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Sample records for province southwest iran

  1. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad District, Kohgiluyeh & Boyer Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran

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    V Barati

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mediterranean type of visceral leishmaniasis (VL is present in different parts of Iran. Several studies have identified dogs as the main reservoirs of the VL caused by Leishmania infantum in Iran and other Mediterranean regions. This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis as animal reservoir host for human visceral leishmaniasis in Boyer Ahmad dis­trict in southwest of Iran.Methods: A seroepidemiological study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL among ownership dogs by using direct agglutination test (DAT in 23 of 182 villages of Boyer Ahmad district, during August 2009 to August 2010. One hundred and seventy serum samples from ownership dogs were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling in villages of Boyer Ahmad district. All samples were tested by DAT and anti-Leishmania antibodies titers at ≥ 1:320 was considered as positive.Results: Of the 170 serum samples, 10% were positive by DAT at titers of 1:320 and higher. No statistical significant difference was found between male (10.7% and female (8.3% seroprevalence. The highest seroprevalence rate (15.1% was observed among the ownership dogs of four to seven years age. Altogether, seventeen (25.4% of the seropositive dogs had clinical signs and symptoms.Conclusion: It seems that Boyer Ahmad district is an endemic area for canine visceral leishmaniasis in Iran.

  2. Seroprevalence and molecular evaluation of toxoplasmosis in children with cancer in Khuzestan province, Southwest of Iran.

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    Saki, Jasem; Tavakoli, Sanaz; Pedram, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite with global distribution. Toxoplasmosis in individuals with normal immune system is usually asymptomatic, but in immunocompromised patients may lead to death if not cured. In this study, the prevalence rate of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in children with cancer was investigated using serological and molecular methods. Blood samples were taken from 372 children with cancer in Shafa hospital in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. Anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies were investigated by ELISA. The presence of Toxoplasma in the blood samples was evaluated by Nested PCR. Among 372 children with cancer, 155 (41.7%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies and 24 (6.4%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies, as well. In IgG avidity test, 34 (22%) had antibodies indicating acute phase and 121 (78%) had antibodies indicating chronic phase. The Nested PCR results were showed T. gondii parasite in 34 (100%) patients among 34 IgG antibody-positive patients with acute infection, among 16 IgG antibody-positive patients with chronic infection, 10 patients were indicative of T. gondii and 6 patients were not indicative of T. gondii. A total of 50 cases, 44 (88%) were T. gondii-positive and 6 (12%) were T. gondii-negative in Nested PCR. This study showed high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in children with cancer. Results of serological techniques (ELISA and IgG avidity) had a higher overlap with Nested PCR in identifying T. gondii of seropositive patients.

  3. Organic geochemistry and source rock characteristics of the Zagros Petroleum Province, southwest Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, M.A.; Kinghorn, R.R.F.; Rahman, M.

    1980-07-01

    The Zagros sector of SW Iran and its continuation into N Iraq forms the tectonized NE margin of the Middle East basin. Sedimentation in the Zagros began in the late Precambrian and continued with comparatively few interruptions until the Pliocene, when strong earth movements affected the area and gave rise to the present day large, elongated NW-SE trending structures. Some of the world's largest structurally-controlled oil fields are located in the Zagros. The most productive pay zone is the Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation, although significant oil pools are present also in the Cenomanian-Turonian Sarvak limestone and in the Neocomian-Jurassic Khami Group carbonates. Recently, large gas deposits have been discovered in the Permo-Triassic carbonates assigned to the Deh Ram Group. Geochemical studies were carried out in five potential source beds of Eocene-Palaeocene (Pabdeh Formation), Maestrichtian-Campanian (Gurpi Formation), Albian (Kazhdumi Formation), Coniacian-Neocomian (Garau Formation) and Silurian (Gahkum Formation) age. The results showed that the organic matter in these formations is almost exclusively of marine algal origin, and that the Kazhdumi is the major source of the hydrocarbons in the Asmari and Sarvak reservoirs. The origin of the hydrocarbons in the Khami and Deh Ram reservoirs is at present speculative. 19 figures, 1 table.

  4. Molecular Characterization of Cosenza Mutation among Patients with Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Khuzestan Province, Southwest Iran

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    Seyed Reza Kazemi Nezhad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is one of the most common hereditary enzymatic disorders in human, increases the vulnerability of erythrocytes to oxidative stress. It is also characterized by remarkable molecular and biochemical heterogeneity. According to previous investigations, G6PD Cosenza (G1376C is a common G6PD mutation in some parts of Iran. Therefore in the present study we have characterized Cosenza mutation among G6PD deficient individuals in Khuzestan province. In order to identify G6PD Cosenza, we analyzed the G6PD gene in 64 samples out of 231 deficient individuals who had not G6PD Mediterranean mutation, using PCR- restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP method. G6PD Cosenza mutation was found in 6 males of 231 samples, resulting in the relative rate of 2.6% and allele frequency of 0.023 among Khuzestanian G6PD deficient subjects. A comparison of these results with previous findings in some parts of Iran suggests that G6PD Cosenza is a common mutation in Khuzestanian G6PD deficient individuals

  5. Determination of Iron and Chromium Levels in Canned Fish Produced in Factories of Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran

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    Zahra Nazari Khorasgani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The heavy metal pollutions were accumulated in aquatic animals such as fish. Whereas consumption of canned fish is increased in many countries, contaminated fish meat would make a hazard to food security and public health. In this study, the levels ofiron and chromium were measured in canned fish products in in Khuzestan, Iran, in 2015. Methods: Forty-six of canned fish composite samples were analyzed for levels of iron and chromium after dry digestion and then determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Results: The mean concentrations of A and B canned brandsfor iron were 4.6504348 and 0.1908696 and for chromium were 1.36030435 and 0.67629565, respectively. There were significant differences in the iron and chromium levels between two brands of canned fishes (P<0.05.Varieties of canned fishes were within FAO/WHO, U.S. FDA, U.S. EPA and U.K for iron and chromium. Conclusion: According to US EPA health criteria for carcinogens, there was no health risk to chromium in canned fish.

  6. Molecular and parasitological study of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bushehr province, southwest of the Islamic Republic of Iran: a cross-sectional study during 2009-2012.

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    Mohebali, Mehdi; Darabi, Hossein; Hajjaran, Homa; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Fouladvand, Moradali; Charehdar, Soroor; Satvat, Mohammad Taghi; Pakbaz, Foroogh; Vahdat, Katayoun

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important parasitic disease in Iran. CL is distributed among more than half of 31 provinces of Iran. Studies on epidemiological aspects of the disease and Leishmania species identification among infected humans are necessary for providing a comprehensive prevention and control program thus; this descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on all CL suspected patients who referred to Health Centers of Bushehr province from 2009 to 2012. Physical examinations were carried out in suspected individuals and CL cases were confirmed by microscopical examinations. Prepared slides from suspicious cases of CL were fixed with absolute methanol and stained by Giemsa 10 %. All the Giemsa-stained slides examined under a light microscope with high magnification (1,000×) and classified them based on grading of Leishmania parasites. DNA from each slide was extracted, separately. The ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 was amplified with specific primers and PCR products were digested by restrict enzymes (HaeIII), run them in 3 % gel agarose for electrophoresis and visualized on a UV transilluminator after staining with ethidium bromide. SPSS version 21 was used for data analyses. A total of 726 suspected CL cases were referred to Health Centers of Bushehr province from 2009 to 2012 and samples were only prepared from 188 of the patients whereas 43 (5.9 %) of them were microscopy positive. The most frequent of CL was observed in November (14 %) and December (12 %). The most distribution of CL lesions were observed on hands (32 %), feet (26 %), and face (21 %), respectively. The highest frequency of CL was observed in 1-9 years old (30 %). Altogether, 50 % of the patients showed one skin lesion and 2-10 skin lesions were occurred in the remained CL patients. Totally, 27 out of 43 (63 %) of the Giemsa stained slides were positive by PCR-RFLP assay because all the PCR-RFLP negative slides were prepared 3-4 years ago

  7. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

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    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  8. CURCULIONOIDEA FROM GOLESTAN PROVINCE, NORTHERN IRAN (Coleoptera)

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    Hassan Ghahari; Enzo Colonnelli

    2012-01-01

    The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran) according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera...

  9. Epidemiology of Tuberculosis in south-west of Iran: a brief report

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    Reza Beiranvand

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Increasing concurrent of HIV infection and TB and decreasing patients mean age (39.3±18 and median (35±6.5 in southwest of Iran has high prevalence. Screening, training and preventive activities for controlling of disease is highly recommended for the whole country and in margin provinces in particular.

  10. Time-trend analysis and developing a forecasting model for the prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, southwest of Iran.

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    Mousavizadeh, A; Dastoorpoor, M; Naimi, E; Dohrabpour, K

    2017-11-09

    This study was designed and implemented to assess the current situation and to estimate the time trend of multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as to explain potential factors associated with such a trend. This longitudinal study was carried out based on analysis of the data from the monitoring and treatment surveillance system for 421 patients with MS in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Iran, from 1990 to 2015. To this end, curve estimation approach was used to investigate the changes in prevalence and incidence of the disease, and univariate time series model analysis was applied in order to estimate the disease incidence in the next 10 years. The mean and standard deviation of age were 29.78 and 8.5 years at the time of diagnosis, and the mean and 95% confidence interval of age were 29.18 (28.86-30.77) and 29.68 (28.06-31.30) at the time of diagnosis for women and men, respectively. The sex ratio (males to females) was estimated as 3.3, and the prevalence of the disease was estimated as 60.14 in 100,000 people. The diagram of the 35-year trend of the disease indicated three distinct patterns with a tendency to increase in recent years. The prevalence and incidence trend of the disease in the study population is consistent with regional and global changes. Climatic and environmental factors such as extreme weather changes, dust particles, expansion of the application of new industrial materials, and regional wars with potential use of banned weapons are among the issues that may, in part, be able to justify the global and regional changes of the disease. Predictive models indicate a growing trend of the disease, highlighting the need for more regular monitoring of the disease trend in upcoming years. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolic Control, Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude and Practice in Non-Insulin-dependent Diabetic Patients from Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, South-West of Iran

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    Janmohamad Malekzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is among the most common causes of mortality in the world and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease, foot amputation, ischemic heart disease and blindness among older adults. Diabetic patients mostly develop hyperlipidemia, which can result in cardiovascular diseases. Patient’s knowledge, attitude and practices toward diet are the core center for diabetes control and affect their metabolic control and complications. In the present study, we measured nutritional knowledge, attitude and practices and their relations to serum lipids, HbA1C, and fasting blood glucose in diabetic patients of Boirahmad County, southwest of Iran, where many people encounter increasing prevalence of diabetes. Materials and Methods: 198 IDDM patients from the rural and urban areas of Boirahmad County were invited to the health centers to be checked for their fasting blood glucose, serum total cholesterol, serum HDL cholesterol, serum triglyceride and also serum glycosylated hemoglobin. Their knowledge, attitude, and practices toward the diabetic diet were assessed using a validated questionnaire. The obtained scores were classified into three categories (Poor, average, and Good to show their knowledge, attitude and practice levels, and the serum parameters were compared between the levels to show the relevancies. Results: Our data showed that the patients’ knowledge and attitude on diabetic nutrition are mostly at the average level (79.3% and 47.1%, respectively but their practice scores are mostly at the poor level (43.8%, and just a minor proportion of the patients are at the appropriate levels (15.3, 33, and 23.1% of knowledge, attitude and practices, respectively. In addition, we found a significant reverse relationship between the patients’ nutritional knowledge and  serum HbA1C (p=0.003, and also between their attitude and serum triglyceride (p<0.05. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the knowledge

  12. CURCULIONOIDEA FROM GOLESTAN PROVINCE, NORTHERN IRAN (Coleoptera

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    Hassan Ghahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera viciae, Larinus canescens, L. adspersus, Lixus ascanii, Microplontus rugulosus, Neoglocianus smyrnensis, Otiorhynchus tetrarchus, O. scitus, Tychius cuprifer, T. picirostris, T. thoracicus.

  13. (Francolinus francolinus) in Khouzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Habitat destruction and indiscriminate hunting as well as agricultural pesticides are among the most crucial factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling, this study aims to investigate different vegetative factors including plant species,.

  14. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

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    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  15. Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from Lorestan province, western Iran

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    Ghahari H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae were collected.

  16. Curculionidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) from Lorestan province, western Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghahari H.; Arzanov Y.G.

    2012-01-01

    The fauna of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from Lorestan province, western Iran is studied in this paper. A total 56 species from 19 genera and 5 subfamilies (including, Curculioninae, Ceutorhynchinae, Entiminae, Hyperinae, Lixinae) were collected.

  17. Hepatitis B Infection among high risk population: a seroepidemiological survey in Southwest of Iran

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    Khosravani Abdolmajid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection remains a major global health problem. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and risk behaviors for HBV infection among high risk groups in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province, in Southwest of Iran. Methods Blood samples were collected from 2009 subjects, between 2009 and 2010 in Kohgiloyeh and Boyerahmad province, in southwest of Iran. Recruited subjects were the high risk groups for HBV infection, including inmates, injecting drug users, health care workers, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, hemophilic patients and patients with a history of blood transfusion. Their serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (HBc IgM, IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seropositive specimens were tested for HBsAg. Demographic features of participants were recorded during sample collecting. Results HBsAg was detected in 24 of the 2009 subjects, giving an overall prevalence of 1.2%. All HBsAg positive cases were males. The prevalence of HBsAg among injection drug users was 3.2%. Significant correlation was found between HBV infection and drug abuse, level of education and place of residence (p Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, incarceration and drug abuse are the most important risk factors for acquiring HBV infection in this region. Modifying behavior, improving the individual education and expanding the HBV vaccination coverage may reduce the rate of infection in the region.

  18. Aging in Place within Elderly People in the Southwest Iran

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    Laleh Fani Saberi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran and its aged society are facing some issues that significantly impact the current social structures in Iran. It will continue to do so on their growing as elderly with negative impacts on communal relations and unjust distribution of resources based on a gender basis that will affect the aging in place (AiP. The study aims to investigate the AiP within aged people and modifying role of the gender variables within it. Methods: This study describes the current AiP of the aged people in Ahwaz city in the southwest Iran from a gender perspective. The population available for the study was citizens 60 years of age and older (N=51594 in Ahwaz city. Sampling method was cluster-ratio based on municipal zones, ethnicity, and gender with sample size 382 (195 male and 187 female. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics, F-test and geographical information system. Results: Economically poor situation of the aged samples especially aged women, and their health status was moderated by low quality of nutrition and high prevalence of chronic conditions. For example, Arabs, Persian and Lor received low mean scores of 59.41, (SD= 7.332, 58.09 (SD= 11.963, and 57.02, (SD= 7.963 respectively in the health status. AiP characteristics are poor and discrimination was especially significantly prominent among elderly females. Multiple regression were found to modify AiP at the first step. The GLM reported that gender-ethnic discrimination directly affected AiP and high prevalent amongst elderly minority females. Conclusion: The current urban environment, in the southwest Iran, seems is unable to meet healthy needs of aged people. It needs to adjust upon gender and other relevant characteristics to monitor equality of outcomes for aged and minorities. The future research needs to focus on effect of ethnicity and gender-related issues on AiP, especially in developing countries like Iran. sure activities and mental health, provides evidence for

  19. Trichinella britovi in the jackal Canis aureus from south-west Iran.

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    Mirjalali, H; Rezaei, S; Pozio, E; Naddaf, S R; Salahi-Moghaddam, A; Kia, E B; Shahbazi, F; Mowlavi, Gh

    2014-12-01

    Trichinellosis is an important helminthic food-borne zoonosis, which is caused by nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Although, Trichinella spp. has been detected frequently in Iranian wildlife, this parasitic infection is not considered a major public health problem. This is largely because Islamic codes forbid consumption of pork meat in this country. However, knowledge about this zoonotic pathogen is important because human trichinellosis has been documented in countries where most of the population is Muslim. The aims of the present work were to investigate whether Trichinella spp. was still circulating in wildlife of the Khuzestan Province (south-west Iran) about 30 years after the first investigation, to identify the aetiological agent at the species level by molecular analyses, and to review the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals of Iran. During the winter 2009-2010, muscle samples from 32 road-killed animals (14 dogs and 18 jackals, Canis aureus) were collected. Muscle samples were digested and Trichinella sp. larvae were isolated from two jackals. The Trichinella sp. larvae have been identified as Trichinella britovi by molecular analyses. These results confirm that T. britovi is the prevalent species circulating in wild animals of Iran.

  20. Trend in cataract surgical rate in iran provinces.

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    Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Etemad, Koroush; Mahdavi, Alireza; Asgari, Soheila

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the trend of changes in Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in the provinces of Iran during 2006 to 2010 and identify high risk areas. This report is part of the national Iranian CSR Study. The percentage change in CSR in 2010 compared to 2006 was conducted in each province, retrospectively. One hundred and ten centers were chosen from all provinces, to determine CSR in each, the weight of major (>3,000 annual surgeries) and minor (3,000 annual surgeries or less) centers was calculated based on the number of selected centers, and multiplied by the number of surgeries in each province. In eight provinces, CSR was decreased by 1-60%. One province (Booshehr) showed no change. Eighteen provinces had 2-79% increase. No 2006 data was available in three provinces. North Khorasan had the most decrease while Kerman had the most increase in CSR. Six of these 8 provinces had CSR>3,000 despite a decrease in 2010, but North Khorasan had CSRCSR had a gap from 3,000 despite an ascending trend, and in two, the gap was quite considerable. Although CSR has an improving trend in most provinces in Iran, it is decreasing in some provinces, and despite an already low CSR, the exacerbation continues. The growing population of over 50 year olds calls for prompt measures in such provinces. Even in improving provinces, some lag behind the minimum recommended by WHO, and the growth rate of the over 50 population reveals the necessity of immediate planning.

  1. Spectrum of α-thalassemia mutations in Qazvin Province, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Thalassemia is a widespread inherited disease particularly prevalent in the middle East Asia population, including Iran. The aim of this study was to define the molecular spectrum and frequency of α-thalassemia mutations in prospective couples of Qazvin province. A total of 120,000 subjects were studied during 10 years ...

  2. Natural and artificial radioactivity distribution in soil of Fars Province, Iran.

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    Faghihi, R; Mehdizadeh, S; Sina, S

    2011-04-01

    Fars province is a large populated large province located in the southwest of Iran. This work presents a study of natural and radioactivity levels in soil samples of this province. For this purpose, 126 samples were gathered from different regions of the province and analysed by gamma spectroscopy to quantify radioactivity concentrations of radionuclides using a high-purity germanium detector and spectroscopy system. The results of this investigation show the average concentrations of 271 ± 28 Bq kg(-1), 6.37 ± 0.5 Bq kg(-1), 14.9 ± 0.9 Bq kg(-1) and 26.3 ± 1.9 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, (137)Cs, (232)Th and (238)U in soil, respectively. Finally, baseline maps were established for the concentrations of each of the radionuclides in different regions. The absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose (AED) were also calculated for the radionuclides according to the guidelines of UNSCEAR 2000. The average AED from the radioactivity content of soil in this province was found to be 39.9 ± 1.8 μSv.

  3. Sequence stratigraphic control on prolific HC reservoir development, Southwest Iran

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    Lasemi, Y.; Kondroud, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    An important carbonate formation in the Persian Gulf and the onshore oil fields of Southwest Iran is the Lowermost Cretaceous Fahliyan formation. The formation in Darkhowain field consists of unconformity-bounded depositional sequences containing prolific hydrocarbon reservoirs of contrasting origin. Located in the high stand systems tract (HST) of the lower sequence encompassing over 200m of oil column are the most prolific reservoir. Another reservoir is over 80m thick consisting of shallowing-upward cycles that are best developed within the transgressive systems tract of the upper sequence. Vertical facies distribution and their paleobathymetry and geophysical log signatures of the Fahliyan formation in the Darkhowain platform reveal the presence of two unconformity-bounded depositional sequences in Vail et al., Van Wagoner et al., and Sarg. The Fahliyan formation mainly consists of platform carbonates composed of restricted bioclastic lime mudstone to packstone of the platform interior, Lithocodium boundstone or ooid-intraclast-bioclast grainstone of the high energy platform margin and the bioclast packstone to lime mudstone related to the off-platform setting.

  4. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

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    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  5. Sleep Quality among Older Adults in Mehriz, Yazd Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Rezaeipandari; Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad; Seyed Jamal Hashemi; Vali Bahrevar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Decrease in sleep quality is an age-related problem which appears in different features such as difficulty in sleeping, over sleeping and unusual behaviors during sleep. Regarding the importance of sleep quality among older adults and also its effects on their quality of life and physical and mental status, the study was conducted to determine the status and quality of sleep in older adults in Mehriz, Yazd Province, Iran.  Methods: The cross-sectional study used cluster rando...

  6. Molecular detection, infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seyyed Mostafa Mohammadi; Bijan Esmaeilnejad; Ghader Jalilzadeh-Amin

    2017-01-01

    Goat Iran Ixodid ticks Semi-nested PCR Theileria lestoquardi Abstract This study was aimed to determine the infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran...

  7. Serological and molecular identification of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Khuzestan province of Iran

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    Shahrokh MALEKZADEH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted from 2006 to 2007 to identify the causal agent of leaf curling of tomato in eight major tomato-growing areas of Khuzestan province in southwest of Iran. Tomato leaf samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and stunting were collected and screened for the presence of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV by TAS-ELISA. Further confi rmation was completed using graft transmission onto healthy tomato plants and PCR. Results confi rmed that TYLCV is a causal agent of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD and is widely distributed in all the major tomato growing areas in southwest of Iran. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP gene of four isolates (Dezfoul, Shoush, Behbahan, and Ramhormoz were determined and deposited in GenBank (EF199814-7. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP gene further showed that all four Iranian isolates have very close relationship and formed a Compact cluster together with previously sequenced Iranian TYLCV isolates.

  8. Pemphigoid gestationis: a retrospective study in southwest Iran.

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    Sima Rassai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Pemphigoid gestationis (PG is a rare autoimmune bullous dermatosis of pregnancy usually presents in the second or third trimester. It is characterized by pruritic, urticarial plaques with the development of tense vesicles and bullae within the lesions. Pathogenesis of PG is not fully established, however, most patients develop circulating autoantibodies targeting the bullous pemphigoid (BP 180 antigen. The aim of this work is to draw a profile of the epidemiology, clinical aspects, treatment and evolution of the disease by studying hospital series. We retrospectively investigated the 13 patients who were diagnosed with PG based on hospital data at the Referral Center of Southwest Iran located in Ahvaz city between March 2002 and March 2011. The age of onset was 21 to 40 years (mean age: 27.5 years. The onset of the disease occurred in the second trimester of pregnancy in 6 patients and in the third trimester of pregnancy in 4 patients. One patient had a flare up of disease during the first trimester and two out of cases in puerperium period. In all cases, pruritus was the first symptom, followed by an erythematous vesiculobullous eruption.  The diagnosis of PG was confirmed by skin biopsy. Ten out of the patients treated with oral corticosteroids (0.5-1 mg/kg/day, one of the patients underwent oral corticosteroids plus topical glucocorticoid and the last patient treated with topical glucocorticoid. PG remains a rare dermatosis of pregnancy. Our series had two particularities compared to other studies: high frequency in primigravida and the frequent involvement of the face. Additionally our study demonstrated that improvement could occur faster and provide acceptable management if the treatment of the patients would be implemented sooner.

  9. Isolation of keratinophilic fungi from soil in Isfahan province, Iran.

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    Kachuei, R; Emami, M; Naeimi, B; Diba, K

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate the epidemiology of keratophilic fungi in Isfahan province, Iran. The present research has been conducted on soil samples collected from 16 townships of Isfahan province. For isolate geophilic dermatophytes and keratinophilic fungi, the keratin baiting technique has been applied. Of 800 soil samples examined, 588 (73.5%) keratinophilic fungi were isolated. The present studied recognized 727 isolates including 16 species of 11 genus, as follows: Chrysosporium keratinophilum (31.4%), C. pannicola (16.9%), C. tropicum (15.4%), Microsporum gypseum (12.4%), Chrysosporium spp. (9.9%), C. indicum (7%), Sepedonium spp. (3.3%), Malbranchia spp. (1%), Trichophyton terrestre (0.8%), T. ajelloi and Paecilomyces lilacinus (0.4%), Engyodontium album and Acremonium spp. (0.3%), Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp. and Ulocladium spp. (0.1%). In this study, E. album was isolated for the first time in this country (Iran). The frequency these keratinophilic fungi are discussed in relation to different agents such as soil pH. This study contributes to the knowledge of keratophilic fungi in Iran. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial and Statistical Analysis of Leptospirosis in Guilan Province, Iran

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    Nia, A. Mohammadi; Alimohammadi, A.; Habibi, R.; Shirzadi, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    The most underdiagnosed water-borne bacterial zoonosis in the world is Leptospirosis which especially impacts tropical and humid regions. According to World Health Organization (WHO), the number of human cases is not known precisely. Available reports showed that worldwide incidences vary from 0.1-1 per 100 000 per year in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100 000 in the humid tropics. Pathogenic bacteria that is spread by the urines of rats is the main reason of water and soil infections. Rice field farmers who are in contact with infected water or soil, contain the most burden of leptospirosis prevalence. In recent years, this zoonotic disease have been occurred in north of Iran endemically. Guilan as the second rice production province (average=750 000 000 Kg, 40% of country production) after Mazandaran, has one of the most rural population (Male=487 679, Female=496 022) and rice workers (47 621 insured workers) among Iran provinces. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial clusters of leptospirosis to better understand epidemiological aspects of them in the province. Survey was performed during the period of 2009-2013 at rural district level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest neighbour distance, Moran's I and General G indices were utilized to investigate the annual spatial distribution of diseases. At the end, significant spatial clusters have been detected with the objective of informing priority areas for public health planning and resource allocation.

  11. Scorpion envenomation study in Behbahan County, Southwest Iran

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    Hamid Kassiri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the incidence and epidemiology of scorpion sting cases that were referred to the health services centers of Behbahan County, Khuzistan Province, southwestern Iran, during the two yeare (2007-2008. Methods: In this descriptive retrospective research, the data has come from files of scorpionstung patients referring to the health services centers of Behbahan during study period. A special scorpion sting sheet was prepared and completed for every case of scorpion sting. Analysis of 3441 case sheets received during this period was carried out. The frequencies of medical and entomoepidemiologic parameters were turned to the percentage position. Results: A total of 3 441 cases of scorpion stings were reported during the two-year period from 2007 to 2008. The average incidence of scorpion stings was 8.8‰ in the two years. The frequency of cases was higher during August, September, June and July that 2 056 cases of scorpion stings were reported. Most stings were occurred during summer. Nearly 51.3% of the cases were men. All cases had received antivenin. Majority of scorpion sting cases (56.5% lived in the rural areas. The most common sting site was the hand. About 74.4% have received the antivenin 0-6 h after the sting. The early injection of the antivenin is very important. The most of the cases of scorpion stings (59% were occurred by yellow scorpions. Conclusions: Surveillance for cases of scorpion stings must begin at all regions of Behbahan County. Treatment of cases of scorpion stings is conducted according to a protocol set by the Ministry of Health, Treatment and Medical Education. This protocol included directions for lines of treatment and the dose of antivenin recommended. Thereafter all cases are referred to hospital for further observation and management.

  12. Prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis in river buffalo calves of southwest of Iran.

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    Bahrami, Somayeh; Alborzi, Ali Reza

    2013-12-01

    Despite the importance of buffalo farming in Iran, little is known in this country about the abundance and distribution of Eimeria spp. in the animal species. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence and species characterization of Eimeria oocysts in river buffalo calves of Khuzestan province, southwest of Iran. Of the total 108 fecal samples examined for Eimeria, 108 (100%) were found infected with 11 species of the parasite. Among the identified species of Eimeria, E. bovis was found to be the predominant etiological agent (76.85%), followed in order by E. canadensis (62.96%), E. zuernii (47.2%), E. ellipsoidalis (26.85%), E. subspherica (25.92%), E. brasiliensis (19.4%), E. auburnensis (18.51%), E. alabamensis (14.81%), E. pellita (11.1%), E. illinoisensis (5.5%) and E. bukidnonensis (2.7%). In most calves multiple infections with three species were present. While, 20.7% of calves showed heavy infection, 50.4 and 24.8% of calves showed weak and moderate infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the OPG values between the calves of different localities. There was also no significant difference between the prevalence rate of infection in males and females. A total of 16.6% of all faecal samples were found to be diarrheic. A highly significant relationship could be identified between the occurrence of diarrhea and the level of E. bovis and E. zuernii oocysts excretion. Considering the pervasive occurrence and negative effects of the infection on the health condition and the growth performance of buffalo calves, infections should receive increased attention by both farmers and veterinarians.

  13. Outstanding diversity of heritage features in large geological bodies: The Gachsaran Formation in southwest Iran

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    Habibi, Tahereh; Ruban, Dmitry A.

    2017-09-01

    The ideas of geological heritage and geological diversity have become very popular in the modern science. These are usually applied to geological domains or countries, provinces, districts, etc. Additionally, it appears to be sensible to assess heritage value of geological bodies. The review of the available knowledge and the field investigation of the Gachsaran Formation (lower Miocene) in southwest Iran permit to assign its features and the relevant phenomena to as much as 10 geological heritage types, namely stratigraphical, sedimentary, palaeontological, palaeogeographical, geomorphological, hydrogeological, engineering, structural, economical, and geohistorical types. The outstanding diversity of the features of this formation determines its high heritage value and the national rank. The geological heritage of the Gachsaran Formation is important to scientists, educators, and tourists. The Papoon and Abolhaiat sections of this formation are potential geological heritage sites, although these do not represent all above-mentioned types. The large territory, where the Gachsaran Formation outcrop, has a significant geoconservation and geotourism potential, and further inventory of geosites on this territory is necessary. Similar studies of geological bodies in North Africa and the Middle East can facilitate better understanding of the geological heritage of this vast territory.

  14. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

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    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Amir; Moslemizadeh, Narges; Peivandi, Sepideh; Barzegarnejad, Ayyub; Musanejad, Nadali; Jursarayee, Gholamali

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated. Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%. Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors. PMID:25356077

  15. Quality Control Assessment of Radiology Devices in Kerman Province, Iran

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    Zahra Jomehzadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Application of quality control (QC programs at diagnostic radiology departments is of great significance for optimization of image quality and reduction of patient dose. The main objective of this study was to perform QC tests on stationary radiographic X-ray machines, installed in 14 hospitals of Kerman province, Iran. Materials and Methods In this cross-sectional study, QC tests were performed on 28 conventional radiographic X-ray units in Kerman governmental hospitals, based on the protocols and criteria recommended by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI, using a calibrated Gammex QC kit. Each section of the QC kit incorporated different models. Results Based on the findings, kVp accuracy, kVp reproducibility, timer accuracy, timer reproducibility, exposure reproducibility, mA/timer linearity, and half-value layer were not within the acceptable limits in 25%, 4%, 29%, 18%, 11%, 12%, and 7% of the evaluated units (n=28, respectively. Conclusion As radiographic X-ray equipments in Kerman province are relatively old with a high workload, it is recommended that AEOI modify the current policies by changing the frequency of QC test implementation to at least once a year.

  16. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Esmailnejad Moghaddam, Amir; Moslemizadeh, Narges; Peivandi, Sepideh; Barzegarnejad, Ayyub; Musanejad, Nadali; Jursarayee, Gholamali

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated. Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%. In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors.

  17. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

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    Nadali Musanejad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran.Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran.Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable birth after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse and were fully investigated.Results: Of the entire samples, 78.7% had primary infertility and 21.3% had secondary infertility. The mean duration of infertility in couples was 5.7±4 years. The etiology of infertility in couples revealed; male factor in 38.9%, female factor in 34.7%, combined factors in 14.6% and undetermined cause in 11.8%.Conclusion: In this study, delayed attendance of infertile couples to the infertility clinic was found. Therefore, there is a need to revise public health program on infertility to focus on the education and prevention of infertility and its risk factors.

  18. Molecular Identification of Giardia duodenalis Isolates from Fars Province, Iran.

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    Mohammad Rayani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis is one of the most common human intestinal protozoan parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of G. duodenalis isolates and determine the most common of its assemblages in the patients referring to health centers and hospitals in Fars province, Iran that will be subjected to further molecular investigation.We collected 1000 human fecal samples from health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Iran in a one year period from September 2009 to August 2010. Microscopic examination for the presence of G. duodenalis cysts and trophozoites was performed by direct wet mount before and after the concentration techniques. Extraction of DNA was performed by Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamylalcohol (PCI. G. duodenalis-positive specimens were analyzed by PCR. A fragment of the SSU-rDNA (292 bp gene was amplified by PCR using the forward primer RH11 and the reverse primer RH4. Genotyping was performed using sequence analysis of G. duodenalis glutamate dehydrogenase gene using primers GDHeF, GDHiF, and GDHiR.The prevalence of Giardia infection was 10.7% (107/1000 examined based on microscopic examination. PCR identified 80% (40/50 of the samples as positive for G. duodenalis based on SSU-rDNA amplification on sucrose gradient samples. Besides, genotyping results indicated 32 isolates (80% as assemblage AII and 8 isolates (20% as assemblage BIII and BIV based on the DNA sequence analysis of the glutamate dehydrogenase locus of G. duodenalis.The findings of this study emphasize that Iran (Fars Province is a favorable area for giardiasis with an anthroponotic infection route.

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  20. Malaria Situation and Anopheline Mosquitoes in Qom Province, Central Iran

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    B Farzinnia

    2010-12-01

    Methods: This study was carried out in two parts. First stage was data collection about malaria cases using recorded documents of patients in the Province health center, during 2001–2008. The second stage was entomological survey conducted by mosquito larval collection method in 4 villages with different geographical positions in 2008. Data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: Of 4456 blood slides, 10.9% out were positive. Most of cases were imported from other countries (90.4%, mainly from Afghanistan (56.5% and Pakistan (16.3%. Slide positive rate showed a maximum of 16.9% and a minimum of 2.9% in 2008 and 2007, respectively. Plasmodium vivax was causative agent of 93.75% of cases, fol­lowed by P. falciparum (6.25%. More than 15 years old age group contained the most malaria reported cases (66.7%. Two Anopheles species, An. superpictus and An. claviger were collected and identified. This is the first report of Anopheles claviger in Qom Province. Conclusion: Malaria is in the control stage in Qom Province. The rate of local transmission is very low (only 1 case, shows Anopheles superpictus, as the main malaria vector of central part of Iran, can play its role in malaria transmission in the area.

  1. Prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran

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    Ebrahim Badparva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province, West of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 2 838 stool samples in Khorramabad, Lorestan Province in 2013. Samples were examined by the several techniques. Results: The frequency of intestinal parasites was 465 (16.4% of which 188 (13.5% samples were for urban areas and 277 (19.2% for rural areas. Infection in rural areas was significantly higher than urban areas. Out of 465 infected samples, 456 (98% were contaminated with protozoan parasites and 9 (2% with helminthes. Infection in people who sometimes used the soap to wash hands was significantly more than those who always used soap (P<0.001. Infection in people with poor economic conditions was significantly more than the two groups with moderate and good economic conditions (P<0.001. Conclusions: Effective reasons for the reducing incidence of intestinal parasites in Lorestan Province could be the development of universities with more students led to increased awareness, improvement of the environment, increase of the ease of access to health care centers, increase of advertising in provincial mass media about health training, increased health culture, and dispose of sanitary waste properly.

  2. Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in Golestan Province of Iran

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    Mehdi Hashemi-Tilehnoee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources are estimated to have a thriving future in many countries as well as Iran. The aim of this work is the evaluation of wind energy potentiality for the five counties of Golestan province in the northern region of Iran. A long term data source, consisting of  30 years in Gorgan, 22 years in Gonbade-e Qabus, 21 years in Maraveh Tappeh, 9 years in Aliabad, and 7 years in Bandar-e Turkaman of eight-hourly mean wind data, was adopted and analyzed. Mean wind power based on quantified data, Weibull distribution function, the relative percentage error (RPE and wind direction between obtaining values of wind power has been considered. According to these data, it was found that the numerical values of the shape parameter and scale parameter for Golestan varied a tight range. Annual values of ‘‘k’’ ranged from 2.7 to 4.7 where it is constant in different elevation because of better performance of this method in estimating wind energy potential, while annual values of ‘‘c’’ were in the range of 2.6 m/s in 10 m and 7.6 m/s in 40 m. Wind power densities have been estimated and relatively low for large wind turbines. The consequences indicate that in some months Maraveh Tappeh and Bandar-e Turkaman has best wind energy potential, as class 2, in order to establish some small wind turbine models for the sustainable development of Golestan province. Article History: Received Sept 13, 2015; Received in revised form Dec 27, 2015; Accepted January 17, 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Babayani, D., Khaleghi, M. and Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M. (2016 Assessment of Wind Energy Potential in Golestan Province of Iran. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(1, 25-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.1.25-31 

  3. Schistosomahaematobium Control In Khoozestan Province In Iran: Prosperities And Failures

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    Hayate Mombeni

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schistosoma haematobium is a parasite that is carried by freshwater snails and induces gastrointestinal and urinary disease, depending on its species. In Khoozestan, one of the provinces in Iran, schistosomiasis was endemic. This study reports the results of schistosomiasis control in this region. Methods: From 1981 to 2001 nearly 650 villages and 20 cities were under surveillance for S. haematobium. More than 1.5 million urine samples were taken and positive cases were treated. Results: From 1981 to 1990 there were 1158 positive cases; whereas, from 1991 to 2000 only 98 cases were reported and from 2000 to 2001 we could not detect any positive cases. The northwest ofKhoozestan was the most infected area. Conclusion: Schistosoma haematobium can be eradicated provided that anationwide health care project comprising public health education, environment decontamination, case finding, screening, and chemotherapy is designed and held meticulously.

  4. Survey of Dogs’ Parasites in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

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    GhR Razmi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Dog is known to act as definitive host for some parasites that cause important diseases in man and animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Neospora caninum and other intestinal parasites in dogs in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran. "nMethods: A cross-sectional study was done concerning frequency of N. canium and other in­testinal parasites in dogs in Mashhad area. Totally, 174 fecal samples from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs were collected from 2006 to 2007. Fecal samples were examined for de­tecting intestinal parasites by Mini Parasep®SF faecal parasite concentrator in Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran "nResults: The overall prevalence of other intestinal parasites in farm dogs and household dogs were 29.21% and 14.11%, respectively. Seven parasites were found in farm dogs as follows: Toxocara canis 17.9%, Taenia sp. 10.1% , Strongyloides stercoralis 5.6%, Hammondia Neo­spora-like oocysts (HNLO 4.4% , Isospora sp. 7.8 %, Sarcocystis sp. 7.8 % and   Giardia sp. 1.1%  and four parasite in housed dogs:  Toxocara. 4.4%, Taenia sp. 3.3 % , Isospora sp. 2.3 % and  Sarcocystis sp. 4.7 %.  The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum -specific PCR, and two of samples were positive for N. caninum. "nConclusion: The farm and household dogs are the source of some important zoonotic and non-zoonotic diseases in Iran .

  5. Fungal Contamination of Indoor Public Swimming Pools, Ahwaz, South-west of Iran.

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    Rafiei, A; Amirrajab, N

    2010-01-01

    Using public swimming pools during different seasons and poor health behavior could be responsible in transmission of fungal disease through pool water and its environment. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate fungal agents of indoor public swimming pools of Ahwaz, capital city of Khouzestan Province, south-west of Iran. Ten indoor swimming pools of Ahwaz were investigated during two seasons for 6 months. Water specimens were collected by pump and environment samples including shower-bath area, margin of pool walls, dressing rooms, and slippers, by sterile carpet pieces. All specimens were cultured in SC and SCC culture media and fungal agents identification were based on macroscopic, microscopic characteristic and complement tests when it was necessary. Data analyzing was performed using SPSS version 13 for descriptive analyzing. A total of 593 samples were collected from different parts of pools. Interestingly in 13 samples from environmental places, dermatophytes were isolated as follows: Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum and Epidermophyton floccosum 5, 4, 3 and 1 cases respectively. Ten cases of dermatophytes were isolated from floor of dressing area. Three hundred seventy two saprophytic fungi species and 32 yeasts were recovered from water and environment surfaces samples. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Mucor were the most common isolated saprophytic fungi. Existence of saprophytic fungi and yeast in pools water seems to be an indicator of their resistance to detergent agents. In addition, yeast water contamination could be from swimmers. Dermatophytes isolation from pools environment areas and foot washing sink, reveals the importance of public swimming pools in disease transmission. Because dressing places are being used by all of the swimmers, take care of hygienic discipline in these places should be noted by health policy markers.

  6. Analysis of Proppant Hydraulic Fracturing in a Sand Oil Reservoir in Southwest of Iran

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    Reza Masoomi; Iniko Bassey; Dolgow Sergie Viktorovich; Hosein Dehghani

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is one way to increase the productivity of oil and gas wells. One of the most fundamental successes of hydraulic fracturing operation is selecting the proper size and type of proppants which are used during the process. The aim of this study is optimizing the type and size of used propant in hydraulic fracturing operation in a sand oil reservoir in southwest of Iran. In this study sand and ceramic (sintered bauxite) have been considered as proppant type. Also the various ...

  7. Cytotoxic activity of plants from East Azarbaijan province, Iran

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    M. Irani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Due to the high cancer mortality rates and side effects of different types of cancer treatments, discovering effective treatments without or with fewer side effects is the main purpose of many researchers all around the world. Plants play an important role in the discovery of new drugs. Iran owns rich and varied vegetation but the majority of these plants have not yet undergone chemical, pharmacological and toxicological studies. In the present study, some species from East Azarbaijan province of Iran were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects. Methods: Total methanol extract of 29 plants from 18 families were screened for their cytotoxic activities. The inhibition of cell growth for these extracts was evaluated against MCF-7, A-549, Hep-G2, HT-29 and MDBK cell lines. Their 50% inhibitions of growth (IC50 were determined by MTT assay. Moreover, cytotoxic evaluation of different fractions (ether de petrol, chloroform and methanol of the most potent species was performed. Results: Total extracts and fractions of Bryonia aspera, Centaurea salicifolia, Cuscuta chinensis, Ecbalium elaterium, Gypsophila ruscifolia, Ononis spinosa exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against one or more of the cell lines. Three of the mentioned total extracts presented cytotoxicity effects exclusively against HT-29 cells. Also three fractions (one ether de petrol and two chloroform fractions demonstrated selective cytotoxicity effects against MCF-7cells. Conclusion: It was concluded that these 6 potent species were proper candidates for identification and isolation of active ingredients with cytotoxic effects  and further studies about these species are recommended.

  8. Epithelial Salivary Gland Tumors in Ahvaz, Southwest of Iran

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    Saede Atarbashi Moghadam

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Salivary gland tumors are rare and specific lesions. There are differences in the incidence and frequency of salivary tumors in both minor and major salivary glands in different countries. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of major and minor salivary gland tumors in Ahvaz in the south of Iran. Materials and methods. All the cases, recorded in Imam Khomeyni Hospital and Shafa Hospital, Ahvaz, Iran from 1997 to 2008 were assessed. Age, gender, anatomical location, and histology of all the specimens were evaluated. Results. Of 112 cases, 84 cases were benign and 28 cases were malignant. Female predominance was observed in these cases. Most lesions appeared in the third to fifth decades of life (60.71%. The incidence of malignant salivary gland tumors increased with age and male predominance was found in malignant tumors. The majority of the tumors occurred in parotid gland. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common histological type (65.17%. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma were the most common malignant tumors. Conclusion. It was shown that the peak incidence age of all salivary gland tumors was the third to fifth decades, and malignant tumors mostly occurred in the sixth to eighth decades. Female predominance for all the tumors and slight male predominance in malignant tumors were observed. Pleomorphic adenoma was the most common benign tumor. The most common malignant tumors were mucoepidermoid carcinoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.

  9. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Pirabad, Lorestan Province, Western Iran

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    Farnaz KHEIRANDISH

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to perform seroepidemiological investigation for determining the status of human fasciolosis in Pirabad Village, Lorestan Province, western Iran. Methods: Blood samples were taken from residents of the village including 801 individuals. Sera were separated and stored at -20°C until used. The samples were analyzed using ELISA. Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 6 (0.7% individuals. Difference between age, sex and drinking or swimming in the surface water with seropositivity to fasciolosis was not significant. Out of 7 shepherds, 1 (14.3% was seropositive. Due to the small number of shepherds, comprehensive statistical inference in this regard cannot be done. Significant difference was detected between seropositivity to fasciolosis and consuming local freshwater vegetables during the last 6 months (P=0.001.Conclusion: Metacercariae carrying local freshwater plants might be the main source of contamination because consumption of these kinds of vegetables was confirmed by all participants. Awareness of local communities regarding the danger of freshwater plant consumption, through health education programs, will decrease the risk of infection.

  10. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran

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    Maryam BARKHORI MAHNI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections have a worldwide distribution. High prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in individuals with low socioeconomic status and environmental conditions was found. No study has ever been conducted on the prevalence of these infections in Jiroft. Therefore, in this study prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was evaluated in Jiroft, Kerman Province, Iran.Methods: A total of 1060 individuals from rural and urban areas of Jiroft were sampled accidentally, during 2013-2014. Fresh stool samples were collected from all individuals and examined by formalin ether concentration and agar plate culture. Direct examination was performed on watery samples.Results: Out of 1060 individuals, 563 (53.1% and 497 (46.9% people were from rural and urban areas, respectively. In general, 297 individuals (28% were infected with intestinal parasites. The prevalence of infection for protozoa and helminthes infections were 27.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The most prevalent protozoans were Blastocystis hominis (13.7% and Giardia lamblia (7.8%, and that of helminth was Hymenolepis nana (1.1%.Conclusion: Intestinal protozoan parasites were more prevalent than helminth parasites. Source of water supply and personal hygiene were important factors in the distribution of parasites in the study area.

  11. Evaluation of vegetation types in the West Zagros (Beiranshahr region as a case study, in Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATENA ESLAMI FAROUJI

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Farouji AE, Khodayari H. 2016. Evaluation of vegetation types in the West Zagros (Beiranshahr region as a case study, in Lorestan Province, Iran. Biodiversita 17: 1-10. The accurate identification of plant communities and their distribution are classical tools for mapping and classification of plants. Plants are strongly sensitive against changing environmental conditions. Moreover, Iran has a special position in Asia which has been creating a diverse ecosystem. Close floristic studies are necessary for precise determination of diversity and uniformity. To determine plant species in different vegetation types in Beiran shahr region, modified multi-scale Whittaker plots were constructed. This studied area was about 20000 ha and located in Northwest to Southwest of Iran. Eighty-nine plots were made in different longitude and latitudes. The minimum and maximum heights were 1101 and 2489 m asl., respectively. Within each modified multi-scale plots, each species was explored. Of 608 species, 498 and 97 are belonging to dicotyledons and monocotyledons, and remained 13 species were Pteridophytes. As measured, Therophyte and Champhyte are the dominant and recessive form of life in studied area. Based on species of each plot and subplots, mean Jaccard's coefficient, number of unique species and mean unique species/plot were estimated for each vegetation type. It is obvious that there is a clear correlation between Slopes of the species-log area curve and Mean number of unique species per plot.

  12. Temperature analysis over southwest Iran: trends and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarenistanak, Mohammad; Dhorde, Amit G.; Kripalani, R. H.

    2014-04-01

    The present study intends to show the effect of climate change on trends and patterns of temperature over the southwestern part of Iran. The research has been divided into two parts. The first part consists of an analysis of the temperature trends of mean temperature (TM), maximum temperature (TMAX), and minimum temperature (TMIN) over 39 stations in the study region for the period 1950-2007. The trends in these parameters were detected by linear regression, and significance was tested by t test. Mann-Kendall rank test (MK test) was also employed to confirm the results. The second part of the research involved future projection of temperature based on four models. The models used were Centre National de Recherches Meteorologiques, European Center Hamburg Model, Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, and UK Meteorological Office. Temperature projections were done under B1 and A1B emissions scenarios. The analysis of temperature trends revealed a significant increase during summer and spring seasons. TMAX was stable than TMIN and TM, and winter was stable as compared with summer, spring, and autumn seasons. Results of modeling showed that temperature may increase between 1.69 and 6.88 °C by 2100 in the study area. Summer temperatures may increase with higher rates than spring, winter, and autumn temperatures.

  13. Analysis of HLA-DRB1*1501 in Multiple Sclerosis Patients in Khuzestan Province, Iran

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    Nooshin Delfan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a demyelinating, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS. The pathogenesis of this disease is still unknown, although there are evidences of environmental factors affecting subjects with genetic predisposition factors. The contribution of HLA-DRB1*1501 to MS risk has been replicated and confirmed in most population-based studies. Since there are no data with respect to the association of HLA-DRB1*1501 and MS in Khuzestan province. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of this allele with MS in Khuzestan province. Methods In this case-control study, DRB1*1501 allele was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP in 200 MS patients and 200 unrelated healthy individuals, without any autoimmune disease from the same geographical region. The frequencies of the mentioned allele were compared between the patients and control group using SPSS 16 statistical software and the chi square test. Results The results demonstrated that distribution of DRB1*1501 allele was statistically different between patient and control (41.5% vs. 22.81%, P < 0.001; significant correlation was observed among these allele with both Arab (28.84% vs. 50.84%, P = 0.005 and Persian (15.87% vs. 35.55%, P = 0.018 ethnicities; although no association was revealed between mentioned allele and disease clinical course (relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive, progressive-relapsing and primary-progressive, expanded disability scale score (EDSS and gender. Conclusions The study presents association of susceptibility to multiple sclerosis in southwest of Iran with HLA-DRB1*1501 allele in both Arab and Persian ethnic; although DRB1*1501 may be is not involved in the pathogenesis of different MS disease subtypes. The results are consistent with most of the other studies in Iran; and also most studies in European populations.

  14. Hydatid Cyst Disease in Khozestan Province, Iran | Sarmast | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hydatid cyst is endemic in Iran. Liver is the most common organ involved. Lung, brain, and other organs may also be involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical manifestation and complications of hydatid cyst disease in Khuzestan, Iran. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The study ...

  15. Epidemiological study of snakebites in Ardabil Province (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Esmaeil; Fouladi, Nasrin; Shafaee, Yousef; Mirzamohammadi, Zahra; Naslseraji, Farnaz; Mehrpour, Omid

    2017-03-01

    Average annual incidence of snakebite worldwide is between 5.5 to 1.2 million, and at least 125,000 of them are fatal. In Iran, around 4,500-11,000 snakebites occur annually, and a small number of them are fatal. Snake bites can cause intoxity and immediate death in patients, and the aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiological study of snakebites in Ardabil Province. This study was a cross-sectional that has been done on 67 snakebite patients who were admitted to the Imam Khomeini Hospital of Ardabil during 2008-2013. Information included: age and sex of victims, region of incidence, site of bite, hospitalized duration and symptoms. Data analyzed by descriptive statistical methods using SPSS version 19. There was significant difference between the two sexes (p=0.001). There was no significant difference between the mean age of male and female victims (p=0.68). Most of the victims were in the age group of 20-29 years (34.3%). All snakebites happened in rural areas. There was no significant relation between gender of victims and the residential location of victims (p=0.32). Most snakebites happened during 11 a.m. to 4 p.m. (32.8%). Most of the snakebites occurred in spring and summer seasons. Results showed that most of the bites in yearly months was seen in the summer season and the difference between seasons is significant. (p=0001). Most snakebites, with 38 cases (56.7%), were observed on lower limbs and among them right limbs with 20 cases (52.6%) had the greatest number. There was significant difference between organs of bites in victims because the most organs were in the right lower limb (p=0.002). Of all cases, 66 (98.5%) were injured by a species of viper snake. All patients, showed symptoms of pain, swelling, erythema and ecchymosis bite. Twenty-seven (40.3%) of all cases, suffered fainting. Nausea and vomiting were two other common symptoms. The antidote used in patients was 5.1±1.3 vials. The mean incidence rate of snakebite was an estimated

  16. Prevalence and Rate of Parasitemia of Haemoproteus columbae in Columba Iiviadomesticain Southwest of Iran.

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    Amir Dehghani Samani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites affect the health and productivity of birds. Haemoproteus columbae occurs in pigeons widely in tropical and subtropical regions. The present investigation was concentrated on the prevalence of H. columbae and rate of parasitemia in domestic pigeons in southwest of Iran.Pigeons regimented in three groups, less than six months old, between six and twenty four months old and more than twenty four months old.Then stained blood smears were studied for presence of H. columbae and finally rate of parasitemia in every group calculated.Mature and immature stages of H. columbae gametocytes were found in 24% of blood smears prepared from 100 healthy domestic pigeons. Mean of parasitemia in infected pigeons was 9.58%. Mean size of macrogametocytes was 4μm×15μm and mean size of microgametocytes was 3μm×12μm. Mean of parasitemia in infected females was more than males and pipers. Mean of parasitemia in infected old pigeons (pigeons with more than twenty four months old was more than pigeons with less than six months old and pigeons between six and twenty four months old.This study show the prevalence and rate of parasitemia in domestic pigeons in southwest of Iran. We should be care about this parasite in pigeons by knowing the prevalence and high risk groups.

  17. Completeness and underestimation of cancer mortality rate in Iran: a report from Fars Province in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzban, Maryam; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Dortaj, Eshagh; Bahrampour, Abbas; Zendehdel, Kazem

    2015-03-01

    The incidence and mortality rates of cancer are increasing worldwide, particularly in the developing countries. Valid data are needed for measuring the cancer burden and making appropriate decisions toward cancer control. We evaluated the completeness of death registry with regard to cancer death in Fars Province, I. R. of Iran. We used data from three sources in Fars Province, including the national death registry (source 1), the follow-up data from the pathology-based cancer registry (source 2) and hospital based records (source 3) during 2004 - 2006. We used the capture-recapture method and estimated underestimation and the true age standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for cancer. We used log-linear (LL) modeling for statistical analysis. We observed 1941, 480, and 355 cancer deaths in sources 1, 2 and 3, respectively. After data linkage, we estimated that mortality registry had about 40% underestimation for cancer death. After adjustment for this underestimation rate, the ASMR of cancer in the Fars Province for all cancer types increased from 44.8 per 100,000 (95% CI: 42.8 - 46.7) to 76.3 per 100,000 (95% CI: 73.3 - 78.9), accounting for 3309 (95% CI: 3151 - 3293) cancer deaths annually. The mortality rate of cancer is considerably higher than the rates reported by the routine registry in Iran. Improvement in the validity and completeness of the mortality registry is needed to estimate the true mortality rate caused by cancer in Iran.

  18. Seroprevalence and genotype of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs, dogs and cats from Guizhou province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Nian; Nie, XinWen; Peng, Qun-Yi; Mu, Xiao-Qiong; Zhang, Ming; Tian, Meng-Yuan; Min, Shao-ju

    2015-04-10

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular protozoan that infects almost all warm-blooded animals, including humans, domesticated and wild animals. Recent studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from animals in different regions of China have shown a limited genetic diversity with the dominance of the ToxoDB PCR-RFLP genotype #9 named as "Chinese 1". However, there is not much published information regarding its prevalence in domestic animals from Guizhou province, a subtropical region in Southwest China. The objectives of this study were to determine seroprevalence and genetic diversity of T .gondii in pigs, dogs and cats in Guizhou province, Southwest China. The anti-T. gondii IgG were detected in 70.0%(49/70) pigs, 20.56%(22/107) dogs and 63.16(12/19) cats. The anti-T. gondii IgM were found in 0.93%(1/107) dogs, 21.53%(4/19) cats, but not in pigs. In addition, the toxoplasma circulating antigen (CAG) were detected in 16.9%18/70)pigs, 13.1% (14/107) dogs and 10.5%(2/19) cats. The T. gondii DNA were detected in 31.5%(22/70) pigs, 3.7%(4/107) dogs and 52.63%(10/19) cats. Five T. gondii isolates were obtained(3 from pigs and 2 from cats). The genotype of these five isolates belonged to the predominant genotype "Chinese 1". The high prevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs,cats and dogs indicated that the T. gondii infection is common in Guizhou province. Additionally, the T. gondii genotype "Chinese 1" was dominant in Southwest China.

  19. The trend of hydatidosis in kermanshah province, Western iran (1986-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavi, Y; Vejdani, M; Nazari, N; Mikaeili, A

    2011-12-01

    Hydatidosis is the larval stage of the Echinococcusgranulosus. This disease is endemic in Iran. There are many studies about hydatidosis in different regions of the country, but there is not any information about the disease in Kermanshah Province. This article will review all available data about hydatidosis in this province. Using web based search engines and a survey on medical student's theses, all the information about hydatid cysts in the province from 1986 -2008 was collected. During these twenty years, at least 482 proven cases of hydatid cyst have been identified in the province. Accordingly, the trend of hydatid cyst operation in the province has been growing and the average annual number of cases has reached 1.41/100,000. Frequency of disease in urban areas was slightly higher than rural areas and the rate of infection in housewives was more than others. Because of the growing trend of hydatid cyst operation in Kermanshah Province, which may be due to many different reasons, this province should be considered as one of the important endemic regions of hydatidosis in Iran.

  20. The Trend of Hydatidosis in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran (1986–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavi, Y; Vejdani, M; Nazari, N; Mikaeili, A

    2011-01-01

    Background Hydatidosis is the larval stage of the Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in Iran. There are many studies about hydatidosis in different regions of the country, but there is not any information about the disease in Kermanshah Province. This article will review all available data about hydatidosis in this province. Methods Using web based search engines and a survey on medical student's theses, all the information about hydatid cysts in the province from 1986 -2008 was collected. Results During these twenty years, at least 482 proven cases of hydatid cyst have been identified in the province. Accordingly, the trend of hydatid cyst operation in the province has been growing and the average annual number of cases has reached 1.41/100,000. Frequency of disease in urban areas was slightly higher than rural areas and the rate of infection in housewives was more than others. Conclusion Because of the growing trend of hydatid cyst operation in Kermanshah Province, which may be due to many different reasons, this province should be considered as one of the important endemic regions of hydatidosis in Iran. PMID:22347311

  1. Geologic provinces of Iran, 2000 (prv2cg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels for geologic and petroleum provinces interpreted and designated by R.M. Pollastro based on numerous...

  2. Patterns and structural positions of productive fractures in the Asmari Reservoirs, southwest Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipour, A. M.

    1998-01-01

    Patterns and structural positions of productive fractures in different reservoir structures of the Asmari formation (Oligo-Miocene) in the Khuzistan oilfields belt of southwest Iran were studied. The investigation entailed the study of production data, mud losses to identify open fracture portions and faulted well assemblages to find tectonically active portions. The investigation also studied the second derivative map to find portions of the maximum-rate-of-change-of-dip on top of the reservoir structures where maximum fracture density was expected. The results observed were then compared with surface fracture patterns and densities in the mountain front boundary in the area. The general conclusion was that productive fractures are associated mainly with the plunges and bends of the Asmari reservoir structures. 6 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz, Southwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhussein Shakurnia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify sero-prevalence of brucellosis among blood donors in Ahvaz city, Southwest Iran. Methods: A total number of 1 450 serum samples from blood donation were collected and were screened for the presence of brucella antibody. Rose Bengal Plate Test, Standard Agglutination Test (SAT, and 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME agglutination were tested in the sample. SAT dilution ≥1/80 and 2ME agglutination ≥1/40 were considered positive. Results: Sero-prevalence of brucellosis among the blood donors was 0.70%, 0.34%, and 0.20% by Rose Bengal Plate Test, SAT, and 2ME respectively. Conclusions: Considering the 1/80 titer of SAT as the criteria of contamination with brucella, routine screening of sero-prevalence of brucella in blood donors is not recommended in this area.

  4. Assessment of mesoscale convective systems using IR brightness temperature in the southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Somayeh; Karimi, Mostafa

    2017-07-01

    In this research, the spatial and temporal distribution of Mesoscale Convective Systems was assessed in the southwest of Iran using Global merged satellite IR brightness temperature (acquired from Meteosat, GOES, and GMS geostationary satellites) and synoptic station data. Event days were selected using a set of storm reports and precipitation criteria. The following criteria are used to determine the days with occurrence of convective systems: (1) at least one station reported 6-h precipitation exceeding 10 mm and (2) at least three stations reported phenomena related to convection (thunderstorm, lightning, and shower). MCSs were detected based on brightness temperature, maximum areal extent, and duration thresholds (228 K, 10,000 km2, and 3 h, respectively). An MCS occurrence classification system is developed based on mean sea level, 850 and 500 hPa pressure patterns.

  5. Retrieving and Validation Soil Moisture from SMOS Products in the Southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamei, Mozhdeh; Mousavi Baygi, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Amin; Irannejad, Parviz

    2016-08-01

    Soil moisture is one of the most important variables in the hydrological cycle. Since, direct soil moisture measurement are costly and time-consuming so these information are not practicable for wide-area. In recent years, indirect soil moisture measurements have become available from satellite-based microwave sensors. The southwest of Iran is the most important agricultural area in country, therefore simulation of soil moisture in this region is necessary to water resources management, weather forecasting and monitoring extreme events. The objective of this research was to retrieve and validate of soil moisture from ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission. Validation of SMOS Level 1C (SCLF1C) products have done using ground based measurements and L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere) model, Level 2 (SMUDP2) products with ground based soil moisture measurement. The result of this research gives valuable information on the errors and uncertainties in SMOS Products in this region.

  6. Prevalence and Molecular Aspects of Human Hookworms in Guilan Province, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam SHARIFDINI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hookworm infection is one of the important Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD in the world. It was previously more prevalent in the northern and southern parts of Iran with a prevalence rate higher than 40% in some endemic regions; nevertheless, the infection rate has decreased to less than 1%. This study aimed to determine prevalence and molecular aspects of hookworm infections in rural inhabitants of Fouman County, Guilan Province, northern IranMethods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 31 villages of Fouman district in Guilan Province, northern Iran during 2015-2016. Stool samples were collected from 1500 rural inhabitants and examined by formalin ethyl-acetate concentration as well as agar plate culture techniques. After treatment with albendazole, adult hookworms were isolated. FollowingDNA extraction,PCR amplification of ITS2-rDNA region was performed and the product was sequenced, followed by genetic variation analysis.Results: Of 1500 samples, one case was morphologically diagnosed as N. americanus. In addition, molecular characterization verified the presence of N. americanus, showing more than 95% similarity with sequences of N. americanus present in GenBank. The patient showed no clinical symptoms and a mild hypereosinophilia was the only laboratory finding observed. Conclusion: A reduced prevalence of human hookworms was demonstrated within Guilan Province located in north of Iran. The N. americanus originated from Guilan had  a high homology with the isolates found in Japan, Laos, Malaysia, and Australia.

  7. Attitudes of Agricultural Experts Toward Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M; Kitterlin, Miranda; Jahangiry, Sheida; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Van Passel, Steven; Azadi, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) crops is growing around the world, and with it possible opportunities to combat food insecurity and hunger, as well as solutions to current problems facing conventional agriculture. In this regard the use of GMOs in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly over the past decade. However, the development of GM crops has been a matter of considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. This, in addition to skepticism, has stifled the use of this practice on a large scale in many areas, including Iran. It stands to reason that a greater understanding of this practice could be formed after a review of the existing expert opinions surrounding GM crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the predictors that influence agricultural experts' attitudes toward the development of and policies related to GM crops. Using a descriptive correlational research method, questionnaire data was collected from 65 experts from the Agricultural Organization in the Gotvand district in Southwest Iran. Results indicated that agricultural experts were aware of the environmental benefits and possible risks associated with GM crops. The majority of participants agreed that GM crops could improve food security and accelerate rural development, and were proponents of labeling practices for GM crops. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the perception of benefits and attitudes towards GM crops.

  8. Seroepidemiological Study of Visceral Leishmaniasis (Kala-azar in Ardabil Province, Iran, 1986 – 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Molaie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Visceral Leishmaniasis (kala-azar is the most important endemic disease in Northwestern Iran, particularly in Ardabil province. This study aimed to review the seroepidemiological studies which have been performed in Ardabil province during 1986-2009. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, studies which have been carried out from 1986 through 2009 in Northwestern Iran about clinical, diagnostic and epidemiological features of Kala azar, using DAT, were reviewed. Collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: in total, 2703 of human visceral leishmaniasis were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT in Ardabil province, 1787 (66.1% of them were from Meshkin-shahr district, 837 (31% cases were from Moghan district, and 79 (2.9% cases were from Ardabil district. Ninety eight percent of the cases were under 10 years old while only 0.5% of the VL cases were ≥20 years old and 17% of them were under 1 year of age. Conclusion: Currently Kala-Azar is the most important endemic disease in Northwestern Iran, particularly in Ardabil province. Anti-Leishmania antibodies at the titers of ≥1:3200 using DAT along with clinical signs including fever, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly are considered as active visceral leishmaniasis. DAT antibody titer of 1/800 and lower and absent of clinical signs is considered as negative VL.

  9. Fatal motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran: a com-munity-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To identify the main character-istics of victims of motorcycle accidents in Fars Province, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province which has the fourth largest population of all 31 provinces in Iran from March 2009 to June 2010. We included data from all 542 recorded cases of fatalities due to motor vehicle accidents. Data were recorded from the foren-sic medicine registry consisting of demographic and acci-dent-related information. Demographic information con-sisted of name, age, sex, status of fatal victim (motorcycle driver vs passenger and educational level. Results: Of the 2 345 autopsy records from the foren-sic medicine archives, 542 (23.1% gave the cause of death as motor vehicle accidents. Mean age of these victims was (31.4±16.5 years, and the male to female ratio was 28. Head injury was the most common cause of death in these victims, and overall they tended to have a low level of education. Motorcycle accidents frequently involved younger age groups (15-35 years, and head trauma related with non-use of a helmet was the most common cause of death. Conclusions: Head injury is frequent among victims in the province we studied. This situation may be related to the victims’ low socioeconomic status and little education regarding traffic laws leading to speeding and disregard of these laws along with their weak enforcement. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Motorcycles; Iran

  10. Hepatitis B virus Genotypes in West Azarbayjan Province, Northwest Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Khadem Ansari

    2017-12-01

    CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that D genotype is the main genotype of HBV in West Azarbayjan province. Presence of this genotype conformed with the low rate of acute liver diseases caused by hepatitis B chronic infection, cirrhosis of the liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Energy use in citrus production of Mazandaran province in Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy is a fundamental ingredient in the process of economic development, as it provides essential services that maintain economic activity and the quality of human life. Modern agriculture has become very energy-intensive. The aim of this study was to evaluate energy use in citrus production in the Mazandaran Province ...

  12. Females\\' esophagus cancer incidence in Golestan Province, Iran ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esophagus cancer is one of the most common cancers in women and therefore represents a major problem in public health. The main aim of this study was to find and describe province-specific estimates of incidence in females by age groups for esophagus cancer. The data used in this study were collected in a cancer ...

  13. Aflatoxin Contamination of Feed Materials in Qom Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rezaei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins which may be present in some foods and due to their negative health effects, represent a major concern for humans and food industries. In the present study, total aflatoxin contamination in products from eight feed materials production centers located in Qom City of Iran were evaluated by an ELISA technique in November 2012. Methods: A total of 40 feed samples were analyzed for total aflatoxin. The samples were collected randomly from eight feed materials production centers (C1-C8 located in Qom city. Samples were conditioned in sterile plastic container and kept at 4 ᵒC until analyses that were carried out in same day. Results: The total average of Aflatoxins concentration in samples were 1.83µg/kg. All samples demonstrated total aflatoxin levels lower than European Union standard and National Standard of Iran recommended limits. Conclusion: Considering the low values of aflatoxin contamination, maintaining vigilant preventive measures is recommended.These results do not preclude the need for continuing comprehensive studies for aflatoxin contamination.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasmosis in Pregnant Women in Ilam Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Keshavarz

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.

  15. A new species of Scutellaria (Scutellarioideae, Lamiaceae from Sichuan Province in southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Scutellaria wuana, a new species discovered from a xeric valley in Muli County of Sichuan Province in southwest China, is described and illustrated. Morphologically, the new species shares similarities with S. mairei, but can be readily distinguished by a suite of morphological characters including a white-pubescent erect stem, conspicuous leaf petioles, and a yellow corolla with a trapeziform lower-middle lip lobe. The habitat and distribution of S. wuana are also distinctive. The position of the new species within Scutellaria is examined in a phylogenetic context using the nuclear ribosomal internal and external transcribed spacers. Additionally, we examine leaf epidermal and pollen grain micromorphology of the new species and putative relatives.

  16. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods: In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009–2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographi...

  17. Case fatality rates of different suicide methods within Ilam province of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Razaeian, Mohsen; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are few diverse studies that have reported the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide, none of them are originated from developing countries. The aim of the present article is to report the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide in Ilam province of Iran. Materials and Methods: Data on 611 cases of suicide and 1807 cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) that were recorded in a comprehensive registry during 1995 through 2002 were analyzed for both gender...

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus in the Fars Province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, M A; Ghaffarpasand, F; Shamsdin, A; Karimi, A A; Abbasi, N; Amiri, A

    2008-03-01

    Clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been described from different geographical regions in the world. However, data from many Middle East countries, including Iran, are scarce. This study aims to demonstrate the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics in Iranian patients with SLE. In this prospective study, all the patients referring to Shiraz educational hospitals (Nemazi-Hafez) with SLE (American College of Rheumatology criteria) during a 5-year period (2001 to 2006) were included. A complete history was taken; physical examination and routine hematological, serological, and immunological tests were done for each patient. There were 356 women and 54 men with an average age of 30.27 years at the onset of disease. Of the patients, 78% had hematological abnormalities, 65.5% had articular involvement, 54.5% had photosensitivity, and 60.5% had malar rash. Serositis occurred in 38% of patients of whom 12% had pericarditis and 26% had pleuritis. Nephritis was diagnosed in 48% of the cases and consisted always of glomerular nephritis. Biopsy-proven lupus nephritis was in most cases class IV(49.7% of all the biopsies). Oral ulcers were observed in 28% of patients. Neuropsychiatric manifestations, gastrointestinal involvement, and lymphadenopathy were observed in 31.5%, 8.3%, and 14.2% of patients, respectively. In all, 93% of patients were positive for antinuclear antibodies, whereas antidouble-stranded DNA was positive in 83% of patients. Coomb's positive hemolytic anemia appeared in 12.4% of the cases. Rheumatoid factor was detected in 9.7% of patients, and lupus erythematosus cell was seen in 32.5% of them. In all, 196 (47.8%) patients represented hypocomplementemia. Regarding hematological manifestations, 74.5% had microcytic hypochromic anemia, 64.6% had leukopenia, and 44.6% had thrombocytopenia; 18 (4.4%) patients died during the study period of which eight (2%) died because of cardiopulmonary involvement. Generally, there was

  19. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran.

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    Abdolali Malmasi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A two year seroepidemiological study was designed to find out the seroprevalence and risk factors of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL among stray and owned dogs in Tehran and Alborz Provinces of Iran.Blood samples of 602 dogs living in 11 counties of Tehran and Alborz Provinces were taken by venipuncture in 2008-2010. After separation of blood sera, anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by direct agglutination test (DAT.Overall, of the 408 and 194 serum samples collected randomly from dogs in 11 localities in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, 18/408 (4.41% and 12/194 (6.18% respectively were found positive. Among the localities, Shemiran in Tehran Province and Karaj In Alborz Province had the highest prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found between sex and living place but there was significant difference between living status (owned or stray and CVL infection of dogs in Alborz Province (P= 0.018. The highest seroprevalence (7.5% was found in dogs aged 3 to 5 years old. Only 20% of the seropositive dogs were symptomatic.Concerning possible human infections in Tehran and Alborz Provinces, both symptomatic and asymptomatic seropositive dogs should be considered as a risk.

  20. GIVETIAN–FRASNIAN BOUNDARY CONODONTS FROM KERMAN PROVINCE, CENTRAL IRAN

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    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Middle - Late Devonian boundary is investigated based on twenty-two conodont species and subspecies from three sections in the north and west of Kerman, southeastern central Iran. Upper Givetian - lower Frasnian carbonates of the basal part of the Bahram Formation transgressively overlie the sandstone beds of the top of (? Early - Middle Devonian Padeha Formation. These massive skeletal limestones encompass the G-F boundary. The base of Frasnian is identified by the appearance of early forms of Ancyrodella rotundiloba . It helps to compare our biozones to those of global stratotype in southern France. A new species, Polygnathus hojedki n. sp. is described here. New range is suggested for P. praepolitus .

  1. Isolation and identification of cutaneous leishmaniasis species by PCR-RFLP in Ilam province, the west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanjani, Ali; Akhlaghi, Lame; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Hadighi, Ramtin

    2017-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most common parasitic diseases and public health problems in Iran. CL is endemic in most parts of Ilam province, in the west of Iran. The distance from the center of country, the great number of divers rural areas, and lack of specialists and laboratory facilities have been the major causes of Leishmania species remaining unknown in this region. Polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism was performed to identify the Leishmania species in 61 patients with cutaneous lesions. Eventually L. major was confirmed as the cause of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ilam province, the west of Iran.

  2. A Cenozoic diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) in the southwest Pacific without rift or plume origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Carol A.; Müller, R. Dietmar; Panter, Kurt S.

    2005-02-01

    Common geological, geochemical, and geophysical characteristics of continental fragments of East Gondwana and adjacent oceanic lithosphere define a long-lived, low-volume, diffuse alkaline magmatic province (DAMP) encompassing the easternmost part of the Indo-Australian Plate, West Antarctica, and the southwest portion of the Pacific Plate. A key to generating the Cenozoic magmatism is the combination of metasomatized lithosphere underlain by mantle at only slightly elevated temperatures, in contrast to large igneous provinces where mantle temperatures are presumed to be high. The SW Pacific DAMP magmatism has been conjecturally linked to rifting, strike-slip faulting, mantle plumes, or hundreds of hot spots, but all of these associations have flaws. We suggest instead that sudden detachment and sinking of subducted slabs in the late Cretaceous induced Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities along the former Gondwana margin that in turn triggered lateral and vertical flow of warm Pacific mantle. The interaction of the warm mantle with metasomatized subcontinental lithosphere that characterizes much of the SW Pacific DAMP concentrates magmatism along zones of weakness. The model may also provide a mechanism for warming south Pacific mantle and resulting Cenozoic alkaline magmatism, where the oceanic areas are characterized primarily, but not exclusively, by short-lived hot spot tracks not readily explained by conventional mantle plume theory. This proposed south Pacific DAMP is much larger and longer-lived than previously considered.

  3. Biozonation and biofacies analyses of Sarvak formation in the Southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolalipour, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Zagros basin is very considerable because of its reservoirs and special economical importance. Sarvak Formation is one of the significant carbonate reservoirs of Bangestan group in Zagros basin in Southwest of Iran which composed of shallow and deep-water carbonates that overlies transitionally Kazhdomi formation. Sarvak is the second reservoir after Asmari carbonate reservoir. The aims of this work are: (1) biozonation of studied section, Sarvak and Kazhdumi formations, which is very important during hydrocarbons production and (2) investigation of facieses and reconstruct the paleoenvironment. The identified biozones in studied sequence from base to top are as below: 1-Hemicyclammina- Orbitolina assemblage zone, belongs to Kazhdumi formation 2-Oligostegina facies & Globigerina washitensis occurrences, belongs to both Kazhdumi and Sarvak formations 3-Nezzazata- Alveolinid assemblage zone, belongs to Sarvak formation 4-Rudist debris, belongs to Sarvak formation 5-Nezzazata- Alveolinid assemblage zone, belongs to Sarvak formation These assemblages indicate the Albian-Cenomanian for the studied section. The study of deposits represents transitional boundary between Oligosteginid-bearing limestones from Kazhdumi formation into Sarvak sediments. Also there is disconformity at the top of the Sarvak formation which is overlaid by deposition of Gurpi shales with a disconformable boundary. According to facies analysis: Oligosteginid facies indicates deep marine environment with poor reservoir characteristics, Rudist facies as a good reservoir and benthonic foraminifera facies.

  4. Chronology of trap formation and migration of hydrocarbons in Zagros sector of southwest Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ala, M.A.

    1982-10-01

    Sixty-three orogenically controlled oil and gas fields have been discovered in the Zagros sector of southwest Iran since teh turn of the present century. Most of the fields are giant, multi-reservoir accumulations producing from fractured carbonate pay zones ranging in age from permo-Triassic to Oligo-Miocene. The most prolific oil-producing zones are the Asmari formation (Oligo-Miocene( and the Bangestan Group (Upper Cretaceous). The available geochemical evidence indicates taht the major source of the oil is the underlying Lower Cretaceous (Albian) Kazhdumi Formation. It is argued that, in the main oil-producing area, the Kazhdumi source rock was not buried to the depth required for hydrocarbon generation until the Eocene, and that not significant oil explusion took place until the Miocene. entry of oil into the reservoirs is geologically a recent event; it postdates the late Miocene-Holocene Zagros orogeny that resulted in the formation of the present structural traps. It is suggested that the development of growth structures during the Late Cretaceous and Palogene could have contributed to some hydrocarbon localization prior to the formation of the late Tertiary traps.

  5. Multi Stakeholders' Attitudes toward Bt rice in Southwest, Iran: Application of TPB and Multi Attribute Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Omid M; Ghanian, Mansour; Baradaran, Masoud; Azadi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice. It is assumed and the results confirm that "attitudes toward GM crops" can be used as a bridge in the Attitude Model and the Behavioral Intention Model in order to establish an integrated model. To this end, a case study was made of the Southwest part of Iran in order to verify this research model. This study also revealed that as a part of the integrated research framework in the Behavior Intention Model both constructs of attitude and the subjective norm of the respondents serve as the predicting factors of stakeholders' intentions of working with Bt rice. In addition, the Attitude Model, as the other part of the integrated research framework, showed that the stakeholders' attitudes toward Bt rice can only be determined by the perceived benefits (e.g. positive outcomes) of Bt rice.

  6. Molecular identification of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon species in pigeons of southwest of Iran

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    Mehdi Tavalla

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate microsporidia species in pigeons of Ahvaz city, southwest of Iran by the staining and multiplex/nested PCR methods. Methods: Initially, 131 stool specimens were randomly collected from pigeons. The specimens were stained by the modified trichrome (Weber and were microscopically examined. The DNA was extracted by DNA stool extraction kit (Bioneer and was examined by the multiplex/nested PCR method. For differentiating the species of Encephalitozoon, the products of PCR were explored by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP using the Mnl1 restriction enzyme. Results: Of 131 specimens, 22 and 18 cases were positive by the staining and the multiplex/ nested-PCR methods, respectively. Of 18, 7 and 11 samples were detected as Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp., respectively. In addition, 2 Encephalitozoon cuniculi and 9 Encephalitozoon intestinalis were Encephalitozoon species. Of 7 Enterocytozoon bieneusi samples, 5 and 2 cases were detected as genotype M and L, respectively. Also, all Encephalitozoon cuniculi samples were identified as genotype II. Conclusions: Our findings showed a relatively high prevalence of microsporidia at pigeons and these birds can be a significant and important source of microsporidiosis. It is essential that the high-risk individuals including patients with immunodeficient diseases should be receiving the accurate and valid information about the risk of direct and indirect contact with the infected pigeons.

  7. Factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives: A case study in Southwest Iran

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    Aligholi Heydari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This survey study aimed at identifying the factors influencing the success of animal husbandry cooperatives in Southwest Iran. Using a questionnaire, the data were collected from 95 managing directors of the cooperatives who were chosen through a multi-stage stratified random sampling method. This study showed an essential need for a systemic framework to analyze the cooperatives’ success. The results showed that the “Honey Bee”, “Cattle (dairy”, and “Lamb” cooperatives were the most successful among different kinds of the cooperatives. Also, among individual attributes, “interest”, “technical knowledge”, and “understanding the concept of cooperative”; among economic variables, “income” and “current investment”; and among external factors, “market access” have significant correlation with the success while structural variables have no significant relation. Furthermore, among all the factors, four variables (“interest”, “understanding the concept of cooperative”, “market access”, and “other incomes” can explain the variations of the success.

  8. Mushroom Poisoning in the Southwest Region of the Caspian Sea, Iran: A Retrospective Study

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    Alireza Badsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mushroom poisoning as a medical emergency can be a challengingproblem for physicians. Despite the vast resources of poisonous mushrooms inIran, few studies have been done in this regard, especially in the southwest regionof the Caspian Sea that is very suitable for mushroom growth. Therefore, the aimof this study was to evaluate our experience with mushroom poisoning in thisregion.Methods: This retrospective study reviewed the records of 102 patients who wereadmitted to the Emergency Department of Razi Hospital of Rasht, the only referraldepartment in this region, from May 2006 to May 2011. Data were analyzed byChi-square test, ANOVA, and student’s t-test.Results: The patients’ age ranged from 13 to 75 years and 47 of them were maleand the rest 55 were female. Overall, 57.8% of mushroom poisoning casesoccurred in patients from urban areas. Most incidences were reported betweenSeptember and October, the rainy season in Guilan. Except for four patients withtachycardia, others had stable vital signs. The most frequent symptoms (86.4%were nausea and vomiting. Complete blood cell count revealed that 28.4% of thepatients had leukocytosis but all of them had platelet counts of less than 100000.Conclusions: This study showed that all cases had mild to moderate symptomsthat were treated by simple supportive therapies. This suggested that mushroomspecies in our region are less dangerous but further studies need to establish whattoxins and species are responsible for mushroom toxicity.

  9. PCR-based molecular characterization of Blastocystis hominis subtypes in southwest of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Masjedizadeh, Rahim; Yousefi-Razin, Ehsan; Mahbodfar, Hamidreza; Rahim, Fakher; Yousefi, Elham; Foroutan, Masoud

    2017-04-09

    Blastocystis hominis is the most common intestinal parasite found in humans and many other hosts. Pathogenicity of Blastocystis sp. remains controversial and it has been suggested that it may be associated with certain subtypes of organism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular epidemiology of B. hominis and its subtype distribution in Ahvaz, southwest of Iran. During 2012-2014, a total of 481 samples were collected from patients referred to the medical laboratory centers in Ahvaz for stool examination. Samples were examined by wet mount, and genomic DNA was extracted from 50 positive samples. PCR was performed using seven primer pairs targeting the SSU rDNA gene and sequenced. 69 (14.35%) samples were found to be positive for B. hominis and the subtypes of 50 samples were identified. Five subtypes (STs) were identified, including: ST1 (22%), ST2 (6%), ST3 (40%), ST4 (2%), and ST5 (8%). 11 (22%) mixed infections were found, of which 5 were a mixture of ST3/ST4. Mixtures of ST1/ST3 and ST1/ST4 were 3, respectively. In this study people infected with ST3 showed the most gastrointestinal symptoms. This is the first study in the population of Ahvaz and indicates the high prevalence of ST3 in this area. The results suggest a possible association between this subtype and pathogenic potential of parasite. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran: a community-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, S T; Hoseinzadeh, A; Ghaffarpasand, F; Hedjazi, A; Zarenezhad, M; Moafian, G; Aghabeigi, M R; Foroutan, A; Sarikhani, Y; Peymani, P; Ahmadi, S M; Joulaei, H; Dehghankhalili, M; Lankarani, K B

    2013-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of fatal traffic accidents in Fars province, Iran. This cross-sectional study included 3642 traffic accident deaths in Fars province, Iran between November 2009 and November 2011. The data source was the Fars Forensic Medicine Registry, which covers the entire province. According to Iranian law, all deaths resulting from injuries or accidents must be investigated to determine the exact cause of death by autopsy. All such deaths are referred to forensic medicine centres in each city, and all data are sent to the main centre in Shiraz, the capital city of Fars province. Males accounted for 78.3% of the decedents (sex ratio of almost 3.6:1), and the mean ± standard deviation age of all decedents was 32.2 ± 20.3 years. Autopsy reports indicated that head trauma was the most common cause of death. Most collisions were vehicle-vehicle crashes (52.3%), with cars and motorcycles being the most prevalent modes of transport (39.6% and 24.6%, respectively). Fatal accidents were most common during the summer. Most fatal injuries (61.4%) occurred on outer-city roads and 27.4% occurred on inner-city roads. Significant associations were found between decedent's status (car driver, motorcycle driver or passenger, pedestrian or passenger) and interval between injury and death, light conditions at the scene of the accident, place of death, site of injury and cause of death. Although the clinical management of trauma patients has improved in Iran, coordination between trauma system organizations is required to decrease the burden of injuries. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of Correlation between Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Length and Infertility in Infertile Men Living in Khuzestan, Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khatami, Saeid Reza; Galehdari, Hamid; Rasekh, Abdorrahman; Mombeini, Hayat; Konar, Elham

    2015-01-01

    .... In this case-control study during two years till 2010, we searched for microdeletions in the Y chromosome in 84 infertile male patients with normal karyotype who lived in Khuzestan Province, Southwest of Iran. All cases (n=12...

  12. Paleoecology and biostratigraphic data of the large benthic foraminifera in the Oligocene-Miocene Qom Formation in Kahak area, in the Urumieh-Dokhtar province in Iran

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    mahnaz amirshahkarami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Oligocene-Miocene Qom Formation was deposited in different thickness in the Central Iran, Urumiehh–Dokhtar magmatic arc and Sanandaj–Sirjan provinces in Iran. The Oligocene-Miocene Kahak section of the Qom Formation in the Urumiehh–Dokhtar magmatic arc has been studied, in order to biostratigraphic data of the large benthic foraminifera. In the Kahak section, the foraminifera assemblages of the Qom Formation consist of Nummulites fichteli, Nummulites vascus, Eulepidina dilitata, Nephrolepidina sp., Neprolepidina tournoueri, Eulepidina sp., Pseudolituonella reicheli, Miogypsina sp., Miogypsina irregularis, Amphistegina sp., Operculina sp., Bozorginella qumiensis, Triloculina trigonula, Triloculina tricarinata, Peneroplis sp., Peneroplis thomasi, Dendritina ranji, Triloculina trigonula, Rotalia sp., Pyrgo sp., Elphidium sp., Borelis melo and Borelis curdica.  In the Kahak section of the Qom Formation, four assemblage biozones of the large benthic foraminifera have been recognized from Rupelian, Chattian, Aquitanian and Burdigalian stages. These biozones are similar to assemblage biozones of the Oligocene-Miocene Asmari Formation in the Zagros Basin in southwest of Iran. Distribution type of the Oligocene-Miocene foraminifera in the Kahak depositions of the Qom Formation indicates to depositional settings of the  lagoon, open lagoon and shallow open marine paleoenvironments. There is some similarity of foraminifera assemblage in Qom Formation sediments with other locality of Tethys including Mediterranean and Indo-West Pacific.

  13. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in Lorestan Province, Western Iran, in 2015-16

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    Peyman HEYDARIAN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the seroepidemiological survey for detecting the status of human fasciolosis in Lorestan Province, western Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-16. Based on statistical estimations, 1256 serum samples were collected from different parts of Lorestan Province, western Iran, and stored at -20 °C until use. The collected serum samples were analyzed at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran using indirect ELISA method.Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in 16 (1.3% individuals. Regarding the seropositivity to fasciolosis, no significant differences were found between age groups, sex, level of education and occupation; however significant differences were observed regarding location, consuming local freshwater plants and water resources (P<0.02.Conclusion: Local freshwater plants and unfiltered water resources were probably the main sources of the infection. Health education by local health centers to elevate awareness of people, and providing facilities for safer drinking water, especially in rural areas may help decrease the risk of fasciolosis infection in this region.

  14. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran

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    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Reyahi-Khoram M, Hoshmand K. 2012. Assessment of biodiversities and spatial structure of Zarivar Wetland in Kurdistan Province, Iran. Biodiversitas 13: 130-134. Wetlands are valuable ecosystems that occupy about 6% of the world’s land surface. Iran has over 250 wetlands measuring about 2.5 million hectares. Zarivar wetland (ZW is the only natural aquatic ecosystem in Kurdistan province in Iran. The present research was carried out during 2009 through 2010 with the aim of recognizing the capabilities and limitations of ZW through documentary, extensive field visits and also direct field observations during the years of study. Geographic Information System (GIS has been used to evaluate the land as a main tool. The results of this research showed that ZW has a great talent regarding diversity of bird species and the ecological status of wetland has caused the said wetland welcome numerous species of birds. The results of this research showed that industrial pollutions are not considered as threats to the wetland but evacuation of agricultural runoff and development of Marivan city toward the wetland and the resulting pollution load could be introduced as an important part of the wetland threats. It is recommended to make necessary studies in the field of various physical and biological parameters of the wetland, and also the facing threats and opportunities.

  15. Colorectal cancer trends in Kerman province, the largest province in Iran, with forecasting until 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya, Nikbakht; Abbas, Bahrampour

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. The aim of this study is determination its trends in Kerman province and individual cities separately until year 2016. This analytical and modeling study was based of cancer registry data of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, collected during 2001-2010. Among 20,351 cancer case, 792 were colorectal cancer cases in age group 18-93 years with a mean of 59.4 and standard deviation of 15.1. By applying time series and data trends, incidences were predicted until 2016 for the province and each city, with adjustment for population size. In colorectal cases, 413 (52%) were male, and 379 (48%) were female. The annual increasing rate in Kerman province overall was and can be expected to be 6%, and in the cities of the province Rafsanjan, Bardsir, Bam, Kerman, Baft, Sirjan, Jiroft, Kahnuj and Manujan had an increasing range from 5 to 14% by the year 2016. But in Ravar, Zarand and Shahrbabak reduction in rates of at least 2% could be predicted. The time series showed that the trend of colorectal cancer in female will increase 15% and in male 7% by year 2016. Given the trend of this cancer is increasing so that resources will be consumed in the treatment of the patients, efforts shoudlbe focused on prevention and early diagnosis of the disease. Screening could have an important role leading to improved survival.

  16. Occurrence, pathogenicity and distribution of Fusarium spp. in stored wheat seeds Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehri, K; Salleh, B; Yli-Mattila, T; Soleimani, M J; Yousefi, A R

    2010-12-15

    Fusarium is one of the most important pathogenic and toxigenic fungi widely distributed all over the world, including Iran. Fusarium species are found frequently in stored agriculture products especially wheat. The objective of this study was to identify Fusarium species associated with stored wheat seeds and their pathogenicity on root and head of wheat in Kermanshah, the leading province in wheat production in Iran. In this survey 75 seed samples of stored wheat were collected from 10 different regions during 2006-2008 and tested for the presence of Fusarium. Fusarium spp. were found in 51 (68%) of 75 samples. A total of 580 Fusarium strains were isolated, identified and preserved. All these strains belong to 20 Fusarium spp. according to morphological characters. Each conidial suspension of selected strains representing all species was evaluated for their pathogenicity on roots and spikes of healthy wheat var. Fallat in the greenhouse. F. graminearum, F. crookwellense, F. trichothecioides, F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were the most pathogenic to wheat's head. Foot rot assessment revealed that F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum were the most damaging species. Of the Fusarium isolates, F. graminearum was the most prevalent followed by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. This is the first comprehensive report on identity and distribution of Fusarium spp. from stored wheat seeds in Iran while F. nelsonii was reported for the first time from wheat seeds in Iran.

  17. Hepatitis C Seroprevalence and Risk Factors in Adult Population of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province of Iran in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezzi, Masoumeh; Imani, Reza; Karimi, Ali; Pourheidar, Behrouz

    2015-10-01

    Hepatitis C is the second leading viral infectious disease worldwide. In Iran, hepatitis C is the most important and prevalent reason for chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis in the multi transfused population. This study was conducted to determine seroprevalence and burden of hepatitis C in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province and to plan for controlling it. For this analytical, population-based study, 3000 samples were older than 15 years old and were enrolled from urban and rural areas of Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, southwest Iran per cluster sampling. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants and the demographic data, transmission route and risk factors were collected after blood sample taking. Hepatitis C virus antibody (HCV Ab) and western blotting were consecutively run. Data analysis was done by SPSS 19 using descriptive statistics, and chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression Ap value of 0.05 was considered as the level of significance. The prevalence of HCV Ab was obtained 1.4% (95% CI, 0.95-1.7) and that of positive hepatitis C by western blotting 0.9% (95% CI, 0.65-1.3). The prevalence in men (1.2%) was obtained two times higher than women. The highest prevalence was obtained in 35 to 44-year-old population (2%). The prevalence was higher in married individuals and less in higher educated. History of hospital stay, first degree relatives infected with HCV, jaundice, history of blood transfusion, tattoo, outpatient surgery, imprisonment, contact with the infected, intravenous (IV) drug abuse, and smoking had significant association with disease prevalence (phistory of IV drug abuse (OR=38.2, 95% CI, 14.06-103.9) followed by imprisonment (OR=8.9, 95% CI, 2.97-26.6). However, by logistic regression only history of IV drug abuse was obtained as significant (p<0.05). Hepatitis C is growing and emerging as the most prevalent chronic, viral hepatic disease, so further consideration of risk factors and routes of

  18. Antiparasitic herbs used in west regions ofIlam province located in west of Iran

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify antiparasitic medicinal plants used by people in southern regions of Ilam province in Iran. Methods: This study was carried out using questionnaire and interview method between February 2012 and April 2013 and also by means of public resources. Along with distributing questionnaires herbarium specimens of each plant were collected and then their genus and species were determined in the Natural Resources Research Center of Ilam province. Results: A total of 19 medicinal plants used as antiparasitic plants belonged to 14 families were identified in southern regions of Ilam province. Majority of antiparasite herbs were related to Compositeae (11%, Rosaceae (11%, Solanaceae (11%, Liliaceae (11%, and Asteraceae (11% families. Aerial parts with 28% were the most plant organs used for the treatment of parasitic diseases. Results of this study showed that infusion with 83% is the most popular form of herbal medications in southern regions of Ilam province. Conclusions: The report of medicinal plants belonged to northern regions of this province may provide necessary condition for researchers to identify effective substances and to study the clinical effects claimed for these plants and their effective substances on different parasitic diseases while traditional effects of these plants are documented.

  19. Relation between kidney cancer and Soil leads in Isfahan Province, Iran between 2007 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Masoumeh; Alavipanah, Seyed Kazem

    2016-01-01

    The present study sets out to investigate the correlation between kidney cancer and the concentration of lead in Isfahan Province, Iran. All cases of kidney cancer recorded between 2007 and 2009 were utilized. In order to calculate the lead concentrations associated with the poll frequency of kidney cancer, the concentrations of lead in province (case study) were examined. In this study, the first challenge was to collect some relevant information. In this connection, the authors managed to gain access to data concerning kidney cancer in Isfahan province. The data, which had been collected by Isfahan Province Health Centre, provided information from 2007-2009. Besides, Map of Lead Distribution in soil, which had been drawn by the Mineral Exploration Organization. Using GIS (Geographic Information System Software such Arc Gis), the researchers drew the map of the spatial distribution of kidney cancer in the province. In this research, we applied target detection algorithms on MODIS images to detect leads contamination in soil. The results indicated a significantly positive correlation approximately 88% between kidney cancer and the distribution of lead in soil. The findings of the current study emphasized not only the importance of preventing exposure to lead but also the importance of controlling lead-producing industries.

  20. Human paleodiet and animal utilization strategies during the Bronze Age in northwest Yunnan Province, southwest China.

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    Lele Ren

    Full Text Available Reconstructing ancient diets and the use of animals and plants augment our understanding of how humans adapted to different environments. Yunnan Province in southwest China is ecologically and environmentally diverse. During the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods, this region was occupied by a variety of local culture groups with diverse subsistence systems and material culture. In this paper, we obtained carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopic ratios from human and faunal remains in order to reconstruct human paleodiets and strategies for animal exploitation at the Bronze Age site of Shilinggang (ca. 2500 Cal BP in northwest Yunnan Province. The δ13C results for human samples from Shilinggang demonstrate that people's diets were mainly dominated by C3-based foodstuffs, probably due to both direct consumption of C3 food and as a result of C3 foddering of consumed animals. Auxiliary C4 food signals can also be detected. High δ15N values indicate that meat was an important component of the diet. Analysis of faunal samples indicates that people primarily fed pigs and dogs with human food waste, while sheep/goats and cattle were foddered with other food sources. We compare stable isotope and archaeobotanical data from Shilinggang with data from other Bronze Age sites in Yunnan to explore potential regional variation in subsistence strategies. Our work suggests that people adopted different animal utilization and subsistence strategies in different parts of Yunnan during the Bronze Age period, probably as local adaptations to the highly diversified and isolated environments in the region.

  1. Relative inequalities in geographic distribution of health care resources in Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran.

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    Rezaei, S; Karyani, A K; Fallah, R; Matin, B K

    2016-04-19

    This study aimed to evaluate inequalities in the geographical distribution of human and physical resources in the health sector of Kermanshah province, Islamic Republic of Iran. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data from the Statistical Centre of Iran were used to calculate inequality measures (Gini coefficient and index of dissimilarity) over the years 2005-11. The highest Gini coefficient for human resources was observed for pharmacists in 2005 (0.75) and the lowest for paramedics in 2010 and 2011 (0.10). The highest indices of dissimilarity were also for pharmacists in 2005 (29%) and paramedics in 2011 (3%). For physical resources, the highest and lowest Gini coefficients were for rehabilitation centres in 2010 (0.59) and health houses in 2011 (0.12) respectively. Generally, inequalities in the distribution of health care resources were lower at the end of the study period, although there was potential for more equitable distribution of pharmacists, specialists, health houses and beds.

  2. Seroprevalence of Neospora infection in horses and donkeys in Hamedan province, Western Iran

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    Jamal Gharekhani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora infection in horses and donkeys in Hamedan province, Western Iran.Materials and Methods:In cross-sectional study, Blood samples (n=220 were collected from 120 horses and 100 donkeys in 2012 year. All sera were screened for Neosporausing Neosporamodified direct agglutination test (N-MAT. Results:Antibodies to Neospora infection in horses and donkeys were reported in 40.8% and 52%, respectively. There was not significant correlation demonstrated between infection rates in different age groups and genders.Conclusion: The current study is the first report of Neospora infection in donkeys from Iran. Further investigations and designing control strategies is recommended

  3. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  4. Epidemiological Study on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area, of Qom Province, Central Iran

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    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. There are two forms of the disease in Iran, anthroponotic and zoonotic CL. This study conducted to assess the epi­demiological situation of CL in an endemic area of Qom Province, central Iran from Apr to Nov 2015.Methods: The sticky paper traps and aspirating tubes were used for collecting adult sand flies. Sherman traps and small insect nets were used to capture rodents and small mammals. Giemsa staining was used for preparing the ex­panded smear and followed by PCR for identifying the causative agent in human, vectors, and reservoirs. In this study, relative frequency of CL was also calculated.Results: Fourteen species of Phlebotomine sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi (61.74% was the pre­dominant species through the period of activity. Overall, 62 Meriones libycus, 8 Nesokia indica, 4 Mus musculus, 16 Allactaga elater and 2 Hemiechinus auritis were caught. PCR technique showed 6 out of 150 P. papatasi (2%, two out of 62 M. libycus (3.23% and all of suspected human's skin tissue samples (100% were infected with Leishmania major. The relative frequency of CL was 0.30%. Conclusion: This is the first detection of L. major within P. papatasi, M. libycus and human in Kahak District in Qom Province of Iran. Zoonotic cycle of CL exists in this area, L. major is the causative agent, P. papatasi is the main vector and M. libycus is the main reservoir of the disease. 

  5. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

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    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-06-19

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  6. Helminth Parasites of Wild Boars, Sus scrofa, in Bushehr Prov-ince, Southwestern Iran

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    Majid MANSOURI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, of wide distribution considered as a potential source of zoonotic parasites. The current study aimed to assess the prevalence of helminth infections in wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area (Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.Methods: Twenty-five wild boars, including 11 males and 14 females, were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in the Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran in 2013. The specimen were immediately dissected and carefully searched for the parasites. During necropsy, each organ was examined macroscopically for presence of any helminthic agents. Tissue samples were taken from each organ. Moreover, samples were taken from the content of digestive system. Blood samples were also collected from each boar. All the samples were evaluated for helminth infections by parasitological methods.Results: Twenty-two (88% of the wild boars were infected with at least one helminth. Out of 25 wild boars, 1 (4% were infected with Cysticercus tenuicollis, the larval stage of Taenia hydatigena, 13 (52% with Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus, 17 (68% with Metastrongylus spp, and 20 (80% with Ascarops spp. Hydatid cyst was detected in the lung of one of the wild boars. No Trichinella spp. larvae were detected in any of the tissues of the animals when evaluated by artificial digestion method. In addition, no contamination with microfilaria was detected in any of animals when the blood samples were tested with Knott’s method.Conclusion: Wild boars are contaminated by some helminthes including zoonotic ones. These animals could be involved in the epidemiology of zoonotic helminth by acting as reservoir hosts. This in turn may bring potential risk for locals and residents of the Bushehr Province, Southwestern Iran.

  7. Phylogenetic Analysis of Giardia lamblia Human Genotypes in Fars Province, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayani, Mohammad; Hatam, Gholamreza; Unyah, Ngah Zasmy; Ashrafmansori, Abdolmajid; Abdullah, Wan Omar; Hamat, Rukman Awang

    2017-01-01

    This study is the first phylogenetic genotype analysis of Giardia lamblia in Iran. The main objective was to determine genotyping and identify the sub-assemblages of Giardia lamblia isolates involved in the transmission of giardiasis in Fars Province, south of Iran, in 2012. Forty G. lamblia isolates were collected from the patient's fecal samples with gastrointestinal discomfort referred to the health centers and hospitals in Shiraz, Fars Province, south of Iran. Purification of G. lamblia cysts from fecal samples and DNA extraction were performed using monolayer of sucrose density gradient and Phenol-Chloroform-Isoamylalcohol (PCI) respectively. Semi-nested PCR and sequence analysis were then performed using the primers (GDHeF, GDHiF, and GDHiR) which amplified a 432-bp fragment of Giardia glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using a neighbor-joining tree composed of the nucleotide sequences of G. lamblia isolates obtained in this study and the known sequences isolates published in GenBank. G. lamblia sub-assemblage AII was the most prevalent genotype with 80% of the cases and 20% of the cases belong to sub-assemblage BIII and BIV based on the DNA sequence of the gdh. G. lamblia isolates at Fars Province were widely distributed within assemblage A cluster (sub-assemblage AII) and the remaining isolates were dispersed throughout the assemblage B cluster (sub-assemblage BIII and BIV). PCR Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis was a proper molecular method for genotyping and discriminating of the of G. lamblia sub-assemblages in fecal samples, using the glutamate dehydrogenase gene that suggests a human contamination origin of giardiasis.

  8. Time analysis of fatal traffic accidents in Fars Province of Iran

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    Heydari Seyed Taghi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To analyze the time factor in road traffic accidents (RTAs in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in Fars Province, Iran from November 22, 2009 to November 21, 2011. Victims’ information consisted of age, sex, death toll involving dri-vers or passengers of cars, motorcycles and pedestrians, and site of injury etc. Accidents were analyzed in relation to hour of the day, season of the year, lighting condition in-cluding sunrise, sunset, daytime and nighttime. Results: A total of 3 642 deaths (78.3% were males, and the ratio of males to females was about 3.6:1 were studied regarding their autopsy records. There was a steady in-crease in fatal accidents occurring at midnight to 15:59. The risk of being involved in a fatal traffic accident was higher for those injured between 4:00 to 7:59 than at other times (OR=2.13, 95% CI 1.85-2.44. The greatest number of fatal RTAs took place in summer. Mortalities due to RTA during spring and summer were more pronounced at 20:00 to 23:59 and midnight to 3:59, whereas mortalities in fall and winter were more pronounced from 12:00 to 15:59. Conclusion: The high mortality rate of RTA is a major public health problem in Fars Province. Our results indicate that the time is an important factor which contributes to road traffic deaths. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiology; Mortality; Iran

  9. Survival Rate of Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Charmahal and Bakhtiari Province, Iran, 2000- 2010

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    M vakili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Cancers are the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases globally. Colorectal cancer is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. This cancer is the third leading cause of death in America and one of the most prevalent cancers of the gastrointestinal tract in Iran. The purpose of this study was to estimate the survival rate of patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. Methods: The present observational (the analytical type study was conducted using the longitudinal and survival study methods. The population study included all patients with gastric cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. The samples were selected by the census method and all the patients diagnosed with colorectal between the years 2000 to 2010 (estimated to be about 452 cases. After collecting the data and coding them, they were inserted into the SPSS 16 and STATA 12 software. To investigate the survival and the factors influencing the survival time of patients which was the main objective of this study, the Kaplan-Meier method was used. In order to compare the survival function in different subgroups, the log rank test or generalized Wilcoxon test was used. Results: From the total 452 patients with colorectal cancer, 232 cases were male (51.3% and 220 were females (48.7%, respectively. The mean age of patients was 59.12 ±19.99 years at the time of diagnosis. The median age of patients was 60 years. The probability of survival at 1, 5 and 10 years after diagnosis of colorectal cancer in both sexes using the Kaplan-Meier was 85.7%, 71.9,% 52.5% respectively. Conclusion: Although the survival rate of patients with colorectal cancer in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province was at a desirable level, the need for further studies to identify prognostic factors is essential.

  10. Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, west of iran from 1990 to 2012.

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    Yazdan Hamzavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explain the trend of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 1991-2012.In this analytical-descriptive study, all of the patients suspected to CL in Kermanshah Province were studied. Smears were prepared from most of them, stained with Giemsa, and examined microscopically for Leishman bodies. A few of the patients were diagnosed according to physician diagnosis and response to glucantime. Questionnaires were completed for all of them. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and Spearman and Kendall tests.From 1991 to 2012, 1684 cases of CL were recorded. In the years 2011-12 the frequency of CL in the province reached to 7.4/100,000, which showed a remarkable increase in the frequency of new cases CL in the province. In the years 2011-12 about 47% of total cases of CL in the province, was seen in Ghasr-e-Shirin district,which the frequency of CL in this district reached to 264.5/100,000. Frequency of CL in males and females was 57% and 43% respectively. The most cases of CL were seen in housewives (32.1% and age groups of 20 to 29 years old (19.9%. In addition, the most cases of disease were seen in winter (41.8% and fall (28.9%.CL is increasing remarkably in warm climates of the province, and Ghasr-e-Shirin must be of particular interest, as the most infected district in the province.

  11. Trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, west of iran from 1990 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzavi, Yazdan; Khademi, Nahid

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to explain the trend of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) in Kermanshah Province, western Iran from 1991-2012. In this analytical-descriptive study, all of the patients suspected to CL in Kermanshah Province were studied. Smears were prepared from most of them, stained with Giemsa, and examined microscopically for Leishman bodies. A few of the patients were diagnosed according to physician diagnosis and response to glucantime. Questionnaires were completed for all of them. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-21 and Spearman and Kendall tests. From 1991 to 2012, 1684 cases of CL were recorded. In the years 2011-12 the frequency of CL in the province reached to 7.4/100,000, which showed a remarkable increase in the frequency of new cases CL in the province. In the years 2011-12 about 47% of total cases of CL in the province, was seen in Ghasr-e-Shirin district,which the frequency of CL in this district reached to 264.5/100,000. Frequency of CL in males and females was 57% and 43% respectively. The most cases of CL were seen in housewives (32.1%) and age groups of 20 to 29 years old (19.9%). In addition, the most cases of disease were seen in winter (41.8%) and fall (28.9%). CL is increasing remarkably in warm climates of the province, and Ghasr-e-Shirin must be of particular interest, as the most infected district in the province.

  12. Molecular detection, infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Seyyed Mostafa; ESMAEILNEJAD, Bijan; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total of 400 blood samples were collected from 40 randomly selected flocks in the study area from June to September, 2014. Out of 400 blood samples examined using microscopic examination, a number of 14 goats (3.50%) were positive for Theileria spp., whereas 25 goats (6.25%) yielded a specific T. lestoquardi SSU-rRNA fragment (235 bp). The prevalence of the...

  13. UPPER DEVONIAN CONODONT BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF SHAMS ABAD SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, IRAN

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    ALI BAHRAMI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the conodont fauna from the Upper Devonian Shams Abad section provides new data on the stratigraphy of the Bahram Formation in the Kerman province, in southeastern Iran. The fauna includes twenty-four species, mainly belonging to genera Polygnathus and Icriodus, and gives evidence of a late Frasnian to middle Famennian age, in contrast to previous interpretation of the same unit. The shallow water conodont biofacies confirms an inner shelf to foreshore shallow marine depositional environment. 

  14. A Survey on Ectoparasite Infestations in Companion Dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran

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    AR Alborzi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in referred companion dogs to veterinary hospital of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, from 2009 to 2010.Methods: A total of 126 dogs were sampled for ectoparasites and examined by parasitological methods. The studied animals were grouped based on the age (3 years, sex, breed and regionResults: Thirty six out of 126 referred dogs (28.57% were positive for external ectoparasites. The most common ectoparasites were Heterodoxus spinigera, which were recorded on 11 dogs (8.73%. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Sarcoptes scabiei, Otodectes cynotis, Xenopsylla cheopis, Cetenocephalides canis, Cetenocephalides felis, Hip­pobosca sp. and myiasis (L3 of Lucilia sp. were identified on 9 (7.14%, 7 (5.56%, 6 (4.76%, 3 (2.38%, 3 (2.38%, 2 (1.59%, 2 (1.59% and one (0.79% of the studied dogs respectively. Mixed infestation with two species of ectoparasites was recorded on 8 (6.35%. Prevalence was higher in male dogs (35.82%; 24 out of 67 than females (20.34%; 12 out of 59, age above 3 years (31.81%; 7 out of 22 and in the season of winter (30.95%; 13 out of 42, but the difference was not significant regarding to host gender, age and season (P>0.05.Conclusion: Apparently this is the first study conducted in companion dogs of Ahvaz District, South-west of Iran. Our results indicated that lice and ticks were the most common ectoparasites in dogs of this area. The zoonotic nature of some ectoparasites can be regard as a public health alert

  15. Monitoring microbial quality of commercial dairy products in West Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran

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    Ramin Teymori

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the extent of microbial contamination such as coliform, Escherichia coli, positive coagulase Staphylococcus aureus, molds and yeast in cheese, buttermilk, yogurt, and milk in West Azerbaijan province. Methods: Between March and November 2012, 93 samples of cheese, buttermilk, milk, and yogurt were collected from factories of West Azerbaijan province, northwest of Iran. The samples were tested by standard numbers 5486, 5234, 6806, and 10154 for monitoring their microbial quality. Results: The results of this study revealed that 33% of cheese samples were unauthorized. Also, 22% of buttermilk, 23% samples of yogurt, and 15% of milk samples were unauthorized. Other examples of microbial aspects were normal. Conclusions: It is necessary to determine the critical control points inorganizing factories and automated control systems in order to eliminate or minimize the threat of pollution. Microbial quality of the present products was excellent. Meanwhile, training and familiarizing manufacturers of dairy products are very important in terms of health standards.

  16. Stratigraphy, microfacies and sedimentary environments of Asmari Formation at Tang-e-Bolhayat, north of Kazerun, Fars Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Oligo-Miocene Asmari Formation is the most important petroleum reservoir in the Folded Zagros Zone (FZZ). The FZZ is one of the tectono-sedimentary provinces of Iran, situated to the SW of the country and is recognized as the southwesterly boundary of the Zagros Orogen near the Persian Gulf. This area is easily recognised by the NW-SE trending parallel anticlines that verge to the SW in a 6-12 km cover sequence. As mentioned above, this area is home to some of the world largest oil reservoirs, and was the location of initial continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates. The Asmari Formation includes Kalhur (evaporates) and Ahwaz (sandstone) Members, measured in Lorestan and Khuzestan Provinces, respectively. The Asmari Formation is present throughout the Zagros Basin but it is best developed in Dezful Embayment. Most studies of the formation in this basin are related to subsurface data, while this study is focused on an outcrop. In the type section, which was measured at Kuh-e-Asmari (Asmari Mountain), SE of Masjed-e-Soleiman (a town in Khuzestan Province, SW of Iran), the formation comprises 314 m resistant, severely fractured, cream to brown limestones, with the occurrence of thin bedded shales. The lower contact with Pabdeh Formation and the upper contact with Gachsaran Formation are gradual and conformable. In the study area, from the viewpoint of lithology, the Asmari Formation consists up to 430 meters of thin to massive bedded limestone, dolomitic limestone, argillaceous limestone and occasionally marl. According to petrography and field observations and analysis of larger benthic foraminifera assemblages and microfacies features 4 major depositional environments were identified. These include open marine, barrier, lagoon and tidal flat. These environments are represented by 10 microfacies. A carbonate ramp platform is suggested for the depositional environment of the Asmari Formation. The inner ramp facies are characterized by wackstone

  17. A Three-Year Epidemiological Study of Animal Bites and Rabies in Hamedan Province of Iran

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    Abdolmajid Mohammadzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Rabies is an almost invariably fatal disease that is associated with animal bites. Hence, gathering data about cases of animal bites can help in clarifying the relative status of the disease. Objectives This study was conducted to provide an epidemiological overview on animal bites and rabies occurred in Hamedan province, Iran, during 2011 - 2013. Methods This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted in Hamedan province, Iran. The information was retrieved from the vice-chancellery for health (Hamedan University of Medical Sciences and veterinary directorate general of Hamedan province. The data were analyzed using the SPSS software. The Chi-square test was used to determine statistically significant differences with P values less than 0.05. Results There was just one report of rabies death during the mentioned period. The total number of reported animal bites was 14327 with the incidence of 2.69 cases/1000 individuals, which included 3287 (22.9% women and 11040 (77.1% men. Of these cases, 9868 (68.9% resided in rural areas, while 4459 (31.3% were urban residents. Most animal bites, 3516 (24.54% cases, occurred in the 20 - 29 year-old age group. The lower limbs injuries were significantly higher than other sites with 7462 (52.08% records. In addition, the majority of people were bitten by dogs (11040 cases, 77%. Conclusions This study indicated that the incidence of animal bites was increased during 2011 - 2013 in Hamedan province. Therefore, it seems necessary to take appropriate educational programs along with both pre-exposure immunization and postexposure prophylaxis to control this infection in the region.

  18. Beneficiation of Low-Grade Phosphate Deposits by a Combination of Calcination and Shaking Tables: Southwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Shariati; Aisan Ramadi; Armin Salsani

    2015-01-01

    Three quarters of the world’s phosphate deposits are of sedimentary origin and 75%–80% of those include carbonate gangue. In this study, carbonate sedimentary phosphate deposits of the Lar Mountains of southwest Iran are studied. These deposits consist mainly of calcite, fluorapatite, quartz, kaolinite and illite, with an average P2O5 grade of 9%–10% (low-grade). Various pre-processing and processing methods have been developed for concentrating low-grade phosphate up to marketable grade and ...

  19. A First Report of Infestation by Pseudolynchia canariensis in a Herd of Pigeons in Shahrekord (Southwest of Iran

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    Khodadad Pirali-Kheirabadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigeons (Columba livia have been kept as pet and reared for food in several countries including Iran. Ectoparasites are regarded as the basic causes of retardation in growth, lowered vitality and poor conditions of the birds. Pseudolynchia canariensis a hippoboscidae fly is one of the important ectoparasites of pigeons and is respon­sible for the transmission of pathogens to birds and humans same as pathogenic protozoan Haemoproteus columbae.Methods: A herd of domestic pigeons contained 50 pigeons in Shahrekord, southwest Iran was evaluated clinically infested by ectoparasites. Ectoparasites were removed. The samples were collected and then referred to the Laboratory of Parasitology of Shahrekord University, Shahrekord, Iran.Results: Usin diagnostic key for diptera fly, these flies were find P. canariensis. This is a rare report of infestation of pigeons herd by P. canariensis in Iran. The infestation rate was 40% that rate of infestation in pipers was more than females and in females was more than males.Conclusion: The rate of infested pipers was more than adults that maybe the less potential of pipers in removing of ectoparasites is reason of this higher rate.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Dihydropteroate synthetase Gene (dhps Of Plasmodium vivax in Hormozgan Province, Iran

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    Somayeh MAGHSOODLOORAD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was formulated in order to determine pol­ymorphism of dihydropteroate synthetase gene (dhps of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax in Hormozgan Province, southern Iran and mutations at codons 382, 383, 512, 553, and 585 associated with resistance of P. vivax to sulfadoxine.Method: One-hundred eighteen isolates of P. vivax were prepared within 2007-2008 to determine dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (dhfr-ts gene. The isolates were determined in the study of genetic diversity of dihy­dropteroate synthetase gene (dhps of P. vivax. The study was performed via PCR test and nucleotide sequencing.Results: Of 118 blood samples infected by P. vivax, 46 and 72 samples be­longed to Minab and Jask, respectively. No mutation was detected at 5 target codons. However, among these 118 samples, three isolates (2.54% were found to have a mutation at the new codon 421.Conclusion: Since mutation was detected in dihydrofolate reductase (Pvdhfr gene in the same samples but no mutation was found at five main codons of Pvdhps gene, it can be concluded that P. vivax, considering their mutations in Pvdhfr, is still susceptible to sulfadoxine and therefore, to fansidar in Hor­mozgan Province, Southern Iran.

  1. Parasitic Infections of Free –Range Chickens from Golestan Province, Iran

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    S Rahbari

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, intensity, and species of internal and external parasites of native fowls from Golestan Province, north of Iran. "nMethods: During 2007, different organs of 26 and 24  adult female native fowls  collected   from hu­mid parts (Gorgan, Kord Kooy, Ramian and Bandar Gaz and dry regions  (Gonbad Kavoos, and Ban­dar Torkaman of Golestan Province,  respectively were searched for parasite. Two blood smears taken from each bird were stained with Geimsa. External parasites and nematodes were preserved in 70 % alcohol containing 5% glycerin. Cestodes were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine acid for further studies. "nResults: Fifteen species of parasites were collected from alimentary canals, lungs, feathers and subcu­ta­neous nodules as follows: Alimentary canal: Ascaridia galli (56%, Heterakis gallinarum (24%, Capil­laria anatis (4%, Cheilospirura hamulosa (4%, Raillietina tetragona (58%, R. echinobothrida (6%, and Choanotaenia infundibulum (8%; Lungs: Syngamus trachea (16%; Feathers: Monopon gallinae (40%, Menacanthus stramineus (40%, Liperus caponis (32%, Goniodes dissimilis (38%, Cuclogaster heterographus (8%, Dermanissus gallinae (20% and subcutaneous nodules: Lami­nosioptes cysticola (6%. "nConclusion: The frequency distribution of most species was low. L. cysticola is the first host and distri­bution record for Iran

  2. Job Burnout, Job Satisfaction, and Related Factors among Health Care Workers in Golestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Mohammad Javad; Heidari, Alireza; Etemad, Koorosh; Gashti, Ashrafi Babazadeh; Jafari, Nahid; Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Ariaee, Mohammad; Lotfi, Mansureh

    2016-09-01

    Burnout causes physical and emotional tireness, job dissatisfaction, resulting in reduced efficiency and a feeling of alienation from colleagues. Also, job satisfaction has a major impact on job-related behaviors, such as turnover intention, absenteeism, and job performance. The aim of this study was to determine job burnout, job satisfaction rate, and related factors among health care workers in Golestan Province in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 1,141 health workers in Golestan Province in northern Iran. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was comprised of four sections. It consisted of socio-economic characteristics, physical environment and facilities of health house (rural health clinic), Maslach burnout inventory, and a satisfaction questionnaire. Multi-nomial Logistic Regression was conducted to analyze the data using SPSS software, version 22. There were significant relationships between the intensity of job burnout and age (p job burnout and age (p job satisfaction and the satisfaction from income (p = 0.001), the physical environment of health houses (p = 0.001), and the facilities of health houses (p = 0.001). Burnout was average among health workers, and health workers job satisfaction rate was lower than the average level in health workers. Effective interventions are recommended with regards to the unfavorable condition of job satisfaction and its relationship with job burnout.

  3. Sources of Stress for Nurses in Neonatal Intensive Care Units of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    Leila Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stress is one of the main factors affecting one's efficiency as well as staff health and quality of nursing services. Neonatal intensive care units (NICUs can be stressful environments for nurses, infants and families as well. Since there is no evidence in this regard in Iran, the present study aimed to determine stress levels related to care delivering in NICU from the viewpoint of nurses in NICUs of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran during 2011.Methods: This was a descriptive study including a purposive sample of 110 nurses working in NICUs of hospitals in East Azerbaijan Province. The data collection tool was a self-report questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire were assessed by content validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient (α = 0.84.Results: According to factor analysis, the stressors included environmental and nurse and human factors. Stress sources in total and separately in each category were reported as moderate. The mean and 95% confidence interval of the factors in the categories were 2.75 (0.84; 2.59-2.91 and 3.21 (0.72; 3.07-3.35, respectively. Therefore, human factors caused significantly higher levels of stress compared to environmental factors (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Stressors involved in NICU nursing include environmental and human factors. Planning to remove or reduce their impact can improve the quality of nursing services in intensive care units and, thus, decrease the adverse effects of stress on workers.

  4. The Acanthamoeba spp. in Water Sources from Zanjan Province, Northwest of Iran

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    Ali Haniloo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The genus of Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan parasite with a worldwide distribution where it is able to cause fatal granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE and amoebic keratitis (AK. This organism inhabits in the wide range of natural and man-made aquatic environments. The present study was carried out to evaluate the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in the various water resources of Zanjan province, northwest Iran, using both morphological and molecular methods. Methods: The Water samples were randomly collected from 30 water sources in different parts of Zanjan, Iran, between April 2015 and May 2016. Then, the samples were cultured on non-nutrient agar and the Acanthamoeba genus identified by morphological characters. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was performed using the 18S rRNA gene as a molecular marker. Results: The obtained data showed that, out of the 60 water samples collected, 30 (50% were positive for Acanthamoeba spp. According to morphological and molecular approaches. Conclusion: The present investigation is the first report of the distribution of Acanthamoeba spp. in the various water sources of Zanjan province, gives baseline knowledge regarding water contamination with Acanthamoeba spp. in these areas and emphasizes the necessity of more attention to water sources in order to prevent infections associated with Acanthamoeba spp.

  5. Levels of alarm thresholds of meningitis outbreaks in Hamadan Province, west of Iran.

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    Faryadres, Mohammad; Karami, Manoochehr; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Esmailnasab, Nader; Pazhouhi, Khabat

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have focused on syndromic data to determine levels of alarm thresholds to detection of meningitis outbreaks. The purpose of this study was to determine threshold levels of meningitis outbreak in Hamadan Province, west of Iran. Data on both confirmed and suspected cases of meningitis (fever and neurological symptom) form 21 March 2010 to 20 March 2012 were used in Hamadan Province, Iran. Alarm threshold levels of meningitis outbreak were determined using four different methods including absolute values or standard method, relative increase, statistical cutoff points and upper control limit of exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) algorithm. Among 723 reported cases, 41 were diagnosed to have meningitis. Standard level of alarm thresholds for meningitis outbreak was determined as incidence of 5/100000 persons. Increasing 1.5 to two times in reported cases of suspected meningitis per week was known as the threshold levels according to relative increase method. An occurrence four cases of suspected meningitis per week that equals to 90th percentile was chosen as alarm thresholds by statistical cut off point method. The corresponding value according to EWMA algorithm was 2.57 i.e. three cases. Policy makers and staff of syndromic surveillance systems are highly recommended to apply the above different methods to determine the levels of alarm threshold.

  6. Epidemiological Pattern of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Province of Fars, Iran (Since 2010-2014

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    Ali Fattahi Bafghi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is considered as an important health problem in Iran. This disease begins as small papules and then they gradually grow and turn into wounds. Since the epidemiological study of this problem is effective in preventing and controlling it, the current research was conducted on epidemiological pattern of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the province of Fars, Iran (2010-2014 Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the registered information (20601 patients and documents of the patients having problem in Fars province remedial and health care centers over the last 5 years. First, the registered demographic and epidemiological data of patients were extracted and then analyzed through by using SPSS software. Results: A total of 20601 patients including 10607 males (51% and 9994 females (49% participated this study. Patients were in the age range of 20-29 years old and minority of them was 5-9 years old. Most lesions were on the hand and leg of the patients. It was also found that there was a significant relationship between age groups and types of Leishmaniasis (P<0.05 as well as gender and type of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (P<0.05. Conclusion: According to this is investigation, there was an ascending trend in disease frequency which was based on the descending process. This indicates promotion of educational- hygiene status as well as observance of personal hygiene principals.

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of Low Birth Weight in Fars province, south of Iran, 2014

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    Alireza Mirahmadizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of low birth weight and its risk factors in Fars province, south of Iran, 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we collected data of 3,600 neonates through multi-stage random sampling. At first, we divided the hospitals into two strata, private and public. Then by stratified random sampling, we selected the neonates from delivery list in each hospital. In univariate analysis, the variables in which the p-value was less than 0.2 were entered into multivariate logistic regression analysis model for adjusting. Two-sided p values 35 years, multiple birth and duration < 24 months with previous pregnancy were risk factors of low birth weight (P <0 .05 and just the father’s literacy was a protective factor for low birth weight. Conclusion: The prevalence of low birth weight in Fars province was low in comparison to that of the world and other districts of Iran. But we should plan for reduction of low birth weight to achieve world health organization’s goal. Variables of pregnancy interval of less than 2 years, multiple births, mother’s age over 35 years and father’s level of education could predict low birth weight of the neonates.

  8. A study on anti-diabetic and anti-hypertension herbs used in Lorestan province, Iran

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    Delfan Bahram

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes and hypertension are amongst the most prevalent diseases in the world, while they can be controlled and prevented, create many problems and complications for affected patients. This study was aimed to identify and report the most important and effective herbs for diabetes and high blood pressure treatment in Lorestan province (West of Iran. Methods: By gathering and integrating indigenous data from local inhabitants of Lorestan, Iran, the goal of this study was accomplished. Data were gathered by cooperation of the agents of public health services network all over the towns of Dorud, Boroujerd, Khorramabad, Aleshtar, Poledokhtar, Aligoodarz, Nurabad and Kouhdasht. Results: Results of this study showed that there were overall 17 medicinal plants which were used for treatment and controlling of diabetes and high blood pressure. Conclusion: Medicinal plants reported in this study are indigenous to the Lorestan province. Some of the foresaid herbs seem to have some unknown therapeutic effects which are reported in this study for the first time, and some others have various known therapeutic effects mentioned in other similar studies. It is essential for researchers to find out the actuality of clinical effectiveness of the herbs and their active substances. Once the positive effects of these herbs proved, it would be possible to produce drugs which are useful in curing and controlling diabetes and hypertension.

  9. Spatial distribution and prevalence of physical disabilities in the provinces of Iran.

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    Abbastabar, H; Alizadeh, A; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Roozbeh, N

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To identify the influential social factors and spatial distribution of physical disabilities in Iran between 2006 and 2011. Materials and Methods: First, the prevalence of physical disability in each province between 2006 and 2011 was mapped via GIS. Moreover, the percentage of physical disability was estimated with regard to age, sex, and residential area. Finally, the prevalence of physical disability was estimated with regard to the afore-mentioned variables. Findings: The findings revealed that in the majority of the provinces of Iran, there was a decreasing trend in the prevalence of physical disability from 2006 to 2011. The prevalence of physical disability in the total population of the country was also decreased during these years. The results were also indicative of a higher prevalence among men than among women and also in rural residential areas than in urban areas. Conclusion: The results of this research can be used to identify the high- and low-risk areas. In addition, this information can be used for the etiology and the specification of the factors that cause the residents of some regions to get afflicted more than the others.

  10. The Spectrum of α-Thalassemia Mutations in Kermanshah Province, West Iran.

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    Alibakhshi, Reza; Mehrabi, Masomeh; Omidniakan, Leila; Shafieenia, Samaneh

    2015-01-01

    Thalassemia is a hereditary blood disorder that results from genetic defects causing deficient synthesis of hemoglobin (Hb) polypeptide chains. Although thalassemia mostly affects developing countries, there is limited knowledge of its accurate frequency and distribution in these regions. Knowing the prevalence of thalassemia and the frequency of responsible mutations is therefore an important step in the prevention and control program as well as treatment strategies. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is prevalent in Middle East Asian populations, including Iran. In this study, 678 unrelated α-thal carriers, attending the Kermanshah Medical Genetics Laboratory, Kermanshah, Iran, were investigated for α-globin gene mutations by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. The most common mutation among our patients was -α(3.7) (rightward) (60.9%) deletion, which is also known to occur in high frequencies in other parts of Iran, in Southeast Asia and Mediterranean countries. Other prevalent α-thal mutations were α(-5 nt) (10.6%), α(polyA4) (9.9%), α(polyA6) (3.7%), - -(MED) (3.2%), -α(4.2) (leftward) (3.1%) deletion and codon 59 (Hb Adana; HBA1: c.179 G > A) (2.5%). These comprehensive new data are useful for establishing a screening strategy for the effective control of α-thal in Kermanshah Province.

  11. Serology based comprehensive study of Neospora infection in domestic animals in Hamedan province, Iran

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    Jamal Gharekhani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine seroprevalence of Neospora infection in cattle, sheep, horses, donkeys, and dogs in Hamedan province, Iran. Blood samples (n=2254 from the animals were collected randomly during 2009 to 2012. Sera were prepared from the collected blood samples, which were then examined for the presence of antibodies against Neospora using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Neospora modified direct agglutination test (N-MAT, and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT. The seroprevalence rates of Neospora were found as 17.4% (n=245/1406 in cattle, 2.2% (n=8/358 in sheep, 40.8% (n=49/120 in horses, 52% (n=52/100 in donkeys, and 27% (n=73/270 in dogs. In this study, higher levels of Neospora infection were detected in cattle, horses, donkeys, and dogs. This is the first comprehensive study of Neospora infection in domestic animals in Iran. Further researches on molecular and bioassay studies and designing appropriate control strategies against neosporosis in Iran are necessary and strongly recommended.

  12. Molecular Phylogenetics of Trichostrongylus Species (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae) from Humans of Mazandaran Province, Iran.

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    Sharifdini, Meysam; Heidari, Zahra; Hesari, Zahra; Vatandoost, Sajad; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2017-06-01

    The present study was performed to analyze molecularly the phylogenetic positions of human-infecting Trichostrongylus species in Mazandaran Province, Iran, which is an endemic area for trichostrongyliasis. DNA from 7 Trichostrongylus infected stool samples were extracted by using in-house (IH) method. PCR amplification of ITS2-rDNA region was performed, and products were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence data was performed using MEGA 5.0 software. Six out of 7 isolates had high similarity with Trichostrongylus colubriformis, while the other one showed high homology with Trichostrongylus axei registered in GenBank reference sequences. Intra-specific variations within isolates of T. colubriformis and T. axei amounted to 0-1.8% and 0-0.6%, respectively. Trichostrongylus species obtained in the present study were in a cluster with the relevant reference sequences from previous studies. BLAST analysis indicated that there was 100% homology among all 6 ITS2 sequences of T. colubriformis in the present study and most previously registered sequences of T. colubriformis from human, sheep, and goat isolates from Iran and also human isolates from Laos, Thailand, and France. The ITS2 sequence of T. axei exhibited 99.4% homology with the human isolate of T. axei from Thailand, sheep isolates from New Zealand and Iran, and cattle isolate from USA.

  13. Molecular detection of equine piroplasms in donkeys (Equus asinus) in North Khorasan province, Iran.

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    Abedi, V; Razmi, Gh; Seifi, H; Naghibi, A

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a tickborne disease of equids with worldwide distribution, caused by Theileria equi and Babesia caballi. The aim of this study was molecular detection of T. equi and B. caballi in donkeys in northeastern Iran and investigate the association between positivity of piroplasm infection and host-related factors. In the present study, Blood samples were collected from 106 apparently healthy donkeys (Equus asinus) in North Khorasan province, Iran. Blood smears were prepared and stained by giemsa method. DNA was extracted from blood and then multiplex-PCR was done for detection of any piroplasms infection. According to the results, four donkeys showed T. equi in blood smears but B. caballi was not found. Also, fifty four donkeys (50.94%) showed T. equi infection using multiplex-PCR. No siginificant difference was observed between the frequency of T. equi infection with host-related factors in donkeys. This is the first report on the molecular detection of eqiune piroplamosis in donkeys in Iran. Also, no significant association was found between the rate of T. equi infected animals.

  14. Downward Trend in Maternal Mortality Ratio in Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran

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    Morteza Talebi Doluee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Maternal mortality is defined as the death during pregnancy or up to 42 days postpartum. This study sought to determine the trend of maternal mortality ratio (MMR and its associated factors in Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Khorasan Razavi Province, North East of Iran, during 2010 to 2014. Data was collected from the reports of Maternal Mortality Committee of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. The MMR was calculated for each period, and its trend was estimated. Chi-square test was used to find the relationship between mode of delivery and direct or indirect causes of maternal death. Results: According to the results, 94 maternal deaths occurred during 2010 to 2014. The total MMR was 17.68 (95%CI: 13.59-21.77 per 100,000 live births. The mean maternal age was 30.7±6.1 years old. Most of the deaths (75.6% occurred during postpartum period, from which 81% happened following a high-risk pregnancy. In addition, 50% of the mothers had proper numbers of visits during pregnancy. The most direct and indirect causes of maternal death were maternal hemorrhage (24.5% and cardiovascular diseases (12.8%, respectively. The relative risk of maternal mortality associated with cesarean section was 1.3 in comparison to normal vaginal delivery. Conclusion: The estimation of MMR is essential for decision-making and resource allocation. To reach this goal, a good registration system is needed to register all deaths and their exact causes.

  15. Molecular characterization of pathogenic Fusarium species in cucurbit plants from Kermanshah province, Iran.

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    Chehri, K; Salleh, B; Yli-Mattila, T; Reddy, K R N; Abbasi, S

    2011-10-01

    Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera of microfungi causing serious losses on cucurbit plants in Kermanshah province, the largest area of cucurbits plantation in Iran. Therefore, the objectives in this study were to isolate and identify disease-causing Fusarium spp. from infected cucurbit plants, to ascertain their pathogenicity, and to determine their phylogenetic relationships. A total of 100 Fusarium isolates were obtained from diseased cucurbit plants collected from fields in different geographic regions in Kermanshah province, Iran. According to morphological characters, all isolates were identified as Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium solani. All isolates of the five Fusarium spp. were evaluated for their pathogenicity on healthy cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and honeydew melon (Cucumis melo) seedlings in the glasshouse. F. oxysporum caused damping-off in 20-35 days on both cucurbit seedlings tested. Typical stem rot symptoms were observed within 15 days after inoculation with F. solani on both seedlings. Based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, the five Fusarium species were divided into two major groups. In particular, isolates belonging to the F. solani species complex (FSSC) were separated into two RFLP types. Grouping among Fusarium strains derived from restriction analysis was in agreement with criteria used in morphological classification. Therefore, the PCR-ITS-RFLP method provides a simple and rapid procedure for the differentiation of Fusarium strains at species level. This is the first report on identification and pathogenicity of major plant pathogenic Fusarium spp. causing root and stem rot on cucurbits in Iran.

  16. Agrobiodiversity and in situ conservation in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna in Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

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    Shen, Shicai; Xu, Gaofeng; Li, Diyu; Clements, David Roy; Zhang, Fudou; Jin, Guimei; Wu, Jianyong; Wei, Pingfang; Lin, Song; Xue, Dayuan

    2017-05-15

    Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China belongs to a global biodiversity and cultural hotspot. Agrobiodiversity plays an essential role in local livelihoods and traditional culture in the region. However, preliminary studies suggest that diversity of crop plants and livestock species is declining. We hypothesized that agrobiodiversity and traditional means of preserving agrobiodiversity are threatened because of changes in government policy in favor of commercial plantations, land use change and changes in traditional agricultural practices. We investigated whether or not agrobiodiversity was declining, the specific causes, and signs of active biodiversity conservation practices in ethnic minority communities of Xishuangbanna which could form the basis for extensive in situ conservation programmes. A series of field studies to document trends in agrobiodiversity were conducted in different ethnic minority communities in Menghai County, Mengla County and Jinghong City of Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province, southwest of China between July 2015 and February 2016. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools. A total of 360 ethnic households provided information on current status, functions, characteristics, changes, and threatened factors of farming crop and livestock resources. Some measures for in situ conservation of agricultural biological resources were also researched using PRA methods. Two hundred twenty-six crop varieties belonging to 31 families, 71 genera and 101 species were identified in Xishuangbanna, which included 83 vegetable crops, 77 food crops, 24 spice crops, 22 fruit crops, 13 cash crops, 6 oil crops, and 1 cloth crop, respectively. There were 15 livestock varieties, belonging to 6 major species: cattle, pigs, goats, chickens, ducks, and geese. Different crop and livestock resources had their own characteristics, functions and threatened factors

  17. Epidemiological distribution of rodents as potent reservoirs for infectious diseases in the provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran

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    Behzad Esfandiari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain. The aim of this study is to assess the geographical distribution of rodents in three provinces of northern part of Iran as reservoir of potential endemic infectious diseases. Rodents in 10 major parts of each of the three provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran were collected and a total of 404 rodents were trapped alive. They were determined by the key characteristics such as gender, genus, species, different locations and topological situation. Statistical analysis was performed to characterize the study sample and to correlate all variables and parameters. The distribution frequencies of three, five and six genera of rodents were identified in Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan provinces respectively. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents in the three provinces were identified as Rattus (R. norvegicus (67.3%, R. rattus (13.6%, Apodemus sylvaticus (13.9%, Arvicola (1%, Mus musculus (0.3%, Nesokia indica (2.5%, Cricetulus migrates (0.7% and Rhombomys opimus (0.7%. The results of this study determined the geographic distribution of the rodents in the three northern provinces of Iran. It is indicated the association of various distribution and diversity of rodents with provincial location. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents was recognized in the above three provinces geographical locations. This study confirms epidemiological distribution of

  18. Spatio-Temporal Modeling of Seismic Provinces of Iran Using DBSCAN Algorithm

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    Kazemi-Beydokhti, Mohammad; Ali Abbaspour, Rahim; Mojarab, Masoud

    2017-05-01

    One of the most important issues in the field of engineering seismology is identification and classification of seismic provinces. Due to the importance of this issue in Iran, various studies have been conducted using different methods such as expert judgment, computational methods, data-driven methods, and smart methods. The purpose of the present research is to develop a spatio-temporal seismic model for Iran using robust and objective clustering tools. In the present study, one of the most powerful clustering methods, DBSCAN, is selected based on its ability to analyze huge amounts of data. The DBSCAN algorithm, which acts based on the density of seismic events, is capable of detecting arbitrarily shaped clusters. The seismic datasets used in this study, which were obtained from the seismic catalog of Iran from 1900 to 2015, have been divided into three window periods including 2- , 5- , and 10-year intervals. Afterward, different seismicity patterns for each period are obtained by applying DBSCAN algorithm. Then, those exhibited high agreements in terms of shapes and locations of clusters with the other models are determined. Ultimately, by considering these models and using expert judgments, a unified spatio-temporal model is presented. The results reveal meaningful information in different parts of Iran especially in Zagros, Alborz, and Azerbaijan zones and are generally in good agreement with previous studies. Moreover, the results emphasize that a seismic model, which is obtained based on considering seismogenic zones in various time periods along with the application of density-based clustering tools, will produce reliable results.

  19. Modeling of Structural Equation Teachers’ Job satisfaction in Agricultural High School, Mazandaran Province, Iran

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    M. Alikhani Dadoukolaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is a positive or pleasant emotional state resulting from a person’s appreciation of his/her own job or experience. The study purpose was to model job satisfaction for teachers working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province of Iran. The study used a descriptive-correlative design . The statistical population (including all instructors working for agricultural Institutes within Mazandaran Province of Iran was es 127 teachers. Using Cochran’s formula, the sample size was estimated at 85 teachers. To increase the viability of the study, the planned sample size was determined att 110 teachers from which 108 teachers completed the questionnaires. The study was conducted using questionnaire. The content validity of the questionnaire was assessed by a group of extension specialists. In order to measure the reliability of research questionnaires, 29 teachers who were randomly selected. completed some questionnaires. Cronbach's alpha, ordinal theta and combination reliability were calculated by 0.95, 0.92 and 0.87 respectively. The results indicate that the magnitude of job satisfaction for %85.2 of instructors working in Agricultural institutes within Mazandaran province was moderate and relatively high. Based on the estimated Structural equation model, the highest effect on the job satisfaction was related to the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.64. Motivational factor with the path coefficient of 0.26 had a significant effect on job satisfaction. In addition, the environmental factor with the path coefficient of 0.55 had a significant effect on the Motivational factor.

  20. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. Results: The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. Conclusion: RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI. PMID:27878129

  1. XML Geohelminthic: human ascariasis and trichuriasis in Mazandaran province, northern Iran

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    Hajar Ziaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ascariasis and trichuriasis are the most common intestinal geohelminthic diseases, and as such they are significant in terms of clinical and public health. This study was done to determine prevalence, status and geographic distribution patterns for Ascariasis and Trichuriasis. The study was done in the period 1991-2014 in northern Iran using Aregis 9.2 software. Methods: This was a review study, using description and analysis, of geographical distribution of Ascaris and Trichuris relating to townships in Mazandran province, northern Iran, covering a 23-year period. Data were collected from a review of the relevant literature, summarized and classified using Arc GIS, 9.2 to design maps and tables. Results: Based on results presented in tables and maps, means for prevalence of Ascaris and Trichuris were divided into five groups. The maximum prevalence rate of Ascaris was 16.3% reported in rural areas of Tonkabon in 1981-1982. Prevalence means for Ascaris in the central and western areas of Mazandaran province were 2%-4% and 4%, respectively. The maximum prevalence of Trichuris in the rural area of Tonkabon was 22.5% and the lowest 0.06% was among the cattle breeder’s in rural areas of the province at in 2002-2003. Conclusion: Data presented in this study provides information useful to health care workers researchers and health administrators, especially for physicians, clinicians and for future research. Also, it is necessary to control and prevent geohelminthic parasitic infections, particularly in rural areas by public education for families, health authorities and health care systems.

  2. Determinants of pharmaceutical expenditures of urban households: A time series study in Kermanshah province (Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, Behzad Karami; Azami, Saeed Reza; Mahmoudi, Saeid; Rezaei, Satar; Shaahmadi, Faramarz; Karyani, Ali Kazemi

    2015-11-01

    In recent decades, the development of medical and pharmaceutical science has led to a heavy financial burden on the government, insurance companies, and the general population. Due to the increasing the cost of pharmaceutical products in the Kermanshah Province, policy makers have tried to identify the factors that resulted in the increases. The aim of this study was to determine the main factors that affect the expenditures for pharmaceutical products by urban households in Kermanshah Province, Iran. This analytical-descriptive study was conducted using time series method. The study population was urban households of Kermanshah Province from 1991 to 2013. The explanatory variables of the log-log model were drug price index (LnDPI), the average income of urban households (LnINC), the number of physicians per 1,000 people (LnPH), and the number of hospital beds per 1,000 people (LnBE).The required data were acquired from the Statistical Center of the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. The unit root was evaluated by the Dickey-Fuller test. Stata v.11 software was used for the statistical analysis. Coefficients of LnDPI and LnPH were 0.97 and 0.77, respectively, and they were statistically significant (p 0.05). The results showed that drugs are non-elastic and essential for households. It should be noted that the health policy makers in Iran should conduct appropriate planning to ensure both the physical and financial accessibility to drugs by urban households. The development of basic and supplementary health insurance coverage, especially for poor populations and urban areas where there are patients with chronic diseases, can be a suitable solution to reduce barriers to acquiring the required drugs.

  3. An Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accidents in Guilan Province, Northern Iran in 2012.

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    Mohtasham-Amiri, Zahra; Dastgiri, Saeed; Davoudi-Kiakalyeh, Ali; Imani, Ali; Mollarahimi, Keyvan

    2016-10-01

    To determine the epidemiological characteristics of the road traffic injuries (RTIs) in Guilan province, northern Iran. This study was a cross-sectional study which included all of RTIs admitted to medical centers of Guilan province (northern Iran) during 2012. ICD-10 was used as diagnostic criteria. Demographic variables also injury circumstance and in hospital variables such as length of stay, time of admission, type of surgery, ICU admission, final outcome and mechanism of injury, anatomical part of injury according to Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) classification were derives from records by trained research team. Descriptive data is reported. The predictors of mortality were also determined. The prevalence of road traffic injuries in Guilan province was 31 in 10,000 populations. Of total 7671 accidents, 5976 (77.9%) were men and 1695 (22.1%) were women. Mean age of these victims was 33.3 ± 17.289 years (32.64±16.939 for men, 35.62±18.312 for women). Most of them (32.5%) were 20-29 years old. Motorcycle-car accidents had the highest frequency followed by car-car crashes and car accidents involving pedestrians. Most of the patients (85.9%) were hospitalized and 280 injured died (3.7%). Upper extremities were the most sites of injuries. Male sex, length of hospital stay, multiple injuries and increased age were associated with road traffic accident associated mortality. RTIs cause enormous death and disability in this area and more road traffic preventive programs should be enforcement in these areas to reduce incidences RTI.

  4. Factors associated with the choice of suicide method in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

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    Rostami, Mehran; Jalilian, Abdollah; Rezaei-Zangeneh, Ramin; Salari, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identification of factors in the choice of suicide methods is important in understanding the phenomenon. We aimed to quantify the effect of gender, age, living area, education level and marital status on the choice of suicide method among residents of Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. A cross-sectional study of all completed suicides from March 2006 to September 2013. Kermanshah Province, Iran. Data were extracted from suicide forms in the electronic files of the Forensic Medicine Organization. A total of 1901 (1138 men), suicide cases were identified. After preliminary analysis, a multinomial logistic model was fitted to the data to test and quantify the impact of each influential factor on the choice of suicide method. The relative risk of each suicide method over hanging as the reference method was estimated by calculating relative-risk ratios from the multinomial logistic model. Relative risk of suicide by self-immolation, drug and toxic poisoning and firearms. We found that women are at a higher relative risk than men for suicide by self-immolation, intentional drug poisoning and toxic poisoning. The relative risk of suicide by self-immolation and intentional drug poisoning was higher for urban residents and young individuals. On the other hand, men and rural residents were at higher relative risk of suicide by firearm. In Kermanshah province, the impact of rapid social changes on women and the availability of firearms in rural areas and drugs in urban households require more attention in any suicide prevention planning. The lack of data prevented analysis of factors that may be more influential in choosing suicide.

  5. Suicide Mortality Risk in Kermanshah Province, Iran: A County-level Spatial Analysis

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    Mehran Rostami

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kermanshah province has one of the highest suicide rates in Iran. The aim of this study is to explore spatial variations in the relative risk of suicide across the counties of Kermanshah province. Methods: This is an applied ecological study in which county-level counts of suicide deaths recorded by the forensic medicine organization of Kermanshah province during the period March 21, 2006 to March 20, 2013 have been used. Following a Bayesian approach, Besag, York and Mollie's (BYM model was fitted to the number of suicide deaths of males, females and all persons to make inference about the relative risk of suicide across the counties of the province. Results: Over the study period and based on 95% credible intervals, Kangavar, Harsin and Sonqor counties had significantly lower relative risks of suicide for both males and females, Slas-Babajani, Paveh, Javanrud and Ravansar counties had significantly lower relative risks of suicide only for males and Kermanshah county had a significantly higher relative risk of suicide only for males. The relative risk of suicide for the other counties were not significantly different from the province’s overall risk neither for males nor females. Conclusion: The counties of Kermanshah province can be classified into four categories by the level of relative risk of suicide: low relative risk for both males and females, low relative risk only for males, high relative risk only for males and average relative risk. Findings from this study could be used to specify priority counties for suicide prevention initiatives.

  6. Spatial hydrological drought characteristics in Karkheh River basin, southwest Iran using copulas

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    Dodangeh, Esmaeel; Shahedi, Kaka; Shiau, Jenq-Tzong; MirAkbari, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    Investigation on drought characteristics such as severity, duration, and frequency is crucial for water resources planning and management in a river basin. While the methodology for multivariate drought frequency analysis is well established by applying the copulas, the estimation on the associated parameters by various parameter estimation methods and the effects on the obtained results have not yet been investigated. This research aims at conducting a comparative analysis between the maximum likelihood parametric and non-parametric method of the Kendall τ estimation method for copulas parameter estimation. The methods were employed to study joint severity-duration probability and recurrence intervals in Karkheh River basin (southwest Iran) which is facing severe water-deficit problems. Daily streamflow data at three hydrological gauging stations (Tang Sazbon, Huleilan and Polchehr) near the Karkheh dam were used to draw flow duration curves (FDC) of these three stations. The Q_{75} index extracted from the FDC were set as threshold level to abstract drought characteristics such as drought duration and severity on the basis of the run theory. Drought duration and severity were separately modeled using the univariate probabilistic distributions and gamma-GEV, LN2-exponential, and LN2-gamma were selected as the best paired drought severity-duration inputs for copulas according to the Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Kolmogorov-Smirnov and chi-square tests. Archimedean Clayton, Frank, and extreme value Gumbel copulas were employed to construct joint cumulative distribution functions (JCDF) of droughts for each station. Frank copula at Tang Sazbon and Gumbel at Huleilan and Polchehr stations were identified as the best copulas based on the performance evaluation criteria including AIC, BIC, log-likelihood and root mean square error (RMSE) values. Based on the RMSE values, nonparametric Kendall-τ is preferred to the parametric maximum likelihood estimation method

  7. Study of Intestinal Protozoan Parasites in Rural Inhabitants of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    M Rezaeian

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasites of humans are important health problems of most communities, especially those situated in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was carried out in rural population of Mazandaran Province, northern Iran, during 2004-2005, with the purpose of achieving a better understanding of the distribution of intestinal protozoan parasites in this province.Methods: A total of 855 stool specimens were collected randomly from rural inhabitants (384 males and 471 females and examined by the formalin-ethyl-acetate concentration technique. In addition, a modified version of the Ziehl-Neelsen tech­nique was used for the staining of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal coccidian parasites.Results: The general prevalence of intestinal protozoans was found as 25%. The prevalence of every intestinal protozoan parasite was as follows: Giardia lamblia (10.2%, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.2%, Dientamoeba fragilis (1.1%, Blastocystis hominis (9.8%, Entamoeba coli (5%, Endolimax nana (0.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (1.3%, and Entamoeba hartmani (0.4%.Conclusion: The present study revealed that the prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites among rural inhabitants of Ma­zandaran Province are  still so high that implies performing special control measures.

  8. Determining the Climate Calendar of Tourism in Sistan-Baluchestan Province, Iran

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    FAHIMEH SHAHRAKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sistan and Baluchestan Province spans five degrees latitude, with variations in natural phenomena, with cultural and historical resources and beautiful beaches in the south that have a great potential in attracting tourists. To investigate the relationship between climate and tourism, the climate index has been developed so that data are presented showing the individuals’ reactions to climate. The current study chose the tourist major cities of Iran and meteorological data was used to calculate the 20-year period up to 2012. In order to calculate the three climate indices (Predict Mean Vote - PMV, the Physiological Equivalent Temperature - PET and the Standard Effective Temperature - SET, RayMan software was used. These indices were then discussed and the spatial distribution of climatic comfort was represented in GIS environment. The most important national, religious, historical, and natural places in the province were presented and the climate calendar of tourism was identified. The results showed that tourism is concentrated in two periods, hot and cold. The cold period in southern cities such as Chabahar, Konarak and Sarbaz makes them tourist destinations, while the cities of Zahedan, Khash, Zabol, located at higher latitudes, are chosen tourist destination in spring and autumn. Summer has the highest thermal stress in the province.

  9. Incidence of Phenylketonuria in Lorestan Province, West of Iran (2006- 2016

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    Naser Motamedi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenylketonuria (PKU, is one of the most common metabolic diseases that resulted in mental retardation. The study aimed to investigate the incidence of phenylketonuria in Lorestan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: The study was an observational-descriptive study which included all identified cases of patients from April 2006 to February 2016. The required data were collected from patients' records. The Entered variables in data survey checklist included gender, date of birth, County Residence, parental education, parental occupation, parental kinship, conducting genetic consultation and screening. Recorded data were analyzed in Stata-12 software after completion. Results: Newborns were identified with Phenylketonuria during the years 2006 to 2016 and incidence rate calculated 1.91 per 10,000 live births. The highest incidence rate of disease was 3.86 per 10,000 live births in 2014. Delfan (Nurabad County and Borujer County had maximum and minimum rate of incidence with 5.94 per 10,000 and 0.64 per 10,000, respectively. Among 74 patients, 42 (56%, were female and there was patients' parental kinship in 82% of parents that about 92 percent of suffering children parents had done genetic consultation. Conclusion: The incidence of phenylketonuria in the Lorestan province is more than other provinces. Given that most cases of patients resulted from cousin marriages, paying attention to the screening tests prior to marriage, particularly in familiar marriage is essential.

  10. Diversity and frequency of Nocardia spp. in the soil of Isfahan province, Iran

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    Kachuei, R; Emami, M; Mirnejad, R; Khoobdel, M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To isolate and identify Nocardia spp. from soil in different regions of Isfahan province in the center of Iran. Methods This study was conducted in 32 districts (16 cities and 16 villages) in Isfahan province during two years. A total of 800 soil samples from these regions were studied by using kanamycin. The isolated Nocardia species were examined by gram and acid-fast staining and were identified biochemically and morphologically. The frequency and distribution of Nocardia spp. were determined in relation to different factors such as soil pH and temperate climate. Results From 153 (19.1%) Nocardia isolates identified, Nocardia asteroids (N. asteroids) complex (45.5%) and Nocardia brasiliensis (N. brasiliensis) (24.7%) were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (2.2%), Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura actinomadura (each 1.7%) and Nocardia transvalensis (1.1%) and also unknown spp. (23.0%). In this study, most species (54.4%) of Nocardia, especially N. asteroides complex were isolated from soils with pH: 7.01-8, whereas in pH: 8.01-9 more N. brasiliensis was isolated. The most Nocardia spp. was detected from regions with semi-nomadic and temperate climate (41.1%). Conclusions N. asteroids complex is more prevalent in Isfahan province and soil can be a potential source of nocardiosis infections. It is to be considering that climate and soil pH are involved in the frequency and diversity of aerobic Actinomycetes. PMID:23569953

  11. Fauna and Geographical Distribution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran.

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    Sharifinia, Narges; Gowhari, Iman; Hoseiny-Rad, Manijeh; Aivazi, Ali Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to midnight. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied. Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi, Mesobuthus eupeus, Compsobuthus matthiesseni, Razianus zarudnyi, Hemiscorpius lepturus, Androctonus crassicauda, Orthochirus iranus, Odontobuthus bidentatus, Buthacus macrocentrus, Scorpio maurus, and Polisius persicus. Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were identified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.

  12. Diversity and frequency of Nocardia spp. in the soil of Isfahan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Emami, M; Mirnejad, R; Khoobdel, M

    2012-06-01

    To isolate and identify Nocardia spp. from soil in different regions of Isfahan province in the center of Iran. This study was conducted in 32 districts (16 cities and 16 villages) in Isfahan province during two years. A total of 800 soil samples from these regions were studied by using kanamycin. The isolated Nocardia species were examined by gram and acid-fast staining and were identified biochemically and morphologically. The frequency and distribution of Nocardia spp. were determined in relation to different factors such as soil pH and temperate climate. From 153 (19.1%) Nocardia isolates identified, Nocardia asteroids (N. asteroids) complex (45.5%) and Nocardia brasiliensis (N. brasiliensis) (24.7%) were the most frequently isolated species, followed by Nocardia otitidiscaviarum (2.2%), Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Actinomadura actinomadura (each 1.7%) and Nocardia transvalensis (1.1%) and also unknown spp. (23.0%). In this study, most species (54.4%) of Nocardia, especially N. asteroides complex were isolated from soils with pH: 7.01-8, whereas in pH: 8.01-9 more N. brasiliensis was isolated. The most Nocardia spp. was detected from regions with semi-nomadic and temperate climate (41.1%). N. asteroids complex is more prevalent in Isfahan province and soil can be a potential source of nocardiosis infections. It is to be considering that climate and soil pH are involved in the frequency and diversity of aerobic Actinomycetes.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered continuous gas resources in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2017-08-17

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable continuous resources of 35.1 trillion cubic feet of gas in the Amu Darya Basin Province of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Iran, and Afghanistan.

  14. Malaria Four-year Epidemiological Trends in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

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    Norouzinezhad, Faezeh; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Raeisi, Ahmad; Norouzinejad, Abbas; Kaveh, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Malaria is one of the foremost public health concerns in Iran, where more than 90% of malaria cases are reported in the southern and south-eastern areas of the country. The aim of this study was to assess the epidemiological trends of malaria over a four-year period in in the Sistan and Baluchistan province in south east of Iran. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study examined malaria trends in Sistan and Baluchistan province from 2011 to 2014. The study used data collected in accordance with the Iranian Ministry of Health’s malaria control and elimination protocol. This protocol has digitized the data reporting system for malaria, and all information were sent online to the Center of Disease Control in the Ministry of Health. In this manner, information on malaria cases in Sistan and Baluchistan were made available for the researchers to analyze. Descriptive and comparative analyses were conducted using the SPSS version 13. Results Annual incidence rates reported in 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014 showed the prevalence of 89.9, 43.9, 38.3 and 36.6 (per 100,000 persons), respectively. Across all 4 years, the highest numbers of cases were found in persons 16–25 years old and among males. Most of the infected individuals were villagers and workers. In total, 64.8% of patients were Iranian and 29.5% were Pakistani. The highest number of cases was diagnosed in the cities of Sarbaz and Chabahar, with 1,742 and 1,707 cases, respectively. The results showed that over the last 4 years, 50.8% of cases have entered into Iran from foreign countries. The majority of cases involved parasites in the trophozoite stage of the life cycle. In terms of surveillance, passive care was reported in the majority of cases, and vivax malaria had the highest prevalence in comparison with other types. Conclusion The findings are showing that the care, control and treatment system applied to Sistan and Baluchistan province has had a positive effect on decreasing the

  15. Species Composition of Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) and Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Main Vectors of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Hormozgan Province, Southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Khoobdel, Mehdi; Soleimani-Ahmadi, Moussa; Azizi, Kourosh; Aghaei Afshar, Abbas; Jaberhashemi, Seyed Aghil; Fekri, Sajjad; Safari, Reza

    2017-12-13

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the main neglected vector-borne diseases in the Middle East, including Iran. This study aimed to map the spatial distribution and species composition of sand flies in Hormozgan Province and to predict the best ecological niches for main CL vectors in this area. A database that included all earlier studies on sand flies in Hormozgan Province was established. Sand flies were also collected from some localities across the province. Prediction maps for main vectors were developed using MaxEnt model. A total of 27 sand fly species were reported from the study area. Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli, Phlebotomus sergenti s.l. Parrot, Phlebotomus alexandri Sinton, Sergentomyia sintoni Pringle, Sergentomyia clydei Sinton, Sergentomyia tiberiadis Adler, and Sergentomyia baghdadis Adler (Diptera: Psychodidae) had the widest distribution range. The probability of their presence as the main vectors of CL was calculated to be 0.0003-0.9410 and 0.0031-0.8880 for P. papatasi and P. sergenti s.l., respectively. The best ecological niches for P. papatasi were found in the central south, southeast, and a narrow area in southwest, whereas central south to northern area had better niches for P. sergenti s.l. The endemic areas are in Bandar-e Jask, where transmission occurs, whereas in Bastak, the cases were imported from endemic foci of Fars province. In conclusion, proven and suspected vectors of CL and VL were recorded in this study. Due to the existence of endemic foci of CL, and favorite ecological niches for its vectors, there is potential risk of emerging CL in new areas. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Detection of Salmonella Carriers in Sheep and Goat Flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan Provinces, Iran

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    Hossein Esmaeili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:    Salmonellosis is an infectious and a food-borne disease of humans and animals. The initial source of the infection is the intestinal tracts of birds and other animals. Apparently healthy animals can become subclinical carriers and persistently shed Salmonella in their feces which can act as a reservoir for the pathogen. The aim of this study is to detect the carriers of Salmonella among apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces, Iran.Methods:    A total of 389 fecal samples were aseptically collected from the rectum of apparently healthy sheep and goat flocks of Bushehr and Lorestan provinces. Bacteriological culture was conducted using selenite cystine, Rappaport–Vassiliadis, brilliant green and xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Suspected colonies were inoculated in to TSI, peptone water, Simmon’s Citrate, Urea medium and MRVP. Sero-groups were detected by antisera.              Results:    Two samples from 189 samples (1.05% were positive for Salmonella in Bushehr province. Salmonella abortusovis and Salmonella typhimurium were detected following serotyping. No Salmonella carriers were detected in Lorestan province.Conclusion:    As the rate of carriers of Salmonella was low, the risk of food-borne salmonellosis due to consumption of small ruminant's meat is low, especially in the condition of well cooked meat. Since S. abortusovis was detected, strategies of prevention and control of abortion due to this agent must be taken to reduce the economic losses. Moreover, the presence of S. typhimurium is a hazard to public health and people who have close contact to sheep and goats.

  17. The prevalence of Pediculus capitis among School Children in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    R Neirami

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Pediculus capitis or head louse infestation affects millions of children worldwide, especially those in the 5-11 years age group. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of head pediculosis among school children in ur­ban and rural areas of Fars Province, southern Iran."nMethods: All school children of age 6-11 yr from both genders in all urban and rural areas of the province were screened for head louse infestation by examination of their hair and scalps. Parents of all infested children were also exam­ined. The study was repeated in different seasons in the same areas. Moreover, infested children were treated with 5% permethrin shampoo and re-examined one week later for any relapse."nResults: The general prevalence of head louse infestation in primary school students was 0.49% in autumn, 0.37% in win­ter and 0.20% in spring. In the mentioned seasons, the prevalence of P. capitis was higher among females and in ru­ral areas (P=0.001. Although treatment with permethrin shampoo failed in females, it was successful in all infected males from both regions in autumn and spring and in males from urban areas in winter."nConclusion: Head louse infestation is uncommon among Fars Province school children in rural and urban areas and should not be considered a public health priority. However, due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in low socioeco­nomic group and rural area in our region, it seems that health promotion, particularly early detection and effec­tive management strategies should target this group in the province.

  18. Epidemiologic Study of Suicidal Attempt Cases in Fars Province, South of Iran, 2010-2011

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    Mojtaba Naghshvarian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The reduction of suicidal attempts as one of the most important goals is improvement of societies’ health status. The present study aimed to assess the epidemiologic aspects of suicide cases in Fars province in 2010-2011. Methods: A total of 9714 suicide cases in Fars province, south of Iran, in 2010-2011 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study through census. The study data were collected using suicide registry forms in the health centers affiliated to Fars province department of health services and analyzed using SPSS, version 17. Results: The rate of suicide attempts was 116.5 per 100,000 population in Fars province (93per 100,000 among men and 141.5 per 100,000 among women. The results showed significant differences between the suicide rates based on sex, age group, place of living, and season of the year (P<0.001. Most of these cases were female (59.4%, single (52.9%, 15-24 years old (56.4%, had high school education (25.8%, lived in urban areas (69.6% and were female homemakers (30.3%. Based on the data, however, the largest number of suicide deaths resulted from self-immolation (56.7%. Conclusion: The present study findings revealed different rates of suicidal attempts based on sex and age group. Also, the importance of education and mental support, especially among women and singles, and also preventive measures in the context of uncontrolled immigration from the countryside to the large cities seems to essential more than ever. Yet, defects in some findings, particularly information about etiology, suggest that more researches should be conducted and suicide data registry and reporting systems should be improved

  19. Human visceral leishmaniasis in kermanshah province, Western iran, during 2011-2012.

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    Hamzavi, Y; Hamzeh, B; Mohebali, M; Akhoundi, B; Ajhang, Kh; Khademi, N; Ghadiri, K; Bashiri, H; Pajhouhan, M

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar is a parasitic disease caused by the species of Leishmania donovani complex. It is endemic in some parts of provinces of Iran. According to the reported cases of VL in Kermanshah Province in recent years, this study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL in high risk villages of the province. Totally, 1622 serum samples obtained from children under 15 years old and 178 from adults in 22 villages of studied areas. Serum samples were examined by direct agglutination test (DAT) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver.11.5. Only 6 serum samples (0.33%) showed anti-Leishmania antibodies against L.infantum at titers ≥ 1/3200. Four of the seropositive cases had a history of kala-azar and Leishman bodies were seen in their bone marrows. The highest (0.5%) and lowest (0.29%) seroprevalence was seen in the age groups of 5-9 and 10-14 years old, respectively. None of the adults were seropositive. There were not any significant differences between the rate of seropositivity in males (0.36%) and females (0.31%). 66.7% of seropositive individuals showed clinical manifestations. The most important symptoms in Kala-azar patients were fever, hepato-spleenomegally and anemia. Kala-azar is occurred sporadically in Kermanshah Province. But presence of significant number of positive sera confirms the necessity for attention of people and clinicians to kala-azar.

  20. Measurements of natural radioactivity concentration in drinking water samples of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province, Iran, and dose estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Simin; Faghihi, Reza; Sina, Sedigheh; Derakhshan, Shahrzad

    2013-11-01

    The Fars province is located in the south-west region of Iran where different nuclear sites has been established, such as Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant. In this research, 92 water samples from the water supplies of Shiraz city and springs of the Fars province were investigated with regard to the concentrations of natural radioactive elements, total uranium, (226)Ra, gross alpha and gross beta. (226)Ra concentration was determined by the (222)Rn emanation method. To measure the total uranium concentration, a laser fluorimetry analyzer (UA-3) was used. The mean concentration of (226)Ra in Shiraz's water resources was 23.9 mBq l(-1), while 93 % of spring waters have a concentration water of Shiraz and springs of Fars, respectively. The gross alpha and beta concentrations measured by the evaporation method were lower than the limit of detection of the measuring instruments used in this survey. The mean annual effective doses of infants, children and adults from (238)U and (226)Ra content of Shiraz's water and spring waters were estimated. According to the results of this study, the activity concentration in water samples were below the maximum permissible concentrations determined by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency. Finally, the correlation between (226)Ra and total U activity concentrations and geochemical properties of water samples, i.e. pH, total dissolve solids and SO4(-2), were estimated.

  1. FIELD STUDY OF THE PREVALENCE OF LAMENESS IN HORSES IN THREE PROVINCES OF IRAN

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    A.T. Naeini and B. T. Niak

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A population of 364 show jumper horses was examined for signs of lameness in three province of Iran, i.e., Tehran, Isfahan and Fars. The basis of the survey was the inability of the horse to take part in jumping exercise. The diagnosis of lameness was performed using appropriate methods of visual and physical examination, aided by nerve blocking and radiographic examination. In 364 horses, included cases of hygroma, very short heel, tendonitis, fissure in the hoof, navicular syndrome, laminitis, white line disease, splints, sore shine, side bone, ring bone, tumoral calcinosis, sheard heel, incorrect shoeing and wind puff. This suggests that the diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of lameness merit a high priority in research efforts to reduce wastage among valubale show jumper horses.

  2. Parasitic Contamination in Commonly- Consumed Vegetables in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    Mehdi Sharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raw (fresh vegetables are an important ingredient of healthy diet. Many enteric bacterial, parasitic and viral pathogens could be transmitted by vegetables. Mazandaran province is located in northern Iran with a coastal area and extensive fields for vegetable cultivation. The current study is designed to evaluate the parasitic contamination of fresh vegetables. Methods: A total of 150 samples of fresh vegetables obtained from markets were examined for parasitic infections using standard methods. Results: Out of 104 samples (60.3% were contaminated with parasites. Parsley and radish with prevalence rates of 90% (18/20 and 39.1% (9/23 were the most and least contaminated vegetables. Free living larva and Trichostrongylus were the most and least common parasites in our results. Conclusion: It can be concluded that parasitological contamination of raw vegetables may be a health threat to consumers of such products.

  3. Bronchial Anthracotic Change in South Khorasan Province (Iran, Emphasizing its Association with Tuberculosis

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    Sayyed Gholamreza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many reports on the association between anthracosis and tuberculosis. This study focuses on bronchial anthracosis and associated diseases in the province of South Khorasan-Iran. Methods: This case-series study is performed on patients referred to the Vali-e-Asre Hospital (South Khorasan-Iran for bronchoscopic evaluations during the period of 2009-2012. Written informed consents were obtained prior to bronchoscopic evaluations. The criterion for diagnosis of bronchial anthracosis was black pigmentation on direct observation of bronchus. Bronchial anthracosis was classified into simple (without deformity or complicated (with deformity. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB was diagnosed either by acid fast staining and culture of liquid samples, or histopathology examination of biopsy. Spirometry was performed to determine the obstructive or restrictive pattern. Results: Among 279 patients who underwent bronchoscopic evaluations, 89 patients, including 34 males (38.2% and 55 (61.79% females, were diagnosed with anthracosis. Simple and complicated anthracosis were observed in 42 (48.2% and 47 (52.8% cases respectively. Mean age of patients was 72.23±9.65 years. There were 43 (48.3% cases of tuberculosis (28 cases with complicated and 15 cases with simple anthracosis (P=0.021. Chest X-ray showed consolidation/infiltration, reticular/fibrotic, and mass/nodule/hilar prominence in 57 (64%, 26 (29.21% and 6 (6.74% cases, respectively. Bronchitis was reported in 42 (%59.15 out of 79 patients whose biopsy samples were taken. Spirometric patterns were obstructive, restrictive, upper airway obstruction, and normal in 45 (50.56%, 32 (35.95%, 2 (2.24%, and 10 (11.23% patients respectively. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most frequent disease associated with anthracosis in South Khorasan province. Consequently, patients with anthracosis must be carefully evaluated for tuberculosis.

  4. Prevalence and Incidence of Multiple Sclerosis in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Sadegh Izadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which is accompanied by significant disabilities. Although there are some published data regarding the epidemiological features of MS in other parts of Iran, scarce data are available about the prevalence and demographic characteristics of MS in Fars province. The current study aimed to address the prevalence and incidence rate of MS as well as the temporal trend of the disease in Fars province, southern Iran. Methods: This historical retrospective cohort study was carried out in Fars Multiple Sclerosis Society affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. All the consecutive patients who fulfilled 2010 McDonald criteria for definite MS were included in the study. The patients’ gender, age at time of diagnosis, education, and clinical course were recorded. The prevalence and incidence rates were also calculated. Results: This study was conducted on 3,354 patients. Among the patients, 2,689 (80.2% were female and 665 (19.8% were male. The female/male ratio was 4.04. The point prevalence rate of the disease was 72.1/100,000 persons in October 2013. This index was 116.5 per 100,000 persons in females (95% CI: 113.4-119.6 and 28.3 per 100,000 persons in males (95% CI: 26.8-29.9. The mean annual incidence rate was 5.2/100,000 from 2002 until 2012. Conclusion: Considering Kurtzke classification, Fars is a high-risk area for MS and women are affected more compared with men. Moreover, the incidence rate sharply increased in the last decade.

  5. Epidemiological Aspects of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Baft District, Kerman Province, Southeast of Iran

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    H Mahmoudvand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar is an endemic disease in some areas of Iran. A cross- sectional study was conducted for sero-epidemiological survey of visceral leishmaniasis (VL in Baft district from Kerman Province, southeast of Iran.Methods: Blood samples were collected from children up to 12 years old and 10% of adult population from Baft villages with a multi-stage randomized cluster sampling. In addition, blood samples were collected from 30 domestic dogs from the same areas. All the collected blood sam­ples were tested by direct agglutination test (DAT for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibod­ies in both human and dog using the cut-off value of ≥1:3200 and ≥ 1:320, respectively. Parasitologi­cal, molecular, and pathological were performed on infected dogs. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare sero-prevalence values.Results: From 1476 collected human serum samples, 23 (1.55% showed anti-Leishmania antibod­ies at titers of 1:800 and 1:1600 whereas 14 (0.95% showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies at titers of ≤ 1:3200. No statistically significant difference was found between male (1.18 % and female (0.69% sero-prevalence (P=0.330. Children of 5-8 years showed the high­est sero-prevalence rate (3.22%. Seven out of 30 domestic dogs (23% showed anti-Leishmania antibodies at titers ≤1:320. Leishmania infantum was identified in five infected dogs by nested - PCR assay.Conclusion: It seems that visceral leishmaniasis is being endemic in southern villages of Baft district, southeast of Iran.

  6. Non-Judicial Hanging in Guilan Province, Iran between 2011 and 2013

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    Vahid Monsef Kasmaee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hanging is one of the most commonly used way to commit suicide in many countries. This method used in suicide is considered a problem in Iran too, but no clear data exists regarding hanging in different regions or the country as a whole. Because of the epidemiologic differences in non-judicial hanging in different regions, this study aimed to assess it in Gilan province, Iran between 2011 and 2013. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, profiles of hanging cases registered in Poorsina hospital in Gilan, Iran between 2011 and 2013 were evaluated. Age, sex, marital status, place of residency, level of education, occupation, history of suicide, history of clinical illness, season of suicide and hanging outcome were evaluated. Results: 59 cases of hanging (mean age 31.4 ± 13.1 years and 83.0% male were evaluated. 12 (20.34% suffered from psychological disorders, and 9 (15.2% confessed to substance abuse. 7 (11.9% had a history of suicide attempts by hanging. Hanging was significantly higher in men (p<0.001, people with an education level of less than high school diploma (p=0.02 and the unemployed (p<0.05 patients. In the end, 20 (33.9% of these attempts resulted in death. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that in 2 years, 59 cases committed suicide by hanging themselves, 33.9% of which finally died. Committing suicide by hanging was significantly more prevalent in men, people with an education level of less than high school diploma and the unemployed.

  7. Phaeoacremonium and Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. decline in Kerman province (Iran

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    Hamid MOHAMMADI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens L. is an east Mediterranean plant element and one of four native conifers in Iran. During spring and summer of 2012, a field survey was carried out in different areas of Kerman province (south-eastern Iran to study cypress decline diseases. Samples were collected from crowns, trunks and branches of cypress trees showing yellowing, dieback, canker, wilting of leaves and internal wood discoloration. Isolations were made from symptomatic wood tissues. Based on morphological and molecular characteristics, four species of Phaeoacremonium, namely Phaeoacremonium parasiticum, Pm. aleophilum, Pm. iranianum and Pm. rubrigenum, and two species of the Botryosphaeriaceae, Botryosphaeria dothidea and Neofusicoccum parvum, were isolated and identified. Pathogenicity tests were undertaken to determine the role of these species on 2-year-old potted cypress plants and green shoots of grapevine. Neofusicoccum parvum was more virulent than the other species and caused the largest lesions on both hosts. The fungi were re-isolated from margins of lesions and healthy tissue, thus completing Koch’s postulates. This is the first report of B. dothidea, N. parvum, Pm. aleophilum, Pm. rubrigenum and Pm. iranianum as pathogens on Mediterranean cypress trees.

  8. Biodiversity of Aquatic Insects of Zayandeh Roud River and Its Branches, Isfahan Province, Iran.

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    Mansoreh Shayeghi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic insects are the major groups of arthropods that spend some parts of their life cycle in the water. These insects play an important role for transmission of some human and animal diseases. There is few information about the aquatic insects fauna of Iran.To study the aquatic insects fauna, adult, nymphal and larval collections were carried out from different habitats using the standard technique in Zayandeh Roud River, Isfahan Province,central Iran, during summer 2011.In total, 741 speimens of aquatic insects were collected and morphologically identified. They include 7 families and 12 genera representing 2 Orders. The order of Diptera (92.31% and Coleoptera (7.69%. The families Culicidae, Syrphidae and Chironomidae from Diptera order, Gyrinidae, Dytiscidae, Haliplidae, Hydrophilidae from Coleoptera order were identified.Some aquatic insects play an important role for transmission of human and animal diseases. These insects also are important for biological control. Therefore ecological study on aquatic insects can provide information about ecology of insects in an area for any decision making.

  9. Low-altitude outbreaks of human fascioliasis related with summer rainfall in Gilan province, Iran

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    Abdoreza Salahi-Moghaddam

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Following human fascioliasis outbreaks in 1988 and 1999 in Gilan province, northern Iran, efforts are now made to shed light on the seasonal pattern of fascioliasis transmission in this endemic area, taking into account snail host populations, climatic conditions and human cases. Populations of the intermediate host snail (Lymnaea spp. peak in May and November, while there is a fourfold increase in the rate of human fascioliasis in February compared to that of September. Transmission is likely to occur mainly in late autumn and sporadically in late spring. Rainfall, seasonally analysed in periods of 3 years, indicates that accumulated summer rainfall may be related with the 1988 and 1999 human fascioliasis outbreaks. Although a more detailed picture, based on the analysis of further abiotic and biotic factors influencing fascioliasis transmission in this area, is required to substantiate this hypothesis, our results serve as the first step of a geographical information system project concerning the epidemiological study of fascioliasis in Iran. This local-scale study concerning the effects of climate change and natural disasters on the spread of fascioliasis aims to facilitate the understanding of what goes on at the regional scale in this respect.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Phlebotomine Sand Fly Species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran.

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    Saghafipour, Abedin; Vatandoost, Hassan; Zahraei-Ramazani, Ali Reza; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2017-01-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand fly bites. ZCL is a major health problem in Iran, where basic knowledge gaps about sand fly species diversity persist in some ZCL-endemic areas. This paper describes the richness and spatial distribution of sand fly species, collected with sticky traps, in Qom province, a ZCL-endemic area in central Iran, where sand fly fauna has been poorly studied. Collected species were mapped on urban and rural digital maps based on a scale of 1/50,000. All analyses were undertaken with rural- and urban-level precision, i.e., rural and urban levels were our basic units of analysis. After identifying the sand flies, high-risk foci were determined. For spatial analysis of vector species population, the entomological sampling sites were geo-referenced using GPS. Arc GIS 9.3 software was used to determine the foci with leishmaniasis vector species. Following the analyses, two genera (Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia) and 14 species were identified. Based on the mapping and sand fly dispersion analysis, the rural districts were categorized into three groups-infection reported, without infection, and no report. Based on Geographical Information System analyses, Kahak and Markazi districts were identified as high-risk foci with leishmaniasis vector species. These findings can act as a help guide to direct active control measures to the identified high-risk foci and, eventually, lead to reduction in incidence of the disease. © Crown copyright 2016.

  11. Plants and animals diversity in Buqaty Mountain Area (BMA in Hamadan Province, Iran

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    MAHDI REYAHI-KHORAM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buqaty Mountain Area (BMA is regarded as one of the genetic reserves of Hamadan province in Iran. BMA is highly important regarding variety of plant and animal species, but limited research work has been performed in this area in the field of biodiversity. Identifying the unique ecologic talents and capabilities and aesthetics of BMA is the most important objective of this study. This research was conducted during 2010 through 2011 in BMA to identify various plant and animal species through documentary and also direct field observations. With direct referring to the various regions of the studied area, plant samples were collected from different slope position and transported to field laboratory units. Sampling was made for every 20 meters increase in the height of area. Animal species of the area were identified too. Based on the results, about 44 valuable plant species, 45 species of birds as well as 7 species of mammals have been identified in BMA. It is recommended that the area be declared an A prohibited hunting area by Department of Environment (DoE of Iran for the conservation of flora and fauna in the study area.

  12. Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran

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    Negar Morovatdar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiology and clinical study of phenylketonuria (PKU patients in Khorasan Province; Norteast Iran Background: Phenylketonuria is an autosomal recessive disease. Early diagnosis is a important public health intervention to prevent neurological impairment .This study was designed to describe characteristics of phenylketonouria patients in Khorasan ,Northeast of Iran. Methods: We included all  patients suffering from PKU in khorasan until September 2013. We gathered the variables like diagnosis age , sib of parents, cause of asking physician and screening based diagnosis or clinical based diagnosis. We use descriptive statistics for analysis. Results: The mean age of diagnosis was 19 months .80% pku patients had a positive history of consanguineous marriage in their parents. Incidence of new cases that identified by screening in 2012-2013 was 57 per 1000000 live birth. 10% patients identified with screening in first week of birth. Conclusion: Nearly all of our patients (90% had been diagnosed without screening in the first days of their life only due to clinical manifestations in the first year of their life . According to efficacy of early diagnosis and dietary treatment, enforcement of public health policy for screening is a critical public health preventive intervention.

  13. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

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    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  14. Extensive Genetic Diversity among Clinical Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Central Province of Iran

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    Saman Soleimanpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb remains a significant disease in many countries. According to Iran’s borders with Afghanistan and Pakistan, which are among the 22 high burden countries around the world, this study was conducted to analyze the current molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis and survey genetic diversity of Mtb strains in Markazi Province in center of Iran. In this experimental study, 75 sputum specimens and one gastric lavage from all smear-positive TB patients admitted to the public hospitals across the Markazi Province were cultured on specific mycobacterial culture media. Genomic DNA was digested by PvuII and transferred to positively charged nylon membrane by southern blotting method and hybridization by PGRS and DR probes. Genotyping of the isolates by PGRS-RFLP and DR-RFLP displayed a wide range of genetic diversity as 25 and 26 genotypes were identified, respectively. Generally speaking, despite the relatively limited number of isolates in the study, high age of patients and also large heterogeneity found in the setting are both in opposition to active circulation of Mtb strains between patients under study either Iranian or Afghan nationals. Thus, it seems that reactivation of latent infection has had the main role in the spread of tuberculosis.

  15. Identification of Leishmania isolates from Varzaneh city, Isfahan province, Iran using nested polymerase chain reaction method

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    Reza Arjmand

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmaniasis, a parasitic disease, is caused by the Leishmania genus, a protozoan parasite transmitted by sand fly arthropods. Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in old world is usually caused by L. major, L. tropica, and L. aethiopica complexes. One of the most important hyper endemic areas of CL in Iran is Isfahan province. Varzaneh is a city in the eastern part of Isfahan province. Due to different biological patterns of parasite strains which are distributed in the region, this study was design to identify Leishmania species from human victims using Kinetoplastid DNA as templates in a molecular PCR method. Materials and Methods: Among 186 suspected cases, 50 cases were confirmed positive by direct microscopy after Giemsa staining. Species characterization of the isolates was done using Nested- PCR as a very effective and sensitive tool to reproduce mini circle strands. Results: After Nested-PCR from all 50 cases, 560 bp bands were produced which according to products of reference strains indicate that the infection etiologic agent has been L. major. 22 (44% of patients were females and 28 (56% of them were males. Their age ranges were between 7 months and 60 years. Conclusion: According to the results of the study and the particular pattern of infection prevalent in the region, genetic studies and identification of Leishmania parasites are very important in the disease control and improvement of regional strategy of therapy protocols.

  16. Cost Efficiency of the Family Physician Plan in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Nahid Hatam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years use of family physicians has been determined as a start point of health system reform to achieve more productive health services. In this study we aimed to assess the cost-efficiency of the implementation of this plan in Fars province, southern Iran.Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive study was done in 2007 in 18 provincial health centers as well as 224 rural health centers in Fars province. Data were collected using forms, statistics, and available evidence and analyzed by expert opinion and ratio techniques, control of process statistics, and multi indicator decision model.Results: Although in the family physician plan more attention is paid to patients and the level of health training, availability, and equity has improved and the best services are presented, it has not only decreased the costs, but also increased the referrals to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology clinics and the costs of healthcare.Conclusion: Although the family physician plan has led to more regular service delivery, it has increased the patients’ referral to pharmacies, laboratories, and radiology centers and more referrals to family physicians. It seems that the possibility of setting regularity in health system can be gained in the following years of the family physician program mainly via planning, appropriate management and organizing correct health plans according to need assessments, and continual supervision on activities, which would happen according to current experiences in this plan.

  17. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran.

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    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks.

  18. Evaluation of microbial contamination of produced juice and concentrate in West Azarbaijan Province, north west of Iran

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    Nasrin Haghighat-Afshar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the microbial quality of the industrial produced fruit juices in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran. Methods: In this study, 150 samples of produced juices were studied for the presence of acid resistant bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, mold and yeasts using national standard methods of Iran. Results: Obtained results showed that 1 00% of all fruit juice samples were devoid of any microbes. Conclusions: This study showed that consuming of industrial produced fruit juices are recommended because of their hygienic conditions of production and no existence of microbial contamination. While fresh fruit juices are contaminated with various microorganisms due to unsanitary conditions, therefore, their consuming are not recommended.

  19. Extremely high Tp53 mutation load in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in Golestan Province, Iran.

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    Behnoush Abedi-Ardekani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Golestan Province in northeastern Iran has one of the highest incidences of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC in the world with rates over 50 per 100,000 person-years in both sexes. We have analyzed TP53 mutation patterns in tumors from this high-risk geographic area in search of clues to the mutagenic processes involved in causing ESCC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biopsies of 119 confirmed ESCC tumor tissue from subjects enrolled in a case-control study conducted in Golestan Province were analyzed by direct sequencing of TP53 exons 2 through 11. Immunohistochemical staining for p53 was carried out using two monoclonal antibodies, DO7 and 1801. A total of 120 TP53 mutations were detected in 107/119 cases (89.9%, including 11 patients with double or triple mutations. The mutation pattern was heterogeneous with infrequent mutations at common TP53 "hotspots" but frequent transversions potentially attributable to environmental carcinogens forming bulky DNA adducts, including 40% at bases known as site of mutagenesis by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Mutations showed different patterns according to the reported temperature of tea consumption, but no variation was observed in relation to ethnicity, tobacco or opium use, and alcoholic beverage consumption or urban versus rural residence. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: ESCC tumors in people from Golestan Province show the highest rate of TP53 mutations ever reported in any cancer anywhere. The heterogeneous mutation pattern is highly suggestive of a causative role for multiple environmental carcinogens, including PAHs. The temperature and composition of tea may also influence mutagenesis.

  20. Serological investigation for hepatitis E virus infection in the patients with chronic maintenance hemodialysis from southwest of Iran

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    Omid R Zekavat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: A global distribution has been shown for hepatitis E virus (HEV infection. Although the fecal-oral was considered as the primary infection route, there is controversial evidence for increased risk of the infection and consequent problems in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (HD with suppressed immunity. The aim is to find if the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG, in patients with maintenance HD is higher than normal population in southwest of Iran. Materials and Methods: During November and December 2010, in a cross-sectional study we compared the seroprevalence of HEV among 80 patients with maintenance HD and 276 healthy individuals from Jahrom and Shiraz, Southwest of Iran. In addition to the clinical and laboratory records, serum samples were tested for the presence of IgG anti-HEV antibody by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA test. The Chi-square, the Student′s ′t′ and Fisher′s exact tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: ELISA tests detected anti-HEV antibody in five males of the patients (6.3% and in eight of the healthy controls (2.9%, 6 males and 2 female which statistically were not different. The mean levels of the aspartate aminotransferase and the alanine aminotransferase in the sera of the patients were 19.96±11.08U/L and 23.93±14.26 IU/L, respectively. However, no one of the individuals with positive anti-HEV antibody showed elevated liver enzymes. Moreover, there was not a significant association between positive anti-HEV antibody result, age and the history of the hemodialysis. Conclusions: We did not observe statistically significant higher anti-HEV prevalence among patients with chronic HD; however, more safety precaution is needed to keep HD patients from the risk of possible exposure to HEV infection.

  1. Testing the Law of One Price under Nonlinearity for Egg Market of Selected Provinces of Iran

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    M. Ghahremanzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Regarding to the ever-increasing consumption of egg and consequently enhancement of its production during recent years, consideration to this output's market integration has special importance. Considering the fact that information on market integration may provide specific evidence as to the competitiveness of market, the effectiveness of arbitrage and the efficiency of pricing could be, likewise, useful to guide subsequent interventions aimed at improving the performance of market. In this context, in present study, validity of Law of One Price (LOP will be tested in the egg market and among selected provinces. Materials and Methods: Nonlinearity naturally extracted from local market due to existence of transportation and other transaction costs, so common cointegration test results are not suitable for market integration. In this study, at first, for being sure that series follow nonlinear behavior, Luukkonen et al. (1988 and BDS nonlinearity tests were used. Then for testing Law of One price in the egg market, nonlinear unit root test proposed by Emmanouilides and Fousekis (2012, which is an auxiliary regression for ESTAR model, was used. The data are daily retail prices of egg with the sample period ranging from April 2006 to march 2014 for north-west provinces of Iran including West Azerbaijan, East Azerbaijan, Ardebil, Tehran and Zanjan, which were obtained from State Live Stock Affairs Logistics Incorporated Company. Results and Discussion: Based on the DF-GLS unit root test, the null hypothesis of unit root for egg price differentials was rejected. So, all series of price differentials are stationary. In the next step nonlinearity of price differentials of egg between two provinces was examined. In BDS test, at the beginning, an ARMA model was estimated then the test was carried out to the residual of estimated model with embedding dimension (m 2-8 and the dimensional distance (ε chosen equals to 0.5 and 2 times of

  2. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

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    Shahram Khademvatan

    Full Text Available Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%. T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34% of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  3. HIV Programs in Iran (Persia), Iraq and Saudi Arabia: A Brief Review of Current Evidence in West and Southwest Asia.

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    Massah, Omid; Moradi, Afsaneh; Farhoudian, Ali; Amini-Lari, Mahmood; Joulaei, Hassan; Daneshmand, Reza

    2016-07-01

    In Western and Southwest Asia, literature is not documented on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) programs in Iran, Iraq and Saudi Arabia. The present study is the first brief review that describes HIV programs in these three neighboring countries. Data regarding the evidence of HIV programs were gathered through a systematic literature searching. English publications were retrieved through searching online scientific databases. Grey literature was also searched online. The review was based on the studies related to the last decade. Systematic searching resulted in retrieving 21,948 studies but only 21 studies were relevant to the study aim. The review findings indicated that Iran has provided a nationwide sero-surveillance data system and has identified its key populations. Detecting HIV prevalence has been limited to case-finding in Iraq and Saudi Arabia. However, strategic plans for HIV have been provided in the three countries. HIV education, knowledge and support have been provided but still needs consideration in the three countries especially in Iraq. The low coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has remained a critical gap in the provision of comprehensive HIV programs in these three countries. This issue has been followed by the lack of opiate substitution therapies for drug dependents and injecting drug users in Iraq and Saudi Arabia. Condom promotion and voluntary HIV counselling and testing have been provided for at-risk groups in the three countries but need more nationwide coverages. However, needle and syringe programs (NSPs) have been only provided in Iran. The review concluded that the provision of effective HIV programs should address training human resources and infrastructural development. This issue should be facilitated by international collaborations and governmental supports.

  4. Seroprevalence of Human Fasciolosis in a New-Emerging Focus of Fasciolosis in Yasuj District, Southwest of Iran

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    AA Moshfea

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fasciolosis is an important health and veterinary problem in Iran. The epidemiological pattern of disease has been changed markedly in recent years and there are regions that have potent capacity to be new focus of the disease. One of these areas is Yasuj district in southwest of Iran where animal fasciolosis has been quite common. The current study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of human fasciolosis in this area and to reveal the epidemiological factors associated with the spreading of the disease in this region.Methods: One thousand blood samples were randomly collected from five villages in Yasuj district. ELISA, using Fasciola somatic antigen (SA, was carried out to detect anti Fasciola antibodies in the collected sera.Results: Anti-Fasciola antibodies were detected in serum of 18(1.86% individuals by ELISA. Out of 18 seropositive people, 9 (0.9 were female and 9 (0.9% were male. Most of people (99.8% had a history of consuming wild freshwater plants mainly Nasturtium microphyllum (local name Bakaloo and/or Mentha logifolia (local name Pooneh. No significant correlation was found between seropositiv­ity to fasciolosis and sex, age, history of consumption of green leafy aquatic plants whe­reas correlation between seropositivity and abdominal pain was significant (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Results of this study showed that the seroprevalence rate of human fasciolosis in Yasuj district is relatively high and this area can be considered as a new emerging focus of the disease in Iran.

  5. Identification of viruses infecting cucurbits and determination of genetic diversity of Cucumber mosaic virus in Lorestan province, Iran

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    Hasanvand Vahid

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Various viral pathogens infect Cucurbitaceae and cause economic losses. The aim of the present study was to detect plant viral pathogens including Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV, Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV, Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV and Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV in Lorestan province, in western Iran, and also to determine CMV genetic diversity in Iranian populations. A total of 569 symptomatic leaf samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 from cucurbits growing regions in Lorestan province. The collected samples were assessed for viral diseases by ELISA. The results showed virus incidences in most regions. Then, the infection of 40 samples to CMV was confirmed by RT-PCR. Moreover, to distinguish between the two groups (I and II of CMV, PCR products were digested by two restriction enzymes XhoI and EcoRI. Results of the digestion showed that the isolates of Lorestan belonged to group I. The CMV-coat protein gene of eight isolates from different regions and hosts was sequenced and phylogenetic analysis was performed. Subsequent analyses showed even more genetic variation among Lorestan isolates. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Lorestan province isolates belonged to two IA and IB subgroups and could be classified together with East Azerbaijan province isolates. The results of the present study indicate a wide distribution of CMV, ZYMV, CGMMV, CYSDV and CCYV viruses in cucurbits fields of Lorestan province and for the first time subgroup IB of CMV was reported on melon from Iran.

  6. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores in Razavi Khorasan province, Iran using mitochondrial DNA.

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    Molouk Beiromvand

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Echinococcus multilocularis is the source of alveolar echinococcosis, a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. This investigation assessed the presence of E. multilocularis infection in definitive hosts in the Chenaran region of Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from 77 domestic and stray dogs and 14 wild carnivores were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. The intestinal scraping technique (IST and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT revealed adult Echinococcus in the intestines of five of 10 jackals and of the single wolf examined. Three jackals were infected only with E. multilocularis but two, and the wolf, were infected with both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. Multiplex PCR revealed E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, and Taenia spp. in 19, 24, and 28 fecal samples, respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis infection was detected in the feces of all wild carnivores sampled including nine jackals, three foxes, one wolf, one hyena, and five dogs (6.5%. Echinococcus granulosus was found in the fecal samples of 16.9% of dogs, 66.7% of jackals, and all of the foxes, the wolf, and the hyena. The feces of 16 (21.8% dogs, 7 of 9 (77.8% jackals, and all three foxes, one wolf and one hyena were infected with Taenia spp. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of E. multilocularis in wild carnivores of rural areas of the Chenaran region is high, indicating that the life cycle is being maintained in northeastern Iran with the red fox, jackal, wolf, hyena, and dog as definitive hosts.

  7. Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in Carnivores in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran Using Mitochondrial DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiromvand, Molouk; Akhlaghi, Lame; Fattahi Massom, Seyed Hossein; Mobedi, Iraj; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Oormazdi, Hormozd; Motevalian, Abbas; Razmjou, Elham

    2011-01-01

    Background Echinococcus multilocularis is the source of alveolar echinococcosis, a potentially fatal zoonotic disease. This investigation assessed the presence of E. multilocularis infection in definitive hosts in the Chenaran region of Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples from 77 domestic and stray dogs and 14 wild carnivores were examined using the flotation/sieving method followed by multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. The intestinal scraping technique (IST) and the sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) revealed adult Echinococcus in the intestines of five of 10 jackals and of the single wolf examined. Three jackals were infected only with E. multilocularis but two, and the wolf, were infected with both E. multilocularis and E. granulosus. Multiplex PCR revealed E. multilocularis, E. granulosus, and Taenia spp. in 19, 24, and 28 fecal samples, respectively. Echinococcus multilocularis infection was detected in the feces of all wild carnivores sampled including nine jackals, three foxes, one wolf, one hyena, and five dogs (6.5%). Echinococcus granulosus was found in the fecal samples of 16.9% of dogs, 66.7% of jackals, and all of the foxes, the wolf, and the hyena. The feces of 16 (21.8%) dogs, 7 of 9 (77.8%) jackals, and all three foxes, one wolf and one hyena were infected with Taenia spp. Conclusions/Significance The prevalence of E. multilocularis in wild carnivores of rural areas of the Chenaran region is high, indicating that the life cycle is being maintained in northeastern Iran with the red fox, jackal, wolf, hyena, and dog as definitive hosts. PMID:22132245

  8. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Kermanshah Province, Iran

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    Roghieh Moghaddam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Rapid diagnosis of the disease and identification of species is extremely important for proper treatment of the disease as some species of the complex are resistant to the first-line of tuberculosis drugs. The aim of present study was molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB complex isolates from Kermanshah Province, Iran, which were submitted to the Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (Tehran, Iran. To identify the genus Mycobacterium, all isolates were subjected to 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR, and PCR-IS6110 was subsequently used to confirm that the isolates belonged to MTB complex. Finally, region of difference (RD typing was used to identify the species in the complex. The results of 16S rRNA and IS6110 PCR analysis showed the presence of 543-bp and 245-bp bands, respectively. Furthermore, 146bp, 172bp, 235bp, and 369bp at RD1, RD4, RD9, and RD12, respectively, were observed during RD typing. Thus, based on the results, all isolates were identified as MTB. It is worth mentioning that most tuberculosis cases are identified on the basis of acid-fast bacilli detection, and antibiotic therapy is immediately initiated subsequently. Moreover, it should be noted that some of these acid-fast positive cases might not be of genus Mycobacterium, and thus, the antibiotics prescribed might threaten the health of the patients. Additionally, if the identified bacilli are not within MTB complex, the drug therapy would differ. However, Mycobacterium bovis, which is a member of MTB complex and is resistant to pyrazinamide, requires exact strain identification. Based on the findings, individual isolates should be identified by RD typing methods, which could clearly discriminate the species from each other.

  9. The Incidence of Onychomycosis Infection among Patients Referred to Hospitals in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

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    Mikaeili, Ali; Karimi, Isaac

    2013-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a nail disorder associated with aesthetic problems, discomfort, physical injury and loss of dexterity. The purpose of the present study was to isolate and identify the causative fungi of onychomycosis in 2402 patients in Kermanshah Province, western Iran in 1994 to 2010. Mycologic assessment was carried out by standard methods including either microscopic or cultural procedures. Direct microscopy of the nail clips was positive in 1086 (45.2%) and fingernail and toenail onychomycoses were recognized in 773 (71.1%) and 313 (28.8%), respectively. Yeasts were detected in 853 (78.5%), dermatophytes in 201 (18.5%) and non-dermatophyte fungi in 32 (2.9%) patients. The results of fungal culture showed Candida albicans isolated in 384 (45.0%) and other Candida spp. isolated in 361 (54.0%) of the cases as the most common agents of onychomycosis while among dermatophytes, Trichophyton rubrum was found in 63 (37.0%) of the cases as the main dermatophytic agent followed by T. mentagrophytes 32 (15.9%) and Epidermophyton flocosum 30 (17.6%). Among the non-dermatophyte moulds, Aspergillus flavus was the most prevalent species 12 (37.5%) followed by A. niger 8 (25.0%) and A. fumigatus 4 (12.5%). Moreover, 139 (12.8%) samples with positive direct microscopy yielded no growth. The highest rate of onychomycosis was found in patients between 30-40 years of age. In sum, the current results identified the aetiological agents and primary epidemiological aspects of onychomycosis in west Iran.

  10. Molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Roghieh; Mosavari, Nader; Mahalati, Ardeshir Hesampoor

    2016-12-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases in the world. Rapid diagnosis of the disease and identification of species is extremely important for proper treatment of the disease as some species of the complex are resistant to the first-line of tuberculosis drugs. The aim of present study was molecular identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) complex isolates from Kermanshah Province, Iran, which were submitted to the Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory at Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (Tehran, Iran). To identify the genus Mycobacterium, all isolates were subjected to 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and PCR-IS6110 was subsequently used to confirm that the isolates belonged to MTB complex. Finally, region of difference (RD) typing was used to identify the species in the complex. The results of 16S rRNA and IS6110 PCR analysis showed the presence of 543-bp and 245-bp bands, respectively. Furthermore, 146bp, 172bp, 235bp, and 369bp at RD1, RD4, RD9, and RD12, respectively, were observed during RD typing. Thus, based on the results, all isolates were identified as MTB. It is worth mentioning that most tuberculosis cases are identified on the basis of acid-fast bacilli detection, and antibiotic therapy is immediately initiated subsequently. Moreover, it should be noted that some of these acid-fast positive cases might not be of genus Mycobacterium, and thus, the antibiotics prescribed might threaten the health of the patients. Additionally, if the identified bacilli are not within MTB complex, the drug therapy would differ. However, Mycobacterium bovis, which is a member of MTB complex and is resistant to pyrazinamide, requires exact strain identification. Based on the findings, individual isolates should be identified by RD typing methods, which could clearly discriminate the species from each other. Copyright © 2016.

  11. Fish assemblages as influenced by environmental factors in Taleghan River (the Caspian Sea basin, Alborz Province, Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani Faradonbe, M.; Eagderi, S.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between some habitat factors and fish assemblage was analyzed in the Taleghan River, Alborz Province, Iran. Fish specimens from thirty-three sites were sampled by electrofishing device in October 2014. The habitat parameters, including elevation (m), water depth (cm), river width (m), river slope (%), current velocity (m.s -1), number of large stone (> 15 cm), average stone diameter (cm), substrate index (SI%), level of potamal cover, level of periphyton cover, pH, electrical...

  12. Acute Flaccid Paralysis and Its Differential Diagnosis in in Kurdistan Province, Western Iran; an 11-Year Surveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Soltani, Jafar; Esmailnasab, Nader; Roshani, Daem; Karimi, Mohamad; Amjadi, Mohamad-Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective The surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy for monitoring the progress of poliomyelitis eradication and is a sensitive measure for detecting potential cases of poliomyelitis and poliovirus infection. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of patients reported with AFP, and to evaluate the performance of the surveillance system in Kurdistan province, western Iran, using indicators recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). ...

  13. Analysis tourism potentials of Kermanshah province, Iran, in GIS environment: a case of study intensive and extensive ecotourism

    OpenAIRE

    D. Yarahmadi; P. Gholami

    2014-01-01

    Kermanshah province of Iran , with unique features such specific animal and plant species, very suitable climate , roaring waterfalls and etc. currently, as a ecotourism region is used by so Many people And has the capacity to become an ecotourism zone in  the country. In this research for feasibility of ecotourism development in mentioned area, first in the identification process, ecologically sustainable sources including vegetation cover, soil, geology and geomorphology has been identified...

  14. Correlation between Fluoride in Drinking Water and Its Levels in Breast Milk in Golestan Province, Northern Iran.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Faraji; Ali Akbar Mohammadi; Behrouz Akbari-Adergani; Naimeh Vakili Saatloo; Gholamreza Lashkarboloki; Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fluoride is an essential element for human health. However, excess fluoride in drinking water may cause dental and/or skeletal fluorosis. Drinking water is the main route of fluoride intake. The aim of the present study was to measure fluoride levels in human breast milk collected from two regions of Golestan Province, northern Iran with different amount of fluoride concentration of drinking water in Bandar Gaz and Nokande cities and to correlate it with fluoride concentrations in...

  15. Prevalence, Demographics and Clinical Characteristics of Multiple Sclerosis in North of Khuzestan Province, Iran

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    Radmehr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, idiopathic and the most common inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that progresses to severe disability. Prevalence of MS is 2 - 150 per 100,000 people. The main cause of the disease is not clear and occurs due to a combination of both genetic and environmental factors. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of MS in the northern cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran, as well as to determine the demographic characteristics, initial symptoms at onset, clinical features and the correlation between the above factors with each other. Patients and Methods In this descriptive correlational study, patients were recruited through the MS Society as well as the neurology clinics and departments of hospitals in north cities of Khuzestan Province (Iran. Data were collected through completing a face to face questionnaire and were analyzed using SPSS version 17 and the chi-square test. P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significance. Results A total of 142 patients were participated in this study. Prevalence of MS was 15 per 100,000 people. Seventy-eight percent of the patients had low literacy, and 81% were unemployed. Female to male ratio was 2.08: 1 that became less in younger patients. 69% and 15% of the patients were relapsing remitting and progressive relapsing, respectively. Demographic characteristics of the patients did not show any statistically significant relationship with clinical courses and signs at onset; however, a significant correlation was seen between severe disability and sex (P = 0.001 as well as between severe disability and progressive-relapsing subtype (P = 0.02. Conclusions The prevalence of MS showed an increasing rate of the disease in recent years. Decreasing of the female to male ratio and patients’ low socio-economic level, need more studies. The increasing rate of patients with progressive relapsing feature

  16. A Yearlong Epidemiologic Study on Unintentional Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Fars Province, Southwest Iran

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    Alireza Mirahmadizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Generally, the incidence and fatality rate of CO poisoning in the current study were comparable to those of the world statistics, but higher than in developed counties. Attention and emphasis on the safety of gas heaters, stoves, and other gas-powered appliances in residential places should be enforced.

  17. Hygienic Quality of traditional and industrial yoghurt produced in Qazvin province of Iran

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    Peyman Qajarbeygi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Because of yoghurt is a particular flavor (caused by diacetyl and appropriate essential oils (from Atanal as well as enjoy the soft tissue, it is considered as one of the most palatable dairy products. With regards to the yoghurt portion in supplement of protein food needs in our society, it is necessary to ensure its health. In this research the hygienic quality of traditional yoghurt (no licensed and industrial yoghurt (licensed during hot and cold seasons (2015-2016 was evaluated. The samples collected from distributed yoghurt in Qazvin province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, distributed yoghurt in Qazvin province has formed our statistical society. A total of 95 samples hand-picked during hot and cold seasons randomly. Samples were transferred at 4 °C to the laboratory. The microbiological characteristics of the samples were evaluated in accordance with ISIRI 695. Searching for E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus and also coliforms counting were done according to national standards (ISIRI 5234; ISIRI 6806; ISIRI 5486 by Lauryl Sulfate broth and EC broth, Baird-Parker agar, VRBL agar and Brilliant Green Bile Lactose broth. The YGC agar medium was used for count of fungi (molds and yeasts. Results: Microbial count showed a significant difference between the traditional and industrial yoghurt samples at the levels which were considered significantly different at P< 0.05. The result showed that traditional yoghurt samples are highly contaminated with microbes than industrial ones and within traditional yoghurt samples; There was a noteworthy difference on the fungi totals at warm seasons. Conclusions: Results have shown that microbial load increase in traditional yoghurt during summer, noticeably. It can indicate poor health conditions in the units, failure to maintain cold chain and inadequate training for vendors dairy products.

  18. Simulation of Saline Groundwater Resources Surrounding Salt Lake in Fars Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayyat Kholghi, Majid; Bastani, Mehrdad; Rakhshandeoroo, Gholamreza

    2010-05-01

    One of the most salty lakes in Iran is located in North-East of Fars province with Electrical Conductivities (EC) of up to 61420 μmhos/cm where water supply depends severely on groundwater resources. Increasing demand for freshwater and overexploitation of the aquifer has caused a drawdown in groundwater levels followed by a seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer in the vicinity of salt lake. Because of invalid appropriate groundwater flow and solute transport parameter values of the coastal system, studying and modelling of saltwater intrusion in this region is in some way complicated. These unknown parameters are consisted of hydraulic conductivity, porosity, specific storage coefficient and longitudinal dispersivity. In this research, it is tried to facilitate study this problem by means of SEAWAT code, which is suitable for variable-density groundwater flow modelling. In the process of calibrating the simulation and estimating the required unknown parameters, an attempt at inverse modelling of a seawater intrusion system is made by using genetic algorithm method as the optimization procedure. The auto-calibration objective function is defined with the root mean square errors (RMSE) between the observed and the simulated values. The observed data are consisted of both hydraulic heads and concentrations obtained from observation wells. Firstly, the SEAWAT code has been used for forward solution part of salt water intrusion phenomena and then a program is written in MATLAB for coupling the forward and inverse processes. In the developed code, the flow and transport parameters are estimated simultaneously in steady and transient states. Using these estimated parameters in the structure of the simulation consequences more accurate results and more trustable model for next applications in management of the coastal aquifer. Key words seawater intrusion; saline groundwater resources; SEAWAT; genetic algorithm; Fars province

  19. The Frequency of HBB Mutations Among β-Thalassemia Patients in Hamadan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilian, Masoumeh; Azizi Jalilian, Farid; Ahmadi, Leila; Amini, Razieh; Esfehani, Hossein; Sosanian, Maryam; Rabbani, Bahareh; Maleki, Majid; Mahdieh, Nejat

    2017-01-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-thal) caused by mutations on the HBB gene is the most common single-gene disorder in the world. In this study, the HBB gene mutation was investigated in Hamadan province, Iran. Forty-one patients referred to a referral hospital were admitted to the study. DNA samples were extracted from peripheral blood. The HBB gene was sequenced in all recruited patients. Eleven mutations and eight polymorphisms were found in the studied patients. IVS-II-1 (G>A) (HBB: c.315+1 G>A) was the most common mutation, accounting for 25.61% of mutant alleles. Other mutations included codon 8 (-AA) (HBB: c.25-26delAA); IVS-I-110 (G>A) (HBB: c.93-21 G>A); codons 8/9 (+G) (HBB: c.27-28insG); IVS-I-1 (G>A) (HBB: c.92 G>A); codon 44 (-C) (HBB: c.135delC); codons 25/26 (+T) (HBB: c.78-79insT); IVS-I-130 (G>C) (HBB: c.93-1 G>C); -28 (A>C) (HBB: c.-78 A>C); codons 36/37 (-T) (HBB: c.112delT) and IVS-I-6 (T>C) (HBB: c.92+6 T>C). According to our findings, the IVS-II-1 mutation has the highest prevalence in Hamadan Province. It was found that the total frequency of the IVS-II-1, codons 25/26 (+T), codons 8/9 (+G), IVS-I-110 and IVS-I-1 mutations was 82.92%. Therefore, given these findings, it is recommended that these five mutations are screened for as a first step in laboratories without sequencing instruments, and that the rest of the gene is subsequently examined.

  20. Patterns of Psychotropic Medication Prescriptions by Psychiatrists for Private Clinic Outpatients in Kerman Province, Iran

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    Abdolreza Sabahi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the pattern and utilisation of psychotropic drug prescriptions by psychiatrists in Kerman Province, Iran. Methods: The prescriptions of 27 psychiatrists were randomly selected from two Iranian public insurance organisations and were analysed for the mean number of drugs/prescriptions, drug category and the most frequently prescribed drug in each category as well as overall. Results: A total of 6,414 prescriptions were analysed. The mean number of drugs per prescription was 2.9. Antidepressants (61.0% were the most frequently prescribed category of psychotropic medications, followed by antipsychotics (29.5%, sedative/hypnotics or anti-anxiety drugs (27.5% and mood stabilisers (18.5%. The combination of antidepressants with antipsychotics was the most commonly prescribed combination (18.8%. Fluoxetine (16.5% and trifluoperazine (13.5% were among the most frequently prescribed antidepressants and antipsychotics, respectively. Clonazepam (10.5% was the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepine agent, followed by alprazolam (8.5%. In terms of total drug utilisation, sertraline (12.4% was the most commonly used psychotropic medication followed by fluoxetine (9.7%, trifluoperazine (6.6%, propranolol (4.5% and clonazepam (3.7%. Conclusion: A high proportion of psychotropic prescriptions in Kerman Province were for antidepressants, followed by antipsychotics and the benzodiazepines. Further research is needed to determine the underlying correlation between prescription practice and the diagnosis and patient characteristics, as well as to investigate the use of different psychotropic medications.

  1. Quality Control of Conventional Radiology Devices in Selected Hospitals of Khuzestan Province, Iran

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    Behrouz Rasuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Quality control techniques used to test the components of the radiological system and verify that the equipment is operating satisfactorily. In this study, quality control (QC assessment of conventional radiology devices was performed in frequently visited radiology centers of Khuzestan province, Iran. Materials and Methods Fifteen conventional radiology devices were examined, based on the protocol proposed in Report No. 77 by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM. Ten standard QC tests, including voltage accuracy and reproducibility, exposure time accuracy and reproducibility, tube output linearity (time and milliampere, filtration (half-value layer, tube output (70 kV at FSD =100 cm, tube output reproducibility and beam alignment were performed and assessed. All measurements were performed, using Barracuda multi-purpose detector. Results The reproducibility of voltage, exposure time and dose output, as well as output linearity, met the standard criteria in all devices. However, in 60% of the units, the results of the beam alignment test were poor. We also found that 66.7% of the studied units offer services to more than 18,000 patients annually or 50 patients per day. Conclusion Despite the fact that radiological devices in Khuzestan province are relatively old with high workload, the obtained results showed that these devices met the standard criteria. This may be mainly related to proper after-sale services, provided by the companies. Although these services may be expensive for radiology centers, the costs may be significantly reduced if QC is defined as a routine procedure performed by qualified medical physicists or radiation safety officers.

  2. Quality Control of Conventional Radiology Devices in Selected Hospitals of Khuzestan Province, Iran

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    Behrouz Rasuli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Quality control techniques used to test the components of the radiological system and verify that the equipment is operating satisfactorily. In this study, quality control (QC assessment of conventional radiology devices was performed in frequently visited radiology centers of Khuzestan province, Iran. Materials and Methods Fifteen conventional radiology devices were examined, based on the protocol proposed in Report No. 77 by the Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine (IPEM. Ten standard QC tests, including voltage accuracy and reproducibility, exposure time accuracy and reproducibility, tube output linearity (time and milliampere, filtration (half-value layer, tube output (70 kV at FSD =100 cm, tube output reproducibility and beam alignment were performed and assessed. All measurements were performed, using Barracuda multi-purpose detector. Results Thereproducibility of voltage, exposure time and dose output, as well as output linearity, met the standard criteria in all devices. However, in 60% of the units, the results of the beam alignment test were poor. We also found that 66.7% of the studied units offer services to more than 18,000 patients annually or 50 patients per day. Conclusion Despite the fact that radiological devices in Khuzestan province are relatively old with high workload, the obtained results showed that these devices met the standard criteria. This may be mainly related to proper after-sale services, provided by the companies. Although these services may be expensive for radiology centers, the costs may be significantly reduced if QC is defined as a routine procedure performed by qualified medical physicists or radiation safety officers.

  3. The Identification and Prioritization of Effective Factors in Attracting Health Tourists to Kermanshah Province-West of Iran

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    Saeed Khani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​Background and objectives : Health tourism has drastically grown during the last decade as a form of specialized tourism. The development of this industry in Iran and Kermanshah requires attention to important factors such as marketing techniques, the performance of organizations and the surrounding environment situation. This study was designed and conducted to identify effective factors in attracting health tourists to Kermanshah Province. Material and Methods : In this descriptive-analytical research, the opinions of 70 major experts involved in health tourism of Kermanshah province were investigated using a researcher-made questionnaire in 2011. Descriptive statistical methods, diagrams, tables and SPSS Version 18 were used to display and analyze the data. Results : Cumulative frequency of responses with “much” and “very much” to the questions related to hypothesis one (the performance of the organizations related to health tourist attraction to the province, hypothesis two (marketing mix with health tourists to the province and hypothesis three (the situation of surrounding environment of the province were 95.%, 98.%, and 94.3 %, respectively. Thus, marketing factors, the performance of related organizations and the surrounding environment situation of the province are respectively the priorities in the prioritization among these three hypotheses. These findings are nearly in a similar line with several recent findings in Iran and the world. Conclusion : The prioritization of the mentioned factors in the hypotheses showed that effort for the development of the factors related to marketing mix should be placed in the highest priority in comparison with the other factors in Kermanshah province.

  4. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Nasrin; Razmjou, Elham; Hashemi-Hafshejani, Saeideh; Motevalian, Abbas; Akhlaghi, Lameh; Meamar, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran. In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods. The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3-38). Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7-33.0). The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli , Giardia intestinalis , Dientamoeba fragilis , Iodamoeba butschlii , Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite , Chilomastix mesnilii , and Enterobius vermicularis . Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii . E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections. This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population.

  5. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

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    Zohreh Mashak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 chicken sandwich samples (chicken sausage, chicken fillet, minced chicken fillet were purchased from different supermarkets in Tehran city randomly during 2013 and transported to the laboratory of food hygiene of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch under temperature-controlled conditions for bacteriological examination by American Public Health Association (APHA method. Results: The average count ± standard error (and percent of unacceptable samples of S. aureus, B. cereus and Coliform were 1.6 ± 0.56 (28%, 2.0 ± 0.62 (10%, 4.2 ± 1.12 (50% CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were identified in 21% of chicken sandwich samples. Conclusions: The large number of foodborne pathogens detected in this study, represented a potential health hazard to consumers. Thus, it is necessary to employ Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in order to minimize the risk caused by secondary contamination.

  6. The Seasonal Activity of Ixodes ricinus Tick in Amol, Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    Nasrollah Vahedi-Noori

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to demonstrate the seasonal activities of Ixodes ricinus at the pasture level and on the host.Methods: A vast pasture in Amol countryside (Mazandaran Province, Iran which had the potential for a considerablenumber of cattle and sheep to graze was chosen. Tick sampling from the skin of 130 cattle and 130 sheep were collected every month interval. Simultaneously, the activity of the different stages of I. ricinus on the pasture was considered by dragging method. The collected ticks were placed in jars containing 70% alcohol and sent to the parasitological laboratory for identification.Results: The rate of the infestation with adult I. ricinus in cattle and sheep increases gradually with the beginning offall and reaches its peak in January, February and March while it starts to decline with the beginning of spring as theinfestation rate reach to zero in summer months. Accordingly, the highest number of adult I. ricinus existed on the cattle during January, February, and March. In addition, the results of dragging have been revealed that the active tick population in the pasture exists during November, December, January, and March.Conclusion: Ixodes ricinus is regarded a common tick species in Amol (Mazandaran. Due to the biological properties of I. ricinus which is active in the cold and humid months of the year, the prevalence of ruminant infestations with I. ricinus in this area increases from November to March but reaches to zero again with thebeginning of summer.

  7. Evaluation of dietary Intake and Food Patterns of Adolescent Girls in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, Iran

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    Farzaneh Montazerifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The evidence suggests a relationship between lifestyle and diet-related risk factors.Objective: This study assessed the dietary intake and habits of high school girls in Sistan and Bluchistan province, in southeastern Iran.Methods: In a cross-sectional, descriptive study, 753 high school girls aged 14-18 years old wereenrolled by a clustered random sampling method. Dietary intake and food habits were evaluatedby a two-day, 24-hour dietary recall, and a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ.Results: The analysis of dietary intakes showed that energy, calcium, zinc, vitamin C and folate intake, compared to the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI, were found to be lower. The, infrequent intake of milk and dairy products, fruits and vegetables, and a high consumption of empty calorie foods e.g. salty snacks, sweets, soft drinks and junk foods were seen among adolescents.Conclusions: The adolescent girls had an improper dietary intake and food habits. Thus, the implementation of nutrition education programs in schools and the designing of proper patternstowards healthier food choices could help improve eating behaviors, the health maintenance of adolescents, and also prevent diet- related diseases in adulthood.

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for subclinical coccidiosis in broiler chicken farms in Mazandaran province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Mohammad Reza; Seifi, Saeed; Gheisari, Hamid Reza; Hachesoo, Bahman Abdi; Habibi, Hasan; Bujmehrani, Hossein

    2011-12-01

    Coccidiosis is a disease of almost universal importance in Poultry production. The subclinical form of coccidiosis has most significant economic impact due to impaired growth rate and feed conversion. Some factors such as: age, size of flock, season, etc., may effect on severity of this disease. In this study, the relationships between some major risk factors and prevalence of subclinical coccidiosis were investigated. This study was done in 120 broiler farms in five different cities of Mazandaran province, north of Iran. Five chicks (3-8 weeks of ages) were taken randomly from every 120 farms and post-mortem and parasitological examinations were performed. Five Eimeria spp. were recognized: Eimeria tenella, Eimeria maxima, Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria brunetti, and Eimeria necatrix. The prevalence rate of subclinical coccidiosis among them is 75% (90 farms out of 120). E. acervulina was the most prevalent species (65.5%) followed by E. maxima (17.7%), E. tenella (15.5%), E. brunetti (10%), and E. necatrix (5.5%). According to what the results approve, the occurrence of subclinical coccidiosis is significantly related to the age and size of flock, whereas the other factors such as the season of year, industrial strains, chicken's keeping system, and anticoccidial drugs do not affect this phenomenon remarkably.

  9. Isolation of Free-Living Amoebae from Sarein Hot Springs in Ardebil Province, Iran

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    A Badirzadeh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free-living amoebae (FLA are a group of ubiquitous protozoan, which are distrib­uted in the natural and artificial environment sources. The main aim of the current study was to identify the presence of FLA in the recreational hot springs of Sarein in Ardebil Province of Iran.Methods: Seven recreational hot springs were selected in Sarein City and 28 water samples (four from each hot spring were collected using 500 ml sterile plastic bottles during three month. Filtra­tion of water samples was performed, and culture was done in non-nutrient agar medium enriched with Escherichia coli. Identification of the FLA was based on morphological criteria of cysts and trophozoites. Genotype identification of Acanthamoeba positive samples were also per­formed using sequencing based method.Results: Overall, 12 out of 28 (42.9% samples were positive for FLA which Acanthamoeba and Vahlkampfiid amoebae were found in one (3.6% and 11 (39.3% samples, respectively. Se­quence analysis of the single isolate of Acanthamoeba revealed potentially pathogenic T4 geno­type corresponding to A. castellanii.Conclusion: Contamination of hot springs to FLA, such as Acanthamoeba T4 genotype (A. castel­lanii and Vahlkampfiid amoebae, could present a sanitary risk for high risk people, and health authorities must be aware of FLA presence.

  10. Nutritional intervention on malnutrition in 3-6 years old rural children in Qazvin Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshy, R; Noroozi, M; Jahanihashemi, H; Kiamiri, D

    2012-04-01

    Malnutrition is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in children. Not only include acute effects on children's health, but also it has long-term effects on their cognitive development and economic growth in the society. Wasting (weight for height with Zmalnutrition indices in children. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a cooked meal for 175 days on the anthropometric indices of weight, height and weight for height (wasting) of 3-6 years old children in all the rural nursery of Qazvin province, in Iran. In this interventional study, 2385 children (48.8% female and 51.2% male) were recruited. Data were collected by a census in 2010. The children were received a cooked meal based on 360 +/- 20 kcal energy, 17% protein, 53% carbohydrate and 30% fat per day for 175 days at lunch time. The anthropometric indices were collected before and after the intervention. The results were analyzed using paired t-test by SPSS V.16 software. Prevalence of wasting (mild and moderate) and (sever malnutrition) after intervention reduced from 14.2 and 0.95-12.6 and 0.5%, respectively (p children (p children.

  11. A socio-economic evaluation of a protected area - A case study: Hamadan province, Iran

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    Moradpanah Haniyeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the socio-economic issues of a protected area and participation of the local stakeholders in conservation of the protected area. This study was conducted at 7 villages in Hamedan province in the midwest part of Iran. A questionnaire was used for data collection. Reliability of the data was determined by Cronbach's alpha. In order to investigate the relationship between the average incomes of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level, there were significant differences between most villages. Furthermore, the results indicated that there was no significant relationship between mean income of Jara and Saadat Abad villages. In order to investigate the interest for the preservation of different villages, a t-statistic test was used. Results indicated that at the 0.05 significance level of, there were significant differences between Shademaneh and Maloosan, Siyah Dare and Gheshlagh Najaf, Shademaneh and Taemeh, Taemeh and Gheshlagh Najaf villages. Results also showed that the Maloosan village has the highest income in the area and willingness to participate in conservation activities was highest at this village. The results of this study show a new approach to the protection of biodiversity of protected areas with connection to economic, biological and humanistic studies.

  12. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

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    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  13. Absence of Asymptomatic Malaria Infection in Endemic Area of Bashagard District, Hormozgan Province, Iran

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    H Khazan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: A successful malaria elimination program calls for enough attention to parasite carri­ers, especially asymptomatic malaria, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of clinical cases. Asymptomatic malaria is an infection that patients do not show any symptom; thus, these patients play critical role in the concept of an elimination program. The current investigation was con­ducted to evaluate the presence of these cases in Bashagard District, formerly a high malaria transmis­sion area in Hormozgan Province, Iran.Methods: Blood samples (n=500 were collected from symptomless individuals residing in Basha­gard to evaluate Plasmodium infection by using microscopic, serological and nested-PCR techniques.Results: Regarding the microscopic and nested-PCR analysis, no asymptomatic infection was detected among studied individuals. Totally, 1% of the studied population (5 of 500 had anti PvMSP-119-specific IgG antibody; however, only 0.2% (1 of 500 of the individuals was seroposi­tive to recombinant PfMSP-119, using ELISA.Conclusion: This study showed no asymptomatic malaria infection in the studied population; hence malaria elimination is feasible and can be successfully carried out in this region.

  14. Epidemiological study of gastrointestinal helminthes of canids in chaharmahal and bakhtiari province of iran.

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    Reza Nabavi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to describe the epidemiological aspects of gastrointestinal helminthic infections of canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari Province, the central western part of Iran.Forty nine canid species including, dogs, jackals, foxes and wolves were included in this study. The contents of their alimentary canal were inspected in order to isolate and identify the parasitic helminthes of this system. To identify the worms, the Soulsbey and Anderson identification key and light microscopy were used.Based on necropsy findings, 35 (71.4% of examined animals were infected with at least one helminth. The prevalence of identified worms was as follows: Mesocestoides lineatus (55.1%, Joyeuxiella echinorinchoides (26.5%, Taenia hydatigena (12.2%, T. multiceps (8.2%, T. ovis (2%, Dipylidium caninum (2% and Spirura spp. (2%. No significant difference was noticed between the sampling areas, age and helminth infection. Only a significant difference was observed for prevalence of T. multiceps in wolf (25%, dog (21.4%, jackal and fox (0%, respectively (P < 0.05.The canids in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari harbor several parasites that some kind of them have zoonotic importance and may pose a threat to community health specially in rural areas.

  15. Case fatality rates of different suicide methods within Ilam province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razaeian, Mohsen; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2012-01-01

    There are few diverse studies that have reported the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide, none of them are originated from developing countries. The aim of the present article is to report the case fatality rates of different methods of suicide in Ilam province of Iran. Data on 611 cases of suicide and 1807 cases of deliberate self harm (DSH) that were recorded in a comprehensive registry during 1995 through 2002 were analyzed for both genders together and for males and females, separately. For both genders together, the two most fatal methods were hanging (75.4%) and self-immolation (68.3%); for males, hanging (76.3%) and self-immolation (64.7%); and for females, firearms (75%) and hanging (73.7%), respectively. The least fatal methods for both genders together and for females and males separately were drug ingestion and cutting. The results of present study, which for the first time has reported the case fatality rates of suicide methods in a developing world, would not only help to better plan the local suicide prevention strategies and clinical assessment of suicidal cases but to shed light on overall understanding of this mysterious human phenomenon.

  16. Epidemiological Survey of Multiple Sclerosis in East-Azerbaijan Province, Iran, 2014

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    Behzad Yousefi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction and background: MS as a chronic CNS disease is very prevalent in all around the world. Its epidemiology is different region by region and most of geographical and environmental factors may play a role in its incidence. To analyze demographic characteristics of the disease we designed this study. Methods and Materials: This Survey has been conducted in East-Azerbaijan province, North-West of Iran. Prevalence of the disease has been measured using data of Committee for diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis in 2014. Age, gender and type of the disease also been investigated in this research. Independent T Test, Chi square, Pearson and Fisher exact test used to analyze data. Results: We had 2774 MS patients in 2014. 726 were male (26% and 2003 were female (73%. Mean age of males was 38±9 and mean age of females was 37.09±9. Mean age in male patients was more than in females significantly (P=0.001. We measured 73.26 prevalence per 100000 populations in East-Azerbaijan. Conclusion: Prevalence of the disease showed significant increase in 5 years compared to previous studies. Because of disease's disabilatating entity more interventional investigations are recommended to perform in preventing disease incidence or improving quality of life of sufferers and increasing their life expectancy.

  17. Salmonellosis and Related Risk Factors in Broiler Flocks in Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran

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    Saeed Seifi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of foodborne pathogens is essential to control infectious diseases; Salmonella spp. is referred to as the most common causative agent of foodborne illnesses. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica in broiler flocks in Mazandaran province, north of Iran and find the potential risk factors including: age, size of flock, strain, season, vaccination program and use of antibiotics. Materials and Methods: From March 2012 to December 2013, a total of 50 flocks were selected in slaughterhouse and 20 cloacal samples were collected from each flock. Every five samples were pooled and investigated for Salmonella spp. using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: Thirteen flocks out of 50 (26% were positive for Salmonella species. Chances of Salmonella spp. detection was higher in flocks with lower age (P = 0.41. Increasing flock population was associated with increased chance of Salmonella spp. isolation (P = 0.21. The risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks was increased when no antibiotics were given to day-old chicks. There was no significant difference (P = 0.30 in the prevalence of salmonellosis among different broiler strains. Conclusions: In the current study, six risk factors were assessed for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler flocks. Some of these factors contributed to the risk of salmonellosis in broiler flocks.

  18. A new karyotype of Calomyscus from the Khorasan Province, Iran

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    Esmaeeli Somayeh

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a new karyotype of Calomyscus from two localities of the Khorasan Province (Aghdarband, 36° 11’ 3”N, 60° 44’ 6” E and Khajemorad, 36° 8’ 5” N, 59° 41’ 58” E. Chromosomes were examined by conventional staining and C-banding techniques. The diploid chromosome number (2n and the fundamental autosomal arm number (FNa were 44 and 60 respectively. The autosomal set consisted of 12 pairs of telocentrics, 5 pairs of acrocentrics and 4 pairs of sub-metacentrics. Both heterosomes were small telocentrics. Riassunto Un nuovo cariotipo del genere Calomyscus dalla provincia di Khorasan, Iran. Si descrive un nuovo cariotipo appartenente al genere Calomyscus, scoperto in due località della provincia di Khorasan (Aghdarband, 36° 11’ 3”N, 60° 44’ 6” E e Khajemorad, 36° 8’ 5” N, 59° 41’ 58” E. I cromosomi sono stati analizzati con le tecniche standard di colorazione e bandeggio. Il numero diploide di cromosomi (2n e il numero fondamentale di bracci autosomici sono risultati pari a 44 e 60 rispettivamente. Il set di cromosomi autosomici è composto da 12 paia di telocentrici, 5 di acrocentrici e 4 di sub-metacentrici. Entrambi i cromosomi sessuali si presentano come piccoli telocentrici.

  19. Floristic study of AqDagh sanctuary in Marakan protected area: west Azarbaijan province, Iran

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    Hanieh Nafisi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AqDagh sanctuary with the area 5184.7 hectares area is one of the three sanctuaries in the Marakan protected area, in west Azarbaijan province. It is located in the semi-dry to cold semi-dry climates. In this research, 227 taxa (species, subspecies and varieties belonging to 47 families and 166 genera were identified during 2008 through 2009. Among the studied plants, 205 dicots and 21 monocots and one gymnosperm were recognized. Asteraceae (with 30 species and Lamiaceae (with 26 species were the largest families followed by Brassicaceae, Caryophylaceae and Fabaceae. Astragalus (with 9 species and Gallium (with 5 species were the most diverse genera. Twenty one endemic and 6 rare taxa plus 2 monotypic genera were identified in the studied area. In addition, 11 taxa from northwest of Iran and 29 from west Azarbaijan were reported for the first time. Therophytes (with 36.57% comprised the most dominant life form, followed by hemicryptophytes (with 27.75% in this area. From the chorological point of the view, most of the flora has been influenced by the IT (31.53% and IT-ES (27.49% elements. The highest proportion of vegetation in this area belonged to bi-tri or pluriregional elements (with 59.01%.

  20. Determination of Radionuclide Concentrations in Tea Samples Cultivated in Guilan Province, Iran

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    Zahra Poursharif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foodstuffs are known to contain natural and artificial radionuclides. Determination of radionuclide concentration is of great significance for the protection of human health. The main objective of the present study was the quantification of radionuclides in tea samples, cultivated in Guilan Province in North of Iran. Materials and Methods The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, and 137Cs in 18 tea samples were measured, using a gamma spectrometry system. In addition, radium equivalent index (Raeq and radiation hazard index (HI were calculated. ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis of the data Results The concentration of 137Cs was below the minimum detectable activity (MDA. The concentrations of 226Ra and 232Th ranged from < MDA to 0.042 and < MDA to 0.037  Bq/kg respectively. The mean concentration of 40K was 410±15  Bq/kg. Based on the findings, the concentration of 40K was significantly higher than other radionuclides (P

  1. Larval Habitat Characteristics of Mosquitoes of the Genus Culex (Diptera: Culicidae in Guilan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Azari-Hamidian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was carried out during April to December 2000 to study mosquito fauna and ecology in Guilan Prov¬ince of northern Iran. The mosquito larvae were collected by dipping method and larval habitat characteristics recorded ac¬cording to hydro-ecological features. In total, 3937 larvae of the genus Culex from 92 larval breeding sites were collected. Six spe¬cies of the genus Culex; Cx. mimeticus, Cx. pipiens, Cx. theileri, Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Cx. hortensis, and Cx. terri¬tans were identified in the province and respectively comprised 10.3%, 47.2%, 2.2%, 31%, 6.5%, and 2.8% of the samples. Most of the larvae were collected from the natural habitats (75.6% such as river edges (6.5%, riverbed pools (28.2%, rain pools (47.8%, stream edges (9.4%, grasslands (1.9%, marshes (2.8%, and hoof-prints (3.4% and others from artificial habitats (24.4% including rice fields (32.1%, irrigation channels (7.1%, wells (16.4%, discarded concrete tubes (33.1%, dis¬carded tires (11.0%, and agricultural water-storage pools (0.3%. The ecology of Cx. pipiens and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, which are the most prevalent species and potentially involved in the transmission of many pathogens to humans and domes¬ticated animals, must be extensively studied.

  2. FATE OF ATRAZINE IN THE AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF CORN FIELDS IN FARS PROVINCE OF IRAN

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    S. Nasseri ، M. Dehghani ، S. Amin ، K. Naddafi ، Z. Zamanian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected as pesticide in water resources. In this research, four agricultural fields with a long history of atrazine application in Shiraz and its vicinity in Fars province of Iran, have been studied to determine the fate of atrazine through the passage of time. These four farms were cultivated under a crop rotation (corn-wheat during the past 10 years. Samples were collected from four soil profiles of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm soil depth at different times. The time intervals for soil sampling started before atrazine application and continued until no atrazine was detected. According to the general linear model, there was no significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the soil moisture and depth (p≥0.05. But, significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the sampling regions was observed (p<0.001. Based on the data, atrazine leaching and dissipation rate in different soil profiles in the four sampling regions were high and significant. Therefore, there is a high risk of atrazine pollution in groundwater resources of the region.

  3. Seroprevalence of bluetongue disease in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran

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    Mohammad Khezri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the seroprevalence rates of bluetongue virus (BTV in sheep in west and northwest provinces of Iran. Bluetongue virus, an economically important orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in cattle and some species of deer. Bluetongue virus is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp. and it can infect all ruminant species. Overall, 26 serotypes have been reported around the world. Due to its economic impact, bluetongue (BT is an Office of International des Epizooties (OIE-listed disease. A total of 756 sera samples collected during 2007-2008, were available. Sera were tested with competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA. The seroprevalence rate in sheep was 40.87%. The rate of positivity in sheep in west and northwest was 46.10% and 33.75%, respectively. The highest prevalence of antibodies in serum was in West Azerbaijan (64.86%, and lower was in Ardabil (23.77%.

  4. Molecular detection, infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyyed Mostafa; Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Jalilzadeh-Amin, Ghader

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the infection rate and vectors of Theileria lestoquardi in goats from West Azerbaijan province, Iran. A total of 400 blood samples were collected from 40 randomly selected flocks in the study area from June to September, 2014. Out of 400 blood samples examined using microscopic examination, a number of 14 goats (3.50%) were positive for Theileria spp., whereas 25 goats (6.25%) yielded a specific T. lestoquardi SSU-rRNA fragment (235 bp). The prevalence of theileriosis in goats estimated by semi-nested PCR was significantly higher than the prevalence estimated by microscopic examination of the blood smears. The prevalence of Theileria infection in different age and sex groups of goats was not significantly different. The highest and lowest prevalence of Theileria infection was in July (12.00%) and September (2.00%), respectively. A number of 315 adult Ixodid ticks were also collected from naturally infested goats and they were characterized. Out of 315 examined ticks, a number of 37 ticks including Hyalomma marginatum (65.20%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (44.00%), and Dermacentor marginatus (68.70%) were infected by T. lestoquardi. Based on the obtained results, it was concluded that the semi-nested PCR assay based on SSU-rRNA gene is a valuable method for epidemiological investigation of caprine theileriosis. The results showed that H. marginatum, R. turanicus and D. marginatus can be considered as risk factor in the epidemiology of T. lestoquardi.

  5. Molecular detection of Theileria spp. in sheep and vector ticks in the North Khorasan Province, Iran.

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    Rashidi, Ahmad; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    A survey was carried in North Khorasan Province, Iran in 2010-2011, designed to identify Theileria spp. infections of both sheep and ticks. The tick species were also examined. Ninety sheep from different flocks were clinically examined, and blood samples and ixodid ticks were collected. Light microscopy of blood smears revealed Theileria spp. infection in 37 (41.1 %), while 74 (82.2 %) of blood samples were positive using semi-nested PCR. Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi, and mixed infection were detected in 63/90 (70 %), 5/90 (5.5 %), and 6/90 (6.6 %) of samples, respectively. Of the 434 ticks that were collected, the most prevalent species was Rhipicephalus turanicus (69.3 %) followed by Hyalomma marginatum turanicum (18.4 %), Dermacentor marginatus (6.4 %), and Rhipicephalus bursa (5.7 %). The ticks were separated into 42 tick pools, and the salivary glands were dissected out in 0.85 % (w/v) saline under a stereomicroscope and examined using semi-nested PCR. Three pools of H. marginatum turanicum salivary glands were infected with T. ovis and T. lestoquardi, and one pool of R. turanicus was infected with T. ovis. Based on these results, it is concluded that the prevalence of T. ovis is higher than T. lestoquardi and that H. marginatum turanicum and R. turanicus are likely vectors of T. lestoquardi and T. ovis in this area.

  6. Paurodontella parapitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina, Sphaerularioidea) from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mehrab; Heydari, Ramin; Ye, Weimin

    2016-06-01

    Paurodontella parapitica n. sp., collected from the rhizosphere of an apple tree in Kermanshah province, western Iran, is described. The new species is characterized by a body length of 505 to 723 µm (females) and 480 to 600 µm (males), lip region continuous by depression; 7 to 8 μm broad, 3 to 4 µm high, stylet length 7 to 9 µm or 1 to 1.3 times the lip region diameter, short postuterine sac of 4 to 6 μm long, lateral fields with five to six incisures; outer incisures crenated and inner incisures weakly crenated, excretory pore situated 90 to 100 µm from anterior end; functional males common in the population, with spicules 24 to 26 μm long. Tail of both sexes similar, almost straight and elongate-conoid. The new species resembles in morphology and morphometrics to four known species of the genus, namely P. apitica, P. minuta, P. myceliophaga, and P. sohailai. The results of phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of D2/D3 expansion region of 28S rRNA gene revealed this genus is polyphyletic in four different clades in Tylenchid.

  7. Prevalence of Ectoparasites of Indigenous Chickens From Dalahu Region, Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Ghashghaei, Omid; Yakhchali, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Ectoparasitism is an important factor associated with the poor production of indigenous chickens. The present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence and ectoparasite diversity in indigenous chickens of the Dalahu region in the western part of Kermanshah province, Iran. A total of 600 indigenous chickens (250 roosters and 350 hens) were randomly examined for the presence of different ectoparasites over the period April to September 2011. Ectoparasites were collected from different parts of chicken body using a hand lens, magnifying glass, and flashlights. The samples were preserved in 70% alcohol and cleared in lactophenol. The overall prevalence of ectoparasites was 52.8% (66% hens and 34.4% roosters) (p<0.001). Mixed infestation was noted in 70.34% of the chickens. The prevalence was significantly higher in young (66.3%) animals compared with older animals (39.33%) (p<0.001). Five species of ectoparasites were identified: Menopon gallinae (35.3%), Menacanthus stramineus (26.7%), Argas persicus (19%), Dermanyssus gallinae (11%), and Echidnophaga gallinacea (the "sticktight flea") (8%). The results of the present investigation reveal that ectoparasite infestation is prevalent in this area. Further studies are recommended to evaluate the effects of the ectoparasites on indigenous chicken health and production in the region.

  8. Prevalence and molecular characterization of bovine Cryptosporidium in Qazvin province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Akbar; Haghighi, Ali; Athari, Amid; Kazemi, Bahram; Abadi, Alireza; Nazemalhosseini Mojarad, Ehsan

    2009-03-23

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, variability with host age, and the genotypes of species of Cryptosporidium in cattle from 15 dairy farms in Qazvin province, Iran. Fecal samples, collected from 272 cattle during May 2006 to December 2007, were characterized microscopically. Oocysts from 51 positive samples were analyzed using PCR assay of 18S SSU rRNA, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and sequencing. We identified 72.6% of the positive samples as Cryptosporidium parvum, 17.7% as Cryptosporidium andersoni, 7.8% as Cryptosporidium bovis and 1.9% as a novel genotype of C. parvum possessing a single mutation on MboII restriction. An infection rate of 19.5% of C. parvum among 174 pre-weaned calves was significantly higher than the 3.1% among 98 post-weaned calves (P<0.0006). This is the first report of C. bovis and the new subgenotype of C. parvum in Iranian cattle.

  9. Physicochemical Characteristics of Larval Habitat Waters of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Qom Province, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abai, Mohammad Reza; Saghafipour, Abedin; Ladonni, Hossein; Jesri, Nahid; Omidi, Saeed; Azari-Hamidian, Shahyad

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes lay eggs in a wide range of habitats with different physicochemical parameters. Ecological data, including physicochemical factors of oviposition sites, play an important role in integrated vector management. Those data help the managers to make the best decision in controlling the aquatic stages of vectors especially using source reduction. To study some physicochemical characteristics of larval habitat waters, an investigation was carried out in Qom Province, central Iran, during spring and summer 2008 and 2009. Water samples were collected during larval collection from ten localities. The chemical parameters of water samples were analyzed based on mg/l using standard methods. Water temperature (°C), turbidity (NTU), total dissolved solids (ppm), electrical conductivity (μS/cm), and acidity (pH) were measured using digital testers. Thermotolerant coliforms of water samples were analyzed based on MPN/100ml. Data were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman Correlation analysis. In total, 371 mosquito larvae were collected including 14 species representing four genera. Some physicochemical parameters of water in Emamzadeh Esmail, Qomrood, Qom City, and Rahjerd showed significant differences among localities (Pphysicochemical and microbial parameters did not show any significant differences among different species (P> 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the abundance of larvae and the different physicochemical and microbial parameters (P> 0.05). The means of EC, TDS, and phosphate of localities and species were remarkably higher than those of the previous studies. Other parameters seem to be in the range of other investigations.

  10. Probable maximum precipitation 24 hours estimation: A case study of Zanjan province of Iran

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    Azim Shirdeli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns in designing civil structures such as water storage dams and irrigation and drainage networks is to find economic scale based on possibility of natural incidents such as floods, earthquake, etc. Probable maximum precipitation (PMP is one of well known methods, which helps design a civil structure, properly. In this paper, we study the maximum one-day precipitation using 17 to 50 years of information in 13 stations located in province of Zanjan, Iran. The proposed study of this paper uses two Hershfield methods, where the first one yields 18.17 to 18.48 for precipitation where the PMP24 was between 170.14 mm and 255.28 mm. The second method reports precipitation between 2.29 and 4.95 while PMP24 was between 62.33 mm and 92.08 mm. In addition, when the out of range data were deleted from the study of the second method, precipitation rates were calculated between 2.29 and 4.31 while PMP24 was between 76.08 mm and 117.28 mm. The preliminary results indicate that the second Hershfield method provide more stable results than the first one.

  11. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  12. Accumulation of Cadmium and Lead in Soils and Vegetables of Lenjanat Region in Isfahan Province, Iran

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    Salehi M. H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Various heavy metals have been reported as dangerous agents to the human health and wildlife when they occur in the environment at high concentrations. Cadmium and lead compounds are classified as human carcinogens by several regulatory agencies. Vegetables grown at environmentally contaminated sites could take up and accumulate metals at concentrations that are probably toxic to human health. In this study, concentrations of cadmium and lead in some of vegetables and soil samples were investigated in different areas of a developed industrial city in Isfahan province, Central Iran. One hundred and thirty topsoil samples and fifty samples of vegetables were collected from agricultural lands and analyzed for heavy metals. The concentration of Pb and Cd was more than 5 and 0.5 mg kg−1, respectively. The total of Cd concentration in most of the soil samples exceeded the suggested Swiss thresholds (0.8 mg kg−1. The results showed that 48% and 75% of the vegetables samples had concentrations of Cd and Pb exceeded the FAO-WHO limits, respectively. Results from the present study demonstrate that the most of the plants grown on the soils of this region, contaminated with heavy metals, and pose a major health concern.

  13. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH: Five consecutive years' experience of Fars province, Iran.

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    Abdolkarim Rahmanian

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH, caused by the rupture of intracranial aneurysms, is a devastating event with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH plays a critical role in the potential loss of life as its sufferers are usually of a young age. We aimed to investigate the incidence of aSAH along with the patients' characteristics over five consecutive years in Fars, a large province located in Southern Iran.In this prospective study, anonymous data of all patients diagnosed with aSAH in Fars province were collected after patient admission and surgery. Data from the last national census in 2011 were used to calculate the incidence. The data were analysed using SPSS software version 18 using independent sample t test, chi square test and ANOVA. The significance level was set at 0.05.The number of aSAH cases identified in Fars, Iran, each year varied between 78 (2011 and 98 (2015 for a total of 421 aSAH cases within the 5-year study period. The annual aSAH incidence estimates showed no differences and were 1.65 [95% confidence interval (CI: 1.58-1.72], 1.70 (95%CI: 1.68-1.72, 1.71 (95%CI: 1.63-1.78, 1.82 (95%CI: 1.74-1.9, and 2.05 (95%CI: 1.97-2.13 per 100,000 persons, respectively, for the five consecutive years from 21 March 2011 to 20 March 2016. Hypertension was the most common risk factor, and was found in 198 (48% aSAH patients. Ninety-four (22.5% patients had moderate hydrocephalus on admission. Middle cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery were the most common sites of aneurysms. On admission, 351 (83% patients had a Glasgow Coma Scale score >7, 197 (47% presented with Hunt and Hess score of 1, and 365 (87% had a Fisher score of ≤3. Multiple aneurysms were found in 59 (14% of the 421 cases and the most common risk factors in multiple aneurysms were hypertension in 30 (51% and smoking in 26 (44% cases. Survival data were available only on patients diagnosed in year 2015, and the six

  14. [Emergy evaluation and dynamic measurement analysis of agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying-Cong; Du, Shou-Hu

    2012-03-01

    Agro-ecosystem is the most basic system for human beings survival, while the analysis of the structure and function of the system is the key to solve the problems of agro-ecological environment. In this paper, emergy theory and related economic measurement methods including data envelopment analysis, cointegration test, and error correction model were applied to quantitatively analyze the operation dynamics, environmental loading, operation efficiency, and input-output relation of the agro-ecosystems in Sichuan Province and its 21 cities in 1997-2009. In the study period, Sichuan Province was in the transition period from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. The agricultural mechanization level of the Province improved constantly, resources utilization efficiency enhanced continually, overall structural dominant degree was better, but the over-reliance on economic emergy input caused the sustainability of the system weakened gradually. The development status of the agro-ecosystems in the Province varied among regions. Chengdu Plain and Western Sichuan Highland were either in overexploited or in underutilized, while the hilly areas were full of vitality and development potential, tended to be the important areas for the future development of Sichuan agriculture. Generally, the operation efficiency of the agro-ecosystems in the Province was relatively low, with the situation differed in different regions due to the lower technical efficiency or improper scale. There was a long-term equilibrium between the economic emergy indices and output emergy, but the short-term emergy input didn't reach the ideal output.

  15. Maternal near miss approach to evaluate quality of care in Alborz province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazivakili, Zohreh; Lotfi, Razieh; Kabir, Kourosh; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Rajabi Naeeni, Masoumeh

    2016-10-01

    the maternal near miss approach has been developed by World Health Organization for assessing and improving the quality of care. This study aimed to examine the incidence, characteristics, and features of the care provided for maternal near-miss cases in public and private hospitals in Alborz province, Iran. a cross sectional, facility-based study was conducted in all 13 public and private hospitals of Alborz province between April 2012 and December 2012. The World Health Organization near miss criteria were applied to gather and analyse the data, and indicators related to maternal near miss, access to and quality of maternal care. 38,715 deliveries were assessed. There were 38,663 live births, 419 (1.08%) had potentially life-threatening conditions and 199 had severe maternal outcomes (SMO) (192 near miss cases and 7 maternal deaths). The maternal near-miss ratio was 4.97 cases per 1000 live births. The incidence of severe maternal outcome was 5.15 cases per 1000 live births. Severe mortality outcomes index within 12 hours of hospital stay from admission (SMO12) was 3.52%. The proportion of SMO12 cases from the total SMO cases was 99.5%. The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission rate among women with SMO was 72.7%, while the overall admission rate was 0.7%. Overall, hypertensive disorder was the most frequent condition among women with potentially life-threatening conditions and maternal near-miss cases. Cardiovascular dysfunction and respiratory dysfunction were the most prevalent dysfunctions among maternal near miss (MNM) cases and maternal death cases respectively. the WHO maternal near miss criteria help to identify issues that may lead to life threatening conditions and can be used to monitor and improve the quality of care in maternity settings. Hypertensive disorders related to near miss conditions need more attention to prevent maternal severe outcomes in Alborz province. Most of the process indicators were not satisfactory. The WHO tool enables health

  16. Virus diseases in the tobacco fields of Guilan and Western Azerbaijan provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateri, H; Moarrefzadeh, N; Mosahebi, G; Koohi-Habibi, M

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is one of the important industrial plants in Iran. Viruses as an important group of plant pathogens cause many losses on the quality and quantity of tobacco crop. There was few information on the types of plant viruses infecting the tobacco fields of Guilan and almost no information for Western Azerbaijan province. During 2005-2007, leaf samples were taken from symptomatic plants in the growing areas of these two provinces. The observed symptoms on plants in the fields varied from mild mosaics to severe necrosis. The regions of sampling were including Rasht, Bazar-jomeh, Soumae-Sara, Talesh and Astara in Guilan and Ourmia, Sardasht and Ghara-Ziaeddin in Western Azerbaijan. The tobacco types and varieties from which the samples were taken included air-cured burley variety Burley 21 and to a lesser extent, oriental tobacco variety Basma Serres in W. Azerbaijan and flue-cured varieties Coker 347 and Virginia El in Guilan province. Samples were tested by DAS-ELISA method (Clark and Adams, 1977) using the polyclonal antibodies for a set of tobacco viruses. Some samples with positive reactions in DAS-ELISA were inoculated to indicator test plants such as Chenopodium amaranticolor, Datura metel, D. stramonium, Physalis floridana, Nicotiana rustica, N. glutinosa, and tobacco (varieties White burley and Samsun). The results of greenhouse experiments were consistent with serological tests. The following viruses which are listed in order of their overall abundance within the tested samples were detected: Tobacco streak virus (TSV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In all samples more than one virus infection was detected. The most severe mosaic type symptoms including the deformation and blistering on leaves were mainly seen in the infections by CMV and TMV. The most severe necrotic type symptoms including

  17. A case study of desertification hazard mapping using the MEDALUS (ESAs) methodology in southwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Shahabeddin Taghipour-Javi; Ardalan Fazeli; Bahareh Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) prone to desertification can lead to substantial gains in the efficiency of land use planning and partly avoid negative outcomes. The main objectives of this research were the monitoring and mapping of ESAs to desertification in the agro-ecosystem of the Khanmirza plain, Iran, during two time series (2000 and 2013). In the current study, an adjusted “Mediterranean desertification and land use (MEDALUS)” approach was applied ...

  18. Heavy precipitation in the southwest of Iran: association with the Madden-Julian Oscillation and synoptic scale analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafar Nazemosadat, M.; Shahgholian, K.

    2017-11-01

    Some important characteristics of the November-April heavy precipitation in southwestern parts of Iran and their linkages to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) were assessed for the period of 1975-2011. Daily precipitation data in nine meteorological stations spread in various parts of the study area and the corresponding MJO indices were analyzed. For each station, precipitation data were sorted in descending order and those values that fell within 5% of the highest records were categorized as the heavy precipitation. Besides this, the 10% threshold was also analyzed as an axillary assessment. The considered heavy precipitation data (5% threshold) accounted from about 26-35% of total annual precipitation. About half of the heavy precipitation occurred during December-January period and the other half distributed within the months of March, February, November and April by about 17, 14, 13and 6%, respectively. The highest frequency of heavy precipitation was related to the MJO phase 8. After this, the more frequent precipitation events were respectively associated to the phases 2, 7, 1, 6, 5 and 4 of the MJO. For the phases 1, 2, 7 and 8 frequency of the heavy precipitation statistically increased when the MJO amplitude was greater than unity. In contrast, for phases 4 and 5, heavy precipitation was generally linked to the spells that the amplitude size was lower than unity. Formation of a strong north-south oriented cold front mainly in Saudi Arabia and west-east oriented warm fronts in the southwest of Iran were realized as the key elements for initiating heavy precipitation over the study area. Although development of the Mediterranean-based cyclonic circulation is essential for the formation of these fronts, moisture transport mostly originates from northern parts of the Arabian Sea, southern parts of the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf.

  19. Epidemiological characteristics of fatal pedestrian ac-cidents in Fars Province of Iran: a community-based

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    Peymani Payam

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the epidemio-logical characteristics of fatal pedestrian accidents in Fars Province of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Fars Province of Iran during a 29-month period from March 2009 to July 2011. The data were from the Fars Forensic Medi-cine Registry. In 4 923 recorded road traffic accident fatalities, 971 deaths were due to pedestrian accidents. The demographic and accident-related information were analyzed by SPSS ver-sion 11.5. P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The mean age of decedents was (47.2±26.2 years, ranging from 6 months to 103 years old. Males ac-counted for 69.8% of all deaths. Fatal accidents were most common in September; 56.1% of the fatal injuries occurred on intracity roads and 33.1% on extracity roads. Fatal head injuries were present in 60.54% of cases. Evaluation of the injury site and the cause of death found that they were significantly associated with age, interval between injury and death. Besides, the type of roads played an important role in mortality. Conclusion: Although the clinical management of trauma patients has been improved in our country in the recent decade, decreasing the burden of injuries needs co-ordination among trauma system organizations. Key words: Accidents, traffic; Epidemiologic studies; Mortality; Iran

  20. Evaluation of biochemical urinary stone composition and its relationship to tap water hardness in Qom province, central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad Kazem; Saghafi, Hossein; Joorabchin, Seyed Mohammad Amin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biochemical stone composition in general population of Qom province, central Iran, and its relationship with high tap water hardness. In a prospective study, from March 2008 to July 2011, biochemical analysis of urinary stones in patients living in Qom province for at least 5 years was performed. Stones were retrieved by spontaneous passage, endoscopic or open surgery, and after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. Demographic findings and the drinking water supply of patients were evaluated and compared with biochemical stone analysis. Stone analysis was performed in 255 patients. The most dominant composition of urinary stones was calcium oxalate (73%), followed by uric acid (24%), ammonium urate (2%), and cystine (1%). The peak incidence of urinary stone was in patients in their forties. Overall male to female ratio was 4.93:1. The dominant stone composition in inhabitants of central Iran, where tap water hardness is high, was calcium oxalate stones. On the basis of this study, biochemical urinary stone composition of Qom does not differ from other regions of Iran with lower water hardness.

  1. Ecological risk assessment of coastal ecosystems: The case of mangrove forests in Hormozgan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Saber; Moghaddam, Sina Siavash; Rahimi, Amir; Damalas, Christos A; Naji, Abolfazl

    2017-10-09

    Sediment quality of mangrove forests in Hormozgan Province of Iran with a focus on two distinct habitats - the Hara Protected Area and the area of the Azini Bay - was studied. The accumulation of heavy metals in the sediments of the Hara Protected Area in terms of concentration was in the order of Pb > Zn > Cu > Cd and in those of the Azini Bay in the order of Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Based on Pearson's correlation coefficient, no significant correlations were found between concentrations of heavy metals in the sediments of the Hara Protected Area, while Zn and Pb concentrations were positively correlated in the sediments of the Azini Bay, implying a common pollution source. Common pollution indices, such as Contamination factor (Cf), degree of contamination (Cd), modified contamination degree (mCd), potential ecological risk index (RI) and metal pollution index (MPI), were used for assessing contamination status. The value of contamination (Cd) index was lower than 7 across all five stations of each studied region, implying a low degree of contamination. The modified contamination degree (mCd) index was lower than 1.5, showing that the sediment pollution was low in both regions. The potential ecological risk assessment index was 223.89 and 543.97 for the Hara Protected Area and the Azini Bay, respectively. Based on categorization of Hakanson's ecological risk, the Hara Protected Area region was in the range of 150 ≤ RI ≤ 300 (moderate ecological risk) and the Azini Bay region in the range of 300 ≤ RI ≤ 600 (acceptable ecological risk). Findings raise awareness of the contamination status of mangrove forests in Hormozgan Province, provide a valuable benchmark for future comparisons in the area, and are important for the design of appropriate policies and long-term management of those ecosystems by local managers and the national authorities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions of agricultural professionals toward genetically modified (GM) foods: a case study in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Sedigheh; Karami, Ezatollah; Azadi, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    While there has been a number of consumers' studies looking at factors that influence individuals' attitudes and behavior toward GM foods, few studies have considered agricultural professionals' intentions in this regard. This study illuminates agricultural professionals' insights toward GM foods in Southwest Iran. A random sample of 262 respondents was studied. The results indicated that the majority of the respondents had little knowledge about GM foods. They perceived few benefits or risks of GM foods. Their perceived benefits and trust in individuals and institutions had positive impacts on the behavioral intentions of the agricultural professionals. The results also revealed that the low knowledge level of the respondents had a negative impact on the behavioral intentions toward GM foods. This state of affairs is problematic, either GM foods have serious problems or the knowledge conveyed to the Iranian agricultural experts is inappropriate. We recommend a well defined communication strategy to provide information in such a way that allows individuals to feel adequately informed about GM foods. Furthermore, the development of trust and knowledge regarding GM foods can be greater when risk analysis frameworks are transparent, risk assessment methodologies are objective, all stakeholders are engaged in the risk management process, and risk communication focuses on consumers.

  3. Risk assessment of agricultural water requirement based on a multi-model ensemble framework, southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Reza; Akhond-Ali, Ali-Mohammad; Roozbahani, Abbas; Fattahi, Rouhollah

    2017-08-01

    Water shortage and climate change are the most important issues of sustainable agricultural and water resources development. Given the importance of water availability in crop production, the present study focused on risk assessment of climate change impact on agricultural water requirement in southwest of Iran, under two emission scenarios (A2 and B1) for the future period (2025-2054). A multi-model ensemble framework based on mean observed temperature-precipitation (MOTP) method and a combined probabilistic approach Long Ashton Research Station-Weather Generator (LARS-WG) and change factor (CF) have been used for downscaling to manage the uncertainty of outputs of 14 general circulation models (GCMs). The results showed an increasing temperature in all months and irregular changes of precipitation (either increasing or decreasing) in the future period. In addition, the results of the calculated annual net water requirement for all crops affected by climate change indicated an increase between 4 and 10 %. Furthermore, an increasing process is also expected regarding to the required water demand volume. The most and the least expected increase in the water demand volume is about 13 and 5 % for A2 and B1 scenarios, respectively. Considering the results and the limited water resources in the study area, it is crucial to provide water resources planning in order to reduce the negative effects of climate change. Therefore, the adaptation scenarios with the climate change related to crop pattern and water consumption should be taken into account.

  4. Beneficiation of Low-Grade Phosphate Deposits by a Combination of Calcination and Shaking Tables: Southwest Iran

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    Shahram Shariati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Three quarters of the world’s phosphate deposits are of sedimentary origin and 75%–80% of those include carbonate gangue. In this study, carbonate sedimentary phosphate deposits of the Lar Mountains of southwest Iran are studied. These deposits consist mainly of calcite, fluorapatite, quartz, kaolinite and illite, with an average P2O5 grade of 9%–10% (low-grade. Various pre-processing and processing methods have been developed for concentrating low-grade phosphate up to marketable grade and this study aims to select the optimal method to produce an economically viable grade of phosphate concentrate from low-grade ore. Different concentration methods, including calcination and gravity separation, were applied on samples at both a laboratory and semi-industrial scale (pilot scale. Using an integrated method of calcination (performed in a rotary kiln and shaking table for concentrating the low-grade phosphate ore, the results show promise at producing grades of 30.77% P2O5 with 60.7%–63.2% recovery.

  5. Virulence Determinants and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Vancomycin-resistantEnterococcus faeciumIsolated from Different Sources in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshadi, Maniya; Mahmoudi, Mahmood; Motahar, Moloud Sadat; Soltani, Saber; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the incidence of antibiotic-resistance and virulence genes in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium isolated from different sources in southwest Iran from Mar to Sep 2015. Overall, 120 E. faecium isolates (80 VRE and 40 vancomycin-susceptible enterococci [VSE] isolates) were obtained from four hospitals. The resistance of the VRE isolates was determined by disk diffusion method. Multiplex PCR was performed to detect the virulence genes carried by the E. faecium isolates, namely, enterococcal surface protein ( esp ), hyaluronidase ( hyl ), and collagen-binding adhesin ( acm ). All the VRE isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the rates of resistance to ampicillin, erythromycin, and ciprofloxacin reaching high levels. The isolates were least resistant to chloramphenicol and nitrofurantoin, but all of them were susceptible to linezolid. 46.6%, 20.8%, and 86.6% of the E. faecium isolates carried the esp , hyl , and acm genes, respectively. There is a significant difference between the prevalence of esp and hyl genes in the VRE and VSE isolates. In the VRE isolates, the high prevalence of multidrug resistance were found and the difference in the prevalence of esp among various sources was significant. The findings reflected a relationship between the prevalence of esp and hyl and resistance to certain antibiotics.

  6. Macronutrients and trace metals in soil and food crops of Isfahan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Ansari, Maryam; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Kaabi, Helena; Kermani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of 10 macronutrients and trace metals in the arable soils of Isfahan Province, their phytoavailability, and associated health risks were investigated; 134 plant and 114 soil samples (from 114 crop fields) were collected and analyzed at harvesting time. Calculation of the soil pollution index (SPI) revealed that arable soil polluted by metals was more severe in the north and southwest of the study area. The results of cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, and Cu share a similar origin from industries and traffic. The concentrations of macronutrients and trace metals in the sampled crops were found in the order of K > Ca > S > Mg > P and Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Pb, respectively, whereas calculation of the bioconcentration factor (BCF) indicated that the accumulation of the investigated elements in crops was generally in the order of S ≈ K > P > Mg > Ca and Zn > Cu > Mn > Pb > Fe, respectively. Thus, various parameters including crop species and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soil also affected the bioavailability of the elements besides the total element contents in soil. Daily intake (DI) values of elements were lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) levels in rice grains except for Fe and Mn, but for wheat grains, all elements displayed DI values higher than the RDI. Moreover, based on the hazard index (HI) values, inhabitants are experiencing a significant potential health risk solely due to the consumption of wheat and rice grains (particularly wheat grains). Mn health quotient (HQ) also indicated a high risk of Mn absorption for crop consumer inhabitants.

  7. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Human Intestinal Parasites in Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran

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    Nasrin HEMMATI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most common infections and health problems worldwide. Due to the lack of epidemiologic information of such infections, the prevalence of, and the risk factors for, enteric parasites were investigated in residents of Roudehen, Tehran Province, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 561 triple fecal samples were collected through a two-stage cluster-sampling protocol from Jun to Dec 2014. The samples were examined by formalin-ether concentration, culture, and with molecular methods.Results: The prevalence of enteric parasites was 32.7% (95% CI 27.3–38. Blastocystis sp. was the most common intestinal protozoan (28.4%; 95% CI 23.7–33.0. The formalin-ether concentration and culture methods detected Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba coli, Giardia intestinalis, Dientamoeba fragilis, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba complex cysts or trophozoite, Chilomastix mesnilii, and Enterobius vermicularis. Single-round PCR assay for Entamoeba complex were identified Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii. E. histolytica was not observed in any specimen. Multivariate analysis showed a significant association of parasites with water source and close animal contact. There was no correlation between infections and gender, age, occupation, education, or travel history. Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections.Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of enteric protozoan parasite infection among citizens of Rodehen. As most of the species detected are transmitted through a water-resistant cyst, public and individual education on personal hygiene should be considered to reduce transmission of intestinal parasites in the population. 

  8. Prevalence and epizootical aspects of varroasis in golestan province, northern iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Saeid; Sharifi, Laleh; Mehrabadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The Varroa destructor mite is considered as a major pest of honey bees Apis mellifera. The rapid spread of Varroa mites among bee colonies may be due to several factors, including drifting of infested bees, movement of bee swarms, and robbing of weakened colonies. Disease spread and predisposing the infested bees to other diseases lead to high economic losses in beekeeping industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and evaluate some managing factors in Golestan Province in Iran in 2008. According to the records of Agricultural Research Center, 80 infested beekeeping centers identified and a questionnaire consists of managing factors for each center has been designed. All data were recorded and analyzed by SPSS software to calculate χ(2) test. Among 80 apiculture centers, 72 centers (92%) were infested to Varroa and hive density of 90.6% of the centers was 31-60 hives in one center (P= 0.324). All of the apiculture centers had more than 6 km distance to nearest beekeeping center (P= 0.687). Amongst bee keepers 15(93.8%) had low literacy level (P= 0.479) and 26(89.7%) had 5-10 years experience in beekeeping (P= 0.953). We can conclude that because of the high prevalence of the disease, the usual methods of prevention are not effective. This high prevalence emphasizes that we are very far from a solution for Varroa infestation and extra researches on mite biology, tolerance breeding, and Varroa treatment is immediately required.

  9. Tobacco use and its relationship with health complaints among employees of Kermanshah province, Iran

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    Nahid Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Identifying the pattern of tobacco use and its related factors in employees is crucial. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of tobacco use and its related factors in employees of Kermanshah Province, Iran. Methods: In 2012, 7129 employees were investigated in a cross-sectional study using the census method. Data on tobacco use and on several chronic diseases obtained using a standardized questionnaire on noncommunicable diseases risk factors of the World Health Organization through face-to-face interviews. Statistical analysis was performed based on the Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. Results: In general, the prevalence of tobacco use, smoking cigarettes, and smoking waterpipe was 9.9%, 8.9%, and 1.2% among the employees, respectively. Tobacco use was significantly higher in the age group over 40 (14.0%, in male gender (13.3%, in married individuals (10.8% and in those with diploma and lower degree (16.4%, (P < 0.001. At the individual level, the odds ratio of tobacco use was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.8 in hypertensive, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2-2.6 in diabetic employees and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.3 in those with heart diseases, compared to healthy individuals. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status and educational level, there was not any significant relationship between tobacco use and health complaints and only the demographic variables remained significant. Conclusions: Preventive public health policies are mandatory especially in younger ages and male employees to promote their knowledge on disadvantages of tobacco use.

  10. Prevalence and epizootical aspects of varroasis in golestan province, northern iran.

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    Saeid Bokaie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Varroa destructor mite is considered as a major pest of honey bees Apis mellifera. The rapid spread of Varroa mites among bee colonies may be due to several factors, including drifting of infested bees, movement of bee swarms, and robbing of weakened colonies. Disease spread and predisposing the infested bees to other diseases lead to high economic losses in beekeeping industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and evaluate some managing factors in Golestan Province in Iran in 2008.According to the records of Agricultural Research Center, 80 infested beekeeping centers identified and a questionnaire consists of managing factors for each center has been designed. All data were recorded and analyzed by SPSS software to calculate χ(2 test.Among 80 apiculture centers, 72 centers (92% were infested to Varroa and hive density of 90.6% of the centers was 31-60 hives in one center (P= 0.324. All of the apiculture centers had more than 6 km distance to nearest beekeeping center (P= 0.687. Amongst bee keepers 15(93.8% had low literacy level (P= 0.479 and 26(89.7% had 5-10 years experience in beekeeping (P= 0.953.We can conclude that because of the high prevalence of the disease, the usual methods of prevention are not effective. This high prevalence emphasizes that we are very far from a solution for Varroa infestation and extra researches on mite biology, tolerance breeding, and Varroa treatment is immediately required.

  11. Prevalence ofEnterobius vermicularisamongst kindergartens and preschool children in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.

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    Afrakhteh, Narges; Marhaba, Zahra; Mahdavi, Seif Ali; Garoosian, Sahar; Mirnezhad, Reyhaneh; Vakili, Mahsa Eshkevar; Shahraj, Haniye Ahmadi; Javadian, Behzad; Rezaei, Rozita; Moosazadeh, Mahmood

    2016-12-01

    Enterobiasis (oxyuriasis) is probably the most common helminth, which infects humans. Amongst different age groups, prevalence of Enterobius vermicularis in children is high compared to adults. Oxyuriasis is one of the most significant parasitic diseases of children. This nematode in children can result in loss of appetite, insomnia, grinding of the teeth, restlessness, endometritis, abdominal cramps, diarrhea and etc. Due to important complications of this parasite, the objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence of enterobiasis in kindergarten and preschool children of Amol, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. A total number of 462 children from 32 kindergartens of Amol were examined for the prevalence of E. vermicularis infection, 2013. Adhesive cello-tape anal swab method was trained to parents for sampling. In addition, a questionnaire was designed and filled out to collect demographic information for each individual. Data were analyzed using Chi square test and multivariate logistic regression for each risk factor. The overall prevalence of E. vermicularis infection was 7.1 % (33). Although infection with E. vermicularis in girls 7.9 % was higher compared to boys 6.3 %, there was no significant difference between gender and age ( p  > 0.05) whereas binary logistic regression showed significant difference between enterobiasis and age ( p  vermicularis in kindergarten and preschool children is relatively high and still is an important health problem and should not be underestimated due to being highly contagious infection. Therefore, educational programs and mass treatment should be carried out in order to reduce infection incidence in this area and regular parasitological test and attention to personal hygiene in kindergarten and preschool is of great importance.

  12. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study.

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    Moradi, Ghobad; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Mohammadi, Parvin; Elahi, Elham; Barati, Hojatollah

    2016-01-01

    A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks.

  13. Detection of Chlamydia trachomatis in Pap Smear Samples from South Khorasan Province of Iran.

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    Javanmard, Davod; Behravan, Mahmoodreza; Ghannadkafi, Malaknaz; Salehabadi, Alireza; Ziaee, Masood; Namaei, Mohammad Hasan

    2018-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI), leads to pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility and chronic pelvic pain in women as well as an increased risk of vertical transmission, conjunctivitis and pneumonitis in infants. It may also be a co-factor along with human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer progression. We aimed to determine the prevalence of CT genotypes in genital specimens of women from South Khorasan, Iran and to test the association between CT and cytology statistics. This was a cross-sectional study on 248 Pap smear samples from women who visited a gynecologist for routine Pap smear testing in South Khorasan province. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test the residual fluids of Pap smears for CT-DNA after cytological examination. Direct sequencing, alignment and phylogenic analyses were performed on eight samples to identify their genotypes. The mean age of patients was 37.54 ± 5.21 years. Most samples had a normal cytology (214 cases, 86.29%). Overall, 31 samples were positive for CT infection (12.5%) of which 20 (9.34%) were normal and 11 (32.35%) were abnormal, with the frequency difference being significant (P=0.022). The co-infection of CT/HPV in total was identified in 14 cases (5.6%). The results of sequencing eight samples out of the 31 CT positive samples revealed the detection of genotypes D and E, each with four cases. We show that a high prevalence of genital CT infection is present in women with both normal and abnormal cytology; however, the higher prevalence among women in the abnormal group may indicate its involvement in cervical neoplasia.

  14. Tobacco Use and its Relationship with Health Complaints Among Employees of Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademi, Nahid; Babanejad, Mehran; Najafi, Farid; Nikbakht, Mohammad Reza; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Mohammadi, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the pattern of tobacco use and its related factors in employees is crucial. This study aimed to investigate the pattern of tobacco use and its related factors in employees of Kermanshah Province, Iran. In 2012, 7129 employees were investigated in a cross-sectional study using the census method. Data on tobacco use and on several chronic diseases obtained using a standardized questionnaire on noncommunicable diseases risk factors of the World Health Organization through face-to-face interviews. Statistical analysis was performed based on the Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression. In general, the prevalence of tobacco use, smoking cigarettes, and smoking waterpipe was 9.9%, 8.9%, and 1.2% among the employees, respectively. Tobacco use was significantly higher in the age group over 40 (14.0%), in male gender (13.3%), in married individuals (10.8%) and in those with diploma and lower degree (16.4%), (P < 0.001). At the individual level, the odds ratio of tobacco use was 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.8) in hypertensive, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.2-2.6) in diabetic employees and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.3) in those with heart diseases, compared to healthy individuals. After adjusting for age, gender, marital status and educational level, there was not any significant relationship between tobacco use and health complaints and only the demographic variables remained significant. Preventive public health policies are mandatory especially in younger ages and male employees to promote their knowledge on disadvantages of tobacco use.

  15. Fear of Falling and Social Participation in the Elderlies in Mobarakeh, Isfahan Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the Increasing elderly population and the high prevalence of psychological, social and physical problems among them, this study was conducted to determine fear of falling and social participation status among elderly people in Mobarakeh city, Isfahan province, Iran in 2016. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in which 300 elderly residents of Mobarakeh city were randomly recruited by cluster sampling. Data collection tools were demographic questionnaire, Falls Efficacy Scale-International form and social participation scale of Canadian Community Health Survey. Mini Mental State Examination also was used to diagnose cognitive disorders. Data were analyzed with SPSS software using t-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The mean age of participants was 70.83 ± 8.68 years and the mean score of fear of falling was 33.25 ± 16.37 (16-64. Regarding the fear level, 22.3 % had no fear, 34.3 % low fear, 20 % moderate fear, and 23% a high fear of falling. Mean score of social participation was 16 ± 4.63 (8-40. The most frequently reported social participation activity was attending religious ceremonies (99.7 % while the least was attending professional and social forums (79.3 %. There was an inverse significant correlation between fear of falling and social participation (r = -0.421, p < 0.01. Conclusion: Level of fear of falling in the elderlies was moderate while social participation was low. By using preventive measures, effective education, psychological and social interventions, disease-control programs and removing the existing obstacles, the fear of falling could be reduced and social participation could be promoted among the elderlies. 

  16. A survey of reservoir hosts in two foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kerman province, southeast of Iran.

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    Ghaffari, Daryoush; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Yaghoobi Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    In the Old World, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is zoonoses and natural vertebrate hosts of CL parasites are mammals. This study was carried out on natural infection rates of Leishmania parasites in reservoir hosts in one new focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) and in suspected reservoir in an old focus of ACL in Iran. The sampling of rodents using Sherman traps was carried out and PCR technique was used for detection and identification of Leishmania species in Bahreman district, Kerman province, southeast of Iran. In addition, the smears were taken from suspicious lesions in stray dogs in the city of Kerman, the center of Kerman province. Simultaneously, pieces of lesion (1 × 1×1 cm) were taken for further histopathological examination. Overall, 25 rodents were collected and identified, including Meriones libycus and Rhombomys opimus. Amastigotes were observed in 33 % of the R. opimus by microscopic examination and indentified as Leishmania major by PCR technique. Four suspicious dogs out of 391 stray dogs showed no Leishmania species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first isolation and identification of L. major from R. opimus in Kerman province, where ZCL has been present in recent years. Therefore, R. opimus is considered as the main animal reservoir host in Bahreman ZCL focus. In ACL focus such as the city of Kerman, dogs had no role in CL infection as reservoir host.

  17. Evaluation of G2677T/A polymorphism of MDR1 gene by polymerase chain reaction in Mazandaran province, Iran

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    Razieh Keshavarz-Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The human MDR1 gene encodes for a P-glycoprotein (PGP, which acts as an efflux pump that transports a large variety of substrates from the inside of cells to the outside until protection against xenobiotics. The G2677T/A polymorphism in exon 21 is associated with PGP expression and function in humans. The present study was aimed to determine the frequencies of this polymorphism in a healthy population from Mazandaran province of Iran. A total of 120 unrelated healthy subjects from Mazandaran province, residing in Sari, coming for blood donating at Sari Blood Transfusion Center were enrolled. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of each subject. All subjects were genotyped for G2677T/A polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The genotype frequencies were G2677G (65%, G2677T (20.83%, G2677A (14.17% and TT, AA, TA genotypes were not observed. Moreover, frequency of G allele (82.5% was significantly (p ˂ 0.05 higher than the T (10.42% and A (7.08%. This is the first study to investigate the G2677T/A polymorphism of MDR1 gene in population from Mazandaran province of Iran. These data may be relevant for dose recommendation of PGP substrate drugs and can help for individualizing drug therapy of organ transplantation and important diseases such as cancer and AIDS, congestive heart failure and etc.

  18. Identification of the essential oils composition from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia (L. Huds. growing wild in Isfahan province, Iran

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    REZA ABEDI

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mentha longifolia L., commonly known as wild mint, belongs to family Lamiaceae. The aim of this study was to identify the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from four ecotypes of Mentha longifolia L. grown wild (Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan, and Falavarjan in Isfahan province (Central Iran. The essential oil was extracted by a Clevenger approach and analyzed using GC/MS. In the aerial parts of the plant were identified 26, 30, 22 and 25 compounds for Shahreza, Chadegan, Isfahan and Falavarjan ecotypes, respectively. The major constituents of the essential oil from the aerial parts of M. longifolia in Shahreza province were piperitenone oxide (26.71%, 1,8-cineole (20.72%, α-pinene (14.28%, pulegone (7.81%, sabinene (7.06% and trans-caryophyllene (4.23%. The main compositions in Chadegan province were piperitenone oxide (29.13%, 1,8-cineole (28.84%, sabinene (9.05%, pulegone (8.97% and α-pinene (6.31%. The main compositions in Isfahan province were pulegone (44.75%, 1,8-cineole (13.82%, 2-cyclohexen-1-ol, 1-methyl (8.49%, isopulegone (8.07% and menthone (4.37%. In Falavarjan province the constituents were pulegone (33.39%, 1,8-cineole (29.79%, sabinene (11.23% and isopulegone (7.28%.

  19. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae) Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian, Maria; Chinikar, Sadegh; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Noroozi, Mehdi; Faghihi, Faezeh; Jalali, Tahmineh; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shahhosseini, Nariman; Farhadpour, Firoozeh

    2016-09-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reservoir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran. From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investigated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR. The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H. asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11%) in Rh. sanguineus. These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.

  20. Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2016-01-01

    Gang på gang har Iran som stat og folk fremkaldt misforståelser, fascination og fordømmelser. Kritikere forkaster landets religiøse ledere og politiske undertrykkelse; kendere lovpriser landets dybe kulturhistorie og mangfoldighed. Men hvorfor er særligt Iran genstand for så blandede opfattelser......? Er Iran noget helt særligt – eller ganske almindelig?...

  1. Prevalence of hepatitis d virus infection among hepatitis B virus infected patients in qom province, center of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadir, Mohammad-Reza; Belbasi, Mojtaba; Heidari, Akram; Sarkeshikian, Seyed Saeid; Kabiri, Alireza; Ghanooni, Amir Hossein; Iranikhah, Abolfazl; Vaez-Javadi, Maryam; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis D virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that depends on the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) of hepatitis B virus for its replication, developing exclusively in patients with acute or chronic hepatitis B. There are little data regarding the routes of HDV transmission in Iran. The risk factors for HDV infection in Iran are blood transfusion, surgery, family history, Hejamat wet cupping (traditional phlebotomy), tattooing, war injury, dental interventions, and endoscopy. We performed this study to determine the prevalence of hepatitis D in the general population of Qom province and the potential risk factors for acquiring HDV. This cross-sectional study collected 3690 samples from 7 rural clusters and 116 urban clusters. HBs antigen was measured, and if the test was positive, anti-HDV was measured. Ten teams, each consisting of 2 trained members, were assigned to conduct the sampling and administer the questionnaires. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Forty-eight subjects (1.3%) suffered from hepatitis B, and 1 HBsAg-positive case had HDV infection. The prevalence of hepatitis D infection in Qom Province was 0.03%. The prevalence of hepatitis D infection in HBsAg-positive cases was 2%. Our anti-HDV-positive case had a history of tattooing, surgery, and dental surgery. There was no significant relationship between tattooing, surgery history, or dental surgery and hepatitis D infection. The prevalence of hepatitis D in Qom is the the lowest in Iran, similar to a study in Babol (north of Iran).

  2. Geology, Alteration, Mineralization, Geochemistry and Petrology of intrusive units in the Shah Soltan Ali prospect area (Southwest of Birjand, South Khorasan province

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    Samaneh Nadermezerji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Shah Soltan Ali area is located 85 km southwest of Birjand in the South Khorasan province. This area is part of the Tertiary volcanic-plutonic rocks in the east of the Lut block. The Lut block is bounded to the east by the Nehbandan and associated faults, to the north by the Doruneh and related faults (Sabzevar zone, to the south by the Makran arc and Bazman volcanic complex and to the west by the Nayband Fault. The Lut block is the main metallogenic province in the east of Iran (Karimpour et al., 2012, that comprises of numerous porphyry Cu and Cu–Au deposits, low and high sulfidation epithermal Au deposits, iron oxide deposits, base-metal deposits and Cu–Pb–Zn vein-type deposits. The geology of Shah Soltan Ali area is dominated by volcanic rocks, comprised of andesite and basalt, which are intruded by subvolanic units such as monzonite porphyry, monzodiorite porphyry and diorite porphyry. Materials and methods 1. 170 thin sections of the rock samples as well as 25 polished and thin polished sections were prepared for petrography, alteration and mineralization. 2. Twenty five samples were analyzed for Cu, Pb, Zn, Sb, Mo and As elements by the Aqua regia method in the Zarazama laboratory in Tehran, Iran. 3. Nine samples were analyzed for trace elements [including rare earth elements (REEs]. As a result of these analyses, trace elements and REE were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the ACME Analytical Laboratories (Vancouver Ltd., Canada. 4. Ten samples were analyzed for major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry in the East Amethyst laboratory in Mashhad, Iran. 5. Five samples were analyzed for Firre Assay analysis in the Zarazma Laboratory in Tehran, Iran. 6. The results of XRD analysis were used for 4 samples. Discussion and results Petrographic studies indicate that subvolcanic rocks consist of diorite porphyry, monzonite porphyry and monzodiorite

  3. Sporozoan Protozoa and Enteroparasites in the Gastroenteritic Patients Referring to the Healthcare Centers of Seven Provinces of Iran

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    Hossein Nahrevanian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sporozoan protozoa and enteroparasites cause gastroenteritis. Sporozoa are the major cause of self-limiting diarrhea in immunocompetent patients, however they cause serious diseased in patients with immunosuppression. Objectives: The current study aimed to identify the prevalence of sporozoa and enteroparasites among patients with gastroenteritis referred to the healthcare centers in seven provinces of Iran. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4200 stool samples were randomly collected from patients with gastroenteritis in the selected hospitals of Gilan, East Azerbaijan, Qazvin, Kurdistan, Mazandaran, Tehran and Khorasan-e-Razavi provinces. Primarily samples were examined directly for enteroparasites. The samples were then filtered and concentrated using Paraseb kit. The pellets were fixed, stained by different assays including acid fast staining, Auramin Phenol Fluorescence, Giemsa and light microscopy. Results: The results revealed the overall rate of infection, 3.86% (163 cases, as an indicator of parasitic enteropathogens in Iran. Among the provinces, Khorasan-e-Razavi and Mazandaran with 8.83% (53 cases and 0.34% (2 cases showed the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. The frequencies of sporozoa including Cryptosporidium, Microsporidium, Isospora and Cyclospora spp. were 0.1%, 0.1%, 0.07% and 0.02% respectively. Among the parasites, Giardia lambelia, Taenia saginata and Hookworms with 1.78% and 0.02% had the highest and lowest rates of infection, respectively. Regarding the age groups, the highest and the lowest rates of infection were in 0 - 10 (48% and 41 years old and above (6.7% groups, respectively. Conclusions: Despite relatively low prevalence of sporozoa, giardiosis is the most prevalent agent for gastroenteritis amongst 3.86% of parasitic infections in Iran. The current study confirmed the abundance of infection in warm and wet seasons, and more frequency of infections among children

  4. Predictors of Low Birth Weight Infants in the North West Province of Iran: a Case-control Study

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    Nahid Karamzad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ninety-five percent of low birth weight infants are born in developing countries. This study was aimed to assess the predictors of low birth in East Azerbaijan, North-west province of Iran. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through a hospital based case–control design involving 49 women delivering low birth weight infants and 98 delivering normal weight infants. The data analysis was using SPSS-13 software with bivariate and multivariate methods. Results: There was a significant positive association between maternal chronological and marriage ages with low birth weight infants (P

  5. Data on metal levels in the inlet and outlet wastewater treatment plant of hospitals in Bushehr province, Iran

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    Fereshte Babaahmadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we measured the levels of metals including Pb, Cr, Cd, Ni, Hg, Fe, and Cu in the inlet and outlet wastewater of hospitals. The samples were taken from wastewater in Bushehr׳s province hospitals, Iran. After the collection of samples, the concentration levels of metals were determined by using graphite furnace absorption spectrometer (AAS method (Varian, SpectrAA 240, Australia. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using Special Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 16.

  6. The genus Folsomides Stach (Collembola, Isotomidae) in Kermanshah Province (W Iran) with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbea, Javier I; Kahrarian, Morteza

    2015-02-27

    The genus Folsomides Stach, 1922 is represented by four species in the Iranian fauna, two of which are new to the science. Folsomides halshinicus sp. nov. and Folsomides subvinosus sp. nov. are found in Kermanshah Province (Western Iran). The new species belong to the Folsomides angularis (Axelson, 1905) group and they are distinguishable from other congeneric species by the macrochaetotaxy (11/22233 macrochaetae on thoracic II to abdominal V tergites) and the number of chaetae on dens. A table with the diagnostic characters for the identification of Iranian species of Folsomides is given. Some figures of F.vinosus Fjellberg, 1993 from Canary Island was given after study of type specimens.

  7. Effective herbs on the wound and skin disorders: a ethnobotanical study in Lorestan province, west of Iran

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    Bahram Delfan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify medicinal plants in Lorestan Province (west of Iran in treatment of wound healing and skin lesions. Methods: Questionnaire were made by health volunteers who were trained. The questionnaire about the beliefs and herbal therapy were filled by liaisons trained in the villages. Results: Questionnaire survey showed that 18 medicinal plants from 11 plant families were detected in the province for treating and healing skin lesions. Conclusions: The achieving information in the study reported that bioactive substances in some plants have pharmacologic effects in regulating biological processes which can accelerate healing, reducing inflammation and improving health effects. Suggested ideas in this study should be tested in clinical trials and the effectiveness of their therapeutic effects, their effective recognition and secondary materials in the form of natural medicine must be detected for releasing into the pharmaceutical market.

  8. Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI in Children under 7- year of Age during 2014 in Hamedan Province, Iran

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    Salman Khazaei

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surveillance of adverse events following immunization (AEFI is essential to improve high standard of vaccine safety, and maintain public trust in immunization programs. This study aimed to determine the AEFI and their related factors in children. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study including all children under 7- year of age, in Hamadan Province, the West of Iran, in 2014. All of the AEFI related with Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG, Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus (DPT, Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR vaccines were obtained from the documented record-based by Health Centers, in Hamadan province. Results: From a total of 239,204 doses administered, 284 AEFI were notified (11.8 per 10,000 doses. The proportion of AEFI was more frequently reported from Health Houses than Health Centers (60.2 vs. 37.0, P

  9. Ore horizons, ore facies, mineralogy and geochemistry of volconogenic massive sulfide (VMS deposits of the Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu deposit, southwest of Qamsar - Iran

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    Fayeq Hashemi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu deposits are located15 km southwest of the town of Qamsar and approximately 7 km south west of the Qazaan village, in the Urumieh- Dokhtar magmatic arc. The Kashan region that is situated in west-central Iran hosts several barite-base metal deposits and occurrences, the biggest ones are the Varandan Ba-Pb-Cu (case considered in this study and the Tapeh-Sorkh (Khalajmaasomi et al., 2010 and Dorreh Ba (Nazari, 1994 deposits. Previous researchers (Izadi, 1996; Farokhpey et al., 2010 have proposed an epithermal model for formation of the Varandan deposit. However, based on some feature of the deposit, it seems that this genetic model may not be correct. Therefore, it is necessary to do more precise research studies on the deposit. The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the genesis of the Varandan deposit based on geological, ore facies, mineralogy, wall rock alterations, and geochemical studies. Materials and methods A field study and sampling was performed during the summer of 2013. To assess the geochemical characteristics of the deposit, about 17 systematic samples from different ore facies of the first, second and third sub-horizon were collected for petrography and mineralogy, and for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy(ICP-AES, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence (XRF geochemical analysis methods. The microscopic studies were done in the optics laboratory of the Shahrood University, and the geochemical analyzes were conducted in laboratories of the Center of Research and Mineral Processing Ore Minerals of Iran, Karaj, Iran. Results The host sequence in the Varandan deposit involves three units, from bottom to top: Unit1: grey, green siliceous tuff, brecciated tuff, crystal tuff and andesite; Unit2: white grey nummulitic limestone, limy tuff and marl: and Unit3: tuff breccia and crystal lithic tuff. Mineralization in the Varandan deposit has occurred as four ore sub

  10. The consequences of disposing wastewater in an endorheic wetland in southwest Iran.

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    Jafari, Hadi; Bagheri, Rahim; Forghani, Giti; Esmaeili, Mahin

    2015-06-01

    Wetlands are important ecosystems both at regional and global scales. They are home to a diverse group of flora and fauna, and provide water for drinking, irrigation, and recreational purposes. Miangaran endorheic wetland in SW Iran serves as the discharge point of the municipal wastewater of a nearby city; it receives agricultural return flows as well. To identify the consequences of the wastewater input, 29 water samples from the wetland's body and inlet streams were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters. The average EC of the wetland was 405 μS/cm; calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate were the dominant ions. The average pH was high, about 8.6, due to carbonate dissolution in the drainage area which was exacerbated by photosynthesis process inside the wetland. The concentration of phosphate was over the eutrophication limit of 0.1 mg/L. Nitrate contents varied from 5.7 to 12.3 mg/L. Trophic state index based on total nitrogen was about 63, falling within the eutrophic group. Heavy metal concentrations were generally higher than WHO drinking limits. Highest values of EC, nutrients, and metals were observed in the south and northwest, clearly signifying the role of wastewater input as the main source of contamination, which has resulted in the eutrophication of the wetland.

  11. Calculating fluoride concentrations data using ambient temperatures in drinking water distribution networks in select provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazouli, Mohammad Ali; Sadeghnezhad, Reza; Kalankesh, Laleh R

    2017-12-01

    Fluoride concentrations in drinking water were analyzed relative to air temperature data collected in different provinces of Iran. Determining suitable concentrations of fluoride in drinking water is crucial for communities because of the health effects of fluoride on humans. This study analyzed fluoride concentrations in drinking water from selected Iranian provinces. The data were derived mainly from a detailed literature review. The annual mean maximum temperatures (AMMTs) were collected from a popular website that maintains records of daily ambient temperature measurements for the last five years (2012-2016). Using regional ambient temperatures, the optimal value of fluoride in drinking water for each province was calculated by the Galgan and Vermillion formula. These optimal fluoride concentrations in drinking water for different Iranian regions were calculated to be 0.64-1.04 mg F/L. Most of the selected provinces were found to have acceptable concentrations of fluoride, except for Alborz, Khuzestan, and Hormozgan, which reported concentrations of 0.66, 0.66, and 0.64 mg/L, respectively.

  12. The Role of Human Capital Development and Innovation in Healthcare organizations of Markazi Province in Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Goodarzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increase of environmental challenges inevitably changes our methods; challenges such as rapid change, diversity of workforce, globalization, evolution and transformation of business and family roles, lack of skills and emergence of service sector affect not only the organizational structure but also the nature and functional role of business. In response to these environmental challenges and in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness and ultimately the productivity, the organizations have shifted toward two facilitators: human capital development and innovation. The aim of the current study is to survey the correlation between these two facilitators. Method: This research is a descriptive-analytical survey. The current research population includes all experts and managers of healthcare organizations of Markazi Province in Iran in January 2015. The statistical population consisted of 650 individuals; 180 individuals were chosen as the statistical sample using Cochran’s formula. In terms of data collection method, this is a descriptive-bivariate correlative type research. Library and internet resources developed based on the variables were used for collecting data related to theoretical concepts and extracting primary elements and indicators. Cronbach’s alpha test has been used for confirming the validity and reliability of the questionnaire (0.863 which indicates a high reliability. The number of collected questionnaire was 180 and they have been analyzed using Spearman correlation. Results:According to t-statistic in all hypotheses which is out of the range of -1.96-1.96, it could be said that human capital development, healthcare management, infrastructure of official institutions, infrastructure of unofficial institutions and knowledge (education management development have a significance effect on innovation at significance level of 95%. As a result, all research hypotheses were confirmed. Conclusion: Innovation

  13. Geochemical modeling of orogenic gold deposit using PCANN hybrid method in the Alut, Kurdistan province, Iran

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    Mohammadzadeh, Mohammadjafar; Nasseri, Aynur

    2018-03-01

    In this paper stream sediments based geochemical exploration program with the aim of delineating potentially promising areas by a comprehensive stepwise optimization approach from univariate statistics, PCA, ANN, and fusion method PCANN were under taken for an orogenic gold deposit located in the Alut, Kurdistan province, NW of Iran. At first the data were preprocessed and then PCA were applied to determine the maximum variability directions of elements in the area. Subsequently the artificial neural network (ANN) was used for quick estimation of elemental concentration, as well as discriminating anomalous populations and intelligent determination of internal structure among the data. However, both the methods revealed constraints for modeling. To overcome the deficiency and shortcoming of each individual method a new methodology is presented by integration of both "PCA & ANN" referred as PCANN method. For integrating purpose, the detected PCs pertinent to ore mineralization selected and intruded to neural network structure, as a result different MLPs with various algorithms and structures were produced. The resulting PCANN maps suggest that the gold mineralization and its pathfinder elements (Au, Mo, W, Bi, Sb, Cu, Pb, Ag & As) are associated with metamorphic host rocks intruded by granite bodies in the Alut area. In addition, more concealed and distinct Au anomalies with higher intensity were detected, confirming the privileges of the method in evaluating susceptibility of the area in delineating new hidden potential zones. The proposed method demonstrates simpler network architecture, easy computational implementation, faster training speed, as well as no need to consider any primary assumption about the behavior of data and their probability distribution type, with more satisfactory predicting performance for generating gold potential map of the area. Comparing the results of three methods (PCA, ANN and PCANN), representing the higher efficiency and more

  14. A case study of desertification hazard mapping using the MEDALUS (ESAs methodology in southwest Iran

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    Shahabeddin Taghipour-Javi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs prone to desertification can lead to substantial gains in the efficiency of land use planning and partly avoid negative outcomes. The main objectives of this research were the monitoring and mapping of ESAs to desertification in the agro-ecosystem of the Khanmirza plain, Iran, during two time series (2000 and 2013. In the current study, an adjusted “Mediterranean desertification and land use (MEDALUS” approach was applied to identify the most ESAs to desertification in the study area and monitorchanges inthe environmental sensitivity area indicator (ESAIbetween 2000 and 2013 over the studied area.Fivemain thematic indicators have been evaluated including, Soil quality indicator (SQI, Management quality indicator (MQI, Climate quality indicator (CQI, Vegetation quality indicator (VQI, and Irrigation water quality indicator (IWQI. Results show that the areas affected by the critical desertification status covered approximately 7% of the farmlands and the meadowlands in this agro-ecosystem region in the year 2000. Likewise, in 2013, almost 24% of the study area was sensitive to and affected by desertification, giving a rate of increase of approximately 1.3% per year.More than half of the land used for agriculture has been moderately to severely degraded. The results also show that the central places intheregionwere affected by farmlands and meadowlands degradingto barrenlands due to mismanagement and a lack ofeffective planning withland and water resources. However, rehabilitation of irreversibly degraded land requires serious measures that aim torestore the capability of those areas and increase resistance to degradation through effective planning in water and land in the region.

  15. The rudist buildup depositional model, reservoir architecture and development strategy of the cretaceous Sarvak formation of Southwest Iran

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    Yang Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the lithofacies, sedimentary facies, depositional models and reservoir architecture of the rudist-bearing Sar-3 zone of Cretaceous Sarvak in the Southwest of Iran by utilizing coring, thin section, XRD data of five coring wells and 3D seismic data. Research results include the following: According to lithofacies features and their association, the rudist-mound and tidal flat are the main microfacies in the Sar-3 depositional time. By investigating the regional tectonic setting and seismic interpretation, a depositional model was built for the Sar-3 zone, which highlights four key points: 1 The distribution of the rudist-buildup is controlled by the paleo-high. 2 The build-up outside of the wide colonize stage but reached the wave-base level in a short time by regression and formation uplift, and was destroyed by the high energy current, then forming the moundy allochthonous deposition after being dispersed and redeposited. 3 The tidal flat develops widely in the upper Sar-3, and the deposition thickness depends on the paleo-structure. The tidal channel develops in the valley and fringe of the Paleo-structure. 4 The exposure within the leaching effect by the meteoric water of the top of Sar-3 is the main controlling factor of the reservoir vertical architecture. The Sar-3 zone featured as the dualistic architecture consists of two regions: the lower is the rudist reef limestone reservoir and the upper is the tidal condense limestone interlayer. The thickness of each is controlled by the paleo-structure. The Paleo-high zone is the preferential development zone. Based on reservoir characteristics of the different zones, a targeted development strategy has been proposed. Keeping the trajectory in the middle of the oil-layer in the paleo-high, and in the paleo-low, make the trajectory crossing the oil-zone and then keep it in the lower.

  16. [Effects of extreme drought on plant species in Karst area of Guizhou Province, Southwest China].

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    Xiong, Hong-Fu; Wang, Shi-Jie; Rong, Li; Cheng, An-Yun; Li, Yang-Bing

    2011-05-01

    Based on the investigation data of damaged vegetations in Karst areas of Guizhou Province during the extreme drought in 2010, an investigation was made on the species composition, floristic composition, life form, leaf characteristics, and environmental conditions of drought-damaged plants at six sampling plots. At these plots, there were 31 plant species drought-damaged, among which, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Celastrus orbiculatus, Rapanea neriifolia, Myrsine semiserrata, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, and Cinnamomum glanduliferum damaged most, and the tropical evergreen arbors with mesophyllous, leathery, and simple leaf suffered more seriously. The damaged plants mainly located on the middle or upper part of steep slopes, and on the thin limestone soils originated from horizontal attitude carbonate rocks. The plants in the microhabitats with soil layer < 30 cm and rock-soil were damaged most, accounting for 87.4% and 40.0% of the total, respectively. It was suggested that the temperate deciduous trees with microphyll could be more planted in Karst areas, and that the microhabitat for the afforestation could be in gully and with thicker soil layer and good site condition.

  17. Map Service Showing Geology, Oil and Gas Fields, and Geological Provinces of Iran

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The geology data set for this map includes arcs, polygons, and labels that outline and describe the general geologic age and type of bedrock of Iran. The geologic...

  18. Diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. from Giemsa-stained slides, by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis in south-west of Iran.

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    Khademvatan, S; Neisi, N; Maraghi, S; Saki, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of present study was describing a real-time PCR assay for the diagnosis and direct identification of Leishmania species on Giemsa-stained slides in south-west of Iran. Altogether, 102 Giemsa-stained slides were collected from different part of south-west of Iran between 2008 and 2011. All the Giemsa-stained slides were examined under light microscope. After DNA extraction, real-time PCR amplification and detection were conducted with fluorescent SYBR Green I. For identification, PCR products were analysed with melting curve analysis. One hundred and two archived slides from suspected lesion examined by microscopy and real-time PCR. The sensitivity of the real-time PCR on Giemsa-stained slid was 98% (96/102). The melting curve analysis (T(m)) were 88·3±0·2°C for L. tropica (MHOM/IR/02/Mash10), 86·5±0·2°C for L. major (MHOM/IR/75/ER) and 89·4±0·3°C for L. infantum (MCAN/IR/97/LON 49), respectively. This study is first report in use of real-time PCR for diagnosis and identification of Leishmania spp. in Iran. Up to now, in Iran, the majority of identification of Leishmania species is restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of ITS1 and kinetoplast DNA. Our data showed that Giemsa-stained slides that were stored more than 3 years, can be use for Leishmania DNA extraction and amplification by real-time PCR. Compared to conventional PCR-based methods, the real-time PCR is extremely rapid with results and more samples can be processed at one time.

  19. Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age

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    Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ≤36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

  20. Modeling and forecasting of the under-five mortality rate in Kermanshah province in Iran: a time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Mehran; Jalilian, Abdollah; Hamzeh, Behrooz; Laghaei, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    The target of the Fourth Millennium Development Goal (MDG-4) is to reduce the rate of under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Despite substantial progress towards achieving the target of the MDG-4 in Iran at the national level, differences at the sub-national levels should be taken into consideration. The under-five mortality data available from the Deputy of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, was used in order to perform a time series analysis of the monthly under-five mortality rate (U5MR) from 2005 to 2012 in Kermanshah province in the west of Iran. After primary analysis, a seasonal auto-regressive integrated moving average model was chosen as the best fitting model based on model selection criteria. The model was assessed and proved to be adequate in describing variations in the data. However, the unexpected presence of a stochastic increasing trend and a seasonal component with a periodicity of six months in the fitted model are very likely to be consequences of poor quality of data collection and reporting systems. The present work is the first attempt at time series modeling of the U5MR in Iran, and reveals that improvement of under-five mortality data collection in health facilities and their corresponding systems is a major challenge to fully achieving the MGD-4 in Iran. Studies similar to the present work can enhance the understanding of the invisible patterns in U5MR, monitor progress towards the MGD-4, and predict the impact of future variations on the U5MR.

  1. Prevalence and molecular characterization of staphylococci isolated from sheep with subclinical mastitis in West-Azerbaijan province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Bentolhoda; Ownagh, Abdolghaffar; Mardani, Karim; Farrokhi Ardebili, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of subclinical mastitis caused by Staphylococcus spp. in ewes in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Molecular characterization of isolated Staphylococcus spp. from diseased ewes were performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and DNA sequencing of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gap) gene. Also, antibiotic resistance of staphylococcal isolates against different antibiotics was investigated. A total number of 900 milk samples from 450 native ewes in their mid-lactation period were examined by the California mastitis test (CMT). The CMT positive samples were cultured and bacteria were isolated from 86 (9.50%) glands and 74 (16.40%) ewes. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in the examined ewes was 16.40%. Microbiological analysis of milk samples revealed that 27 out of 74 sheep with subclinical mastitis were infected with Staphylococcus spp. Amplification of gap gene of 27 Staphylococcus isolates generated a single amplicon of 933 bp in size confirming that isolates were belonged to Staphylococcus genus. Digestion of PCR products by AluI endonuclease generated different RFLP patterns for each species. Nucleotide sequencing of gap gene followed by phylogenetic analysis showed that the most dominant Staphylococcus species were S. epidermidis, S. xylosus and S. chromogenes. Staphylococcal isolates showed the highest resistance to penicillin and ampicillin. In conclusion, Staphylococcus species, except for the southern parts of the province, play an important role in the development of subclinical mastitis in sheep in West-Azerbaijan province of Iran. Also, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and neomycin are the most effective antibiotics for treatment of this disease.

  2. Identification and characterization of metallo-β-lactamases producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates in University Hospital from Zanjan Province, Iran.

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    Doosti, Masoumeh; Ramazani, Ali; Garshasbi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Infectious by Pseudomonas aeruginosa has spread worldwide and metallo-beta-lactamases (MBL) are being reported with increasing frequency. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibiotic susceptibility and distribution of blaVIM and blaIMP genes in P. aeruginosa isolates from Zanjan Province of Iran. A total of 70 P. aeruginosa isolates were identified from patients admitted at intensive care units. The antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method and for production of MBL using double-disk synergy test (DDST). After DNA extraction, the presence of blaVIM and blaIMP genes and class 1 integron were detected by PCR. Most of the isolates were resistant to meropenem, cefotaxime and imipenem (IPM). Also, 44/70 (62.85%) IPM resistant isolates were confirmed by DDST. Of the 44 clinical isolates, 41 (93%) isolates showed MIC≥4 µg/ml for IPM. Based on the DDST results, 36 (87.8%) were confirmed to be MBL producers. PCR amplification showed that 23/41 (56%) carried blaVIM and 10/41 (24.3%) possessed blaIMP gene. Also, 31/44 (70.5%) isolates contained class 1 integron gene. Our results highlight that the genes for Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase, IPM β-lactamases and class 1 integrons were predominantly present among the IPM-resistant P. aeruginosa tested in our province and also the frequency of blaVIM type is higher than blaIMP. This is the first report of P. aeruginosa strains producing blaIMP with high frequency from Zanjan province of Iran.

  3. Identification of β-globin haplotypes linked to sickle hemoglobin (Hb S) alleles in Mazandaran province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajani, Faeghe; Mahdavi, Mohammad Reza; Kosaryan, Mehrnoush; Mahdavi, Mehrad; Hamidi, Mohaddase; Jalali, Hossein

    2017-05-13

    Carrier frequency of the β(S) allele has been reported to be 0.19% in Mazandaran province, northern Iran. Haplotype analysis of the β(S) allele helps trace the origin of its encoded hemoglobin (Hb) variant, Hb S, in a region. The aim of this study was to investigate the haplotypes associated with β(S) alleles in Mazandaran province. Capillary electrophoresis was carried out to detect individuals suspected to have a β(S) allele(s). DNA analysis (PCR-RFLP) was used for final confirmation. To identify 5' to 3' β-globin gene cluster haplotypes associated with β(S) alleles, family linkage analysis was applied. Six polymorphic sites (HincII 5' to ε, XmnI 5' to (G)γ, HindIII in (G)γ, HindIII in (A)γ, HincII 3' to ψβ and AvaII in β) were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method. Five different haplotypes were linked to β(S) alleles, while β(A) alleles were associated with nine haplotypes. Among the β(S) alleles, 53.9% were associated with the Benin (----++) haplotype, and the Arab-Indian (+++-++) haplotype had the second-highest frequency (23%). Unlike southern provinces, where the Arab-Indian haplotype is prominent, the Benin haplotype is the most frequent haplotype in northern Iran, and this may represent a founder effect. Since the Benin haplotype does not carry the XmnI polymorphism 5' to the (G)γ gene, which is responsible for high expression of Hb F, a severe form of sickle cell disease can be anticipated in patients that are homozygous for the β(S) allele in the northern region.

  4. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

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    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    over an area of 0.8 km2 with 2.3 % and 5.06% ilmenite in Upper Jogaz Valley upstream and downstream consequently. The study of heavy minerals shows that ilmenite is the main heavy mineral in the Upper Jogaz Valley sediments with 120µ to 3 mm, semi-angular to rounded grains with weak sorting. Titanomagnetite, rutile and sphene are present as accessory minerals. Pentlandite, magnetite, chalchopyrite and millerite are also observed as intergrowths or inclusions in ilmenite. Conclusions The investigation of ilmenite concentration in fluvial sediments of the Upper Jogaz deposit represents a gradual increase of ilmenite concentration away from the source rock. Titanomagnetite, sphene and rutile have similar enrichment patterns to ilmenite. This suggests that all Ti-bearing minerals had a similar behavior in the Upper Jogaz Valley fluvial system. The geological and petrographic evidence suggests that the origin of the Upper Jogaz Valley placer is the weatherlng of the Ti-rich gabbros. The higher concentration of ilmenite in the lower part of the valley is probably caused by the lower water energy and flow downstream. The mechanisms of hydraulic sorting (Slingerland and Smith, 1986, such as free settling of grains, entrainment of grains from a granular bed load by flowing water and shear sorting of grains in a moving fluidized bed were important in the enrichment of titaniferous placers in the downstream sediments. References Arshadi, S. and Mahdavi, M.A., 1987. Geological map of the Fanuj quadrangle, scale 1:100,000. Geological Survey of Iran. Robb, L.J., 2005. Introduction to ore-forming processes. Blackwell Publishing, United Kingdom, 373 pp. Slingerland, R. and Smith, N.D., 1986. Occurrence and formation of Water-Laid placers. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 14(1: 133-147. Yazdi, J., 2010. Economic geology of Fanuj titaniferous placer deposit (southwest of Zahedan and its comparison with Kahnuj titanium placer (Kerman. Unpublished master's thesis, Payame

  5. Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Drug Abuse among High School Students of Isfahan Province, Iran: An Action Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geramian, Nahid; Gharaat, Leila; Taheri, Shohreh Akhavan; Mohebpour, Fatemeh; Nahvizadeh, Mahmonir; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Heidari, Kamal

    2014-12-01

    Considering the problem of drug abuse in Iran especially in adolescents and the youth, recent alterations in drug abuse rate and its trend, the necessity to have local information about this problem, applied research has a determining role in management of this problem and making proper decisions. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop a questionnaire to assess the status of drug abuse among high school students of Isfahan Province, Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted out in 2009 in 20 cities of Isfahan Province. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice of high school students regarding addictive drugs and their associated causes. This was accomplished by recruiting 7137 students who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling. The designed questionnaire identified the status quo of drug abuse according to age, gender, and different cities of Isfahan Province. We also accessed information about the type of abused drug, the most common causes of drug abuse for the first time, the most important causes of drug abuse, mean age of abusers and mean age at the first abuse, common time and locations of drug abuse, and the most common routes of drug abuse according to gender as well as urban and rural areas of Isfahan Province. Reliability of the questionnaire, based on the calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was 77% considering a cut-off point of 0.07. According to the obtained results, the designed questionnaire is capable to assess the drug abuse status among high school students of Isfahan Province. Regarding the importance of teenage years in forming the future behaviors of adolescents and the opportunities provided at schools, it is prudent to pay more attention to interventions in this age group in order to increase their knowledge and correct their attitude toward illegal drugs and strengthening their confidence in this regard. These interventions can have an important role

  6. Detection and characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from feral pigeon in Qom province, Iran

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    Hossein Esameili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect and characterize Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 in feral pigeons in Qom province, Iran. Methods: In this survey, 290 cloacal samples were obtained from trapped feral pigeons in Qom province. Microbiological, biochemical and serological examinations were done to detect the E. coli O157:H7. Isolates were subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction for the detection of stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA genes. Results: Four samples (1.38% were positive for E. coli O157:H7 by using O157 and H7 antisera and only one E. coli O157:H7 strain isolated showed the presence of stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA genes. Conclusions: The results of present survey revealed that feral pigeons in Qom province had the potential to be a reservoir of E. coli O157:H7. The low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 can be attributed to sampling each pigeon just once and fecal culture limits, and true prevalence of the E. coli O157:H7 might be higher than our findings.

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Amu Darya Basin and Afghan-Tajik Basin Provinces, Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, T.R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Wandrey, Craig J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Cook, Troy A.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated volumes of undiscovered, technically recoverable, conventional petroleum resources for the Amu Darya Basin and Afghan–Tajik Basin Provinces of Afghanistan, Iran, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. The mean volumes were estimated at 962 million barrels of crude oil, 52 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 582 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Amu Darya Basin Province and at 946 million barrels of crude oil, 7 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 85 million barrels of natural gas liquids for the Afghan–Tajik Basin Province.

  8. Assessing theEffects of Nitrogen Dioxide in Urban Air on Health of West and Southwest Cities of Iran

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    Zallaghi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 is a corrosive, strong oxidant and a physiologic stimulant of lower respiratory tract. Every human being inhales an average of 10-m3 air per day; therefore, assessment of the effect of inhaled air on health is a vital issue. The main source NO2 in urban regions is intra-urban public transport system. The annual average of determined air quality for NO2 is 40 μg/m3. Objectives The present study aimed to estimate and compare epidemiologic indices attributed to the pollutant NO2 in the urban air of southwest cities of Iran, namely, Ahvaz, Kermanshah, and Bushehr, in 2011. Materials and Methods In the present study, data relevant to the air-pollutant NO2 in 2011 was obtained from the Iranian Department of Environment and meteorological organizations of the studied cities. Raw data processing by Excel software included instruction set correction of averaging, coding, and filtering. Then the meteorological parameters were converted as input file to the Air Q model. Finally, by using epidemiologic formulas, relative risk (RR and attributed part to NO2 in the three studied cites were estimated. Results The results showed that in summer, winter, and the whole year, Kermanshah and Bushehr had on average the maximum and minimum NO2 concentration, respectively, in 2011. In addition, accumulative number of cases attributed to exposure with NO2 in the studied cities was maximum in Kermanshah (21 cases and minimum in Bushehr (one case. The results revealed that approximately, the maximum number of death cases attributed to NO2 were observed in Kermanshah due to heart problems (1.06%, acute infarction (1.8%, and obstructive pulmonary disease (1.9% with concentration > 20 μg/m3. Conclusions Every 10 μg/m3 increase in the concentration of the pollutant NO2 in the studied cities led to increase in the RR of myocardial infarction, cardiovascular diseases, and obstructive pulmonary disease by 0.4%, 0.2%, and 0.4%, respectively, in

  9. Ten years of snakebites in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Rouhullah; Fathi, Behrooz; Shahi, Morteza Panjeh; Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2014-11-01

    Many species of venomous snakes are found in Iran. The most medically important species which are responsible for the most snakebite incidents in Iran belong to the Viperidae family, including Vipera lebetina, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes persicus, Vipera albicornuta and the Elapidae family, especially Naja naja oxiana. At least one kind of venomous snake is found in each of the 31 provinces, and many provinces have more than one venomous species. As a result, snakebite is a considerable health hazard in Iran, especially in the rural area of south and south-west of Iran. A retrospective, descriptive study of snakebite in Iran during 2002-2011 was carried out in order based on data collected from medical records of bite victims admitted to hospitals and health centers. From 2002 to 2011, 53,787 cases of snake bites were reported by medical centers in Iran. The annual incidence of snake bites in 100,000 of population varied from 4.5 to 9.1 during this decade and the number of recorded deaths were about 67 cases. The highest rate of snakebite was found in provinces of south and southwest of Iran. We suggest that people, especially in the rural areas, need to be trained and educated about venomous snakes, their hazards, prevention of bite and the importance of early hospital referral and treatment of victims. Also adequate antivenins as the main life saving medicine should be made available based on the recorded numbers of victims in each area of the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Candida species in cutaneous candidiasis patients in the Guilan province in Iran; identified by PCR-RFLP method.

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    Ali Akbar Fallahi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the epidemiological alteration in distribution of Candida species as well as significant increasing trend of either intrinsic or acquired in resistance of some of these fungi, the precise identification of Candida species is necessary for effective antifungal therapy and also for prevention of nosocomial infections. PCR-RFLP method is indicated to be a reliable, rapid and simple technique which is able to differentiate the Candida species. In the present study, we applied this method to evaluate the distribution of Candida species in patients affected with cutaneous candidiasis in the Guilan province. 896 clinical cutaneous samples were collected from different parts of skin and nail of suspected patients referred to clinical centers all over the Guilan province during 24 months. Samples were examined directly with 15% KOH and cultured on fungal specific media. Genomic DNA was extracted and the restriction enzyme Msp1 was applied for polymorphism analysis. Totally, 47 yeast strains were successfully isolated from different clinical samples and identified by conventional as well as PCR-RFLP methods. The results indicated that Candida albicans (36.17% was the most frequent species followed by C. parapsilosis (25.53%, C. tropicalis (19.14%, C. guilliermondii (14.89%, C. famata (2.12% and C. krusei (2.12%. Female finger nails were the most common location to be affected by Candida species. In conclusion, PCR-RFLP method was successfully used for recognition of clinical Candida species within the Guilan province and obtained results revealed C. albicans as the predominant causative agent of cutaneous candidiasis. However, distribution of other Candida species did not completely consist with the reported distribution of Candida species in other parts of Iran with different climate to the Guilan province.

  11. First record of the genus Schoettella and three new records of the family Hypogastruridae (Collembola, Hexapoda for fauna of Iran with an identification key for Mazandaran province

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    Elham Yoosefi Lafooraki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hypogastruridae family belonging to the class Collembola (Springtails are among the most important and abundant soil arthropods. These animals play important roles in decomposition processes and nutrient cycling. However, their fauna have remained too much unknown in Iran. In order to study of Collembola fauna in the Mazandaran province, some sampling from soil, leaf litters and mosses were made from different regions of the province during 2012-2013 years. Then, the springtails of samples were separated using Berlese funnel and preserved in 75-85 % ethyl alcohol. During the investigation, some samples belonging to Hypogastruridae were collected and identified. The genus Schoettella and the three species S. unungiuculata, Hypogastrura purpurescens and Ceratophysella engadinensis are new records for fauna of Iran and the two species Xenylla maritima and C. stercoraria are recorded for the first time from Mazandaran province. In addition, an identification key for local genera and species of the family Hypogastruridae in Mazandaran is presented here.

  12. Determination of antibiotic residues in the pasteurized milk produced in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran

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    Shirin Forouzan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To monitor antibiotic residues in pasteurized milk in West Azerbaijan province, North West of Iran. Methods: In this study, 848 pasteurized milk samples were collected from factories and tested for the presence of antibiotic residues using the Copan test kit based on the manufacturer’s instructions. Results: Results indicated that 30.14% of samples were contaminated with a variety of antibiotics based on the detection of associated residues and 3.19% of these samples were suspected. Given the current rise of antimicrobial resistance among microbial pathogens, these findings amplify the need to ensure continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk that intended for human consumption. Conclusions: Continuous monitoring of pasteurized milk may improve human health but also limit the development and transmission of antibiotic resistant strains in the environment.

  13. The ecological associations of surface-dwelling lizards in Qom Province in the Northwest of Central Plateau of Iran.

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    Mehregan Ebrahimi

    Full Text Available We used pitfall trapping to investigate the effects of elevation, plant density and soil structure on species diversity and the impact of these habitat factors on lizard habitat selectivity in the Qom Province in the Central Plateau of Iran. From a total of 12 1-ha plots, we captured 363 individuals of 15 species of lizards (six species of Lacertidae, five species of Agamidae, two species of Gekkonidae, one species of Varanidae and one species of Scincidae. A generalized linear model (GLM determined that elevation was the most important factor impacting species diversity. The highest species diversity was at the intermediate elevation (1289 m. Abundance of 6 out of 15 species showed strong relationships with some habitat factors. These relationships were demonstrated by habitat selectivity index (Ivlev's index. Our result supports other surveys that showed that elevation plays an important role in determining lizard species diversity.

  14. Detection and Identification of Toxoplasma gondii Type One Infection in Sheep Aborted Fetuses in Qazvin Province of Iran

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    M Kamalzade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to apply the nested-PCR and bioassay methods in detection and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii infection in provided sheep aborted fetus samples from Qazvin Province of Iran. Methods: Eighteen sheep aborted fetal samples were studied by nested-PCR-RFLP, histopathologi­cal observation and microbiological assay. Bioassay in mice was carried out by inoculating the brain samples intraperitoneally. Results: The results demonstrated the frequency of 66% infected sheep aborted fetal samples with T. gondii type one. Although we could not isolate any parasite from inoculated mice even after three pas­sages, but it was confirmed histopathologically formation of cyst like bodies in prepared mice brain sections. Conclusion: The results of the performed nested-PCR and formation of brain cyst in inoculated mice exhibited that T. gondii type one infection might be considered as one of the major causative agents for abortion in ewes.

  15. Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Iran's population stood at 49.8 million in 1986, 1 1/2-2 million of which were Afghan refugees. The annual population growth rate was 4%. The infant mortality rate was 10/1000 and life expectancy was 54 years. 40% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture, 33% are employed in industry and commerce, and 27% work in services. Iran is an Islamic republic dominated by the Islamic Republican Party. By the 1970s, Iran has achieved significant industrialization and economic modernization. However, economic activity was disrupted by the 1979 revolution and more recently by the war with Iraq and the sharp decline in oil prices. All major business and industrial growth indicators are significantly below prerevolutionary levels and unemployment is over 30%. Political infighting has hampered the formulation of coherent economic policies, and purges in the civil service in the postrevolutionary phase eliminated many qualified personnel. The petroleum, mining, utilities, and transportation sectors have been nationalized, but there is dissension within the Khomeni's regime as to how to proceed with land reform. Iran's gross national product was US$75 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of $1667. Inflation is about 25-40%.

  16. The relationship between knowledge of leadership and knowledge management practices in the food industry in Kurdistan province, Iran

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    Seyyed Mohammad Moosavi Jad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the knowledge of leadership and knowledge management practices. This research strategy, in terms of quantity, procedure and obtain information, is descriptive and correlational. Statistical population, consist of all employees of a food industry in Kurdistan province of Iran, who were engaged in 2016 and their total number is about 1800 people. 316 employees in the Kurdistan food industry (Kurdistan FI were selected, using Cochran formula. Non-random method and valid questions (standard for measurement of the data are used. Reliability and validity were confirmed. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out, using SPSS 16. The statistical analysis of collected data showed the relationship between knowledge-oriented of leadership and knowledge management activities as mediator variables. The results of the data and test hypotheses suggest that knowledge management activities play an important role in the functioning of product innovation and the results showed that the activities of Knowledge Management (knowledge transfer, storage knowledge, application of knowledge, creation of knowledge on performance of product innovation. Keywords: Knowledge-oriented leadership, Product innovation performance, Knowledge management practices, Iran

  17. The spectrum of β-thalassemia mutations in Kermanshah Province in West Iran and its association with hematological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabi, Masomeh; Alibakhshi, Reza; Fathollahi, Soheila; Farshchi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    β-Thalassemia (β-thal) is a hereditary autosomal disorder with decreased or absent β-globin chain synthesis. Two hundred and one unrelated β-thal carriers, attending the Kermanshah Medical Genetics Laboratory, Kermanshah, Iran, were investigated for β-globin gene mutations by amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (ARMS-PCR) and direct sequencing. Eighteen different mutations were identified in these subjects. Four of the mutations accounted for about 75.0% of the studied cases. IVS-II-1 (G>A) was the most frequent (45.8%) followed by codons 8/9 (+G) (15.9%), IVS-I-110 (G>A) (8.0%), IVS-I-6 (T>C) (5.5%), IVS-I-1 (G>A) (3.5%) and codon 44 (-C) (3.5%); the remaining 12 mutations were present with a frequency less than 3.0%. The mean corpuscular volume (MCV) values for males and females were 63.7 ± 3.7 and 63.2 ± 3.2 fL, respectively, while these values were 19.3 ± 1.6 and 19.3 ± 1.4 pg for mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH). The mean Hb A2 values for males and females were 4.4 ± 0.5 and 4.1 ± 0.6%, respectively. This study provides a distribution guide for β-thal mutations in Kermanshah Province, West Iran.

  18. Detection of responsible mutations for beta thalassemia in the Kermanshah Province of Iran using PCR-based techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Zohreh; Muniz, Adriana; Parsian, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Beta Thalassemia has been reported to be a common genetic disorder in Iran. To establish the molecular spectrum of the beta thalassemias in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, 185 unrelated beta thalassemia patients with Kurdish ethnic background were studied (181 beta-thalassemia major and 4 beta-thalassemia intermedia). Using polymerase chain reaction-amplification refractory mutation system (PCR-ARMS), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and direct genomic sequencing twenty different mutations were identified accounting for 98.1% of the alleles. Approximately 80.8% of beta-thalassemia chromosomes had beta(0) mutation. The most prevalent mutation was the IVSII-1 (G-->A) (32.97%), followed by CD8/9 +G (13.51%), IVSI-110 (C-->T) (8.38%), CD 36/37 -T (7.84%), CD8 -AA (5.94%), CD15 (G-->A) (4.86%) and IVSI-1 (G-->A) (4.59%). All of these mutations accounted for 78.1% of the alleles. The results described here will be of valuable help in the development of successful prevention programs for the population of Kermanshah.

  19. Characteristics of Patients With Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandeh, Mehrdad; Sadeghi, Masoud; Sadeghi, Edris

    2015-12-01

    In Iran, bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy sites among men, ranking as the fifth with age-specific incidence rate of about 11.2 per 100,000 males. It causes 8% of all malignancies in men and 3% of all malignancies in women. The aim of this study was to report the epidemiological, clinical, and pathological features of bladder cancer in Western Iran compared to other studies. This is a retrospective study between 2003 and 2014 when forty-four patients with bladder cancer referred to Hematology Clinic of Kermanshah, Kermanshah, Iran. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was in 39 patients. In the patients with TCC, the mean age in diagnosis for them was 65.43 years (± 11.64), range of age 42 to 88 years , thirty-three patients (84.6%) were male, and six patients (15.4%) were female. Of 39 patients with TCC, 16 patients (41%) had metastasis. 21 patients (53.8%) were smoker and 16 patients (41%) had muscle invasive. 35 patients (89.7%) were histological high grade and the rest of patients were low grade. In the TCC patients with increasing age, metastasis and muscle invasive increased. The age presentation of TCC in West Iran was similar to other studies. Percentage of patients with high grade is more than other studies, and also the number of patients with bladder cancer has increased during last 4 years. For better results, studies must be conducted with more patients in this area, and other areas of Iran with checking of genetics, race and environmental factors.

  20. Determination of neomycin residues in pasteurized milks produced in some dairy processing establishments in East-Azarbaijan Province, Iran

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    M.H Movassagh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues in milk have a potential hazard for the consumer and may cause allergic reactions, interference in the intestinal flora that result in development of resistant populations of bacteria, thereby rendering antibiotic treatment ineffective. The aim of this study was to determine neomycin residues in pasteurized milk in East-Azarbaijan province. For this, a total of 200 samples of pasteurized milk produced by five dairy processing establishments of East Azarbaijan province was randomly collected. The samples were obtained over the spring and autumn (100 samples for each season of 2010. First, antibiotic residues were determined by Copan milk test. Afterwards, the competitive ELISA assay was used for the determination of neomycin concentration in positive samples. Of all samples, neomycin residues were observed in 9 and 13 samples and the mean neomycin residues amount were 43.20 ± 8.10 and 26.63±2.08 µg/L in spring and autumn, respectively. According to the limit of neomycin (1500 µg/l in cow raw milk in Iran, despite all the remaining drugs in pasteurized milk, in any of the samples exceeded level of neomycin was not observed.Based on the results, continuousmonitoringofantibiotic residues inmilk samples is recommended.

  1. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province, Southwestern Iran

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    Kambiz Yaghoobi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.

  2. Zoonotic intestinal protozoan of the wild boars, Sus scrofa, in Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr province), Southwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area. PMID:27847411

  3. Analysis of the statues of organizational entrepreneurship in cooperatives: (Case of poultry cooperatives in Kermanshah Province, Iran

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    Ehsan Khosravi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, development of agricultural cooperatives is a key strategy for rural development in many countries. In this regard, the key role that Organizational entrepreneurship plays in organizational success, especially in the agricultural sector, should not be ignored. The main purpose of this study is to determine the status of organizational entrepreneurship in agricultural cooperatives. The statistical population consisted of poultry cooperative members of the Kermanshah province in the west of Iran (N=1012. A sample of 220 respondents was selected using Cochran's formula by the stratified random sampling method. To collect data, a questionnaire adapted from the standard questionnaire developed by Antonice and Histrich (2001 and Scheepers et al. (2008 was used. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by faculty members at the Universities of Tehran, Lorestan and agricultural cooperative experts in the Kermanshah Province. Cronbach's alpha was used to estimate the reliability of the questionnaire. The reliability was found to be acceptable. In this study, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics, which was conducted by using the SPSS20 software. The results showed that organizational entrepreneurship in cooperatives included four dimensions of risk-taking, innovation, proactiveness, and strategic renewal. It is recommended that the managers of cooperatives and members use innovative ideas of the members of cooperatives to prepare the grounds for strengthening organizational entrepreneurship in cooperatives so that the possibility and requirements for sustainable rural development is provided.

  4. Distribution, source identification and health risk assessment of soil heavy metals in urban areas of Isfahan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Keshavarzi, Behnam; Moore, Farid; Sharifi, Reza; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Kermani, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    The present study examines some heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in urban soils of 23 cities in Isfahan province, central Iran. For this purpose, 83 topsoil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-MS. Results showed that the concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are higher than background values, while Co, Cr and Ni concentrations are close to the background. Compared with heavy metal concentrations in selected cities around the world, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in urban soils of Isfahan are relatively enriched. Moreover, natural background concentrations of Co, Cr and Ni in Isfahan province soil are high and the apparent enrichment relative to other major cities of the world is due to this high background contents. Calculated contamination factor (CF) confirmed that As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn are extremely enriched in the urban soils. Furthermore, pollution load index (PLI) and Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) highlighted that highly contaminated cities are mostly affected by pollution from traffic, industries and Shahkuh Pb-Zn mine. Based on hazard quotients (HQ), hazard index (HI) and cancer risk (CR) calculated in this study, human health risk (particularly for Pb and Cd) have reached alarming scales. Results from principle component analysis (PCA) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) introduces three sources for soils heavy metals including mine and industries (mainly for Pb, Zn, Cd and As); urban activities (particularly for Cu, Pb and Zn); and geogenic source (Ni, Co and Cr).

  5. Prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody to Neospora caninum in dairy cattle of Hamedan province, west of Iran

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    Jamal Gharekhani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine neosporosis caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite N. caninum, was initially recognized in 1989 and is now reported as a leading infectious cause of reproductive failure in dairy cattle in world wide. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum infection in industrial dairy cattle of Hamedan province (west of Iran by ELISA method. Blood samples were collected from 492 cattle in 41 farms. Antibodies to N. caninum were found in 63(12.80% sera. A Significant difference was observed between seropositive cattle and dog presence in farm, dog contact with herd, abortion history and herd population. No significant differences were found between seropositive cattle and age as well as breed. This study is the first report of N. caninum infection in dairy cattle farms in Hamedan province. As per our knowledge, Neospora is an important factor in abortion of cattle in this region. Therefore, comprehensive studies for control strategies and improving management of dairy farms is necessary.

  6. Data on water quality index for the groundwater in rural area Neyshabur County, Razavi province, Iran

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    Mahmood Yousefi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public health is at risk from physical and chemical contaminants in the drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. The data from the current study was evaluated for groundwater quality in the rural villages of Neyshabur County in Iran. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, water samples were collected from 30 randomly-selected water wells during 2013 and 2014. The samples were tested in situ to measure physical parameters of pH and electrical conductivity and chemical parameters of total dissolved solids, total hardness and levels of calcium, magnesium, carbonates, bicarbonates, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfates. The APHA method was applied to determine the physicochemical parameters of the water samples. Keywords: Ground water quality index, Rural area, Neyshabur, Iran

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Lankarani, Kamran B.; Sarikhani, Yaser; Javanmardi, Kazem; Akbary, Ali; Akbari, Maryam; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Tabrizi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers. Methods This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran. Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the day. The data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some...

  8. LATE DEVONIAN CONODONTS FROM THE HOJEDK SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTERN IRAN

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    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts (34 species and subspecies from the Hojedk section north of Kerman span the late Givetian to early Famennian. The new data suggest that Devonian biostromes in central and eastern Iran were deposited on differing levels, and that the currently accepted ranges of Icriodus excavatus, Polygnathus subincompletus and P. mosquensis are late Givetian - late Frasnian, early to late Frasnian, and middle to late Frasnian. Polygnathus ashourii n. sp. is proposed. 

  9. Epidemiological Pattern of Bullying Among School Children in Mazandaran Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rezapour, Meysam; Soori, Hamid; Khodakarim, Soheyla

    2014-01-01

    Background: School bullying, the most common type of school violence, comprises a spectrum of aggressive behaviors that involve both perpetrators and victims. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the extent and nature of school bullying among middle school students in the North of Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 834 Iranian middle school students. Participants completed a self-report anonymous questionnaire measuring bullying and ...

  10. Adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in a flock of broiler chickens in Kermanshah province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Morad; Minoosh Siavosh Haghighi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) has been reported in many countries in the world. The IBH or similar cases characterized by hepatitis and presence of intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes have not been reported in broiler chickens in Iran. This is the first report on outbreak of adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis in Iran. On October 2012, an onset of high acute mortality in a flock of 2 day-old broiler chickens was reported to the Veterinary Clinic, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. The birds showed lethargy, huddling, ruffled feathers, and inappetence. At necropsy the livers were the primary organ affected which were enlarged, pale yellow with necrotic foci and multiple petechial hemorrhages. Tissue samples of liver, kidneys and heart were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. They were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathological studies. Significant microscopic lesions were seen in the livers. Large eosinophilic intra-nuclear inclusion bodies were seen in hepatocytes. Based on the acute high mortality, age of the broilers, gross lesions and histopathological findings (especially intra-nuclear inclusion bodies), the condition was diagnosed as adenovirus-like inclusion body hepatitis.

  11. Molecular Spectrum of Beta-Globin Mutations in Transfusion-Dependent Patients with Thalassemia in Qazvin Province, Iran

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    Mohammad Reza Sarookhani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Beta thalassemia is a common inherited disease,resulting from one or more of 200 different mutations in the betaglobingene. Qazvin province has attracted migrations of severaldifferent populations due to industrialization during the past fivedecades. The aim of this study was to define the molecular spectrumofbeta-thalassemia mutations in Qazvin province.Methods: Ethylen diamin acetic acid-containing venous bloodsamples were collected from 100 patients with transfusiondependentbeta-thalassemia from the department of Pediatricsin Qods hospital. Age, sex, history, and consanguinity betweenthe parents were recorded by reviewing the patients’files. DNA was isolated from leukocytes using the standardprocedure. Amplification refractory mutation system (ARMStechnique was used for molecular detection of mutations. Directsequencing analysis was applied for DNA samples whenno mutation was detected with ARMS.Results: Of the 200 chromosomes investigated, 11 types of mutationswere identified by ARMS technique while direct sequencingrevealed the remaining alleles (9 types of mutations.Total 20 different mutations discovered by this two-step approach.Abundant alleles (IVS II-1, IVS I-10, FSC 8/9 accountedfor 59.3% of the mutations. IVS II-1 with a frequencyof 31.3 % was the most common while HbS, Cd 74/75 and Cd15, each with a frequency of 0.55%, had the least frequencies.Conclusion: Beta thalassemia mutations are very heterogeneousin Qazvin province. Extensive ethnic and genetic admixture hasresulted in unexpectedly high number of different mutations,most of them similar to that of north and north-western provincesof Iran. Different mutations in this region suggest migration ofchromosomes fromdistant places and genetic admixture.

  12. Iran's Relations to the East: Nonproliferation and Regional Security in a Changing Southwest Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehsin, Muhammad [Quaid-I-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-11-01

    This study attempts to answer the following questions: would a successful JPOA result in nuclear nonproliferation and regional security in Southwest Asia; and could the Middle East and South Asia work together to contain the threat of Salafi jihadism?

  13. The Morphological Variations of Culex pipiens Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae in Yazd Province, Central Iran

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    H Dehghan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: Culex pipiens complex shows variations in morphological and biological characters including differ­ent biological forms and has medical and veterinary importance. Because of having morphological variations, some­times it is not easy to separate this species from Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. torrentium. The aim of this study was to  identify the  Culex pipiens complex species in order to use in control programs in the future. "nMethods: This study was carried out in two randomly selected rural villages in Yazd County, eastern Iran using dip­ping technique from April to October 2009. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16. "nResults: Average of siphon index in fourth-instrar larvae was 3.86±0.03, the minimum and maximum were calculated 2.43 and 5.14, respectively. Siphon/Saddle index was measured as average, minimum and maximum 3.2±0.2, 2.78, and 4.42 respectively. In our study, only 4 specimens had single seta 1 on segments III and VI (2.5% and the remaining beard double seta (97.5%. The maximum 3-6 branches seta 1a-S and 1b-S (95% were observed on siphon. "nConclusion: More populations of Culex pipiens from different areas of Iran need to be studied to gain complete informa­tion about the taxonomy and ecology of the species in the country. "n  "nKeywords: Culex pipiens complex, larvae, taxonomy, Iran

  14. Comparison of the human brucellosis incidence trend in Eslam Abad-e-Gharb town, Kermanshah province and Iran (2006-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Badrieh Sahargahi; Mansour Rezaei; Mohamadreza Naderi; Froud Ajdar; Mostafa Qubadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that mandates a high cost on nations. The aim of this study was to compare the human brucellosis incidence rates in Eslam Abad-e-Gharb, Kermanshah province and Iran from 2006 to 2010. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the incidence rates of human brucellosis in EslamAbad-e-Gharb town, Kermanshah province and Iranwere obtained from the existing files and compared by Z test. Results: There were 458 cases of human brucellosis in Eslam Ab...

  15. An empirical study based on BSC-DEA to measure the relative efficiencies of different health care centers in province of Semnan, Iran

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    Azam Ghotbuee

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to measure the relative efficiency of seven health care centers in province of Semnan, Iran, which were under the coverage of social security organization of Iran. The proposed model of this paper uses a hybrid of balanced score card and data envelopment analysis for performance measurement. The proposed sudy uses four perspectives of balanced score card including learning and growth, internal process, customer and financial perspectives and within each perspective, data envelopment analysis is adopted so that the outputs of each perspective are used as inputs of the other perspective. The preliminary results indicate that all seven units perform relatively well and the overall efficiency of all units in this province is 0.769.

  16. Monitoring of Heavy Metal Concentration in Groundwater of Qorveh County, Kurdistan Province, Iran

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    Nafiseh Yousefi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Nowadays, the quality of water is a very important concern. High levels of heavy metals in drinking water may cause some health problems such as cancer. The aim of this study is determination of some heavy metal concentrations in groundwater of some parts of Qorveh county, Kurdistan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study 25 water samples were analyzed, using Inductively Coupled Plasma for determining the concentrations of iron, chromium, copper and zinc. As a case study, the groundwater contamination in some parts of Qorveh county, Kurdistan, Iran, was investigated and compared to the maximum contaminant level specified by the World Health Organization (WHO and Iranian Standard Institute (IS: 1053, using ANOVA test. Results: Obtained results showed that in some cases the concentration of heavy metals were above WHO and IS: 1053. Conclusions: Heavy metals contamination can enter the food chain and cause various health problems. Thus, according to the obtained results, it is necessary to launch water management programs in the study area.

  17. Evaluation of Cichoric Acid of Echinacea purpurea Extract under Different Ecological Conditions in Semnan Province Iran

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    Elahe Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea is an herbaceous perennial plant as members of the Asteraceae family. It is one the important medicinal plant in pharmacy industrial. Active substances of Echinaceae are amplifier of body's immune system and antivirus. Echinacea is not native to Iran. The phytochemical traits of medicinal plants depend on ecological conditions involving growing areas, climate conditions; various grow stages and genetic modifications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of cichoric acid of E. purpurea extract in different ecological conditions in Semnan, Iran. Dormancy in seeds was broken by treating them with strafication in 4 °C for 48 h, was grown in nursery beds for autumn and early winter and transfered to four areas with different ecological conditions in late winter. Chashm, Ahuvan, Semnan and Foladmahale were chosen for this experiment. The spacing of plantlet was about 25 × 45 cm in the field. After 2- 3 months, aerial parts of the plants collected in all areas and extract samples were prepared and characterized using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The components of a basic HPLC system were shown significant values of the cichoric acid in plants under four habitats. The level of cichoric acid in one condition was more than standards level that reported in another references. In addition, ecological diversities have significant impacts the quantity of cichoric acid in E. purpurea.   

  18. Distribution and Seasonal Activity of Hard Ticks (Acari: Ixododae Infesting Domestic Ruminants in Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran

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    F. Fayazkhoo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae are one of the most important obligate ectoparasites of vertebrates, belonging to class Arachnida, which transmit a wide range of pathological agents such as viruses, bacteria, and parasites to humans and animals in Iran and around the world. Identifying the distribution of hard ticks in a region is important to monitor their control program, and thereby prevent disease transmission. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, sampling was carried out from different parts of the livestock body during four seasons in four geographical directions and five villages of Famenin County, Hamadan Province, Iran, during 2015-2016. The ticks were initially stimulated by using chloroform solution and then separated from domestic ruminants by forceps. The collected ticks were sent to a laboratory, and then their sex and species were identified by using valid diagnostic keys. Results: We studied 800 domestic ruminants, including cattle, sheep, and goats, and found 150 (18.7% cases of infestation. A total of 274 ticks were collected, 259 of which were hard ticks including four genera of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Repicephlus, and Haemaphysalis. The greatest diversity of species, including Hyalomma scopens (Hy. deteritum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Hyalomma anatolicum belonged to the genus Hyalomma. The frequency rates of Hyalomma, Dermacentor, Rhipicephalus, and Hemaphysalis genera were 73.74%, 15.05%, 10.03%, and 1.15 %, respectively. The highest abundance of ticks was observed in spring (152. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the diversity of hard ticks in the region and the highest abundance of ticks in spring. Considering the importance of ticks in disease transmission among humans and domestic ruminants, health authorities and respective organizations should take appropriate health measures to control and combat these external parasites.

  19. An Epidemiologic study of Oral and Pharyngeal Nonsquamous Cell Malignant Tumors in Kerman province, Iran

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    MR. Zarei

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to estimate crude and age-standardized incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal nonsquamous cell malignant tumors in Kerman province over a period of 11 years.Materials and Methods: The data used in this retrospective population-based study were extracted from the records registered in all pathology centers of Kerman province from 1991 to 2001. All confirmed cases of oral and pharyngeal nonsquamous cell malignant tumors were included in the study. The crude and age-standardized incidence rates per 1 million populations were calculated based on the 1996 census data and the population growth rate.Results: The total number of new nonsquamous cell cancers was 61, representing 18.2% of all oral and pharyngeal cancers in Kerman province. The average annual ageadjusted incidence rate per 1,000,000 population was 3.45 for both oral and pharyngeal tumors. The temporal variations in the annual incidence of oral and pharyngeal nonsquamous cell cancers was statistically significant (p=0.015. The most common types of nonsquamous cell malignant tumors in the oral cavity and pharynx were minor salivary tumors and lymphomas, respectively. The age-adjusted incidence was 0.74 formalignant salivary gland tumors, 0.66 for malignant melanomas, 0.4 for different types of sarcomas, and 1.65 for lymphomas.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the incidence rate and other features of nonsquamous cell malignant tumors of the oral cavity and pharynx in residents of Kerman province are similar to those reported by other investigators.

  20. Evaluation of drinking water quality indices (case study: Bushehr province, Iran

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    Nematollah Jafarzadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internal corrosion and the formation of scale in water distribution pipes are the most important problems for an urban water distribution system. Physical, chemical, or biological factors can lead to these two processes. Internal corrosion and scale formation can impact health, economy, and aesthetics. This study assessed the physicochemical quality parameters and evaluated the potential for corrosion and scale formation in drinking water at the distribution systems of 5 selected cities in Bushehr province (Kangan, Dashtestan, Dashti, Bushehr, and Ganaveh from 2009-2012. Methods: This study was carried out based on laboratory data collected from monthly samplings of tap water in the Water and Wastewater Company of Bushehr province during the years 2009-2012. Internal corrosion and scale formation rates were calculated using the Ryznar, Langelier, Aggressive, and Puckorius indices. Results: The results of the Ryznar, Puckorius, Aggressive and Langelier indices indicated that the drinking water in the 5 selected cities of Bushehr province was corrosive. Moreover, the majority of parameters used to determine water quality exceeded Iran’s national standards. Conclusion: It is concluded that there is problem of water corrosion and scaling in drinking water of distribution systems in selected cities.

  1. Prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in the lorestan province of iran, using the key informant method.

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    Razavi, Hessom; Kuper, Hannah; Rezvan, Farhad; Amelie, Khatere; Mahboobi-Pur, Hassan; Oladi, Mohammad Reza; Muhit, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in Lorestan province of Iran, and to assess the feasibility of the Key Informant Method in this setting. Potential cases were identified using the Key Informant Method, in 3 counties of Lorestan province during June through August 2008, and referred for examination. Causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were determined and categorized using standard World Health Organization methods. Of 123 children referred for examination, 27 children were confirmed to have severe visual impairment/blindness or blindness. The median age was11 years (interquartile range 6-13), and 59% were girls. After adjusting for non-attenders, the estimated prevalence of severe visual impairment/blindness was 0.04% (0.03-0.05). The main site of abnormality was retina (44%), followed by disorders of the whole eye (33%). The majority of causes had a hereditary etiology (70%), which was associated with a family history of blindness (P = 0.002). Potentially avoidable causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were found in 14 children (52%). Almost all children with severe visual impairment/blindness had a history of parental consanguinity (93%). Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of childhood blindness in the Lorestan province of Iran, a high proportion of which may be avoidable, given improved access to ophthalmic and genetic counselling services in rural areas. The Key Informant Method is feasible in Iran; future research is discussed.

  2. Molecular Detection of Equine Herpesvirus Types 1 and 4 Infection in Healthy Horses in Isfahan Central and Shahrekord Southwest Regions, Iran.

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    Taktaz Hafshejani, Taghi; Nekoei, Shahin; Vazirian, Behnam; Doosti, Abbas; Khamesipour, Faham; Anyanwu, Madubuike Umunna

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate molecularly the occurrence of EHV-1 and EHV-4 infection among equine population in regions, Iran. Blood samples from 53 and 37 randomly selected horses settled in Isfahan and Shahrekord, Iran, respectively, were collected. Detection of EHV-1 and EHV-4 genes in the blood samples was done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Out of 53 and 37 samples from Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (18.18%) and 3 (8.10%) were positive for PCR of EHV-1, respectively. Nine (16.98%) and 6 (16.21%) were positive for PCR of EHV-4, while 6 (11.32%) and 3 (8.10%) were positive for PCR of both EHV-1 and EHV-4, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Of the 7 blood samples positive for EHV-1, 4 (16.66%) and 3 (8.10%) were from horses >3 years old while 2 (18.18%) and 1 (16.66%) were from 2-3 years old horses, in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. Out of the 7 and 3 samples positive for PCR of EHV-1 in Isfahan and Shahrekord, 4 (22.2%) and 1 (7.69%) were Standardbred, while 3 (14.28%) and 2 (13.33%) were Thoroughbreds, respectively. EHV-4 was detected in blood of 4 (22.22%) and 2 (15.83%) Standardbreds and from 4 (19.04%) and 4 (26.66%) Thoroughbred horses in Isfahan and Shahrekord, respectively. This study has shown that horses settled in Isfahan central and Shahrekord southwest regions, Iran, are infected by EHV-1 and EHV-4 and thus serve as potential reservoirs and disseminators of the viruses.

  3. The Use of Critical Thinking in Social Science Textbooks of High School: A Field Study of Fars Province in Iran

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    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the use of critical thinking in high school social science textbooks based on Fars Province teachers' attitudes in order to present a model for textbook development. To achieve this goal, the use of the following skills in the social science textbooks was analyzed: reasoning, questioning, assessment of examples and statements, group work, interpretation, true judgment about issues, analysis and evaluation, logicality, and explicitness. It is a field study which was conducted in several high schools of Fars Province in Iran. The population of this study included 568 social science teachers. The sample was selected based on the stratified random sampling procedure so that 153 teachers participated in this study. The data were collected using a forty-four-item questionnaire based on Likert-scale, which was developed and validated by the researcher himself and some experts. The reliability coefficient was also estimated as 0.86. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, standard deviation, and coefficient of variations and inferential statistics (Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis Non-parametric tests. The result showed that the teachers of the Social Studies Textbook evaluated assessment of examples and statements, and analysis and evaluation skills as not satisfactory respectively. They evaluated the other skills as fairly satisfactory. Teachers of Sociology Textbook 1 evaluated explicitness, assessment of examples and statements, analysis and evaluation, and interpretation skills as not satisfactory respectively. They also evaluated other skills as fairly satisfactory. Teachers of Sociology Textbook 2 evaluated explicitness as not satisfactory, logicality as satisfactory, and other skills as fairly satisfactory. Therefore it is possible to rank order the social science textbooks of high school as satisfactory and not satisfactory with regard to the use of critical thinking. In other

  4. Etiologic Evaluation of Late Term Abortions or Stillbirths in Some Small Ruminant Flocks of South Khorasan Province, Iran

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    Arash OMIDI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abortion, bacteria, blood parameters, drought Abstract In the present study, late term abortions in 477 (17.9% of 2651 pregnant ewes and 129 of 680 pregnant goats (18.9% from 17 small ruminant flocks of the South Khorasan province, east of Iran were investigated. Multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select the flocks and aborted animals. From which, 25 appropriate fetuses were chosen for bacterial and fungal contaminations. Blood samples were also taken from forty aborted and forty healthy age matched sheep. No microbial or fungal agents were detected in 45.4 % and 42.8% of sheep and goat,s fetuses respectively. The bacteria isolated from aborted fetuses of sheep and goat´s were as follows: Escherichia coli 27.2% and 7.1%, Staphylococcus spp. 9.0% and 7.1%, Campylobacter fetus 9.0% and 14.2%, Staphylococcus spp. and Campylobacter fetus together 9.0% and 0.0 %, Klebsiellas 0.0 % and 21.4%, Aspergillus fumigatus 0.0 % and 7.1%, respectively. The concentrations of total tri-iodothyronine (tT3, total thyroxin (tT4, copper, phosphorus and magnesium were significantly lower, but thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH was higher in the aborted ewes compared to the healthy controls. The serum levels of calcium, zinc and vitamin E were not significantly different between the two groups. In conclusion, deficiencies of tT3, tT4, copper, phosphorus and magnesium, and increase in the TSH concentration could have taken part in the etiology of abortion in ewes. The most important cause of late term abortions was probably due to the maternal deficiencies (for example, iodine in the concurrent drought in the province.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors of alcohol and substance abuse among motorcycle drivers in Fars province, Iran.

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    Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Vossoughi, Mehrdad; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Lankarani, Kamran B; Sarikhani, Yaser; Javanmardi, Kazem; Akbary, Ali; Akbari, Maryam; Mahmoodi, Mojtaba; Shirazi, Mohammad Khabaz; Tabrizi, Reza

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this present study is to investigate the prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse (ASA) and its relationship with other risky driving behaviors among motorcycle drivers. This is a cross sectional study which is performed at Shiraz city of Iran. Data from motorcycle drivers were collected using a standard questionnaire in eight major streets at different times of the day. The data includes consumption of alcohol and other substances two hours before driving and some of the risky behaviors during driving. A total of 414 drivers with a mean ± SD age of (27.0 ± 9.3) years participated in the study. Alcohol or substance consumptions two hours before driving was significantly associated with risky driving behaviors such as using mobile phone during driving, poor maneuvering, and driving over the speed limit (both p alcohol and substance consumption among motorcycle drivers is an efficient way to identify drivers that are at a greater risk for road traffic accidents.

  6. Data on water quality index for the groundwater in rural area Neyshabur County, Razavi province, Iran.

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    Yousefi, Mahmood; Saleh, Hossein Najafi; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Ghadrpoori, Mansour; Suleimani, Hamed

    2017-12-01

    Public health is at risk from physical and chemical contaminants in the drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. The data from the current study was evaluated for groundwater quality in the rural villages of Neyshabur County in Iran. For determination of the essential physicochemical parameters, water samples were collected from 30 randomly-selected water wells during 2013 and 2014. The samples were tested in situ to measure physical parameters of pH and electrical conductivity and chemical parameters of total dissolved solids, total hardness and levels of calcium, magnesium, carbonates, bicarbonates, sodium, potassium, chloride and sulfates. The APHA method was applied to determine the physicochemical parameters of the water samples.

  7. Survey of aflatoxin M1 in cow's milk for human consumption in Kerman Province of Iran.

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    Rohani, Fatemeh Ganjeizadeh; Aminaee, Mohammad Mehdi; Kianfar, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples from Kerman, Iran. AFM1 was detected in 72 samples, ranging in concentration from Milk samples were collected from six dairy farms. AFM1 was found in ∼ 50% of the milk samples. The average level of AFM1 was below the tolerance limit (0.05 µg l(-1)), but 50% of the samples had greater levels than the maximum tolerance limit accepted by EU and the Iranian national standard. The method detection limit and limit of quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 µg l(-1), respectively, and recovery of the method was 87%. The results showed that AFM1 contamination is a serious problem for public health. To achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk, cattle feed must be monitored regularly for aflatoxin contamination and protected from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  8. Heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments of Karoon River, Khuzestan Province, Iran.

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    Keshavarzi, Behnam; Mokhtarzadeh, Zeinab; Moore, Farid; Rastegari Mehr, Meisam; Lahijanzadeh, Ahmadreza; Rostami, Soqra; Kaabi, Helena

    2015-12-01

    Karoon is the longest river in Iran and provides water for industries located along its banks, such as metal, petrochemical, and oil industries. It is also the source of drinking water for cities such as Ahwas, Abadan, and Khorramshahr. In this study, 34 and 18 surface sediment samples were collected and analyzed for heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The measured concentrations of heavy metals were compared with US EPA sediment quality guidelines, and the results showed that Cu concentration was above the threshold effect level (TEL) in 65.67% of the samples and Hg concentration was above the effect range median (ERM) in some samples. The results revealed that Hg was severely enriched (5 soap factory and Abadan petrochemical complex. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis also revealed the relationships between the studied parameters and identified their probable sources.

  9. Petrology and geochemistry of Late Proterozoic hornblende gabbros from southeast of Fariman, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran

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    Seyed Masoud Homam

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks are quite common in subduction-related magmatic suites and considered to represent magmatic differentiation process in arc magmas (Heliker, 1995; Hickey-Vargas et al., 1995; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The presence of hornblende as an important mineral phase in gabbroic rocks of subduction zone has been considered either as an early crystallizing mineral from water-bearing mafic magmas (Beard and Borgia 1989; Mandal and Ray, 2012 or as a product of reaction of early crystallized minerals (olivine, pyroxene and plagioclase and water-rich evolved melt/aqueous fluid (Costa et al., 2002; Mandal and Ray, 2012. The careful study of petrology and geochemistry of hornblende-bearing gabbroic rocks from Chahak area, of Neoproterozoic age, can provide important information about their petrogenesis. Because of the special characteristics of Chahak hornblende gabbros according to their age and their situation in the main structural units of Iran, their study can present critical keys for the knowledge of geological history of Iran specially central Iran zone. Material and Methods This study carried out in two parts including field and laboratory works. Sampling and structural studies were carried out during field work. Geological map for the study area was also prepared. 65 thin and polished thin sections for petrographical purpose were studied. Major oxides, rare earth elements and trace elements were analyzed for 4 samples (92P-1, 92P-3, B1and B6 from hornblende gabbros on the basis of 4AB1 method using ICP-MS of ACME Laboratory from Canada. In addition, major oxides of three hornblende gabbro samples (89P-62, 89P-59 and 89P-46 were used from Partovifar (Partovifar, 2012. Results and discussion Fariman metamorphic terrains, of Proterozoic age, consist of metamorphosed sedimentary and igneous (plutonic and volcanic rocks. Hornblende gabbros of the study area include plagioclase, hornblende, biotite pyroxene and

  10. Geochemistry and the origin of the Mamouniyeh iron ore-terra rossa deposit, Markazi Province - Iran

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    Marziyeh Mahboubiyan Fard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Iron is among the metals whose ore deposits are not confined to a specific geologic period of crustal formation and they have formed in various geologic environments during previous periods (Ghorbani, 2007. About 95% of iron ore deposits have sedimentary origin and have formed due to chemical deposition from ancient sea water. The remaining percent is the result of alteration and magmatic activities (Gutzmer and Beukes, 2009. In sedimentary environments, a large amount of sedimentary iron minerals have formed resulting in different iron facies. Iron oxide facies are of the most important facies (James, 1954. The most important Iranian iron deposits are located in Central Iran, Sanandaj- Sirjan and East Iran zones, and the Kordestan area (Ghorbani, 2007. In the Orumiyeh-Dokhtar Zone, many iron ore deposits have been formed in conjunction with granitic and granodioritic plutons related to Oligocene-Miocene plutonic and volcanic activities (Hoshmandzadeh, 1995. The Mamouniyeh iron ore-terra rossa deposit is located in the Orumiyeh-Dokhtar volcanic zone. Iron mineralization have occurred in trachytic-trachyandesitic lavas and pyroclastic rocks of Pliocene age. Materials and methods A total of 28 rock samples were picked up from ore and host rocks during field observations. Petrographical and mineralogical studies were performed on 15 thin sections of ore and host rocks. XRD studies were performed on 3 ore samples. In order to investigate the geochemistry of the ore, 10 samples were analyzed for major, trace and rare earth elements (REEs using the ICP-MS method. Result Field and mineralogical studies reveal that the ore is composed of hematite along with crypto-crystalline silica as alternating layers of various thickness and color. The existence of alternating layers of hematite and quartz implies that the ore is similar to banded iron formations, but on a smaller scale, related to submarine hydrothermal activities. Silica is found as

  11. Monthly prevalence and diversity of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae in Fars Province, Southern Iran

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    Davood Keshavarzi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To get new data about the ecology of mosquitoes, which would be valuable to develop programs for future provision of mosquito controls in the study area. Methods: During April to September 2012, larvae of mosquitoes were collected from six counties in south of Fars Province using dipping method. Characteristics of larval breeding places were considered based on water conditions. Species diversity was examined in terms of alpha and beta measures, with the intent of comparing mosquito diversity according to the typology of regions. Results: During this investigation, totally, 5 057 larvae of mosquitoes belonging to 5 genera and 17 different mosquito species were recognized, namely, Anopheles dthali, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles superpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus, Culex mimeticus, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex theileri (Cx. theileri, Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Culex sinaiticus, Culex torrentium, Culex modestus, Ochlerotatus caspius, Culiseta longiareolata and Aedes vexans (Ae. vexans. This is the first record of Ae. vexans, Culex perexiguus and Culex modestus in the Province. Cx. pipiens (27.3%, Cx. theileri (15.9% and Cx. quinquefasciatus (9.4% were the most abundant species found respectively. Cx. pipiens reached the highest density in August and July, while Cx. theileri, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. vexans were found in high numbers in June. Diversity analysis indicated the highest species diversity in the Mohr County (Margalef index of 1.41 and Shannon index of 1.7 and the lowest species diversity in the Lamerd County (Margalef index of 0.33 and Shannon index of 0.38. Conclusions: Regarding to this research, there are some potential vectors of medical and veterinary importance in Fars Province. Results of the present study may serve as a basis for risk assessment of emerging mosquito-borne diseases.

  12. The relationship between knowledge of leadership and knowledge management practices in the food industry in Kurdistan province, Iran.

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    Jad, Seyyed Mohammad Moosavi; Geravandi, Sahar; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Alizadeh, Rashin; Sarvarian, Mohammad; Rastegarimehr, Babak; Afkar, Abolhasan; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Momtazan, Mahboobeh; Valipour, Aliasghar; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Karimyan, Azimeh; Mazraehkar, Alireza; Nejad, Ali Soleimani; Mohammadi, Hafez

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between the knowledge of leadership and knowledge management practices. This research strategy, in terms of quantity, procedure and obtain information, is descriptive and correlational. Statistical population, consist of all employees of a food industry in Kurdistan province of Iran, who were engaged in 2016 and their total number is about 1800 people. 316 employees in the Kurdistan food industry (Kurdistan FI) were selected, using Cochran formula. Non-random method and valid questions (standard) for measurement of the data are used. Reliability and validity were confirmed. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out, using SPSS 16. The statistical analysis of collected data showed the relationship between knowledge-oriented of leadership and knowledge management activities as mediator variables. The results of the data and test hypotheses suggest that knowledge management activities play an important role in the functioning of product innovation and the results showed that the activities of Knowledge Management (knowledge transfer, storage knowledge, application of knowledge, creation of knowledge) on performance of product innovation.

  13. Integrating multi-criteria decision analysis for a GIS-based hazardous waste landfill sitting in Kurdistan Province, western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Mozafar; Hadidi, Mosslem; Vessali, Elahe; Mosstafakhani, Parasto; Taheri, Kamal; Shahoie, Saber; Khodamoradpour, Mehran

    2009-10-01

    The evaluation of a hazardous waste disposal site is a complicated process because it requires data from diverse social and environmental fields. These data often involve processing of a significant amount of spatial information which can be used by GIS as an important tool for land use suitability analysis. This paper presents a multi-criteria decision analysis alongside with a geospatial analysis for the selection of hazardous waste landfill sites in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. The study employs a two-stage analysis to provide a spatial decision support system for hazardous waste management in a typically under developed region. The purpose of GIS was to perform an initial screening process to eliminate unsuitable land followed by utilization of a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to identify the most suitable sites using the information provided by the regional experts with reference to new chosen criteria. Using 21 exclusionary criteria, as input layers, masked maps were prepared. Creating various intermediate or analysis map layers a final overlay map was obtained representing areas for hazardous waste landfill sites. In order to evaluate different landfill sites produced by the overlaying a landfill suitability index system was developed representing cumulative effects of relative importance (weights) and suitability values of 14 non-exclusionary criteria including several criteria resulting from field observation. Using this suitability index 15 different sites were visited and based on the numerical evaluation provided by MCDA most suitable sites were determined.

  14. SITE SELECTION TO HAZARDOUS WASTE LANDFILL OF GILANEGHARB TOWNSHIP IN KERMANSHAH PROVINCE, WESTERN IRAN BY USING REMOTE SENSING AND GIS

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    MOSLEM HADIDI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Each of them has different effects on site selection of hazardous waste landfill. Some factors cause limits to site selection such as; climatic, topographic, land use, edaphic, quakeable, regions under conservation of environment organization and so on. these factors may be cause unsustainable and move hazardous waste to surface and under ground water and also air pollution according to wind aspect, consequently different contaminations. This study was conducted in Gilanegharb town in Kermanshah province west of Iran in 2012 to find best area of landfill of hazardous wastes. Each of the factors valued and weighted based on experts opinions and then evaluated each of the preperated layers in RS and GIS softwares. In the first evaluation of 19 sites, 6 sites were investigated. The results show that asphalt factory site is the best region and then Shahrdary, Tan Kooshk sites are better to landfill of hazardous waste respectively. The reasons for selecting of this regions were far form surface and ground water resources and as a result avoiding to be defiled of ground water. On the other hand, there is no air pollution and malodorous of Ghilangharb town because of wind blow aspect in the region.

  15. Evaluation of the Water Quality Pollution Indices for Groundwater Resources of Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

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    Soheil Sobhanardakani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the increasing pollution of water resources, this study was carried out for evaluation of water quality pollution indices for monitoring of heavy metals (As, Zn, Pb and Cu contamination in Ghahavand Plain, Hamadan Province, Western Iran during spring and summer 2012. Methods: Totally, 20 ground water wells were chosen randomly. The samples were filtered (0.45 μm and maintained cool in polyethylene bottles. Samples were taken for the analysis of metals, the former was acidified with HNO3 to pH lower than 2. Metal concentrations were determined using ICP-OES. Results: The mean values of Contamination index (Cd, Heavy metal pollution index (HPI and Heavy metal evaluation index (HEI in samples for spring season were -2.27, 9.01 and 1.73 respectively and in samples for summer season were -1.95, 8.69 and 2.04 respectively. It indicates low contamination levels. Comparing the mean concentrations of the evaluated metals with WHO permissible limits showed a significant difference (P<0.05. Conclusion: The mean concentrations of the metals were significantly lower than the permissible limits. Although the heavy metal pollution of the ground water in Ghahavand Plain is lower than WHO permissible limits, but severe precautions consideration such as manage the use of agricultural inputs, prevention of use of wastewater and sewage sludge in agriculture, control of overuse of organic fertilizers and establishment of pollutant industries are recommended in this area.

  16. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, IranMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software.Results: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05.Conclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  17. Pharyngeal Myiasis Caused by Sheep Botfly, Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae Larva, Tabriz, East Azarbaijan Province, Iran: A Case Report

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    Teimour Hazratian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is caused by the larvae of flies infesting animal or human tissues and organs. This report aims to present a case of pharyngeal myiasis caused by the larvae of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae. A 55-yr old drug addict living in the Shahindeje village of Western Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran was referred to the Emam Reza Hospi­tal in Tabriz, having a medical history of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD and hospitalized due to respiratory distress, 20 days ago. He was intubated with a mechanical ventilator (MV because of his respiratory distress condition. There was an evidence of the presence of pulmonary nodules in his lungs following diagnosis, and a CT scan revealed a cavity in his lung. During the nasogastric intubation procedure, a larva was seen emerging from the patient’s mouth by one of the staff of the intensive care unit of the hospital. A laboratory diagnosis was per­formed in the Entomology Department of the School of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Interest­ingly, larvae of O. ovis were identified and confirmed following the laboratory proceedings.

  18. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

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    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  19. Prevalence and molecular identification of cryptosporidium spp. In pre-weaned dairy calves in mashhad area, khorasan razavi province, iran.

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    Asadpour, Mohhammed; Razmi, Gholamreza; Mohhammadi, Gholamreza; Naghibi, Abolghasen

    2013-10-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmental contamination with this pathogen. The aim of study was to detect and isolate the Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of naturally infected pre-wean calves in the Mashhad area. Overall, 300 fecal specimens from 1 to 30 days pre-weaned calves were collected from 10 farms in the Mashhad area the capital center of the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium spp. All infected samples were also analyzed using nested -PCR. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was also used to detect and identify Cryptosporidium spp. in PCR- positive samples. Eighty five (28.3%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 8-14 days old and diarrheic calves were significantly higher than other groups. Restriction digestion of the PCR products by SspI, VspI restriction enzymes and sequence analysis revealed the presence of C. parvum bovine genotype in all isolates. Our results suggest that pre-weaned calves are likely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic C. parvum.

  20. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

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    Sayyed Gholam Reza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran. The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6% males and 155 (47.4% females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%, 48 (14.7%, and 45 (13.8% cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4% of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2% patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years cases (P=0.16. The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE occurring in young people.

  1. Range of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for Pistacia atlantica forest development and rehabilitation (case study: Fars province, Iran

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    Nejabat Masoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of ranges of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for the tolerant species: Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica according to field study was the main objective of this research. This study was carried out based on random sampling across 20×20 km wild pistachio forests of Fars province (Iran. Results showed that mountainous and hilly lands are the main land types that pistachio species have evolved on. Statistical analysis of physical and chemical soil characteristics based on principal component analysis (PCA method showed that wide ranges in soil characteristics, even up to about 40% differentiation in some measured properties, did not restricts this subspecies natural growth. The main growth limiting factors were shallow soil depth and light soil texture that decreased storage capacity of soil moisture, necessary for wild pistachios survival during drought and long dry periods. Climatic elements were analysed through the same approach and showed that temperature, precipitation and wind with overall variability of 85.9% were the most effectual factors. Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica is one of the species refractory to various soil conditions and adapted to weak soils for the establishment and rehabilitation of forests in semi-arid regions.

  2. Volumetric assessment of airborne indoor and outdoor fungi at poultry and cattle houses in the Mazandaran Province, Iran.

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    Ajoudanifar, Hatef; Hedayati, Mohammad T; Mayahi, Sabah; Khosravi, Alireza; Mousavi, Bita

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the volume of airborne fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of poultry and cattle houses in the Mazandaran Province in Iran. Indoor and outdoor air of twenty cattle houses and twenty-five poultry houses were sampled using a single-stage impactor, which draws air at 20 L min-1 and impacts sampled material onto Petri plates containing malt extract agar. The plates were incubated at 30 °C for seven days, after which the resulting colonies were counted. The fungi were identified and counted microscopically and macroscopically. A total of 4,662 fungal colonies were isolated from 90 plates collected from indoor and outdoor air of cattle and poultry houses. Cladosporium (55.3 %), yeast (10.0 %), and Aspergillus (9.4 %) were the most common findings. The concentration of airborne fungi in cattle and poultry houses ranged from 10 CFU m-3 to 1700 CFU m-3 in indoor and 10 CFU m-3 to 2170 CFU m-3 in outdoor environments. Cladosporium had the highest mean indoor (424.5 CFU m-3) and outdoor (449.7 CFU m-3) air concentration in the cattle houses. In the poultry houses, the highest mean concentrations were measured for Cladosporium (551.0 CFU m-3) outdoors and yeast (440.7 CFU m-3) indoors. These levels might present an occupational risk, but threshold levels for these environments have yet to be established worldwide.

  3. Prevalence of Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms among Students in Kurdistan: a North-west Province of Iran

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    Rasoul Nasiri Kalmarzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Atopic dermatitis (AD, often called eczema or atopic eczema is a very common skin disease; AD looks different in infants, children, and adults. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the disease in Kurdistan province. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study using written questionnaires ISAAC  where 4,000 students in two age groups 7-6 and 14 -13 years in the province were using multi-stage sampling was carried out so that the first two floors rural and urban communities in every city and in every school pupil samples were selected based on 8-digit code. Results The prevalence of itchy rashes in the past 6 months, itchy rashes in the past 12 months and rashes at flexural areas were 7.5%, 8.9%, and 10.3%, respectively; the prevalence was higher in 13-14 years old than 6-7 years old and was higher in boys than in girls(Odds Ratio (OR=1.44, Confidence interval (CI= 1.49-2, P

  4. Ectoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces, North and Center of Iran

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    Elahe Ebrahimzade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs in Mazandaran, Gilan and Qazvin Provinces in fall and winter in 2013(December to March.Methods: Seventy dogs in 2013, from these Provinces were examined for ectoparasite infestation and diagnosis of them based on parasitological methods and identification keys was done.Results: The rate of infestation in these areas was 100%, 68.5% and 93.3% respectively. Fleas were the most com­mon ectoparasites on dogs in this study followed by lice, ticks, flies and mites respectively. The isolated arthropods were fleas in 77.5%, lice in 50%, ticks in 8.6%, flies in 6.8% and mites in 5.1% of infested dogs. The ectoparasite of the dogs included 4 flea species: Ctenocephalides canis (29.8%, C. felis (19.9%, Pulex iritans (2.9% and Xenopsi­ella cheopis (0.7%, 1 louse species: Trichodectes canis (41.3%, 1 tick species: Rhipicephalus sanguinus (0.7%, 1 fly species: Hippobosca sp. (1.1% and 1 mite species: Sarcoptes scabiei (3.6%.Conclusion: Fleas and lice were the most common ectoparasites in stray dogs of the studied area. Some ectopara­sites transmit important human disease, therefore regular monitoring of them is a major concern to control the ar­thropods and arthropods-borne diseases.

  5. Influenza viral infections among the Iranian Hajj pilgrims returning to Shiraz, Fars province, Iran.

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    Moattari, Afagh; Emami, Amir; Moghadami, Mohsen; Honarvar, Behnam

    2012-11-01

    Annually over two million Muslims from across the world converge on Mecca to perform the Hajj pilgrimage. Overcrowding at the Hajj facilitates spread of communicable diseases, especially respiratory infections. The aim of this study was to determine the attack rate of seasonal and pandemic influenza among returning Iranian pilgrims after the 2009 Hajj. Clinical data and throat swabs were collected at Shiraz airport from symptomatic Iranian pilgrims of Fars province who were returning from the Hajj between 15 and 21 December 2009. The specimens were tested at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences Influenza Research Center for influenza viruses by cell culture and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTrtPCR) according to standard protocol. Out of 3000 pilgrims from Fars province who attended the Hajj 2009, 275 symptomatic pilgrims were recruited into this study. Pilgrims had fever, cough, muscle ache and sore throat in various combinations. Twenty-five (9.1%) pilgrims had influenza by virus culture and these were as follows: influenza B (n=17), influenza A H3N2 (n=8) and pandemic H1N1 (n=5), whereas 33 (12%) had influenza by RTrtPCR: influenza B (n=20), influenza A H3N2 (n=8) and pandemic H1N1 (n=5). Both seasonal and pandemic influenza infections occurred among the Iranian Hajj pilgrims; seasonal viruses were more common than the pandemic viruses even though all pilgrims were vaccinated against seasonal influenza. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Incidence, risk factors and causes of severe neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in the South of iran (fars province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Khadije Sadat; Saki, Forough; Hemmati, Fariba; Inaloo, Soroor

    2013-03-01

    Today, Severe hyperbilirubinemia is the most common cause of neonatal readmissions. Identification of the cause of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is useful in determining whether therapeutic interventions can prevent severe hyperbilirubinemia. We conducted this study to estimate the incidence of severe hyperbilirubinemia in Fars province and to determine the underlying causes and risk factors, which would be of value in identifying and implementing strategies to prevent morbidity from this condition. All infants less than 28 days referred due to severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia were included. Complete history, physical examination and lab work up were performed. This is a longitudinal prospective study in 2009-2010. More common causes of severe indirect hyperbilirubinemia were blood group incompatibility, G6PD deficiency, sepsis and unknown. Risk factors of severe hyperbilirubinemia were Male sex, previous siblings with severe hyperbilirubinemia, early discharge, NVD, Breast feeding and cultural background of mothers. Our study showed severe neonate indirect hyperbilirubinemia is still prevalence in Fars province and ethnic and cultural background of the mothers was more effective than school education in preventing hyperbilirubinemia complication.

  7. Survey of Epidemiology of Cancers in the Patients above 15 Years Old in East Azerbaijan Province, Iran 2013

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    Ali Hosein Zeinalzadeh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Cancer is a major public health problem in many countries of the world. At the present time, cancer is the third leading cause of death in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine of epidemiologic status and incidence rates of cancers in the patients above 15 years old in East Azerbaijan province , Iran.   Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 3832 new cancer cases were obtained from cancer registries in East Azerbaijan province in 2012. Characteristics of all registered cancers (including age, sex, and etc were collected in a special form. Then the data were summarized and coded using the International Classification of Disease (ICD. Frequency, mean, standard deviation and 95% confidence interval of the study variables were calculated. Age standardized incidence rate was performed by direct method using the world standard population. The data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software.   Results: Among 3832 cases, 2047(53.5% were males and 1782 (46.5% were females. The mean age and standard deviation of cancer incidence were 58.1 and 15.8 years, respectively. The overall incidence rate of all types of cancer in population was 132.5 in 100000 people per year. Among men, the highest frequency (263 of all cancers occurred in the 65-69 age group but in women the highest (220 of them occurred in the 50-54 age group. The highest incidence rate (813.3 per 100000 of cancers had occurred in men who were older than 85 years. While the highest (406.3 per 100000 of them in women had occurred in 70-74 years. The most common cancers among males and females were stomach (11.4% and breast (30%, respectively. Histopathologically the most common cancers of stomach, breast and skin were adenocarcinoma, infiltrating duct carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma, respectively.   Conclusion: According to the results, the most common cancers in East Azerbaijan province were breast and stomach, respectively. Therefore

  8. The pattern of self-harm in Fars Province in South Iran: A population-based study.

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    Gholamzadeh, Saeid; Zahmatkeshan, Mozhghan; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Elaheh; Hoseni, Sanaz

    2017-10-01

    Non-suicidal self-harm includes cutting, scratching, burning and minor overdosing. There have been few studies that have examined the rate and pattern of self-harm among different individuals of the society. We performed a population-based study to determine different aspects of non-suicidal self-harm in cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars Province and south Iran. In a population-based longitudinal survey, we applied data from cases referred to legal medicine organization of Fars province. The survey included questions about the history, method, frequency, age of onset and help-seeking for non-suicidal self-harm. The data about non-suicidal self-harm were collected since 2007 to 2011 and analyzed using students' T-test for continuous data and χ2 for binary or categorical data using SPSS ver. 21.0. Totally 2166 individuals were diagnosed who had ever harmed themselves. Self-injuries such as cutting, scratching and self-hitting were the most common forms of non-suicidal self-harm (83.2%). The mean age of onset was 25.7 ± 2.6 years. Self-injury was more frequent in males and individuals with lower education levels mostly unemployed. The most frequent injury site was posterior side of the body for example shoulders (157; 9.8%) and the most type of the injury was bruise in 398(55.26%) cases. Hard objects (1197; 55.26%) were the most used devices for self-injury followed by cutting and sharp devices. Among those who reported non-suicidal self-harm, 56% had sought help while self-injury. We found a high prevalence of non-suicidal self-harm in different individuals of the society in Fars province since 2007 to 2011. Many mental-health symptoms as well as legal and financial gains should be evaluated for any association with this behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project - Southwest Wyoming Province (037) Estimated Depth to the Top of the Frontier Formation

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    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset shows depth contours to the top of the Frontier Formation within the Southwestern Wyoming Province, southwestern Wyoming, northeastern Utah, and...

  10. Epidemiological and demographic study of acute animal biting in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Western Iran

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    Hamid Kassiri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence, epidemiology and demography of acute animal bites referred to Abdanan health centers in the years 2009 to 2013. Methods: This study was a descriptive analytical research. Questionnaires for each case of acute animal bite was completed. Data about age, gender, kind of animal, residency, site of bite, etc taken from Abdanan health centers were analyzed. Data were analyzed in SPSS by using descriptive statistics. Results: Total number of exposed persons to acute animal bites was reported 67 in 2009 and 69 in 2013. The average incidence rate was 1.2 per 1 000 population. Bites were frequent among the age group of 20-30 years. Most of the cases were self-employment. Around 83.8% of cases were bitten by dogs. Of total 309 studied patients, 73.8% were male. Feet (71.5% and hands (22.7% were the most common body part affected. About 53.1% of cases were in rural population. Conclusions: Dogs seems to play a very important role in the epidemiology of rabies in Abdanan, Iran. No cases of human rabies were observed in our study. This may be because of increasing public awareness and the upgrading of health and treatment centers, all of which in study region provide post-exposure anti-rabies treatment including vaccination, immunoglobulin and wound washing.

  11. Intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of Karaj City, Tehran province, Iran in 2006-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Esmailnia, Kasra; Karim, Gholamreza; Nasir, Mehdi; Akhavan, Omid

    2009-09-01

    Karaj is an area with large influx of refugee people in Iran. To increase knowledge about parasitic infections, we carried out this research during 2006-2008. We recorded the stool examination results and some of their personal characteristics. A total of 13,915 human stools were examined, and 649 (4.7%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Among them, 13 (0.09%) had worm and 636 (4.6%) had protozoan infections. Maximum infections belonged to Giardia intestinalis, and 534 (3.8%) samples had this infection. Other parasitic infections included Entamoeba coli (0.39%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.021%), Blastocystis hominis (0.08%), Trichomonas hominis (0.1%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.06%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.007%), Endolimax nana (0.05%), Enterobius spp. eggs (0.028%), Taenia proglottids (0.028%), and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae (0.03%). The maximum numbers of referred people to laboratories were in July and the maximum percentage of infections was in August. There is a point that all 5 Strongyloides stercoralis infections were pertained to 2008. With attention to the rate of parasitic infections (4.7%), it seems that we should take additional educational information to wide spectrum of people living in this city.

  12. Plants Species Diversity in Hyrcanian Hardwood Forests, Northern Iran (Case Study: Mazandaran Province

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    Kambiz Abrari Vajari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to better understand and manage forest ecosystems, it is important to study the relationship between environmental factors and plants in these ecosystems. We investigated plant species diversity of three hardwood forest stands in the Hyrcanian forests, Sari, northern Iran. Our aim was to determine the effect of forest stand type on the diversity of plant species. One plot 150 × 150 m established at the center of each forest stand and in each plot, nine subplots 50 × 50 m were selected. Diversity values (Richness, diversity and evenness indices were measured in five sample areas 0.01 ha per 50 × 50 m quadrates by estimating cover percentage of each species. The results showed that Geophytes (43.33% had the highest life form spectrum among species. JACCARD'S similarity index revealed that the highest values exist between Parrotia-Carpinus and Carpinus stands. All herb layer species diversity indices varied significantly among different forest stands. Cover percentage significantly positively correlated with diversity indices in Parrotia-Carpinus stand. Diversity and richness indices of herb-layers plants were significantly negatively correlated with cover percentage in Fagus stand. Correlation analysis between all diversity measures and cover percentage in Carpinus stand wasn't significant. The result of the present study revealed that species diversity in temperate broad-leaved deciduous forest was significantly influenced by forest stand type

  13. Energy and economic analysis of greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran province of Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaeian, Narges; Omid, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Hojat [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Tehran, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The aims of this study were to determine energy use pattern, to investigate the energy use efficiency, and to make an economical analysis in greenhouse strawberry production in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 25 greenhouse strawberry growers using a face to face questionnaire method. The results indicate that greenhouse strawberry production consumed a total energy of 121891.33 MJ ha{sup -1}. About 78% of this was generated by diesel fuel, 10% from chemical fertilizers, and 4.5% from electricity. Energy ratio, specific energy, net energy and energy intensiveness of greenhouse strawberry production were 0.15, 12.55 MJ kg{sup -1}, -683488.37 MJ ha{sup -1} and 8.18 MJ {sup -1}, respectively. Determination of the efficient allocation of energy resources were modeled by Cobb-Douglas production function. Econometric model evaluation showed the impact of human labor, fertilizers, installation of equipment and transportation costs for strawberry production were all significant at 1% level. The elasticity estimates indicated that among the cost inputs, transportation is the most important input (-0.75) that influences total cost of production, followed by labor (0.31), fertilizers (0.18) and installation of equipments (0.22). The benefit-cost ratio and net return were obtained as 1.74 and 151907.91 ha{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  14. Prevalence of Sleep Disorders Among Children 4 - 6 Years Old in Tehran Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgoli, Giti; Sheikhan, Zohre; Soleimani, Farin; Nasiri, Malihe; Amiri, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep patterns may change over a person’s lifetime; however, the quantity and quality of sleep always depend on individual factors such as age, sex, and psychological and environmental factors. In children, sleep is as important as development. Quantitative sleep problems related to sleep onset and qualitative sleep disorders such as frequent awakenings may lead to insufficient sleep. Objectives This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sleep disorders among children 4 - 6 years old attending the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, in 2013. Patients and Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 400 children selected using a multistage sampling method. Data were collected by interviews. The questionnaire included two sections: a demographic section with questions about the demographic characteristics of the children and parents and a children’s sleep habit questionnaire (CSHQ). Data were analyzed by SPSS 16 and different statistical tests were used (P Sleep disorders in children threaten growth and development, and are dangerous for their health. Sleep disorders should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children’s learning and behavioral problems. PMID:27651942

  15. Sarcocystis and Its Complications in Camels (Camelus dromedarius) of Eastern Provinces of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valinezhad, Akbar; Ahmadi, Nasrollah

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. was investigated by gross and histopathological examinations in 250 camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered from 2002 to 2005 in the Mashhad Slaughterhouse, eastern Iran. Samples were taken from the diaphragm, heart, tongue, esophagus and masseter muscles for histopathological studies. No macroscopic sarcocysts were found in the samples at gross inspection. Sarcocysts were detected in 209 of 250 (83.6%) examined camels at histopathological level. The infection rate of the esophagus, heart, masseter muscles, diaphragm, and tongue was 58.8%, 48.0%, 46.8%, 41.6%, and 28.0%, respectively. There was no significant difference in the rate of infection between male (85.8%) and female (81.0%) camels. The tissue response to vital cysts was minimal; however, reaction to the degenerating cysts was severe and caused tissue damages resulting in hyperemia, hemorrhages, mononuclear cell infiltration, necrotic changes, and fibrosis. The wild and domestic carnivores especially dogs may be the final hosts of Sarcocystis spp. in this area. PMID:19127328

  16. Hygienic Quality of Meat Products in Qazvin Province during (2011-2014, Iran

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    Paymanh Ghajarbeygi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: One way to increasing shelf life of meat is the production of sausages along with additives. One of these additives contains nitrite that in an acceptance limit is not a threat for human health but if it's amount is higher than standard, it will react in the body with secondary amine and the result is the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines. Also, the consumption of healthy and safe food is concerned for every consumer. That's why we decided to examine Nitrite, Carbohydrates, Fat, Protein, Humidity, microbial contamination and exterior features of the sausages which were produced in Qazvin province. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of sausages produced in Qazvin province from 2011 to 2014. A total of 74 samples of products that have been produced in the factories of meat products of Qazvin, distribution system and retail level were collected. Additive composition, microbial contamination and exterior features were examined according to standard methods of Iranian national standards No 2303. Results: The overall result showed that all products comply with their nitrite acceptance limit. Of course, the amount of humidity (13.84% and carbohydrates (39.62% were infringement but the two combinations no adverse effects on human health and microorganism counts determined in overall processing were not at harmful levels for human health and microbial contamination of all meat products of our study were acceptable. Conclusion: According to the results, we should have more control on the hygienic quality of meat products over the production, storage and supply periods in this area.

  17. Studying Present Dairy Industry Management in the Khorasan Province of Iran

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    R Valizadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present condition and feeds utilization of dairy industry in Khorasan province was studied in 113 dairy farms based on the official data from Ministry of Agricultural-Jehad. Questioners evaluated the required parameters. The percentage proportion of lactating cows, dry cows, pregnant heifers, virgin heifers, 6-12 months old calves, under 6 months and 3 months old calves and breeding bulls were; 39, 10, 11, 6, 15, 9, 10 and 0.1 precent, respectively. Mean of milk yield was 25.5 kg/day with fat content of 3.5%. A large variation was detected in forage quality and concentrate constituents and composition. Generally, difference between feed costs in various seasons was about 30%. All group of cows were offered more nutrients than the recommended levels. The percentage of extra feed cost in comparison with the total dairy cost of feeding was 9.1, 14.3, 15.0 and 9.1 percent for the high, medium and low milk- producing and dry cows. Most of the used concentrates were prepared in the farms. Net energy of lactation (NEL and protein contents of the hand made and factory made concentrates were 1.73±0.03 Mcal per kg dry matter, 16.1±0.8% and 1.68±0.04 Mcal per kg dry matter and 15.3±1.04%, respectively. In most of the farms, silos were non-appropriately made. It was concluded that most of the utilized rations were imbalance in energy and protein ratios. Technical attention must be regarded to the ration formulation and forage quality in the province.

  18. Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp. in Khorasan Province, Iran

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    J Rafijenad

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old and par¬ticularly among farmers (36.4%. A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%, L. dahli (32%, L. geometricus (5% and L. pallidus (1%. Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit¬ies, Mashad had (60% the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa¬tients exhib¬ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.

  19. Systematics, Bioecology, and Medical Importance of Widow Spiders (Lathrodectus spp. in Khorasan Province, Iran

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    J Rafijenad

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the hospitalization of 195 individuals due to the spider bite in 1995 and three cases of recorded death in the year of 1993 which were referred to Emam Reza Hospital in Mashad, the present study was undertaken on bionomics and medical importance of Lathrodectus spp in Khorasan Province, during 1995-2005. A total cases of 195 bites were studied composing of 70.8 % males and 29.2% females. The most prevalence cases were observed in mid age (20-55 years old and par¬ticularly among farmers (36.4%. A total number of 216 adult widow spiders and 258 egg sacs were collected from their habitats in different localities of 15 counties in the province. The following species have been recognized: Lathrodectus tredecimgottatus (62%, L. dahli (32%, L. geometricus (5% and L. pallidus (1%. Here is the first report on the occurrence of males of L. pallidus as well as both sexes of L. trdecimgottatus and L. geometricus in the country. The sex ratio among collected specimens was 88% and 12% female and male, respectively. Summer provides the most suitable and favorable climatic condition for the activities of these spiders. However 65% of spiders were collected in this season. Among different cit¬ies, Mashad had (60% the most reported cases in the study area. Foot was more injured than other parts. 96.5% of pa¬tients exhib¬ited localized pain from which only 2% had no pain in the bitten part and 87% had a generalized pain in whole body.

  20. Child Abuse and Neglect Epidemiology in Secondary School Students of Yazd Province, Iran.

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    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    Child abuse is an issue that has many physical and psychological consequences. This study was designed and conducted to investigate the current situation regarding child abuse, which can be used as a guideline for planning future interventions. This was a descriptive, analytic cross-sectional study on 700 Yazd secondary school students in 2013, using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The collected data was analyzed using the SPSS v.19 software and appropriate statistical tests and logistic regression analysis. P values of Child abuse frequency was 93.5% (92.2% of boys and 94.4% of girls). The most common domains of child abuse among all students were neglect (83.8%), psychological (76.1%), physical (36.1%) and sexual (28.8 %), respectively. The most common domains of child abuse among female students were neglect (84.9%), psychological (82.3%), physical (32.5%) and sexual (31.5 %), and among male students, these were neglect (82.3%), psychological (67.9%), physical (41%) and sexual (25.3%). Demographic variables included substance abuse of parents, father's education, parents living status and having other jobs, which were significantly related variables to child abuse and neglect (P value < 0.05). Our study is the first investigation performed on patients with LCH and its possible association with EBV in Iran. Considering the P = 0.004, which is statistically significant, the findings do support the hypothesis of a possible role for EBV in the pathogenesis of LCH. These results are in accordance with several previous investigations, with positive findings.

  1. CRIME CONGO HEMORHAGIC FEVER EPIDEMY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF ISFAHAN PROVINCE IN IRAN

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    K MOSTAFAVIZADE

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a viral disease of Buynaviridae family. Disease is primarily zoonosis but sporadic and epidemic human infection can occur. During year 2001 many outbreaks have been reported from Kosovo, Iran, Albania and Pakistan. A Hyalomma tick can transmit the disease and virus reservoirs are rodents, ostrich, ground frequenting birds and hyalomma tick. Another way of human infection is contact with infected animal blood and products or crushing a tick with bare hands. Contact with infected human blood can also transmit the disease. During outbreak, 18 cases were confirmed by serologic methods. 12 men and 6 women aged 20-40 years old. Ten of men and 5 of women had history of contact with infected animal blood or tissue and a lady had been bitten by a tick. A young assistant of internal medicine who came in contact with the first patient, developed the disease. We were not able to determine route of transmission in one case. The most frequent clinical signs included fever, myalgia, weakness, fatique, bleeding tendency, petechia, purpura and jundice. Lab exam revealed thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and prolongation of prothrombin time. Althoug the most common route of human infection is tick bite, but in this outbreak the main route was contact with infected animal blood and tissue. This point confirms that unsanitary slaughtering of animal could be dangerous. It seems that reeducating physicians, veterinarians and those who take care of such patients maybe helpful to neighboring countries triggered the outbreak, so that educating people who are involved in husbandry may limiting human infection.

  2. Dental solid waste characterization and management in Iran: a case study of Sistan and Baluchestan Province.

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    Bazrafshan, Edris; Mohammadi, Leili; Mostafapour, Ferdos Kord; Moghaddam, Alireza Ansari

    2014-02-01

    The management of dental solid waste continues to be a major challenge, particularly in most healthcare facilities of the developing world. In Iran, few studies on management of dental solid waste and its composition are available. An effort has been made through this study to evaluate the hazardous and infectious status of dental solid waste, keeping in mind its possible role in cross-infection chain. For this study, 123 private dental centres and 36 public dental centres were selected and the composition and generation rate of dental solid waste produced were measured. Dental solid waste was classified to four main categories: (i) domestic-type; (ii) potentially infectious; (iii) chemical and pharmaceutical; and (iv) toxic, which constituted 11.7, 80.3, 6.3, and 1.7%, respectively, of the total. Also, the results indicated that the dental solid waste per patient per day generation rate for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 169.9, 8.6, 153.3, 11.2, and 3.3 g/patient/d, respectively. Furthermore, the per day generation rates for total, domestic-type, potentially infectious, chemical and pharmaceutical, and toxic wastes were 194.5, 22.6, 156.1, 12.3, and 3.4 kg/d, respectively. According to findings of this study, for best management of dental waste it is suggested that source reduction, separation, reuse, and recycling programmes be implemented and each section of dental waste be collected and disposed of separately and in accordance with related criteria.

  3. Characteristics of Fatal Occupational Traumatic Injuries; Drama in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran.

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    Gholipour, Changiz; Shams Vahdati, Samad; Ghaffarzade, Elmira; Kashi Zonouzy, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    To determine the characteristics and etiologies of occupational trauma associated mortality in Tabriz megacity, Northern Iran. In a cross-sectional study, we included all the recorded cases of occupational mortalities referring to Tabriz forensic medicine center, labor institute and Imam Reza and Sina hospitals between March 2011 and March 2012. We recorded the demographic and clinical characteristics including age, gender, type of occupational accident, experience of work and permanent or temporary jobs for all the cases. The death etiology was also recorded according to the forensic medicine report. The data are presented as descriptive analytics. Overall we included 32 occupational trauma associated mortality out of whom 30 (93.8%) were men and 2 (6.2%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 44.1±16.3 years old with most of them (31.3%) being younger than 30 years old. The occupation was recorded to be structural in 13 (40.6%), industrial in 5 (15.6%), agricultural in 5 (15.6%) and office work in 6 (18.8%). In 20 (62.5%) patients the occupation was seasonal and in 12 (37.5%) was permanent. Summer was the most common season in which occupational trauma associated mortality was recorded (40.6%) followed by fall by 34.4% of all mortalities. Most frequent causes of occupational traumas were the result of nonuse of safety wares (71.9%), inattention during work time (84.4%) and inappropriate instructions (18.8%). Most of the fatalities occurred in young and less-experienced workers, not having enough attention while working. Regarding this fact we conclude that with continuous education and supervision especially in young workers, most of the occupational accidents are preventable.

  4. The Kharapeh orogenic gold deposit: Geological, structural, and geochemical controls on epizonal ore formation in West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

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    Niroomand, Shojaeddin; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Moore, Farib; Mohajjel, Mohammad; Marsh, Erin E.

    2011-01-01

    The Kharapeh gold deposit is located along the northwestern margin of the Sanandaj–Sirjan Zone (SSZ) in the West Azerbaijan province, Iran. It is an epizonal orogenic gold deposit formed within the deformed zone between central Iran and the Arabian plate during the Cretaceous–Tertiary Zagros orogeny. The deposit area is underlain by Cretaceous schist and marble, as well as altered andesite and dacite dikes. Structural analysis indicates that the rocks underwent tight to isoclinal recumbent folding and were subsequently co-axially refolded to upright open folds during a second deformation. Late- to post-tectonic Cenozoic granites and granodiorites occur northeast of the deposit area. Mineralization mainly is recognized within NW-trending extensional structures as veins and breccia zones. Normal faults, intermediate dikes, and quartz veins, oriented subparallel to the axial surface of the Kharapeh antiform, indicate synchronous extension perpendicular to the fold axis during the second folding event. The gold-bearing quartz veins are >1 km in length and average about 6 m in width; breccia zones are 10–50 m in length and ≤1 m in width. Hydrothermal alteration mainly consists of silicification, sulfidation, chloritization, sericitization, and carbonatization. Paragenetic relationships indicate three distinct stages—replacement and silicification, brecciation and fracture filling, and cataclastic brecciation—with the latter two being gold-rich. Fluid inclusion data suggest mineral deposition at temperatures of at least 220–255°C and depths of at least 1.4–1.8 km, from a H2O–CO2±CH4 fluid of relatively high salinity (12–14 wt.% NaCl equiv.), which may reflect metamorphism of passive margin carbonate sequences. Ore fluid δ18O values between about 7‰ and 9‰ suggest no significant meteoric water input, despite gold deposition in a relatively shallow epizonal environment. Similarities to other deposits in the SSZ suggest that the deposit formed as

  5. Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in rice fields in Guilan province, Iran and the first record of Mylonchulus polonicus (Stefanski, 1915 Cobb, 1917 (Nematoda: Mononchina

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    Shahabi Soheila

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of nematodes was studied in rice fields in Guilan province, Iran, from 2014 to 2016. Nematode biodiversity of 250 soil and root samples was examined. Thirty nematode species were identified morphologically, including plant parasites, microbivores and mycetophagous and predator species. Molecular techniques were also used for further identification of three plant parasitic species. Indicators of population were also estimated. Spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus crenacauda Sher, 1966 and H. digitiformis Ivanova, 1967 and stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus agri were the predominant parasitic species identified. Among other species, three mononchid species were identified namely Mononchus aquaticus, Mylonchulus sigmaturus and M. polonicus. The species M. polonicus was found and reported in Iran for the first time. The two plant parasitic species T. agri and Xiphinema index were reported in association with rice in Iran for the first time. To evaluate the distribution and incidence of Aphelenchoides besseyi (rice white-tip nematode in different regions of Guilan province, a total of 255 fresh seed samples were collected/inspected, of which, about 40% of them were infested with A. besseyi. Of the 16 studied counties, the highest percentage of infected seeds came from fields around the city of Astara (69.2% and the second highest infection was observed near the city of Anzali (60%.

  6. The Prevalence of Pediculus Capitis among Primary Schools of Shahriar County, Tehran province, Iran, 2014

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    Moniba Alborzi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediculosis capitis is a common parasitic infection of children, which has been neglected in many areas as well in Shahriar County, Tehran province. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among pupils in primary schools of Shahriar County.Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Shahriar for the period of 2012 to 2013. Data were collected by questionnaires and direct head inspection. The prevalence rate was determined in three primary schools and 750 girls participated, which were selected by a randomized cluster method. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS16 and Chi-square test.Results: Among the 750 girls who were examined, head pediculosis was observed in 36 cases (4.8%. There was a significant relationship between head lice infestation and two factors, father’s job and using private tools in hair salon.Conclusion: The results showed that pediculosis capitis could be a potentially health threatening problem for school children. It is necessary to give health education to families in order to prevent pediculosis in the study areas.

  7. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Patients with Malignancy in Ardabil Province, Northwest Iran

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    Ali Pezeshki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite continued and comprehensive planning of the world health organization (WHO, intestinal parasitic infections are a serious public problem in developing countries. Due to the high prevalence of cancers in Ardabil province and subsequently the high possibility of intestinal parasitic infections among the people, the aim of this study was to assess the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients with malignancy in this area. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 100 fecal samples were collected from patients with cancer during February to September 2015. The specimens were examined for intestinal parasites using direct smear, formal-ethyl acetate concentration, agar plate culture and Ziel-Neelsen staining technique. Results: The overall frequency of intestinal parasitic infections in studied cancer patients was 10%. The infection rates of detected intestinal parasites were Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst 4%, Blastocystis hominis 3%, Giardia lamblia 2% and Taenia spp. 1%. Conclusion: Despite the low frequency of intestinal parasites, there is a need to screen cancer patients for some important parasitic infections such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Strongiloides stercoralis because of irreparable effects of those parasites on the patients and to increase awareness among clinicians regarding the occurrence of parasitic infections in these patients.

  8. Microsatellite loci to determine population structure of Garra rufa (Heckel, 1843 in the Khuzestan Province (Iran

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    Ali Shabani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity of Garra rufa was studied using 6 polymorphic microsatellite DNA loci. The specimens of G. rufa were collected from the Kheirabad and Maroon rivers. Despite high importance of this species, there is no genetic information about its population structure. A total of 133 alleles were detected at the 6 loci across the two populations. The Kheirabad population exhibited a lower genetic variation (Ho=0.429 and He=0.850 than the Maroon one. The average numbers of observed alleles in the Kheirabad and Maroon populations were 11.8 and 10.3, respectively. The genetic similarity and distance between the two populations were 0.721 and 0.326, respectively. It seems that Maroon population live under better conditions in contrast to the Kheirabad one. Diminution of genetic variation within examined populations decreases its adaptation to environmental alterations. Based on the results of this study, we can identify two different Garra rufa populations in the Khuzestan province.

  9. Plant diversity of five important wetlands of Babol Mazandaran province, Iran

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    Farrokh Ghahremaninejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the flora of five important wetlands namely Marzoonabad, Langoor, Bosra, Ramenet and Aghoozbon and their surroundings in Babol, Mazandaran province. In order to carry out a floristic survey in these wetlands, all vascular plants were collected during two growing seasons (2010-2011. We encountered 196 species belonging to 138 genera and 58 families. The largest families in the studied area were Poaceae with 24 species, Cyperaceae with 19 species, Asteraceae with 16 species, Fabaceae with 13 species and Polygonaceae with 9 species, respectively. Genera represented by the greatest number of species were Cyperus (8, Polygonum (7 and Potamogeton (4. Classification based on life form indicated that the therophytes (37% comprised the largest proportion of the plants in the studied area. From chorological point of view, the largest proportion of the flora belonged to the pluriregional elements (54.5%. Various habitats of the wetland are discussed. Among the five wetlands of Babol, Marzoonabad had the highest number of species (111 and Langoor with 63 species placed on second. Moreover, a comparison between the data collected here and other northern Iranian wetlands has been provided which indicated some similarities and dissimilarities between different studied wetlands. According to Sørensen’s (1948 similarity index, there are less similarities between the species of the five wetlands of Babol because they have different surface area and there is no relation between them.

  10. The epidemiology of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah province, Iran, during 2008 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatony, Alireza; Abdi, Alireza; Fatahpour, Tahereh; Towhidi, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion stings are an acute health problem in tropical regions. Awareness of this problem is fundamental for establishing preventive interventions, thus prompting the present study to determine the scorpion-sting incidence in tropical areas of Kermanshah province during 2008 and 2009. In a retrospective study, all records related to scorpion sting patients from the health centers of tropical areas of Kermanshah were studied by a census and checklist. Data were analyzed by the software SPSS-16 using descriptive and inferential tests. The incidence of scorpion stings was 334.37/100,000 inhabitants in 2008 and 339.07/100000 in 2009. Mean and standard deviation of age were 30.55 ± 16.99. Scorpion stings were more common in rural areas (59.6 %) and occurred more often in summer (52.9 %). Nearly 48 % of bites were to patients' hands and 47.5 % of patients were injured between midnight and 6 a.m. While 92.9 % of patients had mild symptoms, scorpion antivenom was prescribed to 88.8 % of victims, 94.5 % of whom were discharged after outpatient treatment. The relationship between antivenom therapy and clinical symptoms was not significant. Due to the relatively high incidence of scorpion stings in tropical areas of Kermanshah, it is recommended that the inhabitants be educated through the mass media about how to prevent the stings and apply preliminary treatment.

  11. Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Rainfall and the Effect of Altitude in Iran (Hamadan Province

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    Seyyed Hadi Sadeghi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric phenomena have an enormous influence on natural resources and human life. Lack of sufficient information and knowledge in regard to the management of natural areas and ecosystems will bring about a huge cost. Hamadan province according to the topography, geomorphology, and soil condition is known as a particular area. In this region, intense rains have brought about hillsides, runoffs, and floods annually destroying a large amount of foundations and eroding fertile soils. This study was conducted using rainfall average data from 35 synoptic stations and rain measurements between the years 1982 and 2012 (30 years. Geostatistical techniques are applied for zoning, such as kriging, co-kriging, inverse distance weighting (IDW, radial basis function, global polynomial interpolation, and local polynomial interpolation. For comparing and evaluating geostatistical methods, cross-validation and statistical parameters such as correlation coefficient and mean absolute relative error (MARE were used. According to the results, it can be realized that simple co-kriging (exponential technique with the highest correlation coefficient (.75 and the lowest MARE (.124 is the most appropriate geostatistical method to predict rainfall distribution. Also, it is realized that there is a correct correlation between the accuracy of co-kriging technique and elevation changes. However, IDW with power 5 is the least accurate technique.

  12. Breast Cancer in Men: a Report from the Department of Radiation Oncology in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

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    Amirifard, Nasrin; Sadeghi, Edris

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease that accounts for less than 1% of all cancers in men and less than 1% of all diagnosed breast cancers. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the clinicopathological features, treatment options and overall survival in Kurdish MBC cases. Seventeen MBC were referred to Department of Radiation Oncology in Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, between 2010 and 2016. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for ER, PR and Her2 biomarkers and FISH for those with Her2 2+. Median follow-up period was 30 months (2-65 months). We excluded from the study patients who did not have follow-up after initial diagnosis. Treatment methods were chemotherapy, radiotherapy, hormonal therapy, target therapy and palliative care. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan Meier method (Prism 5). The mean age at diagnosis was 49.2 ± 17 years (range, 24-85 years). Grade II was the most grade in MBC (65%). Fourteen patients (82%) had invasive ductal carcinoma, one (6%) had ductal carcinoma in situ and 2 (12%) had invasive papillary. ER, PR and Her2 were significantly positive in 14/17, 8/17 and 2/17 cases, respectively. The treatment included modified radical mastectomy for most patients. Chemotherapy with TAC and CEF regimens was delivered to 15/17 cases. Tamoxifen therapy was delivered to 14/17 cases. Three stage IV patients received Avestin and two with Her2 3+ were given Trastuzumab (Herceptin). Patients received adjuvant radiotherapy following surgery and chemotherapy. The site of metastasis was the bone in 2 cases, lung in 1 case and liver in 1 case. Zoledronic acid (Zometa) was prescribed for patients with bone metastasis. Five-year overall survival rate was 64%. MBC is rare. Thus, we need larger studies are in collaboration with several research centers in the field of breast cancer. ER positive, grade II of invasive ductal carcinoma, stage II and right side happened more with MBC. Overall survival is similar to other studies.

  13. Metals Analysis in common carp (Cyprinus carpio from Shirinsu Wetland, Hamedan province, Iran

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    Soheil Sobhan Ardakani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in muscle, liver and gill tissues of common carp from the Shirinsu Wetland during February to March 2013. Methods: Fish samples (Cyprinus carpio were caught from Shirinsu Wetland, western Iran from February to March 2013. Specimens were frozen in prewashed polyethylene bags and frozen samples brought to the laboratory in ice chests. Samples (2 g were digested with 5 ml of HNO 3 (65% v/v, 1 ml of H 2 O 2 (30% v/v with a microwave oven. A blank digest was carried out in the same way. The digestion program began at a potency of 1200W then ramped for 10 min, after which samples were held for 10 min at 1200W. The second step began at a potency of 0W and held for 15 min. All metal concentrations were determined on a wet weight basis as μg g −1 . Results: Metal levels measured in muscle tissue were in the following ranges (μg g −1 : Cd 0.007-0.011, Hg 0.006-0.01 and As not detected. In liver tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.035-0.043, Hg and As not detected. In gill tissue were (μg g −1 : Cd 0.31-0.55, Hg 0.002-0.004 and As 0.001-0.003. The results presented on metal contents in the examined tissues give an indication of the environmental conditions. Concentrations of Cd, Hg and As obtained were far below the established values by the European Community Regulations. However, Cd level found in gill tissue was higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption and as such may cause a human health issue. Conclusion: Analytical data shows that the metal concentrations for the fish tissues were generally within the FAO/WHO, ASTDR and EEC recommended limits for fish. Therefore there is no serious health risk associated with the consumption of the three studied metals in the muscle and liver tissues analyzed.             

  14. Regional emergencies, Bam, Kerman province, Iran Foreign Bodies from the Palm Tree

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    Setareh Asgarzadeh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available  One of the most common causes of emergency department (ED visits in Pasteur Hospital, Bam, Iran, is a foreign body from palm tree fronds entering different parts of body. This town is located in southeast Iran and has many palm tree orchards. Most of its residents are farmers or orchardists and many children play in these orchards. When palm harvest season approaches (about the end of summer, a considerable number of patients are presented to emergency department of this town with complaint of foreign bodies. These foreign bodies called “date thorns” among the locals (figure1 are wooden and can easily penetrate various body parts due to their needle-like, pointy shape. Some patients manipulate the foreign bodies before going to the ED and cause it to move deeper. Another group, delay going to the hospital and only reach ED a few days after the initiation of inflammation, redness, and evidence of infection. History and physical examination aid in finding the place of the foreign body, but sometimes they are not perceptible and diagnostic imaging is needed. Radiolucent objects such as wood cannot be detected in graphy but are visible in sonograms (1, 2. Removal of these bodies is usually performed under sterile conditions, using local anesthesia or regional nerve blockade, by making an incision and searching the region, finding and removing the foreign body, and finally suturing and bandaging. The procedure gets more difficult in children and patients who do not cooperate and occasionally, procedural sedation and analgesia is required, which leads to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, lethargy, agitation, and respiratory depression. Depending on the site of injury, patients are usually unable to use the affected organ for a few days after the procedure and need daily washing and bandage, and sometimes taking antibiotics. If tendon, joint, nerve, or vascular injuries are present, it gets more complicated and need for operation and

  15. Assessment of oxytetracycline and tetracycline antibiotics in manure samples in different cities of Khuzestan Province, Iran.

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    Alavi, Nadali; Babaei, Ali Akbar; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Goudarzi, Gholamreza

    2015-11-01

    Tetracyclines (TCs), a class of antibiotics with a broad spectrum, are the most frequently used antibiotics in animal production. The major concern is that the widespread use of the antibiotics may lead to the emergence of new strains of bacteria that are resistant to these antibiotics. The objective of this study was to determine the residual levels of oxytetracycline and tetracycline in 80 animal manure samples that were collected from the livestock and poultry feedlots in Khuzestan Province. The residual levels of the antibiotics in the samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) method and subsequently were measured by liquid chromatography. Recoveries from the spiked poultry manure samples ranged from 65 to 113% for tetracycline and 86 to 132% for oxytetracycline. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 5.7% within the same day. Method detection limit (MDL) measured for oxytetracycline and tetracycline in the manure were 0.011 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the collected 50 chickens and 30 cow manure samples showed that the highest concentration of tetracycline was related to Behbahan City (5.36 mg/kg) and the lowest concentration was detected for Ramhormoz (0.05 mg/kg). The highest and lowest concentrations of oxytetracycline were respectively observed for Behbahan (13.77 mg/kg) and Ramhormoz (0.047 mg/kg). Based on the results, in chicken manure, there was significant statistical difference between the residual TC concentrations among five cities (p(value)  0.05).

  16. Evaluation of Prevalence of Allergic Rhinitis Symptoms in Kurdistan, a Western Province in Iran

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    Rasoul Nasiri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Allergic rhinitis, like other allergic diseases, is one of the most common disorders during childhood; this study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence and severity of allergic rhinitis in children and adolescents living in Kurdistan province. The study was aimed to provide a ground for the identification of likely causes and risk factors of this disorder. Materials and Methods This study was a cross-sectional study. In order to collect data, 4,000 questionnaires were distributed to elementary schools and junior high schools and 3,890 questionnaires were completed; as a result, the survey response rate was 97%. The study was carried out based on International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC: ISAAC questionnaire. After entering the data into SPSS version 13, they were analyzed using logistic regression and Chi- square test. Results Of a total 3,890 people, 29.7% of the subjects in this study reported a history of sneezing or runny nose in the past 12 months; it was reported more in boys in the age group 13-14 years and the difference between the sexes was significant [Odds ratio(OR=1.35, Confidence interval (CI]: 1.09-1.67, P < 0.01. Based on physician diagnosis, 9.37% of the subjects were overtaken by allergic rhinitis and it was more prevalent in boys at both educational levels and the difference was statistically significant in subjects aged 13-14 years old (OR=1.44 CI: 1.07-1.94, P

  17. Floristic study of Sheet Mountain in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran

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    Roghayeh Dehghani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant biodiversity in central Zagros region is important from different aspects and has been in the research spotlight. In this study, flora of Mt. Sheet located in Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, between Shahrekord and Saman cities, with 1.100 hectares and 2110 to 2660 meter elevation above sea level, is investigated. Results showed that the vegetation of this area consists of 204 species, 143 genera and 35 families. Asteraceae (31 species, 15.1 %, Brassicaceae (30 species, 14.7 %, Poaceae (19 species, 9.3 % and Fabaceae (18 species, 8.8 % were the most important families regarding the number of species. The largest genera were Astragalus (13 species, Euphorbia (8 species, Centraurea (7 species and Scorzonera and Salvia (5 species each. Determination of Raunkiaer life-forms showed that 51 % of the species (104 species were Hemicryptophytes, 28 % (57 species were Therophytes, 15 % (30 species were Cryptophytes, 5 % (11 species were Chamaephytes and 1 % (2 species Phanerophytes. 150 species (74 % belonged to Irano-Turanian region, 19 species (9 % to EuroSiberian-Mediterranean-IranoTuranian regions, 17 species (8 % to EuroSiberian-IranoTuranian regions, and 17 species (8 % to Mediterranean-IranoTuranian regions. According to available literature, 30 species were located in low risk class and one species as vulnerable. Conservation status of 173 species was reported as “Data Deficit” (class DD. Comparative evaluation of this flora and other 16 floras in this region showed the presence of 17 unreported species from this region, and the multivariate analyses of presence/absence data determined the relative position of this flora among other floras in this region and further divided the floras into two clusters. Our results showed also the application of multivariate analyses in floristic studies.

  18. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

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    Amir Adinezadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue proto­zoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009.Methods: Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider’s Drosophila (HIMEDIA and RPMI1640 (GIBCO for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, respectively.Results: 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%, Dipylidium caninum (46%, Mesocestoides lineatus (19%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, Toxascaris leonina (53% and Toxocara canis (7%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8% at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47% showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17% showed titer of ≥1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears.Conclusion: The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species

  19. Epidemiology of Head Lice Infestation in Primary SchoolPupils, in Khajeh City, East Azerbaijan Province, Iran

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    M Shayeghi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae or head louse is an obligate ectoparasite transmitted mainly through physical contact. This study was conducted to survey the prevalence of head lice infestation rate and some risk factors in Primary School pupils, in Khajeh City East Azerbaijan Province, Iran "n "nMethods: We selected 20 primary schools of Khajeh City during 2008 and 2009. Totally 500 pupils including 200 boys and 300 girls from all grade 1-5 were selected by multistage, systematic random sampling in rural areas of Khajeh City and were examined for lice. In addition, a standard questionnaire recorded information about demographic features of each pupil. Results were analyzed by SPSS software. "n "nResults: The total prevalence of head lice infestation in this study was 4.8%. and the prevalence rate was significantly higher in girls (6.66% than in boys (2%. Epidemiological factors such as: sex, school grade, family size, parent's education, type of house, hair washing (per week, number of using comb per day, were evaluated and results showed significant difference in head lice infestation and sex, school grade ,family size ,father education ,and type of house (P< 0.05. "n "nConclusion: Pediculosis is a public health problem in many parts of the world, and due to the higher prevalence of pediculosis in crowded families, family by lower levels of father's education and socioeconomic status in our study and rural area, it is necessary to give health education for families to prevent of pediculosis in this area.

  20. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the children with aminoacidopathy in Isfahan Province, Central Iran in 2007-2015

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    Reza Najafi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Aminoacidopathies refer to defects in protein synthesis pathways which result in a range of biochemical disorders and clinical presentations. The enzyme defects in intermediate metabolic pathways lead to accumulation of one or more amino acids or metabolites. Despite higher prevalence rates, screening infants for inherited metabolic disorders is not run in many Middle East countries. Aim: This research is part of a larger study of inherited metabolic disorders to characterize and measure the prevalence of aminoacidopathies. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study in the population aged 0-17 years old in Isfahan province of Iran, 2007-2015. Subjects and Methods: Demographic characteristics, history of disease, development of clinical condition and socioeconomic status were obtained from interviews as well as patient records of pediatric tertiary referral hospitals and metabolic disorders centers. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS qualitative and quantitative analysis. Results: The incidence rate of aminoacidopathies was derived to be 9/100,000 live births. The frequency of consanguineous marriages in this group of the patients was 89.2%. Of the patients with aminoacidopathies, 76.6% required hospitalization with tyrosinemia having the highest rate overall (>10 times. The most prevalent symptoms in this group of patients were developmental disorders and convulsions while half presented with growth disorders during follow-up. Of the 35.5% patients, who died at various ages, one-third was in the maple syrup urine disease subgroup. Conclusion: Although metabolic disorders are identified as rare diseases, they are more prevalent in the studied population of Isfahan.

  1. Association between upstream purine complexes of human caveolin-1 gene and schizophrenia in qazvin province of iran.

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    Najafipour, Reza; Heidari, Abolfazl; Alizadeh, Safar Ali; Ghafelebashi, Hannaneh; Rashvand, Zahra; Javadi, Amir; Moradi, Mohammad; Afshar, Hosein

    2014-12-01

    Caveolin is a multifunctional and scaffolding membrane protein, which involves cholesterol trafficking to plasma lipid microdomain. It organizes and targets synaptic parts of the neurotransmitter and neurotrophic receptor signaling pathways. Caveolins are encoded by CAV-1, 2 and 3 genes. Disruption of the CAV1 would likely ruin the neuronal signaling, which leads to symptoms of schizophrenia in predisposed individuals. The upper area of CAV-1 gene is highly conserved and can have a regulatory role in neurodegenerative diseases. This study was designed to find out the possible association of polymorphisms of this area and schizophrenia. In a case-control study, 254 blood samples were obtained from 127 patients with schizophrenia and 127 well matched controls referred to 22 Bahman Hospital of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences (QUMS) in Qazvin province, Iran, using simple random sampling method. After extracting DNA, the upper region of the human CAV1- gene was amplified by PCR in all collected samples. The products were visualized by silver staining in 10% polyacrylamide gel and then sequenced. We detected nine homozygotes in patients and 15 in control subjects. Homozygosity was 7.08% and 11.8% in cases and control, respectively. Nine types homozygote haplotype were detected in upper region of the CAV1 gene in cases and controls. Three haplotypes were common in cases and controls; four haplotypes were seen in controls only and two in cases. Our findings implied a significant correlation between some haplotypes of upper region of CAV1 gene and schizophrenia. Existence of some haplotypes and lack of another in CAV1 upstream can suggest a significant correlation between schizophrenia and some haplotypes.

  2. The burden of road traffic injuries in Kermanshah Province, Iran, in 2010-2011: GBD 2010 method.

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    Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Khosravi, Ardeshir

    2016-06-06

    Deaths, injuries and disabilities resulting from road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a public health major concern. This study aims to calculate the burden of RTIs in Kermanshah Province in Iran. In this study to determine the years of life lost (YLL) related to RTIs, the National Death Registration and Forensics Medicine census data were employed. We use forensic medicine data to calculate the incidence of non-fatal injuries and years lost due to disability (YLD). The cause of death and non-fatal injuries was classified using ICD-10 codes and 23 groupes of global burden of diseases (GBD) 2010. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) estimated on the guidelines of the GBD 2010 and age and sex structure was taken from the National Statistic Center for the year 2010. Overall, 70.8% of the subjects were males. The fatal and non-fatal injury rates of RTI were 51.3 and 283.6 per 100,000 persons, respectively. YLLs and YLDs were 46613 (24.5 per 1000) and 3405 (1.8 per 1000) in both sexes, respectively. The disability adjusted life years were 40711 in males, 9306 in females and 50018 in both sexes (42.5, 9.8 and 26.3 per 1000, respectively). More than 93% of DALY was from YLL (24.5 per 1000), with a small proportion for YLD (1.8 per 1000). Accounting for more than 50,000 DALY attributed to RTIs, traffic injuries is a major public health and socioeconomic problem in Kermanshah. Designing cost-effective interventions based on comprehensive and multi-sectoral programmes at the national and provincial levels can save many lives and resources that are lost every year. Undoubtedly, establishing a surveillance system at the sub-national level and measuring the burden of injuries, as in this study, can help policy-makers and planners in lessening the burden of RTIs.

  3. Demographic and clinical characteristics of gastric cancer patients in north of Iran, Mazandaran province, 2008-2014

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    Seyed Khalil Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer has been known as a poor prognosis disease with a high degree of mortality. In Iran, it has been increased during the previous two decades, especially in northern part of the country. The aim of this study was to determine the demographic and clinical characteristics of gastric cancer in Mazandaran province. All patients with gastric cancer diagnosis treated in the Imam Khomeini educational hospital or Touba Polyclinic, a university affiliated center, from March 2008 to March 2014 were included. Demographic data, the symptoms at the time of presentation, tumor size, type of tumor, lymph node involvement, status in terms of metastatic disease, therapeutic plan and type of chemotherapy regimens were gathered from patients’ medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 16. Totally, 643 patients were investigated. The mean age of patients was 64.34 years and men were more affected than women. “Time to relapse” and “time to progression” were 13 and 6.5 months, respectively. The most common initial symptoms at diagnosis were nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain (47.4%. Only in 6.3%, the disease was diagnosed at the initial stages. The most common site of involvement was cardia (almost 40% and antrum (32%. More than 91% of tumors were adenocarcinoma. DCF (Docetaxel, Cisplatin, 5FU (43.3%, Xeloda (15.2%, DOX (Docetaxel, Oxaliplatin (13.8% and ECF (Epirubicin, Cisplatin.5FU (9.2% were the most common used regimens. There was a trend for improved survival with DCF regimen (P = 0.08. Most gastric cancer patients were referred in the advanced stage or metastatic disease. The demographic characteristics are consistent with other previous reports. DCF regimen may have some advantages over other chemotherapy regimens.

  4. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

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    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  5. Effect of Rock Properties on ROP Modeling Using Statistical and Intelligent Methods: A Case Study of an Oil Well in Southwest of Iran

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    Bezminabadi, Sina Norouzi; Ramezanzadeh, Ahmad; Esmaeil Jalali, Seyed-Mohammad; Tokhmechi, Behzad; Roustaei, Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Rate of penetration (ROP) is one of the key indicators of drilling operation performance. The estimation of ROP in drilling engineering is very important in terms of more accurate assessment of drilling time which affects operation costs. Hence, estimation of a ROP model using operational and environmental parameters is crucial. For this purpose, firstly physical and mechanical properties of rock were derived from well logs. Correlation between the pair data were determined to find influential parameters on ROP. A new ROP model has been developed in one of the Azadegan oil field wells in southwest of Iran. The model has been simulated using Multiple Nonlinear Regression (MNR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). By adding the rock properties, the estimation of the models were precisely improved. The results of simulation using MNR and ANN methods showed correlation coefficients of 0.62 and 0.87, respectively. It was concluded that the performance of ANN model in ROP prediction is fairly better than MNR method.

  6. Geochemistry, Paragenesis, and Wall-Rock Alteration of the Qatruyeh Iron Deposits, Southwest of Iran: Implications for a Hydrothermal-Metasomatic Genetic Model

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    Sina Asadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Qatruyeh iron deposits, located on the eastern border of the NW-SE trending Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone, southwest of Iran, are hosted by a late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic sequence dominated by metamorphosed carbonate rocks. The magnetite ores occurred as layered to massive bodies, with lesser amounts of disseminated magnetite and hematite-bearing veins. Textural evidences, along with geochemical analyses of the high field strengths (HFSEs, large ion lithophiles (LILEs, and rare earth elements (REEs, indicate that the main mineralization stage occurred as low-grade layered magnetite ores due to high-temperature hydrothermal fluids accompanied by Na-Ca alteration. Most of the main ore-stage minerals precipitated from an aqueous-carbonic fluid (3.5–15 wt.% NaCl equiv. at temperatures ranging between 300° and 410°C during fluid mixing process, CO2 effervescence, cooling, and increasing of pH. Low-temperature hydrothermal activity subsequently produced hematite ores associated with propylitic alteration. The metacarbonate host rocks are LILE-depleted and HFSE-enriched due to metasomatic alteration.

  7. A combined approach based on MAF analysis and AHP method to fault detection mapping: A case study from a gas field, southwest of Iran

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    Shakiba, Sima; Asghari, Omid; Khah, Nasser Keshavarz Faraj

    2018-01-01

    A combined geostatitical methodology based on Min/Max Auto-correlation Factor (MAF) analysis and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is presented to generate a suitable Fault Detection Map (FDM) through seismic attributes. Five seismic attributes derived from a 2D time slice obtained from data related to a gas field located in southwest of Iran are used including instantaneous amplitude, similarity, energy, frequency, and Fault Enhancement Filter (FEF). The MAF analysis is implemented to reduce dimension of input variables, and then AHP method is applied on three obtained de-correlated MAF factors as evidential layer. Three Decision Makers (DMs) are used to construct PCMs for determining weights of selected evidential layer. Finally, weights obtained by AHP were multiplied in normalized valued of each alternative (MAF layers) and the concluded weighted layers were integrated in order to prepare final FDM. Results proved that applying algorithm proposed in this study generate a map more acceptable than the each individual attribute and sharpen the non-surface discontinuities as well as enhancing continuity of detected faults.

  8. Assessment of brittleness and empirical correlations between physical and mechanical parameters of the Asmari limestone in Khersan 2 dam site, in southwest of Iran

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    Lashkaripour, Gholam Reza; Rastegarnia, Ahmad; Ghafoori, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    The determination of brittleness and geomechanical parameters, especially uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and Young's modulus (ES) of rocks are needed for the design of different rock engineering applications. Evaluation of these parameters are time-consuming processes, tedious, expensive and require well-prepared rock cores. Therefore, compressional wave velocity (Vp) and index parameters such as point load index and porosity are often used to predict the properties of rocks. In this paper, brittleness and other properties, physical and mechanical in type, of 56 Asmari limestones in dry and saturated conditions were analyzed. The rock samples were collected from Khersan 2 dam site. This dam with the height of 240 m is being constructed and located in the Zagros Mountain, in the southwest of Iran. The bedrock and abutments of the dam site consist of Asemari and Gachsaran Formations. In this paper, a practical relation for predicting brittleness and some relations between mechanical and index parameters of the Asmari limestone were established. The presented equation for predicting brittleness based on UCS, Brazilian tensile strength and Vp had high accuracy. Moreover, results showed that the brittleness estimation based on B3 concept (the ratio of multiply compressive strength in tensile strength divided 2) had more accuracy as compared to the B2 (the ratio of compressive strength minus tensile strength to compressive strength plus tensile strength) and B1 (the ratio of compressive strength to tensile strength) concepts.

  9. An engineering geological appraisal of the Chamshir dam foundation using DMR classification and kinematic analysis, southwest of Iran

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    Torabi Kaveh Mehdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the results of engineering geological  investigations and rock mechanics studies carried out at the proposed Chamshir dam site. It is proposed that a 155 m high solid concrete gravity-arc dam be built across the Zuhreh River to the southeast of the city of Gachsaran in south-western Iran. The dam and its associated structures are mainly located on the Mishan formation. Analysis consisted of rock mass classification and a kinematic
    analysis of the dam foundation's rock masses. The studies were carried out in the field and the laboratory. The field studies included geological mapping, intensive discontinuity surveying, core drilling and sampling for laboratory testing. Rock mass classifications were made in line with RMR and DMR classification for the dam foundation. Dam foundation analysis regarding stability using DMR classification and kinematic analysis indicated that the left abutment's rock foundation (area 2 was unstable for planar, wedge and toppling failure modes.

  10. An ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in treatment of diseases and syndromes of herd dog in southern regions of Ilam province, Iran.

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    Bahmani, Mahmoud; Eftekhari, Zohre

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes a selection of the ethnoveterinary medicines used for herd dogs in the southern regions of Ilam province, Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the rural population in Ilam province. In this study, a questionnaire was distributed among 45 residential areas in 22 rural zones of the southern areas of Ilam province. The objective of this study was the recognition of natural medicinal methods using medicinal plants, and the classification of ethnoveterinary applications and collection of domestic science. Twenty-two medicinal plants from 16 families were identified. The main application of these plants was for the detection and treatment of digestive disorders using Citrullus colocynthis , Aristolochia clematis , Scrophularia deserti , Quercus brantii , Ceracus microcarpa , Echium strigosa , Pistacia atlantica , and Pistacia khinjuk which have been applied using Euphurbia graminifolius , Peganum harmala , Salsola rigida , Artemisia herba-alba , Amygdalus arabica , jolbak of salt water, Peganum harmala L., and Nicotina tabacum for external and internal parasite disorders. S. deserti for ophthalmic disorders, and P. atlantica , P. khinjuk , and Q. brantii for respiratory disorders were applied. The present study confirmed the traditional medical effects of some plants and revealed the unique medical effects of other plants, which if recognized could be useful in the creation of new ideas and increasing knowledge for the modern pharmaceutical industry. Since very few clinical trials have been conducted on plants native to Ilam province, it is necessary that more research be conducted to ensure that labeled and standardized products are introduced for human consumption.

  11. Assessment of the Variations in the Composition of the Leachate Generated in Open Dumps in Three Provinces of the Caspian Sea region, Iran

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    Ali Kazemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The municipal solid wastes (MSWs are disposed in open dumps, which have no leachate collection and removal system, in the Caspian region of Iran. Leachate readily reaches the nearby water resources such as streams, rivers, lakes, and sea. Therefore, understanding the quality and quantity of open dump leachate is vital to the proper treatment of leachate. Methods: The leachate samples from 18 open dumps were monitored and analyzed in terms of 21 different variables, namely pH, EC, temperature, TS, TSS, TDS, VSS, COD, BOD5, PO43--P, SO42-, NH4+-N, TKN, and NO3--N based on the priority to analyze parameters as prescribed by accepted procedures outlined in “Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater”. Moreover, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, total Fe, Mn2+ and Zn2+ elements were determined using a Shimadzu flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer, Model 67OG. Results: The mean values of parameters in the sites’ leachate samples of the three provinces were compared. The results of comparing the mean values of the parameters in the leachate samples from these provinces demonstrate that Golestan province had a significantly higher concentration of the parameters than Mazandaran and Gilan provinces. Conclusion: These results may be due to the warmer weather conditions in Golestan province in comparison with other provinces. Furthermore, relatively low pH (6.15-6.90, high COD concentration (2607-25307 mg/l, high BOD5/COD ratio (0.56-0.87, and high heavy metal concentration indicated that the open dumps were representative of the acid phase and/or the end of the acid phase and the beginning of the methanogenic phase.

  12. Frequency of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Individuals Referred to the Medical Center Laboratories in Nahavand City, Hamadan Province, Western Iran

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    Ali Haghighi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs cause serious public health problem in the world, especially those located in tropical and subtropical areas. This study was conducted with the aim of obtaining frequency of intestinal parasites in referred people to the Nahavand city laboratories, Hamadan province, western Iran.Materials and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among checkup individuals and patients referred to laboratories of Nahavand County. A total of 371 stool samples (150 from checkup individuals and 221 from patients were selected by using systematic random sampling during summer 2014.  The stool specimens were examined macroscopically, and microscopically by using direct slide smear (saline wet mount and lugol staining, formaldehyde - diethyl ether concentration, trichrome staining and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Chi-square test.Results: Ninety two patients (24.8% were infected with single or multiple intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of IPIs in checkup individuals and patients was 21.3% and 27.1%, respectively. The frequency of the observed intestinal parasites was: Blastocystis spp. 72 (19.4%, Entamoeba coli 7 (1/9%, Endolimax nana 7 (1/9%, Giardia lamblia 5 (1/3%, Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba hartmanni 3 (0.8%, Entamoeba histolitica/E. dispar 1 (0.3%, Trichomonas hominies 1 (0.3%, Chilomastix mesnili 1 (0.3%, Iodamoeba butschlii 1 (0.3% and Enterobius vermicularis egg l (0.3%.Conclusion: The proportion of observed protozoan parasites 91 (24.5% is higher than helminthes infection 1 (0.3%. The worm infections in Nahavand city was dramatically decreased over the past decades, induced increases in public health at the community level.  Blastocystis spp. was the predominant intestinal parasite in people referred to the Nahavand city laboratories.  Proportion of pathogenic IPIs among patients 4.07% (9 of 221 was

  13. COMPARISON OF SPATIAL INTERPOLATION METHODS FOR WHEAT WATER REQUIREMENT AND ITS TEMPORAL DISTRIBUTION IN HAMEDAN PROVINCE (IRAN

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    M. H. Nazarifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is the main constraint for production of agricultural crops. The temporal and spatial variations in water requirement for agriculture products are limiting factors in the study of optimum use of water resources in regional planning and management. However, due to unfavorable distribution and density of meteorological stations, it is not possible to monitor the regional variations precisely. Therefore, there is a need to estimate the evapotranspiration of crops at places where meteorological data are not available and then extend the findings from points of measurements to regional scale. Geostatistical methods are among those methods that can be used for estimation of evapotranspiration at regional scale. The present study attempts to investigate different geostatistical methods for temporal and spatial estimation of water requirements for wheat crop in different periods. The study employs the data provided by 16 synoptic and climatology meteorological stations in Hamadan province in Iran. Evapotranspiration for each month and for the growth period were determined using Penman-Mantis and Torrent-White methods for different water periods based on Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI. Among the available geostatistical methods, three methods: Kriging Method, Cokriging Method, and inverse weighted distance were selected, and analyzed, using GS+ software. Analysis and selection of the suitable geostatistical method were performed based on two measures, namely Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Mean Bias Error (MBE. The findings suggest that, in general, during the drought period, Kriging method is the proper one for estimating water requirements for the six months: January, February, April, May, August, and December. However, weighted moving average is a better estimation method for the months March, June, September, and October. In addition, Kriging is the best method for July. In normal conditions, Kriging is suitable for April, August, December

  14. The Relationship between Maternal Diseases during Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight: a Nested Case-Control Study in Rural Areas of Kurdistan Province (West of Iran

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    Ghobad Moradi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is considered as one of the important health indicators in evaluating prenatal care as well as determining scale of infants' health in the society. The study aimed to investigate maternal diseases during pregnancy and its impact on LBW in rural areas of Kurdistan province, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in nested case-control study method in rural areas of Kurdistan province- Iran in 2015-2016. In this study, 182 infants less than 2,500gr as case and 364 infants weighing 2,500 g and more as control were entered the study. Information about case and control groups was extracted by investigating records of pregnant women care. Data was analyzed using software Stata-12 with point and interval estimation of odds ratio (OR using conditional logistic regression. Results: The results of single-variable analysis of conditional logistic regression showed that there is a statistical relationship between blood pressure during pregnancy, iron deficiency anemia, mother's thyroid problems, oral and dental problems, and history of bleeding during pregnancy in case and control groups (P

  15. [Variation of soil organic carbon under different vegetation types in Karst Mountain areas of Guizhou Province, southwest China].

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    Liao, Hong-kai; Long, Jian

    2011-09-01

    This paper studied the variation characteristics of soil organic carbon (SOC) and different particle sizes soil particulate organic carbon (POC) in normal soil and in micro-habitats under different vegetation types in typical Karst mountain areas of southwest Guizhou. Under different vegetation types, the SOC content in normal soil and in micro-habitats was all in the order of bare land forest, with the variation range being 7.18-43.42 g x kg(-1) in normal soil and being 6.62-46.47 g x kg(-1) and 9.01-52.07 g x kg(-1) in earth surface and stone pit, respectively. The POC/MOC (mineral-associated organic carbon) ratio under different vegetation types was in the order of bare land forest stone pit was the highest, as compared to that in normal soil and in earth surface. In the process of bare land-grass-shrub-forest, the contents of different particle sizes soil POC increased, while the SOC mainly existed in the forms of sand- and silt organic carbon, indicating that in Karst region, soil carbon sequestration and SOC stability were weak, soil was easily subjected to outside interference and led to organic carbon running off, and thus, soil quality had the risk of decline or degradation.

  16. Circadian Variation in the Incidence of Stroke-Induced Aphasia Types in Ahvaz, South-West of Iran

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    Zamani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of the stroke and its associated disorders has a multifactorial nature. Nowadays, researchers are looking for the relationship between circadian variations and the stroke incidence. Objectives The current study aimed to compare the incidence of the different types of stroke-induced aphasia in Ahvaz, Iran, on seasonal, diurnal (weekly, and circadian variations. Patients and Methods In this retrospective hospital-based study, the medical records of 1817 patients with stroke were reread in Ahvaz hospitals in 2011. Types of aphasia were diagnosed based on speech and language symptoms in their records. The data were transferred into the SPSS version 16, for statistical comparison. Results According to the obtained results 39.9% of the studied patients had a stroke-induced aphasia. The highest incidence rates of aphasia due to the stroke in Ahvaz were, in the summer (38.2%, on Saturdays (16.1%, and 21.1% between 8:00 AM to noon. Chi-square test indicated a significant difference between the mentioned times and other time (P < 0.05. Conclusions It seems that the incidence of different types of stroke-induced aphasia in Ahvaz is influenced by the calendar-temporal changes. According to the findings, to prevent the occurrence of stroke-induced aphasia, necessary counseling should be provided for lifestyle changes.

  17. Historical reconstruction of atmospheric lead pollution in central Yunnan province, southwest China: an analysis based on lacustrine sedimentary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Li, Kai; Nath, Bibhash; Li, Yanling; Shen, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution during the last century in central Yunnan province, one of the largest non-ferrous metal production centers in China, was reconstructed using sediment cores collected from Fuxian and Qingshui Lakes. Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were measured in sediment cores from both lakes. The operationally defined chemical fractions of Pb in sediment core from Fuxian Lake were determined by the optimized BCR procedure. The chronology of the cores was reconstructed using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating methods. Similar three-phase variations in isotopic ratios and enrichment factors of Pb were observed in the sediment cores from both lakes. Before the 1950s, the sediment data showed low (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios and enrichment factors (EFs=~1), indicating that the sedimentary Pb was predominantly of lithogenic origin. However, these indices were increased gradually between the 1950s and the mid-1980s, implying an atmospheric Pb deposition. The EFs and isotopic ratios of Pb reached their peak during recent years, indicating aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution. The average anthropogenic Pb fluxes since the mid-1980s were estimated to be 0.032 and 0.053 g m(-2) year(-1) recorded in Fuxian and Qingshui cores, respectively. The anthropogenic Pb was primarily concentrated in the reducible fraction. Combining the results of Pb isotopic compositions and chemical speciations in the sediment cores and in potential sources, we deduced that recent aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution in central Yunnan province should primarily be attributed to regional emissions from non-ferrous metal production industries.

  18. Three new species from the subfamily Phyllocoptinae (Acari, Trombidiformes, Eriophyidae in Iran

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    Parisa Lotfollahi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new eriophyid species (Phyllocoptinae, Shevtchenkella denticulata sp. n., Notallus pestehae sp. n. and Echinacrus ruthenicus sp. n., were described from Eryngium thyrsoideum Boiss. (Apiaceae, Pistacia vera L. (Anacardiaceae and Lycium ruthenicum Murray (Solanaceae, respectively. All the three new species were collected from southwest of the East Azerbaijan province, Iran in 2011. It is the first record of an eriophyoid mite collected from E. thyrsoideum and L. ruthenicum and the first record of Notallus from Anacardiaceae plant family.

  19. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods (Siphonaptera, Acarina, and Anoplura) on rodents of Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Gholamhossein Moravvej; Kordiyeh Hamidi; Leila Nourani; Hamed Bannazade

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine distribution of rodents’ arthropods and estimate infestation parameters of fleas, mites, ticks, and lice associated with wild rodents in Mashhad and its vicinity, Iran. Methods: The rodents were captured using live trap from April 2013 to December 2014 in Mashhad and vicinity, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. The ectoparasites were collected from body surface of rodents using brushing, combing or forceps and preserved in 70% ethanol. The samples were examined by s...

  20. Cd isotope fractionation during sulfide mineral weathering in the Fule Zn-Pb-Cd deposit, Yunnan Province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuanwei; Wen, Hanjie; Zhang, Yuxu; Yin, Runsheng; Cloquet, Christophe

    2017-11-03

    Zinc (Zn)-Lead (Pb) deposits are generally rich in cadmium (Cd), and the weathering of sulfide minerals in such deposits results in large releases of Cd into the environment. From an environmental and public health standpoint, understanding Cd sources and cycling is critical to identifying potential hazards to humans. In this study, the Cd isotope compositions (expressed as δ114/110Cd) of secondary minerals such as anglesite (-0.57±0.03‰; 2S.D.), granular smithsonite (0.04±0.14‰; 2S.D.), layered smithsonite (0.15±0.40‰; 2S.D.), hydrozincite (0.26±0.01‰; 2S.D.) and clay minerals (-0.01±0.06‰; 2S.D.) from the Fule Zn-Pb-Cd deposit, Southwest China, are investigated to better understand the Cd sources and cycling in this area. Combined with our previous study (Zhu et al., 2017), the work herein elucidates the patterns of Cd isotopic fractionation during the formation processes of such secondary minerals and traces the weathering of these minerals into the ecosystem. The δ114/110Cd values of secondary minerals exhibit the following decreasing trend: hydrozincite>large granular smithsonite>small granular smithsonite>anglesite. Although different amounts of Cd were lost during the formation of equally sized samples, no or minor variations in Cd isotopic composition were observed. However, significant isotopic differences were observed between different size fractions. These results demonstrate that the particle size of secondary minerals and weathering products of sulfide significantly influence Cd isotope composition and fractionation during natural weathering. This systematic fractionation provides an initial foundation for the use of Cd isotopes as environmental tracers in ecosystems and in the global Cd isotope budget. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Age Dependent Etiology of Urinary Tract Infections in Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, South-West of Iran

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    Mohammad Motamedifar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are one of the most common bacterial diseases. The etiological agents and emergence of antimicrobial resistance UTIs vary according to time and geographical region. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of etiological agents of UTIs and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern to locally available antibiotics. Patients and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted within six months on all patients with clinical symptoms of UTI who referred to Nemazee Teaching hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Clean catch midstream urine samples were collected and cultured on appropriate media in a short time as possible. Conventional bacteriological methods were followed for the isolation and identification of the bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by locally available antibiotics by using disk diffusion method in accordance with CLSI recommendation. Results: In this study, from overall 9991 specimens analyzed 848 (8.5% culture had significant bacterial growth. Of the total positive cultures, 500 (59% cases were female. Escherichia coli (50.6% was the predominant gram-negative isolated pathogen followed by Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., respectively. Enterococcus isolates (11.2% was the most isolated gram-positive cocci. Nitrofurantoin (80.9%, gentamycin (77.9% and amikacin (65.3% had the most in-vitro antibacterial effect on E. coli isolates as the predominant cause of UTIs. Conclusions: The results of regional assessments, such as our study, provide not only useful information for prescription of more effective empirical therapy, but also good epidemiological background for comparison of our situation with other regions.

  2. Loading effects beneath the Gotvand-e Olya Reservoir (south-west of Iran) deduced from ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, M.; Tatar, M.; Aoudia, A.; Guidarelli, M.

    2018-01-01

    In order to define the precise shallow velocity structure beneath the second largest dam reservoir in Iran and to understand the loading effects on the underlying crust, the shear wave velocity of the shallow structure beneath the Gotvand-e Olya (hereinafter referred to as Gotvand) reservoir is determined through the inversion of group velocities obtained from seismic ambient noise tomography, using continuous data from 10 stations of a local network, installed to monitor the induced seismicity in the region surrounding the Gotvand and Masjed Soleyman dams for potential hazard. We obtained Rayleigh waves from cross-correlation of waveforms recorded 10 months before and the same duration after impoundment of the Gotvand reservoir and calculated the group velocity from dispersion analysis in the period range 2-8 s. The group velocity dispersion curves are used to produce 2-D group velocity tomographic maps. The resulting tomographic maps at short periods are well correlated with subsurface geological features and delineate distinct low- and high-velocity zones separated mainly by geological boundaries. The 3-D shear wave velocity structure provides detailed information about the crustal features underneath the reservoir. The results are consistent with the lithology of the region, and attest that ambient noise tomography (ANT) can be used for detailed studies of the velocity structure and lithology at shallow depths using continuous data from a dense local seismic network. An increase of shear wave velocity is observed at the deep parts (4-6 km) underneath the reservoir after impoundment of the dam, which could be caused by the changes in rocks properties after impoundment. However, at shallow depths (2-4 km), a decrease of Vs velocity is observed that can be associated to the penetration of water after the impoundment.

  3. Fluid evolution in H2O-CO2-NaCl system and metallogenic analysis of the Surian metamorphic complex, Bavanat Cu deposit, Southwest Iran

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    Asadi, Sina; Moore, Farid

    2017-02-01

    The Bavanat Cu deposit occurs as veins controlled by a NE-trending structure within the Permo-Triassic Surian metamorphic complex (SMC), southwest of Iran. The SMC rocks exposed in the area have undergone greenschist-facies metamorphism. The ore-forming process can be divided into early, middle, and late stages, represented by, respectively, pyrite-quartz, polymetallic sulfide-quartz, and late-stage barren quartz veins. Systematic studies of fluid inclusions (FIs) in the quartz veins found four types: aqueous, mixed aqueous-carbonic, carbonic, and multiphase-bearing inclusions. The FIs of early, middle and late-stages are mainly homogenized at temperatures of 335-417 °C, 230-380 °C, and 190-227 °C, with salinities of 1.1-6.7, 2.9-36.6, and 0.8-2.6 wt.% NaCl equivalent, respectively. The main stage of Cu mineralization is related to the middle-stage, where FIs show evidence of fluid immiscibility. The metal precipitation resulted from a decrease in copper solubility during the fluid immiscibility, cooling, crystallization of multiphase-bearing inclusions, and a small increase in pH. Laser Raman spectroscopy and FIs evidences indicate that the metallogenic system evolved from metamorphic CO2 (+CH4)-rich, relatively high fO2 (10-25 to 10-29 bars) to CO2-poor and relatively low fO2 (10-31 to 10-34 bars). Muscovite from the middle-stage veins yields 40Ar/39Ar plateau age of 195.2 ± 1.0 Ma, suggesting that the Cu mineralization at Bavanat formed in the Early Jurassic coeval with the retrograde metamorphic events during the post-early Cimmerian orogeny.

  4. Mutation analysis of hepatitis B virus reverse transcriptase region among untreated chronically infected patients in Ahvaz city (South-West of Iran

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    M Hamidi-Fard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been revealed that mutations can occur spontaneously and naturally in HBV reverse transcriptase (RT region among untreated patients. These HBV mutants pre-exist as minor viral population in naive patients and can emerge as major viral population, conferring drug resistance and treatment failure. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate and identify prevalent mutations of RT region of hepatitis B virus genome in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB untreated with antiviral drugs in South-West of Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 cases with CHB who did not receive the treatment of lamivudine and any other antivirus drugs within the last one year were randomly chosen. After sample collection and HBV DNA extraction, RT region was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Then PCR products were sequenced and HBV RT region mutations and amino acid changes were analyzed either manually or using web-based programs, on the basis of comparison of the obtained sequences with a set of HBV reference sequences. Results: A total of 23 (51.1% mutations and amino acid changes were detected in studied 45 untreated patients. Of these, 3 (6.6% patients had primary resistance mutation (rtM204I, rtA181T and rtA181S and 20 (44.4% patients had secondary resistance mutations. Conclusion: High prevalence of mutations was found in HBV RT region of untreated patients. Most of these mutations were associated with resistance to adefovir and one patient had primary resistance mutation to lamivudine. Awareness of these resistance patterns might help in the antiviral therapy and for predicting clinical outcomes.

  5. Geographic information system-based analysis of the spatial and spatio-temporal distribution of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Golestan Province, north-east of Iran.

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    Mollalo, A; Alimohammadi, A; Shirzadi, M R; Malek, M R

    2015-02-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a vector-borne disease, poses serious psychological as well as social and economic burden to many rural areas of Iran. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of the disease to better understand spatio-temporal epidemiological aspects of ZCL in rural areas of an endemic province, located in north-east of Iran. Cross-sectional survey was performed on 2983 recorded cases during the period of 2010-2012 at village level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest-neighbour distance, Moran's I, general G indices and Ripley's K-function were applied to investigate the annual spatial distribution of the existing point patterns. Presence of spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using the spatial and space-time scan statistics. For each year, semivariogram analysis and all global clustering methods indicated meaningful persistent spatial autocorrelation and highly clustered distribution of ZCL, respectively. Eight significant spatial clusters, mainly located in north and northeast of the province, and one space-time cluster, observed in northern part of the province and during the period of September 2010-November 2010, were detected. Comparison of the location of ZCL clusters with environmental conditions of the study area showed that 97.8% of cases in clusters were located at low altitudes below 725 m above sea level with predominantly arid and semi-arid climates and poor socio-economic conditions. The identified clusters highlight high-risk areas requiring special plans and resources for more close monitoring and control of the disease. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. [Melissopalynology and trophic niche of Apis cerana ceraca and Apis mellifera ligustica in Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jia; Zhao, Tian-Rui; Zhao, Feng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    In 2010 and 2011, the honey samples of Apis cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica were collected from Kunming and Mengzi of Yunnan Province, respectively, aimed to analyze the melissopalynology and tropic niche of the two bee species. The absolute pollen concentration of the honey of A. cerana cerana was 1.55 x 10(4) ind x g(-1), being significantly higher than that (1.01 x 10(4) ind x g(-1)) of A. mellifera ligustica, and the number of nectar plant species collected by A. cerana cerana was 12.9, also significantly higher than that (7.7) collected by A. mellifera ligustica, indicating that A. cerana cerana could utilize more nectar plants, while A. mellifera ligustica had stronger selectivity to the nectar plants. The trophic niche breadth of A. cerana cerana was 0.35, which was significantly higher than that (0.23) of A. mellifera ligustica. The trophic niche overlap index between the two bee species was 0.71, and the interspecific competition index was 0.93, suggesting that the food competition between A. cerana cerana and A. mellifera ligustica was fierce.

  7. The Middle Jurassic basinal deposits of the Surmeh Formation in the Central Zagros Mountains, southwest Iran: Facies, sequence stratigraphy, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasemi, Y.; Jalilian, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The lower part of the Lower to Upper Jurassic Surmeh Formation consists of a succession of shallow marine carbonates (Toarcian-Aalenian) overlain by a deep marine basinal succession (Aalenian-Bajocian) that grades upward to Middle to Upper Jurassic platform carbonates. The termination of shallow marine carbonate deposition of the lower part of the Surmeh Formation and the establishment of deep marine sedimentation indicate a change in the style of sedimentation in the Neotethys passive margin of southwest Iran during the Middle Jurassic. To evaluate the reasons for this change and to assess the basin configuration during the Middle Jurassic, this study focuses on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the basinal deposits (pelagic and calciturbidite facies) of the Surmeh Formation, referred here as 'lower shaley unit' in the Central Zagros region. The upper Aalenian-Bajocian 'lower shaley unit' overlies, with an abrupt contact, the Toarcian-lower Aalenian platform carbonates. It consists of pelagic (calcareous shale and limestone) and calciturbidite facies grading to upper Bajocian-Bathonian platform carbonates. Calciturbidite deposits in the 'lower shaley unit' consist of various graded grainstone to lime mudstone facies containing mixed deep marine fauna and platform-derived material. These facies include quartz-bearing lithoclast/intraclast grainstone to lime mudstone, bioclast/ooid/peloid intraclast grainstone, ooid grainstone to packstone, and lime wackestone to mudstone. The calciturbidite layers are erosive-based and commonly exhibit graded bedding, incomplete Bouma turbidite sequence, flute casts, and load casts. They consist chiefly of platform-derived materials including ooids, intraclasts/lithoclasts, peloids, echinoderms, brachiopods, bivalves, and open-ocean biota, such as planktonic bivalves, crinoids, coccoliths, foraminifers, and sponge spicules. The 'lower shaley unit' constitutes the late transgressive and the main part of the highstand

  8. The relationship between air traffic noise and its induced annoyance in the southwest area in Tehran - Iran

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    Arsalan Yousefzadeh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Noise pollution in urban areas has been recognized as a major problem. Since hearing damages are the main concern of noise exposure, other physical and psychological effects should not be ignored. Noise-induced annoyance and consequently its side-effects, such as fatigue and loss of concentration, would increase the probability of human errors occurrence and occasionally irreversible occupational accidents. This matter show the importance of noise exposure level from the standpoint of both community health and workplace safety. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the annoyance caused by air transportation noise in tehran, 2014. In this sense, a sample of 200 individuals were selected from residential and nonindustrial noise-exposed population in four southwest regions in Tehran. Following, the study questionnaires including annoyance (Recommended based on ISO 15666-2003, visibility of airplane, noise perception, and demographic variables were distributed and completed by the participants. Data obtained from Integrated Noise Model (INM and geographic coordinates of measurement stations, recorded by Glopal Positioning System (GPS, were entered into the GIS software in order to estimate air traffic noise. Result: The present study showed that the equivalent sound level of all regions during night, the day average sound level only in the Simetry Jey area, and the average night noise level in all regions except Dorahi Ghopan were more than the acceptable level; and the most precentage of people with high annoyance was belonged to night annoyance rate. On the other hand, the correlation between day level (DL and day annoyance rate (P=0.01, R=0.142, night level and night annoyance rate (P=0.004, R=0.334, and Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL and the day-night annoyance rate (P<0.0001, R=0.235 were obtained statistically significant. Conclusion: Adopting management srategies for reduction of number

  9. Mineralogical and geochemical studies on borate deposits from the Shahr- e - Babak playa (Khatoonabad and Robat - Marvast, Kerman province - Iran

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    Atefeh Ghaedi

    2017-11-01

    , boron is very abundant. Good correlation between the elements, such as B and Ca confirms the formation of Calcium bearing borate mineral in the studied areas. Origin Field observations show that in the studied areas, borate bearing basins are fed by rivers which have originated from the Sanandaj – Sirjan metamorphic rocks, Nain – Baft colored mélanges and igneous rocks of the Urumieh – Dokhtar magmatic belt. Result The XRD results show that the studied borate minerals mainly are hydrated ones and contain ulexite, borax, gowerite, sassolite and inyoite. Geochemichal data confirm the frequency of boron in the playa. Good correlation between the elements such as B and Ca verifies the formation of Calcium bearing borate mineral in the studied areas. Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank IMIDRO for performing XRD analyses. References ‏‏ Allen, R.D. and Kramer, H., 1957. Ginorite and sassolite from Death Valley, California. American Mineralogist, 42(1-2: 56-61.‏ Christ, C.L., 1953. Studies of borate minerals, 2. X-ray crystallography of inyoite and meyerhofferite -x-ray and morphological crystallography of 2CaO. 3B2O3. 9H2O. American Mineralogist, 38(1 - 11: 912-918. Erd, R.C., McAllister, J.F. and Almond, H., 1959. Gowerite, a new hydrous calcium borate, from the Death Valley Region, California. American Mineralogist, 44(9-10: 911-919.‏ Floyd, P.A., Helvaci, C. and Mittwede, S.K., 1998. Geochemical discrimination of volcanic rocks associated with borate deposits: an exploration tool? Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 60(3: 185-205.‏ Garrett, D.E., 1998. Borates: handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press, USA, 483 pp. Ghaedi, A., Moradian, A. and Ahmadipour, H., 2014. Reviewing and introduction of mineralogical properties of Ulexite an unknown gem in Khatoonabad (Shahr Babak, Kerman Province. The 1st National Symposium of Gemology- Crystallography of Iran, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran. Ghose, S., Wan, C

  10. A survey of bacterial and mold contamination of imported rice into West Azerbaijan Province, northwest of Iran

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    Ramin Teymori

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate contamination of imported rice with mold and Bacillus cereus in Iran as bacteria, fungi and viruses are main causes of food-borne diseases. Methods: In this study, mildew colonies of Bacillus cereus and organoliptic properties of 17 brands of imported rice into Iran were measured, out of which 24 samples were prepared according to national standards. Results: All the 408 samples had positive mold and Bacillus; but, they were in the normal range. All the samples (408 of normal color and morphological features were granular. Conclusions: The results of our study shows that imported rice to Iran contaminated by microbials due to the storage conditions. Although the contamination of imported rice is permissible, it is necessary to monitor food hygiene and healthy food pictures for as required.

  11. Intestinal disease of scattered mirror carp Cyprinus carpio caused by Thelohanellus kitauei and notes on the morphology and phylogeny of the myxosporean from Sichuan Province, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Lingtong; Lu, Mingmiao; Quan, Keyan; Li, Wenxiang; Zou, Hong; Wu, Shangong; Wang, Jiangyong; Wang, Guitang

    2017-05-01

    The mass mortality of pond-reared scattered mirror carp, Cyprinus carpio, caused by Thelohanellus kitauei, occurred at fish farms in Sichuan Province, southwest China. Morphological and molecular analyses were supplemented with histological evaluation of infected tissues to better understand the route of infection and the pathological effects of T. kitauei on the fish host. The intestine of the diseased host was full of large cysts of the myxosporean. The cysts range from 2 cm to 3.6 cm in diameter. Histopathology indicated that T. kitaue i first invaded the submucosa of the host intestine and then moved into the mucosa layers with the development of their spores, finally entering into the enteric cavity of the hosts after the disruption of mucosa layers. The pyriform spores of T. kitauei were surrounded by the transparent spore sheath, measuring 25.98 μm±0.95 μm in body length, 8.72 μm±0.51 μm in body width, and 7.86 μm±0.26 μm in body thickness. The single polar capsule was pyriform, measuring 14.73 μm±0.92 μm in length and 6.82 μm±0.45 μm in width, with eight to 10 turns of filament coils winding inside. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences indicated that minimal genetic differences were present between T. kitauei samples from South Korea and from China. Close affinity was found between the genus Thelohanellus and Myxobolus. Additionally, two polar capsule nuclei were found at the anterior end of the single polar capsule in spores of T. kitauei stained with hematoxylin and eosin, which suggested the separation of the genus Thelohanellus from Myxobolus.

  12. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

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    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  13. Case report of oral cavity infestation in a 3-year old jackass with Limnatis nilotica from Ilam province, west of Iran

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    Mahmoud Bahmani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leeches (phylum: Annelida, class: hirudinea could infest wide range of livestock such as cow, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse, mule, ass, dog, pig and even human. In November 2013, a 3-year old jackass from Dehloran county, Ilam province, Iran, was infected through his mouth due to drinking spring water. Symptoms including stress, anxiety and tachycardia were seen. After examining oral cavity of jackass, a leech was observed in upper gum. The leech was measured after separation which was three inches in length. The leech was adult which has dark green with orange lines, and it was identified as Limnatis nilotica species. It seems that using spring, subterranean water, pond etc. is the main causes of livestock infestation with leech. Ranchers could be recommended to decontaminate leech waters to prevent further leech infestation cases.

  14. Brucellosis as a neglected disease in a neglected population: a seroepidemiological study of migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honarvar, B; Moghadami, M; Lankarani, K B; Davarpanah, M A; Ataolahi, M; Farbod, A; Eskandari, E; Panahi, M; Ghorbani, A; Zahiri, Z; Tabrizi, R; Pourjafar, M; Heidari, S M M

    2017-02-01

    This study assessed the seroprevalence of brucellosis and its risk factors in migratory nomads in the Fars province of Iran. Active brucellosis was defined as the combination of clinical symptoms, including fever, chills, night sweats, headache, low back pain, arthralgia, or myalgia, and positive laboratory testing, including either a serum agglutination test (SAT) ⩾1:80 with a 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) test ⩾1:40, or a SAT brucellosis was detected in 54 cases, indicating a prevalence of 10% (95% confidence interval 8-12). In conclusion, we determined that brucellosis is a prevalent yet neglected disease in this nomadic population. Brucellosis control is not possible as long as these high-risk populations remain neglected.

  15. HPLC Measurement of MDMA Content in Ecstasy Tablets Available in the Black Market of West Azerbaijan Province, Northwestern Iran

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    Reza Ghafari

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: There is variability in the physicochemical properties of ecstasy tablets available in the black market for illicit drugs in northwest Iran. This variability may potentially put abusers at increased risk of overdose due to inadvertent excess ingestion of the tablets to achieve desired effects and also experiencing more harm due to tablets adulterants.

  16. The Relationship between Management, Career Planning and Career Development of Medical and Non-medical Faculty Members of Kohgiluyeh and Boyerahmad Province, Iran

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    G Sajjadikhah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: There are many mechanisms for the development of human resources, which career development is one of its central components. The aim of this study was to determine the factors related to career development faculty members (Medical and Non-medical of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, Iran. Methods: The present paper was a cross-sectional, descriptive correlation method study.  The study population consisted of 535 faculty members (medical, government, NGOs in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer province, Iran, of which 400 participants were randomly selected for the present study. Data were collected through standard questionnaires as a research tool, of career development, career planning and career management for data analysis and statistical tests including linear regression, t-test, regression, and correlation coefficient was used. Results: Career development status and its related factors (Career management and career planning scientific faculty members was desirable. The findings show that between career planning and career management, career development, a significant positive correlation was observed (P

  1. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Diseases and Their Risk Factors in Hospitalized Patients in East Azerbaijan Province, Northwest Iran: A Review of 18323 Cases

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    Alireza Yaghoubi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD is accountable for more than 30% of deaths worldwide and is, thus, deemed the most important factor in terms of disease burden around the globe. This study aimed to evaluate CAD and its risk factors in hospitalized patients in the East Azerbaijan Province, northwest Iran, from 2006 to 2007.Methods: Data on 18.323 patients hospitalized due to cardiovascular diseases were collected to evaluate the diseases and their risk factors in 15 hospitals in the East Azerbaijan Province, northwest Iran. We assessed the main diagnosis of cardiovascular disease on admission in each hospital. Also, types of interventional and surgical procedures were assessed and all these variables were compared between men and women.Results: The study population consisted of 56.6% male and 43.4% female patients. The median and range between quartile1 and 3 (Q1-Q3 ages of the males and females were 59 (49-70 and 62 (51-71 years, respectively. Ischemic heart diseases were diagnosed in 68.4%, electrophysiological disorders in 6.5%, and valvular heart diseases in 4.5% of the patients. The frequencies of the studied risk factors were as follows: cigarette smoking (47.5%; hypertension (66.95%; diabetes mellitus (35.9%; and history of cerebrovascular accident (16.4% and renal disease (13.4%. Medical therapy was performed in 79.23%, surgery in 6.28%, and cardiovascular interventional therapy in 13.99% of the patients. The in-hospital mortality rate was 1.57% (1.42% in the males and 1.76% in the females; p value = 0.009.Conclusion: The most frequent known risk factors in the hospitalized patients were smoking, alcohol consumption, and diabetes. In the northwest of Iran, age at hospitalization due to cardiovascular diseases is slightly lower than that in the Western populations; however, sex distribution, diagnoses, and treatment modalities are not significantly different from those reported in Western countries

  2. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the causal agent of chafer beetle mortality in the wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran

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    Karimi Keivan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of chafer beetle [Anisoplia austriaca (Herbst 1783] mortality caused by Actinomucor elegans var. elegans in wheat fields of the Kurdistan province, Iran. For three years, dead larvae of Anisoplia austriaca were collected from wheat fields of the Kurdistan province. Similar isolates of a fast-growing fungus were recovered from all samples. The fungal isolates were identified as A. elegans var. elegans based on morphological and cultural characteristics. The identity of the species was further confirmed using sequence data of the ITS (Internal Transcribed Spacer region of ribosomal DNA. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by the inoculation of the larvae of A. austriaca and Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus, 1758 (as the model insect using the spore suspension of A. elegans var. elegans. The viability of sporangiospores was evaluated using a spore dilution technique on germination medium. The results on the pathogenicity (100% mortality in A. austriaca larvae and viability tests (germination: 95.45% demonstrated that A. elegans var. elegans can be considered as a potential biocontrol agent against the chafer beetle. Field experiments are still required to evaluate the capacity of A. elegans as a biological control agent.

  3. Transformer oils as a potential source of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): an assessment in three central provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Reza; Khakzad, Saeed; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of oils from all transformers of the national electrical grid in Tehran, Qom, and Alborz, three central provinces of Iran, was assessed. The concentration of PCBs in transformer oils was determined by gas chromatography. At the national level, the proportions of transformers with oil PCB contents of 5000 ppm were determined to be 85.7, 12.4, 1.6, 0.1, and 0.1%, respectively. About 0.5% of transformer oils (66,000 kg out of 13,342,000 kg) exhibited PCB levels higher than 50 ppm that based on the Stockholm Convention should be phased out before 2025. The contaminated oils contained 91.4% of detected PCBs (132 kg PCBs out of 144 kg PCBs) and were located in 1.9% of transformers (27 transformers out of 1449 transformers). Statistical analysis indicated that the year of manufacture and manufacturing company provided significant effects on PCB contamination (p value transformer oils in Tehran was higher than that of the other provinces that could be mainly caused by the older average year of manufacture. PCB levels higher than 499 ppm were also observed only in Tehran. This study provided valuable information for future studies on identification of PCB-contaminated transformers as well as planning and design of waste management facilities for PCB-contaminated oils at the national level.

  4. Land suitability assessment for wind power plant site selection using ANP-DEMATEL in a GIS environment: case study of Ardabil province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Ali; Malekmohammadi, Bahram; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Nasiri, Hossein; Amini Parsa, Vahid

    2014-10-01

    Wind energy is a renewable energy resource that has increased in usage in most countries. Site selection for the establishment of large wind turbines, called wind farms, like any other engineering project, requires basic information and careful planning. This study assessed the possibility of establishing wind farms in Ardabil province in northwestern Iran by using a combination of analytic network process (ANP) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. DEMATEL was used to determine the criteria relationships. The weights of the criteria were determined using ANP and the overlaying process was done on GIS. Using 13 information layers in three main criteria including environmental, technical and economical, the land suitability map was produced and reclassified into 5 equally scored divisions from least suitable to most suitable areas. The results showed that about 6.68% of the area of Ardabil province is most suitable for establishment of wind turbines. Sensitivity analysis shows that significant portions of these most suitable zones coincide with suitable divisions of the input layers. The efficiency and accuracy of the hybrid model (ANP-DEMATEL) was evaluated and the results were compared to the ANP model. The sensitivity analysis, map classification, and factor weights for the two methods showed satisfactory results for the ANP-DEMATEL model in wind power plant site selection.

  5. Operational indicators for measuring organizational e-readiness based on fuzzy logic: A challenge in the Agricultural Organization of Guilan Province, Iran

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    Zahra Daghighi Masouleh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communications technology has exponentially grown in recent years and has played a significant role in organizational development. The main purpose of this study was to collect the data needed for the introduction of a new tool for assessing e-readiness in the Agricultural Organization of Guilan Province, Iran. The study population includes agricultural organization experts and researchers who were familiar with the concepts of IT and the organization status. Based on the relevant literature review, the e-readiness indicators which had theoretically been proposed and practically used by researchers over the past 10 years were identified. Then some parameters were introduced for examination and prioritization. These indicators represented the spatial and temporal factors as well as the characteristics of the condition of the Agricultural Organization of Guilan Province. The proposed structural model included seven factors (Infrastructural, Human, Educational, Government, Management, Socio-cultural and Legal and 44 indicators. After that, based on the experts’ points of view, the coefficient of significance for each of the selected factors and indicators was measured using Minkowski fuzzy screening method. The results obtained from structured questionnaires show that all of the seven main factors and 40 indicators out of 44 indicators were appropriate for assessing electronic readiness and the final model of assessing e-readiness. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most important factor in assessing e-readiness is the human factor and then stand other factors such as educational, infrastructural, management, government, legal and socio-cultural.

  6. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

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    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  7. UPPER FRASNIAN (UPPER DEVONIAN POLYGNATHUS AND ICRIODUS CONODONTS FROM THE BAHRAM FORMATION, HUR SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTERN IRAN

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    TAYEBEH AHMADI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodont fauna from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian Bahram Formation at the Hur section, north of Kerman, southeast Iran, is dominated by species of Icriodus and Polygnathus. This fauna allowed discrimination of two biointervals from the Lower rhenana Zone to an Upper rhenana-linguiformis interval. The age of the lower part of the studied section is tentatively considered to be older than the Lower rhenana Zone. 

  8. An annual analysis of clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in fatal motor vehicle accident in legal medicine organization of Kerman province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadipasha, Masood; Vaghefi, Soheila Sadat; Kazemi Esfeh, Shahrooz; Teimoori, Maryam; Ouhadi, Amin Reza; Mirhosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    One of the most common causes of death in Iran and other developing countries, are traffic accidents. Accordingly, this study was done based on the investigation and prevention of traffic injuries. This cross sectional study includes all fatal traffic accidents in the province of Kerman during a year; moreover, spss19 software is used for analyzing data. The main references of this survey were both the clinical reports of the victims of the road accidents as well as their Autopsy findings in forensic medicine center of the Iranian province of Kerman. In this study, 1185 victims of road accidents have been under supervision. Furthermore, statistical information such as age, sex, education, career, position of the occupant (Car drivers, motorcycle drivers and pedestrians), injuries related to the accident, type of vehicle, City-location of the accident and Place of death are observed. The main causes of death victims of road accidents were categorized into six groups. Occupational groups according EE0-1Job category were classified into 9 groups. Results are reported as descriptive as a frequency index (%), mean ± standard deviation, in addition, chi squared test was used to compare the clinical findings and autopsy And p clinical records and autopsy finding, the difference was significant (p = 0.0001). The most common brain injury in hospital was epidural hematoma (n = 152, 12.8%). There was significant difference when compared with autopsy (n = 165, 13.9%) then brain contusion was most autopsy findings (n = 144, 12.2%). Whereas 141 cases was diagnosed in the hospital (11.9%) (p = 0.0001), And the diagnosis of diffuse axonal injury in both groups was similar (n = 75). The morbidity and mortality caused by head injury not only caused by traumatic brain injury, but it is sometimes due to cause delay in diagnosis and surgical procedures. We recommend abrasion & laceration injuries that could be suggestive of more serious injuries to more accurately assess the patient

  9. Screening of three common mtDNA mutations among subjects with autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss in Sistan va Baluchestan province, Iran

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    Fartemeh Azadegan-Dehkordi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-syndromic hearing loss may be induced by mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes. Mutations in mtDNA are present in less than 1% of the children with pre-lingual deafness but are more prevalent later. Most of the molecular defects responsible for mitochondrial disorder, associated with hearing loss may be induced by mutations in the 12SrRNA and tRNA genes. This aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of three common mtDNA mutations including A1555G, A3243G and A7445G in a cohort of autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL subjects in Sistan va Baluchestan province. Material and Methods: In this descriptive- experimental based study, a total of 110. ARNSHL subjects from Sistan va Baluchestan province were investigated for three common mtDNA mutations using PCR-RFLP procedure. The possible mutations were confirmed by direct sequencing.Results: None of the A1555G and A7445G mutations were detected in this study. However, we found one sample to carry A3243G mutation (0.9%. Moreover abolishing a MTTL1 restriction site close to A3243G mutation revealed a G3316A allelic variant in 0.9% of patients studied.Conclusion: This study showed that mtDNA mutations are responsible for less than 1% of pre-lingual ARNSHL associated subjects. The present study will improve the genetic counseling of hearing impaired patients in Sistan va Baluchestan province, Iran

  10. A survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock and ticks in Ardabil Province, Iran during 2004-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telmadarraiy, Z; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Moradi, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by the CCHF virus. It is mainly transmitted to humans and animals by ticks. In recent y, large numbers of livestock have been transported across the border areas of Ardabil Province resulting in an outbreak of CCHF in th...... virus genome in ticks points to a great hidden threat of an outbreak in these districts. Those in high-risk professions in this province should be informed and trained on the risk of CCHF with urgency....

  11. Checklist of the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Miridae in western parts of Kerman Province, Iran

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    Mohsen Shamsi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A faunal study was carried out on the subfamilies Mirinae and Orthotylinae (Heteroptera: Miridae from different parts of western Kerman Province on various host plants. In total 16 species belonging to 14 genera were collected and identified from different host plants and localities.

  12. Temporal Dynamics of Phlebotomine Sand Flies Population in Response to Ambient Temperature Variation, Bam, Kerman Province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimi, Mansour; Cheghabaleki, Zahra Zarei; Modrek, Mohammad Jafari; Delavari, Mahdi

    Variations in climate condition may have changed the dynamic of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) and its agents such as sand flies and reservoir in the Bam Kerman the dry region of Iran. In this study we intend to examine the seasonal and interannual dynamics of the phlebotomine mosquito as a function of ambient temperature in Bam, Kerman one of the main leshmaniasis prevalence area in Iran. The MODIS land surface temperature product (LST; MODIS/Terra LST/E Monthly L3 Global 0.05Deg CMG [MOD11C3]) and land-based climatic data were used as explanatory variables. Monthly caught mosquitoes in Bam, Kerman, were used as a dependent variable. The temporal associations were first investigated by inspection of scatterplots and single-variable regression analysis. A multivariate linear regression model was developed to reveal the association between ambient temperature and the monthly mosquito abundance at a 95% confidence level (P 0.80 of temporal dynamics of phlebotomine mosquitos in Bam. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing energy efficiencies, economy, and global warming potential (GWP) effects of major crop production systems in Iran: a case study in East Azerbaijan province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Arash; Mahdavi Damghani, Abdolmajid; Vafabakhsh, Javad; Deihimfard, Reza

    2017-07-01

    Efficient use of energy in farming systems is one of the most important implications for decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigating global warming (GW). This paper describes the energy use patterns, analyze the economics, and report global warming potential effects of major crop production systems in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. For this purpose, 110 farmers whose main activity was major crop production in the region, including wheat, barley, carrot, tomato, onion, potato, alfalfa, corn silage, canola, and saffron, were surveyed. Some other data was obtained from the Ministry of Agriculture Jihad of Iran. Results showed that, in terms of total energy input, onion (87,556 Mj ha -1 ) and potato (80,869 Mj ha -1 ) production systems were more energy-intensive than other crops. Among the studied crops, the highest values of net return (6563.8 $ ha -1 ) and benefit/cost ratio (1.95) were related to carrot and corn silage production systems, respectively. Studies have also shown that onion and saffron production systems emit the highest (5332.6 kg CO2eq ha -1 ) and lowest (646.24 kg CO 2 eq ha -1 ) CO 2 eq. emission, respectively. When it was averaged across crops, diesel fuel accounted for the greatest GHG contribution with 43% of the total, followed by electric power (28%) and nitrogen fertilizer (21%). In the present study, eco-efficiency was calculated as a ratio of the gross production value and global warming potential effect for the studied crops. Out of all the studied crops, the highest values of eco-efficiency were calculated to be 8.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 for the saffron production system followed by the carrot (3.65 $ kg CO 2 eq -1 ) production. Generally, from the aspect of energy balance and use efficiency, the alfalfa production system was the best; however, from an economical point of view, the carrot production system was better than the other crops.

  14. Determination of Serologic and Molecular Prevalence of Hepatitis Type B, C, and G Infections in Patients with Hematological Malignancy in the South of Fars Province, Iran

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    Kambiz Bagheri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Hepatitis type G virus (HGV is a flavivirus with RNA genome which has high nucleotide and amino acid similarity with HCV. HGV can infect blood lymphocytes for long period and may have role in inducing or complicating the clinical outcomes in patients with hematological malignancies. Therefore in this study the prevalence of HGV, HCV, and HBV infections were evaluated in patients with hematological malignancies. Materials & Methods: In this study EDTA treated blood samples were collected from 100 patients with hematological malignancies and 110 healthy controls of southern cities of Fars province (Lar, Lamerd, Grash Iran. The serologic and molecular markers of HGV, HCV, and HBV were analyzed by ELISA and PCR and RT-PCR methods, respectively in Hematology Research Center and Transplant Research Center, Namazi hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Also the role of some risk factors in pathogenesis of these hepatitis viruses was studied statistically. Results: Antibody against E2 antigen of HGV was diagnosed in 5% and 1.1% of patients with hematological malignancies and healthy controls, respectively. Significant difference was found between the prevalence of HGV antibodies in patients with hematological malignancies and healthy controls (P=0.037. The HCV antibody and prevalence of HCV- RNA was detected in 7% and 4% of patients with hematological malignancies respectively. Significant difference was found between the prevalence of HCV-RNA in patients with hematological malignancies and healthy controls (P=0.02. Also HBV viremia was found in 2% of patients. Conclusion: In this study the significant presentation of HGV and HCV were found in patients with hematological malignancies compared with healthy controls. However, the results suggest that similar study should be carryout to evaluate the prevalence of this viral infection in other part of Iran, to control the spreading of these infections to other people.

  15. Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM prevalence in raw beef, camel, sheep, goat, and water buffalo meat in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran

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    Ebrahim Rahimi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC of the O157:H7 serotype is a worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7/NM in raw meat samples from two provinces of Iran. During a period from March 2010 to March 2011. Two hundred and ninety five raw meat samples were collected from beef (n= 85, camel, (n= 50, sheep (n= 62, goat (n= 60, and water buffalo (n=38. Fourteen (4.7% of the 295 samples were positive for E. coli O157. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157 was found in beef samples (8.2%, followed by water buffalo (5.3%, sheep (4.8%, camel (2.0%, and goat (1.7%. Of fourteen E. coli O157 isolates, only one was determined to be serotype O157: H7 while 13 were determined as serotype O157: NM. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7/NM isolates, one, four, two, and one strains were positive for stx1, stx2, eaeA and ehlyA genes, respectively. The prevalence of this organism varied between seasons with the highest prevalence of E. coli O157 occurring in summer (9.3%. The results of this study showed that beef and water buffalo meat are a significant source for human EHEC E. coli O157:H7/NM infection in Iran. The data reported in this study provides some useful baseline in formation for future research such as molecular or epidemiologic works.

  16. Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM prevalence in raw beef, camel, sheep, goat, and water buffalo meat in Fars and Khuzestan provinces, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kazemeini, Hamid Reza; Salajegheh, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of the O157:H7 serotype is a worldwide zoonotic pathogen responsible for the majority of severe cases of human EHEC disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157: H7/NM in raw meat samples from two provinces of Iran. During a period from March 2010 to March 2011. Two hundred and ninety five raw meat samples were collected from beef (n= 85), camel, (n= 50), sheep (n= 62), goat (n= 60), and water buffalo (n=38). Fourteen (4.7%) of the 295 samples were positive for E. coli O157. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157 was found in beef samples (8.2%), followed by water buffalo (5.3%), sheep (4.8%), camel (2.0%), and goat (1.7%). Of fourteen E. coli O157 isolates, only one was determined to be serotype O157: H7 while 13 were determined as serotype O157: NM. Of the 14 E. coli O157:H7/NM isolates, one, four, two, and one strains were positive for stx1, stx2, eaeA and ehlyA genes, respectively. The prevalence of this organism varied between seasons with the highest prevalence of E. coli O157 occurring in summer (9.3%). The results of this study showed that beef and water buffalo meat are a significant source for human EHEC E. coli O157:H7/NM infection in Iran. The data reported in this study provides some useful baseline in formation for future research such as molecular or epidemiologic works.

  17. An Investigation of Factors Related to Job Motivation of Faculty members at Islamic Azad Universities in Zanjan Province-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Rasool Davoudi; Seyed Hossein Mousavi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate job motivation of faculty members in Islamic Azad Universities of Zanjan province based on Herzberg 's theory. The research method was applied research in terms of purpose and so it was survey and correlation research in terms of data collecting method .The statistical population were 640 faculty members in 2012.For this purpose, using cluster random sampling, data was collected from 150 people as the sample through Andraka' s job motivation questi...

  18. Estimation of Road Traffic Mortality in Kurdistan Province, Iran, During 2004-2009, Using Capture-Recapture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Gorgin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To reduce traffic injuries in the country, health professionals should have accurate estimates of road traffic deaths. Multiple and sometimes inconsistent statistics presented by organizations in charge create high degree of uncertainty for planners and decision makers. To achieve an accurate estimate, several methods are available. Of them, capture-recapture method seems to be an appropriate and affordable method regarding the reliability of the data sources. This study aimed to estimate the number of road traffic deaths in Kurdistan Province during 2004-2009, using capture-recapture method and based on 2 sources of data obtained from Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department. Materials and Methods: All deaths due to road traffic accidents in Kurdistan Province were extracted during 2004-2009. These deaths were legally registered in Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department. Shared cases among these 2 sources were identified based on full name, age, gender, and date of death and finally the accurate number of deaths was calculated using the correct volume formula. Results: During study period, Forensic Medicine Department of the province had registered about 3289 cases of road traffic mortalities and Death Registration System had registered 3771 cases of death resulting from road traffic accidents. Using capture-recapture method, the number of deaths in the same years was estimated as 5726 people (5818-5634:CI95%. The proportion of mortality registered in the Death Registration System and Forensic Medicine Department of the province to the total estimated deaths were 65.8% and 57.4%, respectively and both systems together covered 85.4% of road traffic deaths, i.e. under-reporting of about 832 people. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that none of 2 sources of Forensic Medicine Department and Death Registration System, per se or both, fully covered road traffic mortalities and

  19. The Co-application of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria and Inoculation with Rhizobium Bacteria on Grain Yield and Its Components of Mungbean (Vigna radiate L.) in Ilam Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Abdollah Hosseini; Abbas Maleki; Khalil Fasihi; Rahim Naseri

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and rhizobium bacteria on grain yield and some agronomic traits of mungbean (Vigna radiate L.), an experiment was carried out based on randomized complete block design with three replications in Malekshahi, Ilam province, Iran during 2012-2013 cropping season. Experimental treatments consisted of control treatment, inoculation with rhizobium bacteria, rhizobium bacteria and Azotobacter, rhiz...

  20. Depression, Anxiety and Disease-Related Variables and Quality of Life Among Individuals With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Living in Kermanshah Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Hania; Arman, Farid; Hossieni, Monir; Omrani, Hamid Reza; Vahdani, Ali; Shakeri, Jalal

    2015-12-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is affected by numerous variables including depression and anxiety. However, these associations have not yet been described among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and the impact of SLE-related clinical variables remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Iranian patients with SLE living in Kermanshah province, Iran, has been estimated and the determinants of HRQoL in comparison with healthy subjects have been identified. Sampling was performed based on recruitment of subjects according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Systemic lupus erythematosus-related variables including cutaneous manifestations, pericarditis, arthritis, history of seizure and psychosis were recorded. Blood samples were taken to measure antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), Anti-Smith (Anti-SM), anticardiolipin antibody. Matched healthy subjects in demographic characteristics were selected from general population of Kermanshah province, Iran. Depression and anxiety and HRQoL were assessed using the Beck depression inventory-II, Beck anxiety inventory and short-form 36 health survey, respectively. A total of 310 individuals (160 patients with SLE and 150 healthy subjects) participated in this study. The prevalence of depression and anxiety was about 20% among people with SLE, which was noticeably high but not significantly different from healthy individuals. More severe depression was associated with lower scores in domains of physical functioning (PF), role limitation due to physical problems (RP) and subsequently physical component summary (PCS) in the SLE group (P < 0.0001 for all). A higher anxiety level was negatively correlated with PF, RP, social functioning (SF), general health (GH) and PCS in the SLE group (P = 0.01, < 0.0001, 0.004, 0.02 and 0.005, respectively). Scores of PF and PCS were significantly lower among patients with SLE compared to the

  1. The Darzi-Vali bauxite deposit, West-Azarbaidjan Province, Iran: Critical metals distribution and parental affinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Maryam; Abedini, Ali; Alipour, Samad; Mongelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    The Darzi-Vali bauxite deposit, located 20 km east of Bukan, in northwestern Iran, occurs as discontinuous layers and lenses within the Upper Permian carbonate rocks of the Ruteh Formation. These layers extend laterally for over ∼1 km and vary in thickness ranging from 2 to 17 m. We studied the chemical variations in a selected stratigraphic section throughout the deposit, focusing in particular on numbers of selected special metals that make the deposit of potential economic importance. The critical elements Co, Ga, Nb, Ta, LREEs, and HREEs, along with transition metal Ni, are variously depleted throughout the deposit with respect to Ti, which is assumed to be a less mobile element. Among the critical elements, Cr has only demonstrated conservative behavior. Factor analysis suggests that the factors controlling the distribution of LREEs and HREEs in the ore, which most likely depend on the local composition of groundwater during weathering, are different from those controlling the distribution of other critical elements. Further, the Darzi-Vali ore has ΣREE contents (773 ppm) much higher with respect to other deposits located in NW of Iran, making this deposit worthy of further investigations. As for parental affinity, the Eu anomalies show negligible fluctuations (0.82-0.94) all along the deposit confirming that bauxitization does not affect the effectiveness of this provenance proxy. The average Eu/Eu* value (0.89) of the ore is relatively far afield from that of the average carbonate bedrock (1.3) and close to that of the average mafic protolith (0.94), and similar results are also obtained using the Sm/Nd and Tb/Tb* proxies. Bivariate plots of Eu anomaly versus Sm/Nd and Tb anomalies further support the idea that mafic rocks are probably related to the volcanic activities. These volcanic activities affected the Iranian platform during the Upper Permian as proposed for other bauxite deposits in northwestern Iran. These mafic rocks were the probable precursor

  2. Comparative evaluation of the essential oil terpenoids in the stem and leaf of Ziziphora clinopodioides in the regions of Almeh and Sojough of Golestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimi Pouneh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted hydrodistillation was used to isolate essential oil from the leaf and stem of Ziziphora clinopodioides collected in the flowering stage on two locations, Almeh and Sojogh, of the Golestan Province (Iran, in June of 2009. The total contents of monoterpene and sesquiterpene fractions (52.45% and 1.08%, respectively in the leaf oil of Almeh plants were higher than those of Sojogh (46.64% and 0.12%, respectively. The essential oil of the stem of the plants from Sojogh was characterized by the presence of eight oxygenated monoterpenes (22.17%, while four oxygenated monoterpenes (11.15%, one monterpene hydrocarbon (2.71%, and one oxygenated sesquiterpene (0.21% were found in the plants from the region of Almeh. The analysis of the essential oil of dried aerial parts showed the presence of oxygenated monoterpenes pulegone and menthol (the region of Sojogh and pulegone, 1,8-cineol, D-neoisomenthol and chrysanthenone (the region of Almeh, as the main constituents. Also, chrysanthenone (9.75%, found as the second major component of the leaf of Z. clinopodioides of Almeh, was not identified as the oil component of the other region. The results obtained on the chemical composition of Z. clinopodioides oil of two regions from the Golestan Province revealed that in general, that there are some differences in the major components and their relative concentrations. This may be probably due to the different environmental and genetic factors, different chemotypes and the nutritional status of the plants, as well as other factors that can influence the oil composition.

  3. Prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD defiiency in malaria endemic region of Iran (Sistan and Baluchestan Province: Epidemiological profie and trends over time

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    Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency in a malarious region of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in south-east of Iran. Methods: A total of 2 997 subjects were selected through a multistage random sampling method from 14 districts of the province. Data were collected by trained interviewers and blood samples taken on filter papers by lab technicians. Filter papers were examined for deficiency of G6PD using the fluorescent spot test. Results: The combined prevalence rate of partial or severe G6PD deficiency was 12% (95% CI: 10.9–13.3 among participants. Prevalence of G6PD deficiency differed by sex, age and residency of participants. Ratio of male to female with G6PD deficiency was 1.4. Age-groups of 40–49 years [13.4% (95% CI: 10.3–17.1] and 50–59 years [13.8% (95% CI: 10.7–17.5] had the highest prevalence of G6PD deficiency in comparison to newborns with prevalence lower than 10% [8.40% (95% CI: 4.4–14.3]. The prevalence rates of G6PD deficiency varied from 3.30% (95% CI: 1.4–6.7 in Zahedan to 17.9% (95% CI: 13.8–22.4 in Chabahar. Conclusions: The present study provided valuable data for health policy makers and those who are involved in malaria elimination program.

  4. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

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    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area.

  5. Mutation Analysis of Exons 10 and 17a of CFTR Gene in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis in Kermanshah Province, Western Iran.

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    Sahami, Abbas; Alibakhshi, Reza; Ghadiri, Keyghobad; Sadeghi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common genetic disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance among Caucasian populations. So far, more than 1950 different mutations were identified in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. CFTR gene has 27 exons. The type and distribution of mutations vary widely among different countries and/or ethnic groups. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis was performed on exon10 and exon17a of CFTR gene in CF patients in the Kermanshah province, western Iran. We tested 27 patients admitted to the medical genetics laboratory of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. The patients were from different cities of Kermanshah province. All the patients had the clinical signals and two positive sweat tests. After filling agreement forms and questionnaire, the peripheral blood sampling and DNA extraction were done. DNA samples were extracted. PCR and sequencing special PCR were done. Finally analysis of the results with DNA sequencing analysis version 5.2 software was performed. CFTR mutations analysis identified 4 different mutations in our CF patients. The disease-causing mutations were p.F508del (ΔF508) (14.81%), p.S466X (1.85%), and p.T1036I (1.85%). M470V polymorphism with frequency of 74.1% was found in 23 patients (17 homozygous and 6 heterozygous). Three disease-causing mutations in CF patients in the present study account for approximately 18.51% of mutations. The frequency of p.F508del, the most common mutation was 16-18.1% in Iranian population. The results of the present study can be applied for genetic counseling, population screening and prenatal diagnosis.

  6. Unprotected karst resources in western Iran: the environmental impacts of intensive agricultural pumping on the covered karstic aquifer, a case in Kermanshah province

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    Taheri, Kamal; Taheri, Milad; Parise, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Bare and covered karst areas, with developed karstic aquifers, cover 35 percent of the Kermanshah province in western Iran. These aquifers are the vital sources for drinking and agricultural water supplies. Over the past decade, intensive groundwater use (exploitation) for irrigation imposed a significant impact on the carbonate environments. The huge amount of groundwater over-exploitations has been carried out and still goes on by local farmers in the absence of appropriate governance monitoring control. Increasing in water demands, for more intense crop production, is an important driving force toward groundwater depletion in alluvial aquifers. Progressive groundwater over-exploitations from underlying carbonate rocks have led to dramatic drawdown in alluvial aquifers and deep karst water tables. Detecting new sources of groundwater extractions and prohibiting the karst water utilization for agricultural use could be the most effective strategy to manage the sustainability of covered karst aquifers. Anthropogenic pressures on covered karst aquifers have magnified the drought impacts and caused dryness of most of the karst springs and deep wells. In this study, the combination of geophysical and geological studies was used to estimate the most intensively exploited agricultural zones of Islam Abad plain in the southwestern Kermanshah province using GIS. The results show that in the past decade a great number of deep wells were drilled through the overburden alluvial aquifer and reached the deep karst water resources. However, the difficulties involved in monitoring deep wells in covered karst aquifer were the main cause of karst water depletion. Overexploitation from both alluvial and karst aquifers is the main reason for drying out the Arkawazi, Sharafshah, Gawrawani karst springs, and the karst drinking water wells 1, 3 and 5 of Islam Abad city. Karst spring landscape destructions, fresh water supply deficit for inhabitants, decreasing of tourism and

  7. Fecal and molecular survey of Neospora caninum in farm and household dogs in Mashhad area, Khorasan province, Iran.

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    Razmi, Gholamreza

    2009-12-01

    Neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. Dog is the definitive host for N. caninum and can infect dairy cattle. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of Neospora oocysts in feces of dogs from dairy farms. A total of 174 fecal samples was collected from 89 farm dogs and 85 household dogs during 2006 and 2008. Fecal samples of dogs were microscopically examined for detecting Hammondia Neospora-like oocysts (HNLO) by Mini Parasep SF fecal parasite concentrator. HNLO were microscopically detected in 4 fecal samples (2.2%). The fecal samples with HNLO were examined by N. caninum-specific PCR. Two of the samples were positive for N. caninum. The 2 positive fecal samples were selected for inoculation to calves. Two inoculated calves were seronegative by ELISA for 4 months post-infection. This is the first report of finding N. caninum DNA in feces of farm dogs in Mashhad area, Iran.

  8. Occurrence of ectoparasitic arthropods (Siphonaptera, Acarina, and Anoplura on rodents of Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast of Iran

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    Gholamhossein Moravvej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine distribution of rodents’ arthropods and estimate infestation parameters of fleas, mites, ticks, and lice associated with wild rodents in Mashhad and its vicinity, Iran. Methods: The rodents were captured using live trap from April 2013 to December 2014 in Mashhad and vicinity, Khorasan Razavi, Iran. The ectoparasites were collected from body surface of rodents using brushing, combing or forceps and preserved in 70% ethanol. The samples were examined by stereomicroscope and classified into four groups including fleas, mites, ticks, and lice. Dark specimens were made more transparent by soaking in potassium hydroxide or Nesbitt’s fluid (where appropriate. The specimens were mounted on glass slides using Hoyer’s medium. Ectoparasitic identification was done based on the available keys and confirmed by qualified taxonomists. Results: A total of 197 rodents were trapped representing 11 species which belong to the family Muridae (7 species, Cricetidae (3 species and Sciuridae (1 species. The most common captured rodent species was Mus musculus (13.19% and the least was Apodemus witherbeyi (6.59%. In total 783 ectoparasites related to 3 orders, 8 families, 10 genera and 15 species were collected. The infestation rates by fleas, mites, ticks, and lice on the rodents were 18.78%, 22.84%, 18.78% and 10.15 %, respectively. Conclusions: Overall infestation rate was 42.13 % (83 out of 197 rodents. The most and least frequency of ectoparasites belonged to mites (50.44% and lice (14.04%, respectively. The results suggested that the prevalence of ectoparasites could be influenced by rodent host species. Monitoring the rodent population and their ectoparasites is recommended to facilitate arthropod-borne disease control programs.

  9. Synoptic backgrounds of the widest wildfire in Mazandaran Province of Iran during December 11-13, 2010

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    Ghavidel, Yousef; Farajzadeh, Manuchehr; Khaleghi Babaei, Meysam

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, atmospheric origins of the widest wildfire in Mazandaran province on 11-13th of December, 2010 have been investigated. Data sets of this research include maximum daily temperature (MDT), minimum relative humidity (MRH) of terrestrial stations, dynamic and thermodynamic features of the atmosphere, Gridded data sets of Self-Calibrated Palmer drought severity index (SCPDSI) and global drought dataset standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) and data related to the time and the extent of the wildfire. The ``environmental to circulation'' approach to synoptic classification has been used to investigate relationships between local-scale surface environment (wildfire) and the synoptic-scale atmospheric circulation conditions. Results of study show that during the 3-day wide wildfire, the average of MDT and the MRH was significantly different from the long-term average. During the aforementioned wildfire, the average of MDT in Mazandaran province was 26 °C and the average of MRH was reported 35 %. The long-term average of MDT and the MRH in Mazandaran province during 3 days of wildfire was 12.3 °C and 68 %, respectively. Therefore, the MDT has a positive abnormality of 13.7 °C and the MRH has a negative abnormality of 33 %. In addition, monthly SCPDSI and SPEI indicated severe drought conditions at December 2010 in Mazandaran. Analysis of SLP maps shows that during the 3-day fire, a pressure center of 1110 hPa on Persian Gulf and a very low-pressure center on Turkey and Asia Minor were created. Normally, this event has caused the pressure gradient and warm and dry air advection from Arabian Peninsula to higher longitudes, particularly Mazandaran province. Consequently, the MDT increased and the wildfire of Mazandaran forest took place in an area of 220 ha. Zonal wind maps signify the weakness of Zonal wind and meridional wind maps show the southern direction of meridional wind flow during the wide wildfire. Moreover, Omega maps prove

  10. Development of a questionnaire to assess drug abuse among high school students of Isfahan province, Iran: An action research

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    Nahid Geramian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: According to the obtained results, the designed questionnaire is capable to assess the drug abuse status among high school students of Isfahan Province. Regarding the importance of teenage years in forming the future behaviors of adolescents and the opportunities provided at schools, it is prudent to pay more attention to interventions in this age group in order to increase their knowledge and correct their attitude toward illegal drugs and strengthening their confidence in this regard. These interventions can have an important role in decreasing the rate of drug abuse in this age group and consequently in the whole community.

  11. Seroepidemiological study of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BoHV-1, PI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3) in dairy cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvani, Edris; Lotfi, Mohsen; Kamalzadeh, Morteza; Noaman, Vahid; Bahriari, Masumeh; Morovati, Hasan; Hatami, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory diseases in calves are responsible for major economic losses in both beef and dairy production. Several viruses, such as bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine parainfluenza virus-3 (BPI-3V), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and bovine adenoviruses (BAV), are detected in most clinical cases with respiratory signs. The aim of this study is to define seroprevalences of five major viral causes of bovine respiratory infections in cattle in central region of Iran (Esfahan province). The population targeted was 642 dairy cows (Holstein-Friesian) from 25 farms. Samples of blood serum from female cattle were examined. Sera were tested by commercial ELISA kits to detect antibody against BRSV, BoHV-1, BPI-3V, BVDV, and BAV-3. The results were analyzed by Chi-square test. In the present study, seroprevalences of BRSV, BoHV-1, PI3V, BVDV, and BAV-3 were 51.1%, 72%, 84.4%, 49.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. The present study shows that infections of bovine respiratory viruses are very common in cattle in Esfahan.

  12. Assessment of land suitability and the possibility and performance of a canola (Brassica napus L. – soybean (Glycine max L. rotation in four basins of Golestan province, Iran

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    Behnam Kamkar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A Geographical Information System (GIS-based plan was used to assess the possibility and performance of a canola (Brassica napus L. – soybean (Glycine max L. rotation in Golestan province, one of the most important agricultural production regions of Iran. For this purpose, all needed raster layers, including climatic (precipitation, temperature, topographic (aspects and slope and soil-related (texture, pH, EC layers, were provided by interpolation, surface analysis and other related techniques in GIS. Overlaid layers were used to judge the capacity of agricultural lands to rotate a canola–soybean system in the study area, which included four important basins. Based on defined scenarios and pre-determined ecological requirements of the two studied crops, five suitability classes were detected and mapped. Our results indicate that just 11.82% of total lands are very suitable to rotate soybean after canola while most agricultural lands in the study area fell into the moderate and low suitability classes. The consistency of results adopted from final overlaid maps with real statistics in the study region show that GIS as a systemic approach can play a vital role in saving time and reducing research costs. These results could help policy makers to design proper cropping patterns, particularly rotation systems.

  13. Verifying the performance of artificial neural network and multiple linear regression in predicting the mean seasonal municipal solid waste generation rate: A case study of Fars province, Iran.

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    Azadi, Sama; Karimi-Jashni, Ayoub

    2016-02-01

    Predicting the mass of solid waste generation plays an important role in integrated solid waste management plans. In this study, the performance of two predictive models, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) was verified to predict mean Seasonal Municipal Solid Waste Generation (SMSWG) rate. The accuracy of the proposed models is illustrated through a case study of 20 cities located in Fars Province, Iran. Four performance measures, MAE, MAPE, RMSE and R were used to evaluate the performance of these models. The MLR, as a conventional model, showed poor prediction performance. On the other hand, the results indicated that the ANN model, as a non-linear model, has a higher predictive accuracy when it comes to prediction of the mean SMSWG rate. As a result, in order to develop a more cost-effective strategy for waste management in the future, the ANN model could be used to predict the mean SMSWG rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Prevalence and related factors for choosing self-medication among pharmacies visitors based on health belief model in Hamadan Province, west of Iran.

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    Jalilian, Farzad; Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad Mehdi; Vahidinia, Ali Asghar; Jalilian, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2013-05-29

    Self-medication has increased in the last decade in Iran; can be followed several complications. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors influencing self-medication based on health belief model. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1400 Hamadan Province pharmacies visitors, during spring and summer 2012 which was randomly selected with the proportional to size among different pharmacy at Hamadan for participation in this study. A structured questionnaire was applied for collecting data, which were analyzed by SPSS version 16 using bivariate correlations and logistic regression statistical tests. 35.4% of the participants had self-medication. Pain medication (10.6%), antibiotics (7.3%) and anti-cough and cold medications (4.5%) had the largest consumption. The main reasons of self-medication among participants were previous use of medication, symptoms improve and similar prescribed. The best predictor for self-medication was perceived severity with odds ratio estimate of 0.790 [95% CI: 0.694, 0.900]. It seems that designing and implementation of educational programs to increase seriousness about side effect of self-medication may be usefulness of the results in order to prevent of self-medication.

  15. Dispersion pattern and fixed precision sequential sampling of Sitobion avenae (Fabricus (Hemiptera: Aphididae in wheat fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran

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    V. Soltani Ghasemloo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the dispersion pattern of a species is an important pre-requisite for developing an effective pest management program. In this study, four hundred wheat plants were surveyed for Sitobion avenae twice a week during 2010 and 2011 growing seasons in two fields of Badjgah (Fars province in Iran. In each field only one of the two cultivers of Bahar or Shiraz was planted. Analysis of spatial distribution pattern using Taylor’s power law and Iwao’s regression model showed that S. avenae exhibited an aggregated distribution on wheat. Taylor’s power law was estimated from 84 data sets and fitted the data better than Iwao’s regression model. The optimal sample sizes needed for fixed precision levels of 0.25 and 0.30 were estimated using Taylor’s regression coefficients, and the required sample sizes increased dramatically with increased levels of precision. Therefore, the samplingplan we presented here should be used as a tool for an efficient estimation of S. avenae population density in wheat fields for pest management decision.

  16. Evaluation of 226Ra, 232Th, 137Cs and 40K “Agaricus Bisporus” Activity in Cultivated Edible Mushroom formed in Tehran Province- Iran

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    Vahid Changizi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Natural and man made radioactive sources exist in our environment they can enter into our food chains. One of these is the soil-mushroom-human chain. High level doses of natural radiation can cause hazards to humans. Materials and Methods Samples of Agaricus bisporus cultivated edible mushroom in Tehran province- Iran were collected from 7 farms. Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs, 40K and 235U of the samples were measured by two HPGe detectors. Results Specific activity of 226Ra, 228Ra, 137Cs and 40K in the edible mushroom samples were equal to 0.06 ± 0.03 - 0.7 ± 0.2 Bq kg-1 dry, 1.4 ± 0.7 Bq kg-1 dry, 0.1 ± 0.03- 0.3 ± 0.1 Bq kg-1dry and 920 ± 400 - 1370 ± 900 Bq kg-1dry , respectively. Conclusion As the measured concentrations of the radionuclides of interest are close or lower than MDA (Minimum Detectable Activity. Consumption of the mushrooms would impose no health consequences to the consumers.

  17. Data on assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation in rural area Sarpol-e Zahab city, Kermanshah province, Iran.

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    Soleimani, Hamed; Abbasnia, Abbas; Yousefi, Mahmood; Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Khorasgani, Fazlollah Changani

    2018-04-01

    In present study 30 groundwater samples were collected from Sarpol-e Zahab area, Kermanshah province of Iran in order to assess the quality of groundwater in subjected area and determining its suitability for drinking and agricultural purposes. Also the variations in the quality levels of groundwater were compared over the years of 2015 and 2016. Statistical analyses including Spearman correlation coefficients and factor analysis display good correlation between physicochemical parameters (EC, TDS and TH) and Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - and [Formula: see text] ionic constituents. Also in order to assess water quality for irrigation we used the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) classification which is based on SAR for irrigation suitability assessment. In addition, the residual sodium carbonate (RSC), %Na, PI, KR, SSP, MH, EC characteristics were calculated for all samples and used for assessment of irrigation suitability. Based on these indicators, for every two years, the quality of water for agriculture is in good and excellent category. The Piper classification for hydro geochemical facies indicates that the water in the study area is of Ca-HCO 3 - type. However, the study of water hardness shows that more than 80% of samples are in hard and very hard water class. Therefore, there is a need for decisions to refine and soften the water.

  18. Quality of Life in the Elderly People Covered by Health Centers in the Urban Areas of Markazi Province, Iran

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    Ali Agha nouri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve quality of life in the elderly through proper plans and active involvement of elderly in their family and community, we should get a lot of information about health-related quality of life because the composition of our population has changed. Infact, the aged population is increasingly growing, that this will, in turn, have an effect on economic progression and well-being in the country. Thus, this study assessed quality of life and its determinants in the people aged 60 years and over living in the urban areas of Central Province. Methods & Materials: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic survey that included 165 elderly peoples in the urban areas of Markazi Province. Data was obtained via a general and a quality of life (using SF-36 questionnaire. The results were analyzed by Chi-Square, Fisher, independent T-test, ANOVA, Regression, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: The average age of the subjects was 70.7 years (men 44.8% and women 55.2%. The mean of total SF-36, physical and mental components' scores were 55.66±22, 51.32±21 and 57.30±25 respectively. Additionally, the mean scores of eight health-related dimensions were as follows: physical functions 56.26±45, role limitations due to physical problems 50.60±27, body pain 51.26±38, general health 45.26±53, vitality 53.24±09, social functioning 67.85±27, role limitations due to mental problems 57.14±45 and mental health 62.88±25. Also, the quality of life scores were significantly associated with sex, previous employment, leisure activities, income, current exercising, present disease and drug consumption (P<0.05. Conclusion: Results showed that the elderly's quality of life in the urban areas in Markazi province is in the middle level and the individuals have better mental health compared to physical health. Moreover, various factors are associated with the elderly’s quality of life, which require comprehensive planning for

  19. Comparison of seropositivity of HCV between oral lichen planus and healthy control group in Hamedan province (west of Iran

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    Ahmad Reza Mobaien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lichen planus is an idiopathic inflammatory disease of the skin, nail, hair and mucous membranes. Oral lichen planus (LP is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the oral mucous membranes with a variety of clinical presentations. Various etiologies include HCV suggested for LP, and the aim of this study was comparison of seropositivity of HCV in LP patients and control group. Methods: All oral LP patients that were referred to dermatology clinic of farshchian hospitalwere entered in the study. Five cc of clot blood was taken from each patient and tested for anti-HCVand when anti-HCV tested positive another 2cc clot bloodwas taken for HCV-Rt-PCR test. The results were analyzed with SPSS 16. Results: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 30 oral lichen planus patients [males 13(43.3% females 17(56.7%] with mean ages of 46±13.7years and 60 healthy individual [males 26(43.3% females 34(56.7%]. There was no oral lichen planus patients who had anti-HCV positive whiles 2 males(3.3% of healthy group had anti-HCV positive which was confirmed by HCV-Rt-PCR. Conclusions: This study showed that there is no correlation between seropositivity of HCV and oral lichen planus in our patients in the west of Iran.

  20. Tick Infestation Rate of Sheep and Their Distribution in Abdanan County, Ilam Province, Iran, 2007-2008

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    MA Oshaghi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: Ticks are hematophagous arthropod belonging to the Class of Arachnids. Ticks are also one of the major vectors of pathogens to animal and human. This study was conducted to determine tick infestation rate of sheep in Abdanan during 2007–2008. "nMethods: Sampling was performed seasonally in 19 villages during spring 2007 until winter 2008. A total of 1095 sheep were selected and tested for tick infestation.  After collection, all ticks were transported to laboratory of Medi­cal Entomology and were identified with appropriate identification keys. "nResults: Totally, 864 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into two genera and 5 species including: Hyalomma marginatum (44.67%, Hy. anatolicum (43.17%, Hy.asiaticum (6.37%, Hy. dromedarii (5.55%, Hea­maphysalis sulcata (0.24%. The highest seasonal activity was observed in spring (36.46 % and the lowest seasonal was in winter (11.57%. The rate of tick frequency in mountainous region was 48.15% and it was 51.85% in plateau regions. In this study, tick infestation of sheep was 11.41%. "nConclusion: Hy.marginatum has the more frequent density in the study area. "n  "nKeywords: Ticks, sheep, Iran

  1. Characterizing Changes of Heavy Metals in the Soils from Different Urban Location of Borujerd, Lorestan Province, Iran

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    Eisa Solgi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As more people live in cities and urban areas, evaluation of urban environmental quality is nowadays an unavoidable necessity. Urbanization gives off heavy metals into urban soils and threatens the human health. In this study, urban soil samples were acquired from different locations (Public parks, streets, and squares from Borujerd, Iran. The levels of Cd and Pb in the soils, along with soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC, and particle size distribution (texture, were analyzed. Kriging method by Surfer software was employed to create the spatial distribution maps of Cd, Pb, and geoaccumulation index (Igeo. The average Cd and Pb concentrations in the surface soil samples were 2.50±1.14, and 50.37±34.77 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The highest mean concentration of Cd was found in street soils and as for Pb in square soils. The interpolation maps illustrated the same behavior for Cd and Pb with elevated concentrations located in the southeast. The mean values of geoaccumulation index (Igeo showed that soils are moderately/strongly contaminated with Cd and moderately contaminated with Pb. In this study, traffic emission, textile industries and probably released untreated municipal wastewater into the soil are anthropogenic sources of Pb and Cd.

  2. Breakfast and fast food eating behavior in relation to socio-demographic differences among school adolescents in Sanandaj Province, Iran.

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    Alimoradi, Foad; Jandaghi, Parisa; Khodabakhshi, Adeleh; Javadi, Maryam; Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni

    2017-06-01

    Fast food consumption and skipping breakfast has been increasingly prevalent among high school adolescents in recent years. These unhealthy food habits are considered as risk factors of chronic diseases among adolescents and adults. To determine the consumption amount of fast food, breakfast, and some associated factors in adolescents. In this cross-sectional study in 2015, 553 adolescent students aged 14-18 years were randomly selected among high schools of Sanandaj, Iran. Demographic data and also consumption amount of fast food and breakfast in adolescents in addition to the related factors were studied. Data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire which its reliability and validity were measured by five experts and analyzed with SPSS-16 by Chi-square test and ANOVA. The results show that 69.8 % of subjects consume fast food at least once a week. Fast food and breakfast consumption is related significantly to subjects' fathers' occupation respectively (p=0.005), (p=0.006). Eating breakfast is significantly higher among boys than girls (pfast food consumption are: their own and their families and friends' interest and accompaniment, advertisement, close proximity of school and home to fast food stores. The consumption of fast food is high among Iranian adolescents. It correlates significantly with variables including father's occupation and all of the associated factors. Breakfast consumption correlates significantly with adolescents' age and gender, as well as parents' occupation and educational level.

  3. Safety culture in the maternity unit of hospitals in Ilam province, Iran: a census survey using HSOPSC tool.

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    Akbari, Nahid; Malek, Marzieh; Ebrahimi, Parvin; Haghani, Hamid; Aazami, Sanaz

    2017-01-01

    Improving quality of maternal care as well as patients' safety are two important issues in health-care service. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the culture of patient safety at maternity units. This cross-sectional study was conducted among staffs working at maternity units in seven hospitals of Ilam city, Iran. The staffs included in this study were gynecologists and midwifes working in different positions including matron, supervisors, head of departments and staffs. Data were collected using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC). This study indicated that 59.1% of participants reported fair level of overall perceptions of safety and 67.1% declared that no event was reported during the past 12 months. The most positively perceived dimension of safety culture was teamwork within departments in view of managers (79.41) and personnel (81.10). However, the least positively perceived dimensions of safety culture was staffing levels. The current study revealed areas of strength (teamwork within departments) and weakness (staffing, punitive responses to error) among managers and personnel. In addition, we found that staffs in Ilam's hospitals accept the patient safety culture in maternity units, but, still are far away from excellent culture of patient safety. Therefore, it is necessary to promote culture of patient's safety among professions working in the maternity units of Ilam's hospitals.

  4. [Pattern of drug abuse in addicts self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province - Iran, 2014-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Farkhondeh; Nazari, Iraj; Malayeri, Hossein Tahmasbian; Rahimi, Zahra; Cheraghi, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to determine the pattern of drug use and the affective demographic factors in addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province. It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study which has done on 4400 addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province from March 2014 to March 2015. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS version 22 software. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for continuous variables and the frequency and percentage frequency were calculated for nominal and classified variables, and also t-test, χ2 and ANOVA were used to examine the relationships between variables. The level of significance was considered less than 0.05. Finding has shown that 97.5% were male. The average age of subjects was 38.21 ±10.52. Most consumable drug in these people was opium (50.6%) and the main way of drug use was smoking (69.4%). In terms of motivation of using drug, in men were enjoyment and in women family problems had the highest relative percentage. The majority of subjects (67.2%) had a history of drug abandonment. The reason of referring to rehabilitation centers for treatment, types of using drug and the number of drug using, was significant difference between males and females (p < 0.05). The results have shown that it is necessary to consider some issues including of provincial drug policy and increasing awareness at different levels of society and making appropriate cultural and sports spaces in order to achieve the primary preventive goals.

  5. Pattern of drug abuse in addicts self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan provinceIran, 2014–2015

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    Farkhondeh Jamshidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : We aimed to determine the pattern of drug use and the affective demographic factors in addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province. Material and methods : It was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study which has done on 4400 addicts in self-referred drug rehabilitation centers in Khuzestan province from March 2014 to March 2015. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS version 22 software. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for continuous variables and the frequency and percentage frequency were calculated for nominal and classified variables, and also t-test, χ 2 and ANOVA were used to examine the relationships between variables. The level of significance was considered less than 0.05. Results: Finding has shown that 97.5% were male. The average age of subjects was 38.21 ±10.52. Most consumable drug in these people was opium (50.6% and the main way of drug use was smoking (69.4%. In terms of motivation of using drug, in men were enjoyment and in women family problems had the highest rel