WorldWideScience

Sample records for province thailand electronic

  1. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. (I): Implementation of electronic-based malaria information system for early case detection and individual case management in provinces along the Thai-Cambodian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Sudathip, Prayuth; Sawang, Surasak; Vijakadge, Saowanit; Potithavoranan, Thanapon; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Satimai, Wichai; Delacollette, Charles; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2012-07-29

    The Bureau of Vector-borne Diseases, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has implemented an electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) as part of a strategy to contain artemisinin resistance. The attempt corresponds to the WHO initiative, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to contain anti-malarial drug resistance in Southeast Asia. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the eMIS' functionality and outputs after implementation for use in the Thailand artemisinin-resistance containment project. The eMIS had been functioning since 2009 in seven Thai-Cambodian border provinces. The eMIS has covered 61 malaria posts/clinics, 27 Vector-borne Disease Units covering 12,508 hamlets at risk of malaria infections. The eMIS was designed as an evidence-based and near real-time system to capture data for early case detection, intensive case investigation, monitoring drug compliance and on/off-site tracking of malarial patients, as well as collecting data indicating potential drug resistance among patients. Data captured by the eMIS in 2008-2011 were extracted and presented. The core functionalities of the eMIS have been utilized by malaria staff at all levels, from local operational units to ministerial management. The eMIS case detection module suggested decreasing trends during 2009-2011; the number of malaria cases detected in the project areas over the years studied were 3818, 2695, and 2566, with sero-positive rates of 1.24, 0.98, and 1.16%, respectively. The eMIS case investigation module revealed different trends in weekly Plasmodium falciparum case numbers, when classified by responsible operational unit, local and migrant status, and case-detection type. It was shown that most Thai patients were infected within their own residential district, while migrants were infected either at their working village or from across the border. The data mapped in the system suggested that P. falciparum-infected cases and potential drug-resistant cases were

  2. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  3. Occupational Risk Factors of Lymphohematopoietic Cancer in Rayong Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjindasup, Apinya; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ekpanyaskul, Chatchai

    2015-11-01

    The Lymphohematopoietic Cancer (LHC) incidence rate in Thailand has been rising over the past decade with unknown etiology, including Rayong province. One hypothesis of LHC risks is exposure to occupational carcinogens. To determine the association of occupational exposure and LHC risks in Rayong province, Thailand. This matched hospital-based case-control study was conducted in a Rayong provincial hospital from September 2009 to January 2013. One LHC case was matched with four controls in gender and age, ±5 years. Demographic data, residential factors, behavioral factors, and occupational exposure-including chemical exposure-were obtained by interviews and collected by occupational health care officers. The risk factor was analyzed by conditional logistic regression and reported in odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. This study found 105 LHC cases which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study, yielding a 66% cover rate of cases reported in the database. The histology of LHC were 51 leukemia cases (47.7%), 43 lymphoma cases (42.0%), and 11 multiple myeloma cases (10.3%). The results revealed that occupational exposure to pesticide and smoke were statistically significantly associated with LHC with adjusted ORs 2.26 (95% CI 1.30-3.91) and 1.99 (95% CI = 1.13-3.51), respectively. When stratified to histological subtype of LHC by WHO 2000, leukemia was statistically significantly associated with occupational exposure to smoke, adjusted ORs 2.43 (95% CI 1.11-5.36), with occupational pesticide exposure a significant risk of lymphoma, adjusted ORs 4.69 (95% CI 2.01-10.96). However, neither fumes, wood dust, working outdoors, cleaners, contact with animals, petroleum products and chlorine; nor occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene or organic solvents, were statistically significant risk factors of LHC. In addition, there were no significant risks in the demographic data, residential factors, and behavioral

  4. Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Khorat Plateau Province, Thailand and Laos, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-05-25

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 2.3 trillion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Khorat Plateau Province of Thailand and Laos.

  5. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. (I: Implementation of electronic-based malaria information system for early case detection and individual case management in provinces along the Thai-Cambodian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khamsiriwatchara Amnat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bureau of Vector-borne Diseases, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has implemented an electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS as part of a strategy to contain artemisinin resistance. The attempt corresponds to the WHO initiative, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to contain anti-malarial drug resistance in Southeast Asia. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the eMIS’ functionality and outputs after implementation for use in the Thailand artemisinin-resistance containment project. Methods The eMIS had been functioning since 2009 in seven Thai-Cambodian border provinces. The eMIS has covered 61 malaria posts/clinics, 27 Vector-borne Disease Units covering 12,508 hamlets at risk of malaria infections. The eMIS was designed as an evidence-based and near real-time system to capture data for early case detection, intensive case investigation, monitoring drug compliance and on/off-site tracking of malarial patients, as well as collecting data indicating potential drug resistance among patients. Data captured by the eMIS in 2008–2011 were extracted and presented. Results The core functionalities of the eMIS have been utilized by malaria staff at all levels, from local operational units to ministerial management. The eMIS case detection module suggested decreasing trends during 2009–2011; the number of malaria cases detected in the project areas over the years studied were 3818, 2695, and 2566, with sero-positive rates of 1.24, 0.98, and 1.16%, respectively. The eMIS case investigation module revealed different trends in weekly Plasmodium falciparum case numbers, when classified by responsible operational unit, local and migrant status, and case-detection type. It was shown that most Thai patients were infected within their own residential district, while migrants were infected either at their working village or from across the border. The data mapped in the system suggested that P

  6. Paragonimiasis prevalences in Saraburi Province, Thailand, measured 20 years apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Vanvanitchai, Yuvadee; Dekumyoy, Paron; Komalamisra, Chalit; Kojima, Somei; Waikagul, Jitra

    2008-07-01

    Saraburi Province, Central Thailand has been a paragonimiasis-endemic area since 1956. This study compared the prevalences of human paragonimiasis in two villages near Chet Khot Waterfall, Kaeng Khoi District, investigated in 1984-1985 and 2005. The results from the 1980s showed 6.3% and 1% of villagers were positive for Paragonimus eggs in sputum and stool, respectively. In 2005, Paragonimus eggs were not found in feces or sputum. An IgG-ELISA for paragonimiasis was conducted on 33 serum samples collected in the 1980s, 23 collected in 2005 and 25 diagnosed with other parasitic infections. Ninety percent of the samples from the eighties were positive for paragoimiasis, and 43% from 2005 were positive, equivalent to 10.9% and 4.9% of the total population examined in the 1980s and 2005, respectively. Serodiagnosis is currently the best method for detecting paragonimiasis. The positive cases in the 1980s were age 10-60 years and in 2005 were age 34- 67-years-old. The prevalence and intensity of Paragonimus metacercariae in fresh Waterfall crabs collected from Chet Khot Waterfall were significantly lower in the 1980s than in 2005. The prevalence of paragonimiasis in this endemic area has decreased to the level that no egg-producing cases were detected. No infections were found in villagers age < 30 years, despite the high density of metacercariae in the crabs, indicating a change in the habit of eating raw food among the younger people.

  7. Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Among People in the Border Areas of Three Provinces, Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Rujirakul; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Pengsaa, Prasit; Jomkoa, Darawan; Joosiri, Apinya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is still a serious problem in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Active surveillance is required to determine updated data for further prevention and control planning. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for O. viverrini in three provinces, Northeastern Thailand. A cross- sectional survey was conducted during October 2015 to March 2016 at Kaeng Sanam Nang district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Waeng Noi district of Khon Kaen province, and Khon Sawan district of Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. Stool samples were examined by using a modified Kato-Katz Thick smear technique. From a total of 978 participants screened, O. viverrini infection was found in 1.74%, the majority opf positive cases being male (6.62%), age group 51-60 years old (4.21%), educated at primary school (8.43%), occupied with agriculture (9.62%),having an income high knowledge level (42.43%), good attitude level (34.76%), and fair level (38.04%). The present study indicates the O. viverrini infection rate is low, but elderly males with primary school education involved in agriculture are still frequently effected particularly in Khon Sawan district. Therefore, this risk group requires behavior modification and continued monitoring.

  8. Surface study of irradiated sapphires from Phrae Province, Thailand using AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarumit, N.; Jivanantaka, P.; Mogmued, J.; Lhuaamporn, T.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    The irradiation is one of the gemstone enhancements for improving the gem quality. Typically, there are many varieties of irradiated gemstones in the gem market such as diamond, topaz, and sapphire. However, it is hard to identify the gemstones before and after irradiation. The aim of this study is to analyze the surface morphology for classifying the pristine and irradiated sapphires using atomic force microscope (AFM). In this study, the sapphire samples were collected from Phrae Province, Thailand. The samples were irradiated by high energy electron beam for a dose of ionizing radiation at 40,000 kGy. As the results, the surface morphology of pristine sapphires shows regular atomic arrangement, whereas, the surface morphology of irradiated sapphires shows the nano-channel observed by the 2D and 3D AFM images. The atomic step height and root mean square roughness have changed after irradiation due to the micro-structural defect on the sapphire surface. Therefore, this study is a frontier application for sapphire identification before and after irradiation.

  9. Thai district Leaders’ perceptions of managing the direct observation treatment program in Trang Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraporn Choowong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thailand is 18th out of the 22 countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB burden. It will be a challenge for Thailand to achieve the UN Millennium Development target for TB, as well as the new WHO targets for eliminating TB by 2035. More knowledge and a new approach are needed to tackle the complex challenges of managing the DOT program in Thailand. Contextual factors strongly influence the local implementation of evidence in practice. Using the PARIHS model, the aim has been to explore district leaders’ perceptions of the management of the DOT program in Trang province, Thailand. Methods A phenomenographic approach was used to explore the perceptions among district DOT program leaders in Trang province. We conducted semi-structured interviews with district leaders responsible for managing the DOT program in five districts. The analysis of the data transcriptions was done by grouping similarities and differences of perceptions, which were constructed in a hierarchical outcome space that shows a set of descriptive categories. Results The first descriptive category revealed a common perception of the leaders’ duty and wish to comply with the NTP guidelines when managing and implementing the DOT program in their districts. More varied perceptions among the leaders concerned how to achieve successful treatment. Other perceptions concerned practical dilemmas, which included fear of infection, mutual distrust, and inadequate knowledge about TB. Further, the leaders perceived a need for improved management practices in implementing the TB guidelines. Conclusion Using the PARIHS framework to gain a retrospective perspective on the district-level policy implementation of the DOT program and studying the leadership’s perceptions about applying the guidelines to practice, has brought new knowledge about management practices. Additional support and resources from the regional level are needed to manage the challenges.

  10. Thai district Leaders' perceptions of managing the direct observation treatment program in Trang Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2016-07-28

    Thailand is 18th out of the 22 countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden. It will be a challenge for Thailand to achieve the UN Millennium Development target for TB, as well as the new WHO targets for eliminating TB by 2035. More knowledge and a new approach are needed to tackle the complex challenges of managing the DOT program in Thailand. Contextual factors strongly influence the local implementation of evidence in practice. Using the PARIHS model, the aim has been to explore district leaders' perceptions of the management of the DOT program in Trang province, Thailand. A phenomenographic approach was used to explore the perceptions among district DOT program leaders in Trang province. We conducted semi-structured interviews with district leaders responsible for managing the DOT program in five districts. The analysis of the data transcriptions was done by grouping similarities and differences of perceptions, which were constructed in a hierarchical outcome space that shows a set of descriptive categories. The first descriptive category revealed a common perception of the leaders' duty and wish to comply with the NTP guidelines when managing and implementing the DOT program in their districts. More varied perceptions among the leaders concerned how to achieve successful treatment. Other perceptions concerned practical dilemmas, which included fear of infection, mutual distrust, and inadequate knowledge about TB. Further, the leaders perceived a need for improved management practices in implementing the TB guidelines. Using the PARIHS framework to gain a retrospective perspective on the district-level policy implementation of the DOT program and studying the leadership's perceptions about applying the guidelines to practice, has brought new knowledge about management practices. Additional support and resources from the regional level are needed to manage the challenges.

  11. Risk Areas of Liver Flukes in Surin Province of Thailand using Geographic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis, caused by Opisthorchis viverrini, is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia, particularly in Lao PDR and Thailand. This study aims to analyze the risk areas for liver flukes in Surin province, Thailand using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The 5 main factors (131 variables) were: (1) personal data (2) knowledge, attitude and practice, (3) health service unit, (4) environmental data, and (5) climate data. The relationship between these mainfactors and liver fluke infection was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Potential surface analysis (PSA) with geographic information systems (GIS) was performed to create maps displaying areas at risk for liver fluke infection in Surin province. The population density (148-169 pop/km2; X73), human attitude (< 50%; X111), and land use (wetland; X64), were statistically significant with liver fluke infection by a percentage of 88.60% (Adjusted R2 = 0.886). The heavy risk areas covered 221.39 km2 and including 8 districts; Si Narong, Sangkha, Phnom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri and Rattanaburi. Present study identifies the increased risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province and may be useful for future planning of prevention and control.

  12. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  13. Sponge assemblage of some Upper Permian reef limestones from Phrae province (Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Senowbari-Daryan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna of uppermost Permian reef or reefal limestones of the Phrae province in northern Thailand include representatives of hexactinellida, sclerospongea,"sphinctozoans", and "inozoans". The "sphinctozoans" and "inozoans"are described in detail. Following taxa are new:"Sphinctozoans": Phraethalamia tubulara n. gen., n. sp., Ambithalamia pérmican. gen., n. sp."Inozoans": Bisiphonella tubulara n. sp., Solutossaspongia crassimuralis n.gen., n. sp.The genus name Belyaevaspongia nom. nov. is proposed for PolysiphonellaBelyaeva, 1991 (in Boiko et al., 1991, non Polysiphonella Russo, 1981.

  14. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  15. Malacological survey in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand, pre- and post-Indian Ocean tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Lohachit, Chantima; Harada, Masakazu; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa

    2006-01-01

    Three malacological surveys were conducted in the Takua Pa District of Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand, before and after the Indian Ocean Tsunami disaster. Twenty-nine species of fresh- and brackish-water snails were found, in which 10 species of freshwater snails were present, including live Pila polita; 8 species were of medical importance. Two brackish-water snails, Nerita articulata and Littorinopsis scabra, were absent after the tsunami disaster, while brackish-water Cerithidea cingulata and C. djadjariensis harbored 9 types of trematode cercariae.

  16. Spectroscopic properties for identifying sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogmued, J.; Monarumit, N.; Won-in, K.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    Gemstone commercial is a high revenue for Thailand especially ruby and sapphire. Moreover, Phrae is a potential gem field located in the northern part of Thailand. The studies of spectroscopic properties are mainly to identify gemstone using advanced techniques (e.g. UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry, FTIR spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy). Typically, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry is a technique to study the cause of color in gemstones. FTIR spectrometry is a technique to study the functional groups in gem-materials. Raman pattern can be applied to identify the mineral inclusions in gemstones. In this study, the natural sapphires from Ban Bo Kaew were divided into two groups based on colors including blue and green. The samples were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, FTIR spectrometer and Raman spectroscope for studying spectroscopic properties. According to UV-Vis-NIR spectra, the blue sapphires show higher Fe3+/Ti4+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than those of green sapphires. Otherwise, green sapphires display higher Fe3+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than blue sapphires. The FTIR spectra of both blue and green sapphire samples show the absorption peaks of -OH,-CH and CO2. The mineral inclusions such as ferrocolumbite and rutile in sapphires from this area were observed by Raman spectroscope. The spectroscopic properties of sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand are applied to be the specific evidence for gemstone identification.

  17. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal tract diseases from Thailand's three southern border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Tuwaemaengae, Tuwaeyah; Bensulong, Fatin; Asae, Asma; Mosamae, Kholeel

    2012-10-31

    Gastrointestinal tract diseases commonly occur in Thailand. However, surveying for finding out traditional drugs has never been done. To quantify and categorize the folk medicinal remedies that are used for healing the gastrointestinal tract by the traditional healers living in Thailand's three southern border provinces. The Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces were selected. Semi-structured interviews of nine healers were conducted to collect information that included the remedy names, herbal ingredients, plant parts used, preparation, properties and treatment methods. The data were then further analyzed. The results revealed that 39 multi-species remedies and 36 single-species remedies were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 103 plant species and 5 other materia medica were used as therapeutics. Most of the plants used were of the Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae families. Furthermore, it was found that although most of the healers used different remedies for a particular disease, some of the ingredients might have been similar. For example, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. was an ingredient used for parasitic disease remedies, and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was used for constipation remedies. A review of the literature revealed 57 plant species and 2 other materia medica that have already been tested for their biological activities, whereas 46 plant species and 3 materia medica have never been tested. Consequently, research should be performed to confirm the pharmacological properties of folk remedies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  19. Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, Using an Enhanced Spatiotemporal Surveillance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    THOMAS AND OTHERS ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE FOR DENGUE Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province...of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand. Abstract. Dengue is of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus (DENV...with confirmed dengue (initiates) and associated cluster individuals (associates) with entomologic sampling. A total of 438 associates were enrolled

  20. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Chulalongkorn Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-02-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  1. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  2. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  3. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchi ldren in Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisit Suntaravitun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary schoolchildren in rural areas from Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2017 among 203 schoolchildren in four rural schools using purposive sampling. All stool samples were examined using simple direct smear method and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 14.8% (30/203. Seven intestinal parasite species (two helminths and five protozoa were identified in the stool samples. The most common intestinal protozoa in schoolchildren was Giardia intestinalis (n = 11, 5.4% followed by Blastocystis hominis (n = 9, 4.4%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (n = 5, 2.5%, Entamoeba coli (n = 2, 1.0% and Endolimax nana (n = 1, 0.5%. Hookworm (n = 1, 0.5% and Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1, 0.5% were the most frequent helminths. No significant statistical differences in the prevalence rates of infections were observed by gender, age and school location (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in rural areas of Thailand. Therefore, health education and environmental sanitation improvement are recommended as preventive control measures.

  4. The mangosteen flowering date model in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poontarasa OUNLERT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is one of the economically important fruits of Thailand. Recent studies show that the climatic variability affects the flowering period of tropical fruit trees. The objectives of this study are: 1 to investigate the correlation between climatic factors (in particular with, rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and dry period before flowering and mangosteen flowering date and 2 to develop the poisson regression model to predict the flowering date of mangosteen in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. This model is useful in guiding farmers to manage mangosteen orchards. The results showed that the rainfall, the maximum and minimum temperatures, the relative humidity, and the dry period before flowering dates affect mangosteen flowering dates. The model which will be used as a guideline for mangosteen flowering date prediction was log(μ=10.85+0.0001x1-0.0564x2-0.0634x3-0.0232x4+0.0003x5 where μ where is the mean of mangosteen flowering date, x1 is rainfall, x2 is maximum temperature, x3 is minimum temperature, x4 is relative humidity, and x5 is dry period before flowering date.

  5. Alcoholic beverages drinking among female students in a tourist province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipichai, Wirin; Sataporn, Hatairat; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2011-12-29

    This study aimed to investigate alcoholic beverages drinking and predictive factors among female students. The participants were 377 subjects from 3 high schools in a tourist province, of Thailand. Data collection was done through self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.84 - 0.88. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed as follows. About half (51%) of them have ever drunk and 10.5% of drinkers have drunk once a week. In addition, 15.6% of drinkers began their first drink when they were under 10 years old. Risk factors for alcohol consumption of female student were age, GPA, drinker in family, peer pressure, advertisement and accessibility to alcoholic beverages while protective factors were perception of drinking impacts on family and moral values. Students who have a drinking family member were 4.6 times more likely to drink than those who do not have.

  6. A new Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Phetchaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-03-09

    A new Bent-toed Gecko, Cyrtodactylus phetchaburiensis sp. nov. is described from the Tha Yang District of Phetchaburi Province, western Thailand. It is a medium-sized Cyrtodactylus (SVL to at least 63.2 mm), with small, mostly keeled tubercles in 20 regular longitudinal rows on dorsum; 33 scales across mid-venter between lowest rows of flank tubercles; enlarged row of femoral scales present; five precloacal pores in male, femoral pores and precloacal groove absent; 5-6 broad basal lamellae and 11 narrow distal lamellae beneath digit IV of pes; and a single median row of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales present. It has a dorsal colour pattern of large, dark, diffusely-edged markings on a fawn background and a pair of dark scapular patches. The species is a member of the Central Indochinese (Thai-Myanmar) clade of Cyrtodactylus and is most closely related to C. oldhami (Theobald), from which it differs in colour pattern.

  7. Population-based study of Streptococcus suis infection in humans in Phayao Province in northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Takeuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis infection in humans has received increasing worldwide recognition. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective study of S. suis infection in humans was conducted in Phayao Province in northern Thailand to determine the incidence and the risk behaviors of the disease in this region in 2010. Thirty-one cases were confirmed. The case fatality rate was 16.1%, and the estimated incidence rate was 6.2 per 100,000 in the general population. The peak incidence occurred in May. The median age of the patients was 53 years and 64.5% were men. Consumption of raw pork products was confirmed in 22 cases and the median incubation period (range was 2 days (0-11 after consumption of raw pork products. Isolates from 31 patients were confirmed as serotype 2 in 23 patients (74.2% and serotype 14 in eight patients (25.8%. The major sequence types (STs were ST1 (n = 20 for serotype 2 and ST105 (n = 8 for serotype 14. The epidemiological analysis suggested three possible clusters, which included 17 cases. In the largest possible cluster of 10 cases in Chiang Kham and its neighboring districts in May, the source of infection in four cases was identified as a raw pork dish served at the same restaurant in this district. Microbiological analysis confirmed that three of four cases associated with consumption of raw pork at this restaurant were attributable to an identical strain of serotype 2 with ST1 and pulsotype A2. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a high incidence rate of S. suis infection in the general population in Phayao Province in 2010 and confirm a cluster of three cases in 31 human cases. Food safety control should be strengthened especially for raw pork products in northern Thailand.

  8. Nutritional Status among Rural Community Elderly in the Risk Area of Liver Fluke, Surin Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai; Loyd, Ryan A; Churproong, Seekaow; Ueng-Arporn, Naporn; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Rujirakul, Ratana; Nimkhuntod, Porntip; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is becoming an aging society, this presenting as a serious problem situation especially regarding health. Chronic diseases found frequently in the elderly may be related to dietary intake and life style. Surin province has been reported as a risk area for liver fluke with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinma especially in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly in Surin province, northeast of Thailand. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 people aged 60 years and above, between September 2012 and July 2014. The participants were selected through a randomized systematic sampling method and completed a pre-designed questionnaire with general information, food recorded, weight, height, waist circumference, and behavior regarding to food consume related to liver fluke infection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The majority of participants was female (63.5%), age between 60-70 years old (75.6%), with elementary school education (96.6%), living with their (78.9%), and having underlying diseases (38.3%). Carbohydrate (95.3%) was need to improve the consumption. The participants demonstrated under-nutrition (24.4%), over-nutrition (16.4%), and obesity (15.4%). Elderly had a waist circumference as the higher than normal level (34.0%). Gender, female, age 71-80 years old, elementary school and underlying diseases were significantly associated with poor nutritional status. The majority of them had a high knowledge (43.0%), moderate attitude (44.4%), and moderate practice (46.2%) regarding food consumption related to liver fluke infection. In conclusion, these findings data indicated that elderly age group often have an under- or over-nutritional status. Carbohydrate consumption needs to be improved. Some elderly show behavior regarding food consumption that is related to liver fluke infection hat needs

  9. Morphological Characteristics and Phylogenetic Trends of Trematode Cercariae in Freshwater Snails from Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chontananarth, Thapana; Tejangkura, Thanawan; Wetchasart, Napat; Chimburut, Cherdchay

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of cercarial infection in freshwater snails and their evolutionary trends were studied in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. A total of 2,869 individual snails were examined for parasitic infections. The results showed that 12 snail species were found to host larval stages of trematodes with an overall prevalence of 4.7%. The infected specimens included 7 types at the cercarial stage; cercariae, megalurous cercariae, echinostome cercariae, furcocercous cercariae, parapleurolophocercous cercariae, virgulate cercariae, and xiphidiocercariae. Regarding molecular identification, ITS2 sequence data of each larval trematode were analyzed, and a dendrogram was constructed using the neighbor-joining method with 10,000 replicates. The dendrogram was separated into 6 clades (order/family), including Echinostomatida/Echinostomatidae, Echinostomatida/Philophthalmidae, Opisthorchiida/Heterophyidae, Plagiorchiida/Prosthogonimidae, Plagiorchiida/Lecithodendriidae, and Strigeatida/Cyathocotylidae. These findings were used to confirm morphological characteristics and evolutionary trends of each type of cercariae discovered in Nakhon Nayok province. Furthermore, this investigation confirmed that the ITS2 data of cercariae could be used to study on phylogenetic relationships or to determine classification of this species at order and/or family level when possible.

  10. Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.

  11. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  12. Quality of life and health promoting behaviors among disabled people in two provinces of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Pitikultang, Supachai; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2009-12-01

    To examine health behaviors and quality of life among disabled people in two provinces of Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5,352 disabled people selected by multistage cluster sampling from Chiang Mai and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces during April to June 2008. The WHOQOL-BREF-THAI and health promoting behavior scales were used to measure QOL and health behavior. Among the health promoting behaviors, exercise and health responsibility of the disabled people were mostly at the 'need to improve' level (46.6 and 52.8%), while their nutritional behavior and stress management level were mostly at the 'good' level (80.8 and 43.8%). Overall quality of life was mostly at the 'moderate' level (79.3%). Exercise and stress management were found to have a significant positive relationship with the quality of life at low level (r = 0.18, r = 0.12) at p < 0.01. The results indicated that person who had health promoting behaviors by exercise and appropriate stress management had a good QOL. Encouraging of family and health authority support in exercise and stress management may help them having a good QOL.

  13. Molecular confirmation of trematodes in the snail intermediate hosts from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sothorn Anucherngchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of trematode infections in the snails intermediate host Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata collected from Ratchaburi Province by a molecular approach in order to construct a dendrogram to identify species at the cercarial stage. Methods: Specimens were collected from nine districts located in Ratchaburi Province using the stratified sampling method. The samples were examined for cercarial infection using the crushing method. All specimens were amplified by region of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 based on the PCR technique, and the sequence data were aligned in order to construct the dendrogram by maximum likelihood with 10 000 bootstrap replicates. Results: Five cercarial types were observed comprising parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria. The overall prevalence of cercarial infection was found to be 7.92% (63 / 795. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found in the highest level of prevalence followed by xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria, respectively. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria samples were identified and separated into Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchis pumilio, while xiphidiocercaria were identified as Lecithodendriidae and megarulous cercaria were identified as Philophthalmus. The dendrogram separated the cercariae into five groups, which were comprised of parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cercarial infection in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The high prevalence of cercariae was revealed by the infection in Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata. Thus, the sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the

  14. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection in Trang Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomat, Jipada; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Bualert, Lertwut; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan; Siripattanapipong, Suradej; Mungthin, Mathirut; Naaglor, Tawee; Piyaraj, Phunlerd

    2017-11-01

    Autochthonous cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis and Leishmania siamensis have been considered emerging infectious diseases in Thailand. The disease burden is significantly underestimated, especially the prevalence of Leishmania infection among HIV-positive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection among patients with HIV/AIDS living in Trang province, southern Thailand, between 2015 and 2016. Antibodies against Leishmania infection were assayed using the direct agglutination test (DAT). DNA of Leishmania was detected by ITS1-PCR using the buffy coat. Species of Leishmania were also identified. Of 724 participants, the prevalence of Leishmania infection was 25.1% (182/724) using either DAT or PCR assays. Seroprevalence of Leishmania infection was 18.5% (134/724), while Leishmania DNA detected by the PCR method was 8.4% (61/724). Of these, 24.9% (180/724) were asymptomatic, whereas 0.3% (2/724) were symptomatic VL and VL/CL (cutaneous leishmaniasis). At least five species were identified: L. siamensis, L. martiniquensis, L. donovani complex, L. lainsoni, and L. major. Multivariate analysis showed that CD4+ levels Leishmania infection. Those who were PCR positive for Leishmania DNA were significantly associated with a detectable viral load, whereas non-injection drug use (NIDU) and CD4+ levels Leishmania seropositivity. A magnitude of the prevalence of underreporting Leishmania infection among Thai patients with HIV was revealed in this study. Effective public health policy to prevent and control disease transmission is urgently needed.

  15. Social entrepreneur competencies of social activists involved with children and youths: A case study of Nan province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kanyarach Wongphuka; Teeradej Chai-Aroon; Supavan Phainoi; Piyawat Boon-Long

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship is a well-integrated social movement which is composed of business and non-profit sectors. In Thai society, social entrepreneurs still lack competencies to certify practices. Therefore, this research aimed to: 1) explain motivation and social entrepreneur attributes and 2) assess the social entrepreneur competencies of activists with regard to children and youths in Nan province, Thailand. Thirty-two social activists who actively worked on children and youth issues ...

  16. The majority of cockroaches from the Samutprakarn province of Thailand are carriers of parasitic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamavit, Pennapa; Sahaisook, Panupong; Niamnuy, Nunthawadee

    2011-01-01

    We undertook a study of the mechanical transmission of parasitic organisms in cockroaches in the Samutprakarn province of Thailand. In this study, 920 cockroaches were obtained from 18 open-air shopping markets in 5 districts and 1 subdistrict of this province. All cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in their natural habitat. Direct wet smear and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the external surface or cuticle of the cockroaches. The results show that 498 (54.1 %) of the cockroaches harbored parasitic organisms. Of these, 56.1 % were protozoa and the remaining 43.9 % were helminthes (pathogenic helminthes- 1.4 %, non-pathogenic helminthes- 42.5 %). Of the pathogenic helminthes, the species included Strongyloides stercoralis (6 instances of the free-living adult male, 0.8 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2 decorticated eggs, 0.3 %), Trichuris trichiura (2, 0.3 %), and Taenia spp . (1 egg, 0.1 %). The protozoa types that were identified included Cyclospora spp. (10 oocysts, 1.3 %) , Endolimax nana (10 cysts, 1.3 %) , B. hominis (9 instances of the vacuolated form, 1.2 %) , Isospora belli (75 oocysts, 9.6 %) , Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (36 cysts, 4.6 %) , Cryptosporidium spp . (220 oocysts, 28.1 %), Chilomastix mesnilli (2 cysts, 0.3 %), Entamoeba coli (31 cysts, 4.0 %), Balantidium coli (45 trophozoites, 5.8 %), and Iodamoeba butschlii (1 cyst, 0.1 %). These results show that cockroaches isolated from these markets are carriers of several parasitic organisms that cause commonly found symptoms of illness such as diarrhea or bowel disorder.

  17. Application of traditional knowledge to create indigo-dyed fabric products in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanitsara Duangbubpa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigo fabric is created by dying silk or cotton with color from the true indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria and is a valuable commodity in Northeastern Thai communities. This is a qualitative investigation with two principal research aims: 1 To study the history and background of indigo-dyed fabric in Sakon Nakhon Province; 2 To study the current conditions and application of traditional knowledge in creating indigo-dyed fabric in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. Data for this investigation were collected from document analysis and field research between July 2013 and July 2014. Results show that weaving groups are sponsored by the government and the local community to produce indigo-dyed fabric that can be transformed into a variety of different products that meet consumer needs. These products include blankets, scarves, shawls, formal wear and bags. Weaving communities prefer to use materials from the surrounding environment. Community members cultivate their own true indigo plants using the traditional processes inherited from generation to generation. The dye creation process requires plant matter to be soaked in water for 24 hours before it can be used in the dye mixture. The traditional dye mixture is 4 liters of indigo plant, 2 liters of natural lye water and 1 tablespoon of white lime. During the dyeing process, the cotton fabric is stirred and wring in the dye mixture until the color holds. The fabric is then rested and the process is repeated to achieve the desired hue. The quality of the dye is then tested by washing the fabric in clean water. By applying the resourcefulness of traditional knowledge used in the dye creation process to the marketing and sale of indigo fabric, the entire production will benefit

  18. A causal model of depression among older adults in Chon Buri Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piboon, Kanchana; Subgranon, Rarcharneeporn; Hengudomsub, Pornpat; Wongnam, Pairatana; Louise Callen, Bonnie

    2012-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop and empirically test a theoretical model that examines the relationships between a set of predictors and depression among older adults. A biopsychosocial model was tested with 317 community dwelling older adults residing in Chon Buri Province, Thailand. A face-to-face interview was used in a cross-sectional community-based survey. A hypothesized model of depression was tested by using path analysis. It was found that the modified model fitted the data and the predictors accounted for 60% of the variance in depression. Female gender, activities of daily living, loneliness, stressful life events, and emotional-focused coping had a positive direct effect on depression. Social support and problem-focused coping had a negative direct effect on depression. Additionally, perceived stress, stressful life events, loneliness, and income had a negative indirect effect on depression through social support. Female gender, activities of daily living, and perceived stress also had a positive indirect effect on depression through emotional-focused coping. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and income had a negative indirect effect on depression through problem-focused coping. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the variables that predict depression in older adults. Thus, health care providers should consider the effects of these contributing factors on depression in the older adult person and can devise a program to prevent and promote health in older adults alleviating depression.

  19. Morphology and geochemistry of placer gold from Wang River, Lampang Province, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Lee, I.

    2011-12-01

    Wang River (Mae Nam Wang) in Lampang Province, Northern Thailand which is surrounded with many lode gold deposits has potential to develop as a placer gold deposit. Gold particles from 10 sites in Wang River range from fine to coarse (electrum or high purity gold with high fineness (1000Au/Au+Ag) levels up to 951 as well as a minor amount of Cu and Hg. Normally, the zoning patterns of Au and Ag are common in placer gold and the high fineness in rim can be explained by either selective extraction of Ag or precipitation of Au. However, there is no significant difference in fineness between core and rim in gold grains in this study even though there are differences in composition among grains. Many cavities are also shown filling with silicate and/or clay mineral in microtextures. These geochemical signatures from microtextures are capable of providing genetic implication. Furthermore, the combination of results such as shape parameter, geochemical signature, and assemblages of heavy minerals can be a useful tool in exploration for gold.

  20. Effectiveness of school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools of Saraburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

    2009-07-01

    This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity.

  1. The prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid levels were recorded from 222 participants, 35-65 years old. Identification of MetS was based on guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program III. The study found the prevalence of MetS was 36.49% with no significant differences between male and female participants. An advancing body mass index (BMI emerged as one of the most significant risk factors. Participants with BMI > 23 kg*m -2 had an increased risk of MetS (OR 3.17. Furthermore, participants in the age group 55-65 years had an increased risk of MetS (OR 2.28. Lack of exercise and high waist to height ratio were also important risk factors (OR 2.38 and 3.37, respectively. Therefore, increased physical activity or exercise and weight control are advised to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  2. Seroprevalence of antibody against diphtheria among the population in Khon Kaen province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansiddhi, Hataichanok; Vuthitanachot, Viboonsuk; Vuthitanachot, Chanpim; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-03-01

    To assess diphtheria immunity in the northeastern region of Thailand, a seroepidemiological survey was undertaken in 2011 from 516 healthy individuals (age range 2-87 years) in Khon Kaen province. Diphtheria antitoxin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titers of ≥0.1 IU/mL were considered to be protective antitoxin levels. Among the studied population, 94.8% have fully protective levels. The younger population (age range 2-19 years) has higher diphtheria immunity with seroprotection rates of 96.8% to 97.9%, compared with the adult population. The proportion of protective diphtheria antitoxin levels declines to 88.3% to 91.9% in the middle-aged group (20-50 years), and appeared to be higher again in the older age-group (50-70 years). To avoid epidemic spreading, promoting immunization booster programs will be helpful, especially among the adult population (20-50 years). Finally, this study may serve as a valuable guide in deciding exactly which age-groups should be targeted by such an effort. © 2012 APJPH.

  3. Factors influencing life happiness among elderly female in Rayong Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Tuntichaivanit, Chutigai; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2009-12-01

    To study the factors influencing life happiness of elderly female in Rayong province, Thailand. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 233 elderly female aged between 60-80 years using multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from June 6th to July 31st 2008 by interviewing questionnaires. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and Stepwise multiple regression analysis. About half (50.2%) of the elderly female had moderate level of life happiness, followed by low level (27.1%) and high level (22.7%). The factors which significantly influenced the life happiness of the elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p self-esteem, social support, and family relationships could significantly predict life happiness of the elderly female by 91.4%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of life happiness among elderly female. The important factors influencing life happiness of elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote life happiness of elderly female, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the elderly female's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  4. Investigation of coastline changes in three provinces of Thailand using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochamnanvita, T.; Muttitanon, W.

    2014-11-01

    The measuring of coastal in the certain short period of time is almost impossible, but applying the remote sensing with the satellite imagery bring mankind to track down and analyze the approximately length of the coastal changes at the Nano technology speed. An attempt has been made to study the length of shoreline changes along three provinces in the upper gulf of Thailand. The significant purpose is to investigate coastline length changes and to evaluate those different coastal changes at different times. Two specialties of chosen areas are the outstanding location at mouth of river in curve pattern and ecological important mangrove forest, as nominated and designated area listed in Ramsar convention, international wetlands treaty. In employing the remote sensing will help to investigate the shoreline erosion, stable or construction shoreline. Rapid and drastic shoreline changes have been compared and measured base on satellite image Landsat 5 TM on 1994, 2002 and 2007 at path129 row 051. There were geometrically co-registered and, in the process were resampled to 25 m. By composing RGB band, fusion, supervised classification. By apply different theories will give different results but the similarly pattern. Training sites were selected by signature editor, area of interest, evaluate by seperabilitly and contingency. Principle component analysis (PCA) was employed as a method of change detection. This is to conclude that these shoreline areas were in erosion from natural processes and manmade activities, for example, aquaculture and agriculture expansion, such as shrimp farm. These coastal line lost were not just losing the land; it's losing the soul of the cycle of marine life, economically, and environmentally. Moreover, this project, in the future, could benefit to set the recovery buffer zone for mangrove restoration also.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs and cats in Songkhla and Satun provinces, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketsarin Kamyingkird

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To update the microfilaria infection in companion animals, this study determined the prevalence and risk factors of microfilaria infection in dogs and cats collected from eight districts in Songkhla and Satun provinces, southern Thailand. In total, 482 samples (394 dogs and 88 cats were subjected to microscopic examination (ME, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing analysis. The overall prevalence of microfilaria infection in dogs and cats was 24.1% (95/394 and 36.4% (32/88 using PCR, respectively. Furthermore, the overall results were positive 7.7% (37/482 using ME compared to 26.3% (127/482 using PCR. Sequencing analysis of all positive PCR products identified the microfilaria as Dirofilaria immitis. D. immitis infection in each sampled district of Songkhla and Satun provinces was in the range 0–48% for dogs and in the range 15.4–75% for cats. Risk factor analysis showed that there was significantly higher D. immitis infection in dogs older than 2 yr. The study updated the prevalence of D. immitis infection in dogs and cats in two southern provinces of Thailand and there was a high D. immitis infection rate in old dogs (aged > 2 yr.

  6. Measuring and factors influencing mathematics teachers' technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in three southernmost provinces, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adulyasas, Lilla

    2017-08-01

    Technology becomes an important role in teaching and learning mathematics nowadays. Integrating technology in the classroom helps students have better understanding in many of mathematics concepts. One of the major framework for assessing the knowledge of integrating technology with the pedagogy and content in the classroom is Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. This study aimed to measure mathematics teachers' TPACK in three southernmost provinces, Thailand and to study on factors influencing their TPACK. A quantitative study was carried out with 210 secondary level mathematics teachers in the three southernmost provinces, Thailand which were random by two stage sampling technique. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to identify the level of mathematics teachers' TPACK and the factors influencing their TPACK. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis were used for analysing data. Findings reveal that the mean score of mathematics teachers' TPACK is 3.33 which is in the medium level and the three factors which have positive correlation at .05 level of significant with the level of TPACK are teaching experience factor, individual specialization factor and personal & organization factor. However, there are only two factors influencing mathematics teachers' TPACK. The two factors are individual specialization factor and personal & organization factors. These give better understanding on mathematics teachers' knowledge in integrating technology with the pedagogy and content which will be the important information for improving mathematics teachers' TPACK.

  7. High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinwat, Nuananong; Angkittitrakul, Sunpetch; Coulson, Kari F; Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle R; Meunsene, Dethaloun; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine occurrence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella from pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces. The samples were collected from pigs, carcasses and workers in slaughterhouses, retail pork and butchers in fresh markets and patients in hospitals in Thailand (n=729) and Laos (n=458). A total of 295 of 729 samples (34.6 %) collected in Thailand and 253 of 458 (47.4 %) samples collected in Laos were positive for Salmonella. A total of 548 Salmonella isolates from Thailand (n=295) and Laos (n=253) were further analysed. Serovar Typhimurium was the most common serotype in Thai (34 %) and Laos (20.6 %) samples. Approximately 2.4 % of Thai isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). All the ESBL producers possessed blaCTX-M-14, some of which were horizontally transferred. Class 1 integrons were common in Thai (31.9 %) and Laos (39.1 %) isolates, but none were associated with SGI1. The resistance cassette dfrA12-aadA2 was the most common, while the least common was aadA2-linG (n=1). The dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassette in five isolates and aadA2-linG were located on conjugative plasmid. Three pork isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant and carried an amino acid substitute, Ser-83-Tyr, in GyrA. The qnrS gene was found in 7.1 and 5.5 % of the Thai and Laos isolates, respectively, while qnrB was carried in another Laos isolate (1.9 %). All ESBL producers carried qnrS. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella was common in pigs, pork and human samples in this region. The bacteria carried mobile genetic elements and resistance genes on conjugative plasmids that could be readily transferred to other bacterial species.

  8. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  9. Mental health in a conflict area: Migration, economic stress and religiosity in the three southernmost provinces of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Jampaklay, Aree; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2017-03-01

    Three southern provinces of Thailand, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, have been involved in a long period of unrest due to differences between the population in the provinces and the Thai government with regard to language, culture and governance. The objectives of this article are to examine the effects of everyday stressors due to the conflict, including economic stress and migration, as well as the effect of religiosity on the reporting of psychiatric symptoms among adults in the three provinces. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in 2014. The survey included a probability sample of 2,053 Muslim adults aged 18-59 years.Mental health was assessed using World Health Organization's (WHO) Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) of 20 questions. Multilevel models were estimated to examine the influence of economic stress due to the conflict, as well as community and individual aspects of migration and religion on mental health. The data showed that migration from the household and the community and the economic effects of the unrest were associated with reporting of more psychiatric symptoms among adults in the southern provinces. Religion was related to reporting of fewer psychiatric symptoms at the individual and the community levels. The study documented increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among persons reporting perceived household economic stress due to the conflict and the migration of family members.

  10. Effectiveness of Implementation of Electronic Malaria Information System as the National Malaria Surveillance System in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In moving toward malaria elimination, one strategy is to implement an active surveillance system for effective case management. Thailand has developed and implemented the electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) capturing individualized electronic records of suspected or confirmed malaria cases. Objective The main purpose of this study was to determine how well the eMIS improves the quality of Thailand’s malaria surveillance system. In particular, the focus of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the eMIS in terms of the system users’ perception and the system outcomes (ie, quality of data) regarding the management of malaria patients. Methods A mixed-methods technique was used with the framework based on system effectiveness attributes: data quality, timeliness, simplicity, acceptability, flexibility, stability, and usefulness. Three methods were utilized: data records review, survey of system users, and in-depth interviews with key stakeholders. From the two highest endemic provinces, paper forms matching electronic records of 4455 noninfected and 784 malaria-infected cases were reviewed. Web-based anonymous questionnaires were distributed to all 129 eMIS data entry staff throughout Thailand, and semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 management-level officers. Results The eMIS is well accepted by system users at both management and operational levels. The data quality has enabled malaria personnel to perform more effective prevention and control activities. There is evidence of practices resulting in inconsistencies and logical errors in data reporting. Critical data elements were mostly completed, except for a few related to certain dates and area classifications. Timeliness in reporting a case to the system was acceptable with a delay of 3-4 days. The evaluation of quantitative and qualitative data confirmed that the eMIS has high levels of simplicity, acceptability, stability, and flexibility. Conclusions Overall, the

  11. Access to free or low-cost tuberculosis treatment for migrants and refugees along the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Nosten, Francois; Foster, Angel M

    2016-07-07

    In Tak province, Thailand migrants and refugees from Myanmar navigate a pluralistic healthcare system to seek Tuberculosis (TB) care from a variety of government and non-governmental providers. This multi-methods qualitative study examined access to TB, TB/HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment with an emphasis on barriers to care and enabling factors. In the summer and fall of 2014, we conducted 12 key informant interviews with public health officials and TB treatment providers. We also conducted 11 focus group discussions with migrants and refugees who were receiving TB, TB/HIV and MDR-TB treatment in Tak province as well as non-TB patients. We analyzed these data through thematic analysis using both predetermined and emergent codes. As a second step in the qualitative analysis, we explored the barriers and enabling factors separately for migrants and refugees. We found that refugees face fewer barriers to accessing TB treatment than migrants. For both migrants and refugees, legal status plays an important intermediary role in influencing the population's ability to access care and eligibility for treatment. Our results suggest that there is a large geographical catchment area for migrants who seek TB treatment in Tak province that extends beyond provincial boundaries. Migrant participants described their ability to seek care as linked to the financial and non-financial resources required to travel and undergo treatment. Patients identified language of health services, availability of free or low cost services, and psychosocial support as important health system characteristics that affect accessibility. Access to TB treatment for migrants and refugees occurs at the interface of health system accessibility, population ability and legal status. In Tak province, migrant patients draw upon their social networks and financial resources to navigate a pathway to treatment. We revised a conceptual framework for access to healthcare to incorporate

  12. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Wilasang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks.

  13. Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2007-03-01

    The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively.

  14. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  15. Existing drug resistance among Staphylococcus spp. from raw milk samples in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand by direct quadriplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buppachat Trakarnchan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and mupirocin resistant among the isolates from milk, three hundred and eighty-one samples were collected in Khon Kaen province, Thailand, during January to March, 2014. Quadriplex PCR was a method of choice. The occurrence of S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. were 21.26 and 34.12%, respectively. Among the 81 S. aureus isolates, 82.72 (67/81, 11.11 (9/81, and 6.17% (5/81 were S. aureus, S. aureus carrying mecA, and S. aureus harboring mupA genes, respectively. These two mutant genes may possibly be transferred to other bacteria in milk. Therefore, good hygienic practices and strict control may limit the spread.

  16. Cross-sectional study of use of electronic media by secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    KIATRUNGRIT, Komsan; HONGSANGUANSRI, Sirichai

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern about the negative psychological effects of excessive use of various electronic media by adolescents but the monitoring of these behaviors in low- and middle-income countries has some methodological flaws. Aim Assess the use of all types of electronic media among secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods A stratified random sample of students from four schools in Bangkok completed a modified version of a questionnaire used in a major study ...

  17. Ten-Year Monitored Natural Recovery of Lead-Contaminated Mine Tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenrat, Tanapon; Otwong, Ashijya; Chantharit, Aphichart; Lowry, Gregory V

    2016-10-01

    Klity Creek has become Thailand's first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb)-contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek. This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the feasibility of using MNR to clean up the creek in order to protect the Klity children from excess Pb exposure. We analyzed the physical and chemical transformation of Pb contaminated sediment in the creek and developed a remedial action goal and cleanup level using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). We empirically determined the natural recovery (NR) potentials and rates using 10 years of data monitoring the water and sediment samples from eight monitoring stations (KC1 to KC8). Klity Creek has NR potential for water except at KC2, which is closest to the spill and the other improperly managed Pb sources. However, the creek has no NR potential for sediment except at the KC8 location (NR rate = 11.1 ± 3.0 × 10-3 month-1) farthest from the spill. The MNR method is not suitable to use as the sole remedial approach for Klity Creek (KC2 to KC7). Although MNR is applicable at KC8, it may require up to 377 ± 76 years to restore the sediment to the background Pb concentration. Phenrat T, Otwong A, Chantharit A, Lowry GV. 2016. Ten-year monitored natural recovery of lead-contaminated mine tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Environ Health Perspect 124:1511-1520; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP215.

  18. Turning Red Rural Landscapes Yellow? Sufficiency Economy and Royal Projects in the Hills of Nan Province, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the efforts of the royal family to moralise the environmental behaviour of their subjects in the name of the Sufficiency Economy philosophy solicited by King Bhumibol since the 1990s in Thailand. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nan province, Northern Thailand, in 2008 and 2009, I focus particularly on Royal Projects recently promoted to correct the rural practices of the ethnic minority groups living in the hills of Nan. In the past, many of these ethnic groups took part in the Maoist insurgency while at present, they represent a key basin of support- ers for the reformist Red Shirts movement which is currently threatening the role of the monarchy in Thai politics. The research suggests that the recently increased trend of staging new projects for sustainable agro-forestry management in a ‘red’ area as Nan does not only aim at improving the conditions of mountain peoples and of the environment, but simultaneously increases the political influence of the conservative forces over this ‘ungovernable’ territory in times of political crisis. ----- Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Bemühungen der königlichen Familie in Thailand seit den 1990-er Jahren, das Umweltverhalten ihrer Subjekte im Namen der Sufficiency Economy Philosophie von König Bhumibol zu moralisieren. Mit Bezug auf ethnografische Forschung in der Provinz Nan in Nordthailand in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 fokussiere ich insbesondere auf Royal Projects, die in letzter Zeit gefördert werden, um ländliche Praktiken ethnischer Minderheiten in den Bergen von Nan zu korrigieren. In der Vergangenheit waren viele dieser ethnischen Gruppen am maoistischen Aufstand beteiligt, während sie heute ein zentrales Auffangbecken für UnterstützerInnen der reformistischen Rothemden, die derzeit die Rolle der Monarchie in der thailändischen Politik in Frage stellen, darstellen. Die Forschung deutet an, dass der Trend zur Einführung von neuen Projekten f

  19. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: A CASE STUDY OF THE SEPARATIST MOVEMENT IN THE SOUTHERN BORDER PROVINCES OF THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutfee Abdulmani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This Undergraduate thesis tried to discuss about conflict resolution in the case of southern Thailand which are Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat, known as an escalating and brutal conflict and long history of insurgency, the crisis has been conducted primarily on the basis of Malay ethnic nationalism with religion and politics as an additional factors. The violence has already had important political consequences in the failure of Prime Minister Thaksin’s government. The government tries to solve the problem and lunched a strategy based on increased public participation, economic development, apologizing for the past misdeeds of the security services, ending the blacklisting of Muslim and opens a dialogue with insurgents, but the violence remains. In this research, the writer use an extensive of relevant published materials such as books, journals, reports, newsletters, official website and other sources o a wide variety of topics related with the subject of the topic. Keywords: Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat. Conflict resolution. Malay ethnic

  20. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchai Thitiphuree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40  2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.

  1. Effectiveness of the multidimensional ergonomic intervention model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintakham K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kanjanar Pintakham,1,2 Wattasit Siriwong1 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 2School of Health Science, Chiang Rai Rajabhat University, Chiang Rai, Thailand Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multidimensional ergonomic intervention (MEI model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD among street sweepers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The MEI model was designed on the basis of four core components: cognitive behavior therapy, ergonomic education training, stretching exercise, and the foam sleeve broom handle grip. Seventy-five street sweepers volunteered for the screening process on MSD of having level score ≥4 by physiotherapist. Face to face interviews were used mainly in order to diagnose MSD. Physical examination was performed by physiotherapist and physical performance by sports scientist. The findings showed that the MEI model among the intervention group significantly reduced MSD compared with that among control group at exit model and follow-up (P<0.01. This research suggests that the MEI model was appropriate to reduce MSD associated with repetitive movement and awkward postures on task. Keywords: repetitive movement, cognitive behavior therapy, stretching exercise, street sweepers

  2. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella spp. in pig farms and slaughterhouses in two provinces in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Patchanee, Prapas

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are an important group of bacterial zoonotic pathogens which can cause acute food-borne diseases in humans. Pork products are the main source of salmonellosis, but the origins and transmission routes of the disease have not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to characterize Salmonella spp. isolated in pig production lines both from pig farms and from slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in northern Thailand. The study focuses on the association among serotypes, antimicrobial resistance patterns and Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns to investigate possible sources of infection and to provide information which could help strengthen salmonellosis control programs in the region. A total of 86 strains of Salmonella comprising five majority serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance to tetracycline was found to be the most prevalent (82.56%) followed by ampicillin (81.40%) and streptomycin (63.95%). Seven clusters and 28 fingerprint-patterns generated by PFGE were identified among strains recovered from various locations and at different times, providing information on associations among the strains as well as evidence of the existence of persistent strains in some areas. Study results suggest that Salmonella control programs should be implemented at slaughterhouse production lines, including surveillance to insure good hygiene practices, in addition to regular monitoring of large populations of farm animals.

  3. Factors Predictive Of Alcohol Consumption Among Elderly People In A Rural Community: A Case Study In Phayao Province Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongthong, Donnapa; Somrongthong, Ratana; Wongchaiya, Pimpimon; Kumar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is recognized as a public health issue. Study objectives were to identify factors predictive of alcohol consumption among elderly people in Phayao province Thailand, where there was high prevalence of alcohol consumption. This was a cross-sectional study. Four hundred elderly people participated in a survey. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the factors predictive of alcohol consumption among the study subjects. One thirds of elderly (31.7%) had consumed alcohol in their lifetime, and (15.7%) of them were current drinkers. Following univariate analysis, seven factors included gender, working, sickness, smoking, quality of life (QOL), daily activities and economic recession - were identified as being significantly associated with drinking (palcohol among elderly people: gender (OR=6.02, 95% CI=3.58-10.13), smoking (OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.57-7.34), economic recession (OR=2.79, 95%, CI=1.66-4.71), and QOL (OR=1.86, 95%, CI=1.09-3.16). Gender (male) and smoking were strongly predictive factors of elderly alcohol consumption. Hence, an effort to reduce alcohol consumption should be placed on male elderly and those who smoke.

  4. Coastal debris analysis in beaches of Chonburi Province, eastern of Thailand as implications for coastal conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Gajahin Gamage Nadeeka; Chavanich, Suchana; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2017-03-15

    This study quantified coastal debris along 3 beaches (Angsila, Bangsaen, Samaesarn) in eastern coast of Thailand. Debris samples were collected from lower and upper strata of these beaches during wet and dry seasons. The results showed that Bangsaen had the highest average debris density (15.5m(-2)) followed by Samaesarn (8.10m(-2)), and Angsila (5.54m(-2)). Among the 12 debris categories, the most abundant debris type was plastics (>45% of the total debris) in all beach locations. Coastal debris distribution was related to economic activities in the vicinity. Fishery and shell-fish aquaculture activities were primary sources of debris in Angsila while tourism activities were main sources in Bangsaen and Samaesarn. Site-specific pollution control mechanisms (environmental awareness, reuse and recycling) are recommended to reduce public littering. Management actions in Angsila should focus on fishery and shell-fish culture practices, while Bangsaen and Samaesarn should be directed toward leisure activities promoting waste management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cost and performance of malaria sector: a case study at Malaria Sector 11, Tak Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamolratanakul, P; Butraporn, P; Prasittisuk, C; Prasittisuk, M; Indaratna, K

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cost and performance of each operational unit at the malaria sector level and to calculate the unit cost of each activity accordingly. Data were collected at Malaria Sector No.11 situated at the western border of Thailand with Myanmar during the fiscal year of 1995. The unit cost was calculated by dividing the total cost of each activity by its output using appropriate units of analysis. The result showed that 67% of the total cost of malaria sector was labor cost and 45% of the total cost was allocated to diagnosis and treatment activities. Unit cost in terms of cost/visit, cost/case found, cost/case of falciparum malaria treated, cost/case of vivax malaria treated, cost/house spray and cost/impregnated net were US$1.85, 8.21, 10.07, 8.46, 2.24 and 1.54 respectively. The results of this study will provide important information as to the best use of limited available resources to determine which activities should be stopped, continued, increased or decreased at the malaria sector level.

  6. Costume Development Model for Tourism Promotion in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarobol A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study Pha Bong community’s dressing style and to develop a new ethnic costume that shows their identity to promote tourism in the province. Pha Bong Community is a community in Maehongson Province where two ethnic groups, people of Tai Yai (Shan and Sakor Karen, co-exist. The data collection methods include focus group and in-depth interview with target population, small group discussion and review of literature on costume development. The obtained data were then submitted to content analysis. First, it was found that they both have their own identity, resources, network marketing and inherited wisdom from their ancestors. Each group runs their business separately. Secondly, the research resulted in the creation of a new costume for the Pha Bong community created by members of two ethnic groups. This costume combines Karen symbol with Tai Yai (Shan clothing style. The motif and pattern of the fabric identify community members’ lifestyle, belief and value. It is recommended that development should be planned upon available resource and the need of the community. In addition, the community leader should encourage members to take parts in management and to cooperate for a sustainable development.

  7. Medicinal plants used for hypertension treatment by folk healers in Songkhla province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Komonhiran, Panadda; Boonming, Kamonvadee

    2018-03-25

    Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers. Field surveys and semi-structured interviews about theories of disease, principles of healing, and herbal usage (plant species, parts used, preparation, and application methods) were gathered. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The literatures regarding medicinal plants used in any traditional medicine, antihypertension activity, and toxicity was reviewed. Most healers believed that hypertension was caused by the disorder of fire and wind elements in the body. The medicinal plants containing hot and mild tastes, which had the potential for treating problems in the wind element, were applied. A total of 62 species were used for hypertension treatment. Most plants were in the Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Rutaceae, or Zingiberaceae family (4 species each). Herbal medicines were preferred to be prepared by boiling (78%) and consumed by drinking 1 teacup before 3 meals each day (26%). Piper retrofractum and Cleome viscosa had the greatest Frequency of Citation (FC = 6, n = 14). Thirty-seven species have been reported for use in traditional medicine. Twenty-four and 46 species have already been investigated for antihypertension activity and toxicity, respectively. Identifying medicinal plants that have been tested by experienced folk doctors would provide an opportunity for people to choose and consume local herbs that are easy to access in their local area. However, the remaining plants that have not been studied for antihypertension activity and

  8. Diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in two rubber plantations in Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparoek Watanasit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ants play important roles in tropical rainforest ecosystems. In southern Thailand, many such areas have been extensivelylogged and replaced by rubber plantations. Since changes to the environment can cause changes to the diversity offlora and fauna, the objectives of this study were to determine habitat influences on the ant composition between homogenousand heterogeneous rubber plantations, and to investigate if any environmental factors can be directly correlated withchanges in the ant community. Three 100 m–line-transects, spaced 100 m apart, were laid out at two study sites. Four samplingmethods, hand collecting (HC, leaf litter sampling (LL, honey bait (HB and soil sampling (SS, were used to sample ants.Temperature, humidity, and precipitation were recorded. Samples were collected every two months from June 2004 to April2005. The results showed that a total of six subfamilies (Aenictinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinaemand Pseudomyrmecinae, comprising 29 genera and 87 species were found in the two study sites. The dominant genera werePheidole and Crematogaster, followed by Pheidologeton and Pachycondyla. The sampling methods used in this studyindicated that LL and HC were most suitable for sampling ants, and any combination of sampling methods detected moreant species than a single method did. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA grouped ant species between the two typesof rubber plantation, and also divided ant species into three groups by sampling method: HC group, SS group and LL+HBgroup. DCA did not group ant species by seasonal changes, however. Further, canonical correspondence analysis detectedno effect of temperature, humidity, or precipitation on the ant community.

  9. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among hill-tribe school children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2014-07-01

    The prevalaence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were examined among 265 hill-tribe school children, 8-14 years of age, from Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Anemia was observed in 20 school children, of whom 3 had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait [codon 17 (A>T), IVSI-nt1 (G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) mutations] was 4% and 8%, respectively. There was one Hb E trait, and no α-thalassemia-1 SEA or Thai type deletion. Furthermore, anemia was found to be associated with β-thalassemia trait in 11 children. These data can be useful for providing appropriate prevention and control of anemia in this region of Thailand.

  10. Prevalence of parasitism among students of the Karen hill-tribe in Mae Chame district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Prownebon, Jarruratt; Kanmarnee, Penjit; Thaisom, Sunida; Yenthakam, Sutin; Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2004-09-01

    Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 Karen students (age: 3 to 19, males: 325, females: 456) to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a mountainous area in the North of Thailand. The study was drawn from three schools in the Doi Inthanon region, in Mae Chame district of Chiang Mai province, from December 2002 to June 2003. The techniques used for the diagnosis were: stool concentration by using the 'formalin-ether' technique and perianal region examination by using the 'Scotch-tape' technique. The average rate of intestinal parasites for the group tested using the stool concentration technique was 42.06% (male: 46.87%, females: 38.82%); and 22.66% (males: 28.92%, females: 18.20%) when using the Scotch-tape technique.Among helminth-infected individuals, enterobiasis was found at the highest prevalence (15.49%). Other common infections were ascariasis (9.78%), trichuriasis (5.90%) and hookworm infection (2.20%). Strongyloildiasis was found only in 0.92%. For protozoa infection, the major cause is the non-pathogenic species "Entamoeba coli" (27.68%). The other non-pathogenic protozoa (Endolimax nana, Chilomastix meslini and Iodamoeba butschlii) had a low prevalence from ranged 0.18%-4.79%. The prevalence of pathogenic Giardia lamblia infection was 2.21%. Entamoeba histolytica infection was found in only one case. Based on the two techniques used, the results from the Scotch-tape provided a higher sensitivity for the detection of Taenia spp. and Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Drug treatment was given to all the infected students. School-based health education should be implemented in order to prevent and control the infections.

  11. Physicochemical properties of soils in the sago palm (Metroxylon spp.) growing area of Surat Thani province Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruairuen, W.; Sparrow, E. B.; Fochesatto, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sago palm is one of the most important plants for sustainable agriculture and rural development in tropical swampy and peaty soils. Where no major crops can grow without drainage or soil improvement. It stores large quantities of starch which can be further processed into various basic raw materials for food, animal feed, industrial uses and alternative energy. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of soil across the sago palm growing areas at Surat Thani province Thailand, where major of sago palms growth naturally exists. The soil samples from three districts Khiri Rat Nikhom (KR; 9 sampling sites), Kanchanadit (KD; 5 sampling sites), and Khian Sa (KS; 2 sampling sites) were studied and compared at 0-15 cm depth during March to June 2016. Observations indicated that the physicochemical properties of soil varied in each growing area. Soil bulk densities averages were lower in KD (0.52 g cm-3) than those in KR (0.58 g cm-3) and KS (0.57 g cm-3). Soil texture around KD and KS were dominated by silty loam. While in KR soil texture was dominated by sandy loam. The average soil conductivity in KS (5.68 mS m-1) was higher than KR (2.62 mS m-1) and KD (1.65 mS m-1). Furthermore, we found the sago palms grow well in a range of soil pH from 5.52 to 7.15, average soil pH: KS (6.8) and KD (6.96), while acid in KR (5.84). We also discuss the conservation activities to adequately protect sago palm, most of which are significantly threatened by habitat destruction and unsustainable harvesting.

  12. Malaria in asymptomatic migrant workers and symptomatic patients in Thamaka District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Kitvatanachai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate malaria infections in asymptomatic legal migrant workers and symptomatic patients in Thamaka, Kanchanaburi Province. Methods: This study was conducted during April 26-29, 2008 using thick and thin blood Giemsa ’s stained. A total of 671 samples were collected in asymptomatic migrant workers and 38 samples in symptomatic patients in the same period. Results: The results showed the prevalence rate was 1.64% (11 out of 671 samples in asymptomatic migrant workers and P.vivax infections were found to be dominant (81.8%. Age group of infections showed between 16-42 years as a high risk of infection. Female: Male ratio was 1: 1.3. The infection rate was 35.7% (10 out of 38 samples in symptomatic patients with the highest infection being P. falciparum (80.0%. Age group of infections between 13-36 years. Male: Female ratio was 1: 1.4. About 43% of malarial infections came from Mohlumyai area, Myanmar. Conclusions: The high rate of malarial infections in Thamaka District still need surveillance, especially as migrant workers may spread malaria to the people living in this area if vector present.

  13. Diversity and uses of Zingiberaceae in Nam Nao National Park, Chaiyaphum and Phetchabun provinces, Thailand, with a new record for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapon Saensouk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three tribes, 12 genera and 38 species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae along five routes in Nam Nao National Park were surveyed between January 2012 and December 2013 to determine their diversity, ecological data, phenology, uses and conservation status. The highest diversity was found in the tribe Zingibereae (6 genera and 21 species, of which the genera Curcuma and Zingiber comprised the highest number species (eight species each. A species key was constructed based on morphology. The ginger family was found in four forest-types—deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and pine forest. The most flowering bloom of the ginger family in Nam Nao National Park was during March to August and the most fruiting bloom was during June to September. The popular uses of Zingiberaceae were as a food, spice, in medicine, as ornamentation and in rituals. Eight species have been evaluated as of least concern and are presented in the IUCN Red List, while two rare species were reported in Thailand Red Data: Plants, while six rare Zingiberaceae species were identified based on the evaluation criteria of Saensouk (2011. Four species were endemic to Thailand. Moreover, Etlingera yunnanensis (T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen R. M. Smith was a new record for Thailand.

  14. Frequency distribution of specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in surface beach sand samples collected in Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changkit, N.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Youngchauy, U.; Polthum, S.; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in 50 surface beach sand samples collected from Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province in the easthern region of Thailand, were measured and evaluated. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system in the special laboratory at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). The IAEA-SOIL-375 reference material was used to analyze the concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all samples. It was found that the specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were ranged from 510.85 - 771.35, 8.17 - 17.06 and 4.25 - 15.68 Bq/kg. Furthermore, frequency distribution of the specific activities were studied, analyzed and found to be the asymmetrical distribution by using a statistical computer program. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the investigated area were also calculated by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The results were also compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations.

  15. Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyakawee P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paisit Boonyakawee, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Robert S ChapmanCollege of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention, and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively. Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time. Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers' insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers' health and quality of life.Keywords: insecticides

  16. Molecular genetic characterization of rabies virus glycoprotein gene sequences from rabid dogs in Bangkok and neighboring provinces in Thailand, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjathummarak, Surachet; Fa-Ngoen, Chanon; Pipattanaboon, Chonlatip; Boonha, Khwanchit; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip

    2016-05-01

    Because of its association with dogs, rabies virus (RABV) is still endemic in Thailand, where it is a serious public health problem. The genetic characterization of RABV in Thailand is limited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of RABV in the endemic area. Viral RNA from 48 brain specimens from rabid dogs, collected in Bangkok and seven neighboring provinces in 2013-2014, was extracted and sequenced. The complete rabies glycoprotein (G) gene sequences (1575 nt) were aligned, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the maximum-likelihood method. All of the Thai rabies virus isolates belonged to lyssavirus genotype 1 and clustered in the same lineage as isolates from South East Asia (SEA) and China. The Thai rabies virus isolates formed two distinct clades, THA-1 and THA-2. Clade THA-1 was the predominant clade and could be divided into two subclades, THA-1A and THA-1B. Clade THA-2 was closely associated with human Thai isolates collected in a previous study. The overall mean rate of evolution based on the G gene was approximately 1.56 × 10(-4) substitutions/site/year. The genetic identities among the isolates from Thailand and other SEA countries were >88.4 % at the nucleotide sequence level and 95 % at the amino acid sequence level. The deduced amino acid sequences of the G proteins of the RABV isolates were compared. A single amino acid change (N194T) in subclade THA-1A distinguished the Thai RABV isolates from other RABV isolates. Our results suggest that these Thai dog RABV isolates share a common ancestor with the RABV isolates circulating in the endemic regions of SEA countries and China. Furthermore, there were strong genetic relationship to RABV from Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos. These data extend our understanding of the relatedness and genetic variation of RABV in Thailand.

  17. High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Resistance to Clarithromycin: a Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancy, infection being a serious health problem in Thailand. Recently, clarithromycin resistant H. pylori strains represent the main cause of treatment failure. Therefore this study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin in Suranaree University of Technology Hospital, Suranree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Northeastern Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast of Thailand. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out between June 2014 and February 2015 with 300 infected patients interviewed and from whom gastric mucosa specimens were collected and proven positive by histology. The gastric mucosa specimens were tested for H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by 23S ribosomal RNA point mutations analysis using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Correlation of eradication rates with patterns of mutation were analyzed by chi-square test. Of 300 infected patients, the majority were aged between 47-61 years (31.6%), female (52.3%), with monthly income between 10,000-15,000 Baht (57%), and had a history of alcohol drinking (59.3%). Patient symptoms were abdominal pain (48.6%), followed by iron deficiency anemia (35.3%). Papaya salad consumption (40.3%) was a possible risk factor for H. pylori infection. The prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin was 76.2%. Among clarithromycin-resistant strains tested, all were due to the A2144G point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Among mutations group, wild type genotype, mutant strain mixed wild type and mutant genotype were 23.8%, 35.7% and 40.5% respectively. With the clarithromycin-based triple therapy regimen, the efficacy decreased by 70% for H. pylori eradication (P<0.01). Recent results indicate a high rate of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin. Mixed of wild type and mutant genotype is the most common mutant genotype in

  18. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. II: Responses to mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy among falciparum malaria patients in provinces bordering Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satimai, Wichai; Sudathip, Prayuth; Vijaykadga, Saowanit; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Sawang, Surasak; Potithavoranan, Thanapon; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Delacollette, Charles; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Lawpoolsri, Saranath

    2012-08-28

    The area along the Thai-Cambodian border is considered an epicenter of anti-malarial drug resistance. Recently, parasite resistance to artemisinin-based therapies has been reported in the area. The artemisinin resistance containment project was initiated in November 2008, with the aim to limit resistant parasites and eliminate malaria in this region. This study describes the response to artemisinin-based therapy among falciparum malaria patients in the area, using data from the malaria surveillance programmed under the containment project. The study was conducted in seven provinces of Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border. Data of Plasmodium falciparum-positive patients during January 2009 to December 2011 were obtained from the electronic malaria information system (eMIS) Web-based reporting system. All P. falciparum cases were followed for 42 days, as the routine case follow-up protocol. The demographic characteristics of the patients were described. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the cure rate of the current standard anti-malarial drug regimen--mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy (MAS). The proportion of patients who remained parasite-positive at each follow-up day was calculated. In addition, factors related to the delayed parasite clearance on day-3 post-treatment, were explored. A total of 1,709 P. falciparum-positive cases were reported during the study period. Almost 70% of falciparum cases received MAS therapy (n = 1,174). The majority of cases were males, aged between 31 and 50 years. The overall MAS cure rate was > 90% over the three-year period. Almost all patients were able to clear the parasite within 7 to 14 days post-treatment. Approximately 14% of patients undergoing MAS remained parasite-positive on day-3. Delayed parasite clearance was not significantly associated with patient gender, age, or citizenship. However, delayed parasite clearance varied across the study area. Anti-malarial drug-resistant parasites

  19. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. II: responses to mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy among falciparum malaria patients in provinces bordering Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satimai Wichai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The area along the Thai-Cambodian border is considered an epicenter of anti-malarial drug resistance. Recently, parasite resistance to artemisinin-based therapies has been reported in the area. The artemisinin resistance containment project was initiated in November 2008, with the aim to limit resistant parasites and eliminate malaria in this region. This study describes the response to artemisinin-based therapy among falciparum malaria patients in the area, using data from the malaria surveillance programmed under the containment project. Methods The study was conducted in seven provinces of Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border. Data of Plasmodium falciparum-positive patients during January 2009 to December 2011 were obtained from the electronic malaria information system (eMIS Web-based reporting system. All P. falciparum cases were followed for 42 days, as the routine case follow-up protocol. The demographic characteristics of the patients were described. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the cure rate of the current standard anti-malarial drug regimen--mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy (MAS. The proportion of patients who remained parasite-positive at each follow-up day was calculated. In addition, factors related to the delayed parasite clearance on day-3 post-treatment, were explored. Results A total of 1,709 P. falciparum-positive cases were reported during the study period. Almost 70% of falciparum cases received MAS therapy (n = 1,174. The majority of cases were males, aged between 31 and 50 years. The overall MAS cure rate was >90% over the three-year period. Almost all patients were able to clear the parasite within 7 to 14 days post-treatment. Approximately 14% of patients undergoing MAS remained parasite-positive on day-3. Delayed parasite clearance was not significantly associated with patient gender, age, or citizenship. However, delayed parasite clearance varied across the

  20. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  1. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  2. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  3. Ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the floodplain of the Chi River, Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand, with the first record of male Tanycypris siamensis Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip

    2014-07-17

    The species diversity of ostracods in the floodplain of the Chi River basin, Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand was examined in this study. Twenty-two samples were collected in the cool season (February 2010). Twenty-six species belonging to 18 genera were recorded, three of which are new to the Oriental region (Fabaeformiscandona subacuta (Yang, 1982), Ilyocypris monstrifica (Norman, 1862) and Limnocythere stationis Vávra, 1891) and one (Hemicypris ovata Sars, 1903) is a new record for Thailand. The most common species were Strandesia kraepelini (G.W. Müller, 1906) and Physocypria crenulata (Sars, 1903) occurring in 77% and 64% of the sampled localities, respectively. Additionally, males of Tanycypris siamensis Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009 were found and are here described for the first time. This discovery shows that the morphology of the hemipenis and of the Zenker organs of T. siamensis is similar to that of species in the genus Cypricercus. Additional comments on chorology and ecology of several taxa are also given. 

  4. Isolation and identification of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from roots of three orchid genera, Paphiopedilum, Dendrobium, and Cymbidium, collected in Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai provinces of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontachaiyapoom, Sureeporn; Sasirat, Sawitree; Manoch, Leka

    2010-10-01

    Three orchid genera, Paphiopedilum, Cymbidium, and Dendrobium, are among the most heavily traded ornamental plants in Thailand. In this study, 27 isolates of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were isolated from root sections of mature orchids in the three orchid genera, collected from diverse horticultural settings in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces of Thailand. Fungal identification was done by the morphological characterization, the comparison of the internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences, and the phylogenetic analysis. Epulorhiza repens was found to be the most common species found in the roots of various species of all three orchid genera, whereas Epulorhiza calendulina-like isolates were strictly found in the roots of Paphiopedilum species. We have also isolated and described an anamorph of Tulasnella irregularis, four new anamorphic species in the genus Tulasnella, and a new anamorphic species in the family Tulasnellaceae. Our study provides information on diversity of root-associated fungi of the orchid genera and at the sampling sites that were rarely addressed in the previous studies.

  5. The mutual influence of managerial ability and social networks of farmers on participation in an organic vegetable group in Khon Kaen province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panatda Utaranakorn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to analyze farmers' managerial ability, social networks, and information sharing, and to describe the two-way relationship between managerial ability and social networks. We collected data through face-to-face interviews, using a structured questionnaire with a purposively selected random sample of 34 farmers in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand, in September 2013. All respondents belonged to an organic vegetable group. The findings revealed that almost all of the farmers have a high ability level in marketing, information searching, communication, and technical skills. Farmers with high ability, especially group leaders and group managers, have more chances to increase their networks through becoming consulters and transferring knowledge/technology. As a result, their social networks are more active and stronger, both inside and outside their villages. In addition, farmers with larger networks have more opportunities to assess information and exchange knowledge, so their ability can become even more effective.

  6. GIS Database and Google Map of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Mueang Yang District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Joosiri, Apinya; Jantakate, Sirinun; Sangkudloa, Amnat; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Chimplee, Kanokporn; Khemplila, Kritsakorn; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern and northern regions. Database of population at risk are need required for monitoring, surveillance, home health care, and home visit. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database and Google map of the population at risk of CCA in Mueang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand during June to October 2015. Populations at risk were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST). Software included Microsoft Excel, ArcGIS, and Google Maps. The secondary data included the point of villages, sub-district boundaries, district boundaries, point of hospital in Mueang Yang district, used for created the spatial databese. The populations at risk for CCA and opisthorchiasis were used to create an arttribute database. Data were tranfered to WGS84 UTM ZONE 48. After the conversion, all of the data were imported into Google Earth using online web pages www.earthpoint.us. Some 222 from a 4,800 population at risk for CCA constituted a high risk group. Geo-visual display available at following www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/ edit?mid=zPxtcHv_iDLo.kvPpxl5mAs90 and hl=th. Geo-visual display 5 layers including: layer 1, village location and number of the population at risk for CCA; layer 2, sub-district health promotion hospital in Mueang Yang district and number of opisthorchiasis; layer 3, sub-district district and the number of population at risk for CCA; layer 4, district hospital and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis; and layer 5, district and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis. This GIS database and Google map production process is suitable for further monitoring, surveillance, and home health care for CCA sufferers.

  7. The current status of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) research at Kasetsart University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpiranon, P.; Kulasri, K.; Rittirong, A.; Saenboonruang, K.

    2017-06-01

    During the past decade, Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors have been greatly developed and utilized in numbers of applications including advanced nuclear and particle researches, medical imaging, astrophysics, and neutron detection for national security. Our GEM research group at the Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Thailand, realized in its excellent properties/potentials and started extensive researches on GEM detectors. To build a strong foundation on our research group, two 10 cm × 10 cm triple GEM detectors were characterized on their important properties including absolute gains and detection uniformity. Moreover, to widen applications of the GEM detector, our group had modified the GEM detector by introducing either solid or gaseous neutron converters to the detector so that the detector could effectively detect neutrons. These modifications included coating a thin film of 10B and natB to the GEM drift cathode for thermal neutron detection and flowing a gas mixture of He/CO2 (80:20 and 70:30) and C4H10/He/CO2 (7:70:23) for fast neutron detection. Results showed that the modified GEM-based neutron detector could detect both types of neutrons with different relative efficiencies and gains depending on thicknesses and types of neutron converters. This article discusses basic knowledge of the GEM detector, construction and testing procedures, results, and discussion.

  8. Preliminary investigation on the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwalee Rattanapunya

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The increasing trend of prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot, Tak province was of a great concern on either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics aspect. The study in a larger numbers of malaria patients in different endemic areas throughout the country with different time periods is underway.

  9. Cross-sectional study of use of electronic media by secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai

    2014-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the negative psychological effects of excessive use of various electronic media by adolescents but the monitoring of these behaviors in low- and middle-income countries has some methodological flaws. Assess the use of all types of electronic media among secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. A stratified random sample of students from four schools in Bangkok completed a modified version of a questionnaire used in a major study in the United States. Among the 768 participants, 443 (57.7%) were female and 325 (42.3%) were male; their mean (sd) age was 15.4 (1.5) years. Almost all respondents had easy access to multiple types of electronic media; 94% had mobile phones, 77% had a television in their bedroom, and 47% had internet access in their bedroom. Over the prior day 39% had watched television shows or movies for more than 3 hours, 28% spent more than 3 hours on social networking sites, 25% listened to music for more than 3 hours, and 18% played computer games for more than 3 hours. Overall, 27% reported using electronic devices for more than 12 hours in the previous day. Only 19% reported parental rules about the use of electronic devices in the home that were regularly enforced. Time engaged in the various activities was not related to parental education or, with the exception of time playing computer games, to students' grade point average. Younger students and male students spent less time than older students and female students using these devices to engage in interactive social activities (e.g., talking on the phone or social networking), while male students spent much more time than female students playing games on the devices. Adolescents spend a substantial part of every single day using different types of electronic devices. Longitudinal studies with precise time logs of device usage and descriptions of the type of content accessed are needed to determine the extent to which these activities have negative (or

  10. Cross-sectional study of use of electronic media by secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIATRUNGRIT, Komsan; HONGSANGUANSRI, Sirichai

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing concern about the negative psychological effects of excessive use of various electronic media by adolescents but the monitoring of these behaviors in low- and middle-income countries has some methodological flaws. Aim Assess the use of all types of electronic media among secondary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods A stratified random sample of students from four schools in Bangkok completed a modified version of a questionnaire used in a major study in the United States. Results Among the 768 participants, 443 (57.7%) were female and 325 (42.3%) were male; their mean (sd) age was 15.4 (1.5) years. Almost all respondents had easy access to multiple types of electronic media; 94% had mobile phones, 77% had a television in their bedroom, and 47% had internet access in their bedroom. Over the prior day 39% had watched television shows or movies for more than 3 hours, 28% spent more than 3 hours on social networking sites, 25% listened to music for more than 3 hours, and 18% played computer games for more than 3 hours. Overall, 27% reported using electronic devices for more than 12 hours in the previous day. Only 19% reported parental rules about the use of electronic devices in the home that were regularly enforced. Time engaged in the various activities was not related to parental education or, with the exception of time playing computer games, to students’ grade point average. Younger students and male students spent less time than older students and female students using these devices to engage in interactive social activities (e.g., talking on the phone or social networking), while male students spent much more time than female students playing games on the devices. Conclusion Adolescents spend a substantial part of every single day using different types of electronic devices. Longitudinal studies with precise time logs of device usage and descriptions of the type of content accessed are needed to determine the extent to

  11. Preparing the readiness of tourism activities for destinations along the Mekong River to become the ASEAN Community: A case study in Chiang Khan at Loei Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Patthira Phon-ngam

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this research were. 1) to study tourism potential in Chiang Khan Thailand and Sanakham in Lao PDR. 2) to study the readiness of communities and to prepare the community with tourism activities in Chiang Khan Thailand. 3) to study the needs of the tourism activities in Chiang Khan Thailand. The methodology used mix methodology of qualitative and quantitative research. The research findings were as follows: 1). The potential of tourism in Chiang Khan, Thailand cloud be classifie...

  12. Coral recruitment and recovery after the 2004 Tsunami around the Phi Phi Islands (Krabi Province) and Phuket, Andaman Sea, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Y.; Phongsuwan, N.; Richter, C.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 tsunami left a discontinuous pattern of destruction in the reefs along Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. Here, a comparative assessment of coral recruitment was carried out to assess differences in recovery between damaged and undamaged sites in near-shore fringing reefs 1 and 3 years after the tsunami. Settlement plates showed high frequencies of coral spat after 4 months (coral rubble is a key determinant of recruitment success. Low regeneration success of some species e.g. branching acroporids and rebounding tourism industry at sites like Patong and partly around the Phi Phi Islands (dense carpets of filamentous algae) led to the assumption of selectivity and eventually to an alternation of the coral community even though live coral cover might be recovered soon.

  13. A New Basal Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masateru; Jintasakul, Pratueng; Azuma, Yoichi; You, Hai-Lu

    2015-01-01

    A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand, Sirindhorna khoratensis gen. et sp. nov is described. The new taxon is based on composite skull and mandible including premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, quadrate, braincases, predentary, dentaries, surangular, and maxillary and dentary teeth. It is diagnostic by such characters as, sagittal crest extending along entire dorsal surface of the parietal and reaching the frontoparietal suture (autapomorphy), transversely straight frontoparietal suture, caudodorsally faced supraoccipital, no participation of the supraoccipital in the foramen magnum, mesiodistally wide leaf-shaped dentary tooth with primary and secondary ridges on the lingual surface of the crown, perpendicularly-erected and large coronoid process of dentary, and nonvisible antorbital fossa of the maxilla in lateral view. Phylogenetic analysis revealed S. khoratensis as among the most basal hadrosauroids. Sirindhorna khoratensis is the best-preserved iguanodontian ornithopod in Southeast Asia and sheds new light to resolve the evolution of basal hadrosauriforms.

  14. Diet, female reproduction and conservation of Jagor's water snake, Enhydris jagorii in Bung Ka Loh wetland, Uttaradit province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chattraphas Pongcharoen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jagor's water snake (Enhydris jagorii is a freshwater snake that is endemic to the Chao Phraya-Ta Chin basin, Thailand. However, habitat change and destruction are the main threats to this snake, where a large area of the wetland has been rapidly transformed into urban and agricultural areas. Moreover, uncontrolled fishing seriously threatens the remaining population of this snake. In order to protect this species, information on its natural history is required. This study was conducted in the Bung Ka Loh wetland during October, 2010 to August, 2014 when 108 specimens of this species were collected. Analysis of the stomach contents revealed that it is piscivorous, with cyprinids being the dominant prey. Prey items were usually less than 10% of the snake body mass and multiple prey items were occasionally found. No significant difference in diet was noted between the sexes. In addition, predation on this snake by Cylindrophis ruffus was first recorded in this study. The smallest gravid female collected had a snout-vent length of 34.0 cm. The clutch size and mass ranged from 1 to 28 embryos and 3.1–123.0 g, respectively, and both of these quantities increased significantly with increased female size. Reproduction was possibly seasonal and occurred in the rainy season. A preliminary study of other wetlands in the central plain of Thailand failed to detect the existence of this species. Accordingly, the conservation status of this species should be changed from Data Deficient to Critically Endangered.

  15. Growth variation and heritability in a second-generation Eucalyptus urophylla progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Chachoengsao province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Nhlanhla Dlamini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, Eucalyptus urophylla was introduced with the main purpose of supplying raw material for pulp and chip wood production. The demand for genetically improved seed is increasing to support high productivity plantation establishment. One of the tree improvement activities established to meet the high demand for improved seed was a second generation progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Thailand to provide the best material for the successful plantation program. The aim of the current study was to compare growth variation of the first and second generation of Eucalyptus urophylla progeny that could provide information on suitable families for improved quality seed. The progeny test comprised the best 45 half-sib families selected from 80 half-sib families of the first-generation progeny test. The design of the progeny test was a randomized and complete block design (16 trees/plot × 45 plots/block × 9 blocks, with 4 rows of 4 trees at a spacing of 2 m × 1 m. Growth was assessed at age 3 yr. The average height and diameter at breast height over bark (DBH, was 13.72 m, and 8.75 cm, respectively. There were highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among provenances and families in both height and DBH. The individual heritability values for height and DBH were 0.48 and 0.60, respectively. The family heritability values for height and DBH were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. These 45 half-sib families proved to be genetically superior ensuring higher productivity and contributing to the success of the Forest Industry Organization plantation at Lad Krating.

  16. Guest room safety management of resort hotels as destination in Thailand (A case study of Khao Kor District, Phetchabun Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Tinakhat, Phisunt

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study the satisfactionlevel of guest room safety management of resort hotels in Khao Kor District,Phetchabun Province. A researcher adopted a quantitative methodology used aquestionnaire with the accidentally-met Thai 387 tourists travelling to KhaoKor District during winter season which is considered as a high season in thearea.  The data from the questionnairethen is analyzed as descriptive statistics. Some interviews are conducted withthe tourists to have mo...

  17. Techno-Economic and dynamic analysis of low velocity wind turbines for rural electrification in agricultural area of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipirodjanapong, Sumate; Namboonruang, Weerapol

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of potential wind speed of electrical power generating using for agriculture in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The total area is 1,900 square kilometers. First of all, the agriculture electrical load (AEL) data was investigated from all farming districts in Ratchaburi. Subsequently, the load data was analyzed and classified by the load power and energy consumption at individual district. The wind turbine generator (WTG) at capacity rate of 200w, 500w, 1,000w, and 2,000w were adopted to implement for the AEL in each area at wind speed range of 3 to 6 m/s. This paper shows the approach based on the wind speed at individual district to determine the capacity of WTG using the capacitor factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) in baht per unit under different WTG value rates. Ten locations for wind station installations are practical investigated. Results show that for instance, the Damnoen Sa-duak (DN-04) one of WTG candidate site is identically significant for economic investment of installing rated WTG. The results of COE are important to determine whether a wind site is good or not.

  18. Quantification of contamination levels and particular risk of Salmonella spp. in pigs in slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the important foodborne pathogens, and the slaughtering process is recognized as a potential point of contamination and the spread of the pathogens. The three objectives of this study are first, to quantify the contamination levels of Salmonella spp. in pig skins and carcasses, second, to evaluate the outcomes from different pig supply sources and different practices at three critical steps (scalding, splitting, and washing) for Salmonella spp. contamination, and third, to assess risk of Salmonella spp. contamination in pork products after slaughtering level. The study was performed in three representative slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand. Investigation conducted from May 2013 through October 2013 found the overall prevalence and contamination levels mean to be 11.85% and 0.34 MPN/cm2, respectively. There was no statistically significant in Salmonella spp. prevalence and contamination levels detected with different patterns at the slaughterhouses which were supplied pigs from either co-operative or integrated farms. Factors found to reduce Salmonella spp. loads on carcasses included good practices, e.g., regular changing of water in the scalding tank after each batch and the use of chlorine in the washing step. Risk of Salmonella spp. contamination of pork products at the final stage of slaughtering was nearly 10%. Good practices and proper hygiene measures should be applied to minimize the risk of Salmonella spp. exposure in the slaughtering line, which can reduce the contamination pressure downstream at retail shops as well as for end consumers.

  19. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  20. A survey into process and worker's characteristics in the wood furniture industry in Songkhla Province, southern region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiseranee, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    1998-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the wood furniture industry was conducted in southern Thailand in February 1993. The aim was to examine the manufacturing process, occupational hazards at the workplace, workers' demographic characteristics, period of employment, incidence rate of work related injury and some reproductive history of workers. Altogether 69 managers and 1,000 workers participated in the study. There are 2 main types of wood industry, rubberwood and hardwood. The rubberwood industry is semi-automated with advanced technology, has a female-dominated workforce of 200-300 workers per factory and overseas-market orientation. The hardwood industry is based in small-scale workplaces ranging from 20 to 60 workers, domestic-market orientation and has a male-dominated workforce. Most of the workers were young, single, of low education and were high turnover rate laborforce, with arduous work and long working hours per week. Solvent was the most frequent chemical exposure. The person-year incidence of chemical exposure in female workers was higher than in male workers for every group of chemicals. The incidence of accidents was twice as high as the official rate. The standardized fertility ratio of female wood workers was only 51.6% of that of the Thai female population. There was a high abortion rate among women who became pregnant inside the wood industry compared to that among pregnancies outside the wood factory. Wood industry workers were exposed to occupational hazards and accident-prone work conditions.

  1. Perceptions and risky behaviors associated with Leptospirosis in an endemic area in a village of Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongbutdee, Jaruwan; Saengnill, Wacharapong; Jittimanee, Jutharat; Daendee, Suwaporn

    2016-03-01

    Leptospirosis, a disease caused by Leptospira species, a spirochaete bacterium that can develop in an appropriate environment and/or grow in human and/or animal hosts, is a serious problem for the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. To investigate people's perceptions and behavioral risks regarding leptospirosis infection. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data in May, 2013. Data on individuals' perceptions and risky behaviors concerning leptospirosis were collected from 104 completed questionnaires. Regarding perceptions of leptospirosis, we found them to be at a high level (97.1%) and risky behaviors regarding leptospirosis were reported at a moderate level (74.0%). The study found no correlation between perceptions and risky behaviors regarding leptospirosis (r 0.186, p-value 0.059). This study suggest that people in these areas have good knowledge about leptospirosis. However, some people have risky behavior associated with leptospirosis. Thus, a behavioral change campaign should be promoted to encourage people awareness of the dangers of such behavior.

  2. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  3. Preliminary survey of ants at a reserve area of Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranee Binnima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prince of Songkla University is the first university established in the southern part of Thailand. A reserve area is planned at Ko Hong Hill near the university. The flora of this area has been previously explored but a few fauna species have been studied. Although ants are one of dominant groups in this forest, there is no record of their diversity. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the ant diversity in terms of species composition. Three sampling methods, pitfall trap (PF, hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sifting (LL were applied to collection of ants along 3 line transects each of 90 meter in length and 500 meter apart during April 2001. Six subfamilies (Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Dorylinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae and Pseudomyrmecinae of ants, comprising 44 species, were found. The results also showed that HC was the most sufficient method resulting in the highest number of ant species, while the combination of two methods (HC and LL yielded the highest number of ant species.

  4. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in air and dust from electronic waste storage facilities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenhor, Dudsadee; Harrad, Stuart; Ali, Nadeem; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-10-01

    This study reports concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust samples (n=25) and in indoor (n=5) and outdoor air (n=10) (using PUF disk passive air samplers) from 5 electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) storage facilities in Thailand. Concentrations of Sigma(10)PBDEs (BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153 and 154) in outdoor air in the vicinity of e-waste storage facilities ranged from 8 to 150 pg m(-3). Indoor air concentrations ranged from 46 to 350 pg m(-3), with highest concentrations found in a personal computer and printer waste storage room at an e-waste storage facility. These are lower than reported previously for electronic waste treatment facilities in China, Sweden, and the US. Concentrations of Sigma(21)PBDEs (Sigma(10)PBDEs+BDEs 181, 183, 184, 191, 196, 197, 203, 206, 207, 208 and 209), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE), decabromobiphenyl (BB-209) in dust were 320-290,000, 43-8700 and <20-2300 ng g(-1) respectively, with the highest concentrations of Sigma(21)PBDEs, BDE-209 and DBDPE in a room used to house discarded TVs, stereos and radios. PBDE concentrations in dust were slightly higher but within the range of those detected in workshop floor dust from an e-waste recycling centre in China. The highest concentration of BB-209 was detected in a room storing discarded personal computers and printers. Consistent with recent reports of elevated ratios of BDE-208:BDE-209 and BDE-183:BDE-209 in household electronics from South China, percentage ratios of BDE-208:BDE-209 (0.64-2.9%) and of BDE-208:BDE-183 (2.8-933%) in dust samples exceeded substantially those present in commercial deca-BDE and octa-BDE formulations. This suggests direct migration of BDE-208 and other nonabrominated BDEs from e-waste to the environment. Under realistic high-end scenarios of occupational exposure to BDE-99, workers in the facilities were exposed above a recently-published Health Based Limit Value for this congener. Reassuringly, estimated exposures to BDE

  5. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    Science.gov (United States)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  6. A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of the fruit piercing moths in Songkhla Province of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchanee Nilla-or5

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of fruit piercing moths (FPM in Songkhla provinceof southern Thailand was conducted from December 2003 to November 2004. The objectives of this study were to determine species diversity, the seasonal abundance of the major moth species occurring in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco and pomelo (C. maxima Merr. as well as to assess yield losses due to these insects in citrus cropping systems. Twenty-four species of FPM were collected from these crops. The greatest species richness and relative abundance were observed in citrus, covering 23 species from 452 individuals trapped. In pomelo, 20 different species were found among the 142 individuals trapped.In the longkong system, there were 13 species found among the 100 individuals trapped. The three most dominant species collected at the longkong site were Erebus ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner, E. hieroglyphica (Druryand Ophiusa coronata (Fabricius. From the citrus site the most common species trapped were O. coronata (Fabricius, E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner and Othreis fullonia (Clerck. The most abundant species from the pomelo site were Trigonodes hyppasia (Cramer, Mocis undata (Fabricius and E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner. Simpson's indices of diversity were 0.79, 0.89 and 0.88 in longkong, citrus and pomelo, respectively. Moth population levels peaked in July and November in citrus, and in June in both longkong and pomelo. These peak occurrences were directly synchronized with the ripening stage of the fruit or at the harvest periods. Fruit losses due to FPM in citrus were 24.8% and 22.7% in the 1st harvest season (July-August 2004 and the 2nd harvest season (November-December 2004, respectively.

  7. Effectiveness of the multidimensional ergonomic intervention model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintakham, Kanjanar; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multidimensional ergonomic intervention (MEI) model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) among street sweepers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The MEI model was designed on the basis of four core components: cognitive behavior therapy, ergonomic education training, stretching exercise, and the foam sleeve broom handle grip. Seventy-five street sweepers volunteered for the screening process on MSD of having level score ≥4 by physiotherapist. Face to face interviews were used mainly in order to diagnose MSD. Physical examination was performed by physiotherapist and physical performance by sports scientist. The findings showed that the MEI model among the intervention group significantly reduced MSD compared with that among control group at exit model and follow-up (P<0.01). This research suggests that the MEI model was appropriate to reduce MSD associated with repetitive movement and awkward postures on task.

  8. Changes in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Across Generations and Gender Among a Population-Based Probability Sample From an Urbanizing Province in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Darawuttimaprakorn, Niphon; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Musumari, Patou Masika; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; El-Saaidi, Christina; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Feldman, Mitchell D; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Thailand has undergone rapid modernization with implications for changes in sexual norms. We investigated sexual behavior and attitudes across generations and gender among a probability sample of the general population of Nonthaburi province located near Bangkok in 2012. A tablet-based survey was performed among 2,138 men and women aged 15-59 years identified through a three-stage, stratified, probability proportional to size, clustered sampling. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out accounting for the effects of multistage sampling. Relationship of age and gender to sexual behavior and attitudes was analyzed by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for possible confounding. Patterns of sexual behavior and attitudes varied substantially across generations and gender. We found strong evidence for a decline in the age of sexual initiation, a shift in the type of the first sexual partner, and a greater rate of acceptance of adolescent premarital sex among younger generations. The study highlighted profound changes among young women as evidenced by a higher number of lifetime sexual partners as compared to older women. In contrast to the significant gender gap in older generations, sexual profiles of Thai young women have evolved to resemble those of young men with attitudes gradually converging to similar sexual standards. Our data suggest that higher education, being never-married, and an urban lifestyle may have been associated with these changes. Our study found that Thai sexual norms are changing dramatically. It is vital to continue monitoring such changes, considering the potential impact on the HIV/STIs epidemic and unintended pregnancies.

  9. The ant nest of Crematogaster rogenhoferi (Mayr, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Tarutao National Park, Satun Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparoek Watanasit

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nests of the ant Crematogaster rogenhoferi (Mayr, 1879 were investigated at Tarutao National Park, Satun Province. Fifteen ant nests were selected at random along Phante Malacca Bay between the 2-7 March 2004. They built their nests from leaf and stick debris on branches of trees, at between 248-469 cm above the ground level. The vegetation on which nests were built was composed of 5 species: Vitex pinnata L., Oleasalicifolia Wall, Syzygium gratum (Wight, Ardisia elliptica Thum and one unknown species. The physical features of each nest were recorded. The average dimensions of the nest width and length were 10.65±2.57 cm and 22.10±1.22 cm, respectively.Each nest was cut into small pieces for counting the numbers of each caste and developing stages. The results showed that the average number of queens, winged females, males and workers in each nest were 1.53±0.38, 1,753.33±506.55, 4,970.67±2,227.00, 15,577.93±2,637.84 respectively, while the developing stages of pupae, larvae, eggs were 1,589.93±480.37, 4,113.20±1,469.49 and 1,942.80±741.67 respectively. Thus the total number of ants in the population in each nest was 29,949.40±5,358.31.The relationships between the number of castes, developing stages and physical features of the nests were explored. The Spearman Rank Correlation indicated that the width of nest positively correlated with the number of queens (rs = 0.862, p = . 000, winged females (rs = 0.691, p = 0.004 and workers (rs = 0.667, p = 0.007. A comparison of the effects of vegetation types on the number of castes and development stages, showed that vegetation type did have an influence but only on the number of the worker caste (F = 7.712, P = 0.011, one-way ANOVA. Most workers were associated with nests from Vitex pinnata. No nests were found on the dominant tree species of the area probably due to its ability to produce an insect repellant oil.

  10. Microbiological quality of cooked foods and drinks sold in higher educational institutions around Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat Provinces, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Abdullah D.; Sali, Khosiya; Hayeeyusoh, Nurainee; Hayeewangoh, Zubaidah; Thadah, Amporn

    2017-08-01

    Quality of cooked foods and drinks water sold within the vicinity of higher institutions located in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces were randomly sampled and microbiologically evaluated. As to Thai National Food Safety Standard, various food menu and drinks were subjected to conventionally determining the bacterial index; Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform and fecal coliform as well as the detection of indicator organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. As for bacterial index, results showed that curry-type likes PSU-stir-fried liver (7.5x106 CFU/g), and and the lowest was PSU-Koleh chicken Roast (1.72x103 CFU/g). The highest and lowest counts of soup-type items were observed in YPH-KaengSom soup (1.9x107 CFU/g), and PSU-Palo soup (0.4x103 CFU/g), respectively. Higher bacterial counts were also found in YPH-spicy stir-fried chicken (7.5 x 106 CFU/g), and YPH-squid salad (2.2x107 CFU/g). For drinks, bacterial count ranged 2.0 x 103 to 8.3 x 103 CFU/g, and NRU-iced grape juice having the highest bacterial count (2.0x106 CFU/g). Overall, foods not complying to the Thai National Food Safety Standard of 1 x 103 CFU/g from higher to lower were those of soup, stir-fried, salad, fried, and curry categories with as much as 4:17 (23.53%), 4:21 (19.05%), 2:11 (18.18%), 2:16 (12.5%) and 1:12 (8.33%), respectively. As for Coliform and fecal coliform, the highest (>1100 MPN/g) and the lowest (0.34 MPN/g),were not much found in all food categories with percentages of 23.53, 24.00, 13.79, 9.10, and 47.37 for curry (4:17), soup (6:15), stir-fried (4:29), fried (2:22), and salad (9:19), respectively. However, indicator organisms were not detected in almost all food samples except PSU-chicken yellowish curry, NRU-chicken TongYam soup, NRU-Long-tail tuna soup, NRU-KaengSom soup, YPE-watery soup, NRU-stir-fried liver, NRU-omelets, NRU-fried chicken, YPE-crispy fish salad, and NRU-salted eggs salad, which showed the presence of E. coli, but not

  11. Arsenic contamination in surface drainage and groundwater in part of the southeast Asian tin belt, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Fordyce, F.; Paijitprapapon, A.; Charoenchaisri, P.

    1996-02-01

    The occurrence of human health problems resulting from arsenic contamination of domestic water supplies in Ron Phibun District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand was first recognized in 1987. The area has an extensive history of bedrock and alluvial mining, the waste from which is typically rich in arsenopyrite and related alteration products. In 1994 a collaborative study was instigated involving Thai and British government authorities to establish the distribution and geochemical form of As in surface drainage and aquifer systems in the affected area, the probable sources of As contamination, and the potential for problem alleviation. Hydrochemical analyses of surface- and groundwaters have confirmed the presence of dissolved As at concentrations exceeding WHO potable water guidelines by up to a factor of 500. Contamination of the shallow alluvial aquifer system is systematically more severe than the underlying carbonate-hosted aquifer. Deep boreholes may therefore provide the best available potable water source for the local population. The presence of up to 39% of total As as arsenite (H3AsO3) within the carbonate aquifer may, however, constitute a ‘hidden’ toxicological risk, not evident in the shallow groundwater (in which arsenate species account for > 95% of total As). Mineralogical investigations of As-rich tailings and flotation wastes were undertaken to evaluate their likely impact on water quality. The results indicate that although some flotation wastes contain up to 30% As, the rate of leaching is extremely low. Consequently the As loading of drainage emanating from such waste is below the subregional average. Analyses of the silty alluvium that covers much of the central sector of the study area have highlighted As concentrations of up to 5000 mg kg-1, probably carried by disseminated arsenopyrite. Following sulfide dissolution, the mobility of As in this material may be high (with resultant contamination of shallow groundwater) due

  12. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICE OF CORRUPTION IN ELECTRONIC PROCUREMENT SERVICE SYSTEM IN THE KEPULAUAN RIAU PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendra Setyadiharja

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Procurement of goods and services in Indonesia has carried out a number of reforms, ranging from conventional forms filled with indications of bribery and corrupt, now converted into a system of procurement of goods and services electronically with Electronic Procurement Service Systems(LPSE.Expectations the central government and local government is to minimize the occurrence of graft, a fictitious project, mark up or transactional in the procurement of goods and services, but also LPSE system has never been separated from the threat of any indication of corruption in the procurement of goods and services. The purpose of this research was to uncover a number of corrupt practices that occur on the LPSE system in Kepulauan Riau Province. The method used was the exploratory qualitative approach. Data collection method used is by interview (indebt interview. The results of this research are descriptions of cases of corruption in the LPSE system in Kepulauan Riau Province, and the mode of operation corruption practices that occur in the LPSE system in Kepulauan Riau province.

  14. Detection of Mycobacterium marinum in clinically asymptomatic Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens from ornamental fih shops in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anucha Sirimalaisuwan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum infections in healthy Siamese fighting fish from ornamental fish shops in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods: Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from 380 internal organs of healthy Siamese fighting fish using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H10 culture media. A 924-bp DNA fragment from mycobacterial 16S rRNA was amplified and digested with BanI and ApaI restriction enzymes to yield unique restriction patterns for each mycobacterial specie. Results: Thirty-five mycobacterial isolates (8.42% were recovered from 380 Siamese fighting fish; 21 isolates (5.5% and 11 isolates (2.29% were identified as M. marinum and Mycobacterium chelonae, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the presence of M. marinum zoonotic bacterial pathogens in healthy Siamese fighting fish, and underlined the infection risk to humans of not only exposure to infected fish, but also when they manipulate clinically asymptomatic fish.

  15. Migrant workers’ occupation and healthcare-seeking preferences for TB-suspicious symptoms and other health problems: a survey among immigrant workers in Songkhla province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Tinzar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the unskilled and semi-skilled workforce in Thailand comprises migrant workers from neighbouring countries. While, in principle, healthcare facilities in the host country are open to those migrants registered with the Ministry of Labour, their actual healthcare-seeking preferences and practices, as well as those of unregistered migrants, are not well documented. This study aimed to describe the patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviours of immigrant workers in Thailand, emphasizing healthcare practices for TB-suspicious symptoms, and to identify the role of occupation and other factors influencing these behaviours. Methods A survey was conducted among 614 immigrant factory workers (FW, rubber tappers (RT and construction workers (CW, in which information was sought on socio-demography, history of illness and related healthcare-seeking behaviour. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was employed in data analysis. Results Among all three occupations, self-medication was the most common way of dealing with illnesses, including the development of TB-suspicious symptoms, for which inappropriate drugs were used. Only for GI symptoms and obstetric problems did migrant workers commonly seek healthcare at modern healthcare facilities. For GI illness, FW preferred to attend the in-factory clinic and RT a private facility over government facilities owing to the quicker service and greater convenience. For RT, who were generally wealthier, the higher cost of private treatment was not a deterrent. CW preferentially chose a government healthcare facility for their GI problems. For obstetric problems, including delivery, government facilities were utilized by RT and CW, but most FW returned to their home country. After adjusting for confounding, having legal status in the country was associated with overall greater use of government facilities and being female and being married with use of both types of modern healthcare

  16. Detection and drug resistance profile of Escherichia coli from subclinical mastitis cows and water supply in dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woranich Hinthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E. coli was predominant, followed by enteroaggregative E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli, which was found only in milk samples. Twenty-one patterns of antibiotic resistance were identified in this study. Ampicillin- and carbenicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common among the bacterial isolates from water samples. Meanwhile, resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the pattern found most commonly in the E. coli from milk samples. Notably, only the E. coli from water samples possessed ESBL phenotype and carried antibiotic resistance genes, blaTEM and blaCMY-2. This indicates that pathogenic E. coli in dairy farms is also exposed to antibiotics and could potentially transfer these genes to other pathogenic bacteria under certain conditions.

  17. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastritis Increases Risk of Colorectal Polyps: a Hospital Based-Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive. Colorectal polyps were confirmed by histological examination of colorectal biopsies. Patient demographic data were analyzed for correlations. The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 77 (25.4%), lesions being found more frequently in Helicobacter pylori infected patients than non-infected subjects [38.4% vs. 12.5%; Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.26 (1.32 - 3.86), p gastritis were at high risk of having adenomas featuring dysplasia [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.16 - 7.99); P = 0.02]. There was no varaition in location of polyps, age group, sex and gastric lesions with respect to Helicobacter pylori status. This study showed that Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially adenomas with dysplasia in the Thai population. Patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis may benefit from concurrent colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal polyps as a preventive and early treatment for colorectal cancer.

  18. Detection and drug resistance profile ofEscherichia colifrom subclinical mastitis cows and water supply in dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinthong, Woranich; Pumipuntu, Natapol; Santajit, Sirijan; Kulpeanprasit, Suphang; Buranasinsup, Shutipen; Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Aiumurai, Pisinee; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E. coli was predominant, followed by enteroaggregative E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli , which was found only in milk samples. Twenty-one patterns of antibiotic resistance were identified in this study. Ampicillin- and carbenicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common among the bacterial isolates from water samples. Meanwhile, resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the pattern found most commonly in the E. coli from milk samples. Notably, only the E. coli from water samples possessed ESBL phenotype and carried antibiotic resistance genes, bla TEM and bla CMY-2 . This indicates that pathogenic E. coli in dairy farms is also exposed to antibiotics and could potentially transfer these genes to other pathogenic bacteria under certain conditions.

  19. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among Thai and Myanmar migrant seafood processing factory workers in Samut Sakorn Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Shigeru; Arphorn, Sara; Muto, Takashi; Koetkhlai, Kanatid; Naing, Saw Sandy; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and investigated risk factors for LBP among seafood processing factory workers in Thailand including migrant workers. The subjects were Thai and Myanmar workers in the typical seafood processing factory. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of LBP, general characteristics, life style, and working condition were investigated. The associations between LBP and risk factors were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of 254 workers, 165 completed the questionnaire. Half of these workers were Thai, the others were from Myanmar. The point prevalence of LBP was 28.5%. Risk factors for LBP were age over 40 yr, poor health status, history of back injury, twisting posture at work, and slipping on wet floors. The results suggest that health promotion should focus on working conditions rather than individual life style in order to prevent LBP. Furthermore, greater attention to other risk factors such as history of back injury and perception of health status after regular health check up, especially in older age groups may be needed.

  20. New records of Phacus and Monomorphina taxa (Euglenophyta for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangjan Kritsana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Phacus and Monomorphina (Euglenophyta from northern Thailand was studied in various water bodies of Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang and Phayao provinces. This paper presents 25 taxa of Phacus and 1 Monomorphina new for Thailand, including 3 Phacus taxa new for Southeast Asia. Several varieties and forms were recognized. All are briefly described, with original illustrations.

  1. Altered Immune Response of the Rice Frog Fejervarya limnocharis Living in Agricultural Area with Intensive Herbicide Utilization at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattapan Jantawongsri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat have been intensively used in Nan Province for a long time. Prior observations indicated that herbicide contamination and adverse health effects were found on the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in paddy fields at Nan Province. Contamination of herbicides may influence disease emergence by acting directly or indirectly upon the immune system of amphibian or by causing disruptions in homeostasis, it is thus interesting to investigate potential effects of herbicide contamination in Nan Province on immune responses of the rice frog living in agricultural areas. Frogs were caught from a paddy field with no history of herbicide utilization (reference site and a paddy field with intensive herbicide utilization (contaminated site during 2010-2011. After dissection, frog livers were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, processed by paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Number of melanomacrophage and melanomacrophage center (MMC were counted under a light microscope and used as markers of non-specific immune response. It was found that there was no significant sex-related difference in these numbers. However, there were significant seasonal differences in these numbers in both reference and contaminated site frogs, suggesting that seasonal difference in herbicide usage tend to affect frog's immune system in agricultural areas. Furthermore, numbers of melanomacrophage and MMC in early wet, late wet and early dry periods were markedly higher in the contaminated site frogs compared to those of the reference site frogs. The observation on amphibian's immune response to environmental contaminants could indicate the impacts of herbicide utilization on other vertebrates, as well as its role in amphibian declines.

  2. Potential of remote sensing techniques for tsunami hazard and vulnerability analysis – a case study from Phang-Nga province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Römer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent tsunami disasters, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami or the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami, have highlighted the need for effective risk management. Remote sensing is a relatively new method for risk analysis, which shows significant potential in conducting spatially explicit risk and vulnerability assessments. In order to explore and discuss the potential and limitations of remote sensing techniques, this paper presents a case study from the tsunami-affected Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. It focuses on a local assessment of tsunami hazard and vulnerability, including the socio-economic and ecological components. High resolution optical data, including IKONOS data and aerial imagery (MFC-3 camera as well as different digital elevation models, were employed to create basic geo-data including land use and land cover (LULC, building polygons and topographic data sets and to provide input data for the hazard and vulnerability assessment. Results show that the main potential of applying remote sensing techniques and data derives from a synergistic combination with other types of data. In the case of hazard analysis, detailed LULC information and the correction of digital surface models (DSMs significantly improved the results of inundation modeling. The vulnerability assessment showed that remote sensing can be used to spatially extrapolate field data on socio-economic or ecological vulnerability collected in the field, to regionalize exposure elements and assets and to predict vulnerable areas. Limitations and inaccuracies became evident regarding the assessment of ecological resilience and the statistical prediction of vulnerability components, based on variables derived from remote sensing data.

  3. A prospective study of diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors and the risk of cancer in Khon Kaen Province, northeast Thailand: description of the cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamporn, Supannee; Parkin, D M; Pisani, P; Vatanasapt, V; Suwanrungruang, K; Kamsa-ard, P; Pengsaa, P; Kritpetcharat, O; Pipitgool, V; Vatanasapt, P

    2005-01-01

    Cohort studies are the preferred design in observational epidemiology, but few involving the general population have been performed in Asia, and most concern affluent urban populations. The Khon Kaen study has recruited about 25,000 subjects, aged mainly 35-64, from villages in the relatively underdeveloped north-east of Thailand. All subjects underwent simple physical examination, completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire (including sections on lifestyle, habits, and diet) and donated specimens of blood, which were processed and stored in a biological bank at -20 degrees C. Female subjects (about 16,500) were offered screening by Pap smear, and specimens of cells from the cervix were stored at -20 degrees C. This paper describes the methodology of the study, and the characteristics of the participants. Almost all subjects are peasant farmers, with low annual income and body mass, although 14.6% of women had a BMI in the obese range (>30 kg/m(2)). Smoking was common among men (78% regular smokers, most of whom used home-produced cigarettes), but rare among women. Fertility levels were relatively high, with a more than half the women having four or more live births. 23.4% of subjects were infected with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, known to be highly endemic in this region. Follow-up of the cohort is by record-linkage to the provincial cancer registry. By 2003, 762 cancer cases had occurred, the most common being cancers of the liver (363 cases) and cervix uteri (44 cases). The antecedents of these cancers are being investigated using a nested case-control approach. The cohort will yield increasing numbers of cancers for study in the next decade, giving important information on the relative importance of dietary and lifestyle factors in a rural population, undergoing gradual transition to a more westernised lifestyle.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine parts. In addition, the economic

  5. Architectural innovation foresight of thermoelectric generator charger integrated portable power supply for portable consumer electronic device in metropolitan market: The case study of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maolikul, S.; Kiatgamolchai, S.; Chavarnakul, T.

    2012-06-01

    In the context of information and communication technology (ICT) trend for worldwide individuals, social life becomes digital and portable consumer electronic devices (PCED) powered by conventional power supply from batteries have been evolving through miniaturization and various function integration. Thermoelectric generators (TEG) were hypothesized for its potential role of battery charger to serve the shining PCED market. Hence, this paper, mainly focusing at the metropolitan market in Thailand, aimed to conduct architectural innovation foresight and to develop scenarios on potential exploitation approach of PCED battery power supply with TEG charger converting power from ambient heat source adjacent to individual's daily life. After technical review and assessment for TEG potential and battery aspect, the business research was conducted to analyze PCED consumer behavior for their PCED utilization pattern, power supply lack problems, and encountering heat sources/sinks in 3 modes: daily life, work, and leisure hobbies. Based on the secondary data analysis from literature and National Statistical Office of Thailand, quantitative analysis was applied using the cluster probability sampling methodology, statistically, with the sample size of 400 at 0.05 level of significance. In addition, the qualitative analysis was conducted to emphasize the rationale of consumer's behavior using in-depth qualitative interview. Scenario planning technique was also used to generate technological and market trend foresight. Innovation field and potential scenario for matching technology with market was proposed in this paper. The ingredient for successful commercialization of battery power supply with TEG charger for PCED market consists of 5 factors as follows: (1) PCED characteristic, (2) potential ambient heat sources/sinks, (3) battery module, (4) power management module, and the final jigsaw (5) characteristic and adequate arrangement of TEG modules. The foresight outcome for

  6. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first

  7. Astronomical Network for Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer (Hutawarakorn), Busaba; Soonthornthum, Boonraksar; Poshyachinda, Saran

    We report the latest development of a pilot project in establishing the astronomical network for teachers in Thailand. The project has been recently granted by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology Thailand and operated by Sirindhorn Observatory Chiangmai University. The objectives of the project are (1) to establish a16-inch semi-robotic telescope which can be accessed from schools nationwide; and (2) to establish an educational website in Thai language which contains electronic textbook of astronomy online encyclopedia of astronomy observing projects astronomical database and links to other educational websites worldwide. The network will play important role in the development of teaching and learning astronomy in Thailand.

  8. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  9. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  10. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1) To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2) To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3) To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of ...

  11. Obesity and Lifestyle Factors in Male Hospital Out-patients in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was exploring the prevalence of obesity and to determine the factors associated with obesity among male out-patients in Thailand. In a crosssectional survey consecutive male out-patients from four district hospitals in Nakhon Pathom Province in Thailand were assessed with various measures, ...

  12. First middle Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimanee, Y.; Yamee, C.; Tian, P.; Chavasseau, O.; Jaeger, J.J. [Bureau for Paleontology & Museum, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. for Mineral Resources

    2008-03-15

    Sivaladapids are a group of Asian adapiform primates that were previously documented from deposits dating to the middle Eocene through the late Miocene in Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and China. The group is notable for the persistence of three genera, Sivaladapis, Indraloris and Sinoadapis, into the late Miocene. In Thailand, sivaladapids were previously documented only from late Eocene deposits of the Krabi mine. Here, we describe the first Southeast Asian Miocene sivaladapid, Siamoadapis maemohensis gen. et sp. nov. from a 13.3 to 13.1 Ma lignite layer from the Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand. It differs from other Miocene sivaladapids by its distinctly smaller size and in features of the dentition. This discovery enhances the paleoecological diversity of the middle Miocene primate fauna of Thailand, which now includes sivaladapids, a loris, tarsiids, and hominoids. In this respect, the fossil primate community from the middle Miocene of Thailand is similar in its composition to roughly contemporaneous assemblages from southern China, India, and Pakistan. However, the Thai fossils represent a distinct genus, suggesting a different biogeographic province with distinctive paleoenvironments.

  13. Population pressure and fertility in pre-transition Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandingham, M; Hirschman, C

    2001-11-01

    Before the demographic transition in Thailand, fertility was high, but not uniformly so. As in other pre-transition settings, Thai fertility responded to pressures and opportunities created by socioeconomic structure and land availability. Drawing upon provincial data from the 1947 and 1960 censuses of Thailand, we find a strong 'frontier effect' on Thai fertility in the 1950s. Fertility was higher in sparsely settled frontier provinces and lower in provinces with higher population density relative to cultivatable land. This finding is robust and holds up with controls for agricultural employment, land quality, and the sex ratio (an indicator of sex-selective migration). The effect of population pressure lowers the likelihood of marriage and of marital fertility. The findings from Thailand are consistent with the research of Easterlin on the nineteenth century United States and with other pre-transition societies. We suggest how demographic transition theory might be broadened to include fertility dynamics in pre-transition societies.

  14. All projects related to Thailand | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the GMS : a Study of the East-West and North-South Corridors. Project. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2. Start Date: August 12, ...

  15. All projects related to Thailand | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-08-12

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2. Start Date: August 12, 2008. End Date: August 13, 2010. Topic: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE ...

  16. Two new species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirichamon, Yotsawate; Balslev, Henrik; Mathapa, Sawai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Callerya (Endl.); C. chlorantha and C. tennaserimensis are illustrated and described. They are commonly found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi province, South-western Thailand. It was also found that C. chlorantha might be associated wi...

  17. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  18. Prince Edward Island implements province-wide drug information system. A small step for DIS; a giant leap for the pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giokas, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    On March 13, 2008, Friendly Pharmacy in Charlottetown made a small but significant piece of Canadian healthcare history. It was the first drugstore to go online with Prince Edward Island's Drug Information System (DIS), the centrepiece of the province's All Drugs All People program. PEI is the first province to implement a DIS solution using a common pan-Canadian messaging standard based on Health Level 7 Version 3, an internationally recognized set of standards for clinical, financial and administrative messaging. PEI's initiative has positive implications for the rest of Canada. It is an important step toward the creation of a pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record system covering all facets of patient care.

  19. Public Domain System Modeling in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vathananukij, Hansa

    2009-03-01

    Natural feature at northern region of Thailand has been regularly inundated and significantly encountered straight to central plain downstream. Rainy season in the year 1995, 2002, and 2006 caused land slide and serious flood damaged both northern and central plain of Thailand. It is important meaning for reducing these losses. This research adopted the public domain system model to simulate flood in northern Thailand. Public domain system models have been introduced to academic researchers in Thailand (RM-GIS Center/Engineering/KU) since 2001. SWAT model was one of them. It unified continuous time and basin scale together with geoinformatic system interface. The model could simulate daily, weekly, and monthly data for both pre-process and post-process. Base flow methodology was employed on stream flow hydrograph separation and analysis program which leashed by sliding interval methodology. Data access was approached by basic standard query language. Distant from the previous three prototype basins (Omkoi 1,500 km2, Upper Nan 10,000 km2, and Pasak 15,000 km2), a new research platform was on steep slope basin (Maewaang catchment in Chiangmai province). Drainage area was 533 square-kilometers, almost un-regulated with two observation stations. Results indicated that the most sensitive parameter to model simulation is curve number (CN) while more relative parameter to land surface interpreter is NDVI (from spatial assessment through multi-resolution of satellite imageries). NDVI has much significant applicability to environmental monitoring, particularly for terrestrial dynamics. Their relationships have been affined and affirmed to represent fundamental parameters in both global scale and local scale such as temperature, plantation, evapo-transpiration, etc. Assessment results on aspect and relative differences illustrated significant value for northern region of Thailand. Geoinformatic system structures on digital elevation model, basin delineation and model outputs

  20. Outbreak of cercarial dermatitis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullavanijaya, P; Wongwaisayawan, H

    1993-02-01

    An epidemic of cercarial dermatitis caused by Schistosoma spindale cercaria occurred in November 1988 in a district called Chaiya, Surajthani province, in Southern Thailand. Fifty-eight Thai farmers in Chaiya, Surajthani gave a history of itch following immersion in water while planting rice. The area of rice field was flooded for 10 days before farmers started working. The duration of the disease ranged from 2 days to 1 month. Forty-one patients had the disease for the first time, seventeen had a history of previous manifestations. This epidemic was caused by S. spindale cercaria, which developed in the Indoplanorbis exustus snail, associated with flooding.

  1. Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-09-01

    Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank.

  2. A new species of Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906 (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae) from the Mae Chaem District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K

    2014-04-02

    A new species of the fire-colored beetle genus Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906, is described from the Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The new species, Pseudopyrochroa inthanonensis sp. nov., is superficially similar to Pseudopyrochroa basalis (Pic), Pseudopyrochroa cardoni (Fairmaire) and Pseudopyrochroa fainanensis (Pic) by virtue of body color, antennal form and prothoracic shape. It is the second species of the genus known from Thailand, the other being Pseudopyrochroa diversicornis (Blair).

  3. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  4. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  5. IDRC in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New knowledge about complex issues such as pension plans has improved rural employment, especially for women. IDRCinternAtionAl develoPMent reSeArCh Centre. IDRC in Thailand. IDRC support is helping: □ Children experience less pain from illness. □ Small poultry producers survive bird flu control measures.

  6. Copyright Perspectives from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereebenjapol, Piyathida

    2010-01-01

    Foreign students often have different conceptions of copyright than do American students. This article summarizes Thailand's Copyright Act B.E. 2537 (1994). Also included are guidelines for fair use from a Thai university, as well as a literature review discussing copyright issues in Taiwan and Japan.

  7. Thailand power profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul.

    1988-01-01

    After briefly outlining the recent political history in Thailand, the organization of the electricity supply system is described. The growth in power plants and the variety of their fuels are discussed. The government is currently pursuing an energy policy with an emphasis on indigenous resources and the electricity generators are encouraged to use natural gas.

  8. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  9. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  10. Factors associated with hand foot mouth disease among children in day care center, Chiang Rai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chadaporn Inta; Tawatchai Apidechkul; Siriyaporn Sittisarn; Pilasinee Wongnuch; Pussadee Laor; Yanasinee Suma; Korakot Chansareewittaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors associated with hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) among children in day care center in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Methods: A community based case-control study was conducted to identify the factors associated with HFMD among the children under 6 years old who had been cared for in day care centers in Chiang Rai Province. A 47-item questionnaire had been developed and tested for validity and reliability before use. Index of item-objective con...

  11. Oligarchy in Thailand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern conception of oligarchy, which can be housed under an authoritarian regime as easily as it can under a liberal democratic one, can affect our understanding of the potential national political repercussions of extreme inequalities of wealth. This article has two goals: (1 to conceptually analyse the meaning of oligarchy; and (2 to make a descriptive case for its use in the Thai context. The test case of contemporary Thailand shows what exactly an oligarch or oligarchy means under a military regime and the potential effects for national politics of an oligarchy based on material wealth. Utilizing Jeffrey A. Winters’ Aristotelian-grounded conception of oligarchy for the contemporary world, this article argues that some political outcomes in Thailand are inexplicable without recourse to a modern variant of oligarchic theory and analysis.

  12. Village power in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electric power system in Thailand. 99% of the country is electrified, but much of this is with diesel generators which leaves high costs but a high level of service. The paper discusses renewable energy projects which have been sited in the country, and examples of hybrid systems which have been retrofit into existing diesel generator systems. Photovoltaic and hydroelectric power projects are described. Dedicated systems have been installed for water pumping and battery charging applications.

  13. Thailand: AIDS crisis looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G

    1990-03-31

    Although Thailand's Ministry of Public Health has recorded slightly under 15,000 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to date, an independent team of health and medical experts has estimated that 200,000-300,000 Thais are infected. Moreover, the team has predicted that 1.6 million people--2.5% of the population--will be infected by 1995 in the absence of an aggressive, immediate prevention campaign. When AIDS 1st emerged in Thailand in the mid-1980s, it was largely restricted to homosexual prostitutes who came into contact with foreign men in gay bars. Soon, however, HIV infections was spreading rapidly among intravenous drug abusers and the infection rate among this group is currently estimated to be 45%. Another heavily affected group has been poorly paid prostitutes who work in Thailand's brothels; rates of 44-70% infectivity have been recorded among these women. Most recently, HIV infection has shown signs of entering the general population. Of the recorded cases of HIV infection in Chiang Mai, 59% involve prostitutes, 17% are workers, 6% are civil servants, 7% are students, and 2% are housewives. The sex ratio of HIV-infected persons has changed from 17 males per 1 female in 1986 to 5 males for every 1 female in 1989. Since the change in government in 1988, Thailand has stepped up AIDS education and information dissemination activities and condom use has increased by as much as 70%. Given the gravity of the situation, however, assistance from the World Bank and United Nations agencies in addition to the World Health Organization are needed.

  14. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  15. Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Khantapura, Patchariya; Islam, Dilara; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Mason, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    The nationwide seroprevalence of hepatitis E IgG was determined among young men in Thailand. Overall seroprevalence was 14% (95% CI 13%–15%); range by province was 3%–26%. Seroprevalence was lowest in the south, an area predominantly occupied by persons of the Islam religion, whose dietary laws proscribe pork. PMID:25148245

  16. English-Teaching Problems in Thailand and Thai Teachers' Professional Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noom-ura, Sripathum

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys problems with English language teaching and learning and the professional development (PD) needs of high-school teachers in three provinces of three Secondary Educational Service Areas in Thailand. Both closed-and open-ended questionnaires were employed. The data was analyzed by frequency distribution and percentage; the…

  17. A new species of the genus Burmagomphus Williamson (Odonata: Gomphidae) from Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makbun, Noppadon

    2017-05-19

    Burmagomphus chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (holotype: Ban Luang, Chom Thong, Chiang Mai province, Thailand, 890-900 m, 14 v 2012) is described and illustrated. It can be differentiated from its most similar congener, B. apricus from China, by shape of posterior hamulus, yellow trapezoid band on occiput, and larger size.

  18. The introduction of oil palm in Northeast Thailand: a new cash crop for smallholders?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somnuek, Siriluk; Slingerland, M.A.; Grünbühel, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Thai Government’s objective to increase energy security through biodiesel, oil palm was introduced to Northeast Thailand in 2005. Nong Khai Province was selected as a pilot project because of its suitable environmental conditions. This study assesses the acceptance of policy

  19. A new species and three taxonomic changes in Piper (Piperaceae) from Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwanphakdee, C.; Chantaranothai, P.

    2011-01-01

    A new species, Piper chiangdaoense from Doi Chiangdao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chiang Mai province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. Piper trichostigma is raised to specific status and an epitype is selected. Piper maculaphyllum and P. rubroglandulosum are reduced to the synonymy of P. argyrites

  20. Doctors and society: a Northern Thailand study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H E

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a survey together with other observations to characterize the medical profession in Northern Thailand. Data were obtained in early 1976 using a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by 132 physicians in three Northern Thai provinces. Officially approved Thai medicine is 'Western' in nature and is predominantly an urban phenomenon. Practitioners of indigenous medicine are widespread and although illegal, they are tolerated. Training of doctors conforms very largely to Western standards. This plus the limited demand for private medical care results in a high proportion of the graduates of Thai medical schools migrating abroad. Results of the survey indicate that doctors in Northern Thailand were predominantly government employees or staff of a private hospital. Less than 5% were solely in self-employment. However, most 'employee' doctors had a private 'after hours' practice. Two types of medical professionals were identified: the 'cosmopolitan' and the 'local' doctor. Difficulties in communicating with patients were indicated by about 30% of the respondent doctors. The level of dissatisfaction expressed by the doctors surveyed was relatively high--43%. Items most often mentioned were: over-work, low compensation and lack of cooperation of patients. Satisfaction most often mentioned were: service to others, independent occupation and prestige with which doctors are regarded. In the analysis, the influence of several independent variables on type of professionalism and on satisfaction-dissatisfaction was determined.

  1. Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  2. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi

  3. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  4. Molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Nosema ceranae in honeybees, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vena Chupia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contamination levels of Nosema ceranae in honeybees and its molecular linkages in different geographical areas of Northern Thailand. Methods: Seventy-eight apiaries in Northern Thailand were chosen at random. The detection was accomplished both by microscopic examination and multiplex PCR. Nosema positive samples were evaluated by PCR sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Of the samples subjected to microscopic examination, 11.54% were found to be positive for Nosema while 29.49% of the samples evaluated by PCR were found to be positive for the disease. Honeybees from four of the six provinces surveyed in Northern Thailand were positive for Nosema, with the highest prevalence in Chiang Mai Province (48.57%. There was a high diversity of Nosema strains in some locations, while the same strain of pathogen was identified in many locations in Northern Thailand. Conclusions: This is the first report about the contamination levels and distribution pattern of nosemosis in Thailand. The study found the same group of Nosema in different locations, and different groups of Nosema in the same location. This pattern of distribution will be an advantage for disease control in the future.

  5. Regional Rapid Growth in Cities and Urbanization in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanadorn Phuttharak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in Thailand, along with its impact, to understand the dynamics of urbanization and how it affects cities. The study selected UdonThani Province, Thailand, as a case study. This study collected data from academic and semi-academic documents, semi-structured interviews, participatory and non-participatory observations, and group discussion. The informants were residents within municipalities, government, and private officers related to city development, and NGOs. The results found that the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in UdonThani province include: 1 historic events from World War II to the Cold War; 2 events during the Vietnam War; 3 Capitalist policies; and 4 the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. The study also found impacts of regional rapid growth in UdonThani province including 1 land use change; 2 economic and societal change; 3 road and traffic problems; and 4 waste disposal problems.

  6. Urologic cancer in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojanapiwat, Bannakij

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a major health burden among non-communicable diseases, which has had a high impact on the healthcare system in Thailand. Based on GLOBOCAN, the prevalence of urologic cancer is increasing in Thailand. Prostate, bladder and kidney cancers are 6th, 15th and 22nd most common cancers, respectively, in both males and females. Prostate cancer is the fourth most common cancer in male. Cancer in the lower socioeconomic groups is a challenging problem due to greater exposure to the risk factors and more limited access to the healthcare service. The cancers are usually detected in advanced stages of the cancer. The most common histopathological finding of kidney cancer is a renal cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common histopathology of bladder. There is a trend of stage migration to earlier stages at first presentation, probably due to public awareness and laboratory screening. Patients with early stage are treated with minimally invasive modalities such as endoscopic, laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is the mainstay treatment of localized prostate cancer with the better outcome and less complication. Androgen deprivation therapy is usually for elderly or unfit patients. The strategy for early detection of early cancer is the important role of Thai urologists to manage these three common urologic cancers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Four colorful new species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from northern Thailand (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srisonchai, Ruttapon; Enghoff, Henrik; Likhitrakarn, Natdanai

    2016-01-01

    Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new speci...... on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga. The coloration of all new species is clearly aposematic: ranging from purple-pink to red. The new species are discussed in relation to their congeners, and a distribution map is provided....

  8. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  9. Genetic diversity of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus based on two hypervariable effector genes in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamrongjet Puttamuk

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las being the most widely distributed around the world, and the only species detected in Thailand. To understand the genetic diversity of Las bacteria in Thailand, we evaluated two closely-related effector genes, lasAI and lasAII, found within the Las prophages from 239 infected citrus and 55 infected psyllid samples collected from different provinces in Thailand. The results indicated that most of the Las-infected samples collected from Thailand contained at least one prophage sequence with 48.29% containing prophage 1 (FP1, 63.26% containing prophage 2 (FP2, and 19.38% containing both prophages. Interestingly, FP2 was found to be the predominant population in Las-infected citrus samples while Las-infected psyllids contained primarily FP1. The multiple banding patterns that resulted from amplification of lasAI imply extensive variation exists within the full and partial repeat sequence while the single band from lasAII indicates a low amount of variation within the repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of Las-infected samples from 22 provinces in Thailand suggested that the bacterial pathogen may have been introduced to Thailand from China and the Philippines. This is the first report evaluating the genetic variation of a large population of Ca. L. asiaticus infected samples in Thailand using the two effector genes from Las prophage regions.

  10. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  11. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  12. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  13. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Winai PRALOMKARN; Supakorn, China; Dolrudee BOONSANIT

    2012-01-01

    The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been f...

  14. Education for development in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhorn, N

    1981-06-01

    In the future freedom for Thailand and for other developing countries will depend more than ever on political stability and economic expansion. Both of these factors are critically tied to education. For nearly 50 years Thailand has struggled to make democracy in Southeast Asia a reality but with little success. If democracy in Thailand is to withstand the encroachment of communism from the east, the people need to be educated to assume their civic responsibilities. 80% of the 46 million Thai citizens live in rural areas, and agriculture is their primary occupation. Yet, if agricultural production is to keep pace with demand, the already fast growing agriculturally related services and industries must expand and move into the rural areas. This means that education must spread to a larger segment of the population in these areas. The emphasis on reading and writing must remain in education, but the aims toward which these skills are directed need to change to reflect the new purpose of education in Thailand, i.e., socioeconomic and political development. Education leaders in Thailand must replace the purely personal goals of traditional practices with social and national goals that promote development. Education for life--Thailand's new goal--focuses on the political and economic problems of the country by initially concentrating on basic literacy. Possibly the most underdeveloped resource in Thailand is the human resources of the rural population. The structure of Thai education must also change if the rural people are to be served. Additionally, education in Thailand must be spread over a longer time; it must become a lifelong experience.

  15. An Assessment of Epidemiology Capacity in a One Health Team at the Provincial Level in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soawapak Hinjoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group from a total of 19 Thai provinces that are currently using a One Health approach. As a control group, four additional provinces that never implemented a One Health approach were also sampled. The provincial officers were interviewed on the epidemiologic capacity of their respective provinces. The average score of epidemiologic capacity in the provinces implementing the One Health approach was 66.45%, while the provinces that did not implement this approach earned a score of 54.61%. The epidemiologic capacity of surveillance systems in provinces that utilized the One Health approach earned higher scores in comparison to provinces that did not implement the approach (75.00% vs. 53.13%, p-value 0.13. Although none of the capacity evaluations showed significant differences between the two groups, we found evidence that provinces implementing the One Health approach gained higher scores in both surveillance and outbreak investigation capacities. This may be explained by more efficient capacity when using a One Health approach, specifically in preventing, protecting, and responding to threats in local communities.

  16. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae infesting mango trees (Mangifera indica L. in Southern Thailand, with two new species recorded for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of ambrosia beetles and two bark beetle belonging to the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae andPlatypodinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae were collected from three infested mango trees (Mangifera indica L. in theresearch orchards of the Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province. Two species,Arixyleborus grandis (Schedl and Xyleborinus sculptilis (Schedl, are recorded for the first time in Thailand.

  17. Best Management Practice for Understanding Learning in Sustainable Water Resource Management (WRM) for Secondary Science Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunrasaksakun, Chunwadee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of training teachers to enhance their students' achievements in water resource and disaster course and to compare the effects of using the curriculum framework between training teachers or using curriculum framework in the secondary schools in Khon Kaen Province of Thailand. It was found that the…

  18. DISTRIBUTION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES IN LOWER NORTHERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Apichat; Yimthin, Thatcha; Fukruksa, Chamaiporn; Wongpeera, Wichuda; Yotpanya, Waranan; Polseela, Raxsina; Thanwisai, Aunchalee

    2015-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are used successfully for biological control of subterranean larval pests leading to reduced environmental contamination if chemical control measures are employed. Their diversity and distribution in Thailand are unclear, so the present study sought to obtain a better understanding these EPN populations in the lower northern region of Thailand. We collected 930 soil samples from 186 sites of Kamphaeng Phet, Nakhon Sawan, Phetchabun, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, Tak, Uthai Thani, and Uttaradit Provinces, Thailand from December 2011 to November 2012. Galleria mellonella was used as host for isolating and propagating EPNs. Seventy soil samples (7.5%) yielded EPNs of two genera, Steinernema (3.0%) and Heterorhabditis (4.5%). The majority of the isolated EPNs were found in loam at 26°C-33°C and pH values of 5.0-7.0. Molecular identification from partial 28S rDNA sequences revealed S. websteri, isolated from soil samples from Nakhon Sawan and Uthai Thani. Phylogenetic analysis of these EPNs showed they are closely related to S. websteri JC1032. The identification that S. websteri was the predominant EPN should enable its application for biological control in the local prevailing soil conditions.

  19. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilawan Thipmontree

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40% and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1% were the two major causes of AUFI. In the second period, scrub typhus (137 patients, 28.3% was found to be more common than leptospirosis (61 patients, 12.7%. Amongst patients with leptospirosis, the proportion of male patients and the median age were similar. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Autumnalis was the major infecting serogroup in both study periods. The case fatality rate of leptospirosis was significantly higher in 2011–2012 as compared with the case fatality rate in 2001–2002 (19.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001. In summary, we found that number of leptospirosis cases had decreased over time. This trend is similar to reportable data for leptospirosis complied from passive surveillance by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. However, the case fatality rate of severe leptospirosis has increased. Severe lung hemorrhage associated with leptospirosis remained the major cause of death.

  20. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiengcharoen, Jitbanjong; Nakthong, Chowalit; Mitchaothai, Jumlong; Udonsom, Ruenruthai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-09-01

    Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle, including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.

  1. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, C. [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-03-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  2. Thailand discovers the wind power; Thailand entdeckt die Windkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Katja

    2013-04-15

    In Thailand, the monsoon supplies a constant wind for months. This monsoon can be used for the power generation. The currently two wind farms in Thailand deliver contiguously an output of 207 megawatts. The utilization of wind energy is to be expanded to 1,200 megawatts up to the year 2021. Thailand's area (761 square kilometers) supplies good to excellent wind conditions for large wind power plants. Small wind power plants are suitable for the local power consumption and particularly useful in remote areas or on islands. In Southeast Asia, Vietnam has the greatest potential for the utilization of wind energy. The 3,444 km long coast of Vietnam, its mountains and the monsoon provide particularly good wind conditions. In Asia, the wind energy market is a great growth market. At this, the People's Republic of China is the world's number 1.

  3. Patterns of Rainfall in Pattani Province from 1982 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoongyot Duangmala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated daily rainfall data collected from 14 meteorological measurement stations in Pattani Province of Southern Thailand with respect to their spatial and seasonal variation. We propose a method, based on five-day aggregation and zero-adjusted log-transformation, that makes such data more amenable to standard statistical analysis, and we use this method to compare the patterns of variation in the data at different locations in the province. We also display methods for graphing the data using a geographical information system, and propose a new plot for simultaneously revealing patterns of variation in both area and season.

  4. Improving Flood Management Planning in Thailand | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Flood Management Planning in Thailand. Thailand experienced its worst flooding disaster in half a century in 2011, inundating large areas of Bangkok. According to World Bank estimates, this disaster caused US$46.5 billion in damage and reduced Thailand's economic growth potential. It also raised important ...

  5. Spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Pamaranon, Nutavadee; Kawkalong, Sarayuth; Noimoh, Tanom; Chanachai, Karoon; Parakgamawongsa, Tippawon; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-08-05

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become a worldwide endemic disease of pigs. In 2006, an atypical and more virulent PRRS (HP-PRRS) emerged in China and spread to many countries, including Thailand. This study aimed to provide a first description of the spatio-temporal pattern of PRRS in Thailand and to quantify the statistical relationship between the presence of PRRS at the sub-district level and a set of risk factors. This should provide a basis for improving disease surveillance and control of PRRS in Thailand. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect clusters of outbreaks and allowed the identification of six spatial clusters covering 15 provinces of Thailand. Two modeling approaches were used to relate the presence or absence of PRRS outbreaks at the sub-district level to demographic characteristics of pig farming and other epidemiological spatial variables: autologistic multiple regressions and boosted regression trees (BRT). The variables showing a statistically significant association with PRRS presence in the autologistic multiple regression model were the sub-district human population and number of farms with breeding sows. The predictive power of the model, as measured by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots was moderate. BRT models had higher goodness of fit the metrics and identified the sub-district human population and density of farms with breeding sows as important predictor variables. The results indicated that farms with breeding sows may be an important group for targeted surveillance and control. However, these findings obtained at the sub-district level should be complemented by farm-level epidemiological investigations in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of the factors affecting PRRS presence. In this study, the outbreaks of PRRS could not be differentiated from the potential novel HP-PPRS form, which was recently discovered in the country.

  6. Modeling the Geographic Consequence and Pattern of Dengue Fever Transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Collins; Pansombut, Tatdow; Riyapan, Pakwan; Kakchapati, Sampurna; Phon-On, Aniruth

    2017-05-04

    Dengue fever is one of the infectious diseases that is still a public health problem in Thailand. This study considers in detail, the geographic consequence, seasonal and pattern of dengue fever transmission among the 76 provinces of Thailand from 2003 to 2015. A cross-sectional study. The data for the study was from the Department of Disease Control under the Bureau of Epidemiology, Thailand. The quarterly effects and location on the transmission of dengue was modeled using an alternative additive log-linear model. The model fitted well as illustrated by the residual plots and the  Again, the model showed that dengue fever is high in the second quarter of every year from May to August. There was an evidence of an increase in the trend of dengue annually from 2003 to 2015. There was a difference in the distribution of dengue fever within and between provinces. The areas of high risks were the central and southern regions of Thailand. The log-linear model provided a simple medium of modeling dengue fever transmission. The results are very important in the geographic distribution of dengue fever patterns.

  7. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four High Malaria Endemic Areas in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congpuong, Kanungnit; Ubalee, Ratawan

    2017-10-01

    Recent trends of malaria in Thailand illustrate an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, indicating the importance of P. vivax as a major causative agent of malaria. P. vivax malaria is usually considered a benign disease so the knowledge of this parasite has been limited, especially the genetic diversity and genetic structure of isolates from different endemic areas. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from 4 provinces with different malaria endemic settings in Thailand using 6 microsatellite markers. Total 234 blood samples from P. vivax mono-infected patients were collected. Strong genetic diversity was observed across all study sites; the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.5871 to 0.9033. Genetic variability in this study divided P. vivax population into 3 clusters; first was P. vivax isolates from Mae Hong Son and Kanchanaburi Provinces located on the western part of Thailand; second, Yala isolates from the south; and third, Chanthaburi isolates from the east. P. vivax isolates from patients having parasite clearance time (PCT) longer than 24 hr after the first dose of chloroquine treatment had higher diversity when compared with those having PCT within 24 hr. This study revealed a clear evidence of different population structure of P. vivax from different malaria endemic areas of Thailand. The findings provide beneficial information to malaria control programme as it is a useful tool to track the source of infections and current malaria control efforts.

  8. Isu Perkawinan Minoritas di Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Triyono

    2016-06-01

    Masyarakat dalam sebuah negara biasanya terbagi dalam dua kelompok besar, kelompok mayoritas dan kelompok minoritas. Kelompok mayoritas biasanya memegang kendali dalam setiap kebijakan yang akan dilaksanakan dalam lingkungan masyarakat tersebut, sementara kelompok minoritas terkadang dapat ikut berperan di dalamnya dan terkadang juga tidak mendapatkan peran apapun dalam melaksanakan sebuah kebijakan di lingkungan tersebut. Negara Thailand merupakan memiliki keunikan tersendiri, karena selain tetap memegang kebijakan dalam melaksanakan perkawinan adat ketimuran yang kental dengan nilai-nilai budaya Thailand, negara gajah putih ini juga memberikan ruang kepada perkawinan kelompok minoritas yang ada di negara itu. Perkawinan minoritas yang terjadi di negara ini antara lain adalah isu perkawinan sejenis yang dilakukan oleh kelompok minoritas LGBT dan isu perkawinan beda agama yang umumnya terjadi antara mereka yang beragama Islam dan Buddha di wilayah Thailand Selatan.

  9. Managing School Safety in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachernwaat Srichai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Child injuries are replacing infectious disease as the leading cause of mortality in developing countries. As school is one of the environments where children spend significant time during their formative years, school safety should be effectively managed, promoted, and prioritized. In Thailand however, school safety is considered to be of low priority compared with other educational issues, lacking effective policy, and with schools struggling to justify safety costs. This article proposes a novel application of lean thinking to control the cost, bureaucracy, and waste associated with managing and administering a safe school. Through a case study in northern Thailand, one primary school’s current safety scenario is reviewed with regard to people, finance, and operations, before applying a lean framework to improve the handling of safety suggestions. Results show significant capacity to improve the management of school safety, along with management implications and potential to expand the framework beyond Thailand.

  10. Characterization on Eye Glass Bead Found at Khao Sri Vichai (Surat Thani), Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won-in, K.; Thongkam, Y.; Dhammanonda, W.; Dutchaneephet, J.; Kamwanna, T.; Intarasiri, S.; Tancharakorn, S.; Tanthanuch, W.; Dararutana, P.

    It was known that eye glass beads originated in the Near East during the mid 2nd millennium BC and spread to Mediterranean and Asia. In Thailand, they have been found at various archaeological sites in southern areas, especially the ancient maritime ports. In this work, Scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE), micro-beam X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy based on synchrotron radiation (μ-SRXRF) and Raman spectroscopy were carried out to characterize the composition of the eye-glass bead which excavated from Khao Sri Vichai at Surat Thani Province. It has a black body, dark blue pupil and ochre circle pattern on the inlaid white eyeball. It was found that its shape was similar as those which were unearthed from the ancient tombs of the Early Warring State Period (∼500 B.C.) at China. The main compositions were alkali-silicate glass. Surface microstructure has been found to be corroded. This data was one of the evidences which confirmed the ancient long distance trade or exchange network.

  11. Notocotylus loeiensis N. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisiri, K; Morand, S; Ribas, A

    2011-02-01

    Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea), from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected). The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  12. Replacing the Measles Ten-Dose Vaccine Presentation with the Single-Dose Presentation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Connor, Diana L.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T.; Joel S. Welling; Bryan A. Norman; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Wiringa, Ann E.; Wateska, Angela R.; Jana, Anirban; Willem G van Panhuis

    2011-01-01

    Introduced to minimize open vial wastage, single-dose vaccine vials require more storage space and therefore may affect vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps and processes entailed to deliver vaccines from manufacturers to patients). We developed a computational model of Thailand’s Trang province vaccine supply chain to analyze the effects of switching from a ten-dose measles vaccine presentation to each of the following: a single-dose Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine (which Thailand ...

  13. Trends in the farming of the snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonpundh, R.; Little, D.

    1997-01-01

    The production of snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) from wild stocks and traditional culture systems has been declining in central Thailand, although they are on the increase in modern culture practices adopted in some provinces. Net yields of T. pectoralis in traditional systems are about a third of those in modern systems. The potential of T. pectoralis as a candidate for more intensive waste-fed polyculture appears promising if seed supply constraints can be removed.

  14. Molecular epidemiological and serological studies of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in Thailand cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO2, for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25 s...

  17. Epidemiology of hand foot mouth disease in Northern Thailand in 2016: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panupong Upala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between the meteorological data and the number of hand foot mouth disease (HFMD cases in 2016 in Northern Thailand, and to estimate the medical costs. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Data on numbers of HFMD cases were collected from 49 hospitals in three different provinces in Northern Thailand: 16 hospitals from Chiang Rai Province, 7 hospitals from Pha Yao Province, and 26 hospitals from Chiang Mai Province. A questionnaire had been developed and tested for validity and reliability before used. The specific form for collecting meteorological data was developed and used in the field. All information was recorded in the same data spread sheet before analysis. Chi-square and correlation tests were used for explaining the epidemiology of HFMD in the areas. An alpha error at 0.05 was used to determine the statistical significance level. Results: A total of 8 261 cases were analyzed in the study. 56.0% were males, 97.5% aged less than 6 years, 82.6% were out-patient department (OPD cases, 75.5% were reported in raining season, and 43.2% were from Chiang Mai Province. The number of HFMD cases had statistically significant correlations with temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, and rainfall amount. Averagely, 216 baht and 3 678 baht per case per visit had to be expended for medical cost in OPD and IPD cases, respectively. Most of the cases had been reported in the border areas: Thai-Myanmar, and Thai-Lao. Conclusions: Thailand health care system should provide a concrete schedule for taking care of HFMD patients during raining season, and should develop an effective preventive and control program for HFMD particularly among children less than 6 years.

  18. Galeommatid bivalves from Phuket, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established. The spec......Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established...... crustacean, the remainder hide under shale, rocks and coral blocks, often in small intra- or interspecific family flocks. The behaviour was also noted for some of the species. It is presumed that galeommatid species go through a lengthy planktonic phase....

  19. Modifying homes for persons with physical disabilities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsiri, Sirinart; Ploylearmsang, Chanuttha; Hawsutisima, Katanyu; Riewpaiboon, Wachara; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-02-01

    Thailand passed the Persons with Disabilities Empowerment Act in 2007. The Act, which is in compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, ensures that registered persons with disabilities are entitled to home environment modifications' benefits up to a maximum of 20 000 baht (670 United States dollars); however, the Act's enforcement is still weak in Thailand. In 2013, researchers developed a home modification programme, consisting of a multidisciplinary team of medical and nonmedical practitioners and volunteers, to modify homes for persons with disabilities. The programme recruited participants with physical disabilities and assessed their functioning difficulties. Participants' homes were modified to address identified functioning difficulties. The project was implemented in four provinces in collaboration with staff from 27 district hospitals located in north-eastern Thailand. After the home modifications, all 43 recruited participants reported reduced difficulties in all areas, except for participants with severe degrees of difficulties, such as those reporting being unable to walk and unable to get up from the floor. The participants' quality of life had also improved. The average EQ-5D-5L score, measuring quality of life, increased by 0.203 - from 0.346 at baseline to 0.549 after the modifications. Home modifications in low-resourced settings are technically and financially feasible and can lead to reducing functioning difficulties and improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Implementation requires government subsidies to finance home modifications and the availability of technical guidelines and training on home modifications for implementing agents.

  20. Rapid health response, assessment, and surveillance after a tsunami--Thailand, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-28

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused an estimated 225,000 deaths in eight countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) on two continents. In Thailand, six provinces (Krabi, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang) were impacted, including prominent international tourist destinations. The Thai Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) responded with rapid mobilization of local and nonlocal clinicians, public health practitioners, and medical supplies; assessment of health-care needs; identification of the dead, injured, and missing; and active surveillance of syndromic illness. The MOPH response was augmented by technical assistance from the Thai MOPH-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), with support from the office of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative to Thailand. This report summarizes these activities. The experiences in Thailand underscore the value of written and rehearsed disaster plans, capacity for rapid mobilization, local coordination of relief activities, and active public health surveillance.

  1. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  2. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade.

  3. Importance of dental records for victim identification following the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petju, M; Suteerayongprasert, A; Thongpud, R; Hassiri, K

    2007-04-01

    To determine the usefulness of dental records for victim identification following the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster in Thailand, and to evaluate the dental identification system in Thailand, the homeland of a large number of the victims. A descriptive study conducted at the Thai Tsunami Repatriation Centre in Phangnga Province one year after the tsunami hit Thailand on the 26th December 2004. The dental records of 3750 dead bodies and 3547 missing persons in the Thai Tsunami Victim Identification (TTVI) database, updated on 12th December 2005, were analysed. The identification rate of missing persons with dental records was significantly higher than that of those without (Pvictims identified by dental records were returned home within the first four months after the disaster. Dental records were the primary identifier in 46.2% of those identified. However, among the Thai citizens reported missing, only 2.0% used dental identification, 18.1% had dental charts and 0.8% had dental X-rays. In addition, only 7.4% of Thai dental records could be used for dental identification and one-third of Thai victims remained the majority of those unidentified. Based on this study, the usefulness of dental records for victim identification in a disaster was confirmed. The dental identification system for nationals of Thailand could not work efficiently due to lack of dental records and insufficient recorded detail.

  4. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  5. Duean sip, théâtre de l’ethnorégionalisme sud. Les nomades de la mer et le cycle rituel du dixième mois dans la province de Phang Nga (sud de la Thaïlande Duean sip, Theater of the Southern Ethnoregionalism. The Sea Nomads and the Tenth Lunar Month Ritual Complex in the Phang Nga Province (Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ferrari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La cérémonie bouddhique du dixième mois lunaire, connue comme la fête des morts et des revenants, revêt dans la région de Phang Nga, au sud de la Thaïlande une importance et un rôle qui vont bien au-delà de sa signification religieuse. Il s’agit en effet d’un complexe rituel qui, en s’emboîtant avec les cérémonies du festival végétarien des Sino-Thaïs et avec d’autres cérémonies propres aux nomades de la mer (Moken, Moklen et Urak Lawoi, met en scène les fondements des relations interethniques qui caractérisent la région. Le partage du territoire et des rôles sociaux dans celui-ci sont au cœur de ce cycle rituel, qui devient de fait le théatre de l’ethnorégionalisme du sud de la Thaïlande.The bouddhist ceremony of the tenth lunar month, dedicated to the dead and the hungry ghosts, is a paramount feature in the region of Phang Nga, Southern Thailand. Its importance and role go well beyond its religious meaning. Indeed, it is a ritual ensemble which, by overlapping with the vegetarien festival of the Sino-Thais and with ceremonises held by the Sea Gypsies (Moken, Moklen and Urak Lawoi, displays the very foundations of the interethnic relationships that characterize the region. The sharing of the territory and of the social roles distributed within the region are the core of the ritual cycle, which is thus the theater of Southern Thai’s ethnoregionalism.

  6. Chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2013 Rayong oil spill-affected coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S; Hattayanone, M; Tipmanee, D; Suttinun, O; Khumsup, C; Kittikoon, I; Hirunyatrakul, P

    2018-02-01

    Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in "eastern seaboard" industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function. In this study, numerous diagnostic binary ratios were applied to identify potential sources of PAHs. Advanced statistical techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with principal component analysis were also conducted for further investigations of source identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Role of Islamic Faith-Based Organization in Building Solidarity and Resilience Among People of Different Faiths in Northeast Thailand: a Case Study of Foundation for Education and Development of Muslims in Northeast Thailand-FEDMIN

    OpenAIRE

    Sohsan, Imron

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to examine the role of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience between Muslims and Buddhists and to find a model of peaceful coexistence among people of different faiths in northeast Thailand called “Isan region”. The research area was focused on the peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Buddhist in particular in Ban Nong Muen Tao village, Mueang, Udon Thani province. The study found that there were four important roles of FEDMIN in building solidarity a...

  8. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  9. Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2013-05-01

    Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.

  10. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  11. Gavialis from the Pleistocene of Thailand and its relevance for drainage connections from India to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E; Buffetaut, Eric; Naksri, Wilailuck; Lauprasert, Komsorn; Claude, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The genus Gavialis comprises a single living but endangered species, G. gangeticus, as well as fossil species recorded in the Miocene to Pleistocene deposits of the Indian subcontinent. The genus is also represented in the Pleistocene deposits of Java by the species G. bengawanicus, which was recently recognized to be valid. Surprisingly, no detailed report of the genus exists between these two provinces and the recent evolutionary history of Gavialis is not understood. We report new material consisting of skull and mandibular remains of Gavialis from the Early Pleistocene of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand. The Gavialis material described herein is attributed to Gavialis cf. bengawanicus and sheds new light on the occurrence of the genus in mainland SE Asia. Comparison of this new material with other species referred to the genus Gavialis led us to preliminary restrict the content of the genus to three species, namely G. gangeticus Gmelin, G. bengawanicus Dubois and G. lewisi Lull. The occurrence of G. cf. bengawanicus in Thailand allows us to propose a scenario for the dispersal of Gavialis from Indo-Pakistan to Indonesia, thus bridging a geographical gap between these two provinces. Dispersal by sea appears a less likely possibility than dispersal through fluvial drainages.

  12. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  13. Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based on Reported Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Ole; Yoon, In-Kyu; Vong, Sirenda; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Gibbons, Robert V.; Mammen, Mammen P.; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Buathong, Rome; Huy, Rekol; Letson, G. William; Sabchareon, Arunee

    2011-01-01

    Background Disease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate disease burden estimates for these countries. Methods and Findings Cohort studies were conducted among children aged dengue field site consortium over at least 2 dengue seasons. Age-group specific multiplication factors (MFs) were computed by comparing data from three cohort studies to national surveillance data in the same province and year. In Thailand, 14,627 person-years of prospective cohort data were obtained in two provinces and 14,493 person-years from one province in Cambodia. Average annual incidence of laboratory-confirmed dengue was 23/1,000 and 25/1,000 in Thailand, and 41/1,000 in Cambodia. Calculated MFs in these provinces varied by age-group and year (range 0.4–29). Average age-group specific MFs were then applied to country-level reporting data and indicated that in Thailand a median 229,886 (range 210,612–331,236) dengue cases occurred annually during 2003–2007 and a median 111,178 (range 80,452–357,135) cases occurred in Cambodia in children dengue cases was 8.7 and 2.6-fold in Thailand, and 9.1 and 1.4-fold in Cambodia, respectively. During the high-incidence year 2007, >95,000 children in Thailand and >58,000 children in Cambodia were estimated to be hospitalized due to dengue. Conclusion Calculating MFs by comparing prospective cohort study data to locally-reported national surveillance data is one approach to more accurately assess disease burden. These data indicate that although dengue is regularly reported in many countries, national surveillance data significantly

  14. Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Nitin K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is a major public health problem in Thailand. The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has been trying to monitor and control this disease for many years. The methodology and the results from this study could be useful for public health officers to develop a system to monitor and prevent diarrhea outbreaks. Methods The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The data of patients with diarrhea at village level and the 2001–2006 population censuses were collected to achieve the objective. Spatial analysis, using geographic information systems (GIS and other methods, was used to uncover the hidden phenomena from the data. In the data analysis section, spatial statistics such as quadrant analysis (QA, nearest neighbour analysis (NNA, and spatial autocorrelation analysis (SAA, were used to identify the spatial patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province. In addition, local indicators of spatial association (LISA and kernel density (KD estimation were used to detect diarrhea hotspots using data at village level. Results The hotspot maps produced by the LISA and KD techniques showed spatial trend patterns of diarrhea diffusion. Villages in the middle and northern regions revealed higher incidences. Also, the spatial patterns of diarrhea during the years 2001 and 2006 were found to represent spatially clustered patterns, both at global and local scales. Conclusion Spatial analysis methods in GIS revealed the spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province from the year 2001 to 2006. To implement specific and geographically appropriate public health risk-reduction programs, the use of such spatial analysis tools may become an integral component in the epidemiologic description, analysis, and risk assessment of diarrhea.

  15. Marketing contraceptives in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M

    1988-01-01

    It can be difficult to administer and motivate field workers in family planning programs. In the case of social marketing, the last distributors in the chain are small shopkeepers who keep part of the final sale price. Thus contraceptives become part and parcel of their routine business, and the margin becomes both their remuneration and their motivation. In Thailand and most other countries with social marketing programs, part of the selling price also returns to the program, providing some degree of cost recovery. As family planning succeeds and per capita incomes rise, individuals will be able to pay an increasing part of the total cost of family planning. In the interim, international agencies and governments will continue to provide subsidies. In rural countries like Thailand, social marketing programs can be initiated and expanded relatively rapidly because they build on an existing infrastructure; they can also reach the most distant parts of the country. Skills of local advertising agencies are available in practically all Third World countries. Sales are a reliable record of progress and can be used to suggest innovations or practical solutions to problems. Small shopkeepers often feel more comfortable vending contraceptives than many experts would expect and as members of the community, intuitively know what the community's standards are. Individuals handling oral contraceptives often require some training and supervision by full-time staff who can answer questions that arise; local physicians may also be notified of the program for referral of problem cases. If there is a problem with social marketing programs, it is that they are sometimes too successful--leading to large bills for contraceptive commodities. However, if evaluated in terms of cost-effectiveness, they are less expensive than their alternatives. Along with access to voluntary sterilization and community-based distribution programs, social marketing is a keystone in the arch of family

  16. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  17. Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Cervical Cancer Patients in Upper Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsak, Natthapat; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Bunyatisai, Walaithip; Sripan, Patumrat; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2016-11-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. There have been several studies indicating that risk is associated with geographic location and that the incidence of cervical cancer has changed over time. In Thailand, incidence rates have also been found to be different in each region. Methods: Participants were women living or having lived in upper Northern Thailand and subjected to cervical screening at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Generalized additive models with Loess smooth curve fitting were applied to estimate the risk of cervical cancer. For the spatial analysis, Google Maps were employed to find the geographical locations of the participants’ addresses. The Quantum Geographic Information System was used to make a map of cervical cancer risk. Two univariate smooths: x equal to the residency duration was used in the temporal analysis of residency duration, and x equal to the calendar year that participants moved to upper Northern Thailand or birth year for participants already living there, were used in the temporal analysis of the earliest year. The spatial-temporal analysis was conducted in the same way as the spatial analysis except that the data were split into overlapping calendar years. Results: In the spatial analysis, the risk of cervical cancer was shown to be highest in the Eastern sector of upper Northern Thailand (p-value analysis of residency duration, the risk was shown to be steadily increasing (p-value =0.008), and in the temporal analysis of the earliest year, the risk was observed to be steadily decreasing (p-value=0.016). In the spatial-temporal analysis, the risk was stably higher in Chiang Rai and Nan provinces compared to Chiang Mai province. According to the display movement over time, the odds of developing cervical cancer declined in all provinces. Conclusions: The risk of cervical cancer has decreased over time but, in some areas, there is a higher risk than in

  18. UPPER DEVONIAN-LOWER CARBONIFEROUS CONODONTS FROM CHIANG DAO CHERTS, NORTHERN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINE RANDON

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In Northern Thailand, radiolarites (radiolarian cherts are very common and their study provides an important tool to understand the regional geology and moreover to localise the suture zone(s. Some of these deep and distal oceanic series yield conodonts which provide to obtain precise age datings. The present work is focused on the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous conodonts from the Chiang Dao area (Chiang Mai province. The conodont faunas from these oceanic cherts display juvenile characters which are interpreted to be a result from a constraining environment.

  19. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  20. Why Thailand’s Military Stepped In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Thailand’s society and economy have experienced rapid change, growth, and modernization as a result of embracing globalization and export -driven economic... Globalisation ,” in Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, ed. Kevin Hewison, 52 (London: Routledge, 1997). 40 E. IMMEDIATE CAUSES...Just Bypassed: The Military, Bureaucracy and Globalisation .” In Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, ed. Kevin Hewison, 52

  1. An educational VSAT system for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kunchaicharoenkul, Kanokporn

    1996-01-01

    Very small aperture terminal (VSA T) networks offer great opportunities to combine satellite technology and the needs of education in Thailand. An educational VSAT network for Thailand needs a central hub station in Bangkok and seven remote sites with VSAT equipment. The network supports two way compressed video, voice and data links between the central hub and VSAT sites. This thesis examines rain margin, system availability, VSAT antenna size and transponder power util...

  2. Hemoglobin Variants in Northern Thailand: Prevalence, Heterogeneity and Molecular Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on hemoglobin (Hb) variants among peoples of northern Thailand. Hence, we determined the prevalence of Hb variants among a large cohort from this region. A study was done on 23,914 subjects recruited from eight provinces during June 2012-January 2014. Hb was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis, and corresponding mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Among 23,914 subjects examined, 211 (0.88%) were found to carry 14 different Hb variants. Five α-globin chain variants were identified: Hb Q-Thailand (n = 40; 19.0%), Hb Hekinan (n = 8, 3.8%), Hb Siam (n = 2, 0.9%), Hb Beijing (n = 1, 0.5%), and Hb Kawachi (n = 1, 0.5%), not previously described in the Thai population. Seven β-globin variants, including Hb Hope, Hb Tak, Hb S, Hb J-Bangkok, Hb G-Makassar, Hb C, and Hb Korle-Bu, were found in 115 (54.5%), 30 (14.2%), 3 (1.4%), 3 (1.4%), 1 (0.5%), 1 (0.5%), and 1 (0.5%) subjects, respectively. The remaining five subjects (2.4%) were carriers of two different δ-globin chain variants. A different spectrum and frequencies of Hb variants were noted compared to other geographical areas. Haplotype analysis demonstrated multiple origins for Hbs Hope and Tak and confirmed a non-African origin of Hb C. Several genetic interactions between these variants with other hemoglobinopathies were encountered. Associated hematological phenotypes and novel Hb derivatives formed were presented. The prevalence and molecular heterogeneities of the Hb variants found in this large cohort of the northern Thai people's should prove useful in developing a screening program, and for the performance of additional population genetics studies of hemoglobinopathy in the region.

  3. Population Engagement and Consultation at the Local Level: Thailand Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putthasri, Weerasak; Mathurapote, Nanoot; Srisookwattana, Orapan

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization handbook on Strategizing National Health in the 21st Century has emphasized the importance of the process of population consultation on needs and expectations. According to Thailand National Health Act 2007, three innovative social tools for participatory healthy public policy process were proposed, i.e., health assembly, health impact assessment and health system statute (charter). In practice, population consultation process is required in the process of the tools implementation. Therefore, this paper aims to illustrate how local health statute implementation supports population participation and consultation at the local level. The first local health statute owned by Cha-lae sub-district in Songkla Province had been introduced in 2009. So far, there are above 500 sub-districts or "Tambon" having their own health system statutes. Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO), health and non-health sectors, community leaders and civil society seemed to be key actors or a mechanism for the local health statute. This demonstrated three crucial elements or sectors for policy development, i.e., policy maker, evidence support and society. Contents of the local health statute are wide ranged, including social determinants, risks and diseases, life style, health services, health fund, to mental and social health in regard to the local problem and context. Therefore, it needs the process of discussion and consultation to seek their common interest and expectation. Local health statute in Thailand is an example of engagement and consultation of the population for health policy. This confirmed the process of population consultation on their needs and expectation that can be implemented both at national and local levels. This is also the strategy to improve the accountability of policy makers for health impacts at all levels of policy making. The challenges of local health statute include the mechanism to maintain and ensure the engagement and

  4. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  5. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  6. Impact of a Food Safety Campaign onStreptococcus suisInfection in Humans in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Dan; Kerdsin, Anusak; Akeda, Yukihiro; Chiranairadul, Piphat; Loetthong, Phacharaphan; Tanburawong, Nutchada; Areeratana, Prasanee; Puangmali, Panarat; Khamisara, Kasean; Pinyo, Wirasinee; Anukul, Rapeepun; Samerchea, Sutit; Lekhalula, Punpong; Nakayama, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kouji; Hirose, Masayo; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Dejsirilert, Surang; Oishi, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    Abstract Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen in swine and humans that causes sepsis and meningitis. Our previous study in Thailand showed that the prevalence of S. suis infection in humans, especially in northern areas of Thailand, and the transmission of the pathogen occurred mainly through the consumption of traditional raw pork products. Considering the high incidence proportion and mortality rate of the disease as an important public health problem, we implemented a food safety campaign in the Phayao Province in northern Thailand in 2011. We evaluated the effects of a food safety campaign by comparing the sociodemographic, clinical, and bacteriological characteristics of cases before and after the campaign. The follow-up study showed a marked decrease of the incidence proportion in the first 2 years, indicating the effectiveness of the campaign. In the third year, however, the incidence proportion slightly increased again, indicating the existence of deep-rooted cultural behaviors and the necessity of continuous public health intervention. Furthermore, epidemiological analysis of the cases made it possible to estimate the infectivity of the pathogen via the oral route of infection. In the present study, we showed the effectiveness of the food safety campaign for controlling the S. suis infection, and we present a role model public health intervention for prevalent areas affected by S. suis infection in humans.

  7. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in environmental waters of southwest coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, Mayuna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Charoenca, Naowarut; Boonkhao, Narongsak; Ongerth, Jerry E

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate water samples collected in coastal areas of Southern Thailand in the years of 2005 and 2008 for their contamination by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. One hundred eighteen water samples of different origin were collected from six Tsunami affected southern provinces of Thailand in early 2005, and they have been analyzed using standardized methodology. Fifteen out of 118 samples (12.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and nine (7.6%) positive for Giardia spp. Additional 42 samples from two same areas were examined 3 years later, in the early 2008. Five out of 42 (11.9%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and three out of 42 (7.1%) were positive for Giardia spp.. Both protozoans were found in reservoir, river/canal, and pond waters. It appears no significant differences (p < 0.05) between Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts levels during the two monitoring periods; however, the number of the investigated areas and samples in the second period was significantly less than in the first period. This is the first description on Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in water sources of Thailand, and it suggests the need for water quality control in the interest of public health safety.

  8. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornwiwan Pothasin

    Full Text Available Fig trees (Ficus are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1 calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2 measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  9. Estimation of Black Carbon Emissions from Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fires in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubonwan Chaiyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the estimation of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires in Thailand. Field experiments were set up at the natural forest, Mae Nam Phachi wildlife sanctuary, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The dead leaves were the main component consumed of the surface biomass with coverage higher than 90% in volume and mass. The dead leaves load was 342 ± 190 g∙m−2 and followed by a little mass load of twig, 100 g∙m−2. The chemical analysis of the dead leaves showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 45.81 ± 0.04%. From the field experiments, it was found that 88.38 ± 2.02% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 10% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. The quantity of dead leaves consumed to produce each gram of carbon released was 2.40 ± 0.02 gdry biomass burned. From the study, the emissions factor of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 and black carbon amounted 1329, 90, 26.19 and 2.83 g∙kg−1dry biomass burned, respectively. In Thailand, the amount of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires amounted 17.43 tonnes∙y−1.

  10. Childhood TB epidemiology and treatment outcomes in Thailand: a TB active surveillance network, 2004 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusuntonsri Pricha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the 9.2 million new TB cases occurring each year, about 10% are in children. Because childhood TB is usually non-infectious and non-fatal, national programs do not prioritize childhood TB diagnosis and treatment. We reviewed data from a demonstration project to learn more about the epidemiology of childhood TB in Thailand. Methods In four Thai provinces and one national hospital, we contacted healthcare facilities monthly to record data about persons diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counseling and testing, and obtain sputum for culture and susceptibility testing. We analyzed clinical and treatment outcome data for patients age Results Only 279 (2% of 14,487 total cases occurred in children. The median age of children was 8 years (range: 4 months, 14 years. Of 197 children with pulmonary TB, 63 (32% were bacteriologically-confirmed: 56 (28% were smear-positive and 7 (4% were smear-negative, but culture-positive. One was diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB. HIV infection was documented in 75 (27%. Thirteen (17% of 75 HIV-infected children died during TB treatment compared with 4 (2% of 204 not known to be HIV-infected (p Conclusion Childhood TB is infrequently diagnosed in Thailand. Understanding whether this is due to absence of disease or diagnostic effort requires further research. HIV contributes substantially to the childhood TB burden in Thailand and is associated with high mortality.

  11. A study on attitude towards blood donation among people in a rural district, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2000-09-01

    Blood and blood components are important in many situations. At present, there is only a donation system for blood banks to get blood in Thailand. Although the blood bank process has been founded in Thailand for many years, there is still an insufficient amount of blood for use. There are misguided attitudes on blood donation among the people in the rural areas. This study has been designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study to study attitude towards blood donation among the people in Bang Sapan District, Prachuab Kiri Khan Province, Thailand. Data from self-administered questionnaires were collected and statistical analysis was performed. We found that people in that area had a rather good attitude but this was still found in less than 50%. We found the attitude of the subjects only significantly correlated with the level of education. We concluded that improving the people's attitude on blood donation is important. We suggest that every blood bank should design a program for providing knowledge in order to improve the attitude of the people in that area. We also suggest that knowledge on blood donation should be repeatedly taught at any education level including the school system. This study can provided preliminary results for other studies.

  12. Yu Duan practices as embodying tradition, modernity and social change in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I examine the traditional postpartum beliefs and practices which still exist in northern Thailand today. The paper is based on qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with 30 women in Chiang Mai province. Beliefs and practices remain an essential part for postpartum care for women and have important consequences for women's health and wellbeing in northern Thailand. Many Thai women see their reproductive health problems as the consequence of inadequate postpartum practices. Thai women also believe that the effects of postpartum taboos would continue for the rest of their lives. Although the traditional postpartum beliefs and practices abound, the level of adherence differs according to the social structure of the women and their families. Poor rural women seem to hold on to their traditions more strongly than their urban counterparts. Urban middle class women in particular embody modernity in their thinking and behaviours concerning postpartum practices. But modernization has brought with it medical dominance. Due to their medical knowledge, doctors retain authority over both knowledge and status. The consequence of this dominance is the attempt to dismiss local traditional knowledge and practices. Although the pattern of traditional postpartum beliefs and practices is changing, it is still observed in northern Thailand. I contend that postpartum care for women incorporates local traditions so that women's health can be optimized at the time when they are in the most vulnerable stage of their lives.

  13. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  14. How Thailand took on the transnational tobacco titans | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-04

    , anti-tobacco forces in Thailand and internationally had been re-energized, and Thailand ... The English-language publication of both books was aided by a grant from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

  15. Protozoan enteric infection in AIDS related diarrhea in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waywa, D; Kongkriengdaj, S; Chaidatch, S; Tiengrim, S; Kowadisaiburana, B; Chaikachonpat, S; Suwanagool, S; Chaiprasert, A; Curry, A; Bailey, W; Suputtamongkol, Y; Beeching, N J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric protozoa and other pathogens in AIDS patients with diarrhea in Bangkok, Thailand. Of 288 consecutive patients screened in the 10 month period between November 1999-August 2000 inclusive, 55 (19.2%) had Cryptosporidium spp, 13 (4.5%) had Isospora oocyst, 11 (3.8%) had Giardia lamblia, 3 (0.9%) had Entamoeba histolytica, and 1 (0.3%) had Iodamoeba butschlii infection. The prevalence of microsporidia was 11% in this study. Of 251 patients for whom stool culture for bacteria was performed, enteric bacterial pathogens isolated were Campylobacter spp in 18 (7.1%), Salmonella spp in 11 (4.3%), and Shigella spp in 1 (0.5%). Other pathogens found in these patients were Clostridium difficile in 16/102 (15.6%). Mycobacterium spp in 18/287 (6.2%), and Strongyloides stercoralis in 23/288 (8.0%). Overall, parasitic and bacterial pathogens were identified in 140 (48.6%) patients. These pathogens were identified by the routine simple wet smear technique in 32, formalin-ether concentration method in 46, culture for S. stercoralis in 5, and culture for bacteria in 30. Additional test, using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, identified cryptosporidial oocyst, isospora oocyst, and Mycobacterium spp in 72. The microsporidia, initially identified by modified trichrome blue staining, all were then determined to be Enterocytozoon bieneusi by thin sectioning electron microscopy. Protozoan and bacterial pathogens were confirmed to be important etiologic agents in diarrhea in AIDS in Thailand. They were all associated with increased mortality. Routine stool examination by simple wet smear detected only one-fourth of these pathogens. Therefore all diagnostic techniques for these organisms should be made more widely available in Thailand.

  16. Effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on dengue epidemics in Thailand, 1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinchan Suratsawadee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive vector control efforts, dengue epidemics continue to occur throughout Southeast Asia in multi-annual cycles. Weather is considered an important factor in these cycles, but the extent to which the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a driving force behind dengue epidemics remains unclear. Methods We examined the temporal relationship between El Niño and the occurrence of dengue epidemics, and constructed Poisson autoregressive models for incidences of dengue cases. Global ENSO records, dengue surveillance data, and local meteorological data in two geographically diverse regions in Thailand (the tropical southern coastal region and the northern inland mountainous region were analyzed. Results The strength of El Niño was consistently a predictor for the occurrence of dengue epidemics throughout time lags from 1 to 11 months in the two selected regions of Thailand. Up to 22% (in 8 northern inland mountainous provinces and 15% (in 5 southern tropical coastal provinces of the variation in the monthly incidence of dengue cases were attributable to global ENSO cycles. Province-level predictive models were fitted using 1996-2004 data and validated with out-of-fit data from 2005. The multivariate ENSO index was an independent predictor in 10 of the 13 studied provinces. Conclusion El Niño is one of the important driving forces for dengue epidemics across the geographically diverse regions of Thailand; however, spatial heterogeneity in the effect exists. The effects of El Niño should be taken into account in future epidemic forecasting for public health preparedness.

  17. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Replacing the measles ten-dose vaccine presentation with the single-dose presentation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Connor, Diana L; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Wiringa, Ann E; Wateska, Angela R; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G; Burke, Donald S

    2011-05-12

    Introduced to minimize open vial wastage, single-dose vaccine vials require more storage space and therefore may affect vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps and processes involved in distributing vaccines from manufacturers to patients). We developed a computational model of Thailand's Trang province vaccine supply chain to analyze the effects of switching from a ten-dose measles vaccine presentation to each of the following: a single-dose measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (which Thailand is currently considering) or a single-dose measles vaccine. While the Trang province vaccine supply chain would generally have enough storage and transport capacity to accommodate the switches, the added volume could push some locations' storage and transport space utilization close to their limits. Single-dose vaccines would allow for more precise ordering and decrease open vial waste, but decrease reserves for unanticipated demand. Moreover, the added disposal and administration costs could far outweigh the costs saved from preventing open vial wastage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The burden of hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in rural Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Fry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the epidemiology of hospitalized RSV infections for all age groups from population-based surveillance in two rural provinces in Thailand. METHODS: From September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007, we enrolled hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness, who had a chest radiograph ordered by the physician, from all hospitals in SaKaeo and Nakhom Phanom Provinces. We tested nasopharyngeal specimens for RSV with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays and paired-sera from a subset of patients with IgG enzyme immunoassay. Rates were adjusted for enrollment. RESULTS: Among 11,097 enrolled patients, 987 (8.9% had RSV infection. Rates of hospitalized RSV infection overall (and radiographically-confirmed pneumonia were highest among children aged<1 year: 1,067/100,000 (534/100,000 radiographically-confirmed pneumonia and 1-4 year: 403/100,000 (222/100,000, but low among enrolled adults aged≥65 years: 42/100,000. Age<1 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=13.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.7, 22.5 and 1-4 year (aOR=8.3, 95% CI 5.0, 13.9 were independent predictors of hospitalized RSV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hospitalized RSV lower respiratory tract illness among children<5 years was high in rural Thailand. Efforts to prevent RSV infection could substantially reduce the pneumonia burden in children aged<5 years.

  20. Population-Based Study of Prevalence of Cleft Lip/Palate in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Chicharoen, Vichai; Chakranon, Manunya; Sriplung, Hutcha; Limpitikul, Wannee; Dissaneevate, Pathikan; Intharasangkanawin, Nitthakarn; Tantichantakarun, Pongsak; Sattapanyo, Atchara

    2016-05-01

    Oral cleft is a common craniofacial birth defect that leads to long-lasting adverse outcomes. In Thailand, there have been two studies of the prevalence of oral clefts using data from university hospitals during 1969 through 1978 and 1988 through 1999, which found prevalence rates of 1.23 and 1.22 per 1000 live births, respectively. The primary outcome was to assess the prevalence of oral clefts from the birth defects registry during 2009 through 2013 in three provinces in southern Thailand. The secondary outcomes were to correlate the risk of oral cleft and maternal age. Population-based study. Four hundred sixty-seven hospitals in three provinces in southern Thailand. Oral cleft cases and maternal data-including live births, stillbirths, and termination of pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis-were collected from the birth defects registry. Of the total 186,393 births, there were 269 oral cleft cases, giving an average prevalence of 1.44 per 1000 births (95% CI, 1.22-1.63). The most common cleft type was cleft lip and palate (45.0%), followed by cleft palate (29.0%), with 15.6% syndromic cleft. The mean maternal age was 28.0 ± 6.4 years. There were no differences in prevalence of oral clefts among the different maternal age groups. However, advanced maternal age 35+ years was associated with syndromic cleft children. The prevalence of oral clefts was 1.44 per 1000 live births, with 15% of cases having an associated congenital anomaly or a recognized syndrome. Increased maternal age was associated with a higher prevalence of syndromic cleft.

  1. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  2. Cost of diabetes and its complications in Thailand: a complete picture of economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Riewpaiboon, Wachara; Boupaijit, Kuanoon; Panpuwong, Niphaphat; Archavanuntagul, Vorachai

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder with increasing burden in Thailand. The chronic nature along with associated complications makes the disease very costly. In Thailand, there exist some studies on cost of diabetes; however, those studies estimated the cost either from provider or from patient perspective. In order to capture the complete picture of economic burden caused by diabetes, using prevalence-based approach; the present study estimated the cost of illness of diabetes from societal perspective, the broadest viewpoint covering all costs irrespective of who incur them. Data were collected from 475 randomly selected diabetic patients who received treatment from Waritchaphum hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province of Thailand during 2007-2008 with a response rate of 98%. A micro-costing approach was used to calculate the cost. The direct medical cost was calculated by multiplying the quantity of medical services consumed by their unit costs while indirect cost was calculated by using human capital approach. The total cost of illness of diabetes for 475 study participants was estimated as USD 418,696 for the financial year 2008 (1 USD = 32 THB). Of this, 23% was direct medical cost, 40% was direct non-medical cost and 37% was indirect cost. The average cost of illness per diabetic patient was USD 881.47 in 2008 which was 21% of per capita gross domestic product of Thailand. Existence of complications increased the cost substantially. Cost of informal care contributed 28% of total cost of illness of diabetes. Therefore, the disease not only affected the individual but also the family members, friends and neighbours. The economic and social burden of the disease therefore emphasises the need for initiatives to prevent the disease prevalence and counselling to the diabetic patients to prevent the progression of the disease and its devastating complications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Princess of Thailand returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 17 November 2015, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand visited CERN. Princess Sirindhorn was visiting the Laboratory for the fifth time, following her last visit in 2010.   Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (center) witnesses the signing of the collaboration agreement between CERN and SLRI, represented by Rolf Heuer (right) and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn (left) respectively. The Princess was accompanied by a delegation that included the Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Thailand, Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, and a large group of Thailand’s Diplomatic Representatives in Switzerland. Upon her arrival, Princess Sirindhorn was welcomed by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Director-General Designate, Fabiola Gianotti. At CERN, the Princess was given a brief update on the Laboratory’s activities since her last visit, in April 2010. Later on, she witnessed the signature of the f...

  4. Health Burden of Extreme Weather in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraphan Plongmak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and evaluated the variation of the health burden in response to extreme weather events that occurred in Thailand from 2006 to 2010. The health burden was assessed using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost and deaths from injuries as its indicators. Thailand has a DALYs lost of over 16,274 from extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include floods, flash floods, and severe storms, and most of the DALYs in Thailand were lost from floods (approximately 12,872 DALYs. The second most impactful weather event was severe storms, with losses of approximately 2,019 DALYs, followed by flash floods, which caused losses of about 1,383 DALYs. Climate change is a cause of extreme weather events, and a relationship betweenclimate and health has been found worldwide. Improved long-term, high-quality data sets are needed to better analyze and improve accuracy of the health burden.

  5. Palliative care nursing interventions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Eaton, Linda H; Rue, Tessa; Hong, Elizabeth; Coenen, Amy

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the nursing interventions that nurses in Thailand identify as most important in promoting dignified dying. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. A total of 247 Thai nurses completed a paper-and-pencil survey written in Thai. The survey included both demographic questions and palliative care interventions, listed with summative rating scales, from the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The five most important nursing interventions to promote dignified dying, ranked by average importance rating, were (a) maintain dignity and privacy, (b) establish trust, (c) manage pain, (d) establish rapport, and (e) manage dyspnea. This research identified the palliative care nursing interventions considered most important by nurses in Thailand to promote dignified dying. The ICNP catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying can be used for planning and managing palliative nursing care in Thailand.

  6. The spatial dynamics of dengue virus in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is endemic to the rural province of Kamphaeng Phet, Northern Thailand. A decade of prospective cohort studies has provided important insights into the dengue viruses and their generated disease. However, as elsewhere, spatial dynamics of the pathogen remain poorly understood. In particular, the spatial scale of transmission and the scale of clustering are poorly characterized. This information is critical for effective deployment of spatially targeted interventions and for understanding the mechanisms that drive the dispersal of the virus.We geocoded the home locations of 4,768 confirmed dengue cases admitted to the main hospital in Kamphaeng Phet province between 1994 and 2008. We used the phi clustering statistic to characterize short-term spatial dependence between cases. Further, to see if clustering of cases led to similar temporal patterns of disease across villages, we calculated the correlation in the long-term epidemic curves between communities. We found that cases were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval 2.7-3.2 more likely to live in the same village and be infected within the same month than expected given the underlying spatial and temporal distribution of cases. This fell to 1.4 times (1.2-1.7 for individuals living in villages 1 km apart. Significant clustering was observed up to 5 km. We found a steadily decreasing trend in the correlation in epidemics curves by distance: communities separated by up to 5 km had a mean correlation of 0.28 falling to 0.16 for communities separated between 20 km and 25 km. A potential explanation for these patterns is a role for human movement in spreading the pathogen between communities. Gravity style models, which attempt to capture population movement, outperformed competing models in describing the observed correlations.There exists significant short-term clustering of cases within individual villages. Effective spatially and temporally targeted interventions deployed within villages may

  7. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  8. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  9. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

  10. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of third-instar sarcophagid (Diptera: Sarcophagidae recovered from a mummified human corpse in Thailand Microscopia eletrônica de varredura de sarcofagídeo de terceira fase (Diptera: Sarcophagidae recuperado de corpo humano mumificado na Tailândia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kom Sukontason

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The third-instar of an unidentified sarcophagid, recovered from a mummified body of a 32-yr-old Thai male was examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Although the morphological features of this larva are similar to the other sarcophagid larvae, some features could be helpful for species identification, which is a basic requirement for estimation of postmortem interval in forensic investigation. These features included number and arrangement of papillae on the anterior spiracle, structure of spines, size of circumspiracular tubercles at caudal segment and branching peculiarity of the posterior spiracular hairs. This information could benefit future identification of the sarcophagid larvae that exist in Thailand.A terceira fase de um sarcofagídeo não identificado recuperado de corpo mumificado de Tailandês masculino de 32 anos foi examinado usando microscopia eletrônica de varredura (SEM. Embora as características morfológicas desta larva sejam similares a outras larvas sarcofagídeas, algumas características poderiam ser úteis para a identificação da espécie que é requisito básico para a estimativa do intervalo pós-mortal da investigação forense. Estas características incluiram o número e o arranjo das papilas no espiráculo anterior, estrutura das espículas, tamanho dos tubérculos circunespiraculares do segmento caudal e peculiaridade de ramificação dos pelos espiraculares posteriores. Esta informação poderia beneficiar as futuras identificações das larvas sarcofagídeas que existem na Tailândia.

  12. A criterion-based obstetric morbidity audit in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Promvijit, Thadpong; Pattanapisalsak, Chaiwat; Silalai, Sorawasa; Ampawa, Theeradet

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the incidences of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labor, and postpartum hemorrhage in the 5 southernmost provinces of Thailand, and the quality of care for these conditions, using a modified version of a criterion-based clinical audit. We reviewed the medical records of the 3669 women admitted in the obstetric wards of 7 referral hospitals from January through March 2005. Of 515 severely morbid conditions recorded for 486 women (13.2%), there were 113 cases of pre-eclampsia, 320 of obstructed labor, and 82 of postpartum hemorrhage. Documentation for the diagnosis of obstructed labor was often incomplete. Condition severity and standard of care varied among hospitals. The most common indicators of substandard care were a lack of record of respiratory rate and tendon reflex for women with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (35%); of antibiotic prophylaxis for those with obstructed labor (28%); and of record of urine output for those with postpartum hemorrhage (32%). Incomplete diagnosis documentation and evidence of substandard care were common, which warrants auditing for such problems and providing feedback to physicians.

  13. TREMATODE INFECTION OF FRESHWATER SNAIL, FAMILY BITHYNIIDAE IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Piratae, Supawadee; Khampoosa, Panita; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Viyanant, Vithoon; Ruangsitichai, Jiraporn; Tarbsripair, Pairat; Tesana, Smarn

    2015-05-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is restricted to and requires for its aquatic life cycle only Bithynia snail as first intermediate host but many species of cyprinid fish as second intermediate hosts. A survey in Thailand of trematode infection in freshwater snails of the family Bithyniidae carried out during October 2008 - July 2009 found a total of 5,492 snails, classified into ten species distributed in various geographic areas. Bithyniafuniculata and Gabbia pygmaea were localized to the north, B. s. goniomphalos, Wattebledia siamensis and W. crosseana to northeast and B. s. siamensis, Hydrobioides nassa and G. wykoffi to central region. W. baschi and G. erawanensis was found only in the south and Erawan waterfall, Kanchanaburi Province, respectively. Trematode infection rate was 3.15%. Cercariae were identified as belonging to six types, namely, amartae , monostome, mutabile, O. viverrini, virgulate, and unknown. The prevalence of cercarial infection in B. s. goniomphalos of amartae, mutabile, O. viverrini, virgulate, and unknown type cercaria was 0.55%, 0.74%, 1.07%, 2.87%, and 0.37%, respectively, and in B. s. siamensis monostome (1.10%) and virgulate (0.55%). Only virgulate cercariae were shed from W. crosseana (3.85%) and W. siamensis (5.19%). Cercariae of the unknown type were found in G. wykoffi (1.69%). No infection of O. viverrini cercariae was detected in the other species.

  14. Tomato necrotic ringspot virus, a new tospovirus isolated in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepiban, Channarong; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Attathom, Tipvadee; Attathom, Supat

    2011-02-01

    A new tospovirus isolated from naturally infected tomato plants grown in Nakhon Pathom province (Thailand) was characterized. Infected plants showed symptoms consisting of necrotic spots, necrotic ringspots and stem necrosis. This virus was detected using general antibodies that could recognize watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV). However, it did not react with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to WSMoV and CaCV or a specific MAb to MYSV. The complete nucleotide sequences of S and M RNAs of the virus were determined. They were 3,023 and 4,716 nucleotides in length, respectively, and contained two ORFs in an ambisense arrangement. Sequence analysis indicated that amino acid sequence of the N protein shared 58.2%, 56.0% and 51.8% identity with those of CaCV, WSMoV and MYSV, respectively. The virus was experimentally transmitted by Thrips palmi and Ceratothripoides claratris. Based on our results, we conclude that this tospovirus isolate should be considered a member of a new species. The name tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) is proposed for this tospovirus.

  15. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4% did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  16. Exploring Islamic School Leadership in a Challenging Southern Thailand Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raihani Raihani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores leadership practices in different Islamic schools in Southern Thailand, an area where already for decades an ethno-political conflict has been ongoing between Malay Muslims and the Thai Buddhist government. Using a multiple-case study approach, this research selected three Islamic schools one each in the provinces of Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala selecting their principals, teachers, and students as informants. The findings suggest that the principals, in their planning activities, tend to think strategically for the benefit of their schools, their students, and the community at large, that they are willing to compromise with the government so long as not contradicting their religious beliefs and principles, and that they have a strong vision for the school improvement. Under difficult conditions, they always consider the need to establish immediate and more extensive cooperation with various stakeholders to help further improve the school conditions and their output.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v24i2.4608

  17. Asymptomatic malaria infections among foreign migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsiriwuthinan, Kanyanan; Ngrenngarmlert, Warunee

    2011-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of malaria infections among foreign migrant workers in Thailand. Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films were prepared from blood samples of 294 foreign migrant workers recruited in the study. Microscopic examination of these blood films was performed for malaria detection. Blood film examination revealed 1.36% malaria infections in these 294 subjects. All positive cases were male Myanmar workers in which their blood films only ring stage of Plasmodium spp. was found at low parasite density (mean= 144 parasites/μ L of blood). The prevalence of malaria infections was not significantly different among foreign migrant workers classified by age, gender, and resident province (P>0.05). Thin blood films of these workers also showed 78.91% hypochromic erythrocytes and 61.9% relative Eosinophilia. These findings indicate a high risk of malaria transmission. Therefore active malaria surveillance by using molecular methods with more sensitive and specific than microscopy should be considered for malaria control in foreign migrant workers. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecosystem Services Tradeoffs: A Case Study of Chiang Khong, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apisom Intralawan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent transformation of land in the Mekong River Basin has been dramatic. The changes have contributed to an increased standard of living resulting from economic and agricultural expansion, increasing urbanization and modernization. However, the changes have also resulted in major degradation of ecosystems and the services which ecosystems provide. Despite acknowledgement of the loss of the ecosystem benefits, the integration of ecosystem services tradeoffs into land use decisions is still limited. Land managers and policy makers are facing challenges in balancing the positive effects of economic development and the long term negative impacts on the environment. This paper is based on a case study of one of the fastest growing towns along the Mekong River, namely Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Data on the change of land use and land cover for different biomes over the past 40 years have been obtained from satellite image classification. The valuation of ecosystem services of different biomes has been quantified in monetary terms. During the last four decades, the estimated change in the value of ecosystem services in Chiang Khong shows a net decline of roughly US$ 440 million - from US$ 1,896 million/year in 1976 to US$ 1,455 million/year in 2015. There is a risk that this decline in ecosystem services will further increase if ecosystem services valuations are not included in decision making processes related to the planned economic development (infrastructure expansion, new industrial park development in Chiang Khong.

  19. Seismotectonics of the 2014 Chiang Rai, Thailand, earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pananont, P.; Herman, M. W.; Pornsopin, P.; Furlong, K. P.; Habangkaem, S.; Waldhauser, F.; Wongwai, W.; Limpisawad, S.; Warnitchai, P.; Kosuwan, S.; Wechbunthung, B.

    2017-08-01

    On 5 May 2014, a Mw 6.2 strike-slip earthquake occurred in the Mae Lao region of Chiang Rai province in Thailand. This earthquake took place in a region of known faults and caused substantial damage and injuries, although the region had been previously identified as having a relatively low earthquake hazard. Detailed field reconnaissance and deployment of a dense, temporary, network of broadband seismometers allowed details of the damage and its relationship to seismicity to be analyzed. The aftershock sequence associated with this main shock occurs on two well-defined trends, reflecting the two potential fault planes in earthquake mechanisms for the main shock and the majority of the aftershocks. The damage area was relatively large for an event of this magnitude, but building damage was largely limited to the primary rupture region, while liquefaction and other ground failure are spatially associated with the rupture area and along regional rivers. Stress modeling, combined with the time series and pattern of aftershock activity, leads us to propose that slip near the northern termination of the main shock rupture continued slightly onto a conjugate fault, helping to trigger the distinct pattern of two discrete, conjugate trends of aftershock activity that mirror the kinematics of the main shock fault mechanism.

  20. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  1. Nesting biology of an Oriental carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838, in Thailand (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Xylocopinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharapong Hongjamrassilp

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of wild non-Apis bees can provide useful information that may help with the pollination of food crops and native plants in areas where the keeping of honey bee colonies is restricted or affected by CCD. Here, we describe the nesting biology of the Oriental large carpenter bee, Xylocopa (Biluna nasalis Westwood, 1838. An aggregation of more than 80+ bamboo nests of X. nasalis was discovered in Suan Pheung district, Ratch Buri province, Thailand on the 25th of May 2012. We collected 27 nests from the site to dissect, measure the external and internal nest architecture, and analyze the pollen composition of the pollen masses. X. nasalis constructs linear unbranched nests with nest entrance mostly located at the open-end of the bamboo culms. The nest length and the branch diameter of the nest entrance (excluding nesting edge are 25.40 ± 6.95 cm and 17.94 ± 6.00 mm, and the maximum number of provisioned cells is 8. A biased sex ratio of 8♀: 1♂ is reported, with up to 7 adults inhabiting in a single nest. 29 pollen types were identified from 14 pollen masses using an acetolysis method and visualization under both light microscope and scanning electron microscope. 13 pollen types were considered as major pollen sources (contribute ≥ 1% in total pollen volume; however, only 10 can be identified to family and generic levels. The dominant pollen sources are of the families Elaeagnaceae (Elaeagnus cf. latifolia, Euphorbiaceae (Croton, Fabaceae (Senna siamea and Cassia, Fagaceae (Lithocarpus and Castanopsis, and Lythraceae (Trapa which are mostly native to the region of Southeast Asia. The nesting architectural details should prove to be beneficial to beekeepers and researchers who are interested in trapping and studying X. nasalis, and the polylectic behavior of X. nasalis can be highly valuable for future crop pollination strategies, particularly for plants that require sonication of their poricidal anthers.

  2. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a…

  3. Approaches to Lao Minors Working in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have observed in Thailand a growing number of working Lao minors. By law, these may be regarded as victims of human trafficking. This paper observes, however, that some older teenagers who are still under 18 may be seeking and finding legitimate working positions. The

  4. Urban asylum seekers and refugees in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera den Otter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties faced by urban refugees are often different from those faced by refugees in camps but are no less serious. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS in Bangkok is struggling to support growing numbers of urban refugees in Thailand.

  5. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  6. Children's Attitudes toward the Elderly in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Carol; Keawkungwal, Sri-Reun

    1986-01-01

    Examined attitudes of 300 children toward the elderly in Thailand. Indicated no differences between rural and urban children's attitudes toward the elderly in terms of contact, knowledge, and feelings. Urban children, however, responded more positively about their own aging than did rural children. Concludes that Thai children view young people…

  7. Twee Nederlandse reizigers uit Thailand met cholera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A. A.; Kuijper, E. J.; Schultz, M. J.; Wieling, W.; Speelman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Cholera is a disease rarely imported in the Netherlands. Recently a 34-year-old woman who had returned from a trip through Thailand was admitted to our hospital with complaints of vomiting, watery stools and moderate dehydration. Vibrio cholerae OI serotype Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the

  8. The Teaching Practicum in Thailand: Three Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairee, Chatpong; Sanitchon, Nalinee; Suphanangthong, Irada; Graham, Steve; Prompruang, Jidapa; de Groot, Freek Olaf; Hopkins, Dave

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the teaching practicum in Thailand as it occurs in three settings: "Rajabhats"--four-year universities which offer an additional period of teaching practice, and where the vast majority of EFL teachers are educated; regular universities; and a TESOL short course certificate program for non-Thais preparing to teach…

  9. Implementing Results Based Management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Thailand has been pursuing the implementation of results based management techniques in the public sector for over a decade. Leading this task is the Office of the Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) which has been supporting various agencies and departments in undertaking a wide variety of results based management reforms, including key performance indicators, balanced scorecards,...

  10. A new species of Parategastes Sars, 1904 from the Thale Noi Lake, southern Thailand (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tegastidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanida Saetang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parategastes pholpunthini sp. n. is described and illustrated based on material collected in the Thale Noi Lake, Phatthalung province, southern Thailand. This species can be distinguished from its congeners by the number segments of female antennule, the lengths of rami and basis of P1, the shape of middle inner seta of P4 exp-3, shape of P5, and relative lengths of spine at apically of baseoendopod of P5. The differences among Parategastes species are pointed out and they are compared with the new species. An identification key to species of the genus Parategastes are proposed.

  11. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  12. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand.......A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  13. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmo......Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance.......023), region (northern Thailand; p factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection compared to other nontyphoid Salmonella. Of the Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin, 84% exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes...... association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal...

  14. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Vientiane province and municipality, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Kotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first faunistic report on the Laotian Cladocera from diverse habitats in Vientiane province, Central Laos. We counted a total of 70 species, belonging to 37 genera, which is realistically close to an estimated 77 species. The five most common species were Diaphanosoma excisum, Ephemeroporus cf. barroisi, Anthalona harti, Macrothrix spinosa and Chydorus cf. eurynotus. The fauna is typically Oriental/Southeast (SE Asian, showing a strong similarity with neighbouring countries and especially Thailand. We discussed the current taxonomical status of the species and provided illustrations of the main taxa for future comparison. There are no surprising faunistic elements, except for a few new records for SE Asia (Matralona freyi, Ilyocryptus thailandensis. Our data is preliminary, as the fauna of Laos remains insufficiently studied. As for SE Asia as a whole, a significant number of taxa is in need of taxonomical revision.

  15. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    in a few central provinces of Thailand and did not reflect for the whole country as sample sizes were small. Risk assessment due to consuming these pesticide contaminated vegetables, still remains to be evaluated. However, remarkably high incidence rates of detected pesticides give warning to the Thai authorities to implement proper regulations on pesticide monitoring program. Similar incidence of pesticide contamination found in the vegetables bought from local markets and supermarkets raises question regarding the quality of organic vegetables domestically sold in Thailand. This conclusion excludes Thai export quality vegetables and fruits routinely monitored for pesticide contamination before exporting.

  16. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in a few central provinces of Thailand

  17. Thailand through travel writings in English: An evaluation and representation

    OpenAIRE

    Soranat Tailanga; Thongrob Ruenbanthoeng; Kulapa Kuldilok; Natthanai Prasannam

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the impact and influence of travel writings on tourist decision making regarding traveling to Thailand, tourist conceptualizations of Thailand before traveling and their satisfaction after traveling. The research comprised two projects involving quantitative research and analytical research. The former studied the impact and influence of travel writings and the differences between the tourists' attitudes before and after traveling to Thailand and found that, among the top-f...

  18. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; PANTO, SITTHIPHON

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  19. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... from Thailand: Notice of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act and...., Ltd Dextrans Worldwide (Thailand) Ltd Dragon International Furniture Co., Ltd Earth Food Manufacturing...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) may be imported into the United States from Thailand only under the following conditions: (a...

  1. Utilization of trauma guidelines by ER nurses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Krongdai Unhasuta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Clinical nursing practice guidelines (CNPG have been developed in Thailand for resuscitation care of emergency room (ER trauma patients. However, many nurses do not use guidelines effectively.

  2. Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales new to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Thawthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae is a medicinal mushroom originally described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum. It has been widely used as traditional medicine in Asia since it has potential nutritional and therapeutic values. We collected 8 specimens of Ganoderma species from Thailand and show that they represent the first record of G. sichuanenese for Thailand. In this paper, we describe our specimens of Ganoderma sichuanense based on fresh basidiomes, and provide line drawings and photographs. The data from macro- and microscopic features are consistent with the characteristics of the species. Analysis of ITS sequence data indicates that the Thai collections cluster in same species clade as the epitype of G. sichuanense.

  3. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai; Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet). Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainl...

  4. Credit Card Usage and Knowledge in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sangsutisearee, Wanna

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the characteristics of credit card holders and the extent of credit card usage, the level of credit card knowledge, and the consumer's choice perspectives. The characteristics of credit card holders studied were (a) gender, (b) age, (c) marital status, (d) education, (e) income, and (f) occupation. Data for this study were collected in Bangkok, Thailand by telephone interviews during July- August 1993. The sample consisted of 1...

  5. Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) described from NE Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biström, Olof; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini) from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae). It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, Hydrovatus diversipunctatussp. n. and Hydrovatus globosussp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality "Khon Kaen" (a city and province). Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

  6. Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae described from NE Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Bistrom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae. It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, H. diversipunctatus sp. n. and H. globosus sp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality “Khon Kaen” (a city and province. Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

  7. Palliative Care Nursing Interventions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Eaton, Linda H.; Rue, Tessa; Hong, Elizabeth; Coenen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to describe the nursing interventions that nurses in Thailand identify as most important in promoting dignified dying. Design This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Method A total of 247 Thai nurses completed a paper-and-pencil survey written in Thai. The survey included both demographic questions and palliative care interventions, listed with summative rating scales, from the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings The five most important nursing interventions to promote dignified dying, ranked by average importance rating, were (a) maintain dignity and privacy, (b) establish trust, (c) manage pain, (d) establish rapport, and (e) manage dyspnea. Conclusions This research identified the palliative care nursing interventions considered most important by nurses in Thailand to promote dignified dying. Implications for Practice The ICNP catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying can be used for planning and managing palliative nursing care in Thailand. PMID:24014487

  8. The effects of medical tourism: Thailand's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaRanong, Anchana; NaRanong, Viroj

    2011-05-01

    To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, appendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders' motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand's gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The "brain drain" may also undermine medical training in future. Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors.

  9. Health informatics model for helminthiasis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, C; Trevanich, A; Wongsaroj, T; Wongsawad, C; Reungsang, P

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, helminth infections continue to be prevalent, particularly among impoverished populations. This study attempts to create the first health informatics model of helminthiasis in Thailand. The authors investigate how a health informatics model could be used to predict the control and eradication in a national control campaign. Fish-borne helminthiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of South-East Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The epicentre of this disease is located in north-east Thailand, where high prevalence coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA). The current report was conducted to determine a mathematical model of surveillance for helminthiasis while also using a geographic information system. The fish-borne helminthiasis model or the predicted equation was Y1 = 3.028 + 0.020 (elevation) - 2.098 (clay). For soil-transmitted helminthiasis, the mathematical model or the predicted equation was Y2 = -1.559 + 0.005 (rainfall) + 0.004 (elevation) - 2.198 (clay). The Ministry of Public Health has concluded that mass treatment for helminthiasis in the Thai population, targeting high-risk individuals, may be a cost-effective way to allocate limited funds. This type of approach, as well as further study on the correlation of clinical symptoms with environmental and geographic information, may offer a novel strategy to the helminth crisis.

  10. An implementation plan for using biological indicators to improve assessment of water quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Sangpradub, Narumon; Barbour, Michael T; Simachaya, Wijarn

    2010-06-01

    Most national standards for assessment of water quality include physical and chemical indicators relevant to specific pollutants and stressors. However, biological communities reflect not only current conditions of aquatic resources but also change in conditions over time and impacts from multiple stressors. Assessing the health of the aquatic community (that is, bioassessments) has proven to be critical in protecting and maintaining healthy surface waters under the mandates of regulatory frameworks, such as the Clean Water Act in the USA and the Water Framework Directive of the European Union. Whereas, in Thailand water standards, bioassessment is lacking in favor of chemical criteria, only coliform bacteria measurement can be considered a surrogate biological parameter. Our paper argues that incorporating bioassessment will improve water resource condition evaluations and recommends the use of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage as a bioassessment framework in Thailand. We discuss the implementation of a bioassessment program that consists of two major components, (a) a scientifically valid technical approach and (b) consideration of technical resources for a cost-effective program. The technical design comprises (1) classification of streams into similar groupings, (2) design of a biological survey, (3) a well-documented sampling protocol, (4) calibration of biological metrics for data analysis, (5) development of criteria for determination of ecological condition, and (6) communication of the results to citizens and policymakers. A cost-effective way to develop a bioassessment program that will improve Thailand's ability to measure water quality and to make good decisions to attain healthy quality status is to establish partnerships by coordinating efforts and sharing data and technology with adjacent regional environmental offices or provinces. This collaboration would be fostered through a long-term national water resources management strategy and clear

  11. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  12. Diversity of root-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a rubber tree plantation chronosequence in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Laetitia; Lesueur, Didier; Bräu, Lambert; Davison, John; Jairus, Teele; Robain, Henri; Robin, Agnès; Vasar, Martti; Wiriyakitnateekul, Wanpen; Öpik, Maarja

    2016-11-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is of major economic importance in Southeast Asia and for small land holders in Thailand in particular. Due to the high value of latex, plantations are expanding into unsuitable areas, such as the northeast province of Thailand where soil fertility is very low and therefore appropriate management practices are of primary importance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute to plant growth through a range of mechanisms and could play a key role in a more sustainable management of the rubber plantations. We described the diversity of AMF associated with rubber tree roots in Northeast Thailand in relation to tree age and soil parameters along a chronosequence of rubber tree plantations. Cassava fields were included for comparison. Rubber tree and cassava roots harbored high diversity of AMF (111 Virtual Taxa, VT), including 20 novel VT. AMF VT richness per sample was consistently high (per site mean 16 to 21 VT per sample) along the chronosequence and was not related to soil properties. The composition of AMF communities differed between cassava and rubber tree plantations and was influenced by soil texture and nutrient content (sand, K, P, Ca). AMF community composition gradually shifted with the age of the trees. Our results suggest that the high diversity of AMF in this region is potentially significant for maintaining high functionality of AMF communities.

  13. Attitudes of adolescents and parents towards premarital sex in rural Thailand: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Crozier, Kenda; Pfeil, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore attitudes of Thai parents and adolescents towards premarital sex. Data were collected from 11 focus groups with 30 Thai parents and 36 adolescents aged 15-19 years old in rural areas of Udon Thani province, Thailand and examined using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified from the data: the social judgement of girls; boys have nothing to lose; considering risks and parents as problem solvers. All themes relate to the continuing existence of double standards concerning the social norm for premarital sex as applied to young women on one side and young men on the other. The influence of traditional values is still very strong in rural north-eastern Thailand. The findings highlight teenagers' need for more support from their parents. The promotion of open, honest communication between parents and teens is important to overcome difficulties of social judgements and align thinking between old and new social values. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Poultry Farm Vulnerability and Risk of Avian Influenza Re-Emergence in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI remains of concern as a major potential global threat. This article evaluates and discusses the level of vulnerability of medium and small-scale commercial poultry production systems in Thailand related to avian influenza virus re-emergence. We developed a survey on 173 farms in Nakhon Pathom province to identify the global level of vulnerability of farms, and to determine which type of farms appears to be more vulnerable. We used official regulations (the Good Agricultural Practices and Livestock Farm Standards regulations as a reference to check whether these regulations are respected. The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease. Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms. Farms producing eggs (especially duck eggs are more vulnerable than farms producing meat. Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004–2008 outbreaks in Thailand.

  15. Predatory thrips species composition, their prey and host plant association in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaporn Saengyot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of predatory thrips, their prey and associated host plants was carried out from February 2013 to February 2014 in Chiang Rai, Phayao, Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Lampang provinces in Northern Thailand. The survey revealed 10 species of predatory thrips in 5 genera in the Family Phlaeothripidae. They were: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin, Androthrips flavipes Schmutz, Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones, two indeterminate Karnyothrips sp.1 and sp.2, Leptothrips sp., Podothrips lucasseni (Krüger, and two indeterminate Podothrips sp. 1, and sp. 2. Eleven species of insect and mite pests serving as prey were found associated with 16 species of host plants in 13 families. They were: scale insects, Coccus viridis (Green and two Coccus spp.; spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell; unidentified gall-making Hemiptera; coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari; unidentified crambid lepidopterous larvae; Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida; santol gall mite, Eriophyes sandorici Nelepa; litchi rust mite, Aceria litchii (Keifer; and bamboo green mite, Aponychus corpuzae Rimando. The findings from this investigation could provide basic information necessary for further investigation in the use of some of these predatory thrips as biological control agents of insect and mite pests of economic importance in Thailand.

  16. Improving health consciousness and life skills in young people through peer-leadership in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerachote, C; Kessomboon, P; Rattanasiri, A; Koju, R

    2013-01-01

    Peer leadership is widely recognized as an effective approach to health promotion and empowerment among people of similar ages, especially the youth. Such programs build peer leaders who in turn help empower the youths in their groups to improve their health and life skills related to health. Most previous studies have focused on the effectiveness of such activities in target groups but have neglected to effectively address and explore the transformations in peer leaders themselves. This descriptive study aimed to investigate the level of social change and health consciousness among student peer leaders in three Youth health promotion programs in Thailand: Friend's Corner, Smart Consumer and Volunteer Minded Young Dentists, and to compare them with the general students. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on Tyree's Social Change Model of leadership, Gould's concept and Dutta-Bergman's concept. The study population comprised of 11th grade students (N=660) from Kalasin Province in Thailand, 320 of whom were peer leaders. The findings revealed that the peer leaders scored higher than non peer leaders in all domains. Among the peer leaders, it was found that Volunteer Minded Young Dentists group had the highest scores in "controversy with civility", "social change agent" characteristics, "holistic health perceptions" and "responsibility for one's own health" regarding health consciousness. The results of this study confirmed that the peer leadership approach can help young people to develop life skills through social transformation and increase health consciousness for better status of health in the community.

  17. Respiratory Tract Problems among Wood Furniture Manufacturing Factory Workers in the Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soongkhang, I; Laohasiriwong, W

    2015-01-01

    Wood furniture manufacturing factory workers are at high risk of exposure to wood dust in wood working processes. Wood dust exposure could cause respiratory symptoms, such as reduce lung function, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. The Northeast region of Thailand has many wood furniture manufacturing factories. However, limited studies were carried out to explore the effect of wood dust exposure on workers. This study aimed to assess the respiratory symptoms and determine factors associated with these symptoms among wood furniture manufacturing factory workers. This cross-sectional analytical research used a multistage random sampling to select 511 workers from three provinces in the Northeast of Thailand. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire interview. The content validity of questionnaire was tested by 3 experts and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.82. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regressions. The result indicated that 29.94% of these workers had respiratory symptoms, including coughing(18.79%), nasal secretion (15.66%), and stuffy nose (15.07%). Factors that were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms (p-value furniture manufacturing factory workers had respiratory symptoms with related to both personal preventive behaviors and their working environments. Therefore, the raising awareness for using personal protective equipment during work will help them to prevent from various respiratory track problems.

  18. Solid waste management in Thailand: an overview and case study (Tha Khon Yang sub-district).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley Dawn; Ross, Kirstin Elizabeth

    2017-09-26

    Due to rapid urbanization, solid waste management (SWM) has become a significant issue in several developing countries including Thailand. Policies implemented by the Central Thai Government to manage SWM issues have had only limited success. This article reviews current municipal waste management plans in Thailand and examines municipal waste management at the local level, with focus on the Tha Khon Yang sub-district surrounding Mahasarakham University in Mahasarakham Province. Within two decades this area has been converted from a rural to an urban landscape featuring accommodation for over 45,000 university students and a range of business facilities. This development and influx of people has outpaced the government's ability to manage municipal solid waste (MSW). There are significant opportunities to improve local infrastructure and operational capacity; but there are few mechanisms to provide and distribute information to improve community participation in waste management. Many community-based waste management projects, such as waste recycling banks, the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), and waste-to-biogas projects have been abandoned. Additionally, waste from Tha Kon Yang and its surrounding areas has been transferred to unsanitary landfills; there is also haphazard dumping and uncontrolled burning of waste, which exacerbate current pollution issues.

  19. Process and outcome evaluation of a diabetes prevention education program for community healthcare workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M; Sirichakwal, Prapaisri P; Chittchang, Uraiporn

    2009-12-01

    To describe the development, process and outcome evaluation of a culturally tailored diabetes prevention education program for community healthcare workers (CHCWs) in Thailand. A tailored diabetes prevention education program was designed based on formative research and implemented with 35 CHCWs in semi-urban areas in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Modules were delivered over eight group classes and eight self-directed E-learning sessions (www.FitThai.org). The program incorporated problem-based learning, discussion, reflection, community-based application, self-evaluation and on-line support. The frequency that students accessed on-line materials, including videotaped lectures, readings, monthly newsletters and community resources, was documented. Participant satisfaction was assessed through three questionnaires. Knowledge was assessed through pre-post testing. Three-quarters of participants attended all eight classes and no participant attended fewer than six. On-line support and materials were accessed 3 to 38 times (median 13). Participants reported that program information and activities were fun, useful, culturally-relevant and applicable to diabetes prevention in their specific communities. Participants also appreciated the innovative technology support for their work. Comfort with E-learning varied among participants. Scores on pre-post knowledge test increased from a mean (sd) of 56.5% (6.26) to 75.5% (6.01) (p E-learning were generally well-received and supported better knowledge scores. Ongoing access to web-based materials and expert support may help sustain learning.

  20. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java.

  1. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928

  2. New earthworm species of the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 from Thailand (Clitellata, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantaowong, Ueangfa; Chanabun, Ratmanee; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Sutcharit, Chirasak; James, Samuel W.; Panha, Somsak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of terrestrial earthworms from the zebrus-group in the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, are described from Nan province, north Thailand: Amynthas phatubensis sp. n., from Tham Pha Tub Arboretum, Amynthas tontong sp. n., from Tontong Waterfall, Amynthas borealis sp. n., from Chaloemprakiat district, and Amynthas srinan sp. n., from Srinan National Park.After comparing with the two closely related Laos species Amynthas chandyi Hong, 2008 and Amynthas namphouinensis Hong, 2008, the four new species show clear morphological differences, and also it is confirmed that there are no previous records of the species described here. Amynthas phatubensis sp. n. is the largest (longest) sized of these earthworms and is the only species that lives in limestone habitats. The genital characters are different among them and also from the two Laotian species. Molecular systematics would be a good method for further analysis of the diversity and species boundaries in SE Asian Amynthas. PMID:21594106

  3. A new tree frog in the genus Polypedates (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirawan, Attapol; Stuart, Bryan L; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Southeast Asian rhacophorid frog belonging to the Polypedates leucomystax species complex from Songkhla Province, southern Thailand. Polypedates discantus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of having the skin of the head not co-ossified with the skull; absent or indistinct white dots on the back of the thigh; paired-vocal sac openings; and a round tubercle on the tibiotarsal articulation. The new species is also distinguished from P. leucomystax and P. megacephalus in univariate and multivariate analyses of quantitative morphometric characters, and has uncorrected pairwise distances of 6.61-7.16% from its closest relative, P. leucomystax, in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The new species has four distinct male advertisement call types, consisting of one-note, two-note, three-note and staccato calls. The new species occurs syntopically with P leucomystax at the type locality.

  4. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  5. Serosurveillance for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in domestic elephants, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungpin, Weena; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Tiyanun, Ekasit; Sangkachai, Nareerat; Changsom, Don; Poltep, Kanaporn; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2017-01-01

    The present study conducted serosurveillance for the presence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1pdm virus) in archival serum samples collected between 2009 and 2013 from 317 domestic elephants living in 19 provinces situated in various parts of Thailand. To obtain the most accurate data, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay was employed as the screening test; and sera with HI antibody titers ≥20 were further confirmed by other methods, including cytopathic effect/hemagglutination based-microneutralization (microNT) and Western blot (WB) assays using H1N1pdm matrix 1 (M1) or hemagglutinin (HA) recombinant protein as the test antigen. Conclusively, the appropriate assays using HI in conjunction with WB assays for HA antibody revealed an overall seropositive rate of 8.5% (27 of 317). The prevalence of antibody to H1N1pdm virus was 2% (4/172) in 2009, 32% (17/53) in 2010, 9% (2/22) in 2011, 12% (1/8) in 2012, and 5% (3/62) in 2013. Notably, these positive serum samples were collected from elephants living in 7 tourist provinces of Thailand. The highest seropositive rate was obtained from elephants in Phuket, a popular tourist beach city. Young elephants had higher seropositive rate than older elephants. The source of H1N1pdm viral infection in these elephants was not explored, but most likely came from close contact with the infected mahouts or from the infected tourists who engaged in activities such as elephant riding and feeding. Nevertheless, it could not be excluded that elephant-to-elephant transmission did occur.

  6. Serosurveillance for pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infection in domestic elephants, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Paungpin

    Full Text Available The present study conducted serosurveillance for the presence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus (H1N1pdm virus in archival serum samples collected between 2009 and 2013 from 317 domestic elephants living in 19 provinces situated in various parts of Thailand. To obtain the most accurate data, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI assay was employed as the screening test; and sera with HI antibody titers ≥20 were further confirmed by other methods, including cytopathic effect/hemagglutination based-microneutralization (microNT and Western blot (WB assays using H1N1pdm matrix 1 (M1 or hemagglutinin (HA recombinant protein as the test antigen. Conclusively, the appropriate assays using HI in conjunction with WB assays for HA antibody revealed an overall seropositive rate of 8.5% (27 of 317. The prevalence of antibody to H1N1pdm virus was 2% (4/172 in 2009, 32% (17/53 in 2010, 9% (2/22 in 2011, 12% (1/8 in 2012, and 5% (3/62 in 2013. Notably, these positive serum samples were collected from elephants living in 7 tourist provinces of Thailand. The highest seropositive rate was obtained from elephants in Phuket, a popular tourist beach city. Young elephants had higher seropositive rate than older elephants. The source of H1N1pdm viral infection in these elephants was not explored, but most likely came from close contact with the infected mahouts or from the infected tourists who engaged in activities such as elephant riding and feeding. Nevertheless, it could not be excluded that elephant-to-elephant transmission did occur.

  7. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs

  8. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacollette Charles

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1 or less than six months (short-term, or M2. Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%, had never returned to Myanmar (85%, and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the

  9. EFFECTS OF THE DECEMBER 2004 TSUNAMI AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHERN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Thanawood

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A quake-triggered tsunami lashed the Andaman coast of southern Thailand on December 26, 2004 at around 9.30 am local time. It was the first to strike the shorelines of southern Thailand in living memory. Coastal provinces along the Andaman coast suffered a total of 5,395 deaths – more than half of whom were foreign tourists, with another 2,822 reported missing. Of the 6 affected coastal provinces, Phang Nga was the worst-hit province with some 4,224 lives lost and 7,003 ha of land area devastated. Takua Pa District, which was a prime tourist area with numerous beach resorts, was the most severely affected area in Phang Nga Province.Through the use of the aerial photographs and Ikonos images, it was found that 4,738 ha of Takua Pa District’s coastal area were affected by the tsunami. The tsunami run-up heights of 7-8, 5-7 and 10-12 metres, were observed at, respectively, Ban Namkhem, Pakarang Cape and Ban Bangnieng in Takua Pa District. The tsunami caused heavy damage to houses, tourist resorts, fishing boats and gear, culture ponds and crops, and consequently affected the livelihood of large numbers of the coastal communities. The destructive wave impacted not only soil and water resources, but also damaged healthy coral reefs, sea grass beds and beach forests. The surviving victims faced psychosocial stresses resulting from the loss of their loved ones, being rendered homeless and fears of another tsunami. The tsunami effects on human settlements, livelihoods, coastal resources, natural environment together with the psychosocial well being of the coastal communities have contributed to the degradation of the coastal ecosystems.Following the 2004 event, it has become apparent that the country’s disaster management strategies need to be strengthened through the implementation of mitigation and preparedness options to enhance the community’s resilience to natural events such as tsunami. The improved strategies are discussed in this paper.

  10. The enhancement of adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Nongnut; Suntayakorn, Chanjar; Sangkaewsri, Roongsri; Longchupol, Chaowanee; Lohitpintu, Itsareat; Kumsri, Tongbai

    2010-03-01

    To explore the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation and to examine the effectiveness of the potential enhancement program for adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide in Lublae district Uttaradit Province, Thailand. 3 step of research and development; the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation among victims of flooding and landslide were analyzed by focus group discussion, the potential enhancement program (PEP) was designed by brainstorming of three groups of stakeholder; victims, health volunteers and health personnel and the effectiveness of PEP was tested by the difference of adaptation and psychological well-being perception among victims of flooding and landslide between before and after intervention. Thumbun Maepou, Lublae district, Uttaradit Province, Thailand. The needs of potential enhancement among victims of flooding and landslide were set up warning network along the risk canal and mountain, first aid training for health volunteer, and program of psychological health promotion. The PEP composed of community flooding and landslide rehearsal training, health education and dissemination and knowledge management. Total adaptation and psychological wellbeing of samples after intervention were significantly higher than that of before intervention at 0.05 and 0.001, respectively. The restoration of adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide were essential to maintained holistic health.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  12. Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumjui, Chowalit; Choomkasien, Pravit; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chalamaat, Mutita

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health studied 28 patients from a village in northern Thailand. All had myalgia, edema, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms; most had eaten wild boar. A muscle biopsy specimen from a patient showed nonencapsulated larvae with a cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence of Trichinella papuae. PMID:19046519

  13. Dietary Behaviour among Male Out-patients in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Behaviour among Male Out-patients in Thailand. Apa Puckpinyo Youngpradith, Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer, Kawinarat Suthisukhon. Abstract. The aim of the study was to estimate associations between dietary behaviour, chronic conditions and health variables among male out-patients in central Thailand. As part of ...

  14. Decentralisation And School-Based Management In Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; Sooksomchitra, Pacharapimon

    2004-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) in Thailand began in 1997 in the course of a reform aimed at overcoming a profound crisis in the education system. The present contribution reports on the introduction and institutionalisation of decentralisation and SBM with community participation in Thailand. The data reported here are based on an empirical survey…

  15. Determination of Mercury Exposure among Dental Health Workers in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the mercury exposure levels in dental health workers that work in dental clinics. The study evaluated the airborne and urinary mercury levels, the type of work done in the clinic, and the effect of mercury exposure on health of dental health workers. Material and Methods. A case-control study was conducted with 124 exposed and 124 matched nonexposed subjects. Personal and area samplings were conducted to quantify mercury concentrations by solid sorbent tube. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. Results and Discussion. 17.6% (n=32/182 of the air samples were higher than the occupational exposure limit (OEL. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary mercury levels included dietary consumption (fish or seafood, duration of work (yrs, work position, personal protection equipment used (PPE, and personal hygiene behaviors. Significant correlations were observed between mercury levels in urine and mercury in storage areas (r=0.499, P<0.05 and between mercury levels in urine and airborne mercury in personal samplings (r=0.878, P<0.001. Conclusion. Improvements in working conditions, occupational health training, and PPE use are recommended to reduce mercury exposure.

  16. Impact of marine tourism on the recreational water quality of Muk Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat Tanyaros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the water consisting of several parameters in the surrounding area of Muk Island were examined. Reference surface water was also concurrently sampled at stations located outside the recreational area stations. Relative modifications (RM in the recreational area stations water quality were assessed as the difference between the magnitude of a specific parameter recorded at the recreational area stations and the concurrently recorded value of the parameter at the reference station, relative to the mean value at the reference station. In this study, the specific parameters of dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, total suspended solids (TSS, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN = NO-2 + NO-23 + NH+3 and orthophosphate(PO-34 were shown to be significantly modified in December and April, but non-significantly modified inSeptember. The total coliform bacteria (TC and fecal coliform (FC in seawater at the recreational area stations were found to be higher than the coastal water quality standard. With a water quality criteria based coastal water quality standard fortourism, a significant but not dangerous level of pollution was observed in this area. TC and FC were the most significant pollutants in the recreational area stations.

  17. Flow routing in mangrove forests; a field study in Trang province, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, Erik; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Flow routing in mangrove forests has great implications for the transport and distribution of sediments and nutrients and hence for mangroves' development and persistence. Whereas previous studies were limited to the creeks, supposedly feeding the surrounding mangroves, this study demonstrates the

  18. The Significant of Model School in Pluralistic Society of the Three Southern Border Provinces of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haji-Awang Faisol

    2016-01-01

    The result of the study show that, a significant traits of the model schools in the multi-cultural society are not merely performed well in administrative procedure, teaching and learning process, but these schools also able to reveal the real social norm and religious believe into communities’ practical life as a truly “Malay-Muslim” society. It is means that, the school able to run the integrated programs under the shade of philosophy of Islamic education paralleled the National Education aims to ensure that the productivities of the programs able to serve both sides, national education on the one hand and the Malay Muslim communities’ satisfaction on the other hand.

  19. Mental health status among Burmese adolescent students living in boarding houses in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takeshi; Win, Thar; Maung, Cynthia; Ray, Paw; Sakisaka, Kayako; Tanabe, Aya; Kobayashi, Jun; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-04-12

    In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12-18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants' mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants' mental health status. In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand's Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized assumption on the mental health status of

  20. Treating the invisible: Gaps and opportunities for enhanced TB control along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Thi, Sein Sein; Swe, Lei Lei; Nosten, Francois; Foster, Angel M

    2017-01-13

    In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance. In this study we conducted 13 interviews with key informants working in public health or TB treatment provision to elicit information on TB treatment availability and TB surveillance practices. In addition we organized 15 focus group discussions with refugee and migrant TB, TB/HIV, and MDR-TB patients and non-patients to discuss treatment access. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis and created treatment availability maps with Google maps. The study identified surveillance, treatment, and funding gaps. Migrant TB cases are underreported in the provincial statistics due to jurisdictional interpretations and resource barriers. Our results suggest that TB/HIV and MDR-TB treatment options are limited for migrants and a heavy reliance on donor funding may lead to potential funding gaps for migrant TB services. We identified several opportunities that positively contribute to TB control in Tak province: improved diagnostics, comprehensive care, and collaboration through data sharing, planning, and patient referrals. The various organizations providing TB treatment to migrant and refugee populations along the border and the Tak Provincial Public Health Office are highly collaborative which offers a strong foundation for future TB control initiatives. Our findings suggest the need to enhance the surveillance system to include all migrant TB patients who seek treatment in Tak province and

  1. Organophosphate pesticide exposure in school-aged children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Tunsaringkarn, Tanasorn; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G; Fiedler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural sectors in Thailand. Previous studies have documented that children residing in agricultural areas have higher exposure to OPs than children living in other residential areas. The objective of this study was to quantify urinary biomarkers of OP exposure and determine the environmental conditions and activities that predict their levels among children living in Central Thailand farming regions. In October 2011, 53 6-8-year-old participants were recruited from Pathum Thani Province, Thailand. Twenty-four lived in rice farming communities at Khlong Luang District where OPs are the pesticides used frequently. Twenty-nine participants, living in aquacultural farming communities at Lum Luk Ka District where OPs are not used, were recruited to serve as controls for pathways of exposure (e.g., residential, dietary) other than occupational/paraoccupational exposures encountered in rice farming. Household environments and participants' activities were assessed using a parental structured interview. Urine samples (first morning voids) were collected from participants for OP urinary metabolite (i.e., dialkylphosphates [DAPs] and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy]) measurements. The levels of most urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in participants who lived in a rice farming community than those who lived in an aquacultural farming community (P farms (∑DAP: P = .001; TCPy: P = .001) and living in a rice farming community (∑DAP: P = .009; TCPy: P farm (P = .03), being with parent while working on a farm (P = .02), playing on a farm (P = .03), and the presence of observable dirt accumulated on the child's body (P = .02). In conclusion, OP metabolite levels among children who live in rice farming communities were strongly influenced by farming activity, household environments, and child behaviors, suggesting that these are the primary pathways in which children living in these agricultural

  2. Healthcare utilization and cost of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilokthornsakul, P; Sawangjit, R; Inprasong, C; Chunhasewee, S; Rattanapan, P; Thoopputra, T; Chaiyakunapruk, N

    2016-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening dermatologic conditions. Although, the incidence of SJS/TEN in Thailand is high, information on cost of care for SJS/TEN is limited. This study aims to estimate healthcare resource utilization and cost of SJS/TEN in Thailand, using hospital perspective. A retrospective study using an electronic health database from a university-affiliated hospital in Thailand was undertaken. Patients admitted with SJS/TEN from 2002 to 2007 were included. Direct medical cost was estimated by the cost-to-charge ratio. Cost was converted to 2013 value by consumer price index, and converted to $US using 31 Baht/ 1 $US. The healthcare resource utilization was also estimated. A total of 157 patients were included with average age of 45.3±23.0 years. About 146 patients (93.0%) were diagnosed as SJS and the remaining (7.0%) were diagnosed as TEN. Most of the patients (83.4%) were treated with systemic corticosteroids. Overall, mortality rate was 8.3%, while the average length of stay (LOS) was 10.1±13.2 days. The average cost of managing SJS/TEN for all patients was $1,064±$2,558. The average cost for SJS patients was $1,019±$2,601 while that for TEN patients was $1,660±$1,887. Healthcare resource utilization and cost of care for SJS/TEN in Thailand were tremendous. The findings are important for policy makers to allocate healthcare resources and develop strategies to prevent SJS/TEN which could decrease length of stay and cost of care.

  3. Plasmodium vivax rhomboid-like protease 1 gene diversity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataradchakul, Touchchapol; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Nosten, Francois; Vega-Rodriguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Lek-Uthai, Usa

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax infection remains a major public health problem, especially along the Thailand border regions. We examined the genetic diversity of this parasite by analyzing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the P. vivax rhomboid-like protease 1 gene (Pvrom1) in parasites collected from western (Tak province, Thai-Myanmar border) and eastern (Chanthaburi province, Thai-Cambodia border) regions. Data were collected by a cross-sectional survey, consisting of 47 and 45 P. vivax-infected filter paper-spotted blood samples from the western and eastern regions of Thailand, respectively during September 2013 to May 2014. Extracted DNA was examined for presence of P. vivax using Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR. Pvrom1 gene was PCR amplified, sequenced and the SNP diversity was analyzed using F-STAT, DnaSP, MEGA and LIAN programs. Comparison of sequences of the 92 Pvrom1 831-base open reading frames with that of a reference sequence (GenBank acc. no. XM001615211) revealed 17 samples with a total of 8 polymorphic sites, consisting of singleton (exon 3, nt 645) and parsimony informative (exon 1, nt 22 and 39; exon 3, nt 336, 537 and 656; and exon 4, nt 719 and 748) sites, which resulted in six different deduced Pvrom1 variants. Non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions ratio estimated by the DnaSP program was 1.65 indicating positive selection, but the Z-tests of selection showed no significant deviations from neutrality for Pvrom1 samples from western region of Thailand. In addition McDonald Kreitman test (MK) showed not significant, and Fst values are not different between the two regions and the regions combined. Interestingly, only Pvrom1 exon 2 was the most conserved sequences among the four exons. The relatively high degree of Pvrom1 polymorphism suggests that the protein is important for parasite survival in face of changes in both insect vector and human populations. These polymorphisms could serve as a sensitive marker for studying plasmodial

  4. Microbial communities in the reef water at Kham Island, lower Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraporn Somboonna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse habitats on Earth, but knowledge of their associated marinemicrobiome remains limited. To increase the understanding of the coral reef ecosystem in the lower Gulf of Thailand, this study utilized 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiota present in the reef water at Kham Island, Trat province, Thailand (N6.97 E100.86. The obtained result was then compared with the published microbiota from different coral reef water and marine sites. The coral reefs at Kham Island are of the fringe type. The reefs remain preserved and abundant. The community similarity indices (i.e., Lennon similarity index, Yue & Clayton similarity index indicated that the prokaryotic composition of Kham was closely related to that of Kra, another fringing reef site in the lower Gulf of Thailand, followed by coral reef water microbiota at GS048b (Cooks Bay, Fr. Polynesia, Palmyra (Northern Line Islands, United States and GS108b (Coccos Keeling, Australia, respectively. Additionally, the microbial eukaryotic populations at Kham was analyzed and compared with the available database at Kra. Both eukaryotic microbiota, in summer and winter seasons, were correlated. An abundance of Dinophysis acuminata was noted in the summer season, in accordance with its reported cause of diarrhoeatic shellfish outbreak in the summer season elsewhere. The slightly lower biodiversity in Kham than at Kra might reflect the partly habitat difference due to coastal anthropogenic activities and minor water circulation, as Kham locates close to the mainland and is surrounded by islands (e.g., Chang and Kut islands. The global marine microbiota comparison suggested relatively similar microbial structures among coral sites irrespective of geographical location, supporting the importance of coral-associated marine microbiomes, and Spearman’s correlation analysis between community membership and factors of

  5. Microbial communities in the reef water at Kham Island, lower Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Monanunsap, Somchai; Chavanich, Suchana; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse habitats on Earth, but knowledge of their associated marinemicrobiome remains limited. To increase the understanding of the coral reef ecosystem in the lower Gulf of Thailand, this study utilized 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiota present in the reef water at Kham Island, Trat province, Thailand (N6.97 E100.86). The obtained result was then compared with the published microbiota from different coral reef water and marine sites. The coral reefs at Kham Island are of the fringe type. The reefs remain preserved and abundant. The community similarity indices (i.e., Lennon similarity index, Yue & Clayton similarity index) indicated that the prokaryotic composition of Kham was closely related to that of Kra, another fringing reef site in the lower Gulf of Thailand, followed by coral reef water microbiota at GS048b (Cooks Bay, Fr. Polynesia), Palmyra (Northern Line Islands, United States) and GS108b (Coccos Keeling, Australia), respectively. Additionally, the microbial eukaryotic populations at Kham was analyzed and compared with the available database at Kra. Both eukaryotic microbiota, in summer and winter seasons, were correlated. An abundance of Dinophysis acuminata was noted in the summer season, in accordance with its reported cause of diarrhoeatic shellfish outbreak in the summer season elsewhere. The slightly lower biodiversity in Kham than at Kra might reflect the partly habitat difference due to coastal anthropogenic activities and minor water circulation, as Kham locates close to the mainland and is surrounded by islands (e.g., Chang and Kut islands). The global marine microbiota comparison suggested relatively similar microbial structures among coral sites irrespective of geographical location, supporting the importance of coral-associated marine microbiomes, and Spearman's correlation analysis between community membership and factors of shore distance and

  6. Cutaneous Gnathostomiasis: A Case Report from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakunee Niranvichaiya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gnathostomiasis is transmitted to humans via ingestion of third-stage larva of genus Gnathostoma. Thailand is considered an endemic area for the disease. We reported a 65-year-old Thai male patient with clinical presentation of a small number of nodular migratory swellings on the face and neck. The histopathology of skin biopsy revealed parasitic material surrounded by eosinophil infiltration and fibrosis in deep dermis. Therefore, we were able to confirm diagnosis of cutaneous gnathostomiasis. After treatment with ivermectin followed by albendazole, the lesions still persisted; thus, surgical excision of lesions may be the necessary curative treatment.

  7. The nutrition and health transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosulwat, Vongsvat

    2002-02-01

    To explore and describe the nutrition and health transition in Thailand in relation to social and economic changes, shifts in food consumption patterns and nutritional problems, as well as morbidity and mortality trends. This report reviews the nutrition and health situation and other related issues by compiling information from various reports and publications from several sources. Yearly statistics and reports from the National Statistical Office were used as well as data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and national surveys on the nutrition and health situation of the Thai population. Thailand has undergone social and economic transitions during the past three decades and is approaching the post-demographic transitional period. These are evidenced by an increase in life expectancy at birth of the population, and declines in the total fertility and infant mortality rates. The economic structure has also moved from agricultural to industrial. Industrial growth has surpassed that of the agricultural sector as indicated by a steady rise in the share of the industrial sector in the gross domestic product, which is greater than that of other sectors. At the same time, results from several nation-wide surveys indicate that the food consumption pattern of the population has changed considerably; Thai staples and side dishes are being replaced by diets containing a higher proportion of fats and animal meat. A shift in the proportion of expenditure on food prepared at home and that expended on purchased, ready-to-eat food, in both rural and urban settings, gives another reflection of the change in food consumption of the Thai population. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased dramatically during the past 20 years and is more pronounced in children from private schools and urban communities than in those from public schools or rural areas. Among adults, results from two national surveys in 1991 and 1996

  8. A study of radioactive elements of various rocks in Pattani Province with gamma ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewtubtim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity of the three elements, potassium, uranium and thorium, in rocks of various types in Pattani Province was investigated by using a gamma ray spectrometer. It was found that potassium contents in igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were 6.29 %, 2.21% and 1.54 % respectively. Uranium equivalent contents in igneous rock, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were found to be 22.51 ppm, 11.25 ppm and 14.13 ppm, while thorium contents in these rocks were 21.78 ppm, 18.88 ppm and 18.15 ppm respectively. The results obtained were similar to those reported by Pungtip Ranglek (1995 for igneous rock at Liwong Pluton site in Thepha, Na Thawi, Chana and Saba Yoi Districts, Songkhla Province, and were about six times higher than those reported by Kittichai Wattananikorn (1994 for igneous rock in the northern part of Thailand.

  9. The discovery of Kerivoula krauensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in southern peninsular Thailand provides new information on the distribution and conservation status of this data deficient species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounsavane Douangboubpha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 2013, an adult male Kerivoula krauensis was captured in a harp trap set in forest understorey in Bala Forest, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. This is only the second locality recorded for the species, the first outside Malaysia, and represents a range extension of 254 km, northwards from Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. This discovery has important conservation implications suggesting that the species is more widespread than previously thought but also confirms previous findings that it appears to live in very low population densities as compared to other Kerivoula found in the same habitat. Information on its taxonomy, echolocation call, distribution and ecology is included. In addition, the new material from Thailand is briefly compared to other known species from the country

  10. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  11. Ergonomics studies in Thailand: a future prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaranont, K

    1997-12-01

    Ergonomics studies in Thailand began in 1967 after Professor Kovit Satavuthi graduated from the University of Birmingham, where he worked with Professor Nigel Corlett. Ergonomics was offered as an elective in the IE curriculum at Chulalongkorn University. Professor Satavuthi was later invited to teach manufacturing process and system at the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, School of Public Health, Mahidol University. He then added the ergonomics concept to the class as part of his lectures. The first international conference was organized by the Central Coordinating Board of SEAMEO-TROPMED Project, and it was held in Bangkok from 19-23 June 1972, thus bringing ergonomics into public attention. Most participants came from medical science and public health fields, however. Ergonomics popularity has begun to gain momentum in the past 4-5 years. This could be the result of more universities paying serious consideration to provide ergonomics knowledge to their students. It is also well-accepted that ergonomics is a multidisciplined subject. It requires knowledge from medical sciences, sociology, psychology, public health, and engineering. The results of ergonomics studies will have greater chances of success if they are concluded from all disciplines of knowledge. This paper reports some previous studies in Thailand and discuss how to build up an ergonomics team and to produce reasonable results with a sound application plan.

  12. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Suphanchaimaj, Weraphan; Settasatien, Anuchar; Jinwong, Thanapong

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Thailand. The number of mortalities, morbidities and disabilities are huge, greatly affecting the individual victims, the families, society and the nation as a whole. To study the current situation regarding traffic injuries in Thailand. Retrospective study from multiple national data sources For over ten years, the annual death toll due to road accidents has been more than ten thousand Thais. The situation remains critical with a higher mortality and morbidity than many other low or middle income countries. Two-thirds of the victims were males: 80% were under 40 years of age. Most (80%) of the injured and dead were motorcyclists. The large number of traffic crashes, injuries, disabilities and deaths resulted in more than 168 thousand million Baht in economic losses in 2002. These losses are trending to increase. Traffic injuries are a persistent major public health concern primarily because of a lack of adherence to the use of safety restraints and obedience of traffic laws. The nation must not hesitate to increase efforts to address these problems, as they are costing life and limb of Thais every hour of every day, as well as adding a huge economic burden.

  13. Revision of Therophilus s.s. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Agathidinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stoelb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on a phylogenetic analysis, the limits of Therophilus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Agathidinae are redefined and restricted to a small proportion of the previously included species. Those species belonging to the world fauna are listed and the species from Thailand are revised. Forty-four species are assigned to the genus including 11 new species, i.e. T. anuchati, T. apichati, T. areeluckae, T. boonthami, T. chiangmaiensis, T. kwanuiae, T. songrami, T. sukpengae, T. wannai, T. wongchaii, T. wongwani. A dichotomous key to species is presented; links to an electronic interactive key and to distribution maps are also included.

  14. Microbial ecology of Thailand tsunami and non-tsunami affected terrestrials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Jankaew, Kruawun; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tsunamis on microbial ecologies have been ill-defined, especially in Phang Nga province, Thailand. This ecosystem was catastrophically impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as well as the 600 year-old tsunami in Phra Thong island, Phang Nga province. No study has been conducted to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. This study represents the first to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. We utilized metagenomics with 16S and 18S rDNA-barcoded pyrosequencing to obtain prokaryotic and eukaryotic profiles for this terrestrial site, tsunami affected (S1), as well as a parallel unaffected terrestrial site, non-tsunami affected (S2). S1 demonstrated unique microbial community patterns than S2. The dendrogram constructed using the prokaryotic profiles supported the unique S1 microbial communities. S1 contained more proportions of archaea and bacteria domains, specifically species belonging to Bacteroidetes became more frequent, in replacing of the other typical floras like Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Basidiomycota. Pathogenic microbes, including Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Flavobacterium spp. and Photobacterium spp., were also found frequently in S1. Furthermore, different metabolic potentials highlighted this microbial community change could impact the functional ecology of the site. Moreover, the habitat prediction based on percent of species indicators for marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial niches pointed the S1 to largely comprise marine habitat indicating-species.

  15. Microbial ecology of Thailand tsunami and non-tsunami affected terrestrials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraporn Somboonna

    Full Text Available The effects of tsunamis on microbial ecologies have been ill-defined, especially in Phang Nga province, Thailand. This ecosystem was catastrophically impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as well as the 600 year-old tsunami in Phra Thong island, Phang Nga province. No study has been conducted to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. This study represents the first to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. We utilized metagenomics with 16S and 18S rDNA-barcoded pyrosequencing to obtain prokaryotic and eukaryotic profiles for this terrestrial site, tsunami affected (S1, as well as a parallel unaffected terrestrial site, non-tsunami affected (S2. S1 demonstrated unique microbial community patterns than S2. The dendrogram constructed using the prokaryotic profiles supported the unique S1 microbial communities. S1 contained more proportions of archaea and bacteria domains, specifically species belonging to Bacteroidetes became more frequent, in replacing of the other typical floras like Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Basidiomycota. Pathogenic microbes, including Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Flavobacterium spp. and Photobacterium spp., were also found frequently in S1. Furthermore, different metabolic potentials highlighted this microbial community change could impact the functional ecology of the site. Moreover, the habitat prediction based on percent of species indicators for marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial niches pointed the S1 to largely comprise marine habitat indicating-species.

  16. Land Use and Natural Resources Planning for Sustainable Ecotourism Using GIS in Surat Thani, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Murayama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the land use and natural resources for future sustainable ecotourism site planning using GIS as a tool. The study is based on 2007 land use land cover data and ecotourism suitability data which are then integrated with other GIS datasets to evaluate the land use and natural resources at a district level in Surat Thani province. The final step of this study was the prioritization of the area that is best suited for ecotourism in assessing ecotourism sustainability in Surat Thani province. The result is useful for tourism facilities development and ecotourism resource utilization where ecotourism could be more developed. Additionally, the results can be used for managers and planners working in local and central governments and other non-governmental organizations. These integrated approaches cover complex and universal issues such as sustainable development of ecotourism, biodiversity conservation and protected area management in a tropical and developing country such as Thailand. Moreover, it is believed that this study can be used as a basis for evaluating the suitability of other areas for ecotourism. In addition, it may also serve as a starting point for more complex studies in the future.

  17. Phenetic structure of two Bactrocera tau cryptic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kitthawee, Sangvorn

    2013-04-01

    Morphometric variation with respect to wing venation patterns was explored for 777 specimens of the Bactrocera tau complex collected in Thailand (nine provinces) and Laos (one locality). Cryptic species B. tau A and C were identified based on their wing shape similarity to published reference images. In Thailand, the B. tau A species was identified in four provinces and the B. tau C species in seven provinces, and both species in one locality of Laos. The objective of the study was to explain the geographic variation of size and shape in two cryptic species collected from the same host (Momordica cochinchinensis). Although collected from the same host, the two species did not show the same morphological variance: it was higher in the B. tau A species, which currently infests a wide range of different fruit species, than in the B. tau C species, which is specific to only one fruit (M. cochinchinensis). Moreover, the two species showed a different population structure. An isolation by distance model was apparent in both sexes of species C, while it was not detected in species A. Thus, the metric differences were in apparent accordance with the known behavior of these species, either as a generalist (species A) or as a specialist (species C), and for each species our data suggested different sources of shape diversity: genetic drift for species C, variety of host plants (and probably also pest-host-relationship) for species A. In addition to these distinctions, the larger species, B. tau C, showed less sexual size and shape dimorphism. The data presented here confirm the previously established wing shape differences between the two cryptic species. Character displacement has been discussed as a possible origin of this interspecific variation. The addition of previously published data on species A from other hosts allowed the testing of the character displacement hypothesis. The hypothesis was rejected for interspecific shape differences, but was maintained for size

  18. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  19. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model.

  20. First evidence of dengue infection in domestic dogs living in different ecological settings in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Thongyuan

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is considered an important public health problem in many countries worldwide. However, only a few studies have been conducted on primates and domestic animals that could potentially be a reservoir of dengue viruses. Since domestic dogs share both habitats and vectors with humans, this study aimed to investigate whether domestic dogs living in different ecological settings in dengue endemic areas in Thailand could be naturally infected with dengue viruses.Serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in three different ecological settings of Thailand: urban dengue endemic areas of Nakhon Sawan Province; rubber plantation areas of Rayong Province; and Koh Chang, an island tourist spot of Trat Province. These samples were screened for dengue viral genome by using semi-nested RT-PCR. Positive samples were then inoculated in mosquito and dog cell lines for virus isolation. Supernatant collected from cell culture was tested for the presence of dengue viral genome by semi-nested RT-PCR, then double-strand DNA products were double-pass custom-sequenced. Partial nucleotide sequences were aligned with the sequences already recorded in GenBank, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. In the urban setting, 632 domestic dog serum samples were screened for dengue virus genome by RT-PCR, and six samples (0.95% tested positive for dengue virus. Four out of six dengue viruses from positive samples were successfully isolated. Dengue virus serotype 2 and serotype 3 were found to have circulated in domestic dog populations. One of 153 samples (0.65% collected from the rubber plantation area showed a PCR-positive result, and dengue serotype 3 was successfully isolated. Partial gene phylogeny revealed that the isolated dengue viruses were closely related to those strains circulating in human populations. None of the 71 samples collected from the island tourist spot showed a positive result

  1. Development of Electric Competitive Sports in Agriculture Universities of Hebei Province

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao-Feng Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we have a research of the development of electric competitive sports in agriculture universities of Hebei province. Agriculture universities of Hebei province should improve the theoretic study on electronic competitive sports while promoting the practical development according to the features of higher education. With governments, they should perfect laws and regulations on electronic competitive sports and build supervising and feedback mechanism in each step of the sports’ d...

  2. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisut Sittichaya; Roger Beaver; Lan-Yu Liu; Aran Ngampongsai

    2009-01-01

    An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe), and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  3. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe, and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  4. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. An Overview of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Thailand through 1973 - A Background Survey for Perspective and a Guide to the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    PROVINCES of ’THAILAND off .3 . , SCSORXnT I N 2A NORTH 2016 / , 3 i-A- " X5 To NI 8 HC . 1 8 3098T" f ."A"C t 4 PH-,-T 66 "."CII I ANC \\..44. PRACIIIN...communism. Cultural conflicts with the Thai have been emphasized in the recruiting efforts. Oppression by RTG officials, taxation , lack of police...base since the early days of the Malaysian Emergency (1958-60). Although the stated CPM main objective is Malaysia, there is no evidence that the CTO

  5. Improving pain relief for children in Thailand | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia. Thailand has the highest rates of the deadly liver cancer, cholangiocarinoma, in the world. View moreEcohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

  6. Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) Field Evaluation in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doheny, Robert C; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand...

  7. Reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged approach—combining treatment, ecosystem monitoring, and community mobilization—can effectively tackle the transmission of liver flukes.

  8. Moving Thailand's mountain of alcohol-related harm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apiradee Treerutkuarkul

    2017-01-01

    ... especially among young people. Today Thailand is one of the few developing countries with laws and policies aimed at preventing alcohol-related problems, such as liver disease, cancers and alcohol dependence as well as road...

  9. Invisible in Thailand: documenting the need for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Green

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Rescue Committee (IRC has conducted asurvey to document the experiences of Burmese people livingin border areas of Thailand and assess the degree to whichthey merit international protection as refugees.

  10. Intellectual Property Creation of Japanese Companies in China and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayasuki Kondo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization, Japanese companies are globalizing their operations. They have recently been increasing the number of overseas R&D centers in Asia, especially in China and Thailand. Using the United States patent and industrial design data, the paper finds the following points quantitatively. Japanese companies are increasing the number of patents and industrial designs created in the two countries. They used local talents from the beginning in China for both patents and industrial designs. In Thailand, they used local talents for industrial designs from the beginning, while Japanese expertise in Thailand was used for patents in the beginning. In any case, the role of Japanese in Japan is important. Compared with multi-national companies (MNCs from other countries, the IP creation activities of Japanese companies are weak compared to their amount of foreign direct investment to China and Thailand.

  11. Additions to the Bopyrid Isopod Fauna Of Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markham, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Previously, scattered accounts recorded 13 species of bopyrid isopods infesting decapod crustaceans in Thailand. Recent collections, mainly at Phuket, on the west coast, have turned up 18 more species in Thai waters. Asymmetrione asymmetrica (Shiino) infests Clibanarius spec. Bopyrissa liberorum

  12. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance in Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soebiyanto, Radina

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of malaria transmission in Thailand and Indonesia to assist in the understanding and reducing the incidence of the deadly disease. Satellite observations are being integrated into this work, and this is described herein.

  13. The economics of catfish farming in central Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panayotou, T; Wattanutchariya, S; Isvilanonda, S; Tokrisna, R

    1982-01-01

    A recall survey of 41 catfish farms in the central plain of Thailand during 1979 was undertaken to ascertain why production has been falling since 1974, despite high and rising market prices for catfish...

  14. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-02-17

    Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand. The standard questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council was used to collect data on chronic respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, dyspnea, severe dyspnea, stuffy nose in the participating workers. Data on their health symptoms experienced in the past 30 days was also asked. A constructed questionnaire was used to collect exposure data, including type of job, time in the kitchen, the frequency of frying food, tears while cooking (TWC), the type of restaurant, fuel used for cooking, the size and location of the kitchen, and the exhaust system and ventilation. The prevalence of the symptoms was compared with those obtained from 395 controls, who were neighbors of the participants who do not work in a restaurant. In comparison to the control group, the restaurant workers had twice or more the prevalence on most of the chronic health symptoms. Men had a higher risk for "dyspnea", "stuffy nose" and "wheeze" while women had higher risk of "cough". A Rate Ratio (RR) of susceptibility was established, which ranged from 1.4 up to 9.9. The minimum RR was for women with "severe dyspnea" (RR of 1.4, 95%CI 0.8, 2.5) while the men showed the maximum RR of 9.9 (95%CI 4.5-22.0) for "wheeze". Possible risk factors identified were job description, job period, size of restaurant, kitchen location, type of cooking oil, hours of stay in the kitchen area, number of fry dishes prepared, frequency of occurrence of TWC, and additional cooking at

  15. Development Trajectory, Emission Profile, and Policy Actions : Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Qwanruedee; Chotichanathawewong; Natapol Thongplew

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and ...

  16. Development trajectory, emission profile, and policy actions: Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chotichanathawewong, Qwanruedee; Thongplew, Natapol

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and effici...

  17. Thailand, A beauty hub for everyone? : Internationalizing Thai Aesthetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...

  18. Sustainable Solutions for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2009-01-01

    General as well as the MSW management in Thailand is reviewed in this paper. Topics include the MSW generation, sources, composition, and trends. The review, then, moves to sustainable solutions for MSW management, sustainable alternative approaches with an emphasis on an integrated MSW management. Information of waste in Thailand is also given at the beginning of this paper for better understanding of later contents. It is clear that no one single method of MSW disposal can deal with all mat...

  19. Controlling Dengue with Vaccines in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L.; Halstead, Scott B.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes), stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period. Conclusions/Significance Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels. PMID:23145197

  20. Controlling dengue with vaccines in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis L Chao

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes.We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes, stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period.Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels.

  1. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  2. Four new species of the spider genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980 from Laos, Thailand and Myanmar and the first description of the male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 with a proposed new diagnostic character for the family Nesticidae Simon, 1894 (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Elena; Jäger, Peter

    2016-03-02

    During various expeditions to Laos between 2003 and 2012 and one expedition to Myanmar in 2014, spiders of the family Nesticidae were collected inside and outside of caves. This was the first time this family was encountered in Laos. All specimens belong to the genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980. Four species have been recognized as being new to science, which are described in this paper: Nesticella beccus n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province, Luang Prabang Province, Huaphan Province, Khammouan Province, THAILAND: Mae Hong Son Province), Nesticella laotica n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Vientiane Province, Huaphan Province, Luang Prabang Province, Bolikhamsay Province), Nesticella foelixi n. sp. (male; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province) and Nesticella michaliki n. sp. (male, female; MYANMAR: Chin State). The male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 is described for the first time and it is the first record for Laos. Results from a first micro-computed tomography analysis of a female copulatory organ for this genus are provided. This analysis proves that female Nesticella exhibit a complex functional receptaculum, which is highly complex within the genus. The presence of a special type of leg setae (pipette setae) in males is proposed as diagnostic for the family Nesticidae.

  3. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  4. Outcomes of State- vs. Community-Based Mangrove Management in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, mangrove forests are claimed for state management, although it is widely recognized that coastal communities access and manage those forests. Skepticism persists within Thai government circles about whether coastal villages can sustainably manage and protect mangroves. This research presents evidence of successful mangrove conservation and management by two coastal villages in Trang province, southern Thailand. Using interdisciplinary methods including interviews, discussions, quantitative forest surveys, and institutional analysis, we describe the history of how these two communities gained rights to manage the mangrove forests, and the subsequent positive biological outcomes associated with their management. Local villages have crafted and maintained well-defined governance management institutions over the forest, and as a result, stand structure was superior in community-managed mangrove forests than in the open-access state forest. We argue that the basis for the communities' success in managing these forests was that the resource was necessary to local livelihoods and was becoming scarce; the communities enjoyed autonomous decision making and had a high degree of social capital; the forest and user groups were well defined and monitored; effective leadership was present in the villages to apply sanctions and resolve conflicts; and there was substantial assistance from an external non-governmental organization, which served as a bridge between the villages and the government. For conservation, simply knowing whether communities can conserve mangroves is not sufficient. We must know why the communities are or are not successful. Conservation research must, therefore, consider not only the biological outcomes of community management, but the underlying reasons for those outcomes. This paper can serve as a guideline for future studies on the community-mangrove interface.

  5. Diabetes prevention education program for community health care workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 4-month training program on the knowledge of CHCWs. CHCWs from 69 communities in Chiang Mai province in Thailand were assigned to the intervention group (IG, n=35) or control group (CG, n=34). All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline and at 4-months. The intervention group received a training program of 16 sessions of 2.5 h each within a 4-month period. A mix of classroom and E-learning approaches was used. All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline, 4-month, and follow-up at 8-month. Assessment was based on a pretested examination addressing understanding of nutritional terms and recommendations, knowledge of food sources related to diabetes prevention and diet-disease associations. Overall, the knowledge at baseline of both groups was not significantly different and all CHCWs scored lower than the 70% (mean (SD), 56.5% (6.26) for IG and 54.9% (6.98) for CG). After 4-month, CHCWs in the IG demonstrated improvement in total scores from baseline to 75.5% (6.01), P< .001 and relative to the CG 57.4% (5.59), P< .001. The follow up phase at 8-month, IG were higher in total scores than CG (71.3% (7.36) and 62.4% (6.81), P< .001). The diabetes prevention education program was effective in improving CHCWs' health knowledge relevant to diabetes prevention. The innovative learning model has potential to expand chronic disease prevention training of CHCWs to other parts of Thailand.

  6. Assessing the Challenges in Successful Implementation and Adoption of Crop Insurance in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Sinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the gaps in the adoption of crop insurance in Thailand and suggest possible solutions relating to policy support and framework, implementation mechanisms, technology adoption, and awareness amongst farmers. The methodology includes a literature review, interaction with officials, rice experts and insurance experts, and discussion with farmers. A study was undertaken at province level to assess the impact of using rainfall index as a threshold. Additionally, focused group discussions (FGD were conducted with rice farmers at the village level. Key issues targeted in the FGD were to understand the behavior and practices during droughts, impact of drought on crop yield, methods already in use to reduce the impact, such as plantation of drought-resistant rice, and the adoption of crop insurance. Data availability is a challenge and has led to withdrawal of Weather Index Insurance (WII in 2015. WII have threshold levels based on historical rainfall. Adoption of coping mechanisms, such as drought-resistant rice and irrigation increases the chances of adverse selection. In absence of ground based weather data, a combination of satellite agriculture drought information can be used to make crop insurance more attractive as it would help in reducing basis risk and improving insurers and farmers’ confidence in the product. Discussion with farmers, insurance companies, and the Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC in Thailand suggested low awareness among farmers about the potential benefits of weather index insurance products. Relatively low compensation is also an obstacle. Proper marketing and awareness raising campaigns should also accompany the introduction of index-based insurance products.

  7. Cost analysis for efficient management: diabetes treatment at a public district hospital in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Chatterjee, Susmita; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE  The study estimated cost of illness from the provider's perspective for diabetic patients who received treatment during the fiscal year 2008 at Waritchaphum Hospital, a 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand. METHODS  This retrospective, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study looked at 475 randomly selected diabetic patients, identified by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes E10-E14. Data were collected from the hospital financial records and medical records of each participant and were analysed with a stepwise multiple regression. KEY FINDINGS  The study found that the average public treatment cost per patient per year was US$94.71 at 2008 prices. Drug cost was the highest cost component (25% of total cost), followed by inpatient cost (24%) and outpatient visit cost (17%). A cost forecasting model showed that length of stay, hospitalization, visits to the provincial hospital, duration of disease and presence of diabetic complications (e.g. diabetic foot complications and nephropathy) were the significant predictor variables (adjusted R(2) = 0.689). CONCLUSIONS  According to the fitted model, avoiding nephropathy and foot complications would save US$19 386 and US$39 134 respectively per year. However, these savings are missed savings for the study year and the study hospital only and not projected savings, as that would depend on the number of diabetic patients managed in the year, the ratio of complicated to non-complicated cases and effectiveness of the prevention programmes. Nonetheless, given the high avoidable cost associated with complications of diabetes, healthcare providers in Thailand should focus on initiatives that delay the progression of complications in diabetic patients. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Health-Related Quality of Life and Survival of Cholangiocarcinoma Patients in Northeastern Region of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkiattiyos Woradet

    Full Text Available In northeast Thailand, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is a major cause of mortality. Patients with CCA have a poor prognosis and short-term survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL and survival time, and to explore whether change in HRQOL score is related to survival among CCA patients. The study was performed between February 2011 and January 2012, and included 171 patients with newly diagnosed CCA from 5 tertiary hospitals in four provinces of northeast Thailand. The HRQOL was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 2 months after diagnosis by the FACT-Hep questionnaire (Thai version 4. The outcome was survival time from diagnosis. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the association between HRQOL and survival time. A higher overall score on HRQOL was associated with a significantly better survival (HR per 5 units increase in HRQOL was 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88-0.96. Two of the separate domains contributing to the overall HRQOL-functional well-being and hepatobiliary cancer subscale-were found to have independent effects on survival, even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, and the other domains of HRQOL. CCA patient whose HRQOL scores had improved (≥9 units at the 1st month of follow up had a reduced probability of dying from the disease (HR: 0.56, 0.32-0.95 after adjustment for the same confounding factors. A positive association between HRQOL at diagnosis and survival time was found. An improvement in HRQOL score in the first months after diagnosis further increases survival.

  9. Social stigma and knowledge of tuberculosis and HIV among patients with both diseases in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirinapha X Jittimanee

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Disease-related stigma and knowledge are believed to be associated with patients' willingness to seek treatment and adherence to treatment. HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB presents unique challenges, because TB and HIV are both medically complex and stigmatizing diseases. In Thailand, we assessed knowledge and beliefs about these diseases among HIV-infected TB patients. METHODS: We prospectively interviewed and examined HIV-infected TB patients from three provinces and one national referral hospital in Thailand from 2005-2006. At the beginning of TB treatment, we asked patients standardized questions about TB stigma, TB knowledge, and HIV knowledge. Responses were grouped into scores; scores equal to or greater than the median score of study population were considered high. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with scores. RESULTS: Of 769 patients enrolled, 500 (65% reported high TB stigma, 177 (23% low TB knowledge, and 379 (49% low HIV knowledge. Patients reporting high TB stigma were more likely to have taken antibiotics before TB treatment, to have first visited a traditional healer or private provider, to not know that monogamy can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection, and to have been hospitalized at enrollment. Patients with low TB knowledge were more likely to have severe TB disease, to be hospitalized at enrollment, to be treated at the national infectious diseases referral hospital, and to have low HIV knowledge. Patients with low HIV knowledge were more likely to know a TB patient and to have low TB knowledge. DISCUSSION: We found that stigma and low disease-specific knowledge were common among HIV-infected TB patients and associated with similar factors. Further research is needed to determine whether reducing stigma and increasing TB and HIV knowledge among the general community and patients reduces diagnostic delay and improves patient outcomes.

  10. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  11. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  12. Comparative accuracy of Pap smear and HPV screening in Ubon Ratchathani in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleeporn Sangrajrang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the potential for using high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV testing-based screening for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in routine health services in Thailand; its accuracy in comparison to that of conventional cytology (CC; and the utility of HPV16/18 positive results and liquid-based cytology (LBC triage for HPV-positive women in the detection of high-grade CIN. Women aged 30–60 years in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand were screened with CC and hr-HPV testing and those abnormal on either tests were referred for colposcopy and/or directed biopsies. The final diagnosis using COBAS was based on histology or colposcopy when histology was not available. Estimation of test accuracy parameters was done using latent class analysis using Bayesian models. Of the 5004 women were enrolled, 20 (0.4% had abnormal CC and 174 (3.5% women were HPV-positive. Among 185 women abnormal on CC or HPV-positive, 176 (95.1% underwent colposcopy, of whom 101 (57.4% had abnormal colposcopy findings. Ninety-seven women with abnormal and 69 with normal colposcopy had biopsies performed. All 21 women with histological CIN2 or worse had hr-HPV and none were abnormal on CC. The estimated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were respectively 71.8%, 97.0% and 13.0% of HPV testing; 53%, 98.7% and 20.3% for triage of HPV-positive women with LBC; and 70.4%, 98.2% and 16.9% when test positivity was taken as HPV16/18 irrespective of LBC result or positive for hr-HPV non 16/18 types and LBC triage. Our study findings indicate poor performance of cytology screening and demonstrate the potential and utility of using HPV testing in public health services in Thailand as well as the utility of primary HPV testing and LBC triage in screening for cervical neoplasia. Keywords: Cervix cancer, Early detection, HPV screening, Cytology screening, Accuracy

  13. Comparative accuracy of Pap smear and HPV screening in Ubon Ratchathani in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Laowahutanont, Piyawat; Wongsena, Metee; Muwonge, Richard; Karalak, Anant; Imsamran, Weerawut; Senkomago, Virginia; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate the potential for using high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) testing-based screening for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in routine health services in Thailand; its accuracy in comparison to that of conventional cytology (CC); and the utility of HPV16/18 positive results and liquid-based cytology (LBC) triage for HPV-positive women in the detection of high-grade CIN. Women aged 30-60 years in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand were screened with CC and hr-HPV testing and those abnormal on either tests were referred for colposcopy and/or directed biopsies. The final diagnosis using COBAS was based on histology or colposcopy when histology was not available. Estimation of test accuracy parameters was done using latent class analysis using Bayesian models. Of the 5004 women were enrolled, 20 (0.4%) had abnormal CC and 174 (3.5%) women were HPV-positive. Among 185 women abnormal on CC or HPV-positive, 176 (95.1%) underwent colposcopy, of whom 101 (57.4%) had abnormal colposcopy findings. Ninety-seven women with abnormal and 69 with normal colposcopy had biopsies performed. All 21 women with histological CIN2 or worse had hr-HPV and none were abnormal on CC. The estimated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were respectively 71.8%, 97.0% and 13.0% of HPV testing; 53%, 98.7% and 20.3% for triage of HPV-positive women with LBC; and 70.4%, 98.2% and 16.9% when test positivity was taken as HPV16/18 irrespective of LBC result or positive for hr-HPV non 16/18 types and LBC triage. Our study findings indicate poor performance of cytology screening and demonstrate the potential and utility of using HPV testing in public health services in Thailand as well as the utility of primary HPV testing and LBC triage in screening for cervical neoplasia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Sukkho, Treetip; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2015-04-09

    Digestive system disorders have a substantial effect on worldwide morbidity and mortality rates, including in Thailand, where the majority of the rural areas have a lack of proper sanitation and awareness about disease prevention. This has led to the prevalence of different types of digestive diseases. Karen people in Thailand still use medicinal plants as first aid remedies in treating these diseases. Therefore, this study aimed at documenting the plants used to cure and prevent different types of digestive system disorders by Karen people of Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Ethnomedicinal data were collected from six key informants and 172 non-specialist informants regarding their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Use Value (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity Level (FL) values. The study revealed that 36 medicinal plant species belonging to 31 genera and 24 families were used to treat digestive system disorders. The most prevalent plant families were Zingiberaceae (6 species), Euphorbiaceae (4 species) and Fabaceae (4 species). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part accounting for 32.6% of the plants, followed by the bark (18.6%). About 60% of the administrations were given orally by potion (60%) and consumption as food was also indicated (14%). The highest ICF values were recorded for carminative disorders, stomachaches, geographic tongue, constipation, appetite stimulants and food poisoning (1.00 each) indicating the best agreement among the informants knowledge of medicinal plants that were used to treat aliments in these categories. The highest fidelity level values were recorded for Punica granatum (100.00), Psidium guajava (95.45), and Gymnopetalum integrifolium (90.91) showing conformity of knowledge on species with the best healing potential. Medicinal plants still play an important role among Karen culture. The present information on these medicinal plants, which have

  15. Utilization of Google Earth for Distribution Mapping of Cholangiocarcinoma: a Case Study in Satuek District, Buriram, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasing, Wannaporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Loyd, Ryan A; Rujirakul, Ratana; Yodkaw, Eakachai; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious public health problem in the Northeast of Thailand. CCA is considered to be an incurable and rapidly lethal disease. Knowledge of the distribution of CCA patients is necessary for management strategies. This study aimed to utilize the Geographic Information System and Google EarthTM for distribution mapping of cholangiocarcinoma in Satuek District, Buriram, Thailand, during a 5-year period (2008-2012). In this retrospective study data were collected and reviewed from the OPD cards, definitive cases of CCA were patients who were treated in Satuek hospital and were diagnosed with CCA or ICD-10 code C22.1. CCA cases were used to analyze and calculate with ArcGIS 9.2, all of data were imported into Google Earth using the online web page www.earthpoint.us. Data were displayed at village points. A total of 53 cases were diagnosed and identified as CCA. The incidence was 53.57 per 100,000 population (65.5 for males and 30.8 for females) and the majority of CCA cases were in stages IV and IIA. The average age was 67 years old. The highest attack rate was observed in Thung Wang sub-district (161.4 per 100,000 population). The map display at village points for CCA patients based on Google Earth gave a clear visual deistribution. CCA is still a major problem in Satuek district, Buriram province of Thailand. The Google Earth production process is very simple and easy to learn. It is suitable for the use in further development of CCA management strategies.

  16. Using Respondent Driven Sampling to Identify Malaria Risks and Occupational Networks among Migrant Workers in Ranong, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaporn Wangroongsarb

    Full Text Available Ranong Province in southern Thailand is one of the primary entry points for migrants entering Thailand from Myanmar, and borders Kawthaung Township in Myanmar where artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites has been detected. Areas of high population movement could increase the risk of spread of artemisinin resistance in this region and beyond.A respondent-driven sampling (RDS methodology was used to compare migrant populations coming from Myanmar in urban (Site 1 vs. rural (Site 2 settings in Ranong, Thailand. The RDS methodology collected information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices for malaria, travel and occupational histories, as well as social network size and structure. Individuals enrolled were screened for malaria by microscopy, Real Time-PCR, and serology.A total of 619 participants were recruited in Ranong City and 623 participants in Kraburi, a rural sub-district. By PCR, a total of 14 (1.1% samples were positive (2 P. falciparum in Site 1; 10 P. vivax, 1 Pf, and 1 P. malariae in Site 2. PCR analysis demonstrated an overall weighted prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI, 0-1.3% in the urban site and 1.0% (95% CI, 0.5-1.7% in the rural site for all parasite species. PCR positivity did not correlate with serological positivity; however, as expected there was a strong association between antibody prevalence and both age and exposure. Access to long-lasting insecticidal treated nets remains low despite relatively high reported traditional net use among these populations.The low malaria prevalence, relatively smaller networks among migrants in rural settings, and limited frequency of travel to and from other areas of malaria transmission in Myanmar, suggest that the risk for the spread of artemisinin resistance from this area may be limited in these networks currently but may have implications for regional malaria elimination efforts.

  17. Quality of Life, Mental Health and Educational Stress of High School Students in the Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assana, Supat; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Rangseekajee, Poonsri

    2017-08-01

    Majority of high school students in Thailand aim to study at universities. Therefore, they spend a lot of time studying in both classrooms and tutorial classes, that could cause stress, health problems and deteriorate their Quality Of Life (QOL). However, there has been no study on these issues in Thai context. To describe the status of QOL, mental health, educational stress, well-being and determine factors associated with QOL among high school students in the Northeast of Thailand. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Northeast of Thailand among 1,112 students of grade 10th, 11th and 12th. Multistage random sampling was used to select high schools in 5 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess QOL, educational stress, anxiety, depression and well-being. The association between the covariates was observed by using Generalized Linear Mixed (logistic regression) Model (GLMM). The prevalence of high level of QOL was 36% (95%CI: 32.30 to 41.69); whereas, 26.18% (95% CI: 16.72 to 35.63) had high level of educational stress and 16.41% (95% CI: 2.20 to 30.71) had severe anxiety. Prevalence of depression was 18.55% (95%CI: 9.86 to 27.23) and low level of well-being was 13.41% (95% CI: 0.18 to 27.14). The factors significantly associated with high QOL were; not having depression (Adj. OR= 3.07; 95%CI: (2.23 to 4.22); plevel of general well-being (Adj. OR=3.19; 95% CI:1.99 to 5.09; plevel of anxiety (OR=1.60; 95%CI:1.01 to 2.67). Most of the high school students had low to moderate levels of QOL, educational stress and anxiety. Depression, anxiety and general well-being had influences on QOL of high school students.

  18. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  19. Insecticide resistance in bedbugs in Thailand and laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Phusup, Yutthana; Jonjang, Nisarat; Khumsawads, Chayada; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Mulla, Mir S; Siriyasatien, Padet; Debboun, Mustapha

    2011-09-01

    Bedbugs are found in many countries around the world, and in some regions they are resistant to numerous insecticides. This study surveyed bedbugs in Thailand and determined their resistance to insecticides. The surveys were carried out in six provinces that attract large numbers of foreign tourists: Bangkok, Chonburi, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Phuket, and Krabi. Bedbugs were collected from hotels and colonized in the laboratory to evaluate their resistance to insecticides. Cimex hemipterus (F.) was found in some hotels in Bangkok, Chonburi, Phuket, and Krabi, whereas Cimex lectularius L. was found only in hotels in Chiang Mai. No bedbugs were found in Ubon Ratchathani. The colonized bedbugs showed resistance to groups of insecticides, including organochlorines (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, dieldrin), carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur), organophosphates (malathion, fenitrothion), and pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, etofenprox) in tests using World Health Organization insecticide-impregnated papers. The new insecticides imidacloprid (neonicotinoid group), chlorfenapyr (pyrrole group), and fipronil (phenylpyrazole group) were effective against the bedbugs; however, organophosphate (diazinon), carbamates (fenobucarb, propoxur), and pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, etofenprox) were ineffective. Aerosols containing various pyrethroid insecticides with two to four different active ingredients were effective against the bedbugs. The results obtained from this study suggested that both species of bedbugs in Thailand have developed marked resistance to various groups of insecticides, especially those in the pyrethroid group, which are the most common insecticides used for pest control. Therefore, an integrated pest management should be implemented for managing bedbugs in Thailand.

  20. Effects of Thailand and Sri Lanka agronomic practices on mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek production in rice-based cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran Peiris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of agronomic practices were evaluated on mungbean production, using a randomized complete block design conducted at the Farming Research Development Center, Phaniat sub-district, Khok Sumrong district, Lop Buri province, Thailand during February to July 2015. Five agronomic practices (each with four replications were tested—Thai farmer practice (TFP as the control; Thailand recommendation (TR; Sri Lankan farmer practice (SLFP; Sri Lankan new recommendation (SLNR; and Thailand recommendation with paddy straw mulch (TRM—each practice was composed of different tillage methods, seeding rates, mulching and seed inoculation (with Rhizobium. At the maturity stage, the lowest height (38.04 cm was found in TFP compared to 78.8%, 56.6%, 31.5% and 20.8% height increases reported in TRM, SLNR, SLFP, and TR, respectively. Furthermore, TFP had the lowest leaves per plant at maturity (8.73, whereas the percentage of leaves per plant at maturity in TR, SLFP, SLNR and TRM was 20.9%, 27.4%, 33.1% and 60.1%, respectively, higher than in TFP. TFP produced the lowest yield (0.657 t/ha while TRM, TR, SLFP and SLNR which produced increased yields by 109.13%, 41.4%, 46.1% and 86.8%, respectively, compared to the control. Overall, the results showed that the method of tillage, mulching and inoculum collectively determined the growth and seed yield of mungbean in a rice-mungbean cropping system.

  1. Distribution of tannin-'tolerant yeasts isolated from Miang, a traditional fermented tea leaf (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanpiengjai, Apinun; Chui-Chai, Naradorn; Chaikaew, Siriporn; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2016-12-05

    Miang is a fermented food product prepared from the tea leaves of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, and is traditionally produced in mountainous areas of northern Thailand. Although Miang has a long history and reveals deep-rooted cultural involvement with local people in northern Thailand, little is known regarding its microbial diversity. Yeasts were isolated from 47 Miang samples collected from 28 sampling sites, including eight provinces in upper northern Thailand. A hundred and seven yeast isolates were recovered and identified within 14 species based on the comparison of the D1/D2 sequence of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Candida ethanolica was determined to be the dominant species that was frequently found in Miang together with minor resident yeast species. All yeast isolates demonstrated their tannin-tolerant capability when cultivated on yeast malt agar (YMA) containing 50g/l tannin, but nine isolates displayed clear zones forming around their colonies, e.g., Debaryomyces hansenii, Cyberlindnera rhodanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. The results obtained from a visual reading method of tannase revealed that all yeast isolates were positive for methyl gallate, indicating that they possess tannase activity. It is assumed that a tannin-tolerant ability is one of the most important factors for developing a yeast community in Miang. This research study is the first report to describe tannin-tolerant yeasts and yeast communities in traditionally fermented tea leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. An Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis Caused by Genotype IB Hepatitis A Viruses Contaminating the Water Supply in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchusatsawat, Kriangsak; Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee; Kawidam, Chonthicha; Thiemsing, Laddawan; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Tatsumi, Masashi; Takeda, Naokazu; Ishii, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A was reported in a province adjacent to Bangkok, Thailand. To investigate the cause of the 2000 hepatitis A outbreaks in Thailand using molecular epidemiological analysis. Serum and stool specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis. Water samples from drinking water and deep-drilled wells were also collected. These specimens were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome. The entire genome sequence of one of the fecal specimens was determined and phylogenetically analyzed with those of known HAV sequences. Eleven of 24 fecal specimens collected from acute viral hepatitis patients were positive as determined by semi- nested reverse transcription PCR targeting the VP1/2A region of HAV. The nucleotide sequence of these samples had an identical genotype IB sequence, suggesting that the same causative agent was present. The complete nucleotide sequence derived from one of the samples indicated that the Thai genotype IB strain should be classified in a unique phylogenetic cluster. The analysis using an adjusted odds ratio showed that the consumption of groundwater was the most likely risk factor associated with the disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. TBT-pollution in the Gulf of Thailand: a re-inspection of imposex incidence after 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, Cornelis; Sampantarak, Uraiwan; Ruttanadakul, Nukul

    2009-04-01

    Imposex in neogastropods was used to determine the relative TBT distribution in the Gulf of Thailand in 2006. To identify the imposex prevalence, 8757 specimens, belonging to 22 species from five families of neogastropods, were collected at 56 sites in 13 sample areas. These areas were located between the Bight of Bangkok in the north and the Malaysian border in the south. A contamination model was developed to compensate for differences in TBT sensitivity among species and to make comparisons among areas. At every area imposex was found in neogastropods. The highest incidence was in the east side of the Bight of Bangkok off Si Racha and Pattaya and in the southern part around Pattani. The same areas showed the highest frequency of imposex in 1996. While the frequency of imposex appeared to have slightly decreased in these areas, increases were found elsewhere. In Pattani Province this could be related to dumping of highly polluted harbour sediments in the shallow coastal area. The overall frequency of imposex in the Gulf of Thailand significantly increased from 1996 to 2006.

  4. Flood monitoring and damage assessment in Thailand using multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B and MODIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. L.; Zhang, W. C.

    2017-02-01

    Flood is one of the most serious natural disasters in South Asia. How to monitor floods and assess damage caused is the most urgent problem for the government and disaster experts. With the advances of remote sensing, images acquired before the beginning of disaster to the very end or after the disaster from Earth-observing satellites benefit the decision making for reduction and protection of disaster dramatically. By using multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B and MODIS remote sensing data, applicability of different algorithms for flood monitoring and damage assessing was investigated in 2011 Thailand floods. Three different algorithms were adopted to monitor flood disaster events with water indices. Comparisons on the flood disaster monitoring and damage assessing by means of HJ-1A/1B and MODIS images suggested that multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B is much useful for the purpose, which demonstrated with the analysis of the thresholds estimated and problems in data post-processing. The variations of the inundated areas in the process of 2011 Thailand floods revealed were presented in this paper, and the damage caused by flooding was evaluated in three aspects, the population in the inundated region, the inundated information of different provinces and land use areas. Compared with MODIS, HJ-1A/1B images can provide more rapid and accurate flood extent and damage assessment for the disaster prevention, damage mitigation and disaster relief.

  5. Transmission-blocking activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid against naturally circulating strains of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsa, Narong; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Eikarat, Nantana; Coleman, Russell E

    2003-11-01

    The sporontocidal activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid was determined against naturally circulating isolates of Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. Primaquine was used as a negative control and a dihydroacridine-dione (WR-250547) was used as a positive control. Laboratory-reared Anopheles dirus mosquitoes were infected with P. vivax by allowing mosquitoes to feed on blood (placed in an artificial-membrane feeding apparatus) collected from gametocytemic volunteers reporting to local malaria clinics in Tak province, Thailand. Four days post-infection, mosquitoes were refed on uninfected mice treated 90 minutes earlier with a given drug. Drug activity was determined by assessing oocyst and sporozoite development. Neither primaquine nor artelinic acid affected oocyst or sporozoite development at a dose of 100 mg of base drug/kg of mouse body weight. In contrast, tafenoquine and WR-250547 affected sporogonic development at doses as low as 25.0 and 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. The potential role of these compounds in the prevention of malaria transmission is discussed, as are alternative strategies for the use of transmission-blocking antimalarial drugs.

  6. Diversity of leaf litter ant communities in Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby rubber plantations, Songkhla, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias O. Bickel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Southern Thailand's former natural rainforest have been replaced by rubber plantations. Despite the fact that rubber plantations dominate the landscape, little is known about its capacity to sustain forest dwelling species. We used leaf litter ants as a bioindicator from two natural forests, a rubber plantation forest and a completely cleared ruderal area in Southern Thailand, Songkla Province. There was a substantial decline in ant diversity from the undisturbed forest towards the ruderal area along a gradient of environmental disturbance. Additionally, there was a turnover in species composition between the different habitats and an increase in arboreal species "enhancing" the sparse ground foraging ant community in the plantation habitat. Also, alien tramp species replaced native species in the plantation and ruderal habitats. This study shows that despite their forest like appearance rubber plantations are a poor habitat for native leaf litter-inhabiting ants and unsuitable to sustain biodiversity in general. The changes in community structure in the secondary forest showed the importance of primary forest habitat to maintain regional biodiversity.

  7. Prospective study of the feasibility and effectiveness of a second-trimester quadruple test for Down syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsuksai, Peeranan; Jitsurong, Siroj

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a quadruple test for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy in clinical settings in Thailand. From October 2015 to September 2016, a prospective study was undertaken in 19 hospitals in Songkhla province, Thailand. Women with a singleton pregnancy of 14-18 weeks were enrolled and underwent the quadruple test. The risk cutoff value was set at 1:250. All women with a positive test (risk ≥1:250) were offered amniocentesis. Women were followed up until delivery. Among 2375 women, 206 (8.7%) had a positive quadruple test; 98 (47.6%) of these women voluntarily underwent amniocentesis. Overall, seven pregnancies were complicated with chromosomal abnormalities (2.9 cases in 1000), including four cases of Down syndrome (1.7 in 1000) and three of other abnormalities. The detection, false-positive, and accuracy rates of the quadruple test for Down syndrome were 75.0%, 8.6%, and 91.4%, respectively. The quadruple test was found to be a feasible and efficient method for screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy in a Thai clinical setting. The test should be performed for pregnant women before an invasive test for Down syndrome. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. The cost utility and budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for acute diarrhea in children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn Anne; Zerwes, Ute

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost utility and the budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children in Thailand. A cost utility model has been adapted to the context of Thailand to evaluate racecadotril plus oral rehydration solution (R+ORS) versus oral rehydration solution (ORS) alone for acute diarrhea in children racecadotril versus ORS alone is potentially cost-effective for children in Thailand and uptake could translate into savings for the Thailand public health care system.

  9. Export Supply of Electricity from Laos to Thailand: An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thongphet Lamphayphan; Toshihisa Toyoda; Chris Czerkawsk; Phouphet Kyophilavong

    2015-01-01

    Thailand, as the largest electricity market for Laos, has imported significant amounts of electricity from Laos since the operation of first hydropower plant in Laos. However, currently there have been a number of new power particularly nuclear power plants in Thailand being studied implying the possibility of reduction in Thailand’s electricity import from Laos. Since Thailand is the largest market of Laos’ electricity, the change in demand for electricity from Thailand has substantial impac...

  10. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... found to be subsidized by the Governments of China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam and that are...

  11. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless...

  12. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ..., Malaysia, and Thailand: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import Administration...), Malaysia, and Thailand would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to... from the PRC, Malaysia, and Thailand \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  13. 77 FR 66078 - Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine; Institution of Five..., Indonesia, and Thailand and Antidumping Duty Orders on Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India... orders on hot-rolled steel products from China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine would be...

  14. Latent Profile Analysis of Good Citizenship of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Srisa-ard, Boonchoom

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was 1) to develop good citizenship indicators of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand. 2) to classify latent profile of good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. The sample was 800 Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. Findings 1) there…

  15. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to...

  16. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  17. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  18. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  19. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  20. Article title - Potential evaluation of rolling stock manufacturing in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiprasit Koetniyom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the capital city of Thailand, the first electric railway system so called Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS has been established since 1999. And Thai Government has the master plan to develop the network for such mass transport system in order to reduce traffic congestion and pollution. However, experience and technology knowledge of the rolling stock are still unknown among Thai industries. Besides, the automotive industry in Thailand has shown robust growth despite the political conflict and economic situation. With contribution of component and material suppliers for automotive industry, Thailand has possibly high potential to develop and build the train with local contents based on the international railway industry standards, etc. For this reason, this research focuses on essential component structures for the train, international standards for railway industry and relevant technologies for product, production and testing. In addition, the questionnaire for the component and material suppliers in Thailand has been established under international standards and essential car train components. As a result, it reveals that there are high potential possibilities to support the rolling stock industries under the knowledge of relevant standards in some product modules of the body-strength-structure and auxiliary groups. However, the core knowledge and technologies for the product designs and testing in Thailand are the least in the least in the platformsuspension group.

  1. Economic Restructuring and Capital Inflow: Thailand and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bong Ro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available South Korea and Thailand which are receiving the financial support from IMF got similar international remarks on promoting the economic reform that has an exemplary effect. However, there are not only differences in the causes of the economic crisis, but also the status and effect of the economic reform. At present, Thailand gets a more ascendant status than South Korea in the "quo" status of attracting foreign investment. The reason is that the causes of the economic crisis in Thailand are relatively simple and the process of economic reform is also simple. Besides, Thailand is in the condition which made the effect came true easy. Meanwhile, since the procedures of firing the staff in Thailand are cut off, and the employees are easy to lose their jobs, it insures the flexibility of the labor market. Besides, the Thai government reduces the investment risk of foreigners by way of investing in stocks of the same value or remaining guarantee. South Korea also should insure the flexibility of the labor market and promote the flexibility of attracting foreign investment, which bases on the cooperation of the workers, employees and the government. If transfers the ill creditor’s rights to large bank, foreign investors should be encouraged by permitting an alternative of receiving the good asset or government warranty.

  2. Mid-Tertiary paleoenvironments in Thailand: pollen evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sepulchre

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Only few well-dated records document the evolution of Southeast Asian paleoenvironments during the Cenozoic. Here we analyse continental pollen assemblages from Late Oligocene and Miocene fossil sites of Thailand. In agreement with previous studies, palynoflora from the Oligocene suggests warm temperate forested habitats at 24–26 Ma, whereas Middle Miocene assemblages are made of thermophilous taxa. This change can be linked to the major climate reorganization that brought warmer and wetter conditions over Southeast Asia around 22 Ma. This study also provides the first submillional records from the Middle Miocene of Thailand. Thirteen samples of lignite layers from the sivaladapid-bearing Mae Moh site, dated between 13.3 and 13.1 Ma, and six samples from the hominoid-bearing Chiang Muan deposit, dated between 12.4 and 12.2 Ma, document oscillations between tropical woodlands and grasslands in northern Thailand. These pollen records likely reflect climate variations linked to insolation variations. Late Miocene palynological assemblages from Khorat, northeastern Thailand, document fluviolacustrine paleoenvironments alternatively covered by thermophilous trees and grasslands. These records show that both sivaladapids and early hominoids from Thailand have evolved in tropical environments with high variability in the vegetation cover.

  3. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of an Indirect-ELISA Test for Trypanosoma evansi Infection (Surra in Buffaloes and Its Application to a Serological Survey in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Kocher

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surra, caused by Trypanosoma evansi, is a neglected disease due to frequent subclinical evolution, especially in bovines in Asia. However, acute and chronic signs are regularly observed, with significant sanitary and economic impacts. In this study, we evaluated and applied an indirect-ELISA test for the detection of anti-T. evansi immunoglobulin G in buffaloes using antibovine conjugate. Based on buffalo reference sera from the Philippines, a two-graph receiver operating characteristics analysis (TG-ROC was conducted to define an optimal cut-off value; sensitivity and specificity were estimated at 92.5% and 94.2%, respectively. A cross-sectional serological survey was carried out in the major buffalo breeding areas of Thailand; 892 buffaloes from 8 provinces were sampled in North, Northeastern, and Southern Thailand. Seropositive buffaloes were found in all 8 provinces, on 20.3% of farms for an overall prevalence of 12.2% (95% CI 10.2–14.5%. Nearly one-third of the sampled population was exposed to infection. Broader sampling would be necessary but is not possible in the southern half-wild breeding systems. According to our results, buffaloes may constitute a large and robust reservoir for T. evansi, which is a permanent threat to other livestock such as cattle and horses as well as wild animals such as elephants in Southest Asia.

  5. Assessment of hepatitis C virus infection in two adjacent Thai provinces with drastically different seroprevalence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipat Wasitthankasem

    Full Text Available Improved awareness of the hepatitis C virus (HCV transmission has contributed to the overall decline in the HCV infection rate in some developing countries including Thailand. Chronic HCV infection in some rural Thai communities, however, presents a challenge in the efforts to treat and manage HCV-related diseases. Published and unpublished studies have suggested an unusually high incidence of HCV infection in a Thai province of Phetchabun compared to elsewhere in Thailand. To determine the magnitude of HCV infection and identify potential factors contributing to the higher rate of HCV infection in this province, we performed a population-based study in Phetchabun (n = 1667 and the neighboring Khon Kaen province (n = 1410 where HCV prevalence is much lower. Individuals between 30 and 64 years old completed detailed questionnaires designed to identify HCV risk factors and provided blood samples for anti-HCV antibody screening. The anti-HCV seropositive rates were 15.5% (259/1667 in Phetchabun and 3.6% (51/1410 in Khon Kaen. Positive samples were subsequently genotyped for HCV core gene sequence and assessed for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg and human immunodeficiency virus antigen/antibody (HIV Ag/Ab. More individuals in Phetchabun possessed the combined presence of HBsAg (5.0% and HIV Ag/Ab (0.4% than those in Khon Kaen (3.9% HBsAg and 0.0% HIV Ag/Ab. While male gender, intravenous drug use (IVDU and tattoos were significant HCV risk factors in both provinces (p <0.05, education less than high school and agriculture-related occupation were additionally associated with HCV in Phetchabun. HCV genotypes 6, 3, and 1 were identified in similar frequency in both provinces. We estimated that prevalence of HCV seropositivity and viremic carriers were higher in Phetchabun (143 and 111 per 1000 than in Khon Kaen (34 and 22 per 1000. Finally, we derived a simple risk factor-based scoring system as a useful preclinical tool to screen

  6. Pneumococcal Bacteremia Requiring Hospitalization in Rural Thailand: An Update on Incidence, Clinical Characteristics, Serotype Distribution, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility, 2005-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Rhodes

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Southeast Asia, but regional data is limited. Updated burden estimates are critical as pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV is highly effective, but not yet included in the Expanded Program on Immunization of Thailand or neighboring countries.We implemented automated blood culture systems in two rural Thailand provinces as part of population-based surveillance for bacteremia. Blood cultures were collected from hospitalized patients as clinically indicated.From May 2005- March 2010, 196 cases of pneumococcal bacteremia were confirmed in hospitalized patients. Of these, 57% had clinical pneumonia, 20% required mechanical ventilation, and 23% (n = 46 died. Antibiotic use before blood culture was confirmed in 25% of those with blood culture. Annual incidence of hospitalized pneumococcal bacteremia was 3.6 per 100,000 person-years; rates were higher among children aged <5 years at 11.7 and adults ≥65 years at 14.2, and highest among infants <1 year at 33.8. The median monthly case count was higher during December-March compared to the rest of the year 6.0 vs. 1.0 (p<0.001. The most common serotypes were 23F (16% and 14 (14%; 61% (74% in patients <5 years were serotypes in the 10-valent PCV (PCV 10 and 82% (92% in <5 years in PCV 13. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin, but non-susceptibility was high for co-trimoxazole (57%, erythromycin (30%, and clindamycin (20%.We demonstrated a high pneumococcal bacteremia burden, yet underestimated incidence because we captured only hospitalized cases, and because pre-culture antibiotics were frequently used. Our findings together with prior research indicate that PCV would likely have high serotype coverage in Thailand. These findings will complement ongoing cost effectiveness analyses and support vaccine policy evaluation in Thailand and the region.

  7. Occurrence and Health Risk of Patulin and Pyrethroids in Fruit Juices Consumed in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Piasai, Onuma; Imsilp, Kanjana; Hajslova, Jana; Giorgi, Mario; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2017-09-01

    The mycotoxin patulin (PAT) is well known as a natural contaminant of apple- and other fruit-based products. Pesticides are a group of chemicals abundantly used in agriculture to maximize productivity by protecting crops from pests and weeds. Because of their harmful health effects, PAT and pesticides are strictly monitored. The current study was undertaken to investigate the significance of PAT and pyrethroid insecticide contamination in a variety of fruit juices in Bangkok. To do this, a total of 200 fruit juice samples, consisting of 40 samples each of apple, apricot, peach, pineapple, and grape juice, were collected from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. PAT contamination in a variety of fruit juices was detected using validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and pyrethroid insecticides (cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, and flumethrin) were analyzed using a gas chromatography equipped with micro-electron capture detector. The survey found that PAT concentrations were lower than the maximum residue limit established by European Union. The results of the present study suggest that the risk of exposure to harmful levels of PAT, cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, and flumethrin in fruit juices is very low in urban areas of Thailand.

  8. Meteorological, environmental remote sensing and neural network analysis of the epidemiology of malaria transmission in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kiang

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In many malarious regions malaria transmission roughly coincides with rainy seasons, which provide for more abundant larval habitats. In addition to precipitation, other meteorological and environmental factors may also influence malaria transmission. These factors can be remotely sensed using earth observing environmental satellites and estimated with seasonal climate forecasts. The use of remote sensing usage as an early warning tool for malaria epidemics have been broadly studied in recent years, especially for Africa, where the majority of the world’s malaria occurs. Although the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS, which includes Thailand and the surrounding countries, is an epicenter of multidrug resistant falciparum malaria, the meteorological and environmental factors affecting malaria transmissions in the GMS have not been examined in detail. In this study, the parasitological data used consisted of the monthly malaria epidemiology data at the provincial level compiled by the Thai Ministry of Public Health. Precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, and vegetation index obtained from both climate time series and satellite measurements were used as independent variables to model malaria. We used neural network methods, an artificial-intelligence technique, to model the dependency of malaria transmission on these variables. The average training accuracy of the neural network analysis for three provinces (Kanchanaburi, Mae Hong Son, and Tak which are among the provinces most endemic for malaria, is 72.8% and the average testing accuracy is 62.9% based on the 1994-1999 data. A more complex neural network architecture resulted in higher training accuracy but also lower testing accuracy. Taking into account of the uncertainty regarding reported malaria cases, we divided the malaria cases into bands (classes to compute training accuracy. Using the same neural network architecture on the 19 most endemic provinces for years 1994 to 2000, the

  9. Stigma related to HIV and AIDS as a barrier to accessing health care in Thailand: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churcher, Sian

    2013-01-01

    Thailand has been recognized as a regional leader in its response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic. However, low rates of voluntary testing, late entry into healthcare and delayed treatment continue to be major challenges. Stigma associated with HIV has been cited as a significant barrier preventing a successful and co-ordinated response. HIV-related stigma is known to exist among Thai communities. However, less is known about the attitudes of healthcare workers towards people living with HIV, and how this impacts health-seeking behaviours. This paper considers recent literature from Thailand (2007-2012), which discusses how HIV-related stigma affects health-seeking behaviour, as well as experiences of HIV-related stigma in healthcare settings. Information was collected from electronic databases and websites using the search terms 'HIV stigma healthcare'. Literature published in English, from 2007 onwards, discussing the relationship between HIV-related stigma and health-seeking behaviour, or HIV-related stigma in healthcare settings in Thailand was included in this review. There is scarcity of information assessing the forms of stigmatizing attitudes known to exist within the Thai healthcare sector. Literature highlights that key affected populations feel most stigmatized against. Interactions and negative experiences in government healthcare settings have contributed to a reduced engagement around seeking healthcare. More research is needed on HIV-related stigma in healthcare settings in Thailand. Evidence suggests that interventions at the policy, environmental and individual levels are required to address stigma and protect the health and rights of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  10. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  11. The diamond model analysis of ICT cluster in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuvasin Charoen, Ph.D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has become an integral part of national competitiveness. Thailand was ranked 38th (out of 134 countries in the global competitiveness report conducted by the World Economic Forum. It also was ranked well below the world average on all of the factors related to technology, despite the fact that information technology and telecommunications had been a major factor driving the competitiveness of the country. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the various issues related to ICT cluster in Thailand. The diamond model was used to analyze the ICT cluster in Thailand. The results from this study can be used to guide the policy to enhance the competitiveness of ICT cluster.

  12. Venomous snakebite in Thailand. I: Medically important snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanhome, L; Cox, M J; Wilde, H; Jintakoon, P; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

    1998-05-01

    Thailand has an abundance of venomous snakes. Among the neurotoxic family Elapidae, there are three species of the genus Naja (cobras), three of the genus Bungarus (kraits), and the king cobra of the genus Ophiophagus. Other Elapidae snakes in Thailand include sea snakes and Asian coral snakes of the genus Calliophis. They have potent venoms but rarely bite humans. Tissue and hemotoxic snakes are represented by family Viperidae, subfamilies Viperinae and Crotalinae. They remain an occupational hazard for farmers and rubber tappers, causing serious morbidity but only rare deaths, since competent treatment is now widely available throughout Thailand. Purified equine antivenin is manufactured locally for the monocled and Siamese spitting cobras (Naja kaouthia and N. siamensis), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), most green pit vipers (Trimeresurus sp.), Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and the Siamese Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis).

  13. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  14. Knowledge of communicable and noncommunicable diseases among Karen ethnic high school students in rural Thasongyang, the far northwest of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorga T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thaworn Lorga,1 Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Prissana Naunboonruang,1 Piyatida Junlapeeya,1 Apiradee Payaprom31Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 2Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 3Thasongyang Hospital, Thasongyang, Tak, ThailandBackground: The double burden of communicable and noncommunicable diseases (NCD is an increasing trend in low- and-middle income developing countries. Rural and minority populations are underserved and likely to be affected severely by these burdens. Knowledge among young people could provide immunity to such diseases within a community in the long term. In this study we aimed to assess the knowledge of several highly prevalent NCDs (diabetes, hypertension, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD] and several highly incident communicable diseases (malaria and diarrheal diseases among Karen high school students in a rural district in far northwest of Thailand. The aim of the study is to explore information for devising life-course health education that will be strategically based in schools.Method: A cross-sectional survey approved by the ethics committee of Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand was conducted in Thasongyang, Tak province, from September 2011 to January 2012. Questionnaires for assessing knowledge regarding diabetes, hypertension, COPD, malaria, and diarrheal diseases were delivered to all 457 Karen high school students attending Thasongyang high school. A total of 371 students returned the questionnaires. Experts' validation and split-half reliability assessment was applied to the instrument.Results: Students' main sources of health information were their teachers (62%, health care workers (60%, television (59%, and parents (54%. Familial risk factors of diabetes and hypertension were not known to more than two thirds of the students. Except obesity and physical

  15. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung MN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo Nyein Aung,1,2 Thaworn Lorga,2 Janthila Srikrajang,2 Nongluk Promtingkran,2 Suchart Kreuangchai,2 Wilawan Tonpanya,2 Phatchanan Vivarakanon,2 Puangpet Jaiin,2 Nara Praipaksin,3 Apiradee Payaprom41Department of Public Health, Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Boromarajonani College of Nursing Nakhon Lampang (BCNLP, Lampang, Thailand; 3Baan Rekati Health Station, Thasongyang, Thailand; 4Thasongyang Hospital, ThailandBackground: Hypertension is currently a global health concern. Rural and minority populations are increasingly exposed to risk factors as a result of urbanization, leading to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a survey in the rural Karen community in Thasongyang District, Tak Province, Thailand, with the aims of determining: the distribution of blood pressure across different age groups; the prevalence of hypertension and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, including diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, and excess alcohol use; knowledge and awareness of hypertension as a disease; and knowledge and awareness of risk factors for hypertension among the population at risk.Methods: This was a community-based, cross-sectional survey of 298 rural Karen residents. A set of questionnaires assessing lifestyle-related health risk behaviors and awareness and knowledge of hypertension were used. Blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, weight, height, and waist circumference were measured.Results: Median systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 110 (range 100–120 mmHg and 70 (range 60–80 mmHg, respectively. High blood pressure was observed in more than 27% of the population, with 15% being hypertensive and 12% being prehypertensive. Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that people in the Karen community who were aware of hypertension were less likely to be current smokers (odds ratio [OR] 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.29–0.97 and those with primary

  16. Severe human influenza infections in Thailand: oseltamivir treatment and risk factors for fatal outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Hanshaoworakul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza is often not recognized as an important cause of severe or fatal disease in tropical and subtropical countries in Southeast Asia. The extent to which Oseltamivir treatment may protect against a fatal outcome in severe influenza infections is not known. Thailand's National Avian Influenza Surveillance (NAIS system affords a unique opportunity to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed severe and fatal human influenza infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During January 2004 through December 2006, 11,641 notifications to the NAIS were investigated in 73 of 76 Thai provinces. Clinical and demographic data and respiratory swab specimens were collected and tested by PCR for influenza. Using the NAIS database, we identified all patients with laboratory confirmed human influenza (A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and Type B infection. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on all fatal cases with laboratory confirmed influenza and from a sample of hospitalized cases in 28 provinces. The association of underlying risk factors, Oseltamivir treatment and risk of a fatal outcome were examined. Human influenza infections were identified in 2,075 (18% cases. Twenty-two (1% deaths occurred including seven deaths in children less than ten years of age. Thirty-five percent of hospitalized human influenza infections had chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia. Current or former smoking; advanced age, hypertension and underlying cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine disease were associated with a fatal outcome from human influenza infection. Treatment with Oseltamivir was statistically associated with survival with a crude OR of .11 (95% CI: 0.04-0.30 and .13 (95% CI: 0.04-0.40 after controlling for age. CONCLUSIONS: Severe and fatal human influenza infections were commonly identified in the NAIS designed to identify avian A/H5N1 cases. Treatment with Oseltamivir is associated with survival in hospitalized human influenza pneumonia

  17. Severe human influenza infections in Thailand: oseltamivir treatment and risk factors for fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaoworakul, Wanna; Simmerman, James Mark; Narueponjirakul, Ubolrat; Sanasuttipun, Wiwan; Shinde, Vivek; Kaewchana, Suchada; Areechokechai, Darin; Levy, Jens; Ungchusak, Kumnuan

    2009-06-25

    Influenza is often not recognized as an important cause of severe or fatal disease in tropical and subtropical countries in Southeast Asia. The extent to which Oseltamivir treatment may protect against a fatal outcome in severe influenza infections is not known. Thailand's National Avian Influenza Surveillance (NAIS) system affords a unique opportunity to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed severe and fatal human influenza infections. During January 2004 through December 2006, 11,641 notifications to the NAIS were investigated in 73 of 76 Thai provinces. Clinical and demographic data and respiratory swab specimens were collected and tested by PCR for influenza. Using the NAIS database, we identified all patients with laboratory confirmed human influenza (A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and Type B) infection. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on all fatal cases with laboratory confirmed influenza and from a sample of hospitalized cases in 28 provinces. The association of underlying risk factors, Oseltamivir treatment and risk of a fatal outcome were examined. Human influenza infections were identified in 2,075 (18%) cases. Twenty-two (1%) deaths occurred including seven deaths in children less than ten years of age. Thirty-five percent of hospitalized human influenza infections had chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia. Current or former smoking; advanced age, hypertension and underlying cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine disease were associated with a fatal outcome from human influenza infection. Treatment with Oseltamivir was statistically associated with survival with a crude OR of .11 (95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and .13 (95% CI: 0.04-0.40) after controlling for age. Severe and fatal human influenza infections were commonly identified in the NAIS designed to identify avian A/H5N1 cases. Treatment with Oseltamivir is associated with survival in hospitalized human influenza pneumonia patients.

  18. Factors associated with hand foot mouth disease among children in day care center, Chiang Rai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadaporn Inta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the factors associated with hand foot mouth disease (HFMD among children in day care center in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Methods: A community based case-control study was conducted to identify the factors associated with HFMD among the children under 6 years old who had been cared for in day care centers in Chiang Rai Province. A 47-item questionnaire had been developed and tested for validity and reliability before use. Index of item-objective congruence (IOC method was used to evaluate the quality of the questionnaire. The items of questionnaire consisted of various aspects including age, sex, history of vaccination, history of breastfeeding, history of treatment, etc. Data were analyzed in the logistic regression model at alpha = 0.05 to identify the association between variables. Results: Totally, 380 subjects (125 cases and 255 controls from 40 day care centers were recruited in the present study. Among the parents, 77.1% were female, 76.6% were aged 20–59 years old, 30.1% graduated at primary level, and 87.1% were Buddhist. Among the children, 53.8% were male, 58.7% were aged 3–4 years old, and 13.3% were overweight. After control for all possible confounding factors in the multiple logistic regression, two factors were associated with HFMD: children aged 5 years old (95% CI = 1.37–29.38, and children who had been breastfed for less than 6 months had a greater chance (1.97 times to develop HFMD than those who had a history of being breastfed ≥ 6 months (95% CI = 1.01–3.81. Conclusions: A specific prevention and control measure for HFMD should be developed and implemented. Breastfeeding young children for more than 6 months should be encouraged.

  19. Effect of community participation on household environment to mitigate dengue transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannapong, N; Tipayamongkholgul, M; Bhumiratana, A; Boonshuyar, C; Howteerakul, N; Poolthin, S

    2014-03-01

    Due to the absence of dengue vaccination, vector control is the only measure to prevent dengue outbreaks. The key element of dengue prevention is to eliminate vector habitats. Clean household environment, preventive behaviors of household members and community participation in dengue prevention and control are key successful elements. This study aimed to investigate the associations between environmental factors, dengue knowledge, perception and preventive behaviors of household and collaboration of community members and household risk of dengue by using mixed methods. One dengue epidemic province was selected from each region of Thailand including Bangkok. Two districts, one from the highest and another from the lowest dengue incidence areas, were selected from those provinces. The household leaders, community members, and local authorities in highest dengue incidence areas were interviewed by using questionnaire and through group interviews. The environment of each selected household was observed. Of 4,561 households, 194 were reported having dengue case(s) in the past year and that outdoor solid waste disposal significantly influenced household risk of dengue (OR=1.62; 95% CI=1.16-2.29). In contrast, having gardening areas reduced dengue risk at household level by 32%. High level of community participation in dengue prevention and control in uninfected areas and the information from local authorities and community members reconfirmed that community participation was the key factor against dengue outbreaks. Sustainable process of encouraging community members to eliminate vector breeding sites such as outdoor solid waste disposal is likely to lead to an achievement in dengue prevention and control.

  20. Visit of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Thailand

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (left) visiting DELPHI with Spokesman, Tiziano Camporesi, and Prapol Assavavirulhakarn, Pattaratorn Chirapravati, Claude Détraz, CERN Director for Fixed Target andFuture Programmes and Richard Breedon, University of California. No. 05: Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Daniel Treille, former spokesman of Delphi. No. 31: in Delphi experiment. No. 35: H.E. Mr. Virasakdi Futrakul, Ambassador, Permanent Representative ofThailand, Geneva with H.E. Dr. Ronarong Nopakun, Ambassador of the Thai Embassy in Bern

  1. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  2. Thailand's Missing Marine Fisheries Catch (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Derrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of marine resources has led to declining catches in many countries worldwide, and often also leads to fishing effort being exported to waters of neighboring countries or high seas areas. Thailand is currently under pressure to curb illegal fishing and human rights violations within its distant water fleets or face a European Union import ban. Simultaneously, Thailand is attempting to reduce fishing effort within its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Crucial to these endeavors is a comprehensive knowledge of total fisheries catches over time. A reconstruction of fisheries catches within Thailand's EEZ and by Thailand's fleet in neighboring countries' EEZs was undertaken for 1950–2014 to derive a comprehensive historical time series of total catches. This includes landings and discards that were not accounted for in official, reported statistics. Reconstructed Thai catches from within Thailand's EEZ increased from approximately 400,000 t·year−1 in 1950 to a peak of 2.6 million t·year−1 in 1987, before declining to around 1.7 million t·year−1 in 2014. Catches taken by Thai vessels outside their own EEZ increased from 52,000 t·year−1 in 1965 to a peak of 7.6 million t·year−1 in 1996, before declining to around 3.7 million t·year−1 by 2014. In total, reconstructed catches were estimated to be nearly three times larger than data reported by Thailand to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. Reconstructed Thai distant-water fleet catches were almost seven times higher than the comparable non-domestic catch deemed reported for Thailand. Thai landings from recreational fishing were conservatively estimated for the first time, and while they contributed less than 1% of current catch, they can be expected to grow in volume and importance with increasing tourism. As Thailand takes measures to reduce fishing effort within its EEZs and increases monitoring and enforcement of illegal and foreign

  3. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai Pachirat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.

  4. A new species of Lecanorchis (Orchidaceae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somran Suddee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lecanorchis betongensis, a new species from tropical rain forest in southern peninsular Thailand, is described and illustrated. The combination of semicircular column wings and a labellum with an odd number of major veins (but devoid of calli places the new species in sect. Lecanorchis. However, the lack of any fusion between the labellum and the column readily distinguishes L. betongensis from all other species of the genus. The new species seems morphologically closest to L. malaccensis from Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra.

  5. Implementing health insurance for migrants, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thwin, Aye Aye; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-02-01

    Undocumented migrant workers are generally ineligible for state social security schemes, and either forego needed health services or pay out of pocket. In 2001, the Thai Ministry of Public Health introduced a policy on migrant health. Migrant health insurance is a voluntary scheme, funded by an annual premium paid by workers. It enables access to health care at public facilities and reduces catastrophic health expenditures for undocumented migrants and their dependants. A range of migrant-friendly services, including trained community health volunteers, was introduced in the community and workplace. In 2014, the government introduced a multisectoral policy on migrants, coordinated across the interior, labour, public health and immigration ministries. In 2011, around 0.3 million workers, less than 9% of the estimated migrant labour force of 3.5 million, were covered by Thailand's social security scheme. A review of the latest data showed that from April to July 2016, 1 146 979 people (33.7% of the total estimated migrant labourers of 3 400 787) applied, were screened and were enrolled in the migrant health insurance scheme. Health volunteers, recruited from migrant communities and workplaces are appreciated by local communities and are effective in promoting health and increasing uptake of health services by migrants. The capacity of the health ministry to innovate and manage migrant health insurance was a crucial factor enabling expanded health insurance coverage for undocumented migrants. Continued policy support will be needed to increase recruitment to the insurance scheme and to scale-up migrant-friendly services.

  6. Skin diseases during floods in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Busaracome, Ploysyne; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Puavilai, Siripen

    2008-04-01

    Floods are natural disasters that occur occasionally in Thailand. The most common form skin diseases due to floods are infectious dermatoses especially superficial fungal infection. However the microbiologic evidences have not been evaluated. To evaluate the most common skin diseases during floods and identify the organism that causes skin maceration at web space(s) of toes (Hong Kong foot). Patients who complained of skin problems were evaluated at the temporary outpatient clinic during October 2006. Skin specimens from all patients who had itches and skin maceration at web space(s) of toes were cultured. Ninety-six patients were evaluated (38 males and 58 females). Eczema was the most prevalent dermatosis, which accounted for 34.5% of the total skin problems and the great majority of these cases were irritant contact dermatitis. Sixteen cases presented with itch and skin maceration at web space(s) of toes. All of them were colonized with various microorganisms. Gram-negative bacilli were the most prevalent ones and were found in 14 out of 16 specimens. Fungal culture was positive in only two specimens. Eczema is the most common dermatosis during floods. Skin maceration at web space(s) of toes, which were thought to be fungal infection, are chronic irritant dermatitis with secondary bacterial colonization. Only a few cases were fungal infection. Microbiologic investigation should be done in these patients. Unfortunately, it is not practical in such a situation. Topical medications that have the combination of antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties are the most suitable medications.

  7. “Moderate Class, More Knowledge” Vocational Subjects in Primary School Curriculum in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaveewan Charoensap

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the attitudes and opinions of administrators, teachers, parents and students on the vocational subjects in primary school curriculum in Thailand after educational reform 1992 and the Thai government policy ‘Moderate Class More Knowledge’ since 2015. Special emphasis is on curriculum and the teaching-learning process regarding vocational subjects in primary schools in Thailand. As per the post-1992 curriculum, the teachers have to train the pupils to carry out skill-based activities using the new methods and techniques in the teaching-learning process. It consists of Work-oriented Experiences ; this deals with general practical work experiences and basic knowledge for career preparation and starts from grade 1. And it consists of Special Experience ; dealing with activities based on learners’ interests provided for those in grades 5-6.Each school can organize learning activities according to learners’ needs and interests. The vocational training aims to make the Thai children better equipped to face the rapid changing realities of life today in the AEC (ASEAN Economic Community. The nature of teaching and learning activities in schools is conditioned by the needs of the local communities by which the people can apply the acquired knowledge and basic skills to improve their quality of life and their community. These courses have made the learning process more enjoyable as well as more socially useful. The educational reforms of 1992 made certain parts of the curriculum, including general subjects, compulsory for all schools in the country. With regard to the optional subjects, it was realized the each province and each district had different needs. The school education committee consists of school teachers, school administrators, parents and community leaders whom design the optional subjects which are suited for their areas. Research results found more than 90% of administrator, teachers, parents and students

  8. Implementing a geographical information system to assess endemic fluoride areas in Lamphun, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerawasttanasiri N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonthaphat Theerawasttanasiri,1,2 Surasak Taneepanichskul,1 Wichain Pingchai,3 Yuwaree Nimchareon,4 Sangworn Sriwichai5 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Health, Health Promotion Center Region 1, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Mueang Lamphun District Public Health Office, 4Pasang District Public Health Office, 5Ban Thi District Public Health Office, Lamphun, Thailand Introduction: Many studies have shown that fluoride can cross the placenta and that exposure to high fluoride during pregnancy may result in premature birth and/or a low birth weight. Lamphun is one of six provinces in Thailand where natural water fluoride (WF concentrations >10.0 mg/L were found, and it was also found that >50% of households used water with high fluoride levels. Nevertheless, geographical information system (GIS and maps of endemic fluoride areas are lacking. We aimed to measure the fluoride level of village water supplies to assess endemic fluoride areas and present GIS with maps in Google Maps.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July 2016 to January 2017. Purpose sampling was used to identify villages of districts with WF >10.0 mg/L in the Mueang Lamphun, Pasang, and Ban Thi districts. Water samples were collected with the geolocation measured by Smart System Info. Fluoride was analyzed with an ion-selective electrode instrument using a total ionic strength adjustment buffer. WF >0.70 mg/L was used to identify unsafe drinking water and areas with high endemic fluoride levels. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the findings, and MS Excel was used to create the GIS database. Maps were created in Google Earth and presented in Google Maps.Results: We found that WF concentrations ranged between 0.10–13.60 mg/L. Forty-four percent (n=439 of samples were at unsafe levels (>0.70 mg/L, and. 54% (n=303 of villages and 46% (n=79,807 of households used the unsafe drinking water. Fifty percent

  9. Evaluation of mass drug administration in the program to control imported lymphatic filariasis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toothong, Tanaporn; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Suvannadabba, Saravudh

    2015-09-28

    Migration plays a major role in the emergence and resurgence of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in many countries. Because of the high prevalence of Imported Bancroftian Filariasis (IBF) caused by nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti and the intensive movement of immigrant workers from endemic areas, Thailand has implemented two doses of 6 mg/kg diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with interval of 6 months to prevent IBF. In areas where immigrants are very mobile, the administration of DEC may be compromised. This study aimed to evaluate DEC administration and its barriers in such areas. A cross-sectional study with two-stage stratified cluster sampling was conducted. We selected Myanmar immigrants aged >18 years from factory and fishery areas of Samut Sakhon Province for interview with a structured questionnaire. We also interviewed health personnel regarding the functions of the LF program and practice of DEC delivery among immigrants. Associations were measured by multiple logistic regression, at P Incorrect perceptions about the side-effects of DEC also obstructed DEC access for Myanmar immigrants. All positive LF antigenic immigrants reported visiting and emigrating from LF-endemic areas. Hospital-based DEC administration was an inappropriate approach to DEC delivery in areas with highly mobile Myanmar immigrants. Incorporating health-center personnel in DEC delivery twice yearly and improving the perceptions of DEC side effects would likely increase DEC coverage among Myanmar immigrants.

  10. Prevalence and factors of head lice infestation among primary school students in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watcharapong Ruankham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To survey the prevalence of head lice infestation among primary school students in Chiang Rai Province, Northern Thailand from November 2015 to February 2016 and to investigate factors involving these infestations. Methods: A total of 703 students were checked for head lice infestations. The data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics i.e. frequencies, percentages and correlations [odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI]. Results: The overall percentage of head lice infestations was 15.1%. No infestation was found in boy students. The prevalence of head lice infestation was significantly associated with itching on a scalp (OR = 5.206, 95% CI = 3.116–8.696, having dirty fingernails (OR = 2.019, 95% CI = 1.217–3.352, wearing dirty clothes (OR = 4.532, 95% CI = 1.651–12.438, having history of head lice infestations (OR = 3.998, 95% CI = 2.174–7.356 and family member having history of head lice infestations (OR = 1.997, 95% CI = 1.092–3.651. Conclusions: Pediculosis capitis is still public health problem in this region. Effective treatment is required to control this infestation in urgent.

  11. Job strain among rubber-glove-factory workers in central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, Muang Muang; Howteerakul, Nopporn; Suwannapong, Nawarat; Jirachewee, Jirachai

    2010-01-01

    Job strain has become a major concern because of its potential impacts on worker well-being and performance. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of, and examine factors associated with, job strain among workers in a rubber-glove factory, in a central province of Thailand. A total of 200 workers aged 18-55 yr, who had worked at the factory for at least 6 months, completed the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) (Thai Version). Two of 5 scales in the JCQ were used to measure job strain, i.e.; job control and psychological job demand. The prevalence of job strain was 27.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated two variables significantly associated with job strain: low supervisor social support (adjusted OR=3.08; 95%CI: 1.38-6.91) and high job insecurity (adjusted OR=2.25; 95%CI: 1.04-4.88). Effective training for supervisors, to create good relationships among workers and supervisors, and ensuring steady and secure jobs for good employees, are necessary.

  12. Factors Related to Physical Activity Among the Elderly Population in Rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethisan, Plernta; Somrongthong, Ratana; Ahmed, Jamil; Kumar, Ramesh; Chapman, Robert S

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity in later years of life is not only essential to healthy aging and independent functioning, but it also helps prevent chronic diseases. We aimed this cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence of physical activity and associated factors among rural elderly Thais. We conducted this study on a sample of 300 elderly in 2 rural districts of Phranakornsiayutthaya province in Thailand. The mean age of participants were 67.5±6 years and 42% of them did not perform physical activity. Prevalence of vigorous and moderate intensity physical activity was 43.7% and 48.7%, respectively. About 43.7% elderly used any active transport and spent 2.81 hours on sedentary activities, daily. Females and those with enough income were 3.64 and 0.59 times, respectively, less likely to be physically active ( P elderly were physically inactive. Also male and wealthy elderly were less likely to be engaged in physical activity. We recommend for improved efforts to involve rural Thai elderly in physical activity by offering them opportunities for locally relevant recreational and leisure time physical activities, with special focus on males and higher income elderly.

  13. Incidence and molecular diversity of poleroviruses infecting cucurbit crops and weed plants in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheewachaiwit, S; Warin, N; Phuangrat, B; Rukpratanporn, S; Gajanandana, O; Balatero, C H; Chatchawankanphanich, O

    2017-07-01

    Overall, 244 samples of cucurbit crops with yellowing symptoms and selected weed species, from 15 provinces in Thailand, were screened by RT-PCR using primers Polero-CP-F and Polero-CP-R. A total of 160 samples (~66%) were infected by poleroviruses. Analysis of a 1.4 kb region covering the 3' RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, the intergenic non-coding region (iNCR), and the coat protein (CP), showed that four poleroviruses, namely, cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), luffa aphid-borne yellows virus (LABYV), melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV) and suakwa aphid-borne yellows virus (SABYV) were associated with the yellowing symptoms in cucurbit crops. Further analyses indicated presence of putative recombinant viruses referred to as CABYV-R and SABYV-R. CABYV-R was derived from the recombination between MABYV and the common strain of CABYV (CABYV-C). SABYV-R was derived from the recombination of MABYV and SABYV.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Hotspots of Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratchaphon Samphutthanon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand, Foot and Mouth Disease (HFMD is an emerging viral disease, and at present, there are no antiviral drugs or vaccines available to control it. Outbreaks have persisted for the past 10 years, particularly in northern Thailand. This study aimed to elucidate the phenomenon of HFMD outbreaks from 2003 to 2012 using general statistics and spatial-temporal analysis employing a GIS-based method. The spatial analysis examined data at the village level to create a map representing the distribution pattern, mean center, standard deviation ellipse and hotspots for each outbreak. A temporal analysis was used to analyze the correlation between monthly case data and meteorological factors. The results indicate that the disease can occur at any time of the year, but appears to peak in the rainy and cold seasons. The distribution of outbreaks exhibited a clustered pattern. Most mean centers and standard deviation ellipses occurred in similar areas. The linear directional mean values of the outbreaks were oriented toward the south. When separated by season, it was found that there was a significant correlation with the direction of the southwest monsoon at the same time. An autocorrelation analysis revealed that hotspots tended to increase even when patient cases subsided. In particular, a new hotspot was found in the recent year in Mae Hong Son province.

  15. Tsunami Hazard Preventing Based Land Use Planning Model Using GIS Techniques in Muang Krabi, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Salam Soomro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The terrible tsunami disaster, on 26 December 2004 hit Krabi, one of the ecotourist and very fascinating provinces of southern Thailand including its various regions e.g. Phangna and Phuket by devastating the human lives, coastal communications and the financially viable activities. This research study has been aimed to generate the tsunami hazard preventing based lands use planning model using GIS (Geographical Information Systems based on the hazard suitability analysis approach. The different triggering factors e.g. elevation, proximity to shore line, population density, mangrove, forest, stream and road have been used based on the land use zoning criteria. Those criteria have been used by using Saaty scale of importance one, of the mathematical techniques. This model has been classified according to the land suitability classification. The various techniques of GIS, namely subsetting, spatial analysis, map difference and data conversion have been used. The model has been generated with five categories such as high, moderate, low, very low and not suitable regions illustrating with their appropriate definition for the decision makers to redevelop the region.

  16. Isolation and screening of biopolymer-degrading microorganisms from northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkhrue, Watsana; Khanongnuch, Chartchai; Masaki, Kazuo; Pathom-Aree, Wasu; Punyodom, Winita; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2015-09-01

    Forty agricultural soils were collected from Chiang Mai and Lampang provinces in northern Thailand. Bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi were isolated and screened for their ability to degrade polylactic acid (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(butylene succinate) (PBS) by the agar diffusion method. Sixty-seven actinomycetes, seven bacteria and five fungal isolates were obtained. The majority of actinomycetes were Streptomyces based on morphological characteristic, chemotaxonomy and 16S rRNA gene data. Seventy-nine microorganisms were isolated from 40 soil samples. Twenty-six isolates showed PLA-degradation (32.9 %), 44 isolates showed PBS-degradation (55.7 %) and 58 isolates showed PCL-degradation (73.4 %). Interestingly, 16 isolates (20.2 %) could degrade all three types of bioplastics used in this study. The Amycolatopsis sp. strain SCM_MK2-4 showed the highest enzyme activity for both PLA and PCL, 0.046 and 0.023 U/mL, respectively. Moreover, this strain produced protease, esterase and lipase on agar plates. Approximately, 36.7 % of the PLA film was degraded by Amycolatopsis sp. SCM_MK2-4 after 7 days of cultivation at 30 °C in culture broth.

  17. Conjoint moderate or high risk alcohol and tobacco use among male out-patients in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supa Pengpid

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To better understand conjoint alcohol and tobacco use among male hospital out-patients, the purposes of this study were: (1 to assess the prevalence of conjoint use and (2 to determine the factors associated with the conjoint alcohol use and tobacco use. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, consecutive male out-patients from four district hospitals in Nakhon Pathom province in Thailand were assessed with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, selfreported chronic conditions and health-seeking behaviour. The sample included 2208 study participants, with a mean age of 36.2 years (SD = 11.7 and an age range of 18–60 years. Results: Overall, 34.5% of the male hospital out-patients were conjoint moderate or high-risk alcohol and tobacco users, and 31.1% were moderate or high-risk alcohol or tobacco users. In multivariate analysis, younger age, having primary or less education, being separated, divorced or widowed, not having diabetes and not being obese were associated with conjoint moderate or high-risk alcohol and tobacco use. Conclusion: High prevalence and several risk factors of conjoint alcohol and tobacco use were found among hospital male out-patients. The findings of this study call for dual-intervention approaches for both alcohol and tobacco.

  18. Alcohol use disorder and tuberculosis treatment: A longitudinal mixed method study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samai Laprawat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relationship between tuberculosis (TB treatment and alcohol use disorders over time is under-researched. The aim of this investigation was to study alcohol use and TB medication adherence and its predictors among TB patients over a period of 6 months. Methods: A longitudinal investigation was carried out with new TB and TB retreatment patients systematically selected from two hospitals and had screened positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use in Sisaket Province in Thailand. Alcohol use disorders were measured with Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT-C at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Results: Of the 295 TB patients who were screened with AUDIT-C, 72 (24.4% tested positive for hazardous or harmful alcohol use. At 6 months, 72 TB patients had completed the follow- up. At the 6-month follow-up, hazardous or harmful drinking was reduced by 84.7%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis using generalised estimation equation modelling found that alcohol use significantly reduced over time, whereas there was no change in current tobacco use. Conclusion: The prevalence of alcohol use disorders significantly reduced over a period of 6 months.

  19. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  20. Molecular Phylogenetics of Trichostrongylus Species (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) from Humans of Mazandaran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Heidari, Zahra; Hesari, Zahra; Vatandoost, Sajad; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2017-06-01

    The present study was performed to analyze molecularly the phylogenetic positions of human-infecting Trichostrongylus species in Mazandaran Province, Iran, which is an endemic area for trichostrongyliasis. DNA from 7 Trichostrongylus infected stool samples were extracted by using in-house (IH) method. PCR amplification of ITS2-rDNA region was performed, and products were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence data was performed using MEGA 5.0 software. Six out of 7 isolates had high similarity with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, while the other one showed high homology with Trichostrongylus axei registered in GenBank reference sequences. Intra-specific variations within isolates of T. colubriformis and T. axei amounted to 0-1.8% and 0-0.6%, respectively. Trichostrongylus species obtained in the present study were in a cluster with the relevant reference sequences from previous studies. BLAST analysis indicated that there was 100% homology among all 6 ITS2 sequences of T. colubriformis in the present study and most previously registered sequences of T. colubriformis from human, sheep, and goat isolates from Iran and also human isolates from Laos, Thailand, and France. The ITS2 sequence of T. axei exhibited 99.4% homology with the human isolate of T. axei from Thailand, sheep isolates from New Zealand and Iran, and cattle isolate from USA.

  1. Fire and the production of Astraeus odoratus (Basidiomycetes sporocarps in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forests of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan H. Kennedy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Astraeus (Diplocystidiaceae forms ectomycorrhizal associations with many tree species and is a common gasteromycete in tropical and temperate ecosystems worldwide. In Thailand, Astraeus is most prevalent in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest (DOF in the north and north-east and its ecology is uniquely associated with fire. Rural villagers often burn the seasonally dry DOF ground vegetation causing significant environmental disturbance to promote the growth of Astraeus sporocraps—a local culinary delicacy and important source of household income. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the practice of burning DOF stimulates the production of Astraeus sporocarps in DOF. Burned and unburned Astraeus habitat was surveyed over two years at two sites in Chiang Mai province and one site in Mae Hong Son province. Changes in soil fungi after a fire as well as vascular vegetation growing with Astraeus were studied. All sporocarps collected were identified as Astraeus odoratus. Astraeus sporocarps were found in both burned and unburned areas in 2010. In 2011, an unusually wet year, no sporocarps were found in burned or unburned areas. The top 2 cm of soil experienced high temperatures which killed fungi, but lower depths were well insulated from the heat. A wide range of vascular flora grew in Astraeus habitat, the most common tree species being Dipterocarpus tuberculatus var. tuberculatus and Dipterocarpus obtusifolius var. obtusifolius. This study shows that Astraeus can produce sporocarps without fire and future work can focus on more environmentally benign methods of harvesting this popular mushroom.

  2. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  3. Planned sexual behaviour of young Australian visitors to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, B P; Hu, M; Thompson, M; Lin, F; Lupton, D; Mills, D; Maund, M; Cass, R; Millar, D

    1993-04-19

    To research the knowledge of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among young Australian tourists to Thailand, and their intended sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey by anonymous, self-administered questionnaire, of persons seeking pre-travel medical advice in private clinics in five Australian cities. 213 consecutive patients travelling to Thailand without a spouse or partner. Only 34% of the sample reported a definite intention not to have sex in Thailand. Regarding choice of potential partners: 24.5% more men than women said they would have sex with a Thai national; 13.7% of men said they would have sex with a "bar girl"; and 21.7% more women than men said they would choose a fellow Australian traveller. Eighty-two per cent of the sample reported that they would use condoms 100% of the time, and there was no significant difference between the number of men and women who expressed this intention. Although not obviously "sex tourists", many young Australian travellers are likely to have sex while visiting Thailand. These data have important implications for education and prevention programs to control the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  4. Phrasebook: a Way out for CLIL Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewara, Punwalai

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is an alternative approach for English teaching and learning that is in focus in Thailand today. Preparing Thai content teachers to confidently use English as a means of instruction in the English integrated classroom just as they do in the Thai monolingual classroom takes time and long-term…

  5. Building climate resilience in Thailand's aquaculture industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... People in Southeast Asia have been farming fish for centuries, and aquaculture is an important industry in Thailand. In 2010, the total yield of aquatic animal products was more than 3 million tons, with approximately 42% coming from freshwater and coastal aquaculture and the rest from wild capture ...

  6. Improving environmental sustainability of palm oil production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwam

    2017-01-01

    Demand for palm oil in Thailand has increased as a result of Thai policies promoting the use of biodiesel. This increased demand results in negative effects on ecosystem services and increases environment pollution. Most existing studies focus on global warming impact alone, while other

  7. Sub-Contracting in Rural Areas of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Donald C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an arrangement where a producer undertakes certain steps in the production process done by individuals working in their own homes in Thailand. The paper also provides a description of how this system operates in four different industries, presents survey data on people engaged in subcontracting work, evaluates the subcontracting system, and determines the advantages and disadvantages of its operation.

  8. Education in Thailand: When Economic Growth Is No Longer Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    After fifty years of almost continuous economic growth in Thailand, it is now possible to reevaluate the developmental process of the education system. Until now, the structural indicators of education development that have been mainly used are the level and pace of the increases in public expenditure on education, the effect of increasing…

  9. Biogas Application Options within Milk Dairy Cooperatives in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Sommart, Kritapon

    2016-01-01

    . Options for collecting manure and other types of relevant biomass residues within the area are identified. Manure and biomass residues are thus suggested treated in a multi-purpose & centralized biogas plant - the first in Thailand - established in connection to the dairy company, owned by the dairy...

  10. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  11. Assessing E-Learning Acceptance by University Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Wong, Su Luan; Thammetar, Thapanee; Chattiwat, Wisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess e-learning acceptance by students, using data collected from 377 students at three public universities in Thailand. Using the "E-learning Acceptance Measure" (Teo, 2010b), participants gave their responses to 21 statements on three factors hypothesised to measure e-learning: tutor quality, perceived…

  12. Research improves hospitals' approach to children's pain in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More than 200 global health researchers gathered in Ottawa to share research results from the 7-year Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership. Canadian and Thai researchers focused on treating children's pain. Research that has enabled hospitals in Thailand to better treat children's pain provides a valuable ...

  13. Sustainable Leadership: Honeybee Practices at Thailand's Oldest University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantabutra, Sooksan; Saratun, Molraudee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to adopt Avery and Bergsteiner's 23 sustainable leadership practices derived from sustainable organizations as a framework to examine the leadership practices of Thailand's oldest university. Design/methodology/approach: Avery and Bergsteiner's principles were grouped into six categories for analysis: long-term…

  14. Thailand : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, PROPHYLAXIS. Région: China, Far East Asia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 874,349.00. Risque de grippe aviaire : caractérisation et dynamique de l'élevage de volaille dans les arrière-cours ...

  15. Genesis and solution chemistry of acid sulfate soils in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1976-01-01

    To study short-term and long-term chemical processes in periodically flooded acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain and in various smaller coastal plains along the Gulf of Thailand, 16 acid sulfate soils and one non-acid marine soil were examined for distribution of iron-sulfur compounds, elemental

  16. Internationalizing Higher Education in Thailand: Government and University Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavankura, Pad

    2013-01-01

    Each country responds to internationalization differently and offers various interpretations of the concept. Thailand has incorporated the internationalization of higher education into its plans since 1990. This article aims to discuss the primary motivations of the government and of Thai universities in moving toward the goal of…

  17. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  18. English Camp: A Language Immersion Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugasken, Kris; Harris, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    A summer English camp language immersion program, which began in 2003, provided instruction by native English speakers to Thai college students via collaboration between Prince of Songkla University in Thailand and Ball State University in Indiana, USA. During this program, Thai students were exposed to English formally through classroom…

  19. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus argenteus infections in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Amornchai, Premjit; Nickerson, Emma K; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-03-01

    Molecular typing of 246 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from unselected patients in Thailand showed that 10 (4.1%) were actually Staphylococcus argenteus. Contrary to the suggestion that S. argenteus is less virulent than S. aureus, we demonstrated comparable rates of morbidity, death, and health care-associated infection in patients infected with either of these two species. Copyright © 2015, Thaipadungpanit et al.

  20. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus argenteus Infections in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Amornchai, Premjit; Nickerson, Emma K.; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular typing of 246 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from unselected patients in Thailand showed that 10 (4.1%) were actually Staphylococcus argenteus. Contrary to the suggestion that S. argenteus is less virulent than S. aureus, we demonstrated comparable rates of morbidity, death, and health care-associated infection in patients infected with either of these two species.

  1. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries.

  2. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  3. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It was found that the natural sources of medicinal plants were damaged by many human activities. Therefore, this compilation of medicinal plants will be the data evidence for further conservation of the plants. Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  4. All projects related to Thailand | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-05-03

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Start Date: May 3, 2007. End Date: April 8, 2011. Topic: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Region: China, Far East Asia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, ...

  5. Evaluating environmental performance of concentrated latex production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Pavasant, Prasert; Kroeze, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. To maintain a leadership position of natural rubber producer, it has been challenging for Thai rubber entrepreneurs to seek appropriate measures towards producing environmentally friendly rubber products. The objective of this

  6. Building climate resilience in Thailand's aquaculture industry | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People in Southeast Asia have been farming fish for centuries, and aquaculture is an important industry in Thailand. In 2010, the total yield of aquatic animal products was more than 3 million tons, with approximately 42% coming from freshwater and coastal aquaculture and the rest from wild capture fisheries. As consumer ...

  7. Community projects and democratic planning in Thailand: Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is based on field visits to community projects in Thailand as part of the learning processes of community initiatives and democratisation of planning practices at the community level. The principal objective of these studies is to analyse the mechanisms that communities use to initiate, implement, and manage ...

  8. Narrative Approach to Moral Education: A Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singsuriya, Pagorn; Aungsumalin, Wipada; Worapong, Seree

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, according to, for instance, the National Education Act 1999, the National Plan of Education, Religion, Arts and Culture (2002--2013), and the Core Curriculum of Basic Education 2008, moral education is given an important role not only in human development but also in citizenship building and solution of socio-political problems.…

  9. Thailand : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING CONDITIONS, SOCIAL WELFARE, LEGAL PROTECTION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 499,100.00. Protection ...

  10. All projects related to Thailand | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,029,600.00. Urban Climate Resilience in Southeast Asia Partnership. Project. Planning for climate change is a daunting challenge for governments ...

  11. Foreign Language Anxiety in a New English Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanielian, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…

  12. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  13. Caulokaempferia pubescens (Zingiberaceae - A New Species from Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonmee Phokham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Caulokaempferia K. Larsen (Zingiberaceae, C. pubescens Picheans. & Phokham, from Changwat Mae Hong Son in Northern Thailand is reported. Full descriptions, together with ink line–drawing with water color and photographic illustrations are given. Relationship of this new species with their phylogenetically closest related taxa, C. larsenii Suksathan & Triboun, is also discussed.

  14. Morphology of enamel in primary teeth from children in Thailand exposed to environmental lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youravong, Nattaporn [Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla (Thailand); Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi [Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla (Thailand); Teanpaisan, Rawee [Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Dentistry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla (Thailand); Geater, Alan F. [Epidemiology Unit, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla (Thailand); Dietz, Wolfram [Centre of Electron Microscopy, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena (Germany); Dahlen, Gunnar [Department of Oral Microbiology, Faculty of Odontology, Goeteborg University (Sweden); Noren, Joergen G. [Department of Pedodontics, Faculty of Odontology, Goeteborg University, Box 450 SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: Jorgen.noren@odontologi.gu.se

    2005-09-15

    Lead is one of the major environmental pollutants and a health risk. Dental hard tissues have a capacity to accumulate lead from the environment. Eighty exfoliated primary teeth were collected from children residing around a shipyard area in southern Thailand, known for its lead contamination. The morphology of the enamel was examined by polarized light microscopy (PLM), microradiography (MRG), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The specimens derived from two groups of children, one group with high blood levels of lead (57 teeth) and one group having low blood levels of lead (23 teeth). The enamel irrespective of group appeared normal. However, in a majority of the specimens the enamel surface appeared hypomineralized, which was confirmed in SEM. No morphological changes connected to lead in blood could be found. The hypomineralized surface zone could possibly be attributed to an acid oral environment.

  15. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kessels [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    This report examines the prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand. The country's existing coal reserves are examined and the probable need to import coal to meet the future coal is explained. A discussion on the generation capacity in Thailand examines the current and future prospects for coal-fired power generation. The role of the government in the coal sector is discussed along with the power development plan being implemented to meet increasing energy demand. Environmental issues related to coal are a major issue in Thailand particularly because of problems with SO{sub 2} emissions at the Mae Moh power station which have been solved by the use of flue gas desulphurisation. The report examines the role of international organisations such as the ADB, APEC, WB, ASEAN, IEA and USAID in clean coal technologies and how this could be improved. 70% of Thailand's power is generated from natural gas. The government recognises the need to diversify its energy sources since only 12 years of proven domestic gas reserves remain. Northern Thailand has around 2 Gt of coal reserves, mostly lignite of high sulphur content. It is estimated that 1 Gt of these could be used economically. Coal production in 2008 was between 18-19 Mt which was supplemented with 17-18 Mt of imports. In the future it is likely that all new coal-fired power stations will burn imported low sulphur coal with imports projected to rise to 48 Mt by 2021. Thailand is facing up to a challenge to develop and deploy clean coal technologies. This has begun with the first supercritical coal-fired power station being built, due to be operational by 2011. A key conclusion of this report is that a central organisation should be established in the public or private sector to undertake and promote clean coal technology research, education and deployment with domestic and international organisations as well as strengthen the sustainable use of coal in Thailand. 186 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Vasectomy reversal: experience in Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratana-olarn, K; Gojaseni, P; Muangman, V; Visethsin, V; Ariyaprakai, W; Visuthikosol, V

    1982-05-01

    Vasectomy, as a fertility control measure, is appropriate for developing countries which face the problem of increasing population growth, such as Thailand. Vasectomy would be a much more attractive procedure if it could be easily reversed. Outcomes of vasectomy reversals using both conventional techniques and microsurgical methods are reported. From April 1973-January 1980, 34 vasectomy reversals were performed in Ramathibodi Hospital using conventional methods. 21 cases are available for analysis. Patient ages ranged from 25-51 years, with an average of 36.8 years. Vasectomies had been performed up to 17 years prior to reversal; in 14 cases, the procedures had taken place within the previous 10 years. The conventional method involved placing intravasal splints of nylon or other material and stitching the muscularis with interrupted sutures. Of the 21 cases, sperm reappearance was positive in 15 patients (71.4%) and pregnancy occurred in 11 cases (52.3%). The interval from reversal to pregnancy ranged from 2 to 12 months, and averaged 5.1 months. Of these patients whose vasectomies had been within the past 10 years, pregnancy occurred in 64.3%. For patients whose vasectomies had been performed more than 10 years prior to the reversal, only 28.5% achieved pregnancy. 16 vasectomy reversals using microsurgical techniques were performed from August 1978-January 1980 and 13 cases were available for analysis. The patients' ages ranged from 28-50 years with a mean of 38.7 years. In 6 cases, the vasectomy had been performed within the previous 10 years. The microscopic technique involved 2 layered anastomosis with 6 sutures in the mucosa and muscularis sutures for reinforcement. 9 of the 13 cases had sperm in the ejaculate and 4 achieved pregnancy. Sperm reappearance was 100% for patients whose vasectomies had been done within the previous 10 years, and 43% in the other cases. The average interval from reversal to pregnancy was 6.2 months. 1 case had postoperative

  17. Analysis of health promotion and prevention financing mechanisms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-08-01

    In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Cancer incidence trends in Thailand, 1989-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriplung, Hutcha; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sontipong, Sineenat; Sumitsawan, Yupa; Martin, Nimit

    2006-01-01

    Through 2004, five cancer registries in Thailand have collected data for more than ten years. Three-year cancer incidence in Thailand covering the years 1989-1997 has been regularly reported in three volumes of 'Cancer in Thailand. Since the data for the last decade of the 20th century have been collected, the trends in incidence of some cancer sites were analyzed. Data sources were registry data from Chiang Mai, Lampang, Khon Kaen, Bangkok, and Songkhla, which are representative of the four major geographic regions of Thailand. The data drawn in 2002 covered the years 1989 to 1997 for Bangkok, the other four registries drew data from 1989 to 2000. The population denominators were estimated from the two censuses in 1990 and 2000. Only cancers of the liver, lung, colon-rectum, female breast, uterine cervix, and all cancer sites were analyzed since cancers of these sites may have major public health impacts. Age-specific incidence rates of different 5-year age groups were projected through the period 2007-2009 using a linear regression model if the rates were increasing, and a log-linear model to prevent prediction of a negative rate if the rates were decreasing. During the past decade, colorectal and breast cancers showed a statistical significant increasing trend, while the trend was generally stable for cancer of other sites. The number of new cancer cases of all sites is expected to be approximately 125,000 by the year 2008, compared with 81,000 in 1999. However, the accuracy of projections depends very much on the quality of the cancer registries' data. The Bangkok registry significantly improved case ascertainment in recent years, while the Chiang Mai registry had a consistent drop in incidence of cancer at many sites. In-depth investigation of some cancer sites and age period cohort modeling are required for better understanding of cancer trends in Thailand.

  19. Field survey focused on Opisthorchis viverrini infection in five provinces of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kazuko; Kirinoki, Masashi; Matsuda, Hajime; Hayashi, Naoko; Chigusa, Yuichi; Sinuon, Muth; Chuor, Char Meng; Kitikoon, Viroj

    2014-04-01

    Opisthorchiasis is endemic in Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic and constitutes a major public health problem throughout the Mekong Basin. Although Cambodia is located in the Mekong Basin, the status of O. viverrini infection in that country was not previously clarified. This research was conducted to document the extent and distribution of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia. Surveillance was conducted in 55 villages in five Cambodian provinces. Research tools included stool examination using the Kato-Katz thick-smear technique, identification of intermediate hosts, and interviews covering factors related to O. viverrini infection. Some larvae and egg-positive stool samples were examined using PCR to detect O. viverrini DNA. A total of 16,082 stool samples from the 55 villages were examined, of which 1232 were egg positive. In 15 villages with egg-positive rates of greater than 10%, eggs were found in 998 of 3585 stool samples, for an egg-positive rate of 27.8%. PCR analysis showed that 30 of 33 samples were positive for O. viverrini DNA from five villages in Kampong Cham and Kampong Thom provinces. The first intermediate host Bithynia siamensis siamensis was identified in the target areas of Takaev, Kandal, and Kampong Cham provinces. Cercariae were identified morphologically as O. viverrini and some were confirmed using PCR. Metacercariae of O. viverrini were identified by morphologic observations, animal experiments, or PCR in six species of fish in the target areas. Four Cambodian provinces were identified as endemic areas of O. viverrini infection. Careful planning is necessary for effective field surveys, because complex environmental factors might be involved in the distribution of O. viverrini infection-endemic areas in Cambodia. Many problems remain to be resolved regarding the status of O. viverrini infection in Cambodia, and a nationwide baseline survey is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    gunshot wound to his head, as clashes between the protestors and the military escalated into firefights on the streets. Although both sides...as intellectual property rights, investment, environment, labor rights, textiles , telecommunications, agriculture, electronic commerce, and

  1. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos with two new distribution records and lectotypifications for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum W. Saisorn, Chantar. & Balslev from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum DC. and D. laxiflorum DC. subsp. lacei (Schindl.) H. Ohashi, are reported as new for Thailand. Lectotypes of D. amoenum Wall. ex...

  2. Rural Poverty and Diversification of Farming Systems in Upper Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Dufumier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Thailand, 85% of the farmers are smallholders who are unable to meet their basic needs from agricultural production only. These tiny farms survive thanks to non-farm income, which faces increased difficulties as other economic sectors ran out of steam during the recent economic crisis of the late 1990s. In this context, farmers have to rely more on their agricultural production activity and income. But how can this be made possible in a region well-known for its very constraining soil and climatic conditions? To answer this question, and to examine the whole complexity of agricultural development issues, this article proposes an analysis of recent agrarian transformations and an understanding of farmers’ current practices and strategies. A diagnostic analysis of a village agrarian system located in Khon Kaen Province in upper northeast Thailand was carried out in 2002 by using a combination of field observations, interviews with key witnesses of the local history, and a farm survey of 26 diverse households. The recent history illustrates that farmers have shown a high adaptability to rapid changes in their economic environment, such as changing market demand for agricultural products and labour. The differentiation among farming households has led to different types of farmers with different resources, practices, and strategies. Families belonging to the most frequent type have a very tiny holding and their members are permanently or seasonally involved in unskilled off-farm activities. Their low and unstable total cash income is often insufficient to meet the family’s basic needs and they become deeply indebted. As efforts to improve water availability are being made, many Isarn families could improve their living conditions by diversifying their agricultural production systems with more small-scale fruit, vegetable, fish, or livestock production to improve household food security and cash income, eventually combined with non

  3. Life cycle GHG evaluation of organic rice production in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodkhum, Sanwasan; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Sampattagul, Sate

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of the serious international environmental issues that can lead to severe damages such as climate change, sea level rise, emerging disease and many other impacts. Rice cultivation is associated with emissions of potent GHGs such as methane and nitrous oxide. Thai rice has been massively exported worldwide however the markets are becoming more competitive than ever since the green market has been hugely promoted. In order to maintain the same level or enhance of competitiveness, Thai rice needs to be considered for environmentally conscious products to meet the international environmental standards. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the greenhouse gas emissions throughout the life cycle of rice production in order to identify the major emission sources and possible reduction strategies. In this research, the rice variety considered is Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105) cultivated by organic practices. The data sources were Don-Chiang Organic Agricultural Cooperative (DCOAC), Mae-teang district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand and the Office of Agricultural Economics (OAE) of Thailand with onsite records and interviews of farmers in 2013. The GHG emissions were calculated from cradle-to-farm by using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach and the 2006 IPCC Guideline for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The functional unit is defined as 1 kg of paddy rice at farm gate. Results showed that the total GHG emissions of organic rice production were 0.58 kg CO 2 -eq per kg of paddy rice. The major source of GHG emission was from the field emissions accounting for 0.48 kg CO 2 -eq per kg of paddy rice, about 83% of total, followed by land preparation, harvesting and other stages (planting, cultivation and transport of raw materials) were 9, 5 and 3% of total, respectively. The comparative results clearly showed that the GHG emissions of organic paddy rice were considerably lower than conventional rice production due to the

  4. A new genus and species of false vampire (Chiroptera: Megadermatidae) from peninsular Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soisook, Pipat; Prajakjitr, Amorn; Karapan, Sunate; Francis, Charles M; Bates, Paul J J

    2015-03-16

    A new genus and associated species of false vampire, family Megadermatidae, are described based on three specimens from Bala Forest, Narathiwat Province, peninsular Thailand. The new taxon is characterised by a unique combination of distinctive dental, cranial, and external characters, some of which are shared with exclusively African genera and some with Asian genera. These characters are comparable to, or exceed in number, those differentiating currently recognised genera in the family Megadermatidae. They include the absence of a first upper premolar; greatly enlarged upper canine without an anterolingual cingular cusp but with a robust posterolingual cusp; unmodified upper first molar with the preparacrista subequal in length to the postmetacrista, the metastyle not reduced and situated labially; robust lower canine without an anterolingual cusp; the first lower premolar enlarged, equal to or larger than the second lower premolar. In the skull, there is a pronounced rostral depression but no well developed frontal shield with preorbital and/or postorbital processes; the coronoid process is greatly enlarged in each half mandible. Externally, the body size is relatively large and the posterior noseleaf is rounded. The baculum has a robust shaft and two short prongs-the bacula of all five other species of megadermatid are illustrated for the first time; extraordinarily, those of Macroderma gigas and Megaderma lyra comprise two separate bones. DNA barcoding indicate a genetic divergence of about 20 percent (sequence divergence in the mitochondrial gene CO1) between the new genus and species of Megaderma and Cardioderma. Currently, despite numerous bat surveys in peninsular Thailand, the new genus is only known from Bala Forest. The small area of this forest and the very low capture rate suggest that the new species may be extremely rare. Its natural history is little known, although its robust dental and cranial features when coupled with chance observations of its

  5. Maintaining vaccine delivery following the introduction of the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Y Lee

    Full Text Available Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7 to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs, these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients. We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1 the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2 the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose, all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L-1151 L per month for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L-124 L per month across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose, added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L-187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L-13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm³/dose had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects

  6. Perceived Stigma towards Leprosy among Community Members Living Close to Nonsomboon Leprosy Colony in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehler, Nils; Adhikar, Bipin; Raut, Shristi; Marahatta, Sujan Babu; Chapman, Robert Sedgwick

    2015-01-01

    Background Interpretation of Leprosy as a sickness differs among society. The set of beliefs, knowledge and perceptions towards a disease play a vital role in the construction of stigma towards a disease. The main purpose of this study was to explore the extent and correlates of the perceived stigma towards leprosy in the community living close to the leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Khon Kaen Province of Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 257 leprosy unaffected community participants, above the age of 18 who were living close to the Leprosy colony in Non Somboon region of Thailand. Each participant was asked a questionnaire containing characteristics of the participants in terms of socio-demographic background and knowledge regarding the disease. In addition perceived stigma towards leprosy was measured using EMIC (Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue) questionnaire. Results Among EMIC items, shame or embarrassment in the community due to leprosy was felt by 54.5%, dislike to buy food from leprosy affected persons were 49.8% and difficulty to find work for leprosy affected persons were perceived by 47.1%. Higher total EMIC score was found in participants age 61 years or older (p = 0.021), staying longer in the community (p = 0.005), attending fewer years of education (p = 0.024) and who were unemployed (p = 0.08). Similarly, perceptions about leprosy such as difficult to treat (p = 0.015), severe disease (p = 0.004) and punishment by God (p = 0.011) were significantly associated with higher perceived stigma. Conclusions Perceived stigma towards leprosy was found highest among participants with age 61 years or older, longer duration of stay in community close to the leprosy colony, lower duration of education and participants who were unemployed had higher perceived stigma. Similarly, participants with perceptions of leprosy such as difficult to treat, severe disease and punishment by God had higher perceived stigma towards

  7. HUKUM ISLAM DAN BUDAYA LOKAL DI MASYARAKAT MUSLIM PATTANI THAILAND (Integrasi, Konflik dan Dinamikanya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali sodiqin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Thai people in Pattani through annexation or conquest, from the Kingdom of Siam to Thailand have changed the socio-cultural Muslim community. Thai Buddhist nation perform a lot of cultural assimilation of Malay Muslim Pattani. The assimilation pursued through politics, education, culture, and law. Political stripes do with the ideology developed, namely "nation, king, religion" that subjecting all citizens into one nationalism. Education path is done through standardized education policy, namely the obligation to teach the language and history of Thai and Buddhist teachings. Cultural path had taken through migration north to south and the formation of "peaceful village". The last path is the law through legal intervention in the form of restrictions on the entry into force of Islamic law and the jurisdiction of Dato 'Yuthithams, the elimination of Islamic justice as consolidated by the civilian justice and law enforcement Thai civilians in Pattani. This assimilation project met with resistance from Pattani Muslim community, as it is considered as an attempt to deculturate Malay Muslim culture that identifies them. The aim of this resistance is to get autonomy in Pattani province to the desire to become an independent state. Abstrak Kehadiran bangsa Thai di Pattani melalui aneksasi atau penaklukan, mulai dari Kerajaan Siam hingga berganti menjadi Thailand, mengubah sosio-kultur masyarakat Muslim. Bangsa Thai yang beragama Budha banyak melakukan assimilasi terhadap kebudayaan Muslim Melayu Pattani. Assimilasi tersebut ditempuh melalui jalur politik, pendidikan, budaya, dan hukum. Jalur politik dilakukan dengan mengembangkan ideologi “nation, king, religion” yang menundukkan semua warga negara ke dalam satu nasionalisme. Jalur pendidikan dilakukan melalui kebijakan standarisasi pendidikan, yaitu kewajiban mengajarkan bahasa dan sejarah Thai serta ajaran Budha. Jalur budaya ditempuh melalui program migrasi penduduk utara ke

  8. Maintaining vaccine delivery following the introduction of the rotavirus and pneumococcal vaccines in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Wateska, Angela R; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Chen, Sheng-I; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel; Norman, Bryan A; Connor, Diana L; Bailey, Rachel R; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G; Burke, Donald S

    2011-01-01

    Although the substantial burdens of rotavirus and pneumococcal disease have motivated many countries to consider introducing the rotavirus vaccine (RV) and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) to their National Immunization Programs (EPIs), these new vaccines could affect the countries' vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps required to get a vaccine from their manufacturers to patients). We developed detailed computational models of the Trang Province, Thailand, vaccine supply chain to simulate introducing various RV and PCV-7 vaccine presentations and their combinations. Our results showed that the volumes of these new vaccines in addition to current routine vaccines could meet and even exceed (1) the refrigerator space at the provincial district and sub-district levels and (2) the transport cold space at district and sub-district levels preventing other vaccines from being available to patients who arrive to be immunized. Besides the smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose), all other vaccine introduction scenarios required added storage capacity at the provincial level (range: 20 L-1151 L per month) for the three largest formulations, and district level (range: 1 L-124 L per month) across all introduction scenarios. Similarly, with the exception of the two smallest RV presentation (17.1 cm³/dose), added transport capacity was required at both district and sub-district levels. Added transport capacity required across introduction scenarios from the provincial to district levels ranged from 1 L-187 L, and district to sub-district levels ranged from 1 L-13 L per shipment. Finally, only the smallest RV vaccine presentation (17.1 cm³/dose) had no appreciable effect on vaccine availability at sub-districts. All other RV and PCV-7 vaccines were too large for the current supply chain to handle without modifications such as increasing storage or transport capacity. Introducing these new vaccines to Thailand could have dynamic effects on the

  9. Effect of global warming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai

    2010-08-01

    scenarios reported relatively lower value of 18-59 cm per century. The North Atlantic thatis surrounded by glaciers might see a SLR due to ice melting related to an increase of the temperature in the Atlantic Ocean.Nevertheless, the lack of data on global warming in the tropics especially in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, which haveno glaciers, might put a different view on the conclusions derived from temperature and arctic data. Six decades of comprehensiveinformation from the Gulf of Thailand regarding oceanographical and meteorological data is revealing a much lowerSLR. The mean monthly sea levels in six decades at Sattahip and Ko Lak showed no increasing trend, while those rises atSamut Prakan and Samut Sakhon are due to land subsidence from excessive groundwater pumping.

  10. Impacts of shoreline erosion on coastal ecosystems in Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Chusrinuan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Songkhla Province is located on the eastern coast of the southern Thai Peninsula, bordering the Gulf of Thailand for approximately 107 km. Most of the basin’s foreshores have been extensively developed for housing, tourism and shrimp farming. The beaches are under deteriorating impacts, often causing sediment transport which leads to an unnaturally high erosion rate. This natural phenomenon is considered to be a critical problem in the coastal areas affected by the hazard of coastal infrastructure and reduced beach esthetics for recreation. In this study, shoreline changes were compared between 1975 and 2006 using aerial photographs and Landsat imageries using Geographic Information System (GIS. The results revealed that 18.5 km2 of the coastal areas were altered during the period. Of this, 17.3 km2 suffered erosion and 1.2 km2were subjected to accretion. The most significant changes occurred between 1975-2006. Shoreline erosion was found at Ban Paktrae, Ranot District, with an average erosion rate of 5.3 m/year, while accretion occurred at Laem Samila, MuangSongkhla District with an average accretion rate of 2.04 m/year. The occurrences of shoreline erosion have contributed to the degradation of coastal soil and water quality, destruction of beach and mangrove forests, loss of human settlements and livelihood.These processes have led to deterioration of the quality of life of the residents. Prevention and mitigation measures to lessen economic and social impacts due to shoreline erosion are discussed.

  11. Insecticide susceptible/resistance status in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand during 2003-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakanjanakit, Nuananong; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol; Saengtharatip, Seeviga; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Duchon, Stephane; Bellec, Christian; Yoksan, Sutee

    2007-04-01

    Susceptibility baselines and diagnostic doses of the technical grade insecticides deltamethrin, permethrin, fenitrothion, and propoxur were established based on Aedes aegypti (L.), Bora (French Polynesia), a reference susceptible strain. Field-collected Aedes mosquitoes from each part of Thailand were subjected to bioassay for their susceptibility to the diagnostic doses of each insecticide. Almost all Ae. aegypti collected were incipient resistant or resistant to deltamethrin and permethrin, except those from some areas of Songkhla (southern) and Phan district of Chiang Rai (northern) province. Susceptibility to fenitrothion was found in mosquitoes from Bangkok (central), Chonburi (eastern), Chiang Rai, Kanchanaburi (western), and Songkhla, whereas they were resistant in almost all areas of Nakhon Sawan (north central) and Nakhon Ratchasima (northeastern) provinces. Most of Ae. aegypti were susceptible to propoxur except those from Mae Wong, Nakhon Sawan province. Various levels of insecticide resistance and susceptibility in adjacent areas revealed a focal susceptible/resistance profile in the country. It could be noted that almost all of Ae. albopictus were susceptible to the insecticides tested at the same diagnostic doses. In conclusion, resistance to pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin) has developed in Ae. aegypti in most of the collected areas, suggesting that an alternative choice of insecticide or other control measures should be applied.

  12. Distribution of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Bua Yai District, Nakhon Ratchasima of Thailand Using Google Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Sangkudloa, Amnat; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Khemplila, Kritsakorn; Cherdjirapong, Karuna; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Polsripradist, Poowadol; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Joosiri, Apinya; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a major problem of health in Thailand, particularly in Northeastern and Northern regions, is generally incurable and rapidly lethal because of presentation in stage 3 or 4. Early diagnosis of stage 1 and 2 could allow better survival. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a distribution map of populations at risk for CCA in BuaYai district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeast Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 10 sub-districts and 122 villages, during June and November 2015. The populations at risk for CCA were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) and then risk areas were displayed by using Google map (GM). A total of 11,435 individuals from a 26,198 population completed the KCVST. The majority had a low score of risk for CCA (1-4 points; 93.3%). High scores with 6, 7 and 8 points accounted for 1.20%, 0.13% and 0.02%. The population at risk was found frequently in sub-district municipalities, followed by sub-district administrative organization and town municipalities, (F=396.220, P-value=0.000). Distribution mapping comprised 11 layers: 1, district; 2, local administrative organization; 3, hospital; 4, KCVST opisthorchiasis; 5, KCVST praziquantel used; 6, KCVST cholelithiasis; 7, KCVST raw fish consumption; 8, KCVST alcohol consumption; 9, KCVST pesticide used; 10, KCVST relative family with CCA; and 11, KCVST naive northeastern people. Geovisual display is now available online. This study indicated that the population at high risk of CCA in Bua Yai district is low, therefore setting a zero model project is possible. Key success factors for disease prevention and control need further study. GM production is suitable for further CCA surveillance and monitoring of the population with a high risk score in this area.

  13. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC-MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A population-based study of cervical cytology findings and human papillomavirus infection in a suburban area of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Phoolcharoen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high incidence of cervical cancer in Thailand, large population-based studies on cervical cytology and HPV prevalence and genotype distribution are rare. This study aimed to determine cervical cytology results and the prevalence and distribution of HPV among Thai females in Bangkhayaeng subdistrict, Pathumthani province, Thailand. Of 4681 female inhabitants, aged 20–70 years, 1523 women finally participated in the study. Cervical samples using liquid-based cytology were collected during February–August 2013 and analyzed for HPV genotype by the LINEAR ARRAY® HPV Genotyping Test (Roche, USA. All participants with abnormal cytology or HPV positivity underwent colposcopy and biopsy. Of 1523 eligible women, 4.1% had abnormal cytology including ASC-US (2.4%, LSIL (1.0%, and HSIL (0.5%. The HPV infection rate was 13.7%. The prevalences of high-risk, probable high-risk, and low-risk HPV types were 5.6%, 3.5%, and 6.8%, respectively. The most common high-risk HPV types detected were HPV-16 (1.31%, HPV-51 (1.25%, and HPV-52 (1.25%. The most common probable high-risk and low-risk HPV types detected were HPV-72 (1.51%, HPV-62 (1.38%, and HPV-70 (1.18%. The rates of CIN2–3 and cancer in this cohort were 1.4% and 0.3%, respectively. In conclusion, HPV prevalence in this study was lower than reported in studies conducted in Western countries or other Asia countries, despite the high prevalence of CIN2+ and cancer. HPV type screening results of the general population in Bangkhayaeng subdistrict were similar to those reported in other countries, with HPV-16 the most common type. However, higher frequencies of HPV-51 and HPV-52 were observed. Despite the availability of a free screening program in this area, the participation rate remains low.

  15. Molecular detection of blood pathogens and their impacts on levels of packed cell volume in stray dogs from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infection in stray dogs by PCR technique and the association between levels of packed cell volume (PCV and blood parasitic infection in stray dogs. Methods: A total of 65 blood samples were collected from stray dogs in animal quarantine station from Mahasarakham, Thailand to evaluate the levels of PCV before molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens infection. Results: Stray dogs were positive with one or more pathogens in 44 (67.69% out of 65 blood samples. Ehrlichia canis [43.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 38.1–48.1] was the most common blood pathogen found infecting in stray dogs in Mahasarakham Province, followed by Anaplasma platys (29.2%, 95% CI: 24.2–34.2, Hepatozoon canis (12.3%, 95% CI: 7.3–17.3 and Babesia canis vogeli (6.2%, 95% CI: 1.2–11.2, respectively. Moreover, co-infections with two pathogens were identified in 11 (16.9% of dogs examined and two (2.9% dogs were coinfections with three pathogens. Statistically significant relationship between the PCV levels and Ehrlichia canis infection was found (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study indicated that blood pathogens are spreading in stray dogs and they are potentially high risk of agent transmission to human via exposure with tick vectors. It was also the first report of Anaplasma platys infection in dogs in north-eastern part of Thailand.

  16. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatmongkon Suwannapoom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA–16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides, the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the “out of Indo-Eurasia” biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  17. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    While many important aspects of wild and farmed insects have been discussed by scholars, such as nutritional value, conservation and farming techniques, no study has addressed how insect farming contributes to rural livelihoods. Furthermore, the roles that interactions between insect farmers...... cricket farming contributes to rural livelihoods. This exploratory study investigates the following research questions: What are the characteristics of Thai cricket farmers and their farms? How do crickets contribute to the lives of rural farmers in Thailand? What role has social and human capital played......, their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...

  18. Student adjustment problems in two dental schools in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, P; Cheunarrom, C

    2000-05-01

    Adjustment problems and academic achievement among dental students at two universities, one located in Thailand's capital city (Mahidol University) and the other in southern Thailand (Prince of Songkla University), were studied. All first- to sixth-year students at each university completed the Mooney Problem Checklist Thai version, by Supapan, which covers eleven areas of adjustment problems. The most severe adjustment problems at both schools were related to adjustment to college work. Problems relating to health and physical development, social and recreational activities, and moral and religious adjustment of MU dental students were significantly higher than those of PSU dental students. The checklist showed that, in both universities, the most important adjustment problem was the need for advice from staff concerning clinical experience. Stepwise regression indicated that four variables--adjustment to college work, sex, secondary education system and university (MU or PSU)--were associated with the academic achievement of dental students.

  19. Towards regulation of similar biotherapeutic products: Thailand's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaphollert, Prapassorn; Tungsanga, Kriang

    2011-09-01

    The implementation of universal health coverage scheme in Thailand allows quality, equitable and accessible health care for all. Patients with life threatening and chronic diseases can get access to biotherapeutic products to treat their ailments. This triggered a major impact on the need for specific guidelines in evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products in order to standardize the regulatory pathway to license this class of products ensuring that the products meet acceptable levels of quality, safety and efficacy. The development of similar biotherapeutic products (SBP) should be considered to ensure therapeutic equivalence of biotherapeutics products at more affordable prices. This will lead to greater ease and speed of approval and assurance of the quality, safety and efficacy of these products. Therefore, we report herein the SBP situation in Thailand. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.