potential for power produced, and financial and other assistance to independent power producers offered by British Columbia Hydro and coal mining companies in the region, including financing of projects and power distribution services including connecting to the USA grids

  12. Fusion Canada issue 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue are CFFTP highlights on the Karlsruhe Isotope Separation System, a report on ITER tritium process systems, an experimental update on Tokamak de Varennes and Canada-U.S. bilateral technical collaboration topics. 2 figs.

  13. Nuclear technology in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This pamphlet provides a summary of the research being carried out by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. The design and development of the CANDU type reactor are highlighted and the contribution of nuclear technology to medicine, agriculture and the Canadian economy is briefly discussed

  14. Fusion Canada issue 26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue tritium supply for Japanese research, Canada to host the 1995 IAEA Conference on Tritium, studies on the tokamak divertor and edge plasma studies, a tritium field release study, erosion studies on plasma facing materials, G. Pacher returns to CCFM and an update on CCFM/TdeV

  15. Indian Arts in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawow, 1974

    1974-01-01

    A recent publication, "Indian Arts in Canada", examines some of the forces, both past and present, which are not only affecting American Indian artists today, but which will also profoundly influence their future. The review presents a few of the illustrations used in the book, along with the Introduction and the Foreword. (KM)

  16. The butterflies of Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Layberry, Ross A; Hall, Peter W; Lafontaine, J. Donald

    1998-01-01

    ... for the close to three hundred butterfly species recorded in Canada, including descriptions of early stages, subspecies, and key features that help distinguish similar species. Each species of butterfly has an individual distribution map, generated from a database of more than 90,000 location records. More than just a field guide to identifying Canadian butterfli...

  17. Fusion Canada issue 22

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program highlighting in this issue a bi-lateral meeting between Canada and Japan, water and hydrogen detritiation, in-situ tokamak surface analysis, an update of CCFM/TdeV and tritium accounting Industry guidance in Fusion, fast probe for plasma-surface interaction. 4 figs.

  18. Fusion Canada issue 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-11-01

    A short bulletin from the National Fusion Program. Included in this issue is a report on availability of Canadian Tritium, an ITER update, a CCFM update on Tokamak and the new team organization, an international report on Fusion in Canada and a Laser Fusion Project at the University of Toronto. 3 figs

  19. Nuclear regulatory developments in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper from CNSC discusses nuclear regulatory developments in Canada. It starts with the Fukushima accident and the effect on the nuclear sector. It summarises what CNSC has done, what it has learned and their plans going forward. It has made recommendations to IAEA for international enhancements to regulatory procedures. It outline the activities of Canada's nuclear power plants, Canada's uranium projects, deep geological repository and waste management as well as nuclear research in Canada.

  20. Uranium in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    In 1988 Canada's five uranium producers reported output of concentrate containing a record 12,470 metric tons of uranium (tU), or about one third of total Western world production. Shipments exceeded 13,200 tU, valued at $Cdn 1.1 billion. Most of Canada's uranium output is available for export for peaceful purposes, as domestic requirements represent about 15 percent of production. The six uranium marketers signed new sales contracts for over 11,000 tU, mostly destined for the United States. Annual exports peaked in 1987 at 12,790 tU, falling back to 10,430 tU in 1988. Forward domestic and export contract commitments were more than 70,000 tU and 60,000 tU, respectively, as of early 1989. The uranium industry in Canada was restructured and consolidated by merger and acquisition, including the formation of Cameco. Three uranium projects were also advanced. The Athabasca Basin is the primary target for the discovery of high-grade low-cost uranium deposits. Discovery of new reserves in 1987 and 1988 did not fully replace the record output over the two-year period. The estimate of overall resources as of January 1989 was down by 4 percent from January 1987 to a total (measured, indicated and inferred) of 544,000 tU. Exploration expenditures reached $Cdn 37 million in 1987 and $59 million in 1988, due largely to the test mining programs at the Cigar Lake and Midwest projects in Saskatchewan. Spot market prices fell to all-time lows from 1987 to mid-1989, and there is little sign of relief. Canadian uranium production capability could fall below 12,000 tU before the late 1990s; however, should market conditions warrant output could be increased beyond 15,000 tU. Canada's known uranium resources are more than sufficient to meet the 30-year fuel requirements of those reactors in Canada that are now or are expected to be in service by the late 1990s. There is significant potential for discovering additional uranium resources. Canada's uranium production is equivalent, in

  1. Planning and exercise experiences related to an off-site nuclear emergency in Canada: the federal component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Canadian Government's Federal Nuclear Emergency Response Plan (off-site) (FNERP) was issued in 1984. In this plan, a nuclear emergency is defined as an emergency involving the release of radionuclides but does not include the use of nuclear weapons against North America. Because of the federal nature of Canada and its large area, special considerations are required for the plan to cover both the response to nuclear emergencies where the national government has primary responsibility and to provincial requests for assistance where the federal response becomes secondary to the provincial. The nuclear emergencies requiring the implementation of this plan are: (a) an accident in the nuclear energy cycle in Canada with off-site implications; (b) an accident in the nuclear energy cycle in another country which may affect Canada; (c) nuclear weapons testing with off-site implications which may affect Canada; and (d) nuclear-powered devices impacting on Canadian territory. Each emergency requires a separate sub-plan and usually requires different organizations to respond. Some scenarios are described. The Department of National Health and Welfare has established a Federal Nuclear Emergency Control Centre (FNECC). The FNECC participated in September 1985 in an exercise involving a nuclear reactor facility in the Province of Ontario and the experience gained from this activity is presented. The FNECC co-operates with its counterparts in the United States of America through a nuclear emergency information system and this network is also described. (author)

  2. Canada country report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrill, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    1 - Nuclear 2007 highlights: New Build Applications and Environmental Assessments (Ontario Power Generation (OPG), Bruce Power, Bruce Power Alberta), Refurbishments (Bruce Power's Bruce A Units 1 and 2 Restart Project, NB Power's Refurbishment of Point Lepreau, New Brunswick, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) NRU 50. Anniversary, expansion of the solid radioactive waste storage facilities at Gentilly-2 nuclear generating station, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) Deep Geologic Repository..); 2. Nuclear overview: a. Energy policy (Future of nuclear power, state of the projects, schedule, Refurbishment), b. Public acceptance, Statements from Government Officials in Canada; c. Nuclear equipment (number and type); d. Nuclear waste management, Deep Geologic Repository; e. Nuclear research at AECL; f. Other nuclear activities (Cameco Corporation, MDS Nordion); 3. Nuclear competencies; 4. WIN 2007 Main Achievements: GIRLS Science Club, Skills Canada, WiN-Canada Web site, Book Launch, WINFO, 2007 WiN-Canada conference 4 - Summary: - 14.6% of Canada's electricity is provided by Candu nuclear reactors; Nuclear equipment: 10 Research or isotope producing reactors - Pool-Type; Slowpoke 2; Sub-Critical assembly; NRU; and Maple; 22 Candu reactors providing electricity production - 18 of which are currently operating. Public acceptance: 41% feel nuclear should play more of a role, 67% support refurbishment, 48% support new build, 13% point gender gap in support, with men supporting more than women. Energy policy: Future of nuclear power - recognition that nuclear is part of the solution across Canada; New Build - 3 applications to regulator to prepare a site for new build, in Provinces of Ontario and Alberta, with one feasibility study underway in New Brunswick; Refurbishment - Provinces of Ontario (2010) and New Brunswick (2009). Nuclear waste management policy: Proposal submitted to regulator to prepare, construct and operate a deep geologic disposal facility in Ontario

  3. Public parks as urban tourism in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiati, M. P.; Lestari, N. S.; Wiastuti, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable urban tourism development should provide better places for people to live in and for people to visit. Jakarta as the capital city has a potential for its urban tourism. Thus, urban tourism attribute such as Public Park should be in high- quality to cope with the needs of urban people and outside visitors. The purpose of this study is to investigate Public Park attributes and to analyze its compliance refer to Public Park that eventually supports sustainable urban tourism. This paper used a qualitative approach. Primary data obtain from direct field observation in seven Public Parks in Jakarta; Menteng Park, Suropati Park, Situ Lembang Park, Ayodhya Park, Cattleya Park, Kodok Park, and Langsat Park. Observation checks list use as guidance. The result provides an assessment of Public Park based on four categories; the accessibility, park activities, safety, and user. The implication of this study offers recommendations to enhance Public Park so that it complies with good public park design- attributes and with the obligations of sustainable urban tourism in Jakarta.

  4. Parking management : strategies, evaluation and planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litman, T.A.

    2006-01-01

    Parking facilities are a major cost to society. Current planning practices are based on the assumption that parking should be abundant and provided free, with costs borne indirectly. This report examined parking management strategies related to integrated parking plans. Problems with current parking planning practices were reviewed. The costs of parking facilities were examined, as well as the savings that can accrue from improved management techniques. Strategies included shared parking; remote parking and shuttle services; walking and cycling improvements; improved enforcement and control; and increasing the capacity of existing parking facilities. Parking pricing methods, financial incentives and parking tax reforms were reviewed. Issues concerning user information and marketing were examined. Overflow parking plans were evaluated. Three illustrative examples of parking management programs were outlined, along with details of implementation, planning and evaluation procedures. It was concluded that cost-effective parking management programs can often reduce parking requirements by 20 to 40 per cent compared with conventional planning requirements, in addition to providing economic, social and environmental benefits. 32 refs., 7 tabs., 3 figs

  5. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, P; Williams, C; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N

    2014-01-01

    -river live passage tests for a wide variety of fish species. Latest test results indicate fish passage survivability close to 100%. Further fish studies are planned in Canada later this year. Successful deployment must meet societal requirements to gain community acceptance and public approval. Aesthetics considerations include low noise, disguised control buildings and vigilant turbine integration into the low profile existing structures. The resulting design was selected for deployment at existing historic National Park waterway structures. The integration of all of these design elements permits the successful deployment of the VLH turbine in Canada

  6. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    -river live passage tests for a wide variety of fish species. Latest test results indicate fish passage survivability close to 100%. Further fish studies are planned in Canada later this year. Successful deployment must meet societal requirements to gain community acceptance and public approval. Aesthetics considerations include low noise, disguised control buildings and vigilant turbine integration into the low profile existing structures. The resulting design was selected for deployment at existing historic National Park waterway structures. The integration of all of these design elements permits the successful deployment of the VLH turbine in Canada.

  7. Electric power in Canada 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs

  8. Electric power in Canada 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Electric power in Canada is given a comprehensive review by the Electricity Branch of the Department of Natural Resources Canada. The Electric Power Industry is scrutinized for electricity consumption, generation, trade and pricing across all of Canada. 98 tabs. 26 figs.

  9. The burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarride, J-E; Hopkins, R B; Leslie, W D; Morin, S; Adachi, J D; Papaioannou, A; Bessette, L; Brown, J P; Goeree, R

    2012-11-01

    To update the 1993 burden of illness of osteoporosis in Canada, administrative and community data were used to calculate the 2010 costs of osteoporosis at $2.3 billion in Canada or 1.3% of Canada's healthcare expenditures. Prevention of fractures in high-risk individuals is key to decrease the financial burden of osteoporosis. Since the 1996 publication of the burden of osteoporosis in 1993 in Canada, the population has aged and the management of osteoporosis has changed. The study purpose was to estimate the current burden of illness due to osteoporosis in Canadians aged 50 and over. Analyses were conducted using five national administrative databases from the Canadian Institute for Health Information for the fiscal-year ending March 31 2008 (FY 2007/2008). Gaps in national data were supplemented by provincial and community data extrapolated to national levels. Osteoporosis-related fractures were identified using a combination of most responsible diagnosis at discharge and intervention codes. Fractures associated with severe trauma codes were excluded. Costs, expressed in 2010 dollars, were calculated for osteoporosis-related hospitalizations, emergency care, same day surgeries, rehabilitation, continuing care, homecare, long-term care, prescription drugs, physician visits, and productivity losses. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to measure the impact on the results of key assumptions. Osteoporosis-related fractures were responsible for 57,413 acute care admissions and 832,594 hospitalized days in FY 2007/2008. Acute care costs were estimated at $1.2 billion. When outpatient care, prescription drugs, and indirect costs were added, the overall yearly cost of osteoporosis was over $2.3 billion for the base case analysis and as much as $3.9 billion if a proportion of Canadians were assumed to be living in long-term care facilities due to osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease that affects a large segment of the adult population and results in a

  10. La Comisión Provincial de Monumentos de Murcia : precedentes y actuaciones (1835-1865

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Martínez Pino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recoge este artículo la labor desarrollada por la Comisión Provincial de Monumentos de Murcia desde su creación en 1844 hasta su reorganización en 1865. Procura este estudio también plasmar las actividades llevadas a cabo por la Comisión Científico Artística de Murcia, como organismo precedente de las Comisiones de Monumentos.This article puts forward the work developed by the Provincial Commission on Monuments of Murcia (Spain since it was created in 1844 until its reorganization in 1865. This research also tries to capture the activities carried out by the Scientific Artistic Commission of Murcia (Spain, as the predecessor of the Commission on Monuments.

  11. [Purveyors of technology: provincial engineers and the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiany Silva

    2011-01-01

    The article analyzes the role played by engineers in the construction of road infrastructure in Minas Gerais between the 1840s and 1880s. Building and providing regular maintenance for roads and bridges was a task carried out by the Minas Gerais provincial government, which since the 1830s had a specific agency assigned to designing, building, and maintaining public communication routes. Engineers were part of the agency from its inception, playing a significant role in designing projects and in the actual execution of certain works. The current study is grounded in administrative documentation in which the details of work progress are reported to the provincial government. The gathered records provide technical, administrative, and financial information, along with data on labor power and the agents engaged in construction works.

  12. A General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iPhone Operating System of Shandong Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Z.; Xiang, H.

    2014-04-01

    The paper discusses the basic principles and the problem solutions during the design and implementation of the mobile GIS system, and base on the research result, we developed the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS of Shandong Province. The system is developed in the Objective-C programming language, and use the ArcGIS Runtime SDK for IOS as the development tool to call the "World-map Shandong" services to implement the development of the General Provincial Situation Visualization System Based on iOS devices. The system is currently available for download in the Appstore and is chosen as the typical application case of ESRI China ArcGIS API for iOS.

  13. Accounting Change and Institutional Capacity: The Case of a Provincial Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryono P. Kamase

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a reporting system change of a provincial government in Indonesia. The study also draws attention to the institutional capacity of the provincial administration andimplementation problems it encountered in adopting an accrual accounting system. Following the work of Lapsley and Pallot (2000, this study uses economic and institutional perspectives in conceptualising how an accounting change has been undertaken. The study shows that from an economic based perspective, the adoption of the new reporting system was stimulated by the wish to improve government organisations’ performance in the country. It is also found that the change of the reporting system was not accompanied by the separation of the roles of elected local officials (i.e. the governor and local parliamentary members as politicians and decision-makers in the allocation of funding and budget formulation in theprovincial government. This situation undermines the instrumental roles of accounting for decision making. Moreover, drawing upon institutional theory, the adoption of the new reporting system at provincial level in the country is indicated by the presence of coercive pressure as local administrations in Indonesia are required to comply with rules imposed by the central government. However, based on the experience of a provincial government in implementing the new accounting system, the policy to adopt the new accounting regime fails to recognise a low level of institutional capacity of local administrations. As a consequence, the institutionalisation of the new accounting system has yet to bring intended outcomes. Inthis vein, the role of accounting as a political tool for controlling people overshadows its roles for efficiency and performance improvement. As the study demonstrates the use of mixedmethodological perspectives (i.e. economic and institutional theories is useful to fully capture and understand the dynamic process of accounting change in a

  14. Business and politics in provincial Indonesia: The batik and construction sector in Pekalongan, Central Java

    OpenAIRE

    Savirani, A.

    2015-01-01

    After the fall of Soeharto in 1998, and an increased connection to the global world, politics at the local level in Indonesia have changed significantly. This has contributed to a change in how business is conducted in provincial towns. This thesis explores the changing relationship between the state and business after decentralization policy in 2001 followed by various technocratic approach in public sector. The study focuses on two business sectors: the batik and construction in Pekalongan,...

  15. A Comprehensive Assessment and Spatial Analysis of Vulnerability of China’s Provincial Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongqiang Ren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability theory is a fundamental scientific knowledge system in sustainable development, and vulnerability assessment is important in vulnerability studies. Economic vulnerability affects economic growth sustainability. Comprehensive assessment of economic vulnerability in the process of economic growth under the theoretical framework of vulnerability will provide a new perspective for vulnerability studies. Based on a vulnerability scoping diagram assessment model, this study selected 22 economic sensitivity indexes and 25 economic adaptability indexes from the economic, social, and nature–resource–environmental subsystems to comprehensively assess and spatially analyse the vulnerability of China’s provincial economies since the year 2000, while applying the entropy method, multilevel extension assessment, spatial measurement method, and geographic information system technology. The results showed the following: (1 There are great differences in the vulnerability of China’s provincial economies. Western China’s vulnerability is higher and the fluctuation range of economic vulnerability is larger. The vulnerability increased significantly based on spatial differential features; (2 Regional differences in economic vulnerability, mainly caused by differences within a region, increased gradually. Eastern and Western China showed the spatial pattern characteristics of prominent and reinforcing regional imbalance, while Central and Northeast China showed declining regional imbalance. The spatial structure evolution of economic vulnerability is characterized by a volatility curve, and regional separation and divergence are strengthened; (3 Growth of China’s provincial economies and economic vulnerability are related negatively. In Eastern, Central, and Northeast China, vulnerability of the provincial economies has a negative spillover effect on neighbouring provinces’ economic growth, while in Western China it has a slight positive

  16. National Pharmacare in Canada: 2019 or Bust?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen Adams

    2017-03-01

    even be the appropriate Canadian system, particularly in light of how significant a factor private coverage already is in Canada. A pharmacare plan might include anything from the drastic step of eliminating all private coverage and subsidizing all prescription medicine for all patients regardless of income, to a much narrower program that covers some portion of the cost of only some drugs, for some income levels. There are also countless different possible models between those two. The matter of how much each level of government, provincial/territorial or federal, would be responsible for funding drugs is a whole other, rather thorny matter. The timing of this latest discussion about pharmacare — stimulated mainly by recent proposals and fuelled by the success of the pan-Canadian Pharmaceutical Alliance in negotiating better bulk drug prices — is also particularly unfavourable. There has been a sudden shift in the dynamic between the federal government and the provinces, where before premiers stood together and collectively bargained with the federal government for health-care funding, but recently splintered and are now making individual deals (while Quebec continues to insist that it must have complete freedom from Ottawa to design its own health system. The difficult fiscal situation across Canada, with so many governments running up debts, would also seem to make it highly unlikely that there will be much enthusiasm for embarking on a new and sizeable social program costing billions of dollars a year. Lacking enough leaders to passionately champion it, and with a public generally uninterested and very unclear on what a national pharmacare program would even entail, it seems that the current discussion about implementing a pharmacare system may come to a stall, like so many discussions before it

  17. A comparison of catastrophic injury incidence rates by Provincial Rugby Union in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Marelise; Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Mechelen, Willem; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Baerecke, Gail; Brown, James C

    2017-07-01

    To compare catastrophic injury rates between the 14 South African Provincial Rugby Unions. A prospective, population-based study conducted among all South African Unions between 2008-2014. Player numbers in each Union were obtained from South African Rugby's 2013 Census. Catastrophic injuries were analysed from BokSmart's serious injury database. Incidence rates with 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Catastrophic injuries (Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries) within Unions were compared statistically, using a Poisson regression with Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and a 95% confidence level (pUnion ranged from 1.8 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-6.5) to 7.9 (95% CI: 0.0-28.5) per 100000 players per year. The highest incidence rate of permanent outcome Acute Spinal Cord Injuries was reported at 7.1 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-17.6). Compared to this Union, five (n=5/14, 36%) of the Unions had significantly lower incidence rates of Acute Spinal Cord Injuries. Proportionately, three Unions had more Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and three other Unions had more catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries. There were significant differences in the catastrophic injury incidence rates amongst the Provincial Unions in South Africa. Future studies should investigate the underlying reasons contributing to these provincial differences. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Foreign University Involvement in Sustainable New Town Planning in Provincial China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David. J. Edelman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recent concern with sustainable urban development has focused on the widespread development of new towns and the expansion of cities throughout China. In recent decades, an increasing number of planning and design professionals in the United States and Europe have undertaken consulting work in China. This study examines the first instance of a Chinese city funding an American academic planning unit to create a conceptual plan for a new town. The School of Planning from the University of Cincinnati was commissioned to prepare the conceptual plan for the Anyang Eastern New Town. Prior to the drafting of the plan, faculty and students visited the site on a reconnaissance and data gathering mission, undertook research and studio work, organized presentations, and navigated the labyrinthine bureaucracy at the local, provincial, and national levels. These experiences differ considerably from those encountered in places such as Shanghai and the southern coastal plain region. This article identifies a number of issues that play a key role in the success of projects involving American or European Universities in conjunction with the Chinese government, particularly provincial authorities. This paper provides a valuable reference for any organization involved in such undertakings. KEYWORDS: Chinese urban planning, sustainable urban design, provincial planning

  19. Organizational factors, planning capacity, and integration challenges constrain provincial planning processes for nutrition in decentralizing Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapping, Karin; Frongillo, Edward A; Nguyen, Phuong H; Coates, Jennifer; Webb, Patrick; Menon, Purnima

    2014-09-01

    Translating national policies and guidelines into effective action at the subnational level (e.g., province or region) is a prerequisite for ensuring an impact on nutrition. In several countries, including Vietnam, the focus of this paper, this process is affected by the quality of the decentralized process of planning and action. This study examined how provincial planning processes for nutrition occurred in Vietnam during 2009 and 2010. Key goals were to understand variability in processes across provinces, identify factors that influenced the process, and assess the usefulness of the process for individuals involved in planning and action. A qualitative case-study methodology was used. Data were drawn from interviews with 51 government officials in eight provinces. The study found little variability in the planning process among these eight provinces, probably due to a planning process that was predominantly a fiscal exercise within the confines of a largely centralized structure. Respondents were almost unanimous about the main barriers: a top-down approach to planning, limited human capacity for effective planning at subnational levels, and difficulty in integrating actions from multiple sectors. Provincial-level actors were deeply dissatisfied with the nature of their role in the process. Despite the rhetoric to the contrary, too much power is probably still retained at the central level. A strategic multiyear approach is needed to strengthen the provincial planning process and address many of the key barriers identified in this study.

  20. Smart parking management and navigation system

    KAUST Repository

    Saadeldin, Mohamed

    2017-11-09

    Various examples are provided for smart parking management, which can include navigation. In one example, a system includes a base station controller configured to: receive a wireless signal from a parking controller located at a parking space; determine a received signal strength indicator (RSSI) from the wireless signal; and identify a presence of a vehicle located at the parking space based at least in part on the RSSI. In another example, a method includes receiving a wireless signals from a base station controller and a parking controller located at a parking space; determining RSSIs from the wireless signals; and determining a location of the mobile computing device in a parking facility based at least in part on the RSSIs. In another example, a RSSI can be received, a parking occupancy can be determined using the RSSI, and an electronic record can be updated based on the parking occupancy.

  1. Learning from Millennium Park, Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guen, T. [American Society of Landscape Architects, Washington, DC (United States)]|[Terry Guen Design Associates, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper identified the value of creating green space for public use in an urban area in support of a sustainable environment. The inauguration of Chicago's Millennium Park in July 2004 marked a landmark civic achievement in greening an industrial urban centre. The Park was constructed on a 25-acre, previously vacant 100 year old rail property. In 2001, the first phase of the Park opened with the construction of the garages, train bridge, and infrastructure for future sculptural pieces. The green roof landscaping involved soil and drainage pathways, planting 11 acres of lawn and trees, and building a skating rink and restaurants. Phase 2 included new construction of donor enhancements. Among many benefits, this project stimulated investment in adjacent private development. This paper outlined the historic motivation for the park as a cultural and aesthetic benefit for the public. It reviewed the construction costs, the multiple sources of funding, and the multidisciplinary effort involving public agencies and private supporters. The landscape team included experts in soil, irrigation, planting, design and plant selection. Millennium Park has proven that current design and construction industries have the technical and physical ability to create cultural spaces of interest. 6 figs.

  2. CONCEPTUAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE PACIFIC, ATLANTIC AND ARCTIC TSUNAMI WARNING SYSTEMS FOR CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Murty

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Canada has coastlines on three of the four oceans on the globe, namely, the Pacific, Atlantic and Arctic oceans. The Pacific and Atlantic oceans are connected to the Arctic Ocean in the north, but still they are three distinct oceans, and need three individual tsunami warning systems. Tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are not as well documented as in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. From what is known, tsunamis in the Arctic Ocean are rare and probably are small in amplitude. Because of very low population density, around the Canadian Arctic, at present, there is no priority for a tsunami warning system for Arctic Canada. For the Pacific Ocean, a tsunami warning system is in existence since 1948. In at least one sense, the warning aspects of the tsunami warning system for the Pacific coast of Canada, is relatively simple and straight forward, because it involves only the federal government (PSEPC and the provincial government of British Columbia (PEP. For the Atlantic Ocean, A tsunami warning system is now being established. The warning aspects will be some what more complex for eastern Canada, since it not only involves the federal government, but also five provinces, namely, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Quebec. The Alaska tsunami warning center (ATWC in Palmer, Alaska, provides tsunami warnings for both Pacific and Atlantic Canada.

  3. Development and implementation of a Bridge Management System for the Provincial Government of the Western Cape, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development and implementation of a bridge management system for the Provincial Government Western Cape (PGWC). During the first phase of the project, the inventory and inspection modules were customised to meet the needs...

  4. Uranium tailings in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulden, R.S.; Bragg, K.

    1982-01-01

    The last few years have produced significant changes in the way uranium tailings are managed in Canada. This is due both to the development of new technology and to changes in regulatory approach. The interrelationships between these two areas are examined with particular attention paid to the long term and the development of close-out criteria. New technological initiatives are examined including dry placement techniques, pit disposal and deep lake disposal

  5. Marketing Canada's coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-11-01

    The topics are presented which were discussed at the 36th Canadian Coal Conference, held in Vancouver, BC in September 1985. The theme was Challenges, today and tomorrow and the conference sought to examine the primary problems confronting the world coal industry today: overcapacity, soft demand, depressed prices and intense global competition. Coal production in Canada was presented and its role in the steelmaking and electric power industries evaluated. A general mood of optimism prevailed.

  6. Electric deregulation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    An outline of the electric power deregulation activities across Canada, particularly in Alberta, British Columbia, and Ontario, was presented. A central element of the restructuring is creation of a power pool which acts as an open spot market, and a transmission administrator that provides access to the generators, distribution companies, importers and exporters. Load forecasts, average daily load profile and hourly pool prices for TransAlta Corporation were presented as an example. 22 figs

  7. Plugging into Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Exports of electricity from Canada to the U.S.A. are increasing in importance and have reached a new phase with proposals to build generating stations initially dedicated to export, notably a second nuclear station in New Brunswick. The author considers that the National Energy Board does a good job of protecting Canadian interests. Opposition in the United States comes from within the government or congress rather than from the power industry or public

  8. Science parks as knowledge organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Finn

    gained agrowing importance in the new economy. If we shift focus to organizationtheory discussions on new knowledge and innovation has specialized in relationto the process of creation, managing, organizing, sharing, transferring etc. ofknowledge. The evaluation of science parks has to relate......Recent studies of the impact of science parks have questioned traditionalassumption about the effect of the parks on innovation and economic growth.Most studies tend to measure the effect by rather traditional measures, revenue,survival of new firms, without taking into account, that knowledge has...... to the changed role ofknowledge in the creation of economic growth. With the help of the concept ofthe ba from Nonanka, the article discuss if or how traditional organized scienceparks can become central actors in the new knowledge production or has to beviewed as an outdated institution from the industrial...

  9. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M A [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  10. Challenges in reporting on predetermined objectives to the Auditor-General: The case of Limpopo provincial departments

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin Diedericks

    2017-01-01

    Limpopo provincial departments like all other South African government departments are required to report on performance against predetermined objectives in terms of Section 40 of the Public Finance Management Act 1 of 1999, read in conjunction with Section 5.1.1 of the Treasury Regulations. The purpose of this article is to report on a study that was undertaken to establish the challenges faced by the Limpopo provincial departments in reporting on performance against predetermined objectives...

  11. Canada's reactor exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief sketch of the development of Canada's nuclear exports is presented and some of the factors which influence the ability to export reactors have been identified. The potential market for CANDUs is small and will develop slowly. The competition will be tough. There are few good prospects for immediate export orders in the next two or three years. Nonetheless there are reasonable opportunities for CANDU exports, especially in the mid-to-late 1980s. Such sales could be of great benefit to Canada and could do much to sustain the domestic nuclear industry. Apart from its excellent economic and technical performance, the main attraction of the CANDU seems to be the autonomy it confers on purchasing countries, the effectiveness with which the associated technology can be transferred, and the diversification it offers to countries which wish to reduce their dependence on the major industrial suppliers. Each sales opportunity is unique, and marketing strategy will have to be tailored to the customer's needs. Over the next decade, the factors susceptible to Canadian government action which are most likely to influence CANDU exports will be the political commitment of the government to those reactor exports, the performance established by the four 600 MWe CANDUs now nearing completion, the continuing successful operation of the nuclear program in Ontario, and the co-ordination of the different components of Canada's nuclear program (AECL, nuclear industry, utilities, and government) in putting forth a coherent marketing effort and following through with effective project management

  12. Energy cascades in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, A. C.; Brown, T. D.

    1979-03-15

    Combining energy uses in a cascade can result in significant overall reductions in fuel requirements. The simplest applications for a cascade are in the recovery of waste heat from existing processes using special boilers or turbines. Specific applications of more-complex energy cascades for Canada are discussed. A combined-cycle plant at a chemical refinery in Ontario is world leader in energy efficiency. Total-energy systems for commercial buildings, such as one installed in a school in Western Canada, offer attractive energy and operating cost benefits. A cogeneration plant proposed for the National Capital Region, generating electricity as well as steam for district heating, allows the use of a low-grade fossil fuel (coal), greatly improves energy-transformation efficiency, and also utilizes an effectively renewable resource (municipal garbage). Despite the widespread availability of equipment and technology of energy cascades, the sale of steam and electricity across plant boundaries presents a barrier. More widespread use of cascades will require increased cooperation among industry, electric utilities and the various levels of government if Canada is to realize the high levels of energy efficiency potential available.

  13. Environmental performance reviews: Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    OECD's comprehensive 2004 report on Canada's environmental policies and programmes systematically examines policy related to air, water, and nature/biodiversity as well as the interface between environmental policy and economic policy, social policy, and specific sectors. It finds that while Canada has made satisfactory progress since 1985, there are still significant challenges, and the report makes specific recommendations for more use of economic instruments and use of the polluter and user pays principles, rationalising water governance, strengthening nature protection, reducing energy intensity, implementing climate change policies, reviewing environmentally related taxes, and implementing marine and aid commitments. Coal provides about 20% of Canada's electric power. Most direct subsidisation of the fossil fuel supply industries (upstream oil, gas and coal) has been reduced. The report recommends subsidies to the mining industry for exploration should also be phased out. Recent measurements indicate emissions of mercury are increasing, mainly due to long-range transboundary air pollution from coal-burning plants. 42 figs., 24 tabs.

  14. Canada's Global Partnership Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Curbing the proliferation of biological weapons (BW) is an essential element of the Global Partnership Against the Spread of Weapons and Materials of Mass Destruction. At the Kananaskis Summit in June 2002, G8 Leaders committed to prevent terrorists, or those that harbour them, from acquiring or developing biological weapons and related materials, equipment and technology. To this end, Canada's Global Partnership Program is investing heavily in biological non-proliferation activities in countries of the former Soviet Union. A comprehensive strategy has been developed to help improve biological safety (biosafety) and biological security (biosecurity) with provision for addressing dual-use concerns. Raising awareness and creating a self-sustaining culture of biosecurity is a key driver of the program. Through this strategy, Canada is assisting various FSU countries to: develop and implement effective and practical biosafety/biosecurity standards and guidelines; establish national and/or regional biosafety associations; develop and deliver effective biosafety and biosecurity training; put in place enhanced physical security measures and equipment. In addition to biosafety and biosecurity, the GPP supports a broad range of Biological Non-Proliferation projects and initiatives, including dozens of projects aimed at redirecting former biological weapons scientists. To date, most of these activities have been supported through Canada's contribution to the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC) and the Science and Technology Centre Ukraine (STCU).(author)

  15. Pipelines to eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsason, J.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on four main topics: (1) the existing path of pipelines to eastern Canada, (2) the Chicago hub, (3) transport alternatives, and (4) the Vector Pipeline' expansion plans. In the eastern Canadian market, TransCanada Pipelines dominates 96 per cent of the market share and is effectively immune to expansion costs. Issues regarding the attractiveness of the Chicago hub were addressed. One attractive feature is that the Chicago hub has access to multiple supply basins including western Canada, the Gulf Coast, the mid-continent, and the Rockies. Regarding Vector Pipelines' future plans, the company proposes to construct 343 miles of pipeline from Joliet, Illinois to Dawn, Ontario. Project description included discussion of some of the perceived advantages of this route, namely, extensive storage in Michigan and south-western Ontario, the fact that the proposed pipeline traverses major markets which would mitigate excess capacity concerns, arbitrage opportunities, cost effective expansion capability reducing tolls, and likely lower landed costs in Ontario. Project schedule, costs, rates and tariffs are also discussed. tabs., figs

  16. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Wicaksono, Irmandy

    2017-01-01

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  17. Smart parking management system with decal electronics system

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-21

    Various examples are related to parking management, including identifying and reserving empty parking spaces. In one example, a smart parking space system includes a parking controller located at a parking space. The parking controller can identify a vehicle located at the parking space via an input sensor or a transceiver that initiates wireless communication with an electronic tag associated with the vehicle; and communicate a parking vacancy associated with the parking space to a remote computing device based at least in part on the identification of the vehicle. In another example, a computing device can receive parking vacancy data associated with a parking space from a parking controller; determine a parking vacancy associated with the parking space using the parking vacancy data; and encode for display on a client device a network page that includes an indication of the parking vacancy associated with the parking space.

  18. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada.

  19. Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.

  20. 2015 Tax-Competitiveness Report: Canada is Losing its Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It can be easy for Canadians who appreciate the qualities of their country to overestimate the power that it also has to lure investment in a world where so many other destinations are competing for capital. Canadians can take pride in our political stability and our highly educated workforce, and we do have good communication and transportation infrastructure, but a great number of other countries offer those things, too, at roughly the same level. Meanwhile, Canada suffers in the eyes of investors for being a relatively small market, distant from large export destinations, with a cold climate and geographic vastness that only raise the cost of doing business here. Canada has been able to overcome its disadvantages in recent years largely by being highly competitive on business taxes. Unfortunately, the tendency of Canadian provincial and federal governments lately to raise taxes on business has been rapidly erasing that slight advantage. Dangerously, Canada is beginning to lose its competitive edge. It is difficult enough in a world of slower global growth to attract investment, but some major economies with whom Canada directly competes for investment have recognized the need in this challenging environment to make themselves even more attractive to investors. It is true that some countries, such as Belgium, Chile, Brazil, Greece and India have, like Canada, enacted certain policies — primarily higher business taxes — that have increased their marginal effective tax rate (METR. Still, other important peer countries have been working to lower theirs; notably Denmark, Japan, France, Portugal, Switzerland and the U.K. As a result of their cuts, and because of changes to policies in Canada that have increased METRs here, Canada has sunk from having the 16th-highest burden on capital in the OECD (which was at least in the middle of the pack to having the 13th highest. We now have the sixth-highest rather than lowest METR in the G7. In a

  1. Atlantic Environmental Resource Directory, 1989: A directory of non-profit environmental and development organizations in Atlantic Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuthbertson, L.L.

    1989-01-01

    This directory lists 161 non-profit groups in the Atlantic region, along with contacts for the environmental networks across the country and in New England and appropriate federal and provincial offices in Atlantic Canada. The directory was compiled from questionnaires sent out to a list of contacts that were on an original mailing list of groups known to have taken stands on environmental issues in the past. Follow-up mailouts and phone calls were also made. As well, some contacts were discovered through word-of-mouth. Groups are listed alphabetically by province and are classified by subjects. Information includes address and phone number, contact, date formed, number of members, scope, language and objectives. Groups and resources are indexed by subject area and groups are listed by resources available, environmental networks, Eastern states-United States citizen groups, labour unions, federal and provincial government.

  2. Perceived Health Benefits and Willingness to Pay for Parks by Park Users: Quantitative and Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Henderson-Wilson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whilst a growing body of evidence demonstrates people derive a range of health and wellbeing benefits from visiting parks, only a limited number of attempts have been made to provide a complementary economic assessment of parks. The aim of this exploratory study was to directly estimate the perceived health and wellbeing benefits attained from parks and the economic value assigned to parks by park users in Victoria, Australia. The research employed a mixed methods approach (survey and interviews to collect primary data from a selection of 140 park users: 100 from two metropolitan parks in Melbourne and 40 from a park on the urban fringe of Melbourne, Victoria. Our findings suggest that park users derive a range of perceived physical, mental/spiritual, and social health benefits, but park use was predominantly associated with physical health benefits. Overall, our exploratory study findings suggest that park users are willing to pay for parks, as they highly value them as places for exercising, socialising, and relaxing. Importantly, most people would miss parks if they did not exist. The findings aim to provide park managers, public health advocates, and urban policy makers with evidence about the perceived health and wellbeing benefits of park usage and the economic value park visitors place on parks.

  3. Energy policies of IEA countries. Canada 1996 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This IEA report provides a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the energy policies of Canada, including recommendations on future policy developments. The report acknowledges the marked shift of federal energy policy in the last decade away from heavy intervention to a more market-based approach. This has increased the strength and competitive position of Canada's energy producers, especially in oil and gas, and has provided more choice for consumers. Electricity, however, is an area that could benefit from a more market-based policy orientation. Federal provincial co-ordination is of fundamental importance. Other key issues highlighted in the review include the opportunities and challenges of international agreements on the environment, which increasingly drive energy policy decision-making; the adequacy and effectiveness of programmes to promote energy efficiency; and the balance and direction of energy research and development efforts. This report forms part of a series of periodic in-depth reviews conducted and discussed by the IEA Member countries on a four-year cycle. Short reviews of energy policy developments in all twenty-three Member countries are published annually in Energy Policies of IEA Countries. (author)

  4. Forensic Occupational Therapy in Canada: The Current State of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Adora L Y; Wong, Chantal Isabelle; Maraj, Sara A; Fry, Danielle; Jecker, Justine; Jung, Bonny

    2016-09-01

    Although occupational therapists have been practicing in forensic settings for many years, there is a paucity of literature regarding the nature of this practice in Canada. The purpose of this study was to describe the practices of Canadian occupational therapists in forensic mental health. An online survey was designed based on the Canadian Practice Process Framework. Following purposive and snowball sampling, responses were analysed with descriptive statistics and content analysis. Twenty-seven clinicians responded (56% response rate). Respondents indicated commonalities in workplaces, client caseloads and practice challenges. The outstanding need in Canada to demonstrate client outcomes through the use of evaluation instruments reflects those practice gaps identified internationally. Education, advocacy and research are critical areas for the development of Canadian forensic occupational therapy. Although findings heavily reflect one provincial context and may not be generalizable to nonhospital settings, a number of priority areas were identified. Future efforts should clarify the role of forensic occupational therapy to stakeholders, and validate their contributions through research that evaluates intervention efficacy and meaningful outcomes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Pharmaceutical policy reform in Canada: lessons from history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Katherine

    2018-07-01

    Canada is the only country with a broad public health system that does not include universal, nationwide coverage for pharmaceuticals. This omission causes real hardship to those Canadians who are not well-served by the existing patchwork of limited provincial plans and private insurance. It also represents significant forgone benefits in terms of governments' ability to negotiate drug prices, make expensive new drugs available to patients on an equitable basis, and provide integrated health services regardless of therapy type or location. This paper examines Canada's historical failure to adopt universal pharmaceutical insurance on a national basis, with particular emphasis on the role of public and elite ideas about its supposed lack of affordability. This legacy provides novel lessons about the barriers to reform and potential methods for overcoming them. The paper argues that reform is most likely to be successful if it explicitly addresses entrenched ideas about pharmacare's affordability and its place in the health system. Reform is also more likely to achieve universal coverage if it is radical, addressing various components of an effective pharmaceutical program simultaneously. In this case, an incremental approach is likely to fail because it will not allow governments to contain costs and realize the social benefits that come along with a universal program, and because it means forgoing the current promising conditions for achieving real change.

  6. Environmental tax shifting in Canada : theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.; Hornung, R.; Cairns, S.

    2003-03-01

    Canada's leading energy and resource companies along with the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development have collaborated in the Triple E Tax Shift Research Collaborative which examines the use of environmental tax shifting in Canada. The objective is to design, evaluate and advance federal and provincial environmental tax shifts that will influence individual behaviour and decisions to improve ecological integrity through measurable reductions in materials and energy throughput, and to maintain or increase economic competitiveness through the creation of a tax framework that would encourage businesses to improve energy efficiency. Another objective is to increase employment and social benefits through more employment opportunities and improved quality of life. Environmental tax shifting means shifting a portion of a government's tax base onto goods, services and activities associated with harmful environmental impacts that add to societal costs. Tax shifting can be implemented by offering rebates to consumers of environmental significant goods, or by adjustments to existing taxes so that environmentally sensitive goods are taxed at a lower rate than environmentally harmful goods and services. Environmental tax shifting can also be implemented by reducing existing environmental taxes and introducing a carbon dioxide emissions tax. This report is the first product of the collaboration and is intended to promote public dialogue on the subject and identify ways to implement environmental tax shifting. tabs., figs

  7. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, Richard G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF

  8. Environmental Justice, Place and Nuclear Fuel Waste Management in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Richard G. [Univ. of Guelph (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Murphy, Brenda L. [Wilfrid Launer Univ., Brantford (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the basis of a Nuclear Fuel Waste management strategy for Canada, taking into account the unique legal tenets (Aboriginal rights; federal - provincial jurisdiction) and the orientation that the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) has taken to date. The focus of the paper are grounded in notions of environmental justice. Bullard's definition provides a useful guideline: 'the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, colour, national origin or income with respect to the development, implementation and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations and policies'. The overriding concern is to work towards a process that is inclusive and just. Prior to developing a specific strategy to site a NFW disposal facility, we maintain that the NWMO needs to first address three fundamental issues: Expand its mandate to include the future of nuclear energy in Canada; Provide an inclusive role for First Nations (Aboriginal people) in all stages of the process; Adhere to the requirement of specifying an economic region and deal more overtly with the transportation of NF.

  9. Rates of interventions in labor and birth across Canada: findings of the Canadian Maternity Experiences Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Beverley; Kaczorowski, Janusz; O'Brien, Beverley; Royle, Cathie

    2012-09-01

    Rates of interventions in labor and birth should be similar across a country if evidence-based practice guidelines are followed. This assumption is tested by comparison of some practices across the 13 provinces and territories of Canada. The objective of this study was to describe the wide provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine interventions and practices during labor and birth as reported by women in the Maternity Experiences Survey of the Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System. A sample of 8,244 eligible women was identified from a randomly selected sample of recently born infants drawn from the May 2006 Canadian Census. The sample was stratified by province and territory. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with participating birth mothers by Statistics Canada on behalf of the Public Health Agency of Canada. Interviews took an average of 45 minutes and were completed when infants were between 5 and 10 months old (9-14 mo in the territories). Completed responses were obtained from 6,421 women (78%). Provincial and territorial variations in rates of routine intervention used during labor and birth are reported. The percentage range of mothers' experience of induction (range 30.9%), epidural (53.7%), continuous electronic fetal monitoring (37.9%), and medication-free pain management during labor (40.7%) are provided, in addition to the use of episiotomy (14.1%) or "stitches" (48.3%), being in a "flat lying position" (42.2%), and having their legs in stirrups for birth (35.7%). Wide variations in the use of most of the interventions were found, ranging from 14.1 percent to 53.7 percent. Rates of intervention in labor and birth showed considerable variation across Canada, suggesting that usage is not always evidence based but may be influenced by a variety of other factors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Restructuring health services in Canada: challenges for policy makers, planners and managers in the eighties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, A

    1985-11-01

    Is downsizing the latest jargon word applied to rationalization, a new concept or a different manifestation of a long term trend in health services management? At present, Canada is struggling to implement feasible reductions of expansionary pressures in the health care system. While provincial governments tend to see the issue as one of controlling chronic excess demand, federal government is still concerned to ensure free access to care on an equitable basis. Thus the problems of downsizing can be expressed by the provinces in terms of an ideological struggle with an unfeeling central government which does not understand their problems; although all know they are really about the feasibility of continuing to provide a service to meet demand. The present economic recession enables provincial governments to appeal to their voters for supporting a new way. Earlier, the appeal was to consumers to become involved in health service organization management and this policy succeeded, to a degree, where there were fluorishing grass roots communities; albeit that the service continued to be driven by professionals. Now the appeal is to taxpayers for their strong support in cost cutting. This has been more successful. Provincial governments are now permitted to 'touch the untouchables', that is to downsize the medical profession and previously sacrosanct health care institutions. They also are exploring the feasibility of introducing a two-tier system which would provide basic care for everyone and extra care for those able to pay, thus side-stepping federal conditions. By reorganizing support in this way, provincial governments have extended the range of policy choices, and two types of planning, the rational and the political, have now become combined into strategic management activity.

  11. San Francisco SFpark and parking information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    SFpark is a demonstration of a new approach to parking management that : will evaluate the effectiveness of demand-responsive pricing and real-time : information on parking availability for reducing congestion and greenhouse gas : emissions and provi...

  12. Protect Czech park from development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Křenová, Zdeňka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 531, č. 7595 (2016), s. 448-448 ISSN 0028-0836 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : Protect Czech park Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sci ences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 40.137, year: 2016

  13. Renovated Parks Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.

  14. 'Shockley park' stirs racism row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2009-07-01

    A local authority in Northern California has encountered unexpected resistance to its decision to name a park after the Nobel-prize-winning physicist William Shockley, with a coalition of churches and civic groups preparing to petition against the name at a meeting scheduled for 23 July.

  15. Seremban Urban Park, Malaysia: a Preference Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maulan, Suhardi

    2002-01-01

    Unlike the West, where many studies have explored how peopleâ s needs are fulfilled by urban parks, Malaysia has received very little attention from researchers. One reason for this is the fact that Malaysia has only a short public park tradition. Although folk art and stories have chronicled a long history of gardens and other parks, these spaces were only accessible to royal family members and autocrats. In Malaysia, the concept of free public parks is relatively recent, having been introd...

  16. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  17. Without true leadership and ownership, alternative energies will not succeed : the need for policy creation and renewal at the federal, provincial and municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, V. [St. Lawrence College, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Most of the power generated in Eastern Ontario comes from the fossil-fired Lennox Generating Station, plus nuclear power from the Darlington plant near Toronto. Limited local power generation is provided by small hydro plants on the Rideau River system. Ontario provincial policy has favoured the expansion of nuclear power, to the detriment of all other sources. This has resulted in billions of dollars invested in the Greater Toronto Area and western Ontario. Investors are now gaining interest in cost-competitive renewable energy sources as energy industries face greater competition and increased environmental regulation. However, investment in renewable energy sources is not happening because of slow implementation and poorly thought-out processes. The author emphasized that the success of future alternative energy policies lies in partnerships where interested parties can work mutually to effect policy and political change. The International Energy Agency has stated that in the past 5 years, prices for renewable energies have become cost competitive with fossil technologies, but a long-term strategy and policy framework is needed to ensure that the full potential of renewable energy is not bypassed. The changes that are underway within the energy sector should be led by new policies that reflect social, economic and environmental priorities. It was suggested that Canada should follow the example of the European Union and require that a specific percentage of generation must come from renewable energy sources. 4 refs.

  18. Evaluating urban parking policies with agent-based model of driver parking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, C.J.C.M.; Benenson, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an explicit agent-based model of parking search in a city. In the model, “drivers” drive toward their destination, search for parking, park, remain at the parking place, and leave. The city’s infrastructure is represented by a high-resolution geographic information system (GIS)

  19. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  20. Carbon dioxide capture and storage: a compendium of Canada's participation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legg, J.F.; Campbell, F.R.

    2006-07-01

    The potential value of CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) to Canada is enormous because of the proximity of large point sources of CO{sub 2} and potential geological sinks for CO{sub 2}. For this reason, Canada has, for the past 15 years, been very active in exploring the opportunities for CCS, in developing and testing techniques and technologies to implement it, and in examining the associated policy, regulatory, environmental, and public education issues. Canada is now actively promoting the inclusion of CCS within the UNFCCC. This report seeks to compile all Canadian activity in CCS. The report has three main components. The first provides brief overviews of the principal Canadian organizations engaged in CCS and the international organizations involved in CCS in which Canada (or Canadian organizations) plays an active role. A total of 83 organizations are so featured. The second component features summaries of specific projects under way (as of the end of 2005) or recently completed (2003 or later); 126 projects are identified. And finally, five documents that are key to Canada's strategy of developing capacity in CCS are listed. Of the 83 organizations described, 14 provide coordination and planning of CCS activities (6 of them within Canada and 8 of them internationally); 25 are the principal research performers in CCS in Canada (including 8 universities with substantial engagement); 23 are companies who are developing, testing, using, or analyzing the effects of CCS technologies; 8 are federal and provincial government agencies involved in aspects other than research performance; and 13 are government programs supporting CCS projects. Entries in the compendium describe the organization and its activities in CSS, as well as identifying each project's duration and funding sources. A list of contacts for each organization is also provided.

  1. What's Ahead for our National Parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jean Craighead

    1972-01-01

    To insure the future of our National Parks, sweeping changes must be made. Encroaching civilization at the expense of nature has forced National Park officials to consider alternatives to future development - limiting number of visitors, facilities outside the parks and curtailing vehicular traffic. (BL)

  2. SmartPark Technology Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of FMCSAs SmartPark initiative is to determine the feasibility of a technology for providing truck parking space availability in real time to truckers on the road. SmartPark consists of two phases. Phase I was a field operational test ...

  3. 32 CFR 634.31 - Parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Parking. 634.31 Section 634.31 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Traffic Supervision § 634.31 Parking. (a) The most efficient use of existing on- and off-street parking...

  4. Transnational surrogacy: Canada's contradictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozanski, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Transnational commercial surrogacy represents a form of medical tourism undertaken by intended parents who seek to hire women in other countries, increasingly often in the global South, as surrogates. While much of the scholarly literature focuses on the conditions of surrogacy within host countries, such as India, there has been limited analysis of transnational surrogacy focused upon origin countries. In this article, I build upon the scholarship that explores the impact of host country structures on transnational surrogacy, with special attention to the significance of Canadian citizenship policy through analysis of legislation and policy vis-à-vis transnational commercial surrogacy. The Canadian case demonstrates clear contradictions between the legislation and policy that is enacted domestically to prohibit commercial surrogacy within Canada and legislation and policy that implicitly sanctions commercial surrogacy through the straightforward provision of citizenship for children born of such arrangements abroad. The ethical underpinnings of Canada's domestic prohibition of commercial surrogacy, which is presumed to exploit women and children and to impede gender equality, are violated in Canada's bureaucratic willingness to accept children born of transnational commercial surrogacy as citizens. Thus, the ethical discourses apply only to Canadian citizens within Canadian geography. The failure of the Canadian government to hold Canadian citizens who participate in transnational commercial surrogacy to the normative imperatives that prohibit the practice within the country, or to undertake a more nuanced, and necessarily controversial, discussion of commercial surrogacy reinforces transnational disparities in terms of whose bodies may be commodified as a measure of gendered inequality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Canada and international financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Lafrance; James Powell

    1996-01-01

    International financial institutions, such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the Bank for International Settlements, are important players in the global financial system. This article provides an overview of the major international financial institutions to which Canada belongs. The paper highlights their activities and the nature of Canada's involvement, including that of the Bank of Canada. Recent initiatives coming out of the Halifax and Lyon Summits to improve the eff...

  6. Assisted Dying in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    This paper makes an affirmative ethical case in favour of the decriminalization of assisted dying in Canada. It then proceeds to defending the affirmative case against various slippery-slope arguments that are typically deployed by opponents of assisted dying. Finally, a recent case of questionable professional conduct by anti-euthanasia campaigners cum academics is flagged as a warning to all of us not to permit the quality of the professional debate to deteriorate unacceptably, despite the personal emotional investments involved on all sides of the debate.

  7. Energy utilization in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klassen, J.

    1976-04-01

    The situation of the energy supply of Canada is characterized by its geographic location and by the dispersal of the energy consumers over a wide area. At present, the energy supply leaving the successful CANDU nuclear energy programme out of account, is based mainly on crude oil, natural gas, and electricity as well as on coal imported from the USA. The targets of Canadian enery policies and energy research are stated as follows: a) Reducing and optimizing energy consumption, b) introducing district heating, and c) utilizing the extensive local coal deposits. (GG) [de

  8. China’s provincial CO2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ju’e; Zhang Zengkai; Meng Lei

    2012-01-01

    Trades create a mechanism of embodied CO 2 emissions transfer among regions, causing distortion on the total emissions. As the world’s second largest economy, China has a large scale of trade, which results in the serious problem of embodied CO 2 emissions transfer. This paper analyzes the characteristics of China’s CO 2 emissions embodied in international and interprovincial trade from the provincial perspective. The multi-regional Input–Output Model is used to clarify provincial CO 2 emissions from geographical and sectoral dimensions, including 30 provinces and 28 sectors. Two calculating principles (production accounting principle and consumption accounting principle, ) are applied. The results show that for international trade, the eastern area accounts for a large proportion in China’s embodied CO 2 emissions. The sectors as net exporters and importers of embodied CO 2 emissions belong to labor-intensive and energy-intensive industries, respectively. For interprovincial trade, the net transfer of embodied CO 2 emissions is from the eastern area to the central area, and energy-intensive industries are the main contributors. With the largest amount of direct CO 2 emissions, the eastern area plays an important role in CO 2 emissions reduction. The central and western areas need supportive policies to avoid the transfer of industries with high emissions. - Highlights: ► China’s embodied CO 2 emissions are analyzed from the provincial perspective. ► Eastern provinces have larger CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade. ► Embodied CO 2 emissions are mainly transferred from eastern area to central area. ► Coastal provinces play important roles in CO 2 emissions reduction. ► Inland provinces need supportive policies on emissions reduction.

  9. [Sources of finance for provincial occupational health services. Theory and practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, I; Jugo, B

    1999-01-01

    The financing of occupational health services (OHS) at the provincial level is an important issue in view of the transformation process going on not only in OHS but also in the overall health care system in Poland. New principles of financing must be now based on the cost and effects analyses. Thus, the question arises on how to provide financial means adequate to needs of health care institutions resulting from their tasks and responsibilities. The gaps existing in the information system have encouraged us to examine the situation in regard to the structure of financing and internal allocation of financial means. The objectives were formulated as follows: to characterise the sources of financial means received by provincial OHS centres; to analyse the structure of financial means derived from various sources, taking into account forms of financial administration, using the data provided by selected centres; to define the relation between the financial means being at the disposal of OHS centres and the scope of their activities; The information on the financing system was collected using a questionnaire mailed to directors of selected OHS centres. The information collected proved to be a valuable source of knowledge on the above mentioned issues as well as on how far the new system of financing associated with a new form of financial administration--an independent public health institution--has already been implemented. The studies indicated that at the present stage of the OHS system transformation it is very difficult to formulate conclusions on the financing administration in provincial OHS centres.

  10. CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction allocation over provincial industrial sectors in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Qingyuan; Liang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DEA is used to evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of 30 provincial industrial sector in China. • A new DEA-based model is proposed to allocate the CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets. • The context-dependent DEA is used to characterize the production plans. - Abstract: High energy consumption by the industry of developing countries has led to the problems of increasing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) (primarily CO_2) and worsening energy shortages. To address these problems, many mitigation measures have been utilized. One major measure is to mandate fixed reductions of GHG emission and energy consumption. Therefore, it is important for each developing country to disaggregate their national reduction targets into targets for various geographical parts of the country. In this paper, we propose a DEA-based approach to allocate China’s national CO_2 emissions and energy intensity reduction targets over Chinese provincial industrial sectors. We firstly evaluate the energy and environmental efficiency of Chinese industry considering energy consumption and GHG emissions. Then, considering the necessity of mitigating GHG emission and energy consumption, we develop a context-dependent DEA technique which can better characterize the changeable production with reductions of CO_2 emission and energy intensity, to help allocate the national reduction targets over provincial industrial sectors. Our empirical study of 30 Chinese regions for the period 2005–2010 shows that the industry of China had poor energy and environmental efficiency. Considering three major geographical areas, eastern China’s industrial sector had the highest efficiency scores while in this aspect central and western China were similar to each other at a lower level. Our study shows that the most effective allocation of the national reduction target requires most of the 30 regional industrial to reduce CO_2 emission and energy intensity, while a

  11. Creating a provincial landscape: roman imperialism and rural change in Lusitania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C Edmondson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: This paper suggests some general approaches and raises some problems in studying the impact of Rome on the rural landscape in Lusitania. It concentrates on three crucial ways in which the landscape was transformed under Roman rule: (a changes in the pattern of rural settlement; (b changes in the nature of land use and agrarian exploitation; and (c changes in the ways in which the inhabitants of Lusitania perceived and thought about their world. It argues that a synthesis is needed of archaeological evidence from across the province, so that the impact of Rome on rural settlemet patterns may be compared in differing environmental regions. Further intensive field survey should also help to resolve some current problems in reconstructing the pattern of Iron Age and Roman rural settlement. Increased collection and analysis of pollen samples, carbonised wood, seeds, agricultural implements and animal bones is needed to assess more precisely the extent to which the Romans caused major changes in the nature of land use and agrarian exploitation. When accounting for change, it is essential to consider a wide variety of factors and to remember that rural change continued to occur throughout the Roman period. Finally, it was in forcing the inhabitants of Lusitania to perceive their world in radically new ways that the Romans made a lasting impact on the provincial landscape. First, the Romans created broad ethnic identities for their opponents, ignoring the complex, highly fragmented ethnic and regional geography of the area. Then by dividing the region into clearly defined civitates, they forced the inhabitants of Lusitania to envisage the landscape in a very different manner than before. Finally, a series of rituals emphasising Roman power (the census, the holding of judicial assizes, and the activities of the provincial council regularly reinforced these radically new mental maps of the new Roman provincial landscape.

  12. Virtual scarce water embodied in inter-provincial electricity transmission in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Liang, Sai; Sanders, Kelly T.; Wang, Jiao; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Virtual water in inter-provincial electricity transmission in China is calculated. • A Water Stress Index is used to reflect relative scarcity of water consumption. • West Inner Mongolia is the largest exporter of scarce water. • Hebei, Beijing and Shandong are the three largest receivers of scarce water. - Abstract: Intra-national electricity transmission drives virtual water transfer from electricity production regions to electricity consumption regions. In China, the water-intensive thermoelectric power industry is expanding quickly in many water-scarce energy production hubs in northern and northwestern provinces. This study constructed a node-flow model of inter-provincial electricity transmission to investigate the virtual water and scarcity-adjusted virtual water (or virtual scarce water) embodied in the electricity transmission network. It is revealed that total inter-provincial virtual water transfer embodied in electricity transmission was 623 million m"3 in 2011, equivalent to 12.7% of the national total thermoelectric water consumption. The top three largest single virtual water flows are West Inner Mongolia-to-Beijing (44 million m"3), East Inner Mongolia-to-Liaoning (39 million m"3), and Guizhou-to-Guangdong (37 million m"3). If the actual volumes of consumptive water use are translated into scarcity-adjusted water consumption based on Water Stress Index, West Inner Mongolia (81 million m"3), Shanxi (63 million m"3) and Ningxia (30 million m"3) become the top three exporters of virtual scarce water. Many ongoing long-distance electricity transmission projects in China will enlarge the scale of scarce water outflows from northwestern regions and potentially increase their water stress.

  13. A comparative study on the influential factors of China's provincial energy intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangfei; Li, Wenli; Wang, Jianliang; Zhang, Dongqing

    2016-01-01

    China has become the largest energy consumer worldwide, and it is important to study the energy intensity to realize the sustainable development goal of China. This paper focuses on investigating the influential factors of China's energy intensity using provincial-level panel data from 1985 to 2012. More specifically, we try to identify which factor is relatively more important to pay attention to. A novel approach based on evolutionary computation is proposed to intelligently mine the intrinsic relations between observed phenomena and to let the important factors automatically emerge from the discovered nonlinear models. However, due to China's vast territory and significant heterogeneities, this approach may fail to examine some detailed or hidden information when analyzing the country as a whole. Instead, we concentrate on the provincial level because the provinces play vital roles in reducing energy intensity in China. From our analytical results, the main findings are as follows: (1) the Total Population is the most important influential factor across China's provinces, while the Energy Price Index has the least impact; and (2) the provinces could be naturally classified into four categories based on the primary factors emerged from data, and such classification could reveal more about the true underlying features of each area. - Highlights: • Identify the important factors of China's energy intensity by symbolic regression. • Analyze China's energy intensity using provincial-level panel data from 1985 to 2012. • Intelligently investigate nonlinear models and the emergence of important factors. • The Total Population is discovered to be the most important influential factor. • Provinces are naturally classified into four categories by the influential factors.

  14. Downsizing of a provincial department of health--causes and implications for fiscal policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Mark

    2002-06-01

    To analyse the financial basis for downsizing of a provincial health department and suggest implications for fiscal policy. Analysis of relevant departmental, provincial and national financing and expenditure trends from 1995/96 to 2002/03. Western Cape (WC) Department of Health (DOH). Downsizing involving 9,282 health workers (27.9%) and closure of 3,601 hospital beds (24.4%) over 5 years. Total aggregate provincial transfers (all provinces) remained fairly constant in real terms. The WC's share decreased from 11.8% in 1996/97 to 9.8% in 2002/03. This was offset by the DOH's share of the WC budget increasing from 25.6% to 29.6%, mainly because of an increase in national health conditional grants. The net effect of financing changes was that the DOH's allocation in real terms was similar in 2002/03 and 1995/96, which suggests that financing changes are not the major cause of downsizing. Expenditure analysis revealed a 39.7% real rise in the average cost of health personnel. Substantial interprovincial inequities remain. The major cause of downsizing was wage growth, particularly following the 1996 wage agreement. Disjointed fiscal and wage policy has affected health services. Simultaneous application of policies of fiscal constraint, redistribution and substantial real wage growth has resulted in substantial downsizing with limited inroads into inequities. Inequities will continue to call for further redistribution, reduction in conditional grants and downsizing, much of which could have been avoided if fiscal and wage policy choices had been optimal.

  15. Scientific criteria document for the development of an interim provincial water quality objective for aniline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelow, R.V.; Bazinet, N.

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to develop an interim provincial water quality objective for aniline for the protection of aquatic life in Ontario. It reviews the sources of aniline in the environment, its environmental fate and properties, acute and chronic toxicity as determined from results reported in the literature on toxicity tests using vertebrates and invertebrates, the bioaccumulation of aniline in the environment, mutagenic effects, and threshold aniline concentrations affecting fish odour and taste. The document then explains the derivation of the interim water quality objective. Water quality criteria for aniline developed in other jurisdictions are noted.

  16. NGO Presence and Activity in Afghanistan, 2000–2014: A Provincial-Level Dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Mitchell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a new provincial-level dataset on non-governmental organizations (NGOs in Afghanistan. The data—which are freely available for download—provide information on the locations and sectors of activity of 891 international and local (Afghan NGOs that operated in the country between 2000 and 2014. A summary and visualization of the data is presented in the article following a brief historical overview of NGOs in Afghanistan. Links to download the full dataset are provided in the conclusion.

  17. Urban-Rural and Provincial Disparities in Child Malnutrition in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yichao; Qi, Di

    2016-10-01

    This article investigates how the nutritional deprivation and inequality among children in China by provinces and urban/rural areas has changed over time from 1991 to 2009 using the China Health and Nutrition Survey data. The children who were undernourished in stunting and underweight have declined over years, but provincial disparities were significant and urban children performed better than the rural peers. The nutritional deprivation of children has been alleviated in China over time, but more efforts should be made by the government to improve the nutritional condition in less developed provinces and for those children who are severely undernourished.

  18. Invasive herbivory: resident Canada geese and the decline of wild rice along the tidal Patuxent River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Kearns, G.D.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2004-01-01

    While concern grows over the increasing numbers of exotic mute swans (Cygnus olor) on the Chesapeake Bay, less attention seems to be given to the highly familiar and native Canada goose (Branta canadensis) which has over time developed unprecedented nonmigratory, or resident, populations. Although nuisance flocks of Canada geese have been well advertised at city parks, athletic fields, and golf courses over the past three decades, recent expansion of populations to an estimated one million birds in the Atlantic Flyway, and to over 100,000 in Maryland, carries a threat of broader ecological consequences.

  19. How much are we spending? The estimation of research expenditures on cardiovascular disease in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in Canada and is a priority area for medical research. The research funding landscape in Canada has changed quite a bit over the last few decades, as have funding levels. Our objective was to estimate the magnitude of expenditures on CVD research for the public and charitable (not-for profit) sectors in Canada between 1975 and 2005. Methods To estimate research expenditures for the public and charitable sectors, we compiled a complete list of granting agencies in Canada, contacted each agency and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), and extracted data from the organizations’ annual reports and the Reference Lists of health research in Canada. Two independent reviewers scanned all grant and fellowship/scholarship titles (and summary/key words, when available) of all research projects funded to determine their inclusion in our analysis; only grants and fellowships/scholarships that focused on heart and peripheral vascular diseases were selected. Results Public/charitable sector funding increased 7.5 times, from close to $13 million (in constant dollars) in 1975 to almost $96 million (in constant dollars) in 2005 (base year). The Medical Research Council of Canada (MRCC)/CIHR and the Heart & Stroke Foundation of Canada have been the main founders of this type of research during our analysis period; the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research and the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Quebec have played major roles at the provincial level. The Indirect Costs Research Program and Canada Foundation for Innovation have played major roles in terms of funding in the last years of our analysis. Conclusion Public/charitable-funded research expenditures devoted to CVD have increased substantially over the last three decades. By international standards, the evidence suggests Canada spends less on health-related research than the UK and the US, at least in absolute terms. However, this

  20. Smart Parking Management Field Test: A Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) District Parking Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Shaheen, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In almost every major city in the U.S. and internationally, parking problems are ubiquitous. It is well known that the limited availability of parking contributes to roadway congestion, air pollution, and driver frustration and that the cost of expanding traditional parking capacity is frequently prohibitive. However, less research has addressed the effect of insufficient parking at transit stations on transit use. In the San Francisco Bay Area, parking has recently been at or near capacity a...

  1. 36 CFR 7.25 - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. 7.25 Section 7.25 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.25 Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. (a...

  2. Implementation of ergonomics in the management of parking increasing the quality of living parking park in mall Robinson Denpasar city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutapa, I. K.; Sudiarsa, I. M.

    2018-01-01

    The problems that often arise in the area of Denpasar City mostly caused by parking problems at the centers of activities such as shopping centers. The problems that occur not only because of the large number of vehicles that parked but also the result of the condition of parking officers who have not received attention, there is no concern about the physical condition of parking attendants because doing night guard duty. To improve the quality of parking officer, ergonomic parking lot is improved through the application of appropriate technology with systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory approach. The general objective of the research is to know the implementation of ergonomics in parking management on the improvement of the quality of parking officer in Robinson shopping center. The indicator of the quality of the parking officer work is the decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, fatigue, workload, boredom and increasing work motivation. The study was conducted using the same subject design, involving 10 subjects as a simple random sample. Intervention is done by arrangement of ergonomic basement motorcycle parking. Measurements done before and after repair. Washing out (WO) for 14 days. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively, tested normality (shapirowilk) and homogeneity (Levene Test). For normal and homogeneous distribution data, different test with One Way Anova, different test between Period with Post Hoc. Normally distributed and non-homogeneous data, different test with Friedman Test, different test between periods using Wilcoxon test. Data were analyzed with significance level of 5%. The results showed that the implementation of ergonomic in the management of parking area of the court decreased musculoskeletal complaints by 15.10% (p management of the parking lot improves the quality of the parking officer work from: (1) decrease of musculoskeletal complaints, (2) decrease of melting rate, (3) decrease of parking workload

  3. Nutrition inequities in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

    2010-04-01

    In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities.

  4. Energy in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.S.

    1980-12-01

    Canada's historical energy consumption, its current consumption and its likely requirements by the turn of the century are reviewed. It is estimated that at least 50% more energy will be required in the year 2000 than is consumed now, assuming a minimum 2% growth rate in primary energy consumption. Both non-renewable and renewable energy resources are examined in the light of these future energy requirements and the need to substitute alternative energy sources for conventional oil in various end uses. The comparative risks involved in energy production are also reviewed. Most of the increase in energy consumption and the substitution of oil over the next 20 years is likely to be met by conventional energy sources, since indigenous reserves are extensive and the relevant technologies well-established. Coal, nuclear and hydro reserves could cover the increase in energy demand until well into the next century, and natural gas reserves are sufficient to bridge the gap during conversion from oil to other energy sources. Nuclear power using advanced fuel cycles and oil from tar sands offer Canada long-term security. The penetration of unconventional energy sources is likely to be relatively small during the next 20 years. However, the most promising may become significant in the next century. (author)

  5. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  6. Terror Park: A future theme park in 2100

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the future, tourism and entertainment could be displayed as spectacles of horror, where consumers are offered and opportunity to revisit the tragedies of the past. Current displays of death where the past is exhibited and consumed as fun, scary and as entertainment productions are widespread. The movie industry provides horror to all ages, children can be exposed to the goulash past in various forms, such as the popular book series ‘Horrible Histories’. Theme parks, rides and roller-coaste...

  7. Rural Latino youth park use: characteristics, park amenities, and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Cynthia K; Saelens, Brain E; Thompson, Beti

    2011-06-01

    Less than half of youth engage in sufficient physical activity to achieve health benefits. Key environmental factors of park and recreation spaces may influence youth physical activity. We sought to ascertain youth characteristics and behaviors that attract youth to parks with specific amenities and encourage physical activity while at the parks in a rural, predominantly Latino community. We examined the quality of amenities in the 13 parks and recreation spaces that middle school aged youth have access to in their community using the Environmental Assessment of Parks and Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool. Middle school students completed surveys in the school classroom (n = 1,102) regarding park use, physical activity, and intrapersonal characteristics (e.g., motivators). We used logistic regression to identify correlates of any park use, use of higher quality field and court parks, and active and sedentary park use. Younger age, participation in an after school activity, and identification of a team as a motivator were positively associated with any park use. Use of higher quality court and field parks was associated with participation in an after school activity and being Latino. The odds of being active in the parks were greater for boys and Latinos. Older age and alcohol use are correlated with being sedentary at the park, while odds of being sedentary at the park were lower for boys and youth who met physical activity guidelines. Organized team activities may encourage active use of higher quality fields and courts parks by Latino youth; thereby, increasing their level of physical activity.

  8. Cycle Tracks and Parking Environments in China: Learning from College Students at Peking University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changzheng; Sun, Yangbo; Lv, Jun; Lusk, Anne C

    2017-08-18

    China has a historic system of wide cycle tracks, many of which are now encroached by cars, buses and bus stops. Even with these conditions, college students still bicycle. On campuses, students park their bikes on facilities ranging from kick-stand-plazas to caged sheds with racks, pumps and an attendant. In other countries, including Canada, some of the newer cycle tracks need to be wider to accommodate an increasing number of bicyclists. Other countries will also need to improve their bike parking, which includes garage-basement cages and two-tiered racks. China could provide lessons about cycle tracks and bike parking. This study applied the Maslow Transportation Level of Service (LOS) theory, i.e., for cycle tracks and bike parking, only after the basic needs of safety and security are met for both vehicle occupants and bicyclists can the higher needs of convenience and comfort be met. With random clustering, a self-administered questionnaire was collected from 410 students in six dormitory buildings at Peking University in Beijing and an environmental scan of bicycle parking conducted in school/office and living areas. Cycle tracks (1 = very safe/5 = very unsafe) shared with moving cars were most unsafe (mean = 4.6), followed by sharing with parked cars (4.1) or bus stop users (4.1) ( p racks and bicycle parking services (pumps, etc.). If parking were improved, three quarters indicated they would bicycle more. While caged sheds were preferred, in living areas with 1597 parked bikes, caged sheds were only 74.4% occupied. For the future of China's wide cycle tracks, perhaps a fence-separated bus lane beside a cycle track might be considered or, with China's recent increase in bike riding, shared bikes and E-bikes, perhaps cars/buses could be banned from the wide cycle tracks. In other countries, a widened cycle track entrance should deter cars. Everywhere, bike parking sheds could be built and redesigned with painted lines to offer more space and order, similar

  9. Atlantic Canada's gas industry overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, G. [Emera Energy Inc., Halifax, NS (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Emera Energy is a vertically integrated energy company with 4 billion dollars in assets, and one billion dollars in revenue. The ownership structure of Emera Energy was reviewed. The major issues facing Emera Energy all imply a balancing act, between end users and producers, government and industry, infrastructure owners and customers, and Canada versus exports. A brief overview of the regulatory environment in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia was presented. Some of the other issues addressed in this presentation were: project Think, Maritime fragmentation and parochialism, federal/provincial equalization payments, fishing/petroleum industry clash, sovereign risk higher than need be, immature energy industry in Atlantic Canada, and offshore exploration and production industry different than that of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). National Energy Board (NEB) gas export hearing into the appropriateness of the market oriented export liberalization rules implemented in 1987 for exports of Atlantic Canada gas production is being challenged by the government of New Brunswick. Figures depicting the Canadian gas resource and Nova Scotia offshore gas development were presented, followed by a table providing East Coast offshore costs. The Sable Offshore Energy Project was described, as well as the Deep Panuke gas field. An update on offshore exploration was provided, including comments on onshore activity concerning coal bed methane. A status report of the natural gas supply contracts was discussed. Conventional gas was the next topic discussed, beginning with an overview of onshore activity. The midstream sector was reviewed, with a brief discussion about the existing pipeline system. The mainline expansion plans were reviewed. Some of the gas transmission issues facing the industry in Atlantic Canada are high transport rates, postage stamp toll that is anti-Canadian, gate keeper role for producers, and onerous rules and poor customer service. The Cartier pipeline

  10. Changing perspectives in urban park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chung-shing; Marafa, Lawal M.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    managers in Hong Kong have encountered different challenges over time, and the quest for changing park managerial strategies. In 2004, a set of indicators for urban park management in Hong Kong was produced as part of a Master's research. Local park managers were asked about their views on the respective......Urban parks provide numerous benefits to our society. In densely populated metropolises such as Hong Kong, urban parks are in high demand. A variety of indicators can be used as tools for improving park planning and management. Facing a dynamic society and increasing user expectations, urban park...... importance and performance (I–P) of the indicators. In 2012, a follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with the managers to study if their views regarding these indicators and their performance had changed. Results from the 2004 and 2012 surveys revealed changing perceptions regarding both I...

  11. Seasonal and individual variation in the use of rail-associated food attractants by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in a national park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maureen H; Fassina, Sarah; Hopkins, John B; Whittington, Jesse; St Clair, Colleen C

    2017-01-01

    Similar to vehicles on roadways, trains frequently kill wildlife via collisions along railways. Despite the prevalence of this mortality worldwide, little is known about the relative importance of wildlife attractants associated with railways, including spilled agricultural products, enhanced vegetation, invertebrates, and carcasses of rail-killed ungulates. We assessed the relative importance of several railway attractants to a provincially-threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in Banff and Yoho National Parks, Canada, for which rail-caused mortality has increased in recent decades without known cause. We examined the relationship between the use of the railway and diet by fitting 21 grizzly bears with GPS collars in 2011-2013 and measuring the stable isotope values (δ15N, δ34S) derived from their hair. We also examined the importance of rail-associated foods to grizzly bears by analyzing 230 grizzly bear scats collected from May through October in 2012-2014, some of which could be attributed to GPS-collared bears. Among the 21 collared bears, 17 used the rail rarely (bears (which included the three smallest bears and the largest bear in our sample) used the rail frequently (>20% of their monitored days). We found no significant relationships between δ15N and δ34S values measured from the hair of grizzlies and their frequency of rail use. Instead, δ15N increased with body mass, especially for male bears, suggesting large males consumed more animal protein during hair growth. All four bears that used the railway frequently produced scats containing grain. Almost half the scats (43%) collected within 150 m of the railway contained grain compared to only 7% of scats found >150 m from the railway. Scats deposited near the rail were also more likely to contain grain in the fall (85% of scats) compared to summer (14%) and spring (17%), and those containing grain were more diverse in their contents (6.8 ± 2.2 species vs. 4.9 ± 1.6, P bears in the

  12. Seasonal and individual variation in the use of rail-associated food attractants by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in a national park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen H Murray

    Full Text Available Similar to vehicles on roadways, trains frequently kill wildlife via collisions along railways. Despite the prevalence of this mortality worldwide, little is known about the relative importance of wildlife attractants associated with railways, including spilled agricultural products, enhanced vegetation, invertebrates, and carcasses of rail-killed ungulates. We assessed the relative importance of several railway attractants to a provincially-threatened population of grizzly bears (Ursus arctos in Banff and Yoho National Parks, Canada, for which rail-caused mortality has increased in recent decades without known cause. We examined the relationship between the use of the railway and diet by fitting 21 grizzly bears with GPS collars in 2011-2013 and measuring the stable isotope values (δ15N, δ34S derived from their hair. We also examined the importance of rail-associated foods to grizzly bears by analyzing 230 grizzly bear scats collected from May through October in 2012-2014, some of which could be attributed to GPS-collared bears. Among the 21 collared bears, 17 used the rail rarely (20% of their monitored days. We found no significant relationships between δ15N and δ34S values measured from the hair of grizzlies and their frequency of rail use. Instead, δ15N increased with body mass, especially for male bears, suggesting large males consumed more animal protein during hair growth. All four bears that used the railway frequently produced scats containing grain. Almost half the scats (43% collected within 150 m of the railway contained grain compared to only 7% of scats found >150 m from the railway. Scats deposited near the rail were also more likely to contain grain in the fall (85% of scats compared to summer (14% and spring (17%, and those containing grain were more diverse in their contents (6.8 ± 2.2 species vs. 4.9 ± 1.6, P < 0.001. Lastly, scats collected near the rail were more likely to contain ungulate hair and ant remains

  13. The coastal rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae of Atlantic Canada: a survey and new records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The coastline inhabiting rove beetles (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae of Atlantic Canada are surveyed. Thirty-three species have now been recorded in Atlantic Canada including 26 in New Brunswick, 15 in Newfoundland, 31 in Nova Scotia, and 13 on Prince Edward Island. Oligota parva Kraatz, Acrotona avia (Casey, Strigota ambigua (Erichson, and Myrmecopora vaga (LeConte, are all newly recorded in Canada, and Bledius mandibularis Erichson is newly recorded in Atlantic Canada. We retain A. avia as a species distinct from A. subpygmaea Bernhauer and designate a lectotype and paralectotypes for A. avia. Ten new provincial records are reported, one from New Brunswick, six from Nova Scotia, and three from Prince Edward Island. Four functional groups, halobiont (obligate, halophile (facultative, haloxene (tolerant, and incidental coastal species, are distinguished and the fauna is examined from the perspective of the particular coastline habitats and microhabitats they have been found to inhabit. Fourteen of the 33 staphylinids are introduced, Palearctic species, and eight of these have been associated with historic dry ballast shipping to the region from Great Britain. A trophic analysis indicates that some species are phytophagous algae feeders, while others are either generalist predators, or predators specializing on particular taxonomic or functional groups of invertebrates. Finally, some attention is devoted to discussing the diminished areas of coastline environments such as coastal marshes, and the various kinds of environmental disturbances and degradations they have experienced. These indicate the potential vulnerability of such coastal habitats and consequently of the communities of beetles that inhabit them.

  14. Antimicrobial resistance programs in canada 1995-2010: a critical evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conly John M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, systematic efforts for controlling antibiotic resistance began in 1997 following a national Consensus Conference. The Canadian strategy produced 27 recommendations, one of which was the formation of the Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (CCAR. In addition several other organizations began working on a national or provincial basis over the ensuing years on one or more of the 3 identified core areas of the strategy. Critical evaluation of the major programs within Canada which focused on antimicrobial resistance and the identified core components has not been previously conducted. Findings Data was collected from multiple sources to determine the components of four major AMR programs that were considered national based on their scope or in the delivery of their mandates. Assessment of program components was adapted from the report from the International Forum on Antibiotic Resistance colloquium. Most of the programs used similar tools but only the Do Bugs Need Drugs Program (DBND had components directed towards day cares and schools. Surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistant pathogens have limitations and/or significant sources of bias. Overall, there has been a 25.3% decrease in oral antimicrobial prescriptions in Canada since 1995, mainly due to decreases in β lactams, sulphonamides and tetracyclines in temporal association with multiple programs with the most comprehensive and sustained national programs being CCAR and DBND. Conclusions Although there has been a substantial decrease in oral antimicrobial prescriptions in Canada since 1995, there remains a lack of leadership and co-ordination of antimicrobial resistance activities.

  15. The Devil Is in the Details! On Regulating Cannabis Use in Canada Based on Public Health Criteria; Comment on “Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Rehm

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This commentary to the editorial of Hajizadeh argues that the economic, social and health consequences of legalizing cannabis in Canada will depend in large part on the exact stipulations (mainly from the federal government and on the implementation, regulation and practice of the legalization act (on provincial and municipal levels. A strict regulatory framework is necessary to minimize the health burden attributable to cannabis use. This includes prominently control of production and sale of the legal cannabis including control of price and content with ban of marketing and advertisement. Regulation of medical marijuana should be part of such a framework as well

  16. Working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among nurses in a provincial hospital in the Limpopo Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, M; Jooste, K

    2008-03-01

    Absenteeism results in an increased workload for nurses who stand in for colleagues and can lead to situations in which a lack of motivation among nurses and a lowering of the quality of patient care may occur. The researcher observed that certain conditions, such as inflexible working schedules, were given as reasons for the absenteeism in units in a provincial hospital. A non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken. The purpose of the article was to describe the working conditions that contribute to absenteeism among the professional and sub-professional nurses at a provincial hospital in the Limpopo province of South Africa. The sample included 107 professional nurses and 163 sub-professional nurses who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of this study indicated that personal and managerial characteristics, and organisational and working conditions may lead to absenteeism in the workplace. This article focuses on the working conditions that are constraints, namely inadequate group cohesion, inadequate delegation of autonomy, role ambiguity, ineffective routinisation and the effect of the workload in the workplace. Recommendations are made for improving working conditions to combat absenteeism among nurses. The limitations of this study are highlighted.

  17. Relationship between air quality and economic development in the provincial capital cities of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nengcheng; Xu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution in China has become increasingly severe with rapid economic growth in recent years. We analyzed the relationship between the gross regional product (GRP) per capita and the Integrated Air Pollution Index (IAPI) in all the provincial capital cities in China from 2003 to 2014 and clustered them into six urban development patterns. These patterns are as follows: inverse U-shaped, N-1-shaped, N-2-shaped, U-shaped, linear decline, and stable. The majority of the provincial capitals are N-1, N-2, and U types, suggesting that the air quality is deteriorating currently or will deteriorate in the future. Meteorological conditions and industrial structure are taken into consideration when testing the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis between the economy and air pollutant concentration. Results show that there exists no direct relationship between three main pollutants and GRP per capita, while an inverse U-shaped relationship with the secondary industry and a U-shaped relationship with the tertiary industry. These results will be a meaningful reference for policy makers to develop policies that coordinate the environmental protection and economic development.

  18. Measuring energy security performance within China: Toward an inter-provincial prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Long; Yu, Jing; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Ren, Jingzheng

    2017-01-01

    China has been the world's largest energy consumer and producer for many years, yet while myriad studies have investigated Chinese performance on energy metrics compared to other countries, few to none have looked internally at Chinese provinces. This paper firstly develops a five-dimensional evaluation system centered on the energy security dimensions of availability and diversity, affordability and equality, technology and efficiency, environmental sustainability, and governance and innovation. It then correlates these dimensions to 20 distinct energy security metrics that are used to assess the energy security performance of 30 Chinese provinces, divided into eight regions. Our results reveal both trends in energy policy and practice as well as provincial status of comparative energy security for the year 2013. We find, for instance, that there is no province which performs well in all five of the energy security dimensions, and that all provinces confronted threats related to energy availability and diversity. We also demonstrate that in comparative terms, the Middle Reaches of Yellow River and the Northwest were the most energy-secure, while the Middle Reaches of Yangtze River and the Northeast were least energy-secure. - Highlights: • We assessed energy security for 30 Chinese provinces across five dimensions. • Fuzzy AHP, PROMETHEE and Sensitivity Analysis are used to investigate. • Western provinces perform better performance than eastern provinces in 2013. • Energy availability and diversity is the most severe threat facing China's energy security. • Developing renewable energy will help improve China's Provincial energy security significantly.

  19. Progress in improving provincial plans for nutrition through targeted technical assistance and local advocacy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jody; Nguyen, Phuong H; To, Quyen; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima

    2016-12-01

    Vietnam has been decentralizing nutrition planning to provinces, which could help with local relevance and accountability. Assessment in 2009 found a continuing top-down approach, limited human capacity, and difficulty in integrating multiple sectors. Alive and Thrive (A&T) provided targeted assistance and capacity-building for 15 provincial plans for nutrition (PPNs). We aimed to (i) assess PPN content and quality improvements 2009-2014, and (ii) explain processes through which change occurred. Data consisted of interview-based assessments of provincial planning processes, annual PPN assessments, and tracking of A&T involvement. At endline, some provinces produced higher quality plans. Local planning skills improved, but capacity remained insufficient. Awareness of and support for nutrition improved, but some policy and legal environments were contradictory. Objectives were clearer, but use of data for planning remained inconsistent. Provinces became more proactive and creative, but remained constrained by slow approval processes and insufficient funding. Targeted assistance and local advocacy can improve decentralized planning, with success dependent on policy and programming contexts and ability to overcome constraints around capacity, investment, data use and remnants of centralized planning. We recommend strong engagement with planners at the national level to understand how to unblock major constraints; solutions must take into consideration the particular political, financial and administrative context. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  20. Provincial Carbon Emissions Reduction Allocation Plan in China Based on Consumption Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuecheng Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available China is a country with substantial differences in economic development, energy consumption mix, resources, and technologies, as well as the development path at the provincial level. Therefore, China’s provinces have different potential and degrees of difficulty to carry out carbon emission reduction (CER requirements. In addition, interprovincial trade, with a large amount of embodied carbon emissions, has become the fastest growing driver of China’s total carbon emissions. A reasonable CER allocation plan is, therefore, crucial for realizing the commitment that China announced in the Paris Agreement. How to determine a fair way to allocate provincial CER duties has become a significant challenge for both policy-makers and researchers. In this paper, ecological network analysis (ENA, combined with a multi-regional input-output model (MRIO, is adopted to build an ecological network of embodied emissions across 30 provinces. Then, by using flow analysis and utility analysis based on the ENA model, the specific relationships among different provinces were determined, and the amount of responsibility that a certain province should take quantified, with respect to the embodied carbon emission (ECE flows from interprovincial trade. As a result, we suggest a new CER allocation plan, based on the detailed data of interprovincial relationships and ECE flows.

  1. Social appearance anxiety of staff in youth services and sport provincial directorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk YAZICI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the social appearance anxiety of staff in Youth Services and Sport Provincial Directorate. Material and Methods: Totally 300 staff who were working in Youth Services and Sport Provincial Directorates of Malatya, Trabzon and Istanbul had participated to the study. As data collection tools; “Social Appearance Anxiety Scale” which developed by Hart et al. (2008 and modified to Turkish with reliability and validity study by Doğan (2010 and “Personal Data Form” created by the researchers were used. In analyzing the data; descriptive analysis, t-test and one way Anova were used. Results: Social anxiety concerns of personnel has been found to be the low level. After the analysis it was determined that there was a significant difference in age, income, doing sports and city that working according to the staff’s social appearance anxiety. Conclusion: In this context, the studies should be included in studying of staff in other cities.

  2. Subjective happiness levels of staff working in provincial organization of general directorate of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer YAZICI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was investigate to level of subjective happiness levels of staff who works in provincial organization of General Directorate of Sport. Material and Methods: The study group of the research consisted of 400 staff (164 female, 236 male who works in General Directorate of Sport’s İstanbul, Trabzon, Malatya and Tokat Youth Services and Sport provincial directorates. In the study as data collection tool; Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS which developed by Lyubomirsky & Lepper (1999 and adapted to Turkish by Akın and Satıcı (2011 was used. And also “personal data form” which created by the researchers was used. The data analyzed by descriptive statistics, T-test and Anova test. Also, Scheffe test was used to find out the significant differences of groups. Results: In accordance with t-test results obtained from the present study, there are significant differences with respect to variables such as marital status, income state and sport participation (p<0.05. Conclusion: As a result, it was determined that married staff is happier than single staff. Also, the staff who determined themselves in moderate income level is happier than the staff who determined themselves in lower income level.

  3. Radon awareness in the provincial capital Lahore of Punjab province of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, S.N.A.; Alaamer, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to assess the degree of radon awareness in the general public in the provincial capital Lahore of Punjab province of Pakistan, a survey was conducted in all nine municipal towns of Lahore city. In this regard, volunteers from three Universities and six Colleges were deputed to collect data from hospitals, educational institutes, business points, markets, residential areas, public offices and private sector organisations. About 400 un-educated and educated persons of various educational background from each municipal town participated in this survey and their responses were recorded on the questionnaire prepared for this purpose. In this way, a total of 3600 persons participated in this survey. Results of this survey imply that on average, only 30.9% participants were scientifically aware of radon. These results suggest that a nationwide mass media campaign may be launched by the Federal Ministry of Environment, Provincial Environment Protection Agency and Community Development Dept. to educate the general public in this respect at the union council level about hazards of radon to avoid its harmful effects. (authors)

  4. Inter-provincial clean development mechanism in China: A case study of the solar PV sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, David A.; Guan, Dabo; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    With ever growing urgency, climate change mitigation is fast becoming a priority for China. A successful policy of implementing and expanding sustainable development and the use of renewable energy is therefore vital. As well as long-term and near-term targets for installed capacity of renewable energy, in its 12th five-year plan, China has created strict and ambitious carbon intensity targets for each province. This study proposes an inter-provincial clean development mechanism to assist in meeting these targets. This mechanism will create potential co-benefits of assisting in sustainable development in lesser developed provinces, increasing local air quality and supporting the growth of China's renewable energy sector. This paper also highlights the potential that this inter-provincial clean development mechanism has in accelerating the growth of the domestic solar photovoltaics (PV) sector, for which the market in China is still in its infancy. - Highlights: ► We recognise the necessity for each province in China to reduce its GHG emissions. ► We assess the potential of a national scale a CDM style mechanism for China. ► We consider the effect that the national CDM could have on solar PV in China

  5. A 3D Model Based Imdoor Navigation System for Hubei Provincial Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Kruminaite, M.; Onrust, B.; Liu, H.; Xiong, Q.; Zlatanova, S.

    2013-11-01

    3D models are more powerful than 2D maps for indoor navigation in a complicate space like Hubei Provincial Museum because they can provide accurate descriptions of locations of indoor objects (e.g., doors, windows, tables) and context information of these objects. In addition, the 3D model is the preferred navigation environment by the user according to the survey. Therefore a 3D model based indoor navigation system is developed for Hubei Provincial Museum to guide the visitors of museum. The system consists of three layers: application, web service and navigation, which is built to support localization, navigation and visualization functions of the system. There are three main strengths of this system: it stores all data needed in one database and processes most calculations on the webserver which make the mobile client very lightweight, the network used for navigation is extracted semi-automatically and renewable, the graphic user interface (GUI), which is based on a game engine, has high performance of visualizing 3D model on a mobile display.

  6. Uncovering regional disparity of China's water footprint and inter-provincial virtual water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Hao, Dong; Yu, Xiaoman

    2014-12-01

    With rapid economic development in China, water crisis is becoming serious and may impede future sustainable development. The uneven distribution of water resources further aggravates such a problem. Under such a circumstance, the concepts of water footprint and virtual water have been proposed in order to respond water scarcity problems. This paper focuses on studying provincial disparity of China's water footprints and inter-provincial virtual water trade flows by adopting inter-regional input-output (IRIO) method. The results show that fast developing areas with larger economic scales such as Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Xinjiang had the largest water footprints. The most developed and water scarce areas such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong intended to import virtual water, a rational choice for mitigating their water crisis. Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi and Hunan, had the largest per GDP water intensities and were the main water import regions. Another key finding is that agriculture water footprint was the main part in water footprint composition and water export trade. On the basis of these findings, policy implications on agriculture geographical dispersion, consumption behavior changes, trade structure adjustment and water use efficiency improvement are further discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Canada's steps towards nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1958-09-01

    This paper describes the policy development of nuclear power in Canada. Canada has a natural abundance of coal, oil, natural gas, water power and uranium. It was recognized that the demand for nuclear power would only materialize if it met an economically competitive range.

  8. Radioactive waste management in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, N.J.

    1986-09-01

    This bibliography is an up-date to AECL-6186(Rev 3), 1952-1982, 'Radioactive Waste Management in Canada AECL Publications and Other Literature' compiled by Dianne Wallace. Canadian publications from outside contractors concerning the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program are included in addition to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited reports and papers. 252 refs

  9. ESPlannerBASIC CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Kotlikoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditional financial planning is based on a fundamental rule of thumb: Aim to save enough for retirement to replace 80 per cent of your pre-retirement income with income from pensions and assets. Millions of Canadians follow this formula. Yet, there is no guarantee this approach is consistent with a savings plan that will allow them to experience their optimal standard of living — given their income — throughout their working lives. Consumption smoothing happens when a consumer projects her income and her non-discretionary expenses (such as mortgage payments all the way up until the end of her life, and is able to determine her household discretionary spending power over time, to achieve the smoothest living standard path possible without going into debt. When consumption smoothing is calculated accurately, a person’s lifestyle should be roughly the same whether she is in her 30s with small children, in her 50s with kids in college, or in retirement, with adult children. Consumption smoothing allows that to happen. But while it is conceptually straightforward, consumption smoothing requires the use of advanced numerical techniques. Now, Canadian families have access to a powerful consumption-smoothing tool: ESPlannerBASIC Canada. This free, secure and confidential online tool will allow Canadian families to safely and securely enter their earnings and other financial resources and will calculate for them how much they can spend and how much they should save in order to maintain their lifestyle from now until they die, without going into debt. It will also calculate how much life insurance they should buy, to ensure that household living standards are not affected after a family member dies. Users can easily and instantly run “what-if” scenarios to see how retiring early (or later, changing jobs, adjusting retirement contributions, having children, moving homes, timing RRSP withdrawals, and other financial and lifestyle decisions would

  10. Factors Affecting The Adoption Of Mhealth In Maternal Health Care In Nakuru Provincial General Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Munyua

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Access to timely and quality maternal health care remains to be a major development challenge in many developing economies particularly in Kenya. The countrys system of providing maternal health care also continue to be anchored on conventional methods of physical presence of the patient and the doctor in a hospital setup. The countrys ICT and health policies also place very little emphasis on the use of these platforms. This study therefore sought to establish the factors affecting the adoption of mHealth by focusing on maternal health in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Objectives of the study were to determine the extent to knowledge and awareness affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to identify the government policies affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru PGH to assess how access to technology affects the adoption of mHealth in maternal healthcare to establish the effects of ICT infrastructure on the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care and to identify the cost aspects affecting the adoption of mHealth in maternal health care at Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. It is envisaged that the study could provide useful information on the adoption of mHealth in managing maternal health care in Nakuru Provincial General Hospital. Descriptive survey research design will be used where all the medical staff and patients of Nakuru Provincial General Hospital was surveyed. The study population therefore was made up of 24 medical staff and 3460 mothers visiting the antenatal clinic selected using clustered random sampling technique. The main instrument for primary data collection was the questionnaire. Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics to be used include frequency counts percentages and measures of central tendency. Inferential statistics on the other hand include t-test analysis and spearman correlation

  11. Lake Turkana National Parks Kenya.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Lake Turkana is the largest, most northerly and most saline of Africa's Rift Valley lakes and an outstanding laboratory for the study of plant and animal communities. The three National Parks are a stopover for migrant waterfowl and are major breeding grounds for the Nile crocodile and hippopotamus. The Koobi Fora deposits are rich in pre-human, mammalian, molluscan and other fossil remains and have contributed more to the understanding of Quaternary palaeoenvironments than any other site on ...

  12. Sovremennoje iskusstvo v angliskom parke

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2003-01-01

    Performance-kunsti rühmituse Virus (Alan Holligan, Stewart Bennett ja Ewan Robertson Edinburghist) projekt "Sekkumine - kaasaegne kunst inglise pargis" toimub Väliskunsti muuseumis, Mikkeli muuseumis ja selle ümbruses. Inspiratsiooniks on Kadrioru park ning parginäitused Mikkeli ja Väliskunsti muuseumis. Radical Loyalty projektist, millele pani aluse Chris Evans (Glasgow) 2002. a. ja mille raames plaanitakse skulptuuripargi rajamist Järvakandisse. Evansi projekt presentatsiooni formaadis toimub Mikkeli muuseumis video ja fotode abil

  13. Feasibility of Wind Energy Parks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, Jose

    2000-01-01

    The paper discuss the feasibility of wind energy parks including aspects of supply and demand of energy, costs of generation and risks of investment associated. The paper introduce to the situation of wind energy in the word and specifically in Spain, describes the legal framework in promotion of renewables in Spain, the analysis of revenues and the risk of this business in the european market

  14. Energy in Canada 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This publication provides a panoramic overview of Canada's energy situation at the beginning of the 21st century, presenting the issues that drive the country's energy policy, and a look at the various technologies by which energy is produced, its sources, transformation and the infrastructure required to deliver it to the consumer. Energy consumption by sectors of the economy, energy conservation and energy conservation issues are analyzed, and details of the lines of actions designed by the federal government to achieve its energy policy objectives are explained. Appendix One provides more detail on the complex issue of climate change, while Appendix Two provides some energy-related statistics, extracted from a database of energy statistics which are also available in graphic or spreadsheet format at http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/es/ener2000. 12 tabs., 40 figs

  15. Tritium activities in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Canadian tritium activites comprise three major interests: utilites, light manufacturers, and fusion. There are 21 operating CANDU reactors in Canada; 19 with Ontario Hydro and one each with Hydro Quebec and New Brunswick Power. There are two light manufacturers, two primary tritium research facilities (at AECL Chalk River and Ontario Hydro Technologies), and a number of industry and universities involved in design, construction, and general support of the other tritium activities. The largest tritum program is in support of the CANDU reactors, which generate tritium in the heavy water as a by-product of normal operation. Currently, there are about 12 kg of tritium locked up in the heavy water coolant and moderator of these reactors. The fusion work is complementary to the light manufacturing, and is concerned with tritium handling for the ITER program. This included design, development and application of technologies related to Isotope Separation, tritium handling, (tritiated) gas separation, tritium-materials interaction, and plasma fueling

  16. Western Canada uranium perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the exploration for uranium in British Columbia, the Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Saskatchewan is reviewed. A moratorium on exploration has been in effect in British Columbia since 1980; it is due to expire in 1987. Only the Blizzard deposit appears to have any economic potential. The Lone Gull discovery in the Thelon Basin of the Northwest Territories has proven reserves of more than 35 million pounds U 3 O 8 grading 0.4%. Potentially prospective areas of the northern Thelon Basin lie within a game sanctuary and cannot be explored. Exploration activity in Saskatchewan continues to decline from the peak in 1980. Three major deposits - Cluff Lake, Rabbit Lake and Key Lake - are in production. By 1985 Saskatchewan will produce 58% of Canada's uranium, and over 13% of the western world's output. (L.L.) (3 figs, 2 tabs.)

  17. It only hurts when you produce : ten years of federal/provincial conflict over oil industry revenue sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    This book presents a collection of more than 300 cartoons which were published in 'Oilweek Magazine' between February 1973 and 1983. For the oil industry, this decade represented a time of increased provincial royalties and rising federal taxation. The cartoons depict the ongoing federal-provincial conflict over oil industry revenue sharing. The implication of the title is that while federal and provincial governments each determined the oil industry to be their own golden goose, the goose concluded that future demands for golden eggs would be painful to satisfy. At the time, the cartoons were submitted anonymously, but were well received by 'Oilweek' readers. In 1986, Amoco Regional Petroleum Engineering Supervisor Don Smith, revealed that he was the anonymous artist

  18. Canada's conventional natural gas resources : a status report : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    The National Energy Board monitors the supply of all energy commodities in Canada as well as the demand for Canadian energy commodities in domestic and export markets. Energy market assessment reports examine different facets of the Canadian energy market and include long term-assessments of Canada's supply and demand as well as near-term energy market issues. This report examines the geological potential for conventional natural gas resources. An estimate of those resources for Canada was also presented. The main objective of the report is to set the groundwork for future partnerships between provincial, territorial and federal agencies. The size of Alberta's conventional natural gas resources is being examined in partnership with the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB). The ultimate potential for conventional natural gas in British Columbia is being assessed by the British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines. The Board's internal assessment for 2004 has revealed an estimate of 207 trillion cubic feet for the ultimate of conventional natural gas in Alberta. This estimate is higher than the estimate provided by the Canadian Gas Potential Committee in 2001 and higher than the 1992 assessment of the EUB. It was noted that most undiscovered resources in Alberta will be found in the shallow Cretaceous zones, not in deep Devonian zones. The Board also revised its estimate for the Mackenzie Delta-Beaufort Sea region and the East Newfoundland Basin. The current estimate for ultimate potential of conventional natural gas in Canada is 501 trillion cubic feet, with the following distribution of the resources by basin: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (54.5 per cent), Northern Canada (23.1 per cent), East Coast (18.3 per cent), West Coast (3.4 per cent), Ontario (0.5 per cent), and Gulf of St. Lawrence (0.3 per cent). 39 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  19. Configuration study of large wind parks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, Stefan

    2003-07-01

    In this thesis, layouts of various large-scale wind parks, using both AC as well as DC, are investigated. Loss modelling of the wind park components as well as calculations of the energy capture of the turbines using various electrical systems are performed, and the energy production cost of the various park configurations is determined. The most interesting candidate for a DC transmission based wind park was investigated more in detail, the series DC wind park. Finally, the power quality impact in the PCC (point of common coupling) was studied. It was found that from an energy capture point of view, the difference in energy production between various wind turbine systems is very small. Of all the investigated wind park configurations, the wind park with the series connected DC wind turbines seems to have the best potential to give the lowest energy production cost, if the transmission distance is longer then 10-20 km. Regarding the series DC wind park it was found that it is the most difficult one to control. However, a control algorithm for the series park and its turbines was derived and successfully tested. Still, several more details regarding the control of the series wind park has to be dealt with.

  20. Canada`s green plan - The second year. Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Canada`s Green Plan is the national strategy and action plan for sustainable development launched by the federal government. The Green Plan`s goal is `to secure for current and future generations a safe and healthy environment and a sound and prosperous economy.` It represents a fundamental shift in the way the federal government views economic development and environmental protection: they are inextricably linked; both are critical to the health and well-being of Canadians. Substantial development has been made in Canada, with advances being made on the Green Plan`s short-term objectives and on our longer term priorities.

  1. The tornado risk in eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmis, G.J.K.

    1980-01-01

    In the United States, a tornado design requirement was imposed on nuclear power plants in 1967. This requirement precipitated considerable study on the probability of toronado strikes and the consequent damage. As a data base, records of thousands of tornadoes which occurred in the U.S. in the last 50 years were available. Unfortunately, no such data base exists for tornadoes and other extreme atmospheric events in Canada. A theoretical study employing a Monte Carlo technique was used to simulate the tornado environment for a hypothetical site. This exercise concluded that a site the size of a large nuclear park such as Bruce can be traversed by a tornado every 500 years. The results are very preliminary since very little Canadian data or meteorological considerations have been involved. The results do, however, show that the frequency of a tornado strike is in the order of 10 -3 events/annum and is therefore of concern in the safety assessment of nuclear facilities. (auth)

  2. Canada No. 1 in business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    Canada has for the fifth time in a row been chosen the best industrialized country in the world in which to initiate and run a business. The Norwegian interest in Canada has grown strongly the last years and Norwegian companies have invested over 20 billion NOK there. Canada is the perfect gateway to the large markets in the USA. Norway is currently Canada's 15th largest trading partner. In addition to low costs and strategic location, Canada has the most highly educated workforce in the world. A company on the Canadian side of the US border has the same access to the American market as a US-based company. There is even a Norwegian company in Canada that exports 100 per cent of its products across the border to the USA. The trade between the USA and Canada is more extensive than between the USA and all the EU countries together. Furthermore, Canadian companies concentrating on research and education are given a generous tax credit

  3. Analysis of Parking Reliability Guidance of Urban Parking Variable Message Sign System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Operators of parking guidance and information systems (PGIS often encounter difficulty in determining when and how to provide reliable car park availability information to drivers. Reliability has become a key factor to ensure the benefits of urban PGIS. The present paper is the first to define the guiding parking reliability of urban parking variable message signs (VMSs. By analyzing the parking choice under guiding and optional parking lots, a guiding parking reliability model was constructed. A mathematical program was formulated to determine the guiding parking reliability of VMS. The procedures were applied to a numerical example, and the factors that affect guiding reliability were analyzed. The quantitative changes of the parking berths and the display conditions of VMS were found to be the most important factors influencing guiding reliability. The parking guiding VMS achieved the best benefit when the parking supply was close to or was less than the demand. The combination of a guiding parking reliability model and parking choice behavior offers potential for PGIS operators to reduce traffic congestion in central city areas.

  4. Denali Park wolf studies: Implications for Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Meier, Thomas J.; Burch, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain Wolf Recovery Plan approved by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (1987) recommends re-establishment of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park. Bills proposing wolf re-establishment in the Park have been introduced into the U.S. House and Senate. However, several questions have been raised about the possible effects of wolf re-establishment on other Yellowstone Park fauna, on human use of the Park and on human use of surrounding areas. Thus the proposed wolf re-establishment remains controversial.Information pertinent to some of the above questions is available from a current study of wolf ecology in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska, which we began in 1986. Although Denali Park differs from Yellowstone in several ways, it is also similar enough in important respects to provide insight into questions raised about wolf re-establishment in Yellowstone.

  5. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  6. Open Days: information on CERN parking

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The organising team for the Open Days (28-29 September) would like to inform you that some parking sites in Meyrin and Prévessin will have to be kept free as of 18 September for the installation of tents and marquees.   Next week, CERN Management will address parking concerns and give you more information on other parking possibilities. The Open Day organising team thanks you for your cooperation and apologises for any inconvenience.

  7. Decision of National and Provincial Highway Asphalt Pavement Structure Based on Value Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important that decision of asphalt pavement structure requires overall considerations of the performance and financial investment. To have asphalt pavement structure fulfilling good reliability, the asphalt pavement structure decision was researched based on value engineering theory. According to the national and provincial highway investigation data in Shandong Province during the last decade, the asphalt pavement performance attenuation rules of traffic levels and asphalt layer thicknesses were developed, and then the road performance evaluation method was presented. In addition, the initial investments, the costs of road maintenance, and middle-scale repair in a period were analyzed. For the light traffic and medium traffic example, using the value engineering method, the pavement performance and costs of which thickness varies from 6 cm to 10 cm were calculated and compared. It was concluded that value engineering was an effective method in deciding the asphalt pavement structure.

  8. A proposed quantitative credit-rating methodology for South African provincial departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Fourie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of subnational credit-rating methodologies affords benefits for subnationals, the sovereign and its citizens. Trusted credit ratings facilitate access to financial markets and above-average ratings allow for the negotiation of better collateral and guarantee agreements, as well as for funding of, for example, infrastructure projects at superior (lower interest rates. This paper develops the quantitative section of a credit-rating methodology for South African subnationals. The unique characteristics of South African data, their assembly, and the selection of dependent and independent variables for the linear-regression model chosen, are discussed. The methodology is then applied to the provincial Department of Health using linear regression modelling.

  9. Sharing the Burden? Assessing the Lithuanian Decision to Establish a Provincial Reconstruction Team in Afghanistan

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    Maskaliūnaitė Asta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses theories explaining the states’ burden-sharing decisions in an alliance and uses them to evaluate the Lithuanian decision to establish a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT in Afghanistan. In the literature, several influences on such decision-making are identified. These fall into two broad categories of systemic and domestic factors. From the former, threat perception, alliance dependence, systemic pressures of alliance politics are analysed; and from the latter three clusters of aspects such as: state autonomy, elite consensus, space of manoeuver of the executive; bureaucratic politics and organizational interests, and third, some additional elements of strategic culture/state identity. While most factors have some explanatory value, the analysis invites the conclusion that in case of the decision to lead a PRT, the two most important elements were alliance dependence from the first cluster and strategic culture and bureaucratic politics from the second.

  10. Federal, provincial and territorial public health response plan for biological events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, R; Topping, J

    2018-01-04

    The Federal/Provincial/Territorial (FPT) Public Health Response Plan for Biological Events was developed for the Public Health Network Council (PHNC). This plan outlines how the national response to public health events caused by biological agents will be conducted and coordinated, with a focus on implementation of responses led by senior-level FPT public health decision-makers. The plan was developed by an expert task group and was approved by PHNC in October, 2017. The plan describes roles, responsibilities and authorities of FPT governments for public health and emergency management, a concept of operations outlining four scalable response levels and a governance structure that aims to facilitate an efficient, timely, evidence-informed and consistent approach across jurisdictions. Improving effective engagement amongst public health, health care delivery and health emergency management authorities is a key objective of the plan.

  11. State and use of monitoring and evaluation systems in national and provincial departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futhi Umlaw

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since 2009, South Africa has seen a major shift in emphasis concerning monitoring and evaluation (M&E systems. This shift was partially stimulated by the South African government being faced with a number of pressures, key amongst which were persistent poverty and inequality and widespread service delivery protests. These pressures resulted ina greater willingness by government to address the poor quality of public services, and other governance problems that needed a greater focus on M&E to address these challenges. This led to the establishment of the Department of Performance Monitoring and Evaluation (DPME in early 2010. A comprehensive survey on the state and use of M&E systems in national and provincial government was conducted by the DPME as an attempt to understand the M&E landscape since 1994. The results were used to make informed policy and programme decisions. This paper outlines the findings of the survey.

  12. [Organization of colon-rectal cancer screening in the Provincial Health Agency of Ragusa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blangiardi, F; Ferrera, G; Cilia, S; Aprile, E

    2012-01-01

    Cancer screening is a secondary prevention program that permits early diagnosis of neoplasias and precancerous lesions are in order to diminish mortality and morbidity for certain types of tumors (breast, colon-rectal, and cervical). In 2010, the Ragusa Provincial Health Agency began screening for colon-rectal cancer in an experimental phase that initially involved only the municipality of Ragusa but that was then extended to other municipalities of the province. Although the organizing model suffered from many managerial problems including lack of human resources and tools, there was good collaboration and involvement of the public health/hygiene offices and the general practitioners and volunteer associations. This type of networking was useful in that adhesion to screening was well above that expected. Another winning aspect of the project resulted in clear and pertinent communication to the population.

  13. Factor Analysis of Residential Energy Consumption at the Provincial Level in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the differences in the amount and the structure of residential energy consumption at the provincial level in China and identifies the hidden factors behind such differences. The econometrical analysis reveals that population, economic development level, energy resource endowment and climatic conditions are the main factors driving residential energy consumption; while the regional differences in energy consumption per capita and the consumption structure can be mainly illustrated by various economic development levels, energy resource endowments and climatic conditions. Economic development level has a significant positive impact on the proportion of gasoline consumption, whereas its impact on the proportion of electricity consumption is not notable; energy resource endowment and climatic condition indirectly affect both the proportion of electricity consumption and that of gasoline consumption, primarily through their impacts on the proportions of coal consumption and heat consumption.

  14. Advanced parking management systems : a cross-cutting study : taking the stress out of parking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This study examines advanced parking management systems (APMSs) in three venues: airports, central business districts, and transit park-and-ride locations. Specifically, the systems examined in this study provide directional and space availability in...

  15. Provincial Health Accounts in Kerman, Iran: An Evidence of a “Mixed” Healthcare Financing System

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    Mohammad Hossein Mehrolhassani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Provincial Health Accounts (PHA as a subset of National Health Accounts (NHA present financial information for health sectors. It leads to a logical decision making for policy-makers in order to achieve health system goals, especially Fair Financial Contribution (FFC. This study aimed to examine Health Accounts in Kerman Province. Methods The present analytical study was carried out retrospectively between 2008 and 2011. The research population consisted of urban and rural households as well as providers and financial agents in health sectors of Kerman Province. The purposeful sampling included 16 provincial organizations. To complete data, the report on Kerman household expenditure was taken as a data source from the Governor-General’s office. In order to classify the data, the International Classification for Health Accounts (ICHA method was used, in which data set was adjusted for the province. Results During the study, the governmental and non-governmental fund shares of the health sector in Kerman were 27.22% and 72.78% respectively. The main portion of financial sources (59.41 was related to private household funds, of which the Out-of-Pocket (OOP payment mounted to 92.35%. Overall, 54.86% of all financial sources were covered by OOP. The greatest portion of expenditure of Total Healthcare Expenditures (THEs (65.19% was related to curative services. Conclusion The major portion of healthcare expenditures was related to the OOP payment which is compatible with the national average rate in Iran. However, health expenditure per capita, was two and a half times higher than the national average. By performing the Family Physician Program (FPP and emphasizing Social Determinant of Health (SDH approach in the Iranian health system, the portion of OOP payment and curative expenditure are expected to be controlled in the medium term. It is suggested that PHA should be examined annually in a more comprehensive manner to monitor

  16. [Descriptive Study of the Activities Performed By the Provincial Medical Deontology Commissions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Tarazona López, Ernesto; Martínez Calduch, Blanca; Vera-Remartínez, Enrique Jesús; Jiménez de Aldasoro, María Antonia; Boix Rajadell, Vicente; Ventura López, Mario

    2016-01-01

    to describe the expedient's features those settle the medical ethics commissions of the provincial colleges (PMEC). descriptive study, retrospective from the typology of the received claims to the PMEC between 01-06-2013 and 31-05-2014. The colleges were selected by simple stratified random sample. Variables related with the origin of the claim, chapter of the Medical Ethics Code affected, resolution timescales, judgement and others; were gathered. Descriptive analysis of the variables, expressing with medians the quantitative variables and their corresponding interquartile ranges; and with absolute and relative frequencies the qualitative ones. A bivariate analysis, through Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests. 10 provincial colleges participated (47.652 members, 20.2% from the Spanish total) that communicated 120 claims. Overall impact: 2.5 claims %0 members/year. The denouncers are mainly patients (80%). The family medicine is the most affected specialty (19.2% of the claims), the quality of the medical attention the most affected chapter of the CD (60% of the claims). The global resolution timescale was 115.5 days (55-187). The PMEC judged ethical failure in 17 cases (14.2), 10 of them within the private sector. 8 (6.7%) were pending on the date 01-03-2015. 8 cases (6.7%) ended in disciplinary file by the management board, one in verbal amonestation and one was pendent of resolution. the incidence of the medical ethics claims is low, as well as the proportion of disciplinary files. Too many discrepancies exist between the judgements of the PMEC and the college's management boards.

  17. Forms of Consolidation of Provincial Society in the Conditions of World War I

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    Irina N. Litvinova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of for the first time the massif of new archival material introduced into scientific circulation in article the problem of consolidation of society of the Lower Volga province in the years of great tests of World War I is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the practices used by local charitable committees and non-governmental organizations created in that period in Tsaritsyn. In particular, it analyzes the activities of local branches of the committees of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth, to assist the families of soldiers and Grand Duchess Tatiana – to support refugee families. The article was first introduced into scientific circulation new archival sources on the issue of the functioning of national non-governmental organizations based in the city of Lithuanian, Latvian, Polish and Jewish refugees who were engaged in assisting their fellow countrymen, to move from front-line areas in the new place of residence, in Tsaritsyn. The questions of organizational character connected with difficulties of official registration of the public unions by the provincial authorities are specified; severity of rules of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, when carrying out public monetary collecting by societies from the population. On the basis of concrete historical material, revealed new tricks and techniques used by charitable institutions for admission donations from citizens, as well as forms of voluntary activity themselves representatives of provincial society, to assist the families of the soldiers called to the front, wounded, children, refugees. The microanalysis of some unique historical sources which are of interest both for researchers of the region, and for experts of the "culture of the back" direction of times of World War I is carried out.

  18. Prognostic and predictive factors of the breast cancer impact at the Matanzas Provincial Oncology Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalo Zambrano, Ruben Dario; Fundora Madruga, Guillermo; Rodriguez Jimenez, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We carried out a descriptive study of prevalence or cross sectional study to assess predictive and prognostic factors of the breast cancer from recidivism in 406 women treated at the Matanzas Provincial Oncology Unit, and remitted from provincial and territorial hospitals, since January 2004 to December 2008. Data were collected from clinical records and biopsy informs, processed with the Epi Info System, Version 6.04. There was a higher incidence of the breast cancer in post-menopausal women and a higher aggressiveness in pre-menopausal women. Almost half of the patients were diagnosed in the precocious stage and there was a high index of recidivism, mainly in advanced stages. The invasive lobular carcinoma presented more recidivists, while the tubular one had a better prognosis; the ductal carcinoma in situ and the lobular carcinoma in situ had more recurrences than they were expected. The conservative surgery showed a higher number of recidivists in distance than the modified radical mastectomy, while the last one showed local recidivism (2,1 %) and the first, no one; the conservative one was related with a high percent of disease persistence, in which the compromised section edges. The ganglion status, tumour size and histological level were pointed out as the main anatomic-pathological prognosis facts, but not the hormonal receptors. There it was a good answer to tamoxifen and to CMF (cyclophosphamide, metothrexate and 5 flouracil) cycles. In conclusion, we demonstrated the influence of the modifiable and non-modifiable prognostic and predictive facts on the high index of recidivism and recommend taking measures to improve those indicators

  19. Provincial health accounts in Kerman, Iran: an evidence of a "mixed" healthcare financing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Mohammad; Zeinali, Javad; Ansari, Mina

    2014-02-01

    Provincial Health Accounts (PHA) as a subset of National Health Accounts (NHA) present financial information for health sectors. It leads to a logical decision making for policy-makers in order to achieve health system goals, especially Fair Financial Contribution (FFC). This study aimed to examine Health Accounts in Kerman Province. The present analytical study was carried out retrospectively between 2008 and 2011. The research population consisted of urban and rural households as well as providers and financial agents in health sectors of Kerman Province. The purposeful sampling included 16 provincial organizations. To complete data, the report on Kerman household expenditure was taken as a data source from the Governor-General's office. In order to classify the data, the International Classification for Health Accounts (ICHA) method was used, in which data set was adjusted for the province. During the study, the governmental and non-governmental fund shares of the health sector in Kerman were 27.22% and 72.78% respectively. The main portion of financial sources (59.41) was related to private household funds, of which the Out-of-Pocket (OOP) payment mounted to 92.35%. Overall, 54.86% of all financial sources were covered by OOP. The greatest portion of expenditure of Total Healthcare Expenditures (THEs) (65.19%) was related to curative services. The major portion of healthcare expenditures was related to the OOP payment which is compatible with the national average rate in Iran. However, health expenditure per capita, was two and a half times higher than the national average. By emphasizing on Social Determinant of Health (SDH) approach in the Iranian health system, the portion of OOP payment and curative expenditure are expected to be controlled in the medium term. It is suggested that PHA should be examined annually in a more comprehensive manner to monitor initiatives and reforms in healthcare sector.

  20. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.