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Sample records for province south central

  1. Affects of mining activities on Cd pollution to the paddy soils and rice grain in Hunan province, Central South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Hu, Xue-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Shu, Ying; Jiang, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan

    2013-12-01

    Located in Central South China, Hunan province is rich in mineral resources. To study the influence of mining on Cd pollution to local agricultural eco-system, the paddy soils and rice grain of Y county in northern Hunan province were intensively monitored. The results were as follows: (1) Total Cd (T-Cd) content in the soils of the county ranges from 0.13 to 6.02 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.64 mg kg(-1), of which 57.5% exceed the allowable limit specified by the China Soil Environmental Quality Standards. T-Cd in the soils varies largely, with the coefficient of variation reaching 146.4%. The spatial distribution of T-Cd in the soils quite matches with that of mining and industries. The content of HCl-extractable Cd (HCl-Cd) in the soils ranges from 0.02 to 2.17 mg kg(-1), with a mean of 0.24 mg kg(-1). A significant positive correlation exists between T-Cd and HCl-Cd in the soils (r = 0.770, ρ soils (r = 0.091, ρ > 0.05), which suggests that the amount of Cd accumulating in the rice is more affected by its availability in the soils, rather than the total content. (4) The dietary intake of Cd via rice consumption in Y county is estimated to be 179.9 μg day(-1) person(-1) on average, which is far beyond the allowable limit specified by FAO/WHO and the target hazard quotients of Cd much higher than 1, suggesting the high risk on human health from Cd exposure.

  2. Relationships between soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in mining areas of northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xue-Feng; Jiang, Ying; Shu, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mine exploiting and processing there, however, often lead to heavy metal pollution of farmland. To study the effects of mining activities on the soil environmental quality, four representative paddy fields, the HSG, SNJ, NT and THJ, in Y county, northern Hunan province, were investigated. It was found that the streams running through the HSG, SNJ and NT are severely contaminated due to the long-term discharge of untreated mineral wastewater from local indigenous mining factories. The stream at the HSG, for example, is brownish red in color, with high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn. The concentrations of Cu, Zn and Cd in all the stream water of the HSG, SNJ and NT exceed the maximum allowable levels of the Agricultural Irrigation Water Criteria of China. Correspondingly, the HSG, SNJ and NT are heavily polluted by Cu, Zn and Cd due to the long-term irrigation with the contaminated stream water. In comparison, both stream water and paddy fields of the THJ, far away from mining areas, are not contaminated by any heavy metals and hence regarded as a control in this study. The rice grain produced at the HSG, SNJ and NT has a high risk of Cd contamination. The rate of rice grain produced in the four paddy fields in Y county with Cd exceeding the safe level (Cd, 0.2 μg g-1) specified by the National Standards for Rice Quality and Safety of China reaches 90%. Cd content in the rice grain is positively significantly correlated with that in the paddy fields, especially with the content of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) - extracted Cd, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution of paddy fields has already posed a high risk to rice safety and human health. Soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass are significantly inhibited by the heavy metal pollution of the paddy fields. Microbial biomass C and N (MBC and MBN) at a severely contaminated site of the HSG are only 31

  3. A preserved early Ediacaran magmatic arc at the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone central subprovince of the Borborema Province, Northeastern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamim Bley de Brito Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magmatic arcs are an essential part of crust-forming events in planet Earth evolution. The aim of this work was to describe an early Ediacaran magmatic arc (ca. 635-580 Ma exposed in the northernmost portion of the Transversal Zone, central subprovince of Borborema Province, northeast Brazil. Our research took advantage of several syntheses by different authors, including theses and dissertations, carried out on magmatic rocks of the study area for the last 30 years. The ca. 750 km long and up to 140 km wide arc, trending ENE-WSW, is preserved to the south of the Patos Lineament, between 35º15' and 42º30'W and 7º15' and 8ºS. About 90 different stocks and batholiths of I-type granitic rocks were mapped along this orogenic zone, preferentially intruding low-grade schists of the Cryogenian-Ediacaran Piancó-Alto Brígida (SPAB belt. Three igneous supersuites are recognized: a epidote-bearing granodiorites and tonalites ("Conceição" type; b high-K calc-alkaline granites ("Itaporanga" type; c biotite granodiorites of trondhjemite affinity ("Serrita" type. A fourth group of peralkalic and shoshonitic rocks occurs to the south of the previous ones, reflecting special tectonic conditions. NNE-SSW trending Paleoproterozoic fold belts, surrounding Archean nuclei, characterize the continental part of the northern lower plate. The oceanic fraction of this lower plate was recycled by subduction and scarce remnants of which may be seen either within the enclosing low-grade schists or as xenoliths within the arc intrusions. The upper continental plate presents WSW-ENE structural trends and is composed of Neoproterozoic fold belts and Paleoproterozoic reworked basement inliers. Available data bear clear evidence of an Ediacaran magmatic arc built at the northern portion of the Transversal Zone in the Borborema Province, northeast Brazil.

  4. Trends and periodicity of daily temperature and precipitation extremes during 1960-2013 in Hunan Province, central south China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ajiao; He, Xinguang; Guan, Huade; Cai, Yi

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the trends and periodicity in climate extremes are examined in Hunan Province over the period 1960-2013 on the basis of 27 extreme climate indices calculated from daily temperature and precipitation records at 89 meteorological stations. The results show that in the whole province, temperature extremes exhibit a warming trend with more than 50% stations being statistically significant for 7 out of 16 temperature indices, and the nighttime temperature increases faster than the daytime temperature at the annual scale. The changes in most extreme temperature indices show strongly coherent spatial patterns. Moreover, the change rates of almost all temperature indices in north Hunan are greater than those of other regions. However, the statistically significant changes in indices of extreme precipitation are observed at fewer stations than in extreme temperature indices, forming less spatially coherent patterns. Positive trends in indices of extreme precipitation show that the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation events are generally increasing in both annual and seasonal scales, whereas the significant downward trend in consecutive wet days indicates that the precipitation becomes more even over the study period. Analysis of changes in probability distributions of extreme indices for 1960-1986 and 1987-2013 also demonstrates a remarkable shift toward warmer condition and increasing tendency in the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation during the past decades. The variations in extreme climate indices exhibit inconstant frequencies in the wavelet power spectrum. Among the 16 temperature indices, 2 of them show significant 1-year periodic oscillation and 7 of them exhibit significant 4-year cycle during some certain periods. However, significant periodic oscillations can be found in all of the precipitation indices. Wet-day precipitation and three absolute precipitation indices show significant 1-year cycle and other seven provide

  5. Hf isotope study of Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La pampa province and implications for the occurrence of juvenile early Neoproterozoic (Tonian) magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, C. J.; Zappettini, E. O.; Santos, J. O. S.; Belousova, E.; McNaughton, N. J.

    2011-12-01

    On a global scale, juvenile Tonian (Early Neoproterozoic) magmatic rocks are associated with the extensional events that lead to the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. In Argentina, no geological record is available for this time interval, lasting from 1000 to 850 Ma. We present indirect evidence for the existence of Tonian extension in Argentina, as supported by Hf and Nd isotope determinations on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We mainly focus on our own Hf isotope determinations carried out on U-Pb SHRIMP dated zircons from Palaeozoic metaigneous rocks of La Pampa province, south-central Argentina, i.e. metagabbros of Valle Daza, dioritic orthogneiss of Estancia Lote 8, and metadiorite of Estancia El Carancho, having found that these rocks were derived from sources of ca. 920 to ca 880 Ma, with ɛHf values between +6.83 and + 9.59. Inherited zircons of this age and character identified in these rocks also point to the same source. We also compile additional Hf and Nd studies from previous work on Phanerozoic magmatic and sedimentary rocks. We preliminarily compare the age of the juvenile Tonian sources referred to in our work with that of two extensional events identified in the São Francisco craton, Brazil.

  6. [Relationships between vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunan Province, South-central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ning; Zou, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Man-Yuan; Hu, Li-Zhen; Zou, Fang-Ping; Song, Guang-Tao; Lin, Zhong-Gui

    2013-01-01

    By using space series to replace time series, this paper studied the relationships between the vegetation characteristics and soil properties at different restoration stages on the slope land with purple soils in Hengyang of Hunnan Province South-central China. There existed obvious differences in the soil physical and chemical properties at different restoration stages. From grassplot, grass-shrub, shrub to shrub-arbor, the soil organic matter, total and available N, and moisture contents increased markedly, soil bulk density had an obvious decrease, soil total and available P contents changed little, and soil pH decreased gradually, but no significant differences were observed among different restoration stages. At different restoration stages, the biomass of plant community had effects on the quantity and composition of soil microbes. The quantities of soil bacteria and fungi had significant positive correlations with the aboveground biomass of plant community, but the quantity of soil actinomycetes had less correlation with plant community's aboveground biomass. At different restoration stages, the activities of soil urease, protease, alkaline phosphatase, invertase, cellulase, catalase, and polyphenol oxidase decreased with increasing soil layer, and had significant positive correlations with plant community's richness and aboveground biomass.

  7. The Association Between Gender Inequalities and Women's Utilization of Maternal Health Services: A Cross-Sectional Survey in Eight South Central Coast Provinces, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Ha Thi Thu; Le, Thi Minh; Van Pham, Tac; Doan, Duong Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Duy Anh; Nguyen, Canh Chuong; Duong, Duc Minh

    Gender inequalities influence the utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam, but little research has been published. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the association between gender inequalities and women's utilization of maternal health services in Vietnam. The study was conducted in 8 provinces in the South Central Coast region of Vietnam during August 2013 to May 2014. A total of 907 women who delivered a year prior to the date of interview participated in the study. A multiple logistic regression model was used to examine the association between gender inequalities (including sociodemographic determinants of health) and utilization of 4 or more antenatal care (ANC4+) services, institutional delivery, and ever used contraceptive methods. The utilization rate of maternal health services was varied, from 53.9% for ANC4+ to 87.7% for ever used a contraceptive method and 97% for institutional delivery. Ethnicity was identified as the most influential variable out of all sociodemographic determinants of health. Regarding gender inequalities, couple communication was the only variable having significant association with women's utilization of maternal health services. Women's equal role within context of their daily life and relations with their husbands (discussing maternal care with husband and having equal income to husband) supported their use of maternal health services. Therefore, there should be concerted efforts from all relevant stakeholders including the health system to focus on disadvantaged women in planning and delivery of maternal health services, especially to ethnic minority women. Male involvement strategy should be implemented to promote maternal health care, especially during the prenatal and postpartum period. To provide more culturally sensitive and right-based approaches in delivery of maternal health services to disadvantaged women in Vietnam, interventions are recommended that promote male involvement, that is, to engage men in

  8. Affects of wastewater discharge from mining on soil heavy metal pollution and enzyme activities in northern Hunan province, Central South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying; Hu, Xue-Feng; Shu, Ying; Yan, Xiao-Juan; Luo, Fan

    2013-04-01

    Hunan province, Central South China, is rich in mineral resources and also a well-known nonferrous metal base in China. Mining and ore processing there, however, are mostly conducted in indigenous methods, and thus causing heavy metal pollution of abundant farmland. Situated in northern Hunan province, Y county has antimony, manganese, vanadium, and pyrite mines, but still belongs to a region of rice cultivation, of which, paddy fields make up 84.5% of the total farmland. Our investigations found that irrigation water is threatened by the release of mining wastewater in the county. For example, a stream used for irrigation turns dark-red after long-term receiving wastewater discharged from a pyrite company at HS Town of the county. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Fe and Mn in the stream water reach 0.03 mg kg-1, 2.14 mg kg-1, 0.02 mg kg-1, 96.0 mg kg-1 and 11.5 mg kg-1, respectively; these in the paddy soils nearby are 67.3 mg kg-1, 297 mg kg-1, 4.0 mg kg-1, 33.1 mg g-1 and 463 mg kg-1 on average, respectively, with a maximum of Cd reaching 16.8 mg kg-1. Microbial biomass and activities are significantly reduced by metal toxicity in the soils. The counts of fungal, actinomycin and bacterial colonies in the polluted soils are 8.8×103 /g (Fresh soil), 4.9×105 /g (Fresh soil) and 6.4×105 /g (Fresh soil), respectively, which are only 4.68%, 10.3% and 20.9% of these in non-polluted soils in Y county, respectively. Likewise, the microbial biomass (MB) - C and MB - N of the polluted soils are only 36.8% and 50.3% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. The activities of dehydrogenase, urease, catalase, acid and neutral phosphatase and sucrase in the polluted soils are only 41.2%, 49.8%, 56.8%, 69.9%, 80.7% and 81.0% of these in the non-polluted, respectively. There are significant negative correlations between Cu, Zn and Cd contents and the activities of dehydrogenase and catalase, suggesting that the two enzymes are the most sensitive to heavy metal toxicity in the

  9. Oil supply in Central and South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Roberto F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates a cumulative supply curve for conventional oil in the Central and South American (CSA) region. The curve includes volumes from provinces not previously assessed by other organizations, as well as reserve growth. Volumes for the previously unassessed provinces are estimated using a variable shape distribution (VSD) model. Then the volumes are allocated to CSA countries based on each country's share of proved reserves. Figures provided by the cumulative supply curve are stock variables for all time, unlike the traditional supply curve where they are flow variables that can continue from one period to the next. In this study, the fixed stock approach is used since it provides practical information with respect to the concerns that some have expressed about oil scarcity in the near future. Results indicate that Central and South American oil is more abundant than often assumed, and can be produced at costs below current market oil prices, and substantially below mid-2008 prices.

  10. (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Pterostichinae) from south-central Turkey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... Key words: Amara, Pterostichinae, Carabidae, Turkey. INTRODUCTION. This publication is the second part of a taxonomic and geographical treatment of the Pterostichinae of south- central Turkey, with a focus on sites in the province of. Kahramanmaraş and some of the geographically adjacent provinces.

  11. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    highveld to the south. The large round feature near the north-west corner indicates an ancient volcanic crater in the Pilanesberg National Park. Many bright, buff-colored rectangular patches around Johannesburg are associated with mining activities, and at least two of these areas (situated 40 kilometers southeast of the city) hold large amounts of water. The Sterkfontein Caves (now included within the recently created 'Cradle of Humankind' World Heritage Site) are located about 35 kilometers northwest of Johannesburg. In the southern portion of the images, a section of the Vredefort Hills are apparent to the west, and to the east the Vaal River and a large water body contained by the Vaal Dam delineate the border between the Gauteng and Free State provinces.The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and views almost the entire globe every 9 days. This image is a portion of the data acquired during Terra orbit 13266, and covers an area of about 190 kilometers x 221 kilometers. It utilizes data from blocks 111 to 112 within World Reference System-2 path 170.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  12. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  13. Dublin South Central (DSC)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S M

    2010-12-01

    Children who appear healthy, even if they have one or more recognized cardiovascular risk factors, do not generally have outcomes of cardiovascular or other vascular disease during childhood. Historically, pediatric medicine has not aggressively screened for or treated cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy children. However, studies such as the P-Day Study (Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth), and the Bogalusa Heart Study, indicate that healthy children at remarkably young ages can have evidence of significant atherosclerosis. With the increasing prevalence of pediatric obesity, can we expect more health problems related to the consequences of pediatric dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and atherosclerosis in the future? For many years, medications have been available and used in adult populations to treat dyslipidemia. In recent years, reports of short-term safety of some of these medications in children have been published. However, none of these studies have detailed long-term follow-up, and therefore none have described potential late side-effects of early cholesterol-lowering therapy, or potential benefits in terms of reduction of or delay in cardiovascular or other vascular end-points. In 2007, the American Heart Association published a scientific statement on the use of cholesterol-lowering therapy in pediatric patients. In this review paper, we discuss some of the current literature on cholesterol-lowering therapy in children, including the statins that are currently available for use in children, and some of the cautions with using these and other cholesterol-lowering medications. A central tenet of this review is that medications are not a substitute for dietary and lifestyle interventions, and that even in children on cholesterol-lowering medications, physicians should take every opportunity to encourage children and their parents to make healthy diet and lifestyle choices.

  14. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  15. The Analysis on Leading industries in Central Java Province

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    Setyani Irmawati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is for identifying the types of industriesthat become leading industries in Central Java Province. The methods, used are LQ (SLQ and DLQ and Shift Share. The result of this research shows that the the leading industries in Central Java Province are beverage industry, tobacco processing industry, textile industry, apparel industry, wood industry, printing industry, furniture industry and other processing industries.In the future, the development of the industry should not only focus on the leading industries  but also onnon-leading industries, so that the non leading industries will not be left behind.

  16. Distribution of cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Made, Felix; Wilson, Kerry; Jina, Ruxana; Tlotleng, Nonhlanhla; Jack, Samantha; Ntlebi, Vusi; Kootbodien, Tahira

    2017-12-01

    Cancer mortality rates are expected to increase in developing countries. Cancer mortality rates by province remain largely unreported in South Africa. This study described the 2014 age standardised cancer mortality rates by province in South Africa, to provide insight for strategic interventions and advocacy. 2014 deaths data were retrieved from Statistics South Africa. Deaths from cancer were extracted using 10th International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes for cancer (C00-C97). Adjusted 2013 mid-year population estimates were used as a standard population. All rates were calculated per 100 000 individuals. Nearly 38 000 (8%) of the total deaths in South Africa in 2014 were attributed to cancer. Western Cape Province had the highest age standardised cancer mortality rate in South Africa (118, 95% CI: 115-121 deaths per 100 000 individuals), followed by the Northern Cape (113, 95% CI: 107-119 per 100 000 individuals), with the lowest rate in Limpopo Province (47, 95% CI: 45-49 per 100 000). The age standardised cancer mortality rate for men (71, 95% CI: 70-72 per 100 000 individuals) was similar to women (69, 95% CI: 68-70 per 100 000). Lung cancer was a major driver of cancer death in men (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000). In women, cervical cancer was the leading cause of cancer death (13, 95% CI: 12.6-13.4 per 100 000 individuals). There is a need to further investigate the factors related to the differences in cancer mortality by province in South Africa. Raising awareness of risk factors and screening for cancer in the population along with improved access and quality of health care are also important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Odyssean malaria outbreaks in Gauteng Province, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odyssean malaria cases are inevitable in South Africa, given the volume of road, rail and air traffic from malaria risk areas into Gauteng and other non-endemic provinces. It is likely that many cases are missed, owing to the rare and sporadic nature of the condition. Malaria should always be kept in mind as a cause of ...

  18. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

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    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  19. Differences in antiretroviral scale up in three South African provinces: the role of implementation management

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    Van Rensburg Dingie

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa’s antiretroviral programme is governed by defined national plans, establishing treatment targets and providing funding through ring-fenced conditional grants. However, in terms of the country’s quasi-federal constitution, provincial governments bear the main responsibility for provision of health care, and have a certain amount of autonomy and therefore choice in the way their HIV/AIDS programmes are implemented. Methods The paper is a comparative case study of the early management of ART scale up in three South African provincial governments – Western Cape, Gauteng and Free State – focusing on both operational and strategic dimensions. Drawing on surveys of models of ART care and analyses of the policy process conducted in the three provinces between 2005 and 2007, as well as a considerable body of grey and indexed literature on ART scale up in South Africa, it draws links between implementation processes and variations in provincial ART coverage (low, medium and high achieved in the three provinces. Results While they adopted similar chronic disease care approaches, the provinces differed with respect to political and managerial leadership of the programme, programme design, the balance between central standardisation and local flexibility, the effectiveness of monitoring and evaluation systems, and the nature and extent of external support and programme partnerships. Conclusions This case study points to the importance of sub-national programme processes and the influence of factors other than financing or human resource capacity, in understanding intervention scale up.

  20. Environmental conditions for SMME development in a South African province

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    Darma Mahadea

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of entrepreneurship is the focus of considerable policy interest in South Africa and many other countries.  This is particularly in recognition of its contribution to economic growth, poverty alleviation and employment creation. In South Africa, various new strategies and institutions have recently been created with a view to empowering formerly disadvantaged members to enter the mainstream economy as entrepreneurs rather than job seekers. While the government directs considerable efforts to advancing Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs, certain environmental factors can favour or hinder the optimal development of these firms. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM reports, the level of entrepreneurial activity in South Africa is rather low in relation to that in other countries at a similar level of development.  This paper uses factor analysis to examine the internal and external environmental conditions influencing the development of small ventures on the basis of a survey conducted in Pietermaritzburg, the capital of the KZN province.  The results indicate that three clusters constrain SMME development in Pietermaritzburg:  management, finance and external environmental conditions. In the external set, rising crime levels, laws and regulations, and taxation are found to be significant constraints to the development of business firms.

  1. Thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa Van; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Nguyen, Dung; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Siridamrongvattana, Sirivara; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Supan; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Schelp, Frank P

    2013-01-01

    A community-based assessment of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was conducted at the Thua Thien Hue Province, Central Vietnam. By cluster sampling, a total of 410 pregnant women attending the antenatal care service at 30 commune health centers were recruited consecutively from September 2011 to June 2012. Hemoglobin (Hb) analysis was performed using an automated Hb analyzer. α-Thalassemia (α-thal) genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. Out of the 410 pregnant women, 2.7% carried α(0)-thal and 1.2% were β-thal carriers. One woman with the - -(THAI) deletion was also found. Among the females under survey, structural Hb variants with 3.2% Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG; HBB: c.78G>C] and 3.7% Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS; α142, Term→Gln, TAA>CAA (α2); HBA2: c.427T>C] were found. Assessing the frequency of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies by ethnicity, Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic minority groups, Hb CS with a high frequency of 24.0% was observed in the ethnic minority groups. These results provide basic population-based information, are useful not only for implementing measures for prevention and control of thalassemias in the region but also for studying the importance of thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in ethnic minorities within Southeast Asia.

  2. CLEAN RIVER PROGRAM AT KALIGARANG CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

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    Harihanto Harihanto

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaligarang River that located n Central Java Province represents one of the rivers in Indonesia which water quality was proved very bad. Since 1989 Clean River Program has been executed in this river. Nevertheless, untul 1998 there have not yet independent evaluation towards this program. To Know wether of this program successful a survey has been conducted from November 1998 to November 1999. The success of this program investigated by: (1 reducing of pollutant loads, (2 target of pollution loads that reached, and (3 improving of river water quality. It was foujd that this program has been successfully reducing pollutant loads of waste of all factories as target froups. Nevertheless, the quality of water of Kaligarang River was still relatively bad. This condition porbably was cause by domestic waste partivularly from hospital, hotel, restaurant dan small factories that was not included as tartet group in this program. Thus it was conclude at the implementation of the Clean River Program in Kaligarang has not been succesful to im[rove water quality of this river.

  3. Recognition of a porphyry system using ASTER data in Bideghan - Qom province (central of Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizi, F.; Mansouri, E.

    2014-07-01

    The Bideghan area is located south of the Qom province (central of Iran). The most impressive geological features in the studied area are the Eocene sequences which are intruded by volcanic rocks with basic compositions. Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image processing have been used for hydrothermal alteration mapping and lineaments identification in the investigated area. In this research false color composite, band ratio, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Least Square Fit (LS-Fit) and Spectral Angel Mapping (SAM) techniques were applied on ASTER data and argillic, phyllic, Iron oxide and propylitic alteration zones were separated. Lineaments were identified by aid of false color composite, high pass filters and hill-shade DEM techniques. The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing method and ASTER multi-spectral data for alteration and lineament mapping. Finally, the results were confirmed by field investigation.

  4. Tectonic recherche of the central, south and sotheast regions of the peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capote, R.; Goy, J.L.; Zazo, C.; Carbo, A.; Gonzalez de Vallejo, L.; Hernandez Enrile, J.L.; Urbanell, A.G.; Vegas, R.

    1984-01-01

    The research works done on neotectonics and its applications in the central region of the Peninsule (Central System, Tajo and Duero Tertiary Basins and Iberian Range), in the South and Southeast Regions (Provinces of Cadiz, Huelva, Almeria and Murcia) and in the Eastern Region (Province of Valencia and northern part of Alicante) are presented. In these regions, the analysis of the postmiocene tectonic is studied in the continental and coastal areas, using several different technics, from tectonic, geophysic and remote sensing methods to geomorphologic methods. (author)

  5. An outbreak of canine aflatoxicosis in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke F. Arnot

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sporadic outbreaks of aflatoxicosis occur in dogs when they consume contaminated dog food. During 2011, low-cost brands of pelleted dog food were contaminated with very high concentrations of aflatoxins. Approximately 100 dogs were presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital. Clinically, the dogs were depressed to collapsed and icteric, with haematemesis, melaena and haematochezia. The most common pathological findings were icterus, gastro-enterorrhagia and hepatosis. On histopathological examination, fatty hepatosis and bile duct proliferation were observed. A consistent, very characteristic finding was the presence of a blue-grey granular material within the bile ducts. A total of 124 samples of the dog food fed to the affected dogs was analysed to determine aflatoxin concentrations. Concentrations ranged from below the limit of quantification (< 5 μg/kg to 4946 μg/kg and six samples were submitted to determine the ratio of aflatoxins in the feed. It is estimated that well over 220 dogs died in the Gauteng Province of South Africa as a result of this aflatoxin outbreak.

  6. Colophospermum mopane wood utilisation in the Northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Makhado, RA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Colophospermum mopane wood was quantified from six villages in the northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. One hundred and eighty individuals were interviewed from the selected villages. Three villages were located...

  7. The status of refractive errors in elementary school children in South Jeolla Province, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang JU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jung Un Jang,1 Inn-Jee Park2 1Department of Optometry, Eulji University, Seongnam, 2Department of Optometry, Kaya University, Gimhae, South Korea Purpose: To assess the prevalence of refractive errors among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea. Methods: The subjects were aged 8–13 years; a total of 1,079 elementary school children from Mokpo, South Jeolla Province, were included. In all participants, uncorrected visual acuity and objective and subjective refractions were determined using auto Ref-Keratometer and phoropter. A spherical equivalent of -0.50 diopter (D or worse was defined as myopia, +0.50 D or more was defined as hyperopia, and a cylinder refraction greater than 0.75 D was defined as astigmatism. Results: Out of 1,079 elementary school children, the prevalence of uncorrected, best-corrected, and corrected visual acuity with own spectacles of 20/40 or worse in the better eye was 26.1%, 0.4%, and 20.2%, respectively. The uncorrected visual acuity was 20/200 or worse in the better eye in 5.7% of school children, and 5.2% of them already wore corrective spectacles. The prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was 46.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 43.56–49.5, 6.2% (95% CI: 4.92–7.81, and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.76–11.25, respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals a considerably higher prevalence of refractive error among elementary school children in South Jeolla Province of South Korea, exceeding 50% of subjects. The prevalence of myopia in the school children in Korea is similar to many other countries including People’s Republic of China, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. This may indicate that genetics and educational influences, such as studying and learning, may play a role in the progression of myopia in Korean elementary school children. Keywords: refractive error, elementary school children, visual acuity, myopia, astigmatism

  8. Large quaternary landslides in the central appalachian valley and ridge province near Petersburg, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, C. Scott

    1988-01-01

    Geological mapping and photointerpretation of side-looking airborne radar images and color-infrared aerial photographs reveal two large Quaternary landslides in the Valley and Ridge province of the central Appalachians near Petersburg, W. Va. The Elkhorn Mountain rock avalanche occurs on the thrust-faulted northwestern flank of the Elkhorn Mountain anticlinorium. A minimum of 7 ?? 106 m3 of quartzite colluvium was transported more than 3 km from a 91 m high escarpment of Silurian Tuscarora Quartzite. The extensively vegetated deposit may owe, in part, its transport and weathering to periglacial conditions during the Pleistocene. In contrast, the Gap Mountain rock block slide is a single allochthonous block that is 1.2 km long, 0.6 km wide, and at least 60 m thick. The 43 ?? 106 m3 block is composed of limestone of the Helderberg Group and the Oriskany Sanstone of Early Devonian age. Planar detachment probably occurred along a dissolution bedding plane near the Shriver Chert and the Oriskany Sandstone contact. Failure probably was initiated by downcutting of the South Branch Potomac River during the Pleistocene. Landslides of this magnitude suggest accelerated erosion during periglacial climates in the Pleistocene. The recognition of these large slope failures may provide evidence of paleoclimatic conditions and, thereby, increase our understanding of the geomorphologic development of the Valley and Ridge province. ?? 1988.

  9. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  10. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  11. The economic support index evaluation study on the pig breeding scale of the six provinces in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Bi-Bin; Le, Xi-lin; Yuan, Gang; Ji, Xue-Qiang

    2017-11-01

    Shanxi province, Anhui province, Jiangxi province, Henan province, Hubei province and Hunan province are located in the central part of China. They are playing an essential role in China’s economic and social development. In this article, we use analytic hierarchy process(AHP), on the basis of the statistical yearbook data of 2016, conduct an appraisal research about the economic support index of the pig breeding scale in the six provinces of central China. The evaluation shows that Hubei tops all of the provinces on the economic support index, followed by Hunan, Anhui, Henan, Jiangxi. The lowest index is in Shanxi province. It indicates the economic conditions in Hubei province is the most capable for it to support the pig breeding scale, Shanxi province is the opposite.

  12. Interprofessional communication in organ transplantation in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harriet Rosanne Etheredge

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Communication is essential to the transplant process, but it is challenging in South Africa (SA because of the complexity of the country and the health system, the nature of transplantation as a technical procedure with inherent psychological considerations, and the large number of professionals involved. Transplant communication has not been explored in SA, and this study was the first to use health communication methods to generate empirical evidence relating to it. Objective. To explore communication in transplant settings in Gauteng Province, SA. Methods. Qualitative methods were used to collect data across six hospitals and transplant centres in Gauteng. State and private institutions were equally represented. Health professionals and transplant co-ordinators participated. Thematic analysis of data was undertaken. Results. Facilitators of interprofessional transplant communication included appreciation of its importance to good practice and cohesive individual transplant teams. Barriers to interprofessional communication were observed when individual teams had to come together in a multi-team, interdisciplinary environment, when interchange became aggressive, and when information was not passed on to other health professionals timeously. These barriers had implications for continuity of care and ethics, which could lead to moral distress. Conclusion. Transplantation in Gauteng is characterised by aspects of good teamwork, and the importance of effective communication is acknowledged. Transplantation also faces some challenges in terms of interprofessional communication. Recommendations for mitigating some of the gaps include integrating a health communication specialist into the transplant process, ‘knotworking’, the use of apology, and an advance warning text-message system for transplant professionals.

  13. Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan G. Horak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks’ role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed.

  14. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  15. Estimation of household income diversification in South Africa: A case study of three provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Mathebula

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated household income diversification in settlement types of the poorest provinces in South Africa the Eastern Cape, Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal. We obtained data from the 2010/2011 Income and Expenditure Survey from Statistics South Africa and Wave 3 data from the National Income Dynamics Study. We used the number of income sources, the number of income earners and the Shannon Diversity Index to estimate income diversification in the study provinces. The results show that households in the traditional and urban formal areas diversified income sources to a greater extent than households in urban informal and rural formal settlements. The varied degrees of income diversification in the three provinces suggest that targeted policy initiatives aimed at enhancing household income are important in these provinces.

  16. Almost stochastic dominance for poverty level in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Isnandar; Agus Wibowo, Aryanto; Roswitha, Mania

    2017-12-01

    The criteria for the domination of the distribution function has been used in the investment issues, momentum, agricultural production, and so on. One criteria of domination is stochastic dominance (SD). When this criteria is applied to the dominating area that has smaller value than the dominated area, then almost stochastic dominance (ASD) can be used. It this research, we apply the ASD criteria on data of expenditure per capita based on districts/cities in Central Java. Furthermore, we determine which year the expenditure per capita in the period 2009-2013 is the most dominating to know the level of poverty in Central Java. From the discussion, it can be concluded that the expenditure per capita in Central Java in 2013 dominates expenditure per capita in Central Java in 2009-2012. In other words, the level of poverty in Central Java in 2013 is lower than in 2009-2012.

  17. The analysis of export commodity competitiveness in Central Java Province at period 2011-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elysi, M. G.; Darsono; Riptanti, E. W.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the competitiveness of furniture export in Central Java Province Indonesia in terms of comparative and competitive advantages and to formulate the strategies to enhance the competitiveness of furniture export in Central Java Province. Descriptive analytic method was used for this research. Data used in this research are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed using RCA (Revealed Comparative Advantage), TSI (Trade Specialization Index) and SOAR (Strength, Opportunity, Aspiration, Result). The results showed that furniture commodity in Central Java Province had strong comparative competitiveness with the value of RCA>1 and had strong competitiveness with positive index values in the range of 0 to 1. Based on SOAR analysis, strategy measures can be formulated, namely maintaining the existing and expanding targeted markets, improving product designs (innovations) and improving raw materials efficiency.

  18. Quality of asthma care: Western Cape Province, South Africa | Mash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Asthma is the eighth leading contributor to the burden of disease in South Africa, but has received less attention than other chronic diseases. The Asthma Guidelines Implementation Project (AGIP) was established to improve the impact of the South African guidelines for chronic asthma in adults and ...

  19. Identifying potential surface water sampling sites for emerging chemical pollutants in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, F; Dabrowski, JM; Forbes, PBC

    2017-01-01

    Emerging chemical pollutants (ECPs) are defined as new chemicals which do not have a regulatory status, but which may have an adverse effect on human health and the environment. The occurrence and concentrations of ECPs in South African water bodies are largely unknown, so monitoring is required in order to determine the potential threat that these ECPs may pose. Relevant surface water sampling sites in the Gauteng Province of South Africa were identified utilising a geographic information sy...

  20. Life Esidimeni psychiatric patients in Gauteng Province, South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Bioethics and Law. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 10, No 2 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Determination of provincial logistics capability for South African provinces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2012-10-10

    Full Text Available Production January 2013/ Vol. 39 Life cycle inventory of electricity cogeneration from bagasse in the South African sugar industry L. Mashoko a , C. Mbohwa b,* , V.M. Thomas c,d a Logistics and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment..., Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA d School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332, USA Abstract The South African sugar industry has a potential for cogeneration of steam and electricity using...

  2. GIVETIAN–FRASNIAN BOUNDARY CONODONTS FROM KERMAN PROVINCE, CENTRAL IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    GHOLAMALIAN, HOSSEIN; HAIRAPETIAN, VACHIK; BARFEHEI, NAHID; MANGELIAN, SOHEYLA; FARIDI, PARVANEH

    2013-01-01

    The Middle - Late Devonian boundary is investigated based on twenty-two conodont species and subspecies from three sections in the north and west of Kerman, southeastern central Iran. Upper Givetian - lower Frasnian carbonates of the basal part of the Bahram Formation transgressively overlie the sandstone beds of the top of (?) Early - Middle Devonian Padeha Formation. These massive skeletal limestones encompass the G-F boundary. The base of Frasnian is identified by the appearance of early f...

  3. The Central European, Tarim and Siberian Large Igneous Provinces, Late Palaeozoic orogeny and coeval metallogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boorder, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/098199056

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the Central European and Tarim Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) in the Early Permian coincided with the demise of the Variscan and the Southern Tianshan orogens, respectively. The Early Triassic Siberian LIP was formed in the wake of the Western Altaid orogeny in the Late Permian.

  4. The impact of nutrition education at three health centres in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains an account of a study of the effects of nutrition education as given at three health centres in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers in similar social and economic situations were selected for interviewing: frequent and infrequent

  5. Nuclear Power in South-Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    The region of South-Central Brazil includes the states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara and Minas Gerais. The most recent power study was made by Canambra Engineering Consultants Limited. This group reported that the public-grid electricity output for the area in 1962 was 2.16 GW (average generation), with an installed capacity of 3.41 GW and annual mean load factor of 63.4; an increase in power requirements for 1970 was forecast, corresponding to an average output of 5.37 GW and an installed capacity of 8.3 GW. This forecast was based on an annual growth rate of 11.9% in generation. ''The energy requirements have grown at an average annual rate of 10.9% since 1955; however, the present forecast is based on the assumption of power being available as required, and hence includes the suppressed demand resulting from existing restrictions in generating and distribution capacity''

  6. School Physical Education in Four South African Provinces: A Survey

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-apartheid educational transformation in South Africa (SA) reduced Physical Education (PE) from a stand-alone subject to a learning outcome of the Learning Area/Subject Life Orientation (LO) in Grades 7-12. The main purpose of the current study was to determine the implementation of LO in selected secondary ...

  7. GIVETIAN–FRASNIAN BOUNDARY CONODONTS FROM KERMAN PROVINCE, CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Middle - Late Devonian boundary is investigated based on twenty-two conodont species and subspecies from three sections in the north and west of Kerman, southeastern central Iran. Upper Givetian - lower Frasnian carbonates of the basal part of the Bahram Formation transgressively overlie the sandstone beds of the top of (? Early - Middle Devonian Padeha Formation. These massive skeletal limestones encompass the G-F boundary. The base of Frasnian is identified by the appearance of early forms of Ancyrodella rotundiloba . It helps to compare our biozones to those of global stratotype in southern France. A new species, Polygnathus hojedki n. sp. is described here. New range is suggested for P. praepolitus .

  8. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude T. Sabeta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  9. Irrigation Management Transfer and WUAs' dynamics: evidence from the South-Kazakhstan province

    Science.gov (United States)

    zinzani, andrea

    2014-05-01

    The importance of water resources management in the arid and semi-arid lands can not be overestimated being related with environmental, economical and socio-political issues. In Central Asia, due to the physical and climatic features, water control and irrigation have always played a strategic role in territorial and societal development. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan, as in the other Central Asian republics, significant changes in both the water and agricultural sector have emerged; water management shifted from a purely technical issue to a sociopolitical and economic one leading to several institutional and organizational changes. To address this transitional water management context and the related governance and technical issues, since the 1990s several development organizations and donor agencies (such as the World Bank, United Nations, USAID, and others), according to the international water community, have sought to streamline the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) and the establishment of the Water Users Associations (WUAs); this initiatives are sponsored and related to the IWRM framework, the water program globally supported by the Global Water Partnership and widely debated and questioned in the last years. This paper aims to discuss these transitional water management processes focusing on the meso-local level in the Arys valley, administratively included in the South-Kazakhstan province, ten years since the enactment of the law formalizing the WUAs. Three districts (Tyulkibas, Ordabasy and Otrar) were selected to analyse and understand the specific local transitional water institutional/organizational framework and to highlight the differences among them. The fieldwork was conducted in two different phases, April-May and November-December 2012. Within those periods, semi-structured interviews were carried out to the members of the state organizations (river basin agencies and district/province water departments) as well as the

  10. Investigation of ground water aquifer at Karangrowo Site, Undaan District, Kudus Sub Province Central Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilik Subiantoro; Priyo Sularto; Slamet Sudarto

    2009-01-01

    Kudus is one of sub province in central Java with have the fresh water availability problem Condition of insufficiency 'Standard Water has been recognized in some part of regional area, those are Karangrowo area, Undaan District The problem of clean water in this area is caused by sea water trapped in sedimentary material during sedimentation process; due the ground water trapped character is briny or brackish. One of the alternatives to overcome water problem is election or delineated of prospect area fur exploiting of ground water. Referring to that problem ''Pusbang Geologi Nuklir BATAN'' means to conduct investigation of ground water in some location problem of clean water. The ground investigation activity is to get information about the geology, geohydrology and sub surface geophysical characterize, which is needed to identification of ground water aquifer. To obtain that target, conducted by topographic measurement in 1:5000 scale maps, measurement of soil radioactivity, geology and hydrogeology mapping, geo electrical 2-D image measurement Base on the result of analyze, evaluation and discussion was identified the existence of potential aquifer that happened at layer of sand sedimentary, in form of lens trapped in impermeable layer of clay sediment The layer of aquifer pattern follows of Old River in North-South and East-West direction. Potency of aquifer with the best condition from bad, there are placed on geophysical measurement GF. A 4-14, AB 4-11 and B4. Physical characterized of aquifer, resistivity 9-19 Ωm with charge ability 13-53 milliseconds. (author)

  11. Development of Community Forest in South Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Syahrany Noor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to provide an overview of the development of community forests in South Kalimantan and information about the properties and benefits of community forest timber, the hopes community forests timber can be developed into a source of raw materials of natural forest wood substitute that can support the development of the wood processing industry in South Kalimantan. The result showed that Community forest proved to be very useful both for the owner, the community and the environment as well as for the government especially in order to meet the timber supply for local. Until the year 2011 the community forest area that was developed by the government in South Kalimantan has reached 2,895 ha, and the most widely are the Tanah Laut district covering 935 ha. The wood species that developed is sengon, jati, mahoni, karet, petai, akasia, galam, kemiri. The properties of the wood need to be understood and known before the relevant timber used both as a building material or as raw material for the industry, because these properties are basically determining the quality of wood products that will be produced. Technically private community forest wood can be used for building materials, components boat/ship and industrial raw materials.

  12. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Henan province, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176. The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region.

  13. Annual risks of tuberculous infection in East Nusa Tenggara and Central Java Provinces, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachtiar, A; Miko, T Y; Machmud, R; Besral, B; Yudarini, P; Mehta, F; Chadha, V K; Basri, C; Loprang, F; Jitendra, R

    2009-01-01

    East Nusa Tenggara (NTT) and Central Java Provinces, Indonesia. To estimate the average annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI) among school children aged 6-9 years in each province. Children attending Classes 1-4 in 65 schools in NTT and 79 in Central Java, selected by two-stage sampling, were intradermally administered 2 tuberculin units of purified protein derivative RT23 with Tween 80 on the mid-volar aspect of the left forearm. The maximum transverse diameter of induration was measured 72 h later. The analysis was carried out among 5479 satisfactorily test-read children in NTT and 6943 in Central Java. One hundred and fifty-five new sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases (78 in NTT and 77 in Central Java) were also tuberculin tested. Based on the frequency distribution of reaction sizes among the children and PTB cases, the prevalence of infection was estimated by the mirror-image method using the modes of tuberculous reactions at 15 and 17 mm. Using the 15 mm mode, ARTI was estimated at 1% in NTT and 0.9% in Central Java. Using the 17 mm mode, ARTI was estimated at 0.5% in NTT and 0.4% in Central Java. Transmission of tuberculous infection may be further reduced by intensification of tuberculosis control efforts.

  14. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  15. The impact of nutrition education at three health centres in Central Province, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    This report contains an account of a study of the effects of nutrition education as given at three health centres in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers in similar social and economic situations were selected for interviewing: frequent and infrequent visitors. They were compared on the following indicators: nutritional knowledge, maternal food preferences, food consumption of the children during the previous day and nutritional status of the children. ...

  16. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  17. Geographically Weighted Regression Model with Kernel Bisquare and Tricube Weighted Function on Poverty Percentage Data in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugroho, N. F. T. A.; Slamet, I.

    2018-05-01

    Poverty is a socio-economic condition of a person or group of people who can not fulfil their basic need to maintain and develop a dignified life. This problem still cannot be solved completely in Central Java Province. Currently, the percentage of poverty in Central Java is 13.32% which is higher than the national poverty rate which is 11.13%. In this research, data of percentage of poor people in Central Java Province has been analyzed through geographically weighted regression (GWR). The aim of this research is therefore to model poverty percentage data in Central Java Province using GWR with weighted function of kernel bisquare, and tricube. As the results, we obtained GWR model with bisquare and tricube kernel weighted function on poverty percentage data in Central Java province. From the GWR model, there are three categories of region which are influenced by different of significance factors.

  18. The geology of the area south of Vioolsdrif, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.H.W.

    1977-10-01

    Geological reconnaissance of an area of 1 500 square km to the South of Vioolsdrif in northern Namaqualand has revealed that this region straddles the boundary between the upper crustal Richtersveld domain and the subjacent Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The Vioolsdrif batholith, which underlies much of the Richtersveld, is a composite body, essentially granodioritic, which was emplaced in a number of epizonal magmatic pulses into an overlying comagmatic canopy of intermediate to felsic lavas and pyroclastics during Bushveld times. It is unlikely that this volcanic carapace exceeded 9 km in thickness. During or following consolidation at about 1 800 Ma, the southern margin of the batholith was affected by a thermotectonic episode of regional extent during which the rocks of the igneous complex were foliated and lineated in sympathy with the dominant tectonic fabric of the contiguous metamorphic complex. Metamorphic mineral parageneses indicate that during the climax of this dynamothermal episode, rocks along the southern margin of the batholith were subjected to temperatures of 620 - 670 degrees and pressures of 0,4 - 0,5 MPa (4 - 5 kbar). During this deformational episode the batholith acted as a tectonic resister which preserved the overlying volcanics from incorporation into the metamorphic complex. More or less coincident with the boundary between the metamorphic complex and the Vioolsdrif batholith is a zone about 10 km in width which is characterised by the development of abundant pegmatites [af

  19. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  20. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  1. Yellow Fever Outbreak - Kongo Central Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo, August 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otshudiema, John O; Ndakala, Nestor G; Mawanda, Elande-Taty K; Tshapenda, Gaston P; Kimfuta, Jacques M; Nsibu, Loupy-Régence N; Gueye, Abdou S; Dee, Jacob; Philen, Rossanne M; Giese, Coralie; Murrill, Christopher S; Arthur, Ray R; Kebela, Benoit I

    2017-03-31

    On April 23, 2016, the Democratic Republic of the Congo's (DRC's) Ministry of Health declared a yellow fever outbreak. As of May 24, 2016, approximately 90% of suspected yellow fever cases (n = 459) and deaths (45) were reported in a single province, Kongo Central Province, that borders Angola, where a large yellow fever outbreak had begun in December 2015. Two yellow fever mass vaccination campaigns were conducted in Kongo Central Province during May 25-June 7, 2016 and August 17-28, 2016. In June 2016, the DRC Ministry of Health requested assistance from CDC to control the outbreak. As of August 18, 2016, a total of 410 suspected yellow fever cases and 42 deaths were reported in Kongo Central Province. Thirty seven of the 393 specimens tested in the laboratory were confirmed as positive for yellow fever virus (local outbreak threshold is one laboratory-confirmed case of yellow fever). Although not well-documented for this outbreak, malaria, viral hepatitis, and typhoid fever are common differential diagnoses among suspected yellow fever cases in this region. Other possible diagnoses include Zika, West Nile, or dengue viruses; however, no laboratory-confirmed cases of these viruses were reported. Thirty five of the 37 cases of yellow fever were imported from Angola. Two-thirds of confirmed cases occurred in persons who crossed the DRC-Angola border at one market city on the DRC side, where ≤40,000 travelers cross the border each week on market day. Strategies to improve coordination between health surveillance and cross-border trade activities at land borders and to enhance laboratory and case-based surveillance and health border screening capacity are needed to prevent and control future yellow fever outbreaks.

  2. Teacher Education in Central Equatoria, South Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahs Brinkley, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Without education, many South Sudanese will continue living in poverty. There are numerous factors that limit their educational opportunities including tribal warfare, colonialism, missionary malpractice, civil wars, a high illiteracy rate, low government funding, and threats of war. These factors have left a substantial deficiency in available…

  3. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandham, Luke A.; Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-01-01

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa

  4. Changing distribution and abundance of the malaria vector Anopheles merus in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbokazi, F; Coetzee, M; Brooke, B; Govere, J; Reid, A; Owiti, P; Kosgei, R; Zhou, S; Magagula, R; Kok, G; Namboze, J; Tweya, H; Mabuza, A

    2018-04-25

    Background: The malaria vector Anopheles merus occurs in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. As its contribution to malaria transmission in South Africa has yet to be ascertained, an intensification of surveillance is necessary to provide baseline information on this species. The aim of this study was therefore to map An. merus breeding sites in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province and to assess qualitative trends in the distribution and relative abundance of this species over a 9-year period. Methods: The study was carried out during the period 2005-2014 in the four high-risk municipalities of Ehlanzeni District. Fifty-two breeding sites were chosen from all water bodies that produced anopheline mosquitoes. The study data were extracted from historical entomological records that are captured monthly. Results: Of the 15 058 Anopheles mosquitoes collected, 64% were An. merus. The abundance and distribution of An. merus increased throughout the four municipalities in Ehlanzeni District during the study period. Conclusion: The expanded distribution and increased abundance of An. merus in the Ehlanzeni District may contribute significantly to locally acquired malaria in Mpumalanga Province, likely necessitating the incorporation of additional vector control methods specifically directed against populations of this species.

  5. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in cattle from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlokwe, Tiny Motlatso; Said, Halima; Gcebe, Nomakorinte

    2017-10-10

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main causative agent of tuberculosis (TB) in human and Mycobacterium bovis commonly causes tuberculosis in animals. Transmission of tuberculosis caused by both pathogens can occur from human to animals and vice versa. In the current study, M. tuberculosis, as confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers targeting 3 regions of difference (RD4, RD9 and RD12) on the genomes, was isolated from cattle originating from two epidemiologically unrelated farms in the Eastern Cape (E.C) Province of South Africa. Although the isolates were genotyped with variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) typing, no detailed epidemiological investigation was carried out on the respective farms to unequivocally confirm or link humans as sources of TB transmission to cattle, a move that would have embraced the 'One Health' concept. In addition, strain comparison with human M. tuberculosis in the database from the E.C Province and other provinces in the country did not reveal any match. This is the first report of cases of M. tuberculosis infection in cattle in South Africa. The VNTR profiles of the M. tuberculosis strains identified in the current study will form the basis for creating M. tuberculosis VNTR database for animals including cattle for future epidemiological studies. Our findings however, call for urgent reinforcement of collaborative efforts between the veterinary and the public health services of the country.

  6. Spatiotemporal characteristics of severe dry and wet conditions in the Free State Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiriri, M.; Mukwada, G.; Manatsa, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper assesses the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural droughts and wet conditions in the Free State Province of South Africa for the period between 1960 and 2013. Since agriculturally, the Free State Province is considered the bread basket of the country, understanding the variability of drought and wet conditions becomes necessary. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) computed from gridded monthly precipitation data was used to assess the rainfall extreme conditions. Hot spot analysis was used to divide the province into five homogenous clusters where the spatiotemporal characteristics for each cluster were analysed. The results show a west to east increase in seasonal average total precipitation. However, the eastern part of the province demonstrates higher occurrences of droughts, with SPI ≤ - 1.282. This is despite the observation that the region shows a recent increase in droughts unlike the western region. It is also noted that significant differences in drought/wet intensities between clusters are more pronounced during the early compared to the late summer period.

  7. Variations of annual and seasonal runoff in Guangdong Province, south China: spatiotemporal patterns and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Xiao, Mingzhong; Singh, Vijay P.; Xu, Chong-Yu; Li, Jianfeng

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we thoroughly analyzed spatial and temporal distributions of runoff and their relation with precipitation changes based on monthly runoff dataset at 25 hydrological stations and monthly precipitation at 127 stations in Guangdong Province, south China. Trends of the runoff and precipitation are detected using Mann-Kendall trend test technique. Correlations between runoff and precipitation are tested using Spearman's and Pearson's correlation coefficients. The results indicate that: (1) annual maximum monthly runoff is mainly in decreasing tendency and significant increasing annual minimum monthly runoff is observed in the northern and eastern Guangdong Province. In addition, annual mean runoff is observed to be increasing at the stations located in the West and North Rivers and the coastal region; (2) analysis of seasonal runoff variations indicates increasing runoff in spring, autumn and winter. Wherein, significant increase of runoff is found at 8 stations and only 3 stations are dominated by decreasing runoff in winter; (3) runoff changes of the Guangdong Province are mainly the results of precipitation changes. The Guangdong Province is wetter in winter, spring and autumn. Summer is coming to be drier as reflected by decreasing runoff in the season; (4) both precipitation change and water reservoirs also play important roles in the increasing of annual minimum monthly streamflow. Seasonal shifts of runoff variations may pose new challenges for the water resources management under the influences of climate changes and intensifying human activities.

  8. Tendencias en el uso de la tierra y diversidad productiva en establecimientos agropecuarios del centro-sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Tendencies in land use and productive diversity in central-south farms of the Province of Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Requesens

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El partido de Benito Juárez, ubicado en el centro-sur de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina, es ambientalmente heterogéneo y productivamente mixto, con tradición predominantemente ganadera. A fin de evaluar las tendencias en el uso de la tierra, se describió la evolución de los diferentes rubros productivos y su diversidad durante el periodo 1998-2007, sobre la base de una selección de 30 establecimientos. El pastizal natural ocupó la mayor proporción de superficie promedio en el período considerado, pero reflejó una pérdida de 23 puntos porcentuales compensada sólo parcialmente por un aumento de pasturas perennes. La suma de ambos recursos forrajeros evidenció una caída en la superficie destinada a ganadería y, al final del periodo, fue ligeramente superada por la superficie destinada a cultivos anuales. Entre éstos, la soja fue el cultivo con mayor expansión pero su participación relativa alcanzó sólo el 11,02%. Paralelamente, la diversidad productiva, estimada mediante una adaptación del índice de diversidad de Shannon, aumentó 30,84%. Aunque es evidente el avance de cultivos anuales en desmedro de pastizales naturales, el reemplazo parcial de estos últimos por pasturas perennes y el aumento en la diversidad productiva limitan los riesgos ambientales potenciales, puestos de manifiesto en otras regiones del país.Benito Juarez county, in the central-south Buenos Aires province (Argentina, is environmentally and productively heterogeneous, with predominance of cattle farming. In order to evaluate the tendencies in land use, the evolution of different productive items and their diversity throughout the period 1998- 2007 were described on the basis of 30 farms selected. The grasslands occupied the greater proportion of the area throughout the period studied, but they reflected a loss of 23 percentage points which was only partially compensated by an increase of perennial pastures. This fact caused a decrease in the

  9. Continental breakup of the Central Atlantic and the initiation of the southern Central Atlantic Magmatic Province: revisiting the role of a mantle plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrman, M.

    2017-12-01

    Central Atlantic breakup is strongly associated with magmatism of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), although the exact mechanism, as well as the temporal and spatial relations, have so far been poorly constrained. Here, I propose a mantle plume origin for the 200 Ma southern Central Atlantic Province (CAMP), based on an original plume conduit location off southeastern Florida, linking Early Jurassic rift systems: One rift arm is defined by the Takutu rift in present-day Guyana and Brazil, extending all the way past the Demerara Rise. This rift is linking up with a second arm from the Bahamas basin to the Blake Plateau basin. Finally, there is the third, failed rift between the Demerara Rise and the Guinea Plateau. This rift system post-dates earlier Triassic rift systems along the US eastcoast and in the subsurface of Arkansas, Texas, the Gulf of Mexico and northern South America. Chronostratigraphic analysis of outcrop, wells and seismic data near the proposed conduit, suggest initial Rhaetian uplift, followed by dike/sill intrusions feeding flood basalts and the initiation of igneous centers at the triple point. The latter resulted in various subsequent uplift and subsidence events, as a result of volcanic construction and erosion. The load of the volcanic edifice generated a point of weakness, allowing favorable plate stresses to generate rift systems, propagating away from the rift junction and eventually break up Pangea. The breakup is marked by the magmatic breakup (un)conformity on seismic data, separating hotspot/plume sourced Seaward Dipping reflectors (SDRs) within the continental rift system, from early ocean spreading sourced SDRs. As ocean spreading continued, the volcanic construction evolved into a hotspot track, now recognized as the Bahamas island trail. Time progression of this hotspot track resembles the present-day Iceland hotspot track, as suggested by plate reconstructions (Figure 1). Based on melting depth estimates from Sm

  10. International stock market integration: Central and South Eastern Europe compared

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, Roman; Petrovski, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 1 (2013), s. 81-91 ISSN 0939-3625 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : stock markets * South Eastern Europe Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/horvath-international stock market integration central and south eastern europe compared.pdf

  11. Factors that contribute to public sector nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani G. Tshitangano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ongoing worldwide phenomenon of a shortage of about 4.3 million nurses and midwives poses a threat to health service delivery. Limpopo province had the worst nurse shortage of over 60% in 2010. Authors attribute this shortage to turnover of nurses. The quest to describe factors contributing to nurses’ turnover led to this study in Limpopo province,South Africa. Objectives: To explore and describe factors that contribute to nurses’ turnover in Limpopo province of South Africa by assessing public sector nurses’ job satisfaction in relation to common determinants of job satisfaction. Method: A descriptive cross-sectional approach used primary quantitative data collected from 141 of 380 respondents (31.1% response rate contacted incidentally. Self-administered hand delivered questionnaires were used to gather ordinal data, which were analysed in terms off requency and percentage tables using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6. The sum of positive and negative effects was used to determine satisfaction; if positive effects were greater than negative effects respondents were judged to be satisfied and vice versa. Results: Frequency and percentage tables revealed that nurses in Limpopo province were more dissatisfied (53.9% than satisfied (37.8% with their jobs. Factors which respondents were found to be dissatisfied with included staffing (85.2%, availability of workplace resources(83.7%, salaries (78.8%, workplace safety (73.7%, career development opportunities (64.5% and hours of work (47.6%. Conclusion: Nurses’ turnover is attributed to nurses’ dissatisfaction with staffing, resources, salaries and workplace safety. Attention needs to be given to these specific issues if retentionof nurses is to be achieved.

  12. The Kimberlites and related rocks of the Kuruman Kimberlite Province, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Cara L.; Griffin, William L.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.; Pearson, Norman J.; Shee, Simon R.

    2011-03-01

    The Kuruman Kimberlite Province is comprised of 16 small pipes and dikes and contains some of the oldest known kimberlites (>1.6 Ga). In this study, 12 intrusions are subdivided into three groups with distinct petrology, age, and geochemical and isotopic compositions: (1) kimberlites with groundmass perovskites defining a Pb-Pb isochron age of 1787 ± 69 Ma, (2) orangeite with a U-Pb perovskite age of 124 ± 16 Ma, and (3) ultramafic lamprophyres (aillikite and mela-aillikite) with a zircon U-Pb age of 1642 ± 46 Ma. The magma type varies across the Province, with kimberlites in the east, lamprophyres in the west and orangeite and ultramafic lamprophyres to the south. Differences in the age and petrogenesis of the X007 orangeite and Clarksdale and Aalwynkop aillikites suggest that these intrusions are probably unrelated to the Kuruman Province. Kimberlite and orangeite whole-rock major and trace element compositions are similar to other South African localities. Compositionally, the aillikites typically lie off kimberlite and orangeite trends. Groundmass mineral chemistry of the kimberlites has some features more typical of orangeites. Kimberlite whole-rock Sr and Nd isotopes show zoning across the Province. When the kimberlites erupted at ~1.8 Ga, they sampled a core volume (ca 50 km across) of relatively depleted SCLM that was partially surrounded by a rim of more metasomatized mantle. This zonation may have been related to the development of the adjacent Kheis Belt (oldest rocks ~2.0 Ga), as weaker zones surrounding the more resistant core section of SCLM were more extensively metasomatized.

  13. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  14. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonglei Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the county level. Our results show that farmland abandonment has striking spatial relativity, and there are two clustering zones with a high index of farmland abandonment (IFA in the Dongting plain and the basin in south-central Hunan, while a clustering zone of low IFA can be found in the mountains of southwest Hunan. Farmland abandonment at the regional level is negatively affected by the land productive potentialities, proportion of mechanized planting, ratio of effective irrigation, and distance to provincial capital, while it is positively associated with the variables mountainous terrain, per capita farmland area, and labor shortage. Additionally, farmland abandonment is also affected by adjacent areas through its spatial dependence. In short, seasonal farmland abandonment is also driven integratedly by the socioeconomic and environmental dimensions and spatial interaction of farm abandonment.

  15. Predictive Index The Incidence Of Tuberculosis Children In South Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrul Ilmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The research objective to formulate predictive index of Tuberculosis Children in South Kalimantan province. Research methods combined mixed methods with a combination of research model Sequential Exploratory Design qualitative approach to support quantitative and centered on quantitative Sugiono 2012 case control design. The number of qualitative sample was 16 respondents to interviews and 48 respondents for FGD. The number of quantitative research sample was 216 consisted of 62 cases and 154 controls. Qualitative sampling by purposive sampling and quantitative Multi-stage Cluster random sampling on 3 stages. The analysis technique used is descriptive qualitative and Confirmatory Factor Analysis Confirmatory Factor Analysis measure the latent of variables by using path analysis path analysis with the program Linear Structural Relationships LISREL. The results showed a positive effect on the socio-cultural environment and significantly associated with the incidence of Tuberculosis Children. While the physical environment of the house positively and significantly with biological environments and the incidence of Tuberculosis Children and immunization and nutrition status of children positively and significantly to the incidence of Tuberculosis of the Child as well as to the biological environment positive and significant effect on the incidence of TB Children. Formulation Predictive Index of Tuberculosis Children in South Kalimantan province. is index 019 Physical Environment Home 044 053 Biological Environment Social Environment Culture 019 Status Immunization and Child Nutrition. The results of all the R-square value indicates that all of the R-square values 0.5. This means that a predictive model of TB Kids index has met the required Goodness of Fit. New findings from research of this dissertation are 1. Research Variable of social networks social support and collective efficacy were associated with the incidence of Tuberculosis Children. 2

  16. Factors influencing the retention of registered nurses in the Gauteng Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokoka, Kgaogelo E; Ehlers, Valerie J; Oosthuizen, Martha J

    2011-12-14

    South Africa is a source country for many destination countries that recruit registered nurses who emigrate for personal and/or professional reasons. A large number of South African nurses belong to the baby boomer generation (born between 1943 and 1964) who will retire within the foreseeable future. Statistics from the South African Nursing Council show a decline of 42.0% in the number of nurses who completed their training in South Africa from 1996 to 2005. These aspects combine to predict a potential dire shortage of nurses in South Africa within the foreseeable future. Retention of registered nurses should be the focus of health-care planners to avoid crises in South Africa's health-care services. This study attempted to identify factors that would influence registered nurses' decisions to stay with their current employers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. An exploratory descriptive quantitative design was adopted and questionnaires were sent to a sample of nurses, registered with the South African Nursing Council (SANC), with addresses in the Gauteng Province. A total of 108 nurses completed and returned questionnaires, of whom 77 (73.1%) had considered leaving their current employers. The most important factors that would influence more than 90.0% of these nurses' decisions to stay with their current employers related to finances, safety and security, equipment and/or supplies, management, staff and patients. In terms of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory, deficiency needs (physiological, safety and social needs) should be met by improved salaries revised on an annual basis, paying long-service and outstanding-service bonuses, and improving the safety and security, as well the available equipment and supplies, at institutions. Sufficient numbers of nurses should be employed and vacancies should be filled rapidly. However, not all changes required to enhance nurses' retention rates involve increased costs. Managers should lead by example and respect

  17. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai P; Ward, Kim; Leng, Henry M J; Sanders, David

    2017-06-30

    South Africa (SA) has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM) in the Western Cape Province, SA. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers). We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i) delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii) absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii) suppliers' inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i) health facility operations; (ii) the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU), which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii) community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU's prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were asked to return for undispensed medication at a later

  18. Inefficient procurement processes undermine access to medicines in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bvudzai P Magadzire

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. South Africa (SA has experienced several stock-outs of life-saving medicines for the treatment of major chronic infectious and non-communicable diseases in the public sector. Objective. To identify the causes of stock-outs and to illustrate how they undermine access to medicines (ATM in the Western Cape Province, SA. Methods. This qualitative study was conducted with a sample of over 70 key informants (frontline health workers, sub-structure and provincial health service managers. We employed the critical incident technique to identify significant occurrences in our context, the consequences of which impacted on access to medicines during a defined period. Stock-outs were identified as one such incident, and we explored when, where and why they occurred, in order to inform policy and practice. Results. Medicines procurement is a centralised function in SA. Health service managers unanimously agreed that stock-outs resulted from the following inefficiencies at the central level: (i delays in awarding of pharmaceutical tenders; (ii absence of contracts for certain medicines appearing on provincial code lists; and (iii suppliers’ inability to satisfy contractual agreements. The recurrence of stock-outs had implications at multiple levels: (i health facility operations; (ii the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU, which prepacks medicines for over 300 000 public sector patients; and (iii community-based medicines distribution systems, which deliver the CDU’s prepacked medicines to non-health facilities nearer to patient homes. For instance, stock-outs resulted in omission of certain medicines from CDU parcels that were delivered to health facilities. This increased workload and caused frustration for frontline health workers who were expected to dispense omitted medicines manually. According to frontline health workers, this translated into longer waiting times for patients and associated dissatisfaction. In some instances, patients were

  19. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  20. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secor, D.T. Jr.

    1980-10-01

    This report reviews the geology of the Piedmont Province of South Carolina with the aim of designating rock units favorable for field exploration for a potential underground repository for the storage of radioactive waste. Most of the rocks in the South Carolina Piedmont are metamorphosed sedimentary volcanic or igneous rocks that have experienced at least one episode of strong deformation. As a consequence of this deformation, they have irregular shapes, making it difficult to predict their subsurface extent. In evaluating the suitability of the rock units for radioactive waste storage, certain criteria were found to be particularly useful. The requirements that the storage site be located in a large volume of homogeneous, impermeable, relatively unfractured rock was the most important criteria in eliminating most of the Piedmont rock units for consideration as field study areas. Six large late- to post-tectonic igneous plutons (Winnsboro, Liberty Hill, Ogden, Newberry, Lowrys, and Bald Rock) are recommended as field study areas

  1. An evaluation for harnessing low-enthalpy geothermal energy in the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufeeq Dhansay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available South Africa generates most of its energy requirements from coal, and is now the leading carbon emitter in Africa, and has one of the highest rates of emissions of all nations in the world. In an attempt to decrease its CO2 emissions, South Africa continues to research and develop alternative forms of energy, expand on the development of nuclear and has began to explore potentially vast shale gas reserves. In this mix, geothermal has not been considered to date as an alternative energy source. This omission appears to stem largely from the popular belief that South Africa is tectonically too stable. In this study, we investigated low-enthalpy geothermal energy from one of a number of anomalously elevated heat flow regions in South Africa. Here, we consider a 75-MW enhanced geothermal systems plant in the Limpopo Province, sustainable over a 30-year period. All parameters were inculcated within a levelised cost of electricity model that calculates the single unit cost of electricity and tests its viability and potential impact toward South Africa's future energy security and CO2 reduction. The cost of electricity produced is estimated at 14 USc/KWh, almost double that of coal-generated energy. However, a USD25/MWh renewable energy tax incentive has the potential of making enhanced geothermal systems comparable with other renewable energy sources. It also has the potential of CO2 mitigation by up to 1.5 gCO2/KWh. Considering the aggressive nature of the global climate change combat and South Africa's need for a larger renewable energy base, low-enthalpy geothermal energy could potentially form another energy option in South Africa's alternative energy basket.

  2. Healthy dietary practices among rural and semi-urban Blacks in the Northern Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Peltzer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate five healthy dietary behaviours in a sample of rural and semi-urban South Africans. The sample consisted of 200 adults, 100 from an semi-urban area (Mankweng and 100 from a rural area (Tiberius in the central region of the Northern Province of South Africa. The two geographically different communities were chosen by convenience and the participants in the two communities were choosen by cluster sampling. Results indicate that about a third (30% in semi-urban and 34% in rural of the study sample are overweight and 18% are obese. A moderately high prevalence of six simple healthy dietary practices was found. However, there was a very low prevalence rate of eating fruits daily among both semi-urban (10% and rural dwellers (9%. Semi-urban dwellers showed significantly higher healthy diet behaviour than rural dwellers in regard to avoiding fat, trying to eat fiber, limiting red meat, and limiting salt. Men reported more than women that they tried to eat fiber and they had more often breakfast everyday. Being semi-urban and female were significantly associated with the healthy dietary index, whereas age, BMI, educational level and marital status were not. The results give insight into dietary health behaviour practices and the factors that influence them, which have practical implications for dietary health promotion.

  3. Analysing post-apartheid gender and racial transformation in medical education in a South African province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Taskeen; Thomas, Leena S; Naidoo, Shan

    2013-01-24

    In light of global concerns about insufficient numbers of doctors, midwives, and nurses, the World Health Organization (WHO) has identified the scale-up of the production of medical professionals who are competent and responsive to community needs as urgent and necessary. Coincident with this imperative, South African medical schools have also had to consider redressing apartheid-era inequities in access to medical education and changing the racial and gender profile of medical graduates to be representative of the population. In this article, we explore progress and challenges with regard to transformation, defined as intentional and planned changes aimed at addressing historical disadvantages, in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. A cross-sectional, descriptive analysis was conducted using data on medical school admissions and graduations from the Health and Education Departments for the period 1999-2011. Admission and graduation statistics of 1999, 2005, 2008, and 2011 were analysed according to race and gender. The results show that there has been progress in transforming the race and gender composition of medical students and graduates, in line with the transformation strategies of the South African government. In 1999, black African enrolments and graduates were conspicuously low in two of the three medical schools in the Gauteng province. By 2011, an almost six-fold increase in black African student enrolments was seen in one medical school that was previously designated as a white institution. In contrast, at the historically black medical school, whites only represented 0.40% of enrolments in 1999 and 7.4% in 2011. Since 1999, the number and proportion of female medical enrolments and graduates has also increased substantially. While there has been progress with redressing historical disparities and inequities in terms of race and gender, further efforts are needed to ensure that student intakes and graduations are in line with the South African

  4. Fauna and Geographical Distribution of Scorpions in Ilam Province, South Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifinia, Narges; Gowhari, Iman; Hoseiny-Rad, Manijeh; Aivazi, Ali Ashraf

    2017-06-01

    Scorpions' stings and their own mortalities place them among the most important health and medical problems. The dreadful features and especially their poisonous stings are considered a major cause of human stress and abhorrence/phobia. The current study aimed to study the scorpion fauna of Ilam Province, south western Iran in order to manage scorpionism related problems. In this field-laboratory investigation during March 2014 to February 2015, different parts of Ilam Province were surveyed. Nine sampling parts were selected based on geographical situation, scorpionism reports, weather, flora, and local data. Capturing scorpion was done employing a black light, and a long forceps from dusk to midnight. The collected scorpions were placed to 70% ethyl alcohol. All specimens were determined based on the valid taxonomic keys, furthermore their sexes were studied. Out of the 391 collected scorpions, 11 species were identified as follows: Hottentotta saulcyi , Mesobuthus eupeus , Compsobuthus matthiesseni , Razianus zarudnyi , Hemiscorpius lepturus , Androctonus crassicauda , Orthochirus iranus , Odontobuthus bidentatus , Buthacus macrocentrus , Scorpio maurus , and Polisius persicus . Eleven species of Buthidae, Scorpionidae and Hemiscorpiidae families from high risk areas were identified. Despite the low surface of the province, such different species reveals a diverse scorpion fauna that, in turn, shows good and suitable habits of scorpions, as considered by health staff.

  5. Introduction: seismology and earthquake engineering in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Reports the state-of-the-art in seismology and earthquake engineering that is being advanced in Central and South America. Provides basic information on seismological station locations in Latin America and some of the programmes in strong-motion seismology, as well as some of the organizations involved in these activities.-from Author

  6. Food habits of Northern Goshawks nesting in south central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Squires

    2000-01-01

    Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentiles) nesting in south central Wyoming consumed at least 33 species of prey; 14 were mammals and 19 were birds. Based on percent occurrence in regurgitated pellets, dominant (>10% frequency) prey species included: red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus; present in 50% of pellets), Northern Flicker (Colaptes auratus; 34...

  7. Estimation of runoff at Glen in the Free State Province of South Africai

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -arid areas. It requires reliable data including soil and rainfall characteristics. This paper aims to simulate runoff for each rainfall event on the Glen/Tukulu ecotope, in central South Africa, using annual runoff data measured over 18 years (1937 ...

  8. Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in poultry products in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Y. Olobatoke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serotypes in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE broiler products in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 120 raw broiler samples, 40 samples of polonies and 20 samples of smoked viennas were obtained from retail points in major cities and towns in the province. Samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and later screened for the presence of NTS using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The average bacterial count in raw products was 3.1 x 105 cfu/g whereas bacterial contamination of RTE products was 1.8 x 103 cfu/g. The average recovery rate of NTS species from raw broiler products was 12.5% and the serotypes identified were S. typhimurium (46.4%, S. enteritidis (30.9% and S. newport (22.9%. No NTS was recovered from the RTE products. However, S. typhimurium was the predominant serotype in whole carcasses whereas S. enteritidis and S. newport were prevalent in chicken parts. Out of the 160 presumptive NTS isolates screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 140 (87.5% were confirmed for the presence of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. In addition, 115 (82.4% of the confirmed isolates harboured the plasmid spvC gene. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting of isolates using RAPD 1 and RAPD 3 primers, revealed some inter- and intra-serotype genetic diversity among isolates, suggesting varying sources of contamination. The results of this study represent the first report on the incidence and prevalent serotypes of NTS in chicken products in the North West Province of South Africa.

  9. Bronchial Anthracotic Change in South Khorasan Province (Iran, Emphasizing its Association with Tuberculosis

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    Sayyed Gholamreza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are many reports on the association between anthracosis and tuberculosis. This study focuses on bronchial anthracosis and associated diseases in the province of South Khorasan-Iran. Methods: This case-series study is performed on patients referred to the Vali-e-Asre Hospital (South Khorasan-Iran for bronchoscopic evaluations during the period of 2009-2012. Written informed consents were obtained prior to bronchoscopic evaluations. The criterion for diagnosis of bronchial anthracosis was black pigmentation on direct observation of bronchus. Bronchial anthracosis was classified into simple (without deformity or complicated (with deformity. Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB was diagnosed either by acid fast staining and culture of liquid samples, or histopathology examination of biopsy. Spirometry was performed to determine the obstructive or restrictive pattern. Results: Among 279 patients who underwent bronchoscopic evaluations, 89 patients, including 34 males (38.2% and 55 (61.79% females, were diagnosed with anthracosis. Simple and complicated anthracosis were observed in 42 (48.2% and 47 (52.8% cases respectively. Mean age of patients was 72.23±9.65 years. There were 43 (48.3% cases of tuberculosis (28 cases with complicated and 15 cases with simple anthracosis (P=0.021. Chest X-ray showed consolidation/infiltration, reticular/fibrotic, and mass/nodule/hilar prominence in 57 (64%, 26 (29.21% and 6 (6.74% cases, respectively. Bronchitis was reported in 42 (%59.15 out of 79 patients whose biopsy samples were taken. Spirometric patterns were obstructive, restrictive, upper airway obstruction, and normal in 45 (50.56%, 32 (35.95%, 2 (2.24%, and 10 (11.23% patients respectively. Conclusion: Tuberculosis is the most frequent disease associated with anthracosis in South Khorasan province. Consequently, patients with anthracosis must be carefully evaluated for tuberculosis.

  10. Factors influencing the retention of registered nurses in the Gauteng Province of South Africa

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    Kgaogelo E. Mokoka

    2011-12-01

    Objectives: Retention of registered nurses should be the focus of health-care planners to avoid crises in South Africa’s health-care services. This study attempted to identify factors that would influence registered nurses’ decisions to stay with their current employers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Methods: An exploratory descriptive quantitative design was adopted and questionnaires were sent to a sample of nurses, registered with the South African Nursing Council (SANC, with addresses in the Gauteng Province. A total of 108 nurses completed and returned questionnaires, of whom 77 (73.1% had considered leaving their current employers. Results: The most important factors that would influence more than 90.0% of these nurses’ decisions to stay with their current employers related to finances, safety and security, equipment and/or supplies, management, staff and patients. Conclusions: In terms of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory, deficiency needs (physiological, safety and social needs should be met by improved salaries revised on an annual basis, paying long-service and outstanding-service bonuses, and improving the safety and security, as well the available equipment and supplies, at institutions. Sufficient numbers of nurses should be employed and vacancies should be filled rapidly. However, not all changes required to enhance nurses’ retention rates involve increased costs. Managers should lead by example and respect nurses, and encourage doctors as well as patients to do so, to meet nurses’ self-esteem needs. Recognising and rewarding outstanding service would meet nurses’ self-actualisation needs, as well as opportunities to further their education.

  11. Using diaries to explore the work experiences of primary health care nursing managers in two South African provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascalia O. Munyewende

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is on the brink of another wave of major health system reforms that underscore the centrality of primary health care (PHC. Nursing managers will play a critical role in these reforms. Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the work experiences of PHC clinic nursing managers through the use of reflective diaries, a method hitherto under-utilised in health systems research in low- and middle-income countries. Design: During 2012, a sub-set of 22 PHC nursing managers was selected randomly from a larger nurses’ survey in two South African provinces. After informed consent, participants were requested to keep individual diaries for a period of 6 weeks, using a clear set of diary entry guidelines. Reminders consisted of weekly short message service reminders and telephone calls. Diary entries were analysed using thematic content analysis. A diary feedback meeting was held with all the participants to validate the findings. Results: Fifteen diaries were received, representing a 68% response rate. The majority of respondents (14/15 were female, each with between 5 and 15 years of nursing experience. Most participants made their diary entries at home. Diaries proved to be cathartic for individual nursing managers. Although inter-related and not mutually exclusive, the main themes that emerged from the diary analysis were health system deficiencies; human resource challenges; unsupportive management environment; leadership and governance; and the emotional impact of clinic management. Conclusions: Diaries are an innovative method of capturing the work experiences of managers at the PHC level, as they allow for confidentiality and anonymity, often not possible with other qualitative research methods. The expressed concerns of nursing managers must be addressed to ensure the success of South Africa's health sector reforms, particularly at the PHC level.

  12. Genetic diversity of Trichomonas vaginalis clinical isolates from Henan province in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Meng; Liu, Hui Li

    2015-07-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellated protozoan parasite that infects the human urogenital tract, causing the most common non-viral, sexually transmitted disease worldwide. In this study, genetic variants of T. vaginalis were identified in Henan Province, China. Fragments of the small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) were amplified from 32 T. vaginalis isolates obtained from seven regions of Henan Province. Overall, 18 haplotypes were determined from the 18S rRNA sequences. Each sampled population and the total population displayed high haplotype diversity (Hd), accompanied by very low nucleotide diversity (Pi). In these molecular genetic variants, 91.58% genetic variation was derived from intra-regions. Phylogenetic analysis revealed no correlation between phylogeny and geographic distribution. Demographic analysis supported population expansion of T. vaginalis isolates from central China. Our findings showing moderate-to-high genetic variations in the 32 isolates of T. vaginalis provide useful knowledge for monitoring changes in parasite populations for the development of future control strategies.

  13. The determinant of household tourism expenditure in Central Java Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Respatiwulan; Hakim, A. R.; Handajani, S. S.; Hakim, I. M.

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of our paper want to determine the factors of household tourism expenditure in Central Java Province, Indonesia. This paper used ordinary least squares regression. The findings from this paper, (1) the significant factors that affecting household tourism expenditure are marital status, sex, household income per capita, education for head of household, education for member of household, number of household, urbanrural, and industrial origin for head of household; (2) For variables which have positive relationship with household tourism expenditure, the variable of marital status has a biggest value from others; and (3) For variables which have negative relationship with household tourism expenditure, the variable of industrial origin for head household has a biggest value from others.

  14. Towards a successful centralization of municipal procurement: A case of KwaZulu-Natal province

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    Zwelihle Wiseman Nzuza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Centralization of municipal procurement in the KwaZulu-Natal Province is faced with several challenges. There were two aims for this study: to identify factors influencing municipal procurement and to design a model of the factors influencing municipal procurement, in an attempt to improve the understanding of municipal procurement. The proposed model is based on sound theoretical frameworks like knowledge management theory and the application of theory and practice ethics as well as the secondary data. The study found that the biographic factors as well as internal and external factors have strong influences on the success or failure of municipal procurement. The significance of these factors formed the basis for a proposed model and is subject to further experiments by other scholars.

  15. A research on bread consumption of families living in the central district of Tokat province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep EKMEKCİ BAL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bread consumption statuses of families living in the central district of Tokat province were identified. Data were obtained from 272 consumers in November 2012. According to the findings, the amount of per capita bread consumption is 291.95 g which is lower than the national average consumption. The most frequently consumed bread type of families was loaf bread with 70.59%. Consumers were mainly purchased bread from supermarkets (80.51% and oven (25.37%. More than half of consumers think that the quality of bread sold in the market is insufficient. Several families cannot consume a significant portion of bread purchased during the day; they re-used some of the staled bread and wasted the rest of staled bread. Measures should be taken to prevent the waste of bread. The quality of the bread produced should be increased and a necessary care for hygiene should be taken during production and sales stages.

  16. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman YAVUZYILMAZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 41-50

  17. BURNOUT SYNDROME, JOB SATISFACTION LEVELS AND RELATED FACTORS IN CENTRAL TRABZON PROVINCE PRIMARY HEALTH CENTER WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Burnout manifests itself in individuals working in professions involving face-to-face contact with the public in depersonalization towards others, feelings of emotional exhaustion, and reduced feelings of personal achievement and adequacy. The objective in this study was to determine burnout and job satisfaction levels and related factors in primary health center personnel in the central part of the Turkish province of Trabzon. A total of 227 people working in central Trabzon province primary health centers participated in this cross-sectional study, a level of 90.4%. The Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to determine burnout level and the Job Satisfaction Inventory for job satisfaction. Burnout levels in health personnel were high among women (15.06±5.57, married individuals (14.80±5.65 and those dissatisfied with their working conditions (16.80±5.81; physicians (5.00±2.79, those without children (5.19±2.54, those whose spouses were not working (4.69±2.70 and smokers (4.71±3.29 had a high level of depersonalization; and married individuals were determined to have a low personal achievement level (10.24±4.14 (p=0.020, p=0.028, p=0.011, p=0.038, p=0.028, p=0.012 and p=0.010, respectively. In conclusion, gender, marital status, age, satisfaction with working conditions and income level were determined to be related to burnout and job satisfaction. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(1: 41-50

  18. A survey of brassica vegetable smallholder farmers in the Gauteng and Limpopo provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Mandiriza-Mukwirimba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A study was taken to investigate the types of brassica vegetables mostly grown by smallholder farmers in two provinces of South Africa. Thirty-one smallholder vegetable farmers in the Gauteng province and Waterberg district in the Limpopo province were surveyed. In addition, the study also sought to establish the common diseases, the management strategies used and problems encountered by the farmers. Farmers were interviewed using a questionnaire with closed and open–ended questions. The results indicated that the smallholder farmers mostly grew cabbage (93.6% as their main brassica crop followed by rape (41.2%. Thirty percent of farmers could not identify or name the predominant disease/s encountered in their fields. Major diseases encountered by farmers surveyed were an unknown disease/s (33.3%, black rot (26.7%, Alternaria leaf spot (6.7% and white rust (6.7%. Smallholder farmers have inadequate technical information available especially relating to crop diseases, their identification and control. Farmers encountered challenges with black rot disease especially on cabbage, rape and kale and the disease was a problem during winter and summer. Generally, the smallholder farmers used crop rotation (74.2% as a major practice to manage the diseases experienced. They rotated their brassica vegetables with other crops/vegetables like tomatoes, onions, beetroots and maize. Most of the farmers interviewed (61.3% did not use chemicals to control diseases, whereas 38.7% of them used chemicals. This was mostly because they lacked information and knowledge, high costs associated with use of chemical fungicides and some were shifting towards organic farming. From the study it was noted that there was a need for technical support to improve farmers’ knowledge on disease identification and control within the surveyed areas.

  19. 137Cs Dan 90Sr Concentration In Several Vegetables From Lahat South Sumatra Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emlinarti; Tutik-Indiyati

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in several vegetables, i.e beans, green peas, spinachs, gourd, nightshade, cabbages, carrots and potatoes, collected from Lahat. South Sumatra had been carried out. Analysis radiochemically were carried out, 137 Cs precipitated with ammmoniumphosphomolybdate. The samples were measured using the gamma spectrometer with the high purity germanium detector (HP-Ge). 90 Sr precipitated with fuming HNO 3 and measured using alpha/beta Low Background Counter system (LBC). Concentration of 137 Cs in the samples were varied from undetectable to (0.041 ± 0.015) Bq/kg and concentration of 90 Sr were varied from undetectable to (0.049 ± 0.017) Bq/kg. Compared with similar foodstuffs collected from several places in Lampung province, these results are relatively not different. (author)

  20. Determination Of 137Cs Content In The Soil At Several Places In South Sumatra Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emlinarti; Buchari

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 137 Cs in the soil samples have been conducted at several places in south Sumatera Province such as Palembang, Kayu Agung, Prabumulih, Muara Enim, Lahat, Lubuk Linggau, and Sekayu. The samples were collected from the different depth, i.e. 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm from the surface. Measurement of 137 Cs was done by using the gamma spectrometer with the HP-Ge detector. The results of measurement showed that the 137 Cs concentration was within the range of undetectable to (1.99 ± 0.36) Bq/kg with an average value of (1.64 ± 0.35) Bq/kg for the depth of 0-5 cm and within the range of undectable to (1.50 ± 0.33) Bq/kg with an average value of (0.91 ± 0.30) Bq/kg for the depth of 5-20 cm. (author)

  1. Impact of Coal Sales on Revenue Sharing Fund And Environment in The South Sumatra Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fettymia Fettymia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal prices between 2006-2015 trend was fluctuate but tend to decrease every year and affect regional income, especially South Sumatra Province. Coal prices fluctuation are influenced by several factors, the decline of world oil prices, coal production surplus, and China imports restriction. Coal mining industry also give a direct impact to the environment especially effect to work environment for the company workers and the people environment around mining. The coal mining company absorbs local labor so as to increase local revenues from individual income taxes. This research use quantitative approach using Ordinary Least Square (OLS analytical method with E-views 7 software. Multiple linier regression technique also applied. The Secondary data is time series of 2006 - 2015. The results presented in form of tables, images and narration. From this research can be drawn conclusion that price fluctuations have no effect on regional income, but production sold has an effect on regional income.

  2. Radical scavenging activity of selected medicinal plants from Limpopo province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauke, A M; Shai, L J; Mphahlele, P M; Mogale, M A

    2012-01-01

    Plants collected from Limpopo province of South Africa were investigated for their antioxidative potential using the DPPH radical scavenging assay. Acetone extracts of Flueggea virosa had the highest antioxidant activity with an IC₅₀ value of 30 µg/ml, closely matching the ascorbic acid with an IC₅₀ value of 25 µg/ml. The lowest antioxidant readings were observed with extracts of Rhynchosia venulosa (root extract) and Ficus ingens (leaf extract). Acetone extract of Bridelia virosa leaves had the highest phenolic content (156 mg GAE/g extract), while the lowest content was recorded for R. venulosa root extract and leaf extract of F. ingens (8.3 and 17.7 mg GAE/g extract, respectively). There was a linear correlation between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Extracts with high phenolic content had low IC₅₀ values, while extracts with low phenolic concentrations had high IC₅₀ values.

  3. Crisis of decolonising education: Curriculum implementation in Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu E. Musitha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus amongst social scientists and public administration practitioners about the importance of decolonising the education system in Africa and South Africa. Decolonising the education system is viewed as a catalyst to create human capital that will promote economic development to end the scourge of poverty. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation of Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS as a tool of decolonising from 2014 to 2016. This is a qualitative and descriptive study based on literature, and key informant interviews (KIIs were used to gather data. This study has, however, found that implementation of CAPS in Limpopo Province is in a state of crisis. While there are many factors that contribute to this crisis, non-delivery of textbooks to schools remains a crucial factor. Civil society and media have been found to be key in playing oversight role in forcing the state to be accountable by taking it to court to deliver textbooks. However, this study recommends that Vhembe district should be used as a model for the province for effective implementation of CAPS.

  4. Rabies in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - where are we going wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J. Van Sittert

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a growing problem in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. This study investigated dog ecology, vaccination coverage and rabies neutralising antibody levels in 203 randomly selected dogs within a local municipality in the former Transkei area. Responses to vaccination were also evaluated in 80 of these dogs. The population was remarkably uniform in size, breed and condition. Slightly over 1/5th of the population was between 6 weeks and 1 year of age, while very few dogs reached 10 years or older. According to owner responses, the Animal Health Technicians achieved a total vaccination coverage of 65 % of owned dogs over several years, but only 56 % within the previous 12 months. Only 32%of dogs had adequate circulating rabies virus neutralisation antibodies (≥0.5IU/ℓ. After vaccination, 83 % had seroconverted to this level. The magnitude of seroconversion was independent of body condition or age. This study proposes a different approach to vaccination strategies than those currently employed in certain areas of the province.

  5. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  6. Concepts and treatment for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the northern province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, K; Khoza, L B; Lekhuleni, M E; Madu, S N; Cherian, V I; Cherian, L

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers in the Northern Province in South Africa. The sample consisted of 50 traditional healers (13 females and 37 males) and 50 faith healers (12 females and 38 males). They were interviewed on local terminology, clinical manifestations, causes, curability, and treatment for diabetes, help-seeking behaviour of diabetes patients, and the healers' sources of information about diabetes. Results indicate that all healers were familiar with "diabetes", however, not all of them had seen patients suffering from diabetes. The perceived causes of diabetes by both traditional and faith healers could be divided into (1) diet (especially too much of sugar), (2) heredity, (3) supernatural, and (4) psychological causes. Most traditional healers (92%) and faith healers (90%) indicated that diabetes is curable. Treatments used by the healers in this study included the use of prayer, diet, and herbs. The authors conclude that the concepts and treatment modalities for diabetes among traditional and faith healers should be taken note of by health workers while developing health education programmes in the Province.

  7. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Thoovakkunon Moorkoth; Berkvens, Dirk; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Nöstlinger, Christiana; Colebunders, Robert; Williams, Brian Gerard; Speybroeck, Niko

    2012-05-28

    This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT) were used for analysing two response variables 'ever used condom' and 'ever refused condom'. Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by 'knowledge of correct use of condom', condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. 'Perceived need' for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one's HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms). In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need for condom-use and improving skills for correct use. They should also incorporate

  8. The Challenges Faced by Informal Traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kole Legodi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Informal trade has grown at an alarming rate in South Africa because of lack of employment opportunities in both the private and public sectors. This has resulted in many unemployed members of the population joining the informal business sector. The majority of people in this sector do not have skills that are needed in the formal employment sector, others are semi-literate and a small percentage has some level of qualification. Nevertheless, this sector is plagued by a number of challenges which this article presents.  The article reports on the study that was conducted at Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province. The aim of the study was to investigate the challenges that were faced by informal traders in Greater Letaba Municipality in Limpopo Province in South Africa. The area was chosen because of its accessibility to the researchers and its potential to provide relevant and accurate information for the research project. Thus, a qualitative research method was used to collect data through face to face interviews. The research discovered that some of the challenges experienced by the informal traders in the area ranged from lack of support from the local municipality to structural challenges like lack of ablution facilities and limited access to electricity. Furthermore, other challenges concerned safety and health issues that were also gender based. Most of the traders in the area were women; an element which attest to the fact that it is difficult to find employment in the country when one is less educated and is also a woman.

  9. Effect of impervious surface area and vegetation changes on mean surface temperature over Tshwane metropolis, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adeyemi, A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Tshwane Metropolis, Gauteng Province, South Africa, continues to experience rapid urbanization as a result of population growth. This has led to the conversion of natural lands into large man-made landscapes i.e., increase in impervious surfaces...

  10. Regional flood frequency analysis in the KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, using the index-flood method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rødding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    A regional frequency analysis of annual maximum series (AMS) of flood flows from relatively unregulated rivers in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa has been conducted, including identification of homogeneous regions and suitable regional frequency distributions for the regions. The study...

  11. Modeling the Complexities of Water and Hygiene in Limpopo Province South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J. E.; Smith, J. A.; Learmonth, G.; Netshandama, V.; Dillingham, R.

    2012-12-01

    Access to sustainable water and sanitation services is one of the biggest challenges the developing world faces as an increasing number of people inhabit those areas. Inadequate access to water and sanitation infrastructure often leads children to drink poor quality water which can result in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Repeated episodes of ECD can cause serious problems such as growth stunting, cognitive impairment, and even death. Although researchers have long studied the connection between poor access to water and hygiene facilities and ECD, most studies have relied on intervention-control methods to study the effects of singular interventions. Such studies are time-consuming, costly, and fail to acknowledge that the causes and prevention strategies for ECD are numerous and complex. An alternate approach is to think of a community as a complex system in which the engineered, natural and social environments interact in ways that are not easily predicted. Such complex systems have no central or coordinating mechanism and may exhibit emergent behavior which can be counterintuitive and lead to valuable insights. The goal of this research is to develop a robust, quantitative understanding of the complex pathogen transmission chain that leads to ECD. To realize this goal, we have developed an Agent-Based Model (ABM) which simulates individual community member behavior. We have validated this transdisciplinary model with four years of field data from a community in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Our model incorporates data such as household water source preferences, collection habits, household- and source-water quality, water-source reliability and biological regrowth. Our outcome measures are household water quality, ECD incidences, and child growth stunting. This technique allows us to test hypotheses on the computer. Future researchers can implement promising interventions with our partner institution, the University of Venda, and the model can be refined as

  12. Late Palaeozoic magmatism in the northern New England Orogen - evidence from U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Yarrol and Connors provinces, central Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withnall, I.W.; Hutton, L.J.; Hayward, M.A.; Blake, P.; Fanning, C.M.; Burch, G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: The northern part of the New England Orogen in central Queensland has been divided into three provinces, which are from east to west, the Wandilla, Yarrol and Connors Provinces. Previous workers suggested that the provinces are elements in an Early Carboniferous west-dipping subduction system with the Wandilla Province representing the accretionary wedge, the Yarrol Province a forearc basin and the Connors Province the volcanic arc. Farther west, a fourth province, the Drummond Basin, is interpreted as a back-arc basin. The Connors Province crops out in two areas, the Auburn Arch in the south and Connors Arch in the north. Prior to the present study, some workers recognised two superimposed volcanic arcs, one in the Late Devonian and a second in the Early Permian. Other workers have challenged this model suggesting that the rocks in the Connors Province were mainly Late Carboniferous to Early Permian and that they recorded a period of continental extension. U-Pb SHRIMP dating in the Connors Province has confirmed the existence of at least episodic Early Carboniferous magmatism from the Tournaisian to Namurian in both the Auburn and Connors Arches. We suggest that the Tournaisian rocks are vestiges of the Early Carboniferous volcanic arc suggested by earlier workers. Ages of ∼350Ma and ∼349Ma in the Connors Province are similar to ages for volcanics in Cycle 1 in the Drummond Basin and to volcanics in the lower part of the Rockhampton Group in the Yarrol Province. Magmatism in the Drummond Basin and Yarrol Province continued into the Visean although no early Visean rocks have yet been recognised in the Connors Province. The mid-Carboniferous (late Visean) may represent an important change in the evolution of the region. East of the Auburn Arch, in the Yarrol Province, this time corresponds to the boundary between the Rockhampton Group and Lorray Formation, and is marked by a sudden increase in regional radiometric response. It represents the start of

  13. ANALYSIS OF DEVELOPING BATIK INDUSTRY CLUSTER IN BAKARAN VILLAGE CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanto Hermanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available SMEs grow in a cluster in a certain geographical area. The entrepreneurs grow and thrive through the business cluster. Central Java Province has a lot of business clusters in improving the regional economy, one of which is batik industry cluster. Pati Regency is one of regencies / city in Central Java that has the lowest turnover. Batik industy cluster in Pati develops quite well, which can be seen from the increasing number of batik industry incorporated in the cluster. This research examines the strategy of developing the batik industry cluster in Pati Regency. The purpose of this research is to determine the proper strategy for developing the batik industry clusters in Pati. The method of research is quantitative. The analysis tool of this research is the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats (SWOT analysis. The result of SWOT analysis in this research shows that the proper strategy for developing the batik industry cluster in Pati is optimizing the management of batik business cluster in Bakaran Village; the local government provides information of the facility of business capital loans; the utilization of labors from Bakaran Village while improving the quality of labors by training, and marketing the Bakaran batik to the broader markets while maintaining the quality of batik. Advice that can be given from this research is that the parties who have a role in batik industry cluster development in Bakaran Village, Pati Regency, such as the Local Government.

  14. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  15. Wives' Attitudes toward Gender Roles and Their Experience of Intimate Partner Violence by Husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C.; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of…

  16. The nutritional impact of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in Central Province, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Niemeijer, R.

    1980-01-01

    Abr. sum.: Contains an account of a study of the effects of the Pre-School Health Programme at three clinics in different ecological zones in Central Province, Kenya. Two groups of mothers were selected for interviewing: recent entrants and longtime participants. The study concentrates on the

  17. Epidemiological Study on Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in an Endemic Area, of Qom Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abedin Saghafipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is one of the most important health problems in many areas of Iran. There are two forms of the disease in Iran, anthroponotic and zoonotic CL. This study conducted to assess the epi­demiological situation of CL in an endemic area of Qom Province, central Iran from Apr to Nov 2015.Methods: The sticky paper traps and aspirating tubes were used for collecting adult sand flies. Sherman traps and small insect nets were used to capture rodents and small mammals. Giemsa staining was used for preparing the ex­panded smear and followed by PCR for identifying the causative agent in human, vectors, and reservoirs. In this study, relative frequency of CL was also calculated.Results: Fourteen species of Phlebotomine sand flies were collected. Phlebotomus papatasi (61.74% was the pre­dominant species through the period of activity. Overall, 62 Meriones libycus, 8 Nesokia indica, 4 Mus musculus, 16 Allactaga elater and 2 Hemiechinus auritis were caught. PCR technique showed 6 out of 150 P. papatasi (2%, two out of 62 M. libycus (3.23% and all of suspected human's skin tissue samples (100% were infected with Leishmania major. The relative frequency of CL was 0.30%. Conclusion: This is the first detection of L. major within P. papatasi, M. libycus and human in Kahak District in Qom Province of Iran. Zoonotic cycle of CL exists in this area, L. major is the causative agent, P. papatasi is the main vector and M. libycus is the main reservoir of the disease. 

  18. An audit of the management of oesophageal stricture in children in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

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    Omar Moumin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the outcome of the endoscopic management of oesophageal strictures (OSs of varying aetiology in children in a tertiary centre. Methods. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all children aged <14 years at department of paediatric surgery who underwent endoscopic dilatation of OSs at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, between July 2002 to December 2010. Management status at 3 years after presentation was used to define outcome. Results. A total of 39 patients aged between 1 month and 13 years were reviewed, and 18 (46% were males. Thirty-six (92.3% were black South Africans, and 11 (28% were HIV-infected. Among the types of strictures, postoperative (35% and corrosive (30.8% OSs were more prevalent than HIV-related (20.5% OSs. The mean number of dilatations needed per patient was 7.3, and those patients with corrosive OSs needed more dilatation sessions (median (interquartile range than others (10 (5 - 14 v. 6.5 (5 - 10. Out of 287 attempted dilatations, oesophageal perforations occurred in 8 (2.8% cases. Mitomycin C was applied topically in 4 (10.3% patients, with excellent results. A good response to endoscopic treatment was seen in 27 (69% cases. The worst outcome was noted in HIV-infected patients. Conclusion. Endoscopic treatment of OSs in children yields good results and has a low rate of treatable complications. Patients should be treated on an individual basis, even if they have strictures of the same aetiology.

  19. Human resource development and antiretroviral treatment in Free State province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider Helen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In common with other developing countries, South Africa's public health system is characterised by human resource shortfalls. These are likely to be exacerbated by the escalating demand for HIV care and a large-scale antiretroviral therapy (ART programme. Focusing on professional nurses, the main front-line providers of primary health care in South Africa, we studied patterns of planning, recruitment, training and task allocation associated with an expanding ART programme in the districts of one province, the Free State. Methods Data collection included an audit of professional nurse posts created and filled following the introduction of the ART programme, repeated surveys of facilities providing ART over two years to assess the deployment of staff, and secondary data analysis of government personnel databases to track broader patterns of recruitment and training. Results Although a substantial number of new professional nurse posts were established for the ART programme in the Free State, nearly 80% of these posts were filled by nurses transferring from other programmes within the same facility or from facilities within the same district, rather than by new recruits. From the beginning, ART nurse posts tended to be graded at a senior level, and later, in an effort to recruit professional nurses for the ART programme, the majority (54.6% of nurses entering the programme were promoted to a senior level. The vacancy rate of nurse ART posts was significantly lower than that of other posts in the primary health care (PHC system (15.7% vs 37.1%. Nursing posts in urban ART facilities were more easily filled than those in rural areas, exacerbating existing imbalances. The shift of nurses into the ART programme was partially compensated for by the appointment of additional support staff, task shifting to community health workers, and a large investment in training of PHC workers. However, the use of less-trained, mid-level enrolled

  20. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pembakaran sampah di dalam rumah tanggadapat mempengaruhi berat badan bayi lahir rendah (BBLR. Pada tulisan ini disajikan pembakaran sampah di rumah tangga terhadap risiko BBLR.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data studi potong lintang Riskesdas 2013 di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Data yang dianalisis ialah data bayi berusia 0-11 bulan. Berat badan bayi waktu lahir berdasarkan catatan berat bayi saat lahir yang tercatat dalam kuesioner Riskesdas. Bayi dikategorikan BBLR jika berat badan waktu lahir kurang dari 2500 gram. Hasil: Di antara 281 bayi yang mempunyai catatan berat badan lahir terdapat 10,6% (23 bayi yang BBLR. Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan perilaku pengelolaan sampah dengan cara dibakar dibandingkan dengan selain dibakar mempunyai risiko 2,3 kali lipat mengalami BBLR (RRa=2,28; 95% CI=1,18-8,61. Kesimpulan: Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan sampah dibakar dibandingkan dengan tanpa sampah dibakar mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi BBLR di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Kata kunci: berat badan lahir rendah, pembakaran sampahAbstractBackground: The management of household waste by burning can affect the incidence of low birth weight (LBW. This paper aims to identify the burning of garbage at home and risk of low birth weight. Methods: This analysis used a part of Riskesdas 2013 data in the Central Sulawesi Province. Subjects analyzed were infants aged 0-11 months. Baby’s weight was based on the baby’s birth weightwhich was recorded in the questionnaire of Riskesdas. The infants were categorized as LBW, if the recorded birth weight was less than 2500 grams. Results: Out of 392 babies,  281 babies had recorded birth weightswhich could be proved by documentary evidence. The majority of babies were boys (50.9% and lived in rural areas (58.7%. The proportion of babies who had LBW was 10.6% (23 infants. The babies who were living in households with

  1. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  2. Staff and bed distribution in public sector mental health services in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Sukeri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Eastern Cape Province of South Africa is a resource-limited province with a fragmented mental health service.  Objective. To determine the current context of public sector mental health services in terms of staff and bed distribution, and how this corresponds to the population distribution in the province. Method. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, an audit questionnaire was submitted to all public sector mental health facilities. Norms and indicators were calculated at provincial and district level. This article investigates staff and bed distribution only. Results. Results demonstrated that within the province, only three of its seven districts have acute beds above the national baseline norm requirement of 13/100 000. The private mental health sector provides approximately double the number of medium- to long-stay beds available in the public sector. Only two regions have staff/population ratios above the baseline norm of 20/100 000. However, there are significant differences in this ratio among specific staff categories. There is an inequitable distribution of resources between the eastern and western regions of the province. When compared with the western regions, the eastern regions have poorer access to mental health facilities, human resources and non-governmental organisations.  Conclusion. Owing to the inequitable distribution of resources, the provincial authorities urgently need to develop an equitable model of service delivery. The province has to address the absence of a reliable mental health information system.

  3. Incidence of haematological malignancies, Eastern Cape Province; South Africa, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelofse, Diana; Truter, Ilse

    2018-04-01

    The incidence of haematological malignancies in Africa's rapidly urbanising populations is insufficiently explored. Reliable population-based cancer statistics, however, continues to be a scarce resource in Africa and tends to be urban biased with limited rural coverage. In addition, many haematological malignancies are regarded as rare cancers, a sub-group that often affects the young disproportionately and require advanced diagnostic services and facilities able to deliver costly sophisticated treatments. This study provides a first attempt to estimate the incidence of haematological malignancies among the Eastern Cape Province population of South Africa. Multiple public- and private sector data archives and resources were utilised to optimise the identification of incident cases, including clinical records; bone marrow; cytology; histology; flow cytometry and cytogenetic records. Crude incidence, age-and gender-standardised rates are presented and comparison made with existing national data and select data from other economically developed countries and global institutions. A total of 3603 incident cases were identified between 2004 and 2013. Mature lymphoid malignancies accounted for approximately 60% (n = 2153), myeloma/plasma cell neoplasms 13% (n = 465), acute leukaemia 17% (n = 596), chronic myeloid leukaemia 4% (n = 155) and other myeloproliferative neoplasms 6% (n = 234) when stratified according to conventional groups. Most subtypes increase with age, with male excess. Haematological malignancies in the Eastern Cape Province show disparities in gender and pathology-specific incidence patterns. The present study suggest that haematological malignancies are not uncommon in this region and the incidence rate of at least one rare subtype, APL, is comparable with some European populations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Climate Change on Children’s Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Adeboyejo Aina; Matamale, Lirvhuwani; Kharidza, Shonisani Danisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of climate change on children’s health, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Twenty one years climatic data were collected to analyse climatic conditions in the province. The study also employs 12 years hospital records of clinically diagnosed climate-related ailments among children under 13 years to examine the incidence, spatio-temporal, age and sex variations of the diseases. Regression analysis was employed to examine the relationships between climatic parameters and incidence of diseases and also to predict distribution of disease by 2050. The results show that the most prevalent diseases were diarrhea (42.4%), followed by respiratory infection (31.3%), asthma (6.6%) and malaria (6.5%). The incidence varied within city, with the high density areas recording the highest proportion (76.7%), followed by the medium (9.4%) and low (2.5%) density residential areas. The most tropical location, Mussina, had the highest incidence of the most prevalent disease, diarrhea, with 59.4%. Mortality rate was higher for males (54.2%). Analysis of 21 years of climatic data show that maximum temperature is positively correlated with years in four cities with r coefficients of 0.50; 0.56, 0.48 and 0.02, thereby indicating local warming. Similarly rainfall decreased over time in all the cities, with r ranging from −0.02 for Bela Bela to r = 0.18 for Makhado. Results of the regression analysis show that 37.9% of disease incidence is accounted for by the combined influence of temperature and rainfall. PMID:22690167

  5. Mobile LiDAR Measurement for Aerosol Investigation in South-Central Hebei, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    qin, kai; Wu, Lixin; Zheng, Yunhui; Wong Man, Sing; Wang, Runfeng; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Wang, Luyao; Bai, Yang; Rao, Lanlan

    2016-04-01

    With the rapid industrialization and urbanization in China during the last decades, the increasing anthropogenic pollutant emissions have significantly caused serious air pollution problems which are adversely influencing public health. Hebei is one of the most air polluted provinces in China. In January 2013, an extremely severe and persistent haze episode with record-breaking PM2.5 outbreak affecting hundreds of millions of people occurred over eastern and northern China. During that haze episode, 7 of the top 10 most polluted cities in China were located in the Hebei Province according to the report of China's Ministry of Environmental Protection. To investigate and the spatial difference and to characterize the vertical distribution of aerosol in different regions of south-central Hebei, mobile measurements were carried out using a mini micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MiniMPL) in March 2014. The mobile LiDAR kit consisting of a MiniMPL, a vibration reduction mount, a power inverter, a Windows surface tablet and a GPS receiver were mounted in a car watching though the sunroof opening. For comparison, a fixed measurement using a traditional micro pulse LiDAR system (model: MPL-4B) was conducted simultaneously in Shijiazhuang, the capital of Hebei Province. The equipped car was driven from downtown Shijiazhuang by way of suburban and rural area to downtown Cangzhou, Handan, and Baoding respectively at almost stable speed around 100Km per hour along different routes which counted in total more than 1000Km. The results can be summarized as: 1) the spatial distribution of total aerosol optical depth along the measurement routes in south-central Hebei was controlled by local terrain and population in general, with high values in downtown and suburban in the plain areas, and low values in rural areas along Taihang mountain to the west and Yan mountain to the north; 2) obviously high AODs were obtained at roads crossing points, inside densely populated area and nearby

  6. Recruitment and retention strategies for public sector optometrists in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasidh Ramson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In South Africa, there is a paucity of optometrists serving the needs of the larger public sector. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the most densely populated provinces and home to several of the poorest districts. Despite an optometry school in the province, and with a lack of compulsory community service for new graduates, more optometrists are needed to serve the public sector. While studies on the recruitment and retention of medical and allied health professionals have been conducted, limited evidence exists on work trends of public sector optometrists. Methods: A cross-sectional study design using both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods was used. All public sector optometrists and local district health co-ordinators in the province were contacted, with an 80% (41 out of 51 and 75% (9 out of 12 response rate, respectively. Questionnaires containing demographic, recruitment, retention and open-ended questions were distributed by post, fax and email and via an online survey to both groups. Telephonic interviews were also conducted using semi-structured techniques. Frequency distributions, Fisher’s exact test and odds ratios were used to statistically describe the demographic data, while qualitative responses were recorded and analysed for commonly occurring themes. Results: The present public sector optometry workforce comprises mainly young (73%, black (70%, women (66%. They chose to work in the public sector to ‘make a difference’ and were attracted by ‘good working hours’ and ‘job security’. Fifty-three percent of optometrists work in the public sector due to a study bursary, for which there was a statistically significant association for race (p = 0.01, gender (p = 0.05 and background origin (p = 0.05. To aid their retention in public service, improved salaries, career progression, recognition, improved management relations and improved instrumentation were ranked highest by these optometrists

  7. What is driving CO2 emissions in a typical manufacturing center of South China? The case of Jiangsu Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2011-01-01

    Investigating CO 2 emissions of China's manufacturing centers contributes to local and global CO 2 mitigation targets. This study considers Jiangsu Province as a representation of manufacturing centers in South China. Effects of material efficiency improvements, technology development, consumption structure changes and consumption volume growth in Jiangsu Province on its CO 2 emissions during 1997-2007 are investigated using structural decomposition analysis based on environmental input-output table. In order to reduce CO 2 emissions, Jiangsu Province should not only rely on material efficiency improvements and technology development, but also rely on consumption structure changes. For consumption structure changes in detail, Jiangsu Province should not only focus on fixed capital formation and urban residential consumption, but also focus on international and intranational imports and exports. For the implementation of material efficiency improvements and technology development, Jiangsu Province should focus on technology innovation and international technology transfer. For the implementation of consumption structure changes, Jiangsu Province should mainly focus on identified sectors for each separate final demand category: five sectors for urban residential consumption, three sectors for fixed capital formation, four sectors for international exports, five sectors for intranational exports, three sectors for international imports and four sectors for intranational imports. - Highlights: → Effects of four factors on Jiangsu Province's CO 2 emission changes are analyzed. → Key factors are identified for Jiangsu Province to achieve CO 2 mitigation targets. → Key areas for consumption structure changes are analyzed. → Technology innovation and technology transfer should be concerned. → Identified sectors for each final demand category should be concerned.

  8. Macrozoobenthos Community Structure In The Estuary of Donan River, Cilacap, Central Java Province, Indonesia

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    Taufik Fakih Hakiki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Estuary of Donan Riverwhich is adjacent to Segara Anakan Lagoon in Cilacap, Central Java Province (Indonesia has been used for a number of activities such asfishieries, agriculture, industry, harbor, and tourism activities.  The aim of this study is to analyze the ecosystem condition based on mazcrozoobenthos community structure. This study was conducted from Augustus 2015 to January 2016. Samples were collected monthly at five stations from the river close area to the ocean close area. The study was conducted to identify kinds of generaand densityof themacrozoobenthos, and analyze substrates and water quality.Data analysis was performed onabundance, diversity, evenness and dominance indexes.Based on the study, macrozoobenthos at the estuary of Donan River consists of three classes i.e Gastropod (12 genera, Bivalvia(9 genera, and Polychaeta (6 genera. Based on the sampling location, Gastropod and Bivalvia are the largest composition found at five stations. Based on the sampling location, the macrozoobenthos density, diversity index, evennes index,and dominance index can be inferred that the estuary of Donan River is classified to be moderately ecological polluted.

  9. The Study for Optimizing of the Electricity Power Supply in Central Java Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdinie, Sc S; Sudi-Ariyanto; Edi-Sartono; Suprapto; Nuryanti

    2004-01-01

    Electricity planning includes identification of electricity generation potential and problem where solution are being planned through the annual program. Due to correlation between electricity growth and economic growth, the sensitivity study for Central Java province has been done using three scenarios of annual electricity growth, i.e.: 6.7 %, 8 % and 10 % within the study period of 2003-2020. The tool used in this sensitivity study is WASP IV. From result the calculation gives total installed capacity in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 3960 MW, 5500 MW and 8620 MW respectively. Total produced energy in the end of study period for each electricity growth scenario are 32301 G Wh, 39619 G Wh and 54374 G Wh. For total fuel required. Coal still predominate in all scenarios, followed by HSD and Gas. According to this study, Nuclear power plant can be introduced in 2020 for scenario of 8 % growth and 2017 for that of 10 % growth. WASP is utilized for projecting electricity supply. (author)

  10. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  11. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Meshgi, B; Dehghan, M; Bokaie, S

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production. Methods During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Results Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80%) harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80%) followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%), Toxocara canis (22%), Mesocestoides lineatus (12%), Taenia multiceps (10%) and Dipylidium caninum (4%). The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1–3) except for that of E. granulosus (645). No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001) as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001). Conclusion Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths reported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes. PMID:22347264

  12. Imaging of karsts on buried carbonate platform in Central Luconia Province, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Fathiyah Jamaludin, Siti; Mubin, Mukhriz; Latiff, Abdul Halim Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Imaging of carbonate rocks in the subsurface through seismic method is always challenging due to its heterogeneity and fast velocity compared to the other rock types. Existence of karsts features on the carbonate rocks make it more complicated to interpret the reflectors. Utilization of modern interpretation software such as PETREL and GeoTeric® to image the karsts morphology make it possible to model the karst network within the buried carbonate platform used in this study. Using combination of different seismic attributes such as Variance, Conformance, Continuity, Amplitude, Frequency and Edge attributes, we are able to image the karsts features that are available in the proven gas-field in Central Luconia Province, Malaysia. The mentioned attributes are excellent in visualize and image the stratigraphic features based on the difference in their acoustic impedance as well as structural features, which include karst. 2D & 3D Karst Models were developed to give a better understanding on the characteristics of the identified karsts. From the models, it is found that the karsts are concentrated in the top part of the carbonate reservoir (epikarst) and the middle layer with some of them becomes extensive and create karst networks, either laterally or vertically. Most of the vertical network karst are related to the existence of faults that displaced all the horizons in the carbonate platform.

  13. Supracrustal suite of the Precambrian crystalline crust in the Ghor Province of Central Afghanistan

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    Gediminas Motuza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Proterozoic pre-Ediacaran metamorphic basement of the southern Tajik (North Afghanistan continental block and the adjacent Band-e-Bayan zone is exposed in the Ghor Province of Central Afghanistan. It is predominantly composed of the EW-striking supracrustal succession consisting of interbedded felsic schists and gneisses (metapsammites, amphibolites (metabasalts, calcite and dolomite marbles. The metamorphic facies changes from greenschist in the Band-e-Bayan zone to amphibolite facies in the Tajik block. The supracrustal rocks of the Band-e-Bayan zone and Tajik block possess common features suggesting that the former represents a tectonized part of the latter. The geochemical characteristics of metapsammites indicate derivation of the clastic material from a continental arc and, partly from a passive continental margin, whereas the composition of metabasalts suggests their possible formation in a continental rift basin. The tectonic setting of supracrustal unit could be interpreted as a back-arc type basin. We presume that the Tajik microcontinent split off the Gondwana supercontinent along an ancient rift zone during the late Paleozoic.

  14. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

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    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  15. Predictors of condom use and refusal among the population of Free State province in South Africa

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    Chandran Thoovakkunon

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the extent and predictors of condom use and condom refusal in the Free State province in South Africa. Methods Through a household survey conducted in the Free Sate province of South Africa, 5,837 adults were interviewed. Univariate and multivariate survey logistic regressions and classification trees (CT were used for analysing two response variables ‘ever used condom’ and ‘ever refused condom’. Results Eighty-three per cent of the respondents had ever used condoms, of which 38% always used them; 61% used them during the last sexual intercourse and 9% had ever refused to use them. The univariate logistic regression models and CT analysis indicated that a strong predictor of condom use was its perceived need. In the CT analysis, this variable was followed in importance by ‘knowledge of correct use of condom’, condom availability, young age, being single and higher education. ‘Perceived need’ for condoms did not remain significant in the multivariate analysis after controlling for other variables. The strongest predictor of condom refusal, as shown by the CT, was shame associated with condoms followed by the presence of sexual risk behaviour, knowing one’s HIV status, older age and lacking knowledge of condoms (i.e., ability to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy, availability, correct and consistent use and existence of female condoms. In the multivariate logistic regression, age was not significant for condom refusal while affordability and perceived need were additional significant variables. Conclusions The use of complementary modelling techniques such as CT in addition to logistic regressions adds to a better understanding of condom use and refusal. Further improvement in correct and consistent use of condoms will require targeted interventions. In addition to existing social marketing campaigns, tailored approaches should focus on establishing the perceived need

  16. The Determinant Factors of Creative Economy Craftsmen Sustainability in South Sulawesi Province

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    Helda Ibrahim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative economy craftsmen have big contribution to regional income and able to sustain in crisis. It can be seen on the average of Gross Domestic Product has employed 5.4 million in average for 2002-2009 with participation level of 5.8%. Therefore, a strategic sustainability is needed especially for the determinant factors of sustainability related to creative economy craftsmen. This research aims to observe the determinant factors of sustainability of creative economy craftsmen in Wajo and Bulukumba Regencies in South Sulawesi Province. Sample for the research was 215 creative economy craftsmen. Data collection is conducted on January to April 2012 consists of primary and secondary data. Research method was using prospective analysis to determine important factors to the sustainability of creative economy craftsmen that predict future alternatives. Result from Rap-UEK simulation for the composite of five dimensions showed a less sustainable status of 48.97%. Research results showed that there are six dominant or main factors in determining business sustainability of creative economy craftsmen, one place sale, coordination with the government and private sectors, capital source, increase in the product of creative economy business, business field and product development Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman

  17. Research evidence and policy: qualitative study in selected provinces in South Africa and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naude, Celeste E; Zani, Babalwa; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Wiysonge, Charles S; Dudley, Lillian; Kredo, Tamara; Garner, Paul; Young, Taryn

    2015-09-03

    . Policymaking is complicated, lengthy and mostly done at national level. Provinces/regions are tasked with implementation, with more room for adaptation in South Africa than in Cameroon. Research evidence plays a role in policy but does not drive it and is seen as mostly unavailable. Researchers need a thorough understanding of the policy process and environment, how the health system operates, as well as the priorities of policymakers. This can inform effective dialogue between researchers and policymakers, and contribute to enhancing use of research evidence in decision-making.

  18. Environmental implication of subaqueous lava flows from a continental Large Igneous Province: Examples from the Moroccan Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghilani, S.; Youbi, N.; Madeira, J.; Chellai, E. H.; López-Galindo, A.; Martins, L.; Mata, J.

    2017-03-01

    The Late Triassic-Early Jurassic volcanic sequence of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) of Morocco is classically subdivided into four stratigraphic units: the Lower, Middle, Upper and Recurrent Formations separated by intercalated sediments deposited during short hiatuses in volcanic activity. Although corresponding to a Large Igneous Province formed in continental environment, it contains subaqueous lava flows, including dominant pillowed flows but also occasional sheet flows. We present a study of the morphology, structure and morphometry of subaqueous lava flows from three sections located at the Marrakech High-Atlas (regions of Aït-Ourir, Jbel Imzar and Oued Lhar-Herissane), as well as an analysis of the sediments, in order to characterize them and to understand their environmental meaning. The analysis of clays by the diffraction method X-ray revealed the presence of illite, mica, phengite, céladonite, talc and small amounts of quartz, hematite, calcite and feldspar, as well as two pairs of interbedded irregular (chlorite Smectite/chlorite-Mica). Fibrous minerals such as sepiolite and palygorskite were not detected. The peperite of Herissane region (Central High Atlas) provided an excellent overview on the factors favoring the magma-sediment interaction. These are the products of a mixture of unconsolidated or poorly consolidated sediments, low permeability with a low viscosity magma. The attempt of dating palynology proved unfortunately without results.

  19. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy in South Australia: a case for 'centralized decentralization'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chen Gang; Khurana, Sanjeev; Couper, Richard; Ford, Andrew W D

    2015-11-01

    Recent follow-up studies have demonstrated significant improvement in overall survival as well as survival with native liver following geographic centralization of services to three centres in the UK. However, this model has not been replicated in countries with relatively low population density such as Australia and Canada. Retrospective evaluation of all patients born with biliary atresia (BA) in South Australia from 1989 to 2010 was performed. Thirty-one patients with BA were discovered. Two patients were excluded because the initial Kasai procedure (KP) was performed interstate. Outcome parameters measured were (i) clearance of jaundice (bilirubin of less than 20 μmol/L, by 6 months); (ii) survival with native liver; and (iii) overall survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted for both survival with native liver and overall survival. The incidence of BA in South Australia between 1989 and 2010 was 7.48 per 100,000 live births. Following KP, clearance of jaundice was achieved in 42.9% of patients. Five-year actuarial survival with native liver was 55.2%, and overall 5-year actuarial survival was 89.3%. The results of KP performed at Women's and Children's Hospital from 1989 to 2010 can be considered comparable with international benchmarks. Based on these results, we propose the creation of a 'centralized' pool of surgeons in Australia to help continue providing 'decentralized' care of BA. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  20. Agritourism activities in the Mopani District Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa: perceptions and opportunities

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    S L Myer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Farms in South Africa have to compete in a very hostile agricultural economic environment and it has become imperative for farmers to find new ways of generating additional income. Research undertaken in the Mopani District Municipality (MDM in the Limpopo Province of South Africa identified agritourism as a potential means to this end. The main aim of this primarily qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the perceptions and opportunities for agritourism in the study area. Data were mainly collected through interviews and questionnaires. Participants consisted of farmers and tourists, as well as owners of existing agritourism farms within the MDM. Five current active agritourism establishments were identified. Key fidnings revealed that agritourism is not being utilised to its full potential. Although perceptions of respondents towards agritourism are positive, marketing around it is insufficient and not all farmers are willing to host agritourism activities on their farms for various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through various reasons. However, the MDM is a tourist hub with many visitors passing through the area en route to the Kruger National Park. Therefore, the potential already exists to host agritourism activities that will benefit farmers in various ways. By developing farm trails, scheduling daily farm activities, using information brochures, forming networks with existing tourist establishments, encouraging the use of local and fresh produce and providing good roadside signage, farmers can gain increased exposure and recognition for what they do and opportunities for growth and development may be realised.  Keywords: Agritourism, farm tourism, alternative tourism, farm activities, tourism

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Barriers to Care in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, Kegan; van Rooyen, Kempie; Grobler, Christoffel; van Rooyen, Dalena; Andersson, Lena M C

    2015-08-01

    A range of barriers to seeking mental health care in low- and middle-income countries has been investigated. Little, however, is known of the barriers to care and help-seeking behavior among people with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in low- and middle-income countries. This was a population-based study including 977 people aged 18-40 years from the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa. Current PTSD was assessed by using a diagnostic questionnaire (Mini International Psychiatric Interview). An additional questionnaire captured socioeconomic and health-related data. The prevalence of current PTSD was 10.8%. Only 48.1% of people with current PTSD accessed health care services. Younger people aged 18 to 29 years were less likely to seek health care, OR = 0.36, 95% CI [0.15, 0.85]. People earning a salary or wage, OR = 2.91, 95% CI [1.26, 6.71]; and those with tuberculosis, OR = 11.63, 95% CI [1.42, 95.56], were more likely to seek health care. A range of barriers to seeking care were identified, the most striking being stigma and a lack of knowledge regarding the nature and treatment of mental illness. People with current PTSD may seek help for other health concerns and brief screening means those affected may be readily identified. Copyright © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of construction land expansion in a typical town of south Jiangsu Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Su, Hai-long; Wang, Jin-nian

    2011-03-01

    Choosing Xinzhuang Town in south Jiangsu Province as study area, and by using 1980, 1991, 2001, and 2009 high-resolution remote sensing images and GIS spatial analysis technology, an integrated expansion degree index model was established based on the existing indicators of construction land expansion, and the general and spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of construction land expansion in the Town in three time periods of 1980-2009 were quantitatively analyzed. In 1980-2009, with the acceleration of rural urbanization and industrialization, the area of construction land in the Town increased significantly by 19.24 km2, and especially in 2001-2009, the expanded area, expanded contribution rate, and expansion intensity reached the maximum. The construction land expansion had an obvious spatial differentiation characteristic. In 1980-1991, the newly increased construction land mainly concentrated in town area. After 1991, the focus of construction land gradually spread to the villages with developed industries. Most of the increased construction lands were converted from paddy field and dry land, accounting for 88.1% of the total increased area, while the contribution from other land types was relatively small.

  3. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  4. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: A case study of two hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%) > medical waste (30.32%) > sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60 kg per patient per day

  5. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

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    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  6. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramathuba, Dorah U

    2015-11-26

    Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities. This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10-12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12). The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80%) that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%). 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitary towels. Interventions are needed to increase girls' opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  7. Suicide Ideation in the South African Police Services in the Northwest Province

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    S. Rothmann

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The South African Police Service (SAPS shows relatively high numbers of suicide. However, little is known about the suicide ideation of members within the SAPS.The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between sense of coherence, job satisfaction and suicide ideation among police personnel. The study population consisted of 120 police personnel in the NorthWest Province. The results show that sense of coherence is related to suicide ideation in the case of white police members. Sense of coherence and satisfaction with independence, social status and supervision explained 55,30% of the variance in the suicide ideation scores of white police members. Opsomming ’n Relatiewe hoe getal selfmoorde kom in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens (SAPD voor. Min inligting oor die selfmoorddenk-beeldvorming van lede van die SAPD is egter bekend. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om te bepaal of daar ’n verband bestaan tussen koherensiesin en werkstevredenheid enersyds en selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming by polisiepersoneel andersyds. Die ondersoekgroep het bestaan 120 lede van die SAPD in die Noordwes-Provinsie. Die resultate toon aan dat koherensiesin by wit polisiebeamptes verband hou met selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming. Koherensiesin en ontevredenheid met onafhanklikheid, status en toesighouding het 55,30% variansie in die selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming van wit polisiepersoneel verklaar.

  8. Turning mirrors into windows: Knowledge transfer among indigenous healers in Limpopo province of South Africa

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    Jan R. Maluleka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge transfer is an unavoidable process when it comes to indigenous knowledge especially in Africa, the continent known for its oral tradition. Such knowledge is in danger of being obliterated as a result of a number of factors, including lack of interest from younger generations and low life expectancy whereby knowledgeable people die before transferring it to the next generation as it is mostly not documented.   Objectives: This qualitative study utilised hermeneutic phenomenology guided by the organisational knowledge conversion theory to investigate the transfer of indigenous knowledge by traditional healers in the Limpopo province of South Africa.   Method: The study utilised a snowball sampling technique to determine the population. Data collected through interviews with traditional healers were augmented with observations done on two healers who were in the middle of their training when this study was conducted, as well as an analysis of records held by some healers.   Results: The findings suggestthat knowledge of traditional healing is believed to be transferred to the chosen ones through dreams and visions. However, this knowledge seems to be transferred through mentorship and apprenticeship, as well as interactions with other healers.   Conclusion: It is concluded that transferring knowledge of traditional healing goes beyond just transference; it is embedded as a belief system in many African communities. An in-depth study on the development of a framework to integrate indigenous knowledge of traditional healers into mainstream health system is recommended.

  9. Social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Obrain T. Murire

    2017-07-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to examine social media adoption among lecturers at a traditional university in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Method: The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT framework was used as the theoretical foundation of the questionnaire that was distributed to 300 full-time staff members. A response rate of 39% was attained. Factor analysis was used to test the relationship between variables. Contribution: The study’s contribution is to the theoretical body of knowledge that affirms that the UTAUT framework is an appropriate tool to use to test adoption of social media at traditional universities. Conclusion: The findings indicated that academics are conversant with emerging technologies and could incorporate these technologies into academic settings with an aim to increase communication and interaction among lecturers and learners. The results revealed that performance expectancy, social influence, effort expectancy and behavioural intention have a positive influence on social media adoption and continued use by academics in teaching and learning at traditional university. The facilitating condition scale was not statistically significant, but must be considered by management in order to improve the adoption of social media among lecturers.

  10. The depositional and hydrogeologic environment of tertiary uranium deposits, South Texas uranium province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Uranium ore bodies of the South Texas Uranium Province occur within the most transmissive sand facies of coastal-plain fluvial and shore-zone depositional systems. Host strata range in age from Eocene through Miocene. Ore bodies formed at the fringes of epigenetic oxidation tongues near intrinsic organic debris or iron-disulfide mineral reductants. Mineralized Eocene units, which include the Carrizo and Whitsett Sandstones, subcropped beneath tuffaceous Oligocene through early Miocene coastal plain sediments. Roll-front mineralization occurred because of this direct hydrologic continuity between an aquifer and a uranium source. Most ore occurs within coarse, sand-rich, arid-region, bed-load fluvial systems of the Oligocene through Miocene Catahoula, Oakville, and Goliad Formations. Host sediments were syndepositionally oxidized and leached. Reductant consists predominantly of epigenetic pyrite precipitated from deep, sulfide-rich thermobaric waters introduced into the shallow aquifers along fault zones. Mineralization fronts are commonly entombed within reduced ground. Modern ground waters are locally oxidizing and redistributing some ore but appear incapable of forming new mineralization fronts. (author)

  11. A conceptual framework for cost management training in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Karien; Mothiba, Tebogo Maria

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the perceptions of nurse managers about their dual role in nursing units as cost centres. The tertiary hospital in the Limpopo province is the first institution to appoint nurse managers with a dual role in cost centres. The development of a conceptual framework for a context-specific programme for Cost Centre Managers is the first of its nature in South Africa. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design was followed. The target population included nurse managers (n = 35) formally appointed as cost centre managers with a dual role of delivering quality care and cost management. A focus group and individual interviews were conducted until data saturation occurred. Personal and professional distress, an empowering potential of being a cost centre manager, and the need for decentralized cost centre management were indicated as barriers for nurse managers that led to a framework for a context-specific training programme. There is a need for a context-specific training programme for cost centre managers in a hospital with cost centres. The training of cost centre managers for their dual role in cost centres could enhance cost effectiveness, quality care and staff satisfaction. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Knowledge and practice of condom use in an urban adult community sample of the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a paucity of data concerning condom use, especially regarding knowledge about the correct use of condoms in South Africa. Therefore, the aim of the study is to investigate knowledge and sexual practices with reference to correct use of condoms among an urban adult community in the Northern Province. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  13. Barriers and Incentives to Potential Adoption of Biofuels Crops by Smallholder Farmers in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge; Mushunje, Abbyssinia; Taruvinga, Amon

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to identify barriers and incentives that influence the potential adoption of biofuel crops by smallholder farmers. The study utilized a semi-structured questionnaire to record responses from 129 smallholder farmers that were identified through a snowballing sampling technique. The respondents were from the Oliver Tambo and Chris Hani District Municipalities in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A Heckman two-step model was applied to analyze the dat...

  14. Exploring the Factors Driving Seasonal Farmland Abandonment: A Case Study at the Regional Level in Hunan Province, Central China

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Zhonglei; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Hua; Liang, Jinshe

    2017-01-01

    Farmland abandonment, including perennial and seasonal abandonment, is an important process of land use change that matters most to food security. Although there is a great deal of studies on farmland abandonment, seasonal abandonment, which is as serious as perennial abandonment, has attracted little academic attention. This paper takes Hunan Province in central China as its study area and uses a spatial regression model to examine the driving factors of seasonal farmland abandonment at the ...

  15. Community response to construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Xia, Bo; Cui, Caiyun; Skitmore, Martin

    2017-11-01

    As a common source of environmental noise in China and many developing countries worldwide, construction work provokes many complaints and deterioration in acoustic climate quality. This paper describes research to obtain an improved understanding of people's community response to, and evaluation of, construction noise in three central cities of Zhejiang province, China. This involved carrying out a social survey using standard questionnaires developed by the International Commission on Biological Effects of Noise (ICBEN). A dose-response relationship model is established using a quadratic polynomial regression analysis based on construction noise exposure measurements from 40 construction sites in Hangzhou, Ningbo and Wenzhou. The results of the study indicate that the majority of people have a negative attitude to construction noise; the noise ranges between 60 dB and 80 dB (compared with 50 dB-70 dB traffic noise in Tianjin), with the percentage of highly annoyed people affected increasing from 15%-20% to 30%-40% over the range. There also different levels of annoyance depending on the time of day, and the location and activities of those affected. Other cultural differences are also apparent both between Ningbo/Wenzhou and the more urbane citizens of Hangzhou, and the Chinese people and their more noise-tolerant EU and Vietnam counterparts. The findings of this study provide a new perspective for the study of construction noise that can help local governments have an improved understanding of how residents react to construction noise for the purpose of selecting construction noise-mitigation projects and introducing construction noise-control regulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Seroepidemiological prevalence of brucellosis in livestock breeders of the central rural area of Bushehr province 2003-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoon Vahdat

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is the most important zoonotic disease. As Brucellosis is endemic in Iran, this study was designed to evaluate seroepidemiological prevalence of brucellosis in livestock breeders of the central rural area of Bushehr province in 2003-2004. Methods: Sera of 397 livestock breeders from the central rural area of Bushehr province were collected and tested for anti-brucella IgG antibody using ELISA method. Results: The prevalence of brucellosis in livestock breeders was 10.8%. Brucella seropositively was found to have a significant association with sheep contact and abortion in domestic animals (p<0.05 but anti-brucella Ig antibody positivity had not a significant association with sex, age, contact with cattle, goats and camel, keeping livestock at home, consumption of milk products and raw milk, history of brucellosis in person and/or family and nonspecific signs such as fever, myalgia, low back pain and artheralgia. Conclusion: The prevalence of brucellosis is high in the central rural area of Bushehr province. The prevalence was much higher among livestock breeders in contact with sheep and also in those who had abortion in their domestic animals.

  17. Impact of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolotutu, A. D.; Djirimu, M. A.; Lutfi, M.; Anggadini, F.

    2018-05-01

    Research was conducted in several districts/city in Central Sulawesi Province in order to determine the effect of life expectancy, literacy rate, opened unemployment rate, and gross domestic regional income per capita on poverty at the districts/city in the province. The analysis used is Panel Data Regression. The results show that first, life expectancy and gross domestic regional income have a negative and significant impact on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province. Second, the opened unemployment rate has a positive and significant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the province. Third, literacy rates show a positive effect and insignificant effect on the poverty level in the districts/city in the Province of Central Sulawesi. Fourth, these four variables simultaneously affect the poverty in the districts/city in Central Sulawesi

  18. Barriers to utilization of postnatal care at village level in Klaten district, central Java Province, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probandari, Ari; Arcita, Akhda; Kothijah, Kothijah; Pamungkasari, Eti Poncorini

    2017-08-07

    Maternal health remains a persisting public health challenge in Indonesia. Postnatal complications, in particular, are considered as maternal health problems priority that should be addressed. Conducting adequate care for postnatal complications will improve the quality of life of mothers and babies. With the universal health coverage implementation, the Indonesian government provides free maternal and child health services close to clients at the village level, which include postnatal care. Our study aimed to explore barriers to utilization of postnatal care at the village level in Klaten district, Central Java Province, Indonesia. A qualitative study was conducted in March 2015 - June 2016 in Klaten district, Central Java, Indonesia. We selected a total of 19 study participants, including eight mothers with postnatal complications, six family members, and five village midwives for in-depth interviews. We conducted a content analysis technique on verbatim transcripts of the interviews using open code software. This study found three categories of barriers to postnatal care utilization in villages: mother and family members' health literacy on postnatal care, sociocultural beliefs and practices, and health service responses. Most mothers did not have adequate knowledge and skills regarding postnatal care that reflected how they lacked awareness and practice of postnatal care. Inter-generational norms and myths hindered mothers from utilizing postnatal care and from having adequate nutritional intake during the postnatal period. Mothers and family members conducted unsafe self-treatment to address perceived minor postnatal complication. Furthermore, social power from extended family influenced the postnatal care health literacy for mother and family members. Postnatal care in the village lacked patient-centered care practices. Additionally, midwives' workloads and capacities to conduct postnatal information, education and counseling were also issues. Despite the

  19. Inventory of geomorphosites with educational purposes in the Province of Málaga (South of Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.; Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Ferre-Bueno, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    The geomorphological landscape, as it was defined by Reynard (2004) can be considered a portion of the geomorphological context that is viewed, perceived, (and sometimes ex- ploited) by Man and, when perceived by humans and characterised by certain attributes, it may be considered a wider geomorphosite (Reynard and Panizza, 2005) or a complex of geomorphosites inside of which single geomorphosites can be individuated. Moreover, single geomorphosites belong to a landscape system that is dynamic, and thus the comprehension of a geomorphosite mechanism requires good observations, measurements and quantifications of processes (Reynard 2004). Since 1990s, interest on geomorphosite studies has increased, especially, due to their educational. The aim of this study is to present a complete inventory of the main geomorphosites that can be found in the Province of Málaga, with educational purposes. The Province of Málaga, located in the South of Spain, in the Mediterranean Coast but very close to the Atlantic Ocean, is characterised by a wide range of geomorphological landscape, with many different landforms and very dynamic land uses. The methodology follows that proposed by the Spanish Geological and Mining Institute (IGME, 2014). In total, more than 100-geomorphosites were recognised, inventoried and classified in order to achieve a better comprehension and improve the learning of high academic level students. References IGME, 2014. Documento metodológico para la elaboración del inventario español de lugares de interés geológico (IELIG). Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, Madrid, España, pp. 64. Pelfini, M., Bollati, I. 2014. Landforms and geomorphosites ongoing changes: concepts and implications for geoheritage promotion. Quaestiones Geographicae, 33-1: 131-143. Reynard E., 2004. Géotopes, géo(morpho)sites et paysag- es géomorphologiques. In: E. Reynard, J.P. Pralong (eds), Paysages géomorphologiques, Institut de géographie, Travaux et Recherches

  20. Geochemistry and tectonomagmatic setting of the Kharaju gabbroic intrusions (South Azarshahr, East Azerbaijan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolnaser Fazlnia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kharaju mafic intrusions (south Azarshahr; East Azarbaijan are gabbro in composition. The rocks with Eocene age intruded the northwest part of Urumieh -Dokhtar magmatic belt with a trend of NW-SE. These rocks contain mostly of minerals such as plagioclase, quartz, pyroxene, titanite, apatite and magnetite. The rocks are moderate to high calc-alkaline. The gabbros were produced as a result of the partial melting of mantle wedge with spinel lherzolite and after emplacement into the crustal magma chamber underwent fractional crystallization. Injection of the Kharaju intrusions is in relation to the last stages of Neotethys subduction activity under Central Iran. Negative anomaly in the high ionic strength elements (HFSE like, Nb, Ta, P, Hf and Zr and mild positive anomalies of Eu and Sr with moderate increases in values of K, Sr, Rb, Ba, Pb and U show oblique subduction beneath Central Iran might be willing to make the appropriate space on the edge of central Iran and as a result, partial melting in the mantle wedge occurred due to reduce the pressure as decompression.

  1. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, south central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tallman, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The purpose of this document is twofold: (1) summarize the NPH that are important to the design and evaluation of structures, systems, and components at the Hanford Site; (2) develop the appropriate natural phenomena loads for use in the implementation of DOE Order 5480.28. The supporting standards, DOE-STD-1020-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Design and Evaluation Criteria for Department of Energy Facilities (DOE 1994a); DOE-STD-1022-94, Natural Phenomena Hazards Site Characteristics Criteria (DOE 1994b); and DOE-STD-1023-95, Natural Phenomena Hazards Assessment Criteria (DOE 1995) are the basis for developing the NPH loads

  2. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  3. Sandy lower Gotherivian reservoirs in the south central Turkmeniya. [Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavyyev, N.Ch.; Nedirov, B.R.

    1982-01-01

    Composition and capacitance-filtering properties of sandy rocks of the early Gotherivian age developed on the fields of Karadzhaulak and Cirili within the northeast slope of the Predkopetdag marginal trough and on areas of Dengli Bakharadok of the Bakharadok monocline are studied. These rocks are viewed as analogs of the gas-bearing Shatlyk level of the Murgabskiy Basin. They can be considered the main potential source of hydrocarbons on the studied territory. In the upper part of the lower Gotherivian, a level of sandy rocks is traced. Rocks represented by small-and average-grained red and light grey differences in sandstones of polymictic composition. The porosity of the sandstones is 20-22%, permeability is 200-500 mdarcy. Not only a similar stratigraphic position of the described sandstones in the lower Gotherivian was found, but also lithological common nature of the rocks. In the south central Turkmeniya one can isolate age analogs of the Shatlyk level, the main productive level of southeast Turkmeniya. The thickness of the sandy beds is from 17 to 45 m. The sandstones of the Karadzhaulak area have the best capacitance-filtering properties. Post sedimentation changes depend on the quantity and composition of the cement, influence of formation waters, and possibly thermobaric conditions of rock formation. The presence of sandy rocks with high collector properties in the cross section of the lower Gotherivian deposits in south central Turkmeniya should be considered in determining the objects for further prospecting and exploration. The areas of Kumbet and Karadzhaulak are primary.

  4. The burden of oesophageal cancer in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Enrique; Sierra, Monica S; Musetti, Carina; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Oesophageal cancer shows marked geographic variations and is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. We described the burden of this malignancy in Central and South America. Regional and national level incidence data were obtained from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries. Mortality data were obtained from the WHO mortality database. Incidence of oesophageal cancer by histological subtype were available from high-quality population-based cancer registries. Males had higher incidence and mortality rates than females (male-to-female ratios: 2-6:1 and 2-5:1). In 2003-2007, the highest rates were in Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. Mortality rates followed the incidence patterns. Incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than adenocarcinoma (AC), except in females from Cuenca (Ecuador). SCC and AC incidence were higher in males than females, except in the Region of Antofagasta and Valdivia (Chile), Manizales (Colombia) and Cuenca (Ecuador). Incidence and mortality rates tended to decline in Argentina, Chile, Brazil (incidence) and Costa Rica from 1997 to 2008. The geographic variation and sex disparity in oesophageal cancer across Central and South America may reflect differences in the prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption which highlights the need to implement and/or strengthen tobacco and alcohol control policies. Maté consumption, obesity, diet and Helicobacter pylori infection may also explain the variation in oesophageal cancer rates but these relationships should be evaluated. Continuous monitoring of oesophageal cancer rates is necessary to provide the basis for cancer prevention and control in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Health-care utilization and associated factors in Gauteng province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera Abaerei, Admas; Ncayiyana, Jabulani; Levin, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    More than a billion people, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, are unable to access needed health-care services for a variety of reasons. Possible factors influencing health-care utilization include socio-demographic and economic factors such as age, sex, education, employment and income. However, different studies have showed mixed results. Moreover, there are limited studies on health-care utilization. This study aimed to determine health-care utilization and associated factors among all residents aged 18 or over in Gauteng province, South Africa. A cross-sectional study was conducted from data collected for a Quality of Life survey which was carried out by Gauteng City-Region Observatory in 2013. Simple random sampling was used to select participants. A total of 27,490 participants have been interviewed. Data were collected via a digital data collection instrument using an open source system called Formhub. Coarsened Exact Matching (CEM) was used to improve estimation of causal effects. Stepwise multiple logistic regression was employed to identify factors associated with health-care utilization. Around 95.7% reported usually utilizing health-care services while the other 4.3% reported not having sought health-care services of any type. Around 75% of participants reported reduced quality of public health services as a major reason not to visit them. Higher odds of reported health-care utilization were associated with being female (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.88-2.53; p immigrant (OR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.53-0.70; p < 0.001). The results indicated that there is a need to improve the quality of public health-care services and perception towards them as improved health-care quality increases the choice of health-care providers.

  6. Menstrual knowledge and practices of female adolescents in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although sexual issues are openly discussed in the media, sexuality and reproductive functions are treated as taboo. Menstruation is a normal physiologic process, but carries various meanings within cultures and is rarely discussed amongst families and communities.Purpose: This study sought to assess the knowledge and practices of secondary school girls towards menstruation in the Thulamela municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A quantitative descriptive study design was used and respondents were selected by means of convenience sampling from a population of secondary school girls. The sample consisted of 273 secondary school girls doing Grades 10–12. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data, which was analysed by computing frequencies and percentages using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 12. Findings: The findings revealed that respondents experienced menarche at 13 years and that menstruation is a monthly bleeding (80% that happens to every female; it is a sign of adulthood (91%. 15% reported that it is the removal of dirt from the stomach and abdomen, 67% indicated the source of menstruation being the uterus, 65% the vagina and 13% from the abdomen. 73% reported having fear and anxiety at the first experience of bleeding and that they could not maintain adequate hygienic practices due to a lack of privacy and sanitarytowels. Conclusion: Interventions are needed to increase girls’ opportunities to discuss menstruation and access information from adults including mothers, parents and guardians. School-based sexuality education should be comprehensive, begin early and be regularly repeated.

  7. Low-temperature thermochronology of the Mt Painter Province, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, M.M.; Kohn, B.P.; O'Sullivan, P.B.; Hartley, M.J.; University of Florida, FL

    2002-01-01

    Apatite fission track results are reported for 26 outcrop samples from the Mt Painter Inlier, Mt Babbage Inlier and adjacent Neoproterozoic rocks of the northwestern Curnamona Craton of South Australia. Forward modelling of the data indicates that the province experienced variable regional cooling from temperatures >110deg C during the Late Palaeozoic (Late Carboniferous to Early Permian). The timing of this cooling is similar to that previously reported from elsewhere in the Adelaide Fold Belt and the Curnamona Craton, suggesting that the entire region underwent extensive Late Palaeozoic cooling most likely related to the waning stages of the Alice Springs or Kanimblan Orogenies. Results from the Paralana Fault Zone indicate that the eastern margin of the Mt Painter Inlier experienced a second episode of cooling (∼40-60deg C) during the Paleocene to Eocene. The entire region also experienced significant cooling (less than ∼40deg C) during the Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene in response to unroofing and/or a decrease in geothermal gradient. Regional cooling/erosion during this time is supported by: geomorphological and geophysical evidence indicating Tertiary exhumation of at least 1 km; Eocene sedimentation initiated in basins adjacent to the Flinders and Mt Lofty Ranges sections of the Adelaide Fold Belt; and Late Cretaceous - Early Tertiary cooling previously reported from apatite fission track studies in the Willyama Inliers and the southern Adelaide Fold Belt. Late Cretaceous to Palaeogene cooling is probably related to a change in stress field propagated throughout the Australian Plate, and driven by the initiation of sea-floor spreading in the Tasman Sea in the Late Cretaceous and the Eocene global plate reorganisation. Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  8. Aedes Larval Habitats and Entomological Indices in 11 Regencies/Cities of South Sumatera Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    lasbudi pertama ambarita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever still becomes public health problems in Indonesia especially in South Sumatera Province with all of its regencies have infested with Aedes aegypti mosquito and dengue virus. This research aims to determine density larvae and its breeding habitats. The research located at 11 regencies/cities, where in every regencies/cities determined two clusters (village based on incidence rate in the last three years. Larval survey was done inside and outside areas of 1181 houses using Ministry of Health standard techniques. Larvae or pupa collected were reared into adults at Entomology Laboratory Loka Litbang P2B2 Baturaja for species identification. The survey found that the dengue vector indices for house index, breteau index, and container index were at range 22,6% - 60,6%, 26,4 – 154,1 and 8,0% - 36,2%  respectively. The most dominant water holding containers found infested with larvae or pupae were cement tanks (33,4%, followed by buckets (18,2% and drums (14,7%. Inside houses, larva found dominants in cement tanks (44,3%, buckets (19,5% and drums (13,9%, while outside of the house were used containers (20,7%, followed by drums (16,7%, buckets (15,0% and used tires (11,9%. Statistical analysis by chi-square test showed a significant relationship between infested of larvae/pupae with characteristic of  containers (colours, volume, location found and containers. Larval survey by health officer or cadre (community empowerment should carried out frequently and integrated into dengue vector control program.

  9. Assessment of learners' exposure to health education and promotion at school in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosin, Oni H; Tshitangano, Takalani G

    2016-06-30

    School participation and educational attainment among adolescents have been rising rapidly in the developing world. Thus, to attain Millennium Development Goal 6 (Combat HIV and/or AIDs, malaria and other diseases), it is crucial to seize the opportunity to educate and encourage teenagers about healthy choices and proper social behaviours that will continue into adulthood. This study aimed to assess the exposure of rural secondary school learners to health education and promotion at schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. This study was carried out at 10 secondary schools in Vhumbedzi educational circuit. The study adopted a cross-sectional quantitative approach. Data were collected from 338 randomly selected learners from 10 secondary schools that make up a rural Vhumbedzi circuit in the Limpopo province. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. The findings showed that, 102 (66.07%) male and 121 (67.60%) female learners reported that they were taught about physical changes that occur during adolescence. In the same vein, most of the participants (n = 128, 84.39%) and (n = 152, 85.39%) males and females respectively claimed to have been taught about sexually transmitted diseases. In this study the secondary schools in the Limpopo Province of South Africa are making efforts to uphold and expose their learners to health education and promotion at school.Keyword: Health education and promotion, adolescents, school, learners.

  10. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  11. Geographical distribution and profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntuli, Samuel T; Maboya, Edwin

    2017-09-27

    The shortage and unequal distribution of medical doctors in low- and middle-income countries continues to be a public health concern. To establish the geographical distribution and demographic profile of medical doctors in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. The PERSAL system was used to obtain information on the number of medical doctors employed in public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. Data were exported from PERSAL's database and then analysed using STATA version 9.0. The mean age of the 887 medical doctors was 40.1 ± 11.2 years (range 24-79 years). Sixty per cent of the doctors were male, 66% were aged ≤ 45 years and 84% were African. Most of the doctors (86%) were medical officers, of which 55% had < 5 years working experience. Overall, the doctor-to-population ratio for the five districts in the province was 16.4/100 000, with Capricorn (33.7/100 000) and Waterberg (20.2/100 000) recording the highest ratios. A large proportion (43%) of medical officers are employed in the Capricorn District, of which 71% were practising at the tertiary hospital. This study demonstrated a shortage and maldistribution of medical doctors in the public sector hospitals of the Limpopo Province. This has a potentially negative effect on the delivery of an appropriate and efficient healthcare service to the population and requires urgent attention.

  12. Xenophobic attacks on foreign shop owners and street vendors in Louis Trichardt Central Business District, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholofelo Mothibi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenophobic attacks in South Africa in 2008 and 2015 sent shockwaves through the country and the world. In these events, around 70 people were killed while thousands were displaced; and, property and products of street vendors and shop owners were destroyed. This phenomenological research project is confined to Louis Trichardt in Limpopo Province wherefrom a cohort of foreign street vendors and shop owners were interviewed. The lived experiences of being verbally and physically abused as well as of some acquaintances being killed, has clearly left them traumatised and living in fear. The article finds that contributory factors to xenophobic attacks experienced by foreign shop owners and street vendors range from competition over scarce resources, stereotypes and inter-group anxiety. Finally, it offers some recommendations about education for South Africans and measured police action.

  13. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water

  14. A Systems Dynamic Model for Drug Abuse and Drug-Related Crime in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Nyabadza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex problem of drug abuse and drug-related crimes in communities in the Western Cape province cannot be studied in isolation but through the system they are embedded in. In this paper, a theoretical model to evaluate the syndemic of substance abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape province of South Africa is constructed and explored. The dynamics of drug abuse and drug-related crimes within the Western Cape are simulated using STELLA software. The simulation results are consistent with the data from SACENDU and CrimeStats SA, highlighting the usefulness of such a model in designing and planning interventions to combat substance abuse and its related problems.

  15. Challenges Facing Managers in Managing Conflict in Schools in the South and South Central Regions of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morake, Nnior Machomi; Monobe, Ratau John; Dingwe, Stephonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the challenges facing managers in managing conflict in schools of South and South Central Regions of Botswana. In this study, the schedule of interview was used to collect empirical data. A random sample of 50 school managers and deputy school managers was selected for interviews. Major findings of the…

  16. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  17. Paleozoogeography of the Wine Mouse (Akodon oenos & Late Holocene Paleoenvironments in South-Central Mendoza, Argentina

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    Fernando Julián Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Cranial remains of the wine mouse (Akodon oenos are documented from an archaeological site in south-central Mendoza, Argentina (Agua de La Mula, 35º22' S, 68º15' W, which dates to the end of the late Holocene (1610 ± 60; 1260 ± 60; 1000 ± 50 C14 yr B.P.. The taxonomic status of this small rodent is currently being assessed, but these remains represent the first fossil record for the morphotaxon A. oenos. The species’ present distribution is restricted to a few records from Mendoza province. Analysis of the remains supports paleoenvironmental reconstruction using the small mammal assemblage recovered from this site. From the late Holocene into modernity temperature decreased and winter precipitation increased, resulting in advance of Patagonian steppe grading with altitude into Monte desert. Holocene climatic conditions may explain the relatively late human occupation of ecologically marginal environments in this region, which probably favored effective human occupation of the Payunia region at sites such as Agua de La Mula between 1600 and 1000 years B.P.

  18. CORRELATION BETWEEN SERVICE QUALITY AND PATIENT LOYALTY AT OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT IN SPECIALITY EYE HOSPITAL OF SOUTH SUMATERA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina Fitri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of hospitals in Indonesia, which is managed by the government and private demand to provide giving the level of care, professionalism and the maximum of competence to reflect the best quality of service. Quality gives special encouragement for company to understand customer expectations which in turn can increase customer satisfaction and create customer loyalty. The objective of the study is analyse correlation between service quality and patient loyalty Method: This study used a survey of analytical methods, with the cross-sectional approach. The samples in this study were patients who were treated in outpatient installation specialty eye hospital South Sumatera Province with total 102 people based on inclusion criteria. The Sampling was taken by proportions random sampling. The data analysis was performed in univariate and bivariate statistical fisher-exact test. The data were presented in p-value, prevalence ratio(PR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results: Generally 46.2% respondent who are loyal aged 41-64 years, 32.3% graduate from primary school and 80.6% have distance >5 KM from hospital. From the bivariate analyzes relating to patients loyalty in specialty eye hospital South Sumatera Province are access to services (95% CI 4.3 PR (1.293-14.300 and officer interaction with patients (95% CI 6.786 PR (2.140-21.515, whereas safety (95% CI PR 1.248(0.281-5.540, convenience (95% CI PR 4.136 (1.201-14.246 and waiting times (95% CI PR 1.951 (0.259-14.717 does not have a correlation with patient loyalty. Conclusion: The loyalty of patients in Specialty Eyes Hospital South Sumatera Province have been affected by access to services and officer interaction with the patient.

  19. Regional earthquake loss estimation in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Winter, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Beside storm events geophysical events cause a majority of natural hazard losses on a global scale. However, in alpine regions with a moderate earthquake risk potential like in the study area and thereupon connected consequences on the collective memory this source of risk is often neglected in contrast to gravitational and hydrological hazards processes. In this context, the comparative analysis of potential disasters and emergencies on a national level in Switzerland (Katarisk study) has shown that earthquakes are the most serious source of risk in general. In order to estimate the potential losses of earthquake events for different return periods and loss dimensions of extreme events the following study was conducted in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano - South Tyrol (Italy). The applied methodology follows the generally accepted risk concept based on the risk components hazard, elements at risk and vulnerability, whereby risk is not defined holistically (direct, indirect, tangible and intangible) but with the risk category losses on buildings and inventory as a general risk proxy. The hazard analysis is based on a regional macroseismic scenario approach. Thereby, the settlement centre of each community (116 communities) is defined as potential epicentre. For each epicentre four different epicentral scenarios (return periods of 98, 475, 975 and 2475 years) are calculated based on the simple but approved and generally accepted attenuation law according to Sponheuer (1960). The relevant input parameters to calculate the epicentral scenarios are (i) the macroseismic intensity and (ii) the focal depth. The considered macroseismic intensities are based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) of the Italian earthquake catalogue on a community level (Dipartimento della Protezione Civile). The relevant focal depth are considered as a mean within a defined buffer of the focal depths of the harmonized earthquake catalogues of Italy and Switzerland as well as

  20. INVASIVE ALIEN PLANT SPECIES USED FOR THE TREATMENT OF VARIOUS DISEASES IN LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maema, Lesibana Peter; Potgieter, Martin; Mahlo, Salome Mamokone

    2016-01-01

    Invasive alien plant species (IAPs) are plants that have migrated from one geographical region to non-native region either intentional or unintentional. The general view of IAPs in environment is regarded as destructive to the ecosystem and they pose threat to native vegetation and species. However, some of these IAPS are utilized by local inhabitants as a substitute for scarce indigenous plants. The aim of the study is to conduct ethnobotanical survey on medicinal usage of invasive plant species in Waterberg District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. An ethnobotanical survey on invasive plant species was conducted to distinguish species used for the treatment of various ailments in the Waterberg, District in the area dominated by Bapedi traditional healers. About thirty Bapedi traditional healers (30) were randomly selected via the snowball method. A guided field work by traditional healers and a semi-structured questionnaire was used to gather information from the traditional healers. The questionnaire was designed to gather information on the local name of plants, plant parts used and methods of preparation which is administered by the traditional healers. The study revealed that Schinus molle L., Catharanthus roseus (L.), Datura stramonium L., Opuntia stricta (Haw.) Haw., Opuntia ficus- indica, Sambucus canadensis L., Ricinus communis L., Melia azedarch L., Argemone ochroleuca and Eriobotrya japónica are used for treatment of various diseases such as chest complaint, blood purification, asthma, hypertension and infertility. The most plant parts that were used are 57.6% leaves, followed by 33.3% roots, and whole plant, seeds and bark at 3% each. Noticeably, most of these plants are cultivated (38%), followed by 28% that are common to the study area, 20% abundant, 12% wild, and 3% occasionally. Schinus molle is the most frequently used plant species for the treatment of various ailments in the study area. National Environmental Management Biodiversity Act (NEMBA

  1. [Epidemic research in the south of Fujian Province in modern times from the viewpoints of overseas communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nan; Zhang, Sun-Biao; Zeng, Yi-Ling

    2012-09-01

    Under the particular geographical environment and social structure, different spatiality of epidemics was observed in the south of Fujian Province. Some important factors cannot be ignored in the study of local epidemics, such as its developed overseas communication, prosperous commercial activities between the East and the West and deep-rooted overseas emigration tradition. In modern times, public health ideas, therapies and prevention measures of west medicine were introduced, taking epidemic disease prevention as a turning point in this area, which promoted medical development of this area objectively, and valuable experience in disease prevention was accumulated.

  2. Ostracods (Crustacea associated with microbialites across the Permian-Triassic boundary in Dajiang (Guizhou Province, South China

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    Marie-Beatrice FOREL

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available 26 samples were processed for a taxonomic study of ostracods from the Upper Permian (Changhsingian - Lower Triassic (Griesbachian interval of the Dajiang section, Guizhou Province, South China. 112 species belonging to 27 genera are recognized. Five new species are described: Acratia candyae sp. nov, Bairdia adelineae sp. nov., Bairdia? huberti sp. nov., Bairdia jeromei sp. nov., Orthobairdia jeanlouisi sp. nov. The unexpected survival faunas associated with microbial formations in the aftermath of the end-Permian extinction are documented for the first time. Ostracod biodiversity variations and palaeo-environmental modifications associated with microbial growth through the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB are discussed.

  3. Rare earth elements in the banded iron formation of the Griqualand West sequence, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, U.E.; Haelbich, I.W.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic banded iron-formations (BIF) of the Griqualand West sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup in the northern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated for their rare earth elements (REE) contents. Twenty three REE analyses were completed using an ICP-AES method. Despite diagenetic and metamorphic processes, it can be concluded from the so far available REE data that the conspicuous differences in REE patterns to those reported from elsewhere indicate the BIF of the Transvaal Supergroup to have originated in relative restricted parts or basins of the Precambrian ocean. 7 refs., 1 fig

  4. Hereditary angio-oedema in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coovadia, K M; Chothia, M-Y; Baker, S G; Peter, J G; Potter, P C

    2018-03-28

    Hereditary angio-oedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant condition caused by a deficiency in the C1-esterase inhibitor protein, resulting in increased bradykinin release. It presents clinically with recurrent attacks of angio-oedema, commonly affecting the limbs, face, upper airway and gastrointestinal tract. Little is known about this condition in sub-Saharan Africa. To analyse and report on the clinical presentation and treatment of patients with HAE in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. A retrospective analysis was conducted on a series of 60 cases of HAE seen between 2010 and 2015 at the Allergy Diagnostic and Clinical Research Unit, University of Cape Town Lung Institute, and the Allergy Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town. The findings in 43 cases of type 1 HAE are described. Parameters assessed included age, gender, age of diagnosis, duration of illness, family history, identifiable triggers, average duration of attack, number of attacks per year and type of attack. A total of 43 patients were included in this study. Of these, 65.1% (28/43) were female. The median age at diagnosis was 20 years (interquartile range (IQR) 10 - 27) and the median duration of illness 10.5 years (IQR 6 - 22). Of the patients, 62.8% (27/43), 32.6% (14/43) and 4.7% (2/43) were of mixed ancestry, white and black African, respectively; 51.2% (22/43) were index cases, with the remaining 48.8% (21/43) diagnoses via family member screening, 12 families making up the majority of the cohort. The mean (standard deviation) duration of an acute attack was 49 (25.8) hours, and 64.3% (27/42), 71.4% (30/42), 14.3% (6/42) and 88.1% (37/42) of patients experienced facial or upper airway, abdominal, external genitalia and limb attacks, respectively. Danazol for long-term prophylaxis was used in 21 patients, while C1-inhibitor concentrate (Berinert) was accessed for short-term prophylaxis in only four patients. Acute life-threating attacks were treated with fresh frozen plasma in 11

  5. Various origins of clinopyroxene megacrysts from basanites from the eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipa, Danuta; Puziewicz, Jacek; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Kukuła, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Clinopyroxene megacrysts up to few centimetres in size occur in Cenozoic alkaline lavas forming the north-eastern part of Central European Volcanic Province in Lower Silesia (SW Poland). The megacrysts occur, among other, in the Miocene basanite from Ostrzyca Proboszczowicka (bulk rock mg# 0.65-0.66) and in that from Lutynia (Pliocene, K-Ar age: 4.56 +/- 0.2 Ma; Birkenmajer et al. 2002; bulk rock mg# 0.64). The megacrysts typically consist of homogeneous core surrounded by patchy and spongy mantle, which is covered by a thin outermost rim of composition similar to that of the groundmass clinopyroxene occurring in the host basanite. The mantles of the megacrysts have been affected by melting, whereas the cores preserve their primary composition. We compare the core parts of megacrysts in the following. The Ostrzyca clinopyroxene megacrysts contain euhedral apatite intergrowths. The clinopyroxene has the composition of Fe-rich diopside (mg# = 0.61 - 0.70), contain significant sodium (to 0.12 a pfu) and are calcium rich (0.89-0.92 a pfu). The Lutynia megacrysts have the composition of augite and diopside (mg# 0.80-0.83). The sodium content is also high (to 0.12 a pfu), but calcium varies from 0.68 to 0.77 a pfu. The REE concentrations for Lutynia (1-10 x PM) are lower relative to Ostrzyca, enriched 10-100 times relative to PM. In both sites the megacrysts are strongly enriched in LREE relative to HREE and TE are characterized by positive Th, La and Ce anomalies, slight negative Sr and Y anomalies and strong Pb anomaly in the PM normalised patterns. The megacrysts from Ostrzyca reveal slight negative Ti and strong positive Zr and Hf anomalies, whereas those Lutynia have negative Zr anomaly and Ti anomaly is absent. Major and trace element composition shows that the megacrysts from Ostrzyca formed as coarse-grained cumulate at significant depth (lower crust?) from the LREE enriched alkaline melt. That melt was very rich in phosphorous which enabled its saturation in

  6. Assessment of relative active tectonics, south central Alborz (north Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khavari, R.; Ghorashi, M.; Arian, M.

    2009-04-01

    The paper present a method for evaluating relative active tectonics based on geomorphic indices useful in evaluating morphology and topography. Indices used include: stream length-gradient index (SL), drainage basin asymmetry (Af), hypsometric integral (Hi), ratio of valley-floor width to valley height (Vf), index of drainage basin shape (Bs), and index of mountain front sinuosity (Smf). Results from the analysis are accumulated and expressed as an index of relative active tectonics (Iat), which we divide into four classes from relatively low to highest tectonic activity. The study area along the south flank of the central Alborz mountain range in north Iran is an ideal location to test the concept of an index to predict relative tectonic activity on a basis of area rather than a single valley or mountain front. The recent investigations show that neotectonism has played a key role in the geomorphic evolution of this part of the Alborz mountain range. Geomorphic indices indicate the presence of differential uplifting in the geological past. The area surrounding the Amirkabir lake shows very high relative tectonic activity.

  7. Quaternary tectonic setting of South-Central coastal California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettis, William R.; Hanson, Kathryn L.; Unruh, Jeffrey R.; McLaren, Marcia; Savage, William U.; Keller, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent geodetic, geologic, and seismologic studies show that the south-central coast of California is a region of active Quaternary deformation. Northeast-directed crustal shortening is occurring in a triangular-shaped region between the Hosgri-San Simeon fault system on the west, the Southern Coast Ranges on the northeast, and the western Transverse Ranges on the south. We informally call this region the Los Osos domain. In this study, we conducted detailed geological, seismological, and geophysical investigations to characterize the nature and rates of deformation in the domain. Locations of active and potentially active faults and folds are compiled at a scale of 1:250,000 for the entire domain based primarily on onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Crustal shortening in the domain is accommodated by a series of prominent northwest-trending reverse faults and localized folding. The reverse faults separate distinct structural blocks that have little or no internal deformation. Hangingwall blocks are being uplifted at rates of up to 0.2 mm/yr. Footwall blocks are either static or slowly subsiding at rates of 0.1 mm/yr or less, except for localized areas of concentrated subsidence directly adjacent to some faults. The cumulative rate of crustal shortening is about 1 to 2 mm/yr across the northern part of the domain based on observed geologic deformation. Cumulative shortening across the central and southern parts of the domain is poorly constrained by geologic data and may approach 2 to 3 mm/yr. Historical and instrumental seismicity generally are spatially associated with the uplifted blocks and bordering reverse faults to depths of about 10 km. Together with near-surface geological data and deeper crustal geophysical imaging that show high-angle faulting, the seismicity data indicate that the reverse faults probably extend to the base of the seismogenic crust. The base of the seismogenic crust may correspond with a mid-crustal detachment or

  8. HIV-1 Genetic Diversity and Transmitted Drug Resistance Mutations among Patients from the North, Central and South Regions of Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Joana Morais; Bello, Gonzalo; Guimarães, Monick L.; Sojka, Marta; Morgado, Mariza G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Angola presents a very complex HIV-1 epidemic characterized by the co-circulation of several HIV-1 group M subtypes, intersubtype recombinants and unclassified (U) variants. The viral diversity outside the major metropolitan regions (Luanda and Cabinda) and the prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations (DRM) since the introduction of HAART in 2004, however, has been barely studied. Methods One hundred and one individuals from the Central (n = 44), North (n = 35), and South (n = 22) regions of Angola were diagnosed as HIV-1 positive and had their blood collected between 2008 and 2010, at one of the National Referral Centers for HIV diagnosis, the Kifangondo Medical Center, located in the border between the Luanda and Bengo provinces. Angolan samples were genotyped based on phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses of the pol (PR/RT) gene and their drug resistance profile was analyzed. Results Among the 101 samples analyzed, 51% clustered within a pure group M subtype, 42% were classified as intersubtype recombinants, and 7% were denoted as U. We observed an important variation in the prevalence of different HIV-1 genetic variants among country regions, with high frequency of subtype F1 in the North (20%), intersubtype recombinants in the Central (42%), and subtype C in the South (45%). Statistically significant difference in HIV-1 clade distribution was only observed in subtype C prevalence between North vs South (p = 0.0005) and Central vs South (p = 0.0012) regions. DRM to NRTI and/or NNRTI were detected in 16.3% of patients analyzed. Conclusions These results demonstrate a heterogeneous distribution of HIV-1 genetic variants across different regions in Angola and also revealed an unexpected high frequency of DRM to RT inhibitors in patients that have reported no antiretroviral usage, which may decrease the efficiency of the standard first-line antiretroviral regimens currently used in the country. PMID:22952625

  9. Prevalence of prenatal depression and associated factors among HIV-positive women in primary care in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Rodriguez, Violeta J; Jones, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to assess the prevalence of depressed symptoms and associated factors in prenatal HIV-positive women in primary care facilities in rural South Africa. In a cross-sectional study, 663 HIV-positive prenatal women in 12 community health centres in Mpumalanga province, South Africa, were recruited by systematic sampling (every consecutive patient after HIV post-test counselling). Results indicate that overall, 48.7% [95% CI: 44.8, 52.6] of women during the prenatal period reported depressed mood (scores of ≥ 13 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale 10). In multivariate analysis, not being employed, unplanned pregnancy, not having an HIV-positive child, poor antiretroviral therapy adherence, non-condom use at last sex, and intimate partner violence were associated with depressive symptoms. Potential risk factors among HIV-infected prenatal women were identified which could be utilized in interventions. Routine screening for depression may be integrated into prenatal care settings.

  10. Health care capacity and allocations among South Africa's provinces: infrastructure-inequality traps after the end of apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the determinants of health care funding allocations among South Africa's provinces and their effects on health care from 1996 through 2007. We performed multivariate regression of funding allocation data against measures of disease burden and health system infrastructure by province. Disease burden was increasingly negatively correlated with funding allocations and explained less than one quarter of the variation in allocations among provinces. Nearly three quarters of the variation in allocations was explained by preexisting hospital infrastructure and health care workers. The density of private hospitals in the preceding year was associated with greater government allocations (b(private) = 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.08, 0.15), but public hospital density in the preceding year was not (b(public) = 0.05; 95% CI = -0.02, 0.11). Greater allocations were associated with a higher number of doctors (b = 0.54; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.75) but fewer nurses (b = -0.37; 95% CI = -0.72,-0.25) in the same year. Regions with a greater capacity to spend funds received more funding and created more infrastructure than those with greater health needs. Historical infrastructure inequalities may have created an infrastructure-inequality trap, in which the distribution of funds to those with greater "absorptive capacity" exacerbates inequalities.

  11. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  12. Stomach cancer burden in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Monica S; Cueva, Patricia; Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Stomach cancer mortality rates in Central and South America (CSA) are among the highest in the world. We describe the current burden of stomach cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries (13 countries) and nation-wide cancer deaths from WHO's mortality database (18 countries). We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 and estimated annual percent change to describe time trends. Stomach cancer was among the 5 most frequently diagnosed cancers and a leading cause of cancer mortality. Between CSA countries, incidence varied by 6-fold and mortality by 5-6-fold. Males had up to 3-times higher rates than females. From 2003 to 2007, the highest ASRs were in Chile, Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Brazil and Peru (males: 19.2-29.1, females: 9.7-15.1). The highest ASMRs were in Chilean, Costa Rican, Colombian and Guatemalan males (17.4-24.6) and in Guatemalan, Ecuadorian and Peruvian females (10.5-17.1). From 1997 to 2008, incidence declined by 4% per year in Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica; mortality declined by 3-4% in Costa Rica and Chile. 60-96% of all the cancer cases were unspecified in relation to gastric sub-site but, among those specified, non-cardia cancers occurred 2-13-times more frequently than cardia cancers. The variation in rates may reflect differences in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and other risk factors. High mortality may additionally reflect deficiencies in healthcare access. The high proportion of unspecified cases calls for improving cancer registration processes. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostate cancer burden in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Mónica S; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    The incidence of prostate cancer has increased in Central and South America (CSA) in the last few decades. We describe the geographical patterns and trends of prostate cancer in CSA. We obtained regional and national-level cancer incidence data from 48 population-based registries in 13 countries and nation-wide cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years for 2003-2007 and the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) to describe time trends. Prostate cancer was the most common cancer diagnosis and one of the leading causes of cancer deaths among males in most CSA countries. From 2003-2007, ASRs varied between countries (6-fold) and within countries (Brazil: 3-6-fold). French Guyana (147.1) and Brazil (91.4) had the highest ASRs whereas Mexico (28.9) and Cuba (24.3) had the lowest. ASMRs varied by 4-fold. Belize, Uruguay and Cuba (24.1-28.9) had the highest ASMRs while Peru, Nicaragua, and El Salvador (6.8-9.7) had the lowest. In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica prostate cancer incidence increased by 2.8-4.8% annually whereas mortality remained stable between 1997 and 2008. The geographic and temporal variation of prostate cancer rates observed in CSA may in part reflect differences in diagnostic and registration practices, healthcare access, treatment and death certification, and public awareness. The incidence of prostate cancer is expected to increase given recent early detection activities and increased public awareness; however, the impact of these factors on mortality remains to be elucidated. Copyright © 2016 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Burden of colorectal cancer in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Monica S; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    The colorectal cancer (CRC) burden is increasing in Central and South American due to an ongoing transition towards higher levels of human development. We describe the burden of CRC in the region and review the current status of disease control. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries, as well as cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years for 2003-2007 and the estimated annual percentage change for 1997-2008. The CRC rate in males was 1-2 times higher than that in females. In 2003-2007, the highest ASRs were seen in Uruguayan, Brazilian and Argentinean males (25.2-34.2) and Uruguayan and Brazilian females (21.5-24.7), while El Salvador had the lowest ASR in both sexes (males: 1.5, females: 1.3). ASMRs were<10 for both sexes, except in Uruguay, Cuba and Argentina (10.0-17.7 and 11.3-12.0). CRC incidence is increasing in Chilean males. Most countries have national screening guidelines. Uruguay and Argentina have implemented national screening programs. Geographic variation in CRC and sex gaps may be explained by differences in the prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption, early detection, and cancer registration practices. Establishing optimal CRC screening programs is challenging due to lack of healthcare access and coverage, funding, regional differences and inadequate infrastructure, and may not be feasible. Given the current status of CRC in the region, data generated by population-based cancer registries is crucial for cancer control planning. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Diabetes in South and Central America: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschner, Pablo; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Aguirre, Loreto; Franco, Laercio; Gagliardino, Juan Jose; de Lapertosa, Sylvia Gorban; Seclen, Segundo; Vinocour, Mary

    2014-02-01

    The estimated population of the South and Central America (SACA) Region is 467.6 million and 64% is in the age range of 20-79 years but the population pyramid and age distribution are changing. The average prevalence of diabetes in the Region is 8.0% and is expected to reach 9.8% by the year 2035. Prevalence is much lower in rural settings than in urban and the differences attributed to lifestyle changes may be a target for intervention. The indigenous population is a particularly vulnerable group needing special attention. On average, 24% of the adult cases with diabetes are undiagnosed but in some countries this is still as high as 50%. Health expenditure due to diabetes in the Region is around 9% of the global total. Inadequate glycemic control, defined as HbA1c >7%, is a strong predictor of chronic complications which increase resource use in the Region and less than half of the patients enrolled in diabetes care programmes are at target. Fifty percent or more of the adult population is overweight/obese and around one third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome using regional cutoffs for waist circumference. The number of people with IGT is almost equal to those with diabetes presenting an additional challenge for prevention. Children with type 1 diabetes represent only 0.2% of the total population with diabetes but the incidence may be increasing. In many places they have limited access to insulin, and even when available, it is not used appropriately. The available epidemiological data provide the background to act in developing national diabetes programmes which integrate diabetes care with cardiovascular prevention and promote diabetes prevention as well. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Refractive status of primary school children in Mopani district, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Mabaso

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports part of the findings of a study carried out to determine the causes, prevalence,  and  distribution  of  ocular  dis-orders  among  rural  primary  school  children in  Mopani  district  of  Limpopo  Province, South Africa. Three hundred and eighty eight children  aged  8  to  15  years  were  randomly selected from five randomly selected schools. Non-cycloplegic retinoscopy and auto-refrac-tion were performed on each child. The preva-lence of hyperopia, myopia, and astigmatism was  73.1%,  2.5%  and  31.3%  respective-ly.  Hyperopia  (Nearest  spherical  equivalent power (FNSE ranged from +0.75 to +3.50 D for the right and left eyes with means of +1.05 ±  0.35  D  and  +1.08  ±  0.34  D  respectively. Myopia (FNSE ranged from –0.50 to –1.75 D for the right eye and –0.50 to –2.25 D for the left eye with means of –0.75 ± 0.55 D and –0.93 ± 0.55 D respectively. Regression model for myopia, shows that age had an odds ratio of  1.94  (1.15  to  3.26,  indicating  a  signifi-cant increased risk of myopia with increasing age.  Correcting  cylinders  for  the  right  eyes ranged from –0.25 to –4.50 D (mean = −0.67 ± 0.47 D and for the left eyes from –0.25 to –2.50 D (mean = −0.60 ± 0.30 D. With-the-rule  (WTR  astigmatism  (66.5%  was  more common, followed by against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism (28.1% and oblique (OBL astig-matism  (5.4%.  With-the-rule  astigmatism was  more  common  in  females  than  males; ATR astigmatism and OBL astigmatism were common in males. Regular vision screening programmes,  appropriate  referral  and  vision correction  in  primary  schools  in  Mopani district  are  recommended  in  order  to  elimi-nate  refractive  errors  among  the  children.

  17. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. Methods During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Conclusion Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic

  18. Positive practice environments influence job satisfaction of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyewende, Pascalia Ozida; Rispel, Laetitia Charmaine; Chirwa, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Nurses constitute the majority of the health workforce in South Africa and they play a major role in providing primary health care (PHC) services. Job satisfaction influences nurse retention and successful implementation of health system reforms. This study was conducted in light of renewed government commitment to reforms at the PHC level, and to contribute to the development of solutions to the challenges faced by the South African nursing workforce. The objective of the study was to determine overall job satisfaction of PHC clinic nursing managers and the predictors of their job satisfaction in two South African provinces. During 2012, a cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Stratified random sampling was used to survey a total of 111 nursing managers working in PHC clinics. These managers completed a pre-tested Measure of Job Satisfaction questionnaire with subscales on personal satisfaction, workload, professional support, training, pay, career prospects and standards of care. Mean scores were used to measure overall job satisfaction and various subscales. Predictors of job satisfaction were determined through multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 108 nursing managers completed the survey representing a 97% response rate. The mean age of respondents was 49 years (SD = 7.9) and the majority of them (92%) were female. Seventy-six percent had a PHC clinical training qualification. Overall mean job satisfaction scores were 142.80 (SD = 24.3) and 143.41 (SD = 25.6) for Gauteng and Free State provinces respectively out of a maximum possible score of 215. Predictors of job satisfaction were: working in a clinic of choice (RRR = 3.10 (95% CI: 1.11 to 8.62, P = 0.030)), being tired at work (RRR = 0.19 (95% CI: 0.08 to 0.50, P = 0.001)) and experience of verbal abuse (RRR = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.06 to 0.55, P = 0.001). Allowing nurses greater choice of clinic to work in, the prevention of violence

  19. Prevalence and associated risk factors of hypertension amongst adults in a rural community of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel T. Ntuli

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is problem already faced by urban populations of South Africa, but little is known about its prevalence and risk factors in rural areas. Aim: To assess the prevalence of and risk factors associated with hypertension amongst adults in a rural community in South Africa. Setting: Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance Site, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out at this site where individuals aged 15 years and older were screened using a locally adapted version of the World Health Organization STEPwise questionnaire. Demographics, anthropometry and three independent blood pressure (BP readings were taken. The average of the three BP measurements was used in analysis, and hypertension taken as systolic and diastolic BP of ≥ 140 or ≥ 90 mmHg respectively, or at least a two-week history of antihypertensive treatment. Analysis included the Chi-square test and statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: A total of 1407 individuals were interviewed, of whom 1281 had complete BP, weight and height measurements taken. The mean age of participants was 44.2 ± 2 0.9 years (range 15–98 years, 63% were female, 55% were single and 90% were unemployed, whilst 13% were tobacco smokers and 20% reported drinking alcohol. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 41% and this was significantly associated with age and marital status. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension was found to be high. Prevention strategies are urgently needed to address this life-threatening and important risk factor for cardiovascular disease in rural Limpopo Province.

  20. Current status of bird pest species in agroecosystems of Buenos Aires province, central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Codesido, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We carried out the first assessment of abundance and distribution of bird pest species (eared dove Zenaida auriculata, monk parakeet Myiopsitta monachus, picazuro pigeon Patagioenas picazuro and spot-winged pigeon P. maculosa in the pampas of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, and analyzed their association with the presence of crops and/or introduced exotic woodlots in the rural landscape. We surveyed 35 transects located along secondary roads. Bird pest abundance was significantly higher at those sites with presence of woodlots (p<0.0001. Species-specific analyses revealed that abundance of both monk parakeet and picazuro pigeon was sensitive to the frequency of woodlots of tall and perennial tree species (Eucalyptus spp.; p<0.001, whereas eared dove abundance increased significantly with the frequency of woodlots composed by short and perennial tree species (Pinus spp., Casuarina spp.; p=0.002. Most bird pest species in the study area are more sensitive to the presence of woodlots rather than to the presence of croplands in the rural landscape. These results have practical implications, suggesting that an effective control of bird pest species in Buenos Aires province could be attained by managing exotic perennial tree species woodlots.

  1. Geologic framework and petroleum systems of Cook Inlet basin, south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, R.G.; Helmold, K.P.; Shellenbaum, D.P.; Stone, D.M.; Hite, D.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive overview of the stratigraphy, structure, tectonics, and petroleum systems of the Cook Inlet basin, an important oil- and gas-producing region in south-central Alaska.

  2. Stream and Aquifer Biology of South-Central Texas - A Literature Review, 1973-97

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ourso, Robert T; Hornig, C. E

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes in table format 32 aquatic vertebrate (primarily fish), 54 aquatic invertebrate, and 13 aquatic plant studies available for the area of the South-Central Texas study unit of the U.S...

  3. Particulate Matter Concentration Levels in South Central Richmond, California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, B.; Byias, C.; Cuff, K. E.; Diaz, J.; Love, K.; Marks-Block, T.; McLane, F.; Mollique, Z.; Montes, E.; Ross, R.; Washington, B.

    2009-12-01

    South Central Richmond, California is the home of one of the nation’s most innovative green workforce training centers, Richmond BUILD - Green Jobs Training facility. A near constant stream of young people engaged in training activities, instructors, invited guests, and journalists of various ages can be seen moving in and out of the facility nearly every day of the week throughout a given year. Additionally, the comings and goings of young children and adults associated with a mid-sized elementary school just north of the facility contributes to the general area’s substantial human traffic. Unfortunately, however, a major highway, Interstate 580, a major thoroughfare, 23rd Street and a railway line operated by Burlington Northern Santa Fe, Union Pacific, and the Richmond Pacific Railroad frame the triangular area within which these two sites are situated. In addition, a major petrochemical complex and several shipping facilities are located less than three kilometers away north and west of this area. As part of a general assessment of air quality in this heavily human traveled area, we conducted a study of particulate matter (PM) concentrations over a five-month period beginning in August of 2009. Measurements were made at a variety of locations, and results were used to map the spatial distribution of PM of various sizes. Regions of high concentration levels were identified, and these particular areas then were monitored over time. Preliminary results of our study indicate that regions with high concentrations are consistent across the range of particle sizes measured, which suggests a common source for PM found in the study area. As these regions are located close to a major thoroughfare and railway line, we believe that diesel-burning vehicles are major contributors to the PM levels found in the study area. Time series results suggest a fairly strong correlation between higher than average PM concentrations and abnormally high wind gusts. On days when wind

  4. Uranium metallogenic geological conditions in the south central section of da hinggan mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qing; Liu Qing

    2014-01-01

    The south central section of Da Hinggan Mountains, where the Zha Lantun prospecting zones of volcanic type uranium ore, is a high density concentrated distribution area of uranium and polymetallic mineral. This article elaborated uranium metallogenic geological conditions in the south central section of Da Hinggan Mountain, from the tectonic conditions, the source of uranium, the heat source, the space for ore-forming, hydrothermal alteration, the mineralization, and ect. This area has a good prospecting foreground and potentiality. (authors)

  5. Results of Paleomagnetic Investigation of Angara - Taseeva Depression and Central Part of Tunguska Syncline (Siberian Trap Province, Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latyshev, A.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Pavlov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Results of paleomagnetic investigation of two regions of Siberian Trap province (Angara - Taseeva depression and central part of Tunguska syncline) are performed here. Our work was dedicated to the estimation of dynamics and duration of magmatic activity during Siberian Traps emplacement. The conclusions are based on paleomagnetic study of large dolerite sills in the periphery of Siberian Trap province, tuffaceous deposits, small intrusions and lava flows of Tunguska syncline, and on geochronological data (Ivanov et al., 2013; Reichow et al., 2009). The presented data show that formation of Siberian Traps in these regions took place as several short bursts of magmatic activity led to large sill intrusions and eruptions of tuffs. This data are in agreement with the pulsating character of magmatic activity in the Northern part of Siberian platform (Pavlov et al., 2014). The most powerful burst of magmatic activity in Angara-Taseeva syncline is supposed to be synchronous to the main phase of volcanic eruptions in the Northern part of Siberian platform and emplacement of ore-bearing intrusions in Noril'sk district. This study was funded by grant RFBR # 14-05-31447.

  6. An Alternative Policy Proposal for the Provinces Populated by the Malay Ethnonationality in the South of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto F. von Feigenblatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a public policy analysis of governance in the provinces populated by the Malay ethnonationality in the South of Thailand. Important stakeholders are identified as well as important sociopolitical environmental factors. The final sections of the paper present a proposal for a new governance structure for the Muslim South of Thailand taking into consideration the social, cultural, and economic context as well as the wellbeing and right to self-determination of the local population. This study concludes that considerable economic, political, and social opportunities for development are being lost in the South of Thailand due to misguided governance policies. --- Dieser Artikel stellt eine politische Analyse von Governance in den von der nationalen Minderheit der Malaien bewohnten Provinzen in Südthailand vor. Zunächst werden zentrale InteressensvertreterInnen und soziopolitische Faktoren identifiziert. Anschließend diskutiert der Autor einen Vorschlag für eine neue Governancestruktur, die soziale, kulturelle und wirtschaftliche Kontexte ebenso beachtet wie die Bedürfnisse und das Recht zur Selbstbestimmung der lokalen Bevölkerung. Der Beitrag konkludiert, dass beträchtliche Möglichkeiten zur wirtschaftlichen, politischen und sozialen Entwicklung aufgrund von fehlgeleiteten Politiken ausgelassen wurden.

  7. Some peculiarities of basin petroleum potential, mediterranean belt, in connection with estimating oil potential of large depths, south Caspian province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belonin, M.D.; Sobolev, V.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text : Some peculiarities of occuring and forming oil pools in the richest south Caspian province are considered in connection with the problems concerning the estimation of oil potential of large depths. On the data of A.A. Ali-zade (1981, 1985) and other researchers, in the direction of regional subsidence of sedimentary beds, gas saturation of fluids increases and oil pools change progressively into gas-oil and gas-condensate ones. The continental margins of a transitional stage between the synoceanic and final phases of developing a continent-ocean system are present in the Mediterranean belt including its west component in the Mexico-Caribbean region. Some new results of a chromatographic analysis of nonfractional oils were received. The indices of individual hydrocarbon composition are indicative of the presence of wide vertical hydrocarbon migration during forming multibedded offshore hydrocarbon fields in south Caspian. In the south Caspian offshore, the composition of oils found in the range between 4-6 km is in agreement with the composition of fluids of the main zone of oil generation. It suggests the generation of liquid hydrocarbons at depths exceeding 6.5 km.

  8. Monitoring of long-term pavement performance sites in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available of calibrated Highway Development and Management (HDM 4) type models. Generally, five years continuous data would give a complete view of the behaviour of the materials for the individual sites. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Transport and Public Works... purposes. 4. FIELD DATA COLLECTION The CSIR project team in partnership with the Department of Transport and Public Works of the Western Cape province project team conduct detailed field investigation of six sites biannually. Field (monitoring) data...

  9. Epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thema, Lawrence K; Singh, Shenuka

    2017-07-12

    Despite the impact of oral diseases on the quality of life, there is limited updated evidence on oral health status in Limpopo province. To determine the epidemiological profile of patients utilising public oral health services in Limpopo province. This was a descriptive retrospective clinical chart review conducted in five purposively selected district hospitals in Limpopo province. The collected data included the patient's sociodemographic information, reasons for dental consultation, information on the dental or oral diseases and the treatment received. Five hundred clinical files were systematically selected (100 from each district hospital) for the period 01 January 1995 to 31 December 2013. Data were collected using the World Health Organization's indicator age groups, namely 6-year-olds, 12-year-olds, 18-year-olds and 35-44-year-old groups. A data capturing sheet was used to record the collected information. Data were analysed using the statistical software package for social sciences SPSS version 23.0. The majority of patients were in the age group of 6 to 20 years (n = 375, 75%). The majority were male patients (n = 309; 62%). Dental caries was the most common complaint (n = 298, 60%). The second most common main complaint in this age group was retained primary or deciduous teeth (n = 60, 12%) affecting children mainly in the age group of 6 to 12 years. The most common clinical procedure across all five districts was dental extractions (n = 324, 64%). Other clinical interventions included scaling and polishing (n = 33, 12%) and dental restorative care (n = 20, 3%). There is an urgent need to reorient oral health service delivery in Limpopo province to focus more on preventive oral health programmes.

  10. Groundwater quality on dairy farms in central South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Water quality, groundwater, E. coli, coliforms, nitrate, hardness, dairy farms. INTRODUCTION ... a major contributor to the South African economy through ..... co.za/milk-procurement-model (Accessed 1 November 2013). DAHIYA S ...

  11. Public-private partnership conceptual framework and models for the funding and financing of water services infrastructure in municipalities from selected provinces in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiters, Cornelius; Matji, Maselaganye P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents public-private partnership (PPP) framework models for funding and financing of water services infrastructure at local government (municipalities) level (sphere) in South Africa. Data were assembled from various stakeholders, viz., private and public sector institutions in the Gauteng and Limpopo Provinces of South Africa. The framework for PPPs identified three models, viz. state, hybrid and private sector models. In the 'state model' the water services value chain is 100%...

  12. The Ecological Associations of Surface-Dwelling Lizards in Qom Province in the Northwest of Central Plateau of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mehregan; Ahmadzadeh, Faraham; Mostafavi, Hossein; Mehrabian, Aahmad Reza; Abdoli, Asghar; Mahini, Abdolrasoul Salman

    2013-01-01

    We used pitfall trapping to investigate the effects of elevation, plant density and soil structure on species diversity and the impact of these habitat factors on lizard habitat selectivity in the Qom Province in the Central Plateau of Iran. From a total of 12 1-ha plots, we captured 363 individuals of 15 species of lizards (six species of Lacertidae, five species of Agamidae, two species of Gekkonidae, one species of Varanidae and one species of Scincidae). A generalized linear model (GLM) determined that elevation was the most important factor impacting species diversity. The highest species diversity was at the intermediate elevation (1289 m). Abundance of 6 out of 15 species showed strong relationships with some habitat factors. These relationships were demonstrated by habitat selectivity index (Ivlev's index). Our result supports other surveys that showed that elevation plays an important role in determining lizard species diversity. PMID:24349557

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF BUREAUCRACY STRUCTURE FACTOR IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MINIMUM STANDARD OF HEALTH SERVICE IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardianti N.I.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the phenomenon of incompatibility of the institutional structure of Regional Public Hospital which causes the disruption of the achievement of Minimum Service Standards (MSS indicator in the health sector, especially maternal health in the Provincial Government of Central Java. In Central Java, the largest number of maternal mortality rate was in the hospital in 2015 amounted to 85.71%. Meanwhile, the coverage rate of delivery assisted by health personnel in accordance with the indicator of MSS is 98.09%. In 2015, Central Java is the province with the second highest national of maternal mortality rate case amounted to 619 cases. The Provincial Government as the coordinator of MSS implementation in the region through the Bureau of Pemotda and the Cooperation of Regional Secretariat of Central Java has a significant role in the successful implementation of the Regulation of Minister of Health 43/2016 on MSS in Health Sector. In which MSS has a function to observe the implementation of health program in the region. This research uses a qualitative approach, the type of research is a case study and interactive model analysis from Miles, Huberman, and Saldana. The results of the analysis show that the implementation process of the policy in Bureau of Pemotda and the Cooperation of Regional Secretariat of Central Java has not run well obstructed by bureaucratic structure factor. It can be seen from the unfulfilled policy objective which is to provide convenience to local government in the preparation of planning document on the achievement of health MSS indicator. Although health MSS is achieved, it will not be able to reduce the maternal mortality rate.

  14. Historical reconstruction of atmospheric lead pollution in central Yunnan province, southwest China: an analysis based on lacustrine sedimentary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enfeng; Zhang, Enlou; Li, Kai; Nath, Bibhash; Li, Yanling; Shen, Ji

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric lead (Pb) pollution during the last century in central Yunnan province, one of the largest non-ferrous metal production centers in China, was reconstructed using sediment cores collected from Fuxian and Qingshui Lakes. Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) were measured in sediment cores from both lakes. The operationally defined chemical fractions of Pb in sediment core from Fuxian Lake were determined by the optimized BCR procedure. The chronology of the cores was reconstructed using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating methods. Similar three-phase variations in isotopic ratios and enrichment factors of Pb were observed in the sediment cores from both lakes. Before the 1950s, the sediment data showed low (207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb ratios and enrichment factors (EFs=~1), indicating that the sedimentary Pb was predominantly of lithogenic origin. However, these indices were increased gradually between the 1950s and the mid-1980s, implying an atmospheric Pb deposition. The EFs and isotopic ratios of Pb reached their peak during recent years, indicating aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution. The average anthropogenic Pb fluxes since the mid-1980s were estimated to be 0.032 and 0.053 g m(-2) year(-1) recorded in Fuxian and Qingshui cores, respectively. The anthropogenic Pb was primarily concentrated in the reducible fraction. Combining the results of Pb isotopic compositions and chemical speciations in the sediment cores and in potential sources, we deduced that recent aggravating atmospheric Pb pollution in central Yunnan province should primarily be attributed to regional emissions from non-ferrous metal production industries.

  15. Franchising O&M water services infrastructure in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available South African research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training to those on-site, and also offers...

  16. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  17. The Epidemiology of Meningitis among Adults in a South African Province with a High HIV Prevalence, 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britz, Erika; Perovic, Olga; von Mollendorf, Claire; von Gottberg, Anne; Iyaloo, Samantha; Quan, Vanessa; Chetty, Verushka; Sriruttan, Charlotte; Ismail, Nazir A.; Nanoo, Ananta; Musekiwa, Alfred; Reddy, Carl; Viljoen, Karien; Cohen, Cheryl; Govender, Nelesh P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Meningitis is a major cause of mortality in southern Africa. We aimed to describe the aetiologies and frequencies of laboratory-confirmed fungal and bacterial meningitis among adults in a South African province with an 11% HIV prevalence, over 4 years. Methods We conducted a retrospective, observational study of secondary laboratory data, extracted on all cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens submitted to public-sector laboratories in Gauteng province from 2009 through 2012. We calculated cause-specific incidence rates in the general and HIV-infected populations and used Poisson regression to determine if trends were significant. Results We identified 11,891 (10.7%) incident cases of meningitis from 110,885 CSF specimens. Cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis and pneumococcal meningitis accounted for 62.3% (n = 7,406), 24.6% (n = 2,928) and 10.1% (n = 1,197) of cases over the four-year period. The overall incidence (cases per 100,000 persons) of cryptococcal meningitis declined by 23% from 24.4 in 2009 to 18.7 in 2012 (p meningitis decreased by 40% from 11.3 in 2009 to 6.8 in 2012 (p meningitis decreased by 41% from 4.2 in 2009 to 2.5 in 2012 (p meningitis (248/11,891, 2.1%), Neisseria meningitidis (n = 93), Escherichia coli (n = 72) and Haemophilus influenzae (n = 20) were the most common organisms identified. Conclusions In this high HIV-prevalence province, cryptococcal meningitis was the leading cause of laboratory-confirmed meningitis among adults. Over a 4-year period, there was a significant decrease in incidence of cryptococcal, tuberculous and pneumococcal meningitis. This coincided with expansion of the national antiretroviral treatment programme, enhanced tuberculosis control programme and routine childhood immunisation with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. PMID:27669564

  18. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The windclimatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and rough-ness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  19. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA) Observational wind atlas for 10 met. stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Hansen, Jens Carsten; Kelly, Mark C.

    As part of the “Wind Atlas for South Africa” project, microscale modelling has been carried out for 10 meteorological stations in Northern, Western and Eastern Cape provinces. Wind speed and direction data from the ten 60-m masts have been analysed using the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application...... Program (WAsP 11). The wind-climatological inputs are the observed wind climates derived from the WAsP Climate Analyst. Topographical inputs are elevation maps constructed from SRTM 3 data and roughness length maps constructed from SWBD data and Google Earth satellite imagery. Summaries are given...... of the data measured at the 10 masts, mainly for a 3-year reference period from October 2010 to September 2013. The main result of the microscale modelling is observational wind atlas data sets, which can be used for verification of the mesoscale modelling. In addition, the microscale modelling itself has...

  20. The alignment of product strategy to supply chain practices of craft businesses in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Voortman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available External factors such as blurring market boundaries, escalating customer diversity and increasing global competitive threats have forced businesses to build strategies around key products and formulate market-driven strategies that are integrated with relationship and supply chain strategies to deliver superior customer value. Indeed, in the modern era of supply chain management, organisations are getting more integrated with their suppliers and customers as a way to manage the total supply chain. The purpose of this research was to determine if product strategies and supply chain practices of small craft business are aligned. Personal in-depth interviews were conducted with nine craft businesses operating in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The findings revealed that craft businesses struggle to match their product strategies with their supply chain strategies. Craft businesses also exhibited some inbound supply chain weaknesses.

  1. PALAEOECOLOGICAL CHANGES AFTER THE END-PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION: EARLY TRIASSIC OSTRACODS FROM NORTHWESTERN GUANGXI PROVINCE,SOUTH CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE CRASQUIN-SOLEAU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Early Triassic (Griesbachian to Spathian ostracod faunas are here first discovered and described form the Guangxi Province, South China. Thirty-seven species belonging to fourteen genera are recognized. Seven species are new: Bairdia fengshanensis n.sp., Bairdia wailiensis n.sp., Liuzhinia guangxiensis n.sp., Ptychobairdia luciaae n.sp., Ptychobairdia aldaae n.sp., Paracypris jinyaensis n.sp. and Paracypris gaetanii n.sp. The Griesbachian assemblage from the basal microbial limestone is well diversified and does not suggest any abnormal palaeoenvironmental conditions in terms of salinity, temperature or oxygen content. Particularly, the ostracods are typical of well oxygenated water and do not reflect any anoxia. Dienerian and Smithian ostracods are evidenced for the first time and the assemblages suggest less favourable palaeoenviromental conditions. Diversity and abundance of ostracod assemblages recovered from the Spathian on. The main taxonomic turnover among ostracod assemblages occurred seemingly between the Griesbachian and the Spathian.

  2. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  3. Compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary traumatic stress among termination of pregnancy providers in two South African provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teffo, Mantshi E; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2018-05-23

    Focusing on compassion satisfaction, burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) among termination of pregnancy (TOP) providers, a cross - sectional study was conducted among these providers in Gauteng and North West provinces of South Africa during 2014 and 2015. During 2014 and 2015, a cross-sectional study was conducted among TOP service providers in Gauteng and North West provinces. Consented providers completed a self-administered professional quality of life (PRoQOL) questionnaire, sociodemographic information and possible reasons for working as TOP providers. STATA 13 was used for data analysis. We recruited 105 TOP providers, obtaining 98% response rate. Participants mean age was 43.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 8.7), majority were nurses (70.9%), female (82%), married (47.6%) and 63% were working in hospitals. The overall mean score for compassion satisfaction was high at 42 (SD 5.5). Predictors of compassion satisfaction were finding work stimulating, belief in making a difference, enjoying relationships with other nurses and years of TOP service (P employee assistance programs that enhance compassion satisfaction and reduce burnout and STS among TOP providers. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakuela, Nditsheni J; Lebese, Tsakani R; Maputle, Sonto M; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-05-31

    Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents' parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers' views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15-19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch's eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen's life while attending school) and (2) teenager's fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.

  5. Occurrence of Theileria and Babesia species in water buffalo (Bubalus babalis, Linnaeus, 1758) in the Hubei province, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lan; Feng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Qing-Li; Fang, Rui; Wang, Li-Xia; Tu, Pan; Zhou, Yan-Qin; Zhao, Jun-Long; Oosthuizen, Marinda C

    2012-05-25

    The presence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in water buffalo from the Hubei province, south China was investigated using the reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay and phylogenetic analysis of the parasite 18S rRNA gene. Theileria buffeli (19.1%) was the most frequently found species in all of the locations, followed by Babesia orientalis (8.9%), Babesia bovis (1.0%) and Babesia bigemina (0.7%). Only 12 (3.9%) of the samples had mixed infections. Eleven samples with single infections were selected for further characterization using 18S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the eight T. buffeli 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped into four clusters, of which three grouped with the known T. buffeli types B and D. The remaining five grouped separately from the previously describe T. buffeli types, constituting new T. buffeli types. The two B. bigemina 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained grouped closely with B. bigemina Kunming; this serves as the first report of B. bigemina in the Hubei province. The B. orientalis Daye 18S rRNA gene sequence obtained grouped closely with the previously reported B. orientalis Wuhan strain and with Babesia sp. Kashi 1 and Kashi 2. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  7. Lifestyle factors associated with obesity in a cohort of males in the central province of Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardana, N W I A; Jayalath, W A T A; Madhujith, W M T; Ralapanawa, U; Jayasekera, R S; Alagiyawanna, S A S B; Bandara, A M K R; Kalupahana, N S

    2017-01-05

    Obesity has become a global epidemic. The prevalence of obesity has also increased in the South Asian region in the last decade. However, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity in Sri Lankan adults are unclear. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of dietary and lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. A total of 2469 males aged between 16 and 72 years ([Formula: see text]) were included in the study. The sample comprised individuals who presented for a routine medical examination at the National Transport Medical Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka. The Body Mass Index (BMI) cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants into four groups as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. The data on dietary and lifestyle patterns such as level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours and other socio demographic data were obtained using validated self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to assess the associations of individual lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity. The mean BMI of the study group was 22.7 kg m -2 and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8 and 12.3%, respectively. Mean waist circumference of the participants was 78.6 cm with 17.1% of them being centrally obese. After adjusting for potential confounders, weight status was associated with older age (P hours, smoking, consumption of fish, meat, dairy, sweets or fried snacks were not significantly associated with the weight status. The high prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in working-age males is a threatening sign for Sri Lanka. Since the prevalence rate is higher in certain ethnic groups and higher-income groups, targeted interventions for these groups may be necessary.

  8. Perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol in the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Mothiba

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol abuse is a problem in South Africa and it has negative effects on the wellbeing of individuals, families, friends, work associates and neighbours. Alcohol produces both psychological and physical dependence. Gillies (1999:112 indicated that alcoholism usually interferes with the ability to socialize, work and may lead to much other destructive behaviour. It was further stated that people who are addicted to alcohol often have a low self-esteem, immaturity, are easily frustrated, and have difficulty in solving personal problems. This study investigated the perceptions of community members towards youth abusing alcohol and identified, among others, anti-social behaviour, poor interpersonal relationships, family disorganization, poor integration with family members and physical damage as the major concerns. An attempt was also made to develop strategies that can be used to overcome the problems of alcohol abuse by youth. Design and Method: A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual research design was followed in this study for the participants to describe their perceptions regarding the phenomenon in question (Brink, 2006:113. Data were collected through individual unstructured interviews in one village of the Capricorn District of the Limpopo Province. The researchers employed the principles of Guba and Lincoln (1993 cited in De Vos (1998:331 relating to trustworthiness and adhered to the ethical standards as set by the Democratic Nurses Association of South Africa (DENOSA, 1998:2.3.2. Findings: Five themes and seven categories emerged from the data analysis, using Tech’s open coding approach (1990, as outlined in De Vos (1998:343, namely, antisocial behaviour, poor interpersonal behaviour, physical damage, poor progress in life processes and effects of alcohol on the body. To address the problem of alcohol abuse by youth in one village (the study area of the Capricorn District in the Limpopo Province and other villages the

  9. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province, South Africa (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Maputle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitation of mutual participation, respectful and egalitarian relationship between the mother and the midwife during childbirth is a critical aspect. This article delineated the criteria that would facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of the Limpopo Province in South Africa, following a concept analysis described in Part 1. Empirical referents or indicators were used to measure the concept woman-centred care and to validate its existence in reality. These empirical referents were referred to as measurable properties that further verified the concept. Objective: The objective of this article was to formulate criteria that would facilitate implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province in South Africa. Method: Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care were formulated by the gathering of information about the topic under review and the use of resources to define the key elements of the criteria which were integrated into the Batho Pele principles. The criteria were then validated by selecting with a vested interest in the successful development and implementation of the criteria. Results: Criteria were formulated to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care that was integrated within the framework of Batho Pele principles. Conclusion: These formulated criteria for woman-centred care will be used as an institutional self-evaluation tool to enhance implementation of the Batho Pele principles in childbirth units. These criteria will give direction and provide guidelines for the performance of midwifery staff and will also help supervisors to guide staff to improve performance.

  10. Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province, South Africa (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria S. Maputle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facilitation of mutual participation, respectful and egalitarian relationship between the mother and the midwife during childbirth is a critical aspect. This article delineated the criteria that would facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of the Limpopo Province in South Africa, following a concept analysis described in Part 1. Empirical referents or indicators were used to measure the concept woman-centred care and to validate its existence in reality. These empirical referents were referred to as measurable properties that further verified the concept. Objective: The objective of this article was to formulate criteria that would facilitate implementation of woman-centred care in childbirth units of Limpopo Province in South Africa.Method: Criteria to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care were formulated by the gathering of information about the topic under review and the use of resources to define the key elements of the criteria which were integrated into the Batho Pele principles. The criteria were then validated by selecting with a vested interest in the successful development and implementation of the criteria. Results: Criteria were formulated to facilitate the implementation of woman-centred care that was integrated within the framework of Batho Pele principles. Conclusion: These formulated criteria for woman-centred care will be used as an institutional self-evaluation tool to enhance implementation of the Batho Pele principles in childbirth units. These criteria will give direction and provide guidelines for the performance of midwifery staff and will also help supervisors to guide staff to improve performance.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on malaria transmission in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manana, Pinky N; Kuonza, Lazarus; Musekiwa, Alfred; Mpangane, Hluphi D; Koekemoer, Lizette L

    2017-07-20

    In South Africa malaria is endemic in Mpumalanga, Limpopo and the north-eastern areas of KwaZulu-Natal provinces. South Africa has set targets to eliminate malaria by 2018 and research into complementary vector control tools such as the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) is ongoing. It is important to understand community perceptions regarding malaria transmission and control interventions to enable development of community awareness campaign messages appropriate to the needs of the community. We aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding malaria transmission to inform a public awareness campaign for SIT in Jozini Local Municipality, Mamfene in KwaZulu-Natal province. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three communities in Mamfene, KwaZulu-Natal during 2015. A structured field piloted questionnaire was administered to 400 randomly selected heads of households. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Of the 400 participants interviewed, 99% had heard about malaria and correctly associated it with mosquito bites. The sources of malaria information were the local health facility (53%), radio (16%) and community meetings (7%). Approximately 63% of the participants were able to identify three or four symptoms of malaria. The majority (76%) were confident that indoor residual spraying (IRS) kills mosquitoes and prevents infection. Bed nets were used by 2% of the participants. SIT knowledge was poor (9%), however 63% of the participants were supportive of mosquito releases for research purposes. The remaining 37% raised concerns and fears, including fear of the unknown and lack of information on the SIT. Appropriate knowledge, positive attitude and acceptable treatment-seeking behaviour for malaria were demonstrated by members of the community. Community involvement will be crucial in achieving success of the SIT and future studies should further investigate concerns raised by the community. The existing communication channels used by the

  12. A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Buysse, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water

  13. A link of full-scale accelerated pavement testing to long-term pavement performance study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available of Accelerated Pavement Testing in Pavement Sustainability A Link of Full-Scale Accelerated Pavement Testing to Long-Term Pavement Performance Study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa J. K. Anochie-Boateng W. JvdM Steyn C. Fisher L. Truter...

  14. Agrolandscape Research of Geosystems in the South of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysanova, G.; Soja, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Minusinskaya basin, the area under research, is situated in the south of Central Siberia and is an agrarian region, which differs from another territories of Siberia. The territory provides for foodstuff not only its population but another regions as well. Nature-climate conditions favour the development of agriculture and cattle-breeding. Complex geographical study of rural lands, which is implemented by two approaches: a natural and industrial system block is necessary for rational use of agrolandscapes. Agrolandscapes are objects for rationalization of land management in agricultural regions. From our point of view application of a landscape map as a base for working out of agrolandscape map (Fig. 1a) and a map of agronatural potential of geosystems (Fig. 2), gives an opportunity to take stock of reserves of agricultural lands not only in quantitative but qualitative respects and also to determine the ways of optimal transformation of arable lands depending on nature conditions of regions and their development. Landscape maps that reflect differentiation of not only natural formations, changed by anthropogenious influence and also natural analogues, concern to a number of important tools of planning for optimal land use. The main principles of working out of typological landscape map of a medium scale aroused from targets and tasks of agrolandscape estimation of the territory [1]. The landscape map was worked out according to V.A. Nikolaev's methodology [2]: types of landscapes correlated with types of lands use, composition of cereals in rotation of crops, agro-techniques, crop capacity, climate indices, etc. Existing natural-agricultural systems are shown in the map. Their characteristics includes information about natural and agricultural blocks. Agronatural potential had been calculated by summarize estimations of its component parts. As a result of these calculations 30 arable agrolandscapes, marked out into the landscape map, were joined according to summ

  15. Neurocysticercosos in South-Central America and the Indian Subcontinent: a comparative evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Singh

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is an important public health problem in South-Central America and South Asia. A review of the differences in epidemiological and clinical attributes of cysticercosis and taeniasis in South Central America and India, respectively, is undertaken in the present communication. Intestinal taeniasis is hyperendemic in several American countries. In comparison, the prevalence of Taenia solium infestation is lower in India. The clinical manifestations in several American neurocysticercosis series comprise epilepsy, intracranial hypertension and meningeal - racemose cysticercosis, in roughly equal proportions. An overwhelming majority of the Indian subjects present with seizures. The commonest pathological substrate of the disorder in Indian patients is the solitary parenchymal degenerating cyst. The reasons for the predominance of solitary forms in India, and of multilesional forms in South Central America are discussed. The magnitude of Taenia solium infestation and the frequency of pork consumption in a given population appear to influence the quantum of cyst load in affected individuals.

  16. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  17. Meteorological and oceanographic aspects of a winter storm over the south-western Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jury, M.R.; Shillington, F.A.; Prestidge, G.; Maxwell, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    In May the southern hemisphere circumpolar jet stream accelerates in response to a growing temperature gradient between the pole and equator. Initially, the jet stream may 'spin up' in pulses, causing the upper air current to become unstable and to meander equatorwards out of the higher latitudes (40-50 degrees S). Winter storms induced by the jet stream and which move, from west to east, to the south of the African continent are then guided by the upper air currents further north. Between 15 and 17 May 1984, such a sequence of synoptic weather events developed and the south-western Cape came under the influence of the 'roaring 40's'. In this article a chronology of the storm and its meteorological effects are described using data collected at the Koeberg nuclear power station, the Cape Town Airport Weather Office and across the south-western Cape. The destructive effects of the storm, particularly felt along the coast as a result of large swells and a significant storm surge, are discussed

  18. Borda application of selection planning scheduling method in dock engineering consultants in Central Sulawesi province Indonesia

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    Siti Fatimah

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper to find out the planning scheduling method that used in dock engineering consultants as a project supervisor dock. This research use qualitative approach to find the most preferred method by engineering consultants, this research was explorative that test and find out the most preferred method. This research showed that dock engineering consultants in Palu City, Central Sulawesi most preferred curve-s method than method such as CPM, PERT, PDM, and Bar Chart. This research can help further research to determine differences and similarities the project planning scheduling method and being basic for The New Dock Engineering Consultans. This research looking for the most preferred method with limited respondents dock engineering consultans in Palu City, Central Sulawesi.

  19. Risk factors for failure in newly established small, micro and medium-sized enterprises in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeleke Worku

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The annual report issued for the financial year 2013/2014 by the South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry (2015 shows that the business confidence index of South Africa was equal to 89.3% in January 2015. According to the South African National Department of Tourism (2015, the tourism sector contributed 93 Billion Rand (3% to the South African GDP in the year 2012. The contribution of the tourism sector was equal to 189.4 Billion Rand in the year 2009. This figure is projected to grow to 499 Billion Rand by the year 2020. According to the South African Small Enterprise Development Agency (2015, newly established and emerging business enterprises conducting business in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province are less viable and efficient in comparison with well-established tourism enterprises. The objective of this study was to identify and quantify risk factors for underperformance and bankruptcy in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province in South Africa. The study was based on data collected from a stratified random sample of size 311 tourism enterprises that operate in Gauteng Province, South Africa. Data was collected on a large number of socio-economic factors that adversely affect entrepreneurial activities in the tourism sector of Gauteng Province. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection and analyses was used in the study. Examples of variables on which data was gathered was level of entrepreneurial skills, level of formal education, location of business, duration of experience, amount of capital, number of employees, ability to network with other tourist operators, degree of competition from rival operators, geographical location, category of business, category of entrepreneurial skills, average number of visitors per month, net profit, size of business, market share, access to finance, and degree of support from Government agencies. Results obtained from the study showed that the long-term survival

  20. Spatial Collaboration Model among Local Governments in Ratubangnegoro Region in the Boundary Area of Central Java and East Java Provinces, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyono, H.; Wahdah, L.

    2018-02-01

    In Indonesia, according to Law No. 23/2014 on Local Government, a local government can conduct cooperation with other local governments that are based on considerations of efficiency and effectiveness of public services and mutual benefit, in order to improve people's welfare. Such cooperation can be categorized into mandatory and voluntary cooperation. Cooperation shall be developed jointly between the adjacent areas for the implementation of government affairs which have cross-local government externalities; and the provision of public services more efficient if managed together. One of the parts of the area that is directly related to the implementation of the policy liabilities of inter-local government cooperation which is mandated is the he province boundary areas. The public management of the provincial boundary areas is different from the central province area. While the central province area considers only their own interests, the management of boundary development must consider the neighboring regions. On one hand, the area is influenced only by its own province policy, while on the other influenced by neighboring regions. Meanwhile, a local government tends to resist the influence and intervention of neighboring regions. Likewise, neighboring local governments also tend to resist the influence and intervention of other local governments. Therefore, when interacting on the boundary, inter-local government interaction is not only the potential for cooperation, but also conflict-prone regions. One of the boundary area provinces attempt to implement the collaborative planning approach is the boundary area of Central Java Province and East Java Province, which is known as Ratubangnegoro Region. Ratubangnegoro region is one of the strategic areas of both provinces. In order to the interaction between the region could take place, there are regencies in the region have formed and joined the Inter-Local Government Cooperation Agency (BKAD-Badan Kerjasama Antar

  1. A 150-ka-long record for the volcano-tectonic deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Tonguç Uysal, I.; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2017-04-01

    The Anatolian Block represents one of the most outstanding examples of intra-plate deformation related to continental collision. Deformation related to the convergence of the Afro-Arabian continent toward north gives rise to widespread and intense arc volcanism in the Central Anatolia. All the usual studies on dating the volcano-tectonic deformation of the region are performed entirely on volcanic events of the geological record resulted in eruptions. However, without volcanic eruption, magma migration and related fluid pressurization also generate crustal deformation. In the current study has been funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey with the project no. 115Y497, we focused on fracture systems and their carbonate veins around the Ihlara Valley (Cappadocia) surrounded by well-known volcanic centers with latest activities of the southern Central Anatolian Volcanic Province. We dated 37 samples using the Uranium-series technique and analyzed their isotope systematics from fissure veins, which are thought to be controlled by the young volcanism in the region. Our detailed fracture analyses in the field show that there is a regional dilatation as a result of a NW-SE striking extension which is consistent with the results of recent GPS studies. The Uranium-series results indicate that fracture development and associated carbonate vein deposition occurred in the last 150 ka. Carbon and oxygen isotope systematics have almost remained unchanged in the studied time interval. Although veins in the region were precipitated from fluids primarily of meteoric origin, fluids originating from water-rock interaction also contribute for the deposition of carbonate veins. The age distribution indicates that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 different period at about 4.7, 34, 44, 52, 83, 91, 149 ka BP. Four of these periods (4.7, 34, 91, 149 ka BP) correspond to the volcanic activities suggested in the previous studies. The three crustal

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the central provinces of Hama and Edlib in Syria: Vector identification and parasite typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Nabil; Saliba, Hanadi; Altawil, Atef; Villinsky, Jeffrey; Al-Nahhas, Samar

    2015-10-12

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a disease transmitted by sand fly bites. This disease is highly prevalent in Syria where Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica are the known aetiological agents. In 2011, more than 58,000 cases were reported in the country by the Ministry of Health. The central region of the country harbors 20 % of the reported cases. However, the epidemiology of the disease in this area is not well understood. An epidemiological survey was conducted in 2010 to identity the circulating parasite and the sand fly vector in the central provinces of Edlib and Hama. Sand fly specimens were collected using CDC light traps and identified morphologically. Total DNA was extracted from the abdomens of female specimens and from Giemsa-stained skin lesion smears of 80 patients. Leishmania parasites were first identified by sequencing the ITS1 gene amplicons. Then polymorphism analysis was performed using the RFLP technique. A total of 2142 sand flies were collected. They belonged to eight species, among which Phlebotomus sergenti and Phlebotomus papatasi were the most predominant. L. tropica ITS1 gene was amplified from two pools of P. sergenti specimens and from skin smears of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients. This suggests that P. sergenti is the potential vector species in the study area. The digestion profiles of the obtained amplicons by TaqI restriction enzyme were identical for all analysed L. tropica parasites. Moreover, L. infantum ITS1 gene was amplified from two pools of Phlebotomus tobbi in the relatively humid zone of Edlib. L. tropica is confirmed to be the aetiological agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in the central provinces. RFLP technique failed to show any genetic heterogeneity in the ITS1 gene among the tested parasites. The molecular detection of this parasite in human skin smears and in P. sergenti supports the vector status of this species in the study area. The detection of L. infantum in P. tobbi specimens indicates a potential

  3. The overthrust structural systems and their dynamics in Xiangshan uranium ore field in central Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yulong; Gao Yan; Cao Shousun; Ji Gaoping

    2011-01-01

    Through the comprehensive study on the exploration data of the deposits in the northern part of Xiangshan uranium ore field, the overthrust structure is recognized deeply. The overthrust structure strikes EW on the whole and the direction of movement is from south to north. The main detachment surface occurred between Sinian (Z) metamorphic rocks and Jurassic (J 3 d 1 ) layers. Sinian metamorphic basement is overthrust on the top of Lower Daguding member of Upper Jurassic Group. The nappe system consists of front faults, back thrust fault,the main detachment zone (main structure), and nappe structural window. The nappe had moved 3∼4.5 km and it mainly formed during Late Jurassic, i.e. Late Yanshan.(authors)

  4. The effect of marketing innovation, market orientation, and social capital on competitive advantage and marketing performance: A study in MSMEs of embroidery Central Java Province

    OpenAIRE

    Ag. Sunarno Handoyo

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with marketing innovation, market orientation, and social capital in affecting the competitive advantage and marketing performance in Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) of embroidery in Central Java Province. In this respect, this study tried to test and analyze the effect of marketing innovation, market orienta-tion, and social capital on competitive advantage and marketing performance in Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) of embroidery in Central Java Pr...

  5. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  6. Research of water resources allocation of South-to-North Water Diversion East Route Project in Jiangsu Province ,Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.

    2015-12-01

    Optimized allocation of water resources is the important means of solving regional water shortage and can improve the utilization of water resources. Water resources allocation in the large-scale water diversion project area is the current research focus. This research takes the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project in Jiangsu province as the research area, based on the hydrological model, agricultural irrigation quota model, and water project scheduling model, a water resources allocation model was constructed. The research carried on generalized regional water supply network, simulated the water supply, water demand and water deficit in agriculture, industry, life, ecology and lock under the status quo and planning engineering conditions. According to the results, the east route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project is helpful to improve regional water shortage situation. The results showed that pump output increase by 2.8 billion cubic meters of water. On the conditions of P = 95%, 75% and 50%, compared with the benchmark year, water demand increases slightly due to the need of social and economic development in planning years, and water supply increased significantly because of new diversion ability. Water deficit are greatly reduced by 74.9% especially in the commonly drought condition because of the new project operation and optimized allocation of water resources.

  7. Flood frequency analysis at ungauged sites in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Thomas Rodding; Smithers, J.C.; Schulze, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Use of the index-flood method at ungauged sites requires methods for estimation of the index-flood parameter at these sites. This study attempts to relate the mean annual flood to site characteristics of catchments in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The ordinary, weighted and generalised least square...

  8. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using

  9. Non-metropolitan residential gated developments in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Spocter, M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available -metropolitan locale and the topic is also unexplored in the South African context. This research attempts to address this research gap by investigating the locations of gated developments in non-metropolitan towns of varying sizes in the Western Cape...

  10. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  11. Petrology and deformation style of lithospheric mantle beneath the Heldburg Dike swarm (Central Germany) subset of Central European Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuła, Anna; Puziewicz, Jacek; Hidas, Károly; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Matusiak-Małek, Magdalena; Milke, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    The Heldburg Dike swarm is a set of Cenozoic alkali basalt dikes occurring in the central part of Germany at the border between Thuringia and Bavaria. We studied xenoliths from Strauf, Feldstein, Bramberg and from the active quarry in Zeilberg. The peridotites from Strauf, Feldstein and Bramberg have the composition of spinel lherzolite (15), spinel harzburgite (9) and dunite (3). They vary in size from 1.5 cm (Strauf) up to 20 cm (Zeilberg). We distinguish groups (A, A- and B) of peridotites based on different forsterite content in olivine. Group A consists of olivine (89.6 - 91.8 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.93, Al 0.05-0.18 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.87-0.95, Al 0.06-0.26 a pfu) and spinel (Cr# 0.13-0.65, Mg# 0.54-0.78). Clinopyroxene rare earth elements (REE) patterns are S-shaped (Feldstein, Bramberg) or U-shaped (Strauf); spoon-shaped patterns occur occasionally. Trace element (TE) patterns show negative Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, Ti and positive Th, U anomalies. The most magnesian clinopyroxene (xenolith 3140, Feldstein) is strongly aluminous and LREE depletedwith weak anomalies in TE patterns. Group A- is contains olivine (88.9-89.5 Fo), orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.89-0.90, Al 0.10-0.13 a pfu) and clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.90-0.92, Al 0.10-0.17 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is increasingly enriched in REEs from Lu to La. TE patterns are similar to those of group A but with less pronounced anomalies. Group B (3 xenoliths only) consists of olivine Fo 86.7-88.9, orthopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.89, Al 0.07-0.19 a pfu), clinopyroxene (Mg# 0.88-0.90, Al 0.10-0.26 a pfu). Clinopyroxene is enriched in LREE, concave upward in Pr. TE patterns are similar to those in group A. One of group B harzburgites contains grains (up to 0.5 mm) of Ca-Mg carbonate located in interstices. The clinopyroxene chemical composition plots away from the melting trend in the MgO-Al2O3 diagram of Upton et al. (2011), suggesting a later addition of the clinopyroxene. The composition of orthopyroxene corresponds to ca. 15

  12. PROFITABILITY AND EFFICIENCY ANALYSIS OF SMALLHOLDER BROILER PRODUCTION IN MOPANI DISTRICT OF LIMPOPO PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Busayo Oluwatayo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in the Mopani District of Limpopo province to determine the factors aff ecting productivity of broiler production in the area. Data were collected from 86 sampled smallholder broiler farmers in three municipalities in Mopani District namely; Greater Tzaneen municipality, Greater Letaba municipality and Maruleng municipality using a well-structured questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that feed is signifi cant at 10% level having a positive relationship with the broiler output. However, stock size and vaccines are signifi cant at 1% level, also with a positive relationship with broiler output. The study recommended that government should fi nd ways of linking the smallholder farmers in the study area with other stakeholders, governmental and private, to allow smallholder farmers have the opportunities to network and get to know how the commercial successful farms operate and see where they can improve on their production systems and marketing of products.

  13. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    . An examination of the electron photomicrographs revealed several features of the chromite grains (Figure 5 c to f ). Grains display mechanical breaking such as con- choidal to sub-conchoidal fractures, V-shaped impact depressions and irregular cracks... . In this article we describe the occurrence, mineralogy, geochemistry, transport mechanisms, provenance and economic feasibility of the chromite deposit of south Maharashtra coast. Methodology Surficial and sub-surficial samples from various physi- ographic...

  14. Phylogeny and colonization history of Pringlea antiscorbutica (Brassicaceae), an emblematic endemic from the South Indian Ocean Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartish, Igor V; Aïnouche, Abdelkader; Jia, Dongrui; Bergstrom, Dana; Chown, Steven L; Winkworth, Richard C; Hennion, Françoise

    2012-11-01

    The origins and evolution of sub-Antarctic island floras are not well understood. In particular there is uncertainty about the ages of the contemporary floras and the ultimate origins of the lineages they contain. Pringlea R. Br. (Brassicaceae) is a monotypic genus endemic to four sub-Antarctic island groups in the southern Indian Ocean. Here we used sequences from both the chloroplast and nuclear genomes to examine the phylogenetic position of this enigmatic genus. Our analyses confirm that Pringlea falls within the tribe Thelypodieae and provide a preliminary view of its relationships within the group. Divergence time estimates and ancestral area reconstructions imply Pringlea diverged from a South American ancestor ~5 Myr ago. It remains unclear whether the ancestor of Pringlea dispersed directly to the South Indian Ocean Province (SIOP) or used Antarctica as a stepping-stone; what is clear, however, is that following arrival in the SIOP several additional long-distance dispersal events must be inferred to explain the current distribution of this species. Our analyses also suggest that although Pringlea is likely to have inherited cold tolerance from its closest relatives, the distinctive morphology of this species evolved only after it split from the South American lineage. More generally, our results lend support to the hypothesis that angiosperms persisted on the sub-Antarctic islands throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Taken together with evidence from other sub-Antarctic island plant groups, they suggest the extant flora of sub-Antarctic is likely to have been assembled over a broad time period and from lineages with distinctive biogeographic histories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Floral diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in hogsback, the eastern cape province, south africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.Y.; Tol, J.J.V.; Maroyi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate plant species diversity, composition and distribution in a montane wetland in Hogsback, Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Twenty four circular plots with radius of 2m were established between March and August 2013 within Hogsback montane wetland. Within each sample plot, the habitat information and species present were recorded including Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance values for all species present in the plot. A total of 41 species belonging to 19 families and 36 genera were recorded. Of the documented species, 7.3% were exotic and endemic to South Africa, indicating diversity and dynamic nature of Hogsback montane wetland flora. Plant families with the highest number of species were: Poaceae (11 species), Asteraceae (six species), Onagraceae and Cyperaceae (three species each) and Lamiaceae with two species. The low number of exotic plant species recorded in Hogsback wetland (three species in total) indicates limited anthropogenic influences. Unique species recorded in Hogsback montane wetland were three species that are endemic to South Africa, namely, Alchemilla capensis Thunb., Helichrysum rosum (P.J. Bergius) Lees and Lysimachia nutans Nees. Five main floristic associations were identified from the Hierarchical Cluster Analysis. The Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) indicated that edaphic factors, particularly area covered with water, erosion category, organic matter content and water table depth were the most important environmental variables measured accounting for the vegetation pattern present in the Hogsback montane wetland. Montane wetlands have a relatively low species richness characterised by unique species compositions which are distinctive and habitat specific. (author)

  16. Human population structure of the Costa Rican Central Provinces. An evaluation through isonymic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés E Sáenz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la estructura de varias poblaciones humanas de las provincias centrales de Costa Rica mediante métodos isonímicos y utilizando los Padrones Electorales (1990 y 2006. Se estimaron cuatro parámetros que definen, en un contexto genético y evolutivo, esta estructura: la consanguinidad por cruces aleatorios (a-priori Kinship de Morton ii, el aislamiento genético (Fisher, la migración (Karlin-McGregor y el grado de subdivisión o diferenciación de las poblaciones (Fst. La posible distribución geográfica de estas variables se muestra utilizando un análisis de componentes principales. Existe una coincidencia entre grupos de cantones obtenidos por similitud en diversidad de apellidos y la localización geográfica de los mismos en el territorio. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en los valores obtenidos para los componentes de consanguinidad (F=15.6; p<0.05 y aislamiento genético (F=14.38; p<0.05 entre diferentes sectores de las provincias centrales. Existe una asociación entre la densidad poblacional y la quiebra de aislados genéticos y otra posible asociación entre la geografía de la región y los patrones de migración de individuos y los consecuentes niveles de endocruzamiento y aislamiento genético. Las diferencias en los valores de los componentes de consanguinidad y aislamiento entre diferentes zonas del territorio central permiten suponer la existencia de diferencias en frecuencias génicas. La migración de bloques de genes del centro a la periferia también es posible y la variación en este sentido podría atribuirse principalmente a cambios en los componentes de la estructura poblacional: patrones de cruces, migración y la consecuencia del tamaño efectivo de población en procesos de deriva genética.

  17. Late Triassic granites from Bangka, Indonesia: A continuation of the Main Range granite province of the South-East Asian Tin Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Samuel Wai-Pan; Whitehouse, Martin J.; Roselee, Muhammad H.; Teschner, Claudia; Murtadha, Sayed; Oliver, Grahame J. H.; Ghani, Azman A.; Chang, Su-Chin

    2017-05-01

    The South-East Asian Tin Belt is one of the most tin-productive regions in the world. It comprises three north-south oriented granite provinces, of which the arc-related Eastern granite province and the collision-related Main Range granite province run across Thailand, Singapore, and Indonesia. These tin-producing granite provinces with different mineral assemblages are separated by Paleo-Tethyan sutures exposed in Thailand and Malaysia. The Eastern Province is usually characterised by granites with biotite ± hornblende. Main Range granites are sometimes characterised by the presence of biotite ± muscovite. However, the physical boundary between the two types of granite is not well-defined on the Indonesian Tin Islands, because the Paleo-Tethyan suture is not exposed on land there. Both hornblende-bearing (previously interpreted as I-type) and hornblende-barren (previously interpreted as S-type) granites are apparently randomly distributed on the Indonesian Tin Islands. Granites exposed on Bangka, the largest and southernmost Tin Island, no matter whether they are hornblende-bearing or hornblende-barren, are geochemically similar to Malaysian Main Range granites. The average ɛNd(t) value obtained from the granites from Bangka (average ɛNd(t) = -8.2) falls within the range of the Main Range Province (-9.6 to -5.4). These granites have SIMS zircon U-Pb ages of ca. 225 Ma and ca. 220 Ma, respectively that are both within the period of Main Range magmatism (∼226-201 Ma) in the Peninsular Malaysia. We suggest that the granites exposed on Bangka represent the continuation of the Main Range Province, and that the Paleo-Tethyan suture lies to the east of the island.

  18. Molecular differentiation of Entamoeba spp. in a rural community of Loja province, South Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levecke, B; Dreesen, L; Barrionuevo-Samaniego, M; Ortiz, W Benitez; Praet, N; Brandt, J; Dorny, P

    2011-12-01

    Although previous epidemiological surveys in Ecuador indicate the presence of Entamoeba histolytica, prevalence data of this parasite remain scarce. Most of the studies were based on microscopic examination, which does not allow a morphological differentiation from the non-pathogenic Ent. dispar and Ent. moshkovskii. In the present study, 674 stool samples from a South Ecuadorian rural community were screened for Entamoeba spp. Subsequently, molecular identification was performed on 101 samples containing Ent. histolytica/Ent. dispar/Ent. moshkovskii cysts. The study indicated the absence of Ent. histolytica in this South Ecuadorian community and confirmed the difficulty of differentiating Entamoeba spp. based on morphological features. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Smallholder farmers’ awareness of biofuel crops in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2016-01-01

    In this study, 157 smallholder farmers from the OR Tambo and Chris Hani district municipality in South Africa were purposively sampled to participate in a survey. The objective was to identify the factors that influence smallholder farmers’ awareness of biofuel crops. Using a binary logistic model it was found that the variables; gender, household income, membership in association; land utilisation and qualification were statistically significant in influencing farmers’ awareness of biofuel c...

  20. Barriers facing female entrepreneurs : a study in the Gauteng Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.B.A. Everywhere in the world, an increasing number of female entrepreneurs are becoming the pillars of economic growth and development. This exploratory research sought to investigate the barriers facing female entrepreneurs and to establish whether these barriers are exacerbated for women because of their gender. It focuses on the experiences and perceptions of female entrepreneurs in the urban formal sector of the Gauteng area of South Africa. Data for the study was gathered by a surve...

  1. Detection and Characterisation of Anaplasma marginale and A. centrale in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paidashe Hove

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bovine anaplasmosis is endemic in South Africa and it has a negative economic impact on cattle farming. An improved understanding of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma marginale variety centrale (A. centrale transmission, together with improved tools for pathogen detection and characterisation, are required to inform best management practices. Direct detection methods currently in use for A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa are light microscopic examination of tissue and organ smears, conventional, nested, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays, and a reverse line blot hybridisation assay. Of these, qPCR is the most sensitive for detection of A. marginale and A. centrale in South Africa. Serological assays also feature in routine diagnostics, but cross-reactions prevent accurate species identification. Recently, genetic characterisation has confirmed that A. marginale and A. centrale are separate species. Diversity studies targeting Msp1a repeats for A. marginale and Msp1aS repeats for A. centrale have revealed high genetic variation and point to correspondingly high levels of variation in A. marginale outer membrane proteins (OMPs, which have been shown to be potential vaccine candidates in North American studies. Information on these OMPs is lacking for South African A. marginale strains and should be considered in future recombinant vaccine development studies, ultimately informing the development of regional or global vaccines.

  2. Water and gas geochemistry of the Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) hydrothermal system (Ciudad Real, central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Tassi, Franco; Giannini, Luciano; Grandia, Fidel; Darrah, Tom; Capecchiacci, Francesco; del Villar, Pèrez

    2013-04-01

    An extensive geochemical and isotopic investigation was carried out in the water and gas discharges of the Late Miocene-Quaternary Calatrava Volcanic Province (CVP) (Ciudad Real, Spain) with the aim reconstruct the fluid circulation in the area. CVP consists of a series of scattered (monogenetic) vents from where alkaline lava flows and pyroclastic deposits formed in two different periods. The first stage (8.7-6.4 Ma) mainly included ultra-potassic mafic extrusives, whilst the second stage (4.7-1.75 Ma) prevalently originated alkaline and ultra-alkaline volcanics. Both stages were followed by a volcanic activity that extended up to 1.3 and 0.7 Ma, respectively. This area can likely be regarded as one of the most important emitting zones of CO2 in the whole Peninsular Spain along with that of Selva-Emporda in northeastern Spain (Cataluña) and it can be assumed as one of the best examples of natural analogues of CO2 leakages in Spain. This latter aspect is further evidenced by the relatively common water-gas blast events that characterize the CCVF. In the last few years the presence of a CO2-pressurized reservoir at a relatively shallow level as indeed caused several small-sized explosion particularly during the drilling of domestic wells. The fluid discharging sites are apparently aligned along well-defined directions: NW-SE and NNW-SSE and subordinately, ENE-WSW, indicating a clear relationship between the thermal discharges and the volcanic centers that also distribute along these lineaments. The CVP waters are mostly hypothermal (up to 33 °C) and are generally Mg(Ca)-HCO3 in composition and occasionally show relatively high concentrations of Fe and Mn, with pH and electrical conductivity down to 5.5 and up to 6.5 mS/cm, respectively. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopes suggest a meteoric origin for these waters. The mantle source of these volcanic products is apparently preserved in the many CO2-rich (up to 990,000 mmol/mol) gas discharges that characterize CVP

  3. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu

    2008-07-01

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.

  4. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth. Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF BEEF CATTLE SUBSYSTEM AGRIBUSINESS IMPLEMENTATION IN CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ekowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to analyze the implementation of subsystem agribusiness on the beef cattlefarming in Central Java. Five districts (Rembang, Blora, Grobogan, Boyolali and Wonogiri werepurposively chosen based on the value of Location Quotient (LQ. The study was conducted usingquota sampling method. Forty respondents of each district were chosen randomly using quota sampling.Data were analyzed through Structural Equation Model (SEM. The results showed that each subsystemagribusiness had adequate potential score. The score of 0.693, 0.721, 0.684, 0.626, and 0.691 were givenfor up-stream subsystem, on-farm, down-stream subsystem, marketing and supporting institution,respectively. The results showed that the SEM model was feasible with Chi-Square value=0.952;RMSEA=0.000; Probability =0.621 and TL1=1.126. The significant results of Critical Ratio (CR were:up-stream subsystem to the on-farm agribusiness; on-farm subsystem to down-stream agribusiness;down-stream subsystem to the farmer’s income; marketing subsystem to the up-stream agribusiness andSupporting Institution to the marketing subsystem and down-stream agribusiness. The conclusion ofresearch indicated that the implementation of beef cattle subsystem agribusiness had adequate index andgive positive effect to the beef cattle agribusiness.

  6. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site.

  7. Preliminary geology of eastern Umtanum Ridge, South-Central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, F.E.

    1981-01-01

    The basalt stratigraphy and geologic structures of eastern Umtanum Ridge have been mapped and studied in detail to help assess the feasibility of nuclear waste terminal storage on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Eastern Umtanum Ridge is an asymmetric east-west-trending anticline of Columbia River basalt that plunges 5 degrees eastward into the Pasco Basin. Geologic mapping and determination of natural remanent magnetic polarity and chemical composition reveal that flows of the Pomona and Umatilla Members (Saddle Mountains Basalt), Priest Rapids and Frenchman Springs Members (Wanapum Basalt), and Grande Ronde Basalt were erupted as fairly uniform sheets. The Wahluke and Huntzinger flows (Saddle Mountains Basalt) fill a paleovalley cut into Wanapum Basalt. No evidence was found to indicate Quaternary-age movement on any structures in the map area. The basalt strata on the south limb of the Umtanum anticline display relatively little tectonic deformation since Miocene-Pliocene time. Thus, the buried south flank of Umtanum Ridge may provide an excellent location for a nuclear waste repository beneath the Hanford Site

  8. Secondary school teachers' experiences of teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogo F Matlala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a study on the experiences of secondary school teachers on teaching pregnant learners in Limpopo Province. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual design was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten purposively selected secondary school teachers. Data analysis yielded six themes, which are: (1 identification of pregnant learners; (2 continuation of pregnant learners' school career; (3 dilemmas related to school-attending pregnant learners; (4 support of school-attending pregnant learners; (5 gender in pregnancy caretaking; and (6 communication and cooperation between teachers and parents. Teachers experienced challenges in identifying pregnant learners, and to meet their health needs as they lacked health related skills. Parents were not always cooperative towards teachers. It can be concluded that teachers face many dilemmas related to pregnant learners, and this requires a health facilitation model to enable teachers to assist pregnant learners such that they might better benefit from their schooling, and experience a positive health outcome.

  9. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    S.M. Maputle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized.Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  10. Midwives’ experiences of managing women in labour in the Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    Sonto M. Maputle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives managing women during labour at a tertiary care hospital in the Limpopo Province. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and inductive design was applied to this qualitative research study. Purposive sampling was used to select midwives who were working in the childbirth unit and had managed women during labour. A sample of 12 midwives participated in this study. Data were collected by means of unstructured individual interviews and analysed through an open coding method by the researchers and the independent co-coder. Findings: Categories identified were lack of mutual participation and responsibility sharing, dependency and lack of decision-making, lack of information-sharing, empowering autonomy and informed choices opportunities, lack of open communication and listening, non-accommodative midwifery actions, and lack of human and material infrastructure. To ensure the validity of the results, criteria to measure trustworthiness were utilized. Conclusions: This study has implications for woman-centered care by midwives managing women in labour and provides appropriate guidelines that should be integrated into the Batho-Pele Principles.

  11. Account of the littoral diatoms from Langebaan, Saldanha bay, Cape province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Giffen, MH

    1975-01-01

    Full Text Available collec ted in a small bay near the holiday resort of Langebaan (long. 18,02 E, lat. 33,05 5) on the eastern shore of Saldanha Bay. Saldanha Bay is situated on the western coast of South Africa some 110 km north of Cape Town, and forms a long narrow... per annum about 79% during April to September (i.e. winter rainfall). The region can therefore be regarded as semi-desert. The salinity of the sea water at Langebaan was 35 0/00. The average temperature range of the air in summer is from 16.5? C...

  12. Geomorphic provinces of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland: A physiographic subdivision for earth and environmental scientists

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Partridge, TC

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available , 65: 1, 1 — 47 To link to this Article: DOI: 10.1080/00359191003652033 URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00359191003652033 Full terms and conditions of use: http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdf This article may be used... for this project, termed the Freshwater Biodiversity Initiative (FBI), two are relevant here: • to identify those freshwater ecosystems best suited to receiv- ing a high protection status; and Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa Vol. 65...

  13. Eye protection practices and symptoms among welders in the Limpopo Province of South Africa+

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    H. L. Sithole

    2009-12-01

    though the majority of the welders wore protective devices while welding, a few did not always use such devices while others used sunglasses for protection.  Moreover, many of the welders were occasionally, and only a few were always, exposed to welding flashes when protective devices were not used. Therefore, we concluded that eye protectionpractices amongst the welders appeared to be inadequate to avoid hazards associated with welding.  It is recommended that an eye protection educational campaign for welders should form part of the SouthAfrican Government’s workplace safety program.

  14. Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Tranmission Risk Level on Three Local Health Center in Three Endemic District in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

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    Dicky Andiarsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan tingkat risiko penularan DBD di wilayah endemis DBD di Kabupaten Bone, Kota Palopo dan Kota Makassar Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian dilaksanakan Bulan Mei-Juni 2015 pada rumah tangga secara sistematik sampling sebanyak 100 rumah pada setiap wilayah kerja puskesmas endemis DBD tertinggi di Kab. Bone (Watampone, Kota Palopo (Wara dan Kota Makassar (Mangasa Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan. Data dianalisis untuk menunjukkan indikator surveilans larva (HI, CI, dan BI dan density figure. Data disajikan dengan jumlah larva berdasarkan jenis kontainer, persentase dan distribusi kontainer. Nilai ABJ ketiga puskesmas termasuk rendah Watampone: 53%, Wara: 54%, Mangasa: 68%. Persentase CI (angka container larva tertinggi adalah Puskesmas Watampone (17, 78%, selanjutnya Wara (17,71% dan Mangasa (15,47%. Berdasarkan perhitungan HI, CI dan BI, density figure dari ketiga kabupaten pada kategori sedang hingga tinggi dan Maya index menunjukkan tingkat risiko penularan DBD sedang. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa Density figure pada kontainer rumah tangga yang diperiksa sedang hingga tinggi. Kampanye pencegahan DBD yang kuat, deteksi kasus dari rumah ke rumah dan upaya persuasif yang mengedukasi mengenai hal ini penting dilakukan untuk meningkatkan kesadaran masyarakat agar ikut berpartisipasi dan lebih waspada terhadap DBD.Kata Kunci: DBD, larva, Aedes aegypti, kontainer, Maya IndeksAbstract. The aim of this research is to determine of transmission risk level of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF endemic area in District of Bone, Municipal of Palopo, and Municipal of Makassar, South Sulawesi province. Study held in May-June 2015 to 100 households by systematically sampling method in three highest local healthcare center work area in each endemic in District of Bone (Watampone, Municipal of Palopo (Wara, and Municipal of Makassar (Mangasa, South Sulawesi Province. Data analyzed to show the indicators of DHF surveillance (House

  15. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyewende, Pascalia O; Levin, Jonathan; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2016-01-01

    Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC) reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors ( n =104) and subordinate nurses ( n =383) were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs) were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers' competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6), leadership and management (8.67), staff management (8.75), planning and priority setting (8.6), and problem-solving (8.83). The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33-9.11). Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with the lowest rating for financial management

  16. An evaluation of the competencies of primary health care clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascalia O. Munyewende

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managerial competencies to enhance individual and organisational performance have gained currency in global efforts to strengthen health systems. Competent managers are essential in the implementation of primary health care (PHC reforms that aim to achieve universal health coverage. Objective: To evaluate the competencies of PHC clinic nursing managers in two South African provinces. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two South African provinces. Using stratified random sampling, 111 PHC clinic nursing managers were selected. All supervisors (n=104 and subordinate nurses (n=383 were invited to participate in the survey on the day of data collection. Following informed consent, the nursing managers, their supervisors, and subordinate nurses completed a 40-item, 360-degree competency assessment questionnaire, with six domains: communication, leadership and management, staff management, financial management, planning and priority setting, and problem-solving. Standard deviations, medians, and inter-quartile ranges (IQRs were computed separately for PHC nursing managers, supervisors, and subordinate nurses for competencies in the six domains. The Tinsley and Weiss index was used to assess agreement between each of the three possible pairs of raters. Results: A 95.4% response rate was obtained, with 105 nursing managers in Gauteng and Free State completing the questionnaires. There was a lack of agreement about nursing managers’ competencies among the three groups of raters. Overall, clinic nursing managers rated themselves high on the five domains of communication (8.6, leadership and management (8.67, staff management (8.75, planning and priority setting (8.6, and problem-solving (8.83. The exception was financial management with a median score of 7.94 (IQR 6.33–9.11. Compared to the PHC clinic managers, the supervisors and subordinate nurses gave PHC nursing managers lower ratings on all six competency domains, with

  17. Crustal velocity structure of central Gansu Province from regional seismic waveform inversion using firework algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanyang; Wang, Yanbin; Zhang, Yuansheng

    2017-04-01

    The firework algorithm (FWA) is a novel swarm intelligence-based method recently proposed for the optimization of multi-parameter, nonlinear functions. Numerical waveform inversion experiments using a synthetic model show that the FWA performs well in both solution quality and efficiency. We apply the FWA in this study to crustal velocity structure inversion using regional seismic waveform data of central Gansu on the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau. Seismograms recorded from the moment magnitude ( M W) 5.4 Minxian earthquake enable obtaining an average crustal velocity model for this region. We initially carried out a series of FWA robustness tests in regional waveform inversion at the same earthquake and station positions across the study region, inverting two velocity structure models, with and without a low-velocity crustal layer; the accuracy of our average inversion results and their standard deviations reveal the advantages of the FWA for the inversion of regional seismic waveforms. We applied the FWA across our study area using three component waveform data recorded by nine broadband permanent seismic stations with epicentral distances ranging between 146 and 437 km. These inversion results show that the average thickness of the crust in this region is 46.75 km, while thicknesses of the sedimentary layer, and the upper, middle, and lower crust are 3.15, 15.69, 13.08, and 14.83 km, respectively. Results also show that the P-wave velocities of these layers and the upper mantle are 4.47, 6.07, 6.12, 6.87, and 8.18 km/s, respectively.

  18. Overcoming SMEs Challenges through Critical Success Factors: A Case of SMEs in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    Takalani Ramukumba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs comprise over 90% of African business operations and contribute to over 50% of African employment and Growth Domestic Product (GDP. SMEs sector has shown positive signs in South Africa, Mauritius and North Africa. In South Africa, SMEs constitute 55% of all jobs. Research of Bowler, Dawood and Page (2007 reveal that 40% of new business ventures fail in their first year, 60% in their second year, and 90% in their first 10 years of existence. It seems that a number of challenges have been identified as contributing to the failure of SMEs in South Africa and worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the critical success factors for the SMEs to improve their performance in order to overcome the challenges they are faced within the competitive market environment. The research problem of this study emanates from the current high business failure rate. The research investigates what are the critical success factors that can help these SMEs to be sustainable and have positive growth so to limit the high business failure rate in South Africa. The research established that attracting repeat customers and the performance of the product are the critical success factors that can lead to the sustenance of these SMEs. The study concluded that the resource-constraint SMEs need to focus on critical success factors to build competitive advantage to stay competitive amidst the challenges from globalisation and liberalisation. This study will make further contribution on understanding these critical success factors as they are central to business success, especially in South Africa where it is estimated that the failure rate of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is between 70% and 80% (Brink and Cant, 2009.

  19. Ordovician A-type granitoid magmatism on the Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province, NE-Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Neivaldo A.; Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Osako, Liliane S.; Nutman, Alan A.; Liu, Dunyi

    2012-07-01

    We present field relationships, major and trace element geochemistry and U-Pb SHRIMP and ID-TIMS geochronology of the A-type Ordovician Quintas pluton located in the Ceará Central Domain of the Borborema Province, in northeastern Brazil. This pluton presents a concentric geometry and is composed mainly of syenogranite, monzogranite, quartz syenite to quartz monzodiorite, monzogabbro and diorite. Its geochemical characteristics [SiO2 (52-70%), Na2O/K2O (1.55-0.65), Fe2O3/MgO (2.2-7.3), metaluminous to sligthly alkaline affinity, post-collisional type in (Y + Nb) × Rb diagram, and A-type affinity (Ga > 22 ppm, Nb > 20 ppm, Zn > 60 ppm), REE fractioned pattern with negative Eu anomaly] are coherent with post-collisional A2-type granitoids. However, the emplacement of this pluton is to some extent temporally associated with the deposition of the first strata of the Parnaíba intracratonic basin, attesting also to a purely anorogenic character (A1-type granitoid). The emplacement of this pluton is preceded by one of the largest known orogenesis of the planet (Neoproterozoic Pan-African/Brasiliano) and, if it is classified as an A2-type granitoid, it provides interesting constraints about how long can last A2-type magmatic activity after a major collisional episode, arguably triggered by disturbance of the underlying mantle, a topic extensively debated in the geoscience community.

  20. Effects of the floods on dysentery in north central region of Henan Province, China from 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Ding, Guoyong; Li, Yifei; Li, Hongkai; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-11-01

    Zhengzhou, Kaifeng and Xinxiang, the cities in the north central region of Henan Province, suffered from many times floods from 2004 to 2009. We focused on dysentery disease consequences of floods and examined the association between floods and the morbidity of dysentery, based on a longitudinal data. A generalized additive mixed model was conducted to examine the relationship between the monthly morbidity of dysentery and floods from 2004 to 2009 in the study areas. The relative risks (RRs) of the floods risk on the morbidity of dysentery were estimated in each city and the whole region. The RRs on dysentery were 11.47 (95% CI: 8.67-15.33), 1.35 (95% CI: 1.23-3.90) and 2.75 (95% CI: 1.36-4.85) in Kaifeng, Xinxiang and Zhengzhou, respectively. The RR on dysentery in the whole region was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.52-1.82). Our study confirms that flooding has significantly increased the risk of dysentery in the study areas. Additionally, we observed that a sudden and severe flooding can contribute more risk to the morbidity of dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Our findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  2. Distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater from Central-West Part of Santa Fe Province, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Albertengo, Antonela; Brusa, Lucila; Beldoménico, Horacio; Tudino, Mabel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Study on inorganic arsenic species in groundwater for drinking in Santa Fe Argentina. • This information is currently scarce or absent in the region. • An analytical methodology based on SPE-FI-HGAAS coupling was used for speciation. • Information is given for a more accurate interpretation of the toxicological impact. - Abstract: The distribution of inorganic arsenic species in groundwater used as drinking water supply by the peri-urban and rural population from central-western area of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, was studied. An analytical methodology based on an online system of atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation and flow injection (FI-HGAAS) was used for total inorganic arsenic determination. For speciation purposes, the distinction between As(V) and As(III) was performed through the on line coupling of FI-HGAAS to a solid phase system based on an anionic exchanger able to retain As(V) as oxyanion, allowing As(III) to be selectively determined. The concentration of As(V) was calculated as the difference between total arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Effects of matrix interference due to the nonselective behavior of the exchange resins were carefully laid. Results for 59 samples collected from 27 localities showed an almost exclusive predominance of pentavalent forms

  3. Financial analysis of East Coast fever control strategies in traditionally managed Sanga cattle in Central Province of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minjauw, B; Rushton, J; James, A D; Upton, M

    1999-01-01

    Five different East Coast fever (ECF)-control strategies (involving ECF immunisation by the infection-and-treatment method) were tested in groups of traditionally managed Sanga cattle in the Central Province of Zambia over a period of 2.5 years. Two groups were under intensive tick control (weekly spraying with acaricide)--one group immunised and the other non-immunised. Two groups were under no tick control--one group immunised and the other non-immunised. The fifth group was under seasonal tick control (18 sprays/year) and was immunised against ECF. The input and output data were used to construct discounted cash flows for each group. The seasonally sprayed and immunised group gave the highest net present value, and the non-immunised group with no tick control, the lowest. A break-even analysis showed that the immunisation costs could rise to US$25.9 per animal before profitability was affected. For herds under intensive tick control, immunisation was of no financial benefit. The results demonstrate the value of immunisation, and indicate the importance of its combination with seasonal tick-control measures.

  4. THE DIMENSION OF COOPERATIVISM AND DAIRY CATTLE FARMING IN GETASAN VILLAGE, SEMARANG REGENCY, CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gayatri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to explore the role of cooperativism in dairy cattle farming in Getasan village,Semarang Regency, Central Java Province. Spearman Rank Correlation test was used to determine therelationship between cooperativism and the performance of dairy cattle farming. Based on the results ofthe Spearman Rank correlation test, feeds and feeding practices were significantly correlated withsharing of knowledge and information and sharing of resources. However, no significant relationshipwas found between participation in decision making and feeds and feeding practices. Meanwhile, therewere significant relationships amog sharing of knowledge and information, sharing of resources, andparticipation in decision making and milk production in Getasan Village. The dairy health asperformance indicator of dairy cattle farming, sharing of knowledge and information was the onlysignificant factor. Sharing of resources and participation in decision making had no significantrelationship with dairy health. As regards marketing, the test showed that sharing of knowledge andinformation, sharing of resources, and participation in decision making were significantly relatedfactors. This study indicated that cooperativism may provide opportunities for farmers to accessservices, information and resources that will allow them to improve their capacities in these areas. Thisstudy also proposed some recommendations that the cooperatives should promote activities encouraginggreater cooperation and mutual understanding among the members. Skills trainings and education forempowerment should be conducted to encourage participation in decision making.

  5. Wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of intimate partner violence by husbands in Central Province, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Achini; Poudel, Krishna C; Sakisaka, Kayako; Yasuoka, Junko; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jimba, Masamine

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a community based, cross-sectional study to describe the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) by husbands and the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and their experience of IPV in Central Province, Sri Lanka. This article included a representative sample of 624 wives between 15 and 49 years of age and examined the prevalence of physical, psychological, and sexual abuse. Then, using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the authors examined the association between wives' attitudes toward gender roles and IPV. Of the 624 wives, 36% had experienced at least one episode of physical, psychological, or sexual abuse by their husbands during their life time (ever abuse), and 19% had experienced such abuse during the past 12 months (current abuse). The wives were less likely to experience current abuse by husbands if they believed that "outsiders should not intervene to protect abused wives." They were more likely to experience ever and current isolated psychological abuse by husbands if they did not believe that "a good wife always obeys her husband." This study suggests that the prevalence of IPV is high in Sri Lanka. Although several published studies on IPV suggest that traditional gender role attitudes tend to increase women's vulnerability to IPV, this study suggests that in Sri Lanka, the wives who respect cultural norms tend to experience less IPV by husbands.

  6. Impact of Implementation of Direct Cash Transfer Program 2008/2009 on Household Consumption in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to see the impact of direct cash transfer program for 2008/2009 on household consumption of food, nonfood, education, and health in Central Java Province. The study is expected to provide important findings for the improvement of a similar program in the future. This study findings that (1) the increasing in food and non-food consumption for direct cash transfer recipients than non direct cash transfer recipients; (2) the impact of households expenditure on education for direct cash transfer recipients is higher than non direct cash transfer recipients; (3) the impact of households expenditure on health for direct cash transfer recipients is lower than non direct cash transfer recipients. This study recommended that (1) implementation of direct cash transfer program 2008/2009 must be managed to be better because this program can defend household welfare. It shows from several indicators of well-being such as consumption spending, education, and health; (2) data targets for poor households (very poor, poor, nearly poor) must be updated.

  7. U-Th age evidence from carbonate veins for episodic crustal deformation of Central Anatolian Volcanic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Volkan; Uysal, I. Tonguç; Ünal-İmer, Ezgi; Mutlu, Halim; Zhao, Jian-xin

    2017-12-01

    Central Anatolia represents one of the most outstanding examples of intraplate deformation related to both continental collision and back-arc extension generating non-uniformly distributed stress fields. In this study, we provide direct field evidence of various stress directions and investigate carbonate-filled fracture systems in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province using U/Th geochronology and isotope geochemistry for evaluating the episodes of latest volcanic activity under regional stress. Field data reveal two independent fracture systems in the region. Successive fracture development has been controlled by two different volcanic eruption centers (Hasandağ Composite Volcano and Acıgöl Caldera). Trace element, and stable (C and O) and radiogenic (Sr) isotope compositions of carbonate veins indicate different fluid migration pathways for two different fracture systems. The U/Th age data for carbonate veins of two independent fracture systems indicate that the crustal deformation intensified during 7 episodic periods in the last 150 ka. The NNE-trending first fracture system was formed as a result of strain cycles in a period from 149 ± 2.5, through 91 ± 1.5 to 83 ± 2.5 ka BP. Subsequent deformation events represented by the ENE-trending second fracture zone have been triggered during the period of 53 ± 3.5, 44 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1 ka BP before the first fracture zone resumed the activity at about 4.7 ± 0.15 ka BP. Although further studies are needed to evaluate statistical significance of age correlations, the periods of carbonate precipitation inferred from U-Th age distributions in this study are comparable with the previous dating results of surrounding volcanic eruption events.

  8. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  9. Mitigation of landslide area around railway tunnel, South Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toha, M. Taufik; Setiabudidaya, Dedi; Komar, Syamsul; Bochori, Ghadafi, Moamar A.; Adiwarman, Mirza; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    Adequate and safe railway line infrastructures as well as facilities are required to support the rail transport system in South Sumatra. The slope stability along railway line of Lahat-Lubuk Linggau South Sumatra were studied during landslide that occured on January 23th, 2016. The landslide occurred on the mouth of railway tunnel in Gunung Gajah Village, Lahat District that causing the railway transportation system had to be stopped for a few days. A comprehensive research was conducted to analyze the causes of the landslide and to identify other landslide risky areas along the railway line Lahat-Lubuk Linggau. The research activities included surveying, sampling, laboratory testing, investigating condition of geology, geotechnics, hydrogeology/hydrology, morphology and land use. The factors that cause landslide in the past studies were found to be morphology, structural geology, physical and mechanical characteristics, hydrogeology, hydrology, external forces (train vibration, earthquake). Results back analysis of slope stability when the landslide occurred showed that the value Safety Factor (SF) = 1, angle of friction = 0°, and cohesion = 0.49 kg/cm2 (49 kPa). Based on the observation and analysis of the condition of the morphology and orientation of the structure of the rock layers, there was a location prone to landslide (labile) in the surrounding area of the landslide. Mitigations to potential landslide in adjacent area were building a retaining wall, draining channels, and shortcrete at the rock wall after landslides and maintaining the land use around the slopes.

  10. A geological investigation of the Proterozoic T'Oubep Suite, northwestern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agenbacht, A.L.D.; Schoch, A.E.; Van der Merwe, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    The T'Oubep Suite occurs in the central part of the Namaqua mobile belt approximately 80km southwest of Kakamas. The Suite comprises seven different rock types with compositions ranging from betabasite through granodiorite and tonalite to granite. The igneous rocks were extensively metamorphosed during the Namaqua tectogenesis. The comagmatic origin for the granitic rocks suggested by the field relations is corroborated by whole rock, trace element and REE chemistry. 5 refs., 3 figs

  11. Recurrent mesoproterozoic continental magmatism in South-Central Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Svend; Andersen, Tom; Konnerup-Madsen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    rocks and metasediments from the Byglandsfjorden supracrustal cover sequence, and metaigneous rocks which intruded the whole succession. The main crustal evolution took place from 1,550-1,020 Ma, beginning with the emplacement of juvenile tonalitic melts; the contribution of older crustal material......We report U-Pb dates and Lu-Hf isotope data, obtained by LAM-ICPMS, for zircons from metamorphic rocks of the Setesdalen valley, situated in the Telemark block south of the classic Telemark region of southern Norway. The samples include infracrustal rocks from the metamorphic basement, metaigneous...... is represented by supracrustal rocks, principally metarhyolites with minor mafic material and immature sediments of the Byglandsfjorden Group. The crust generation processes ended with the intrusion of diorites and granodiorites at 1,030 Ma, late in the Sveconorwegian orogeny. Regional processes of metamorphism...

  12. Late Cenozoic structure and stratigraphy of south-central Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Fecht, K.R.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    The structural framework of the Columbia Basin began developing before Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) volcanism. Prior to 17.5 Ma, the eastern part of the basin was a relatively stable area, with a basement of Paleozoic and older crystalline rock. The western part was an area of subsidence in which large volumes of sediment and volcanic rocks accumulated. Concurrent with eruption of the CRBG, anticlinal ridges of the Yakima Fold Belt (YFB) were growing under north-south compression. Topographic expression of these features was later masked by the large volume of CRBG basalt flowing west from fissures in the eastern Columbia Basin. The folds continued to develop after cessation of volcanism, leading to as much as 1,000 m of structural relief in the past 10 million years. Post-CRBG evolution of the Columbia Basin is recorded principally in folding and faulting in the YFB and sediments deposited in the basins. The accompanying tectonism resulted in lateral migration of major depositional systems into subsiding structural lows. Although known late Cenozoic faults are on anticlinal ridges, earthquake focal mechanisms and contemporary strain measurements indicate most stress release is occurring in the synclinal areas under north-south compression. There is no obvious correlation between focal mechanisms for earthquakes whose foci are in the CRBG and the location of known faults. High in situ stress values help to explain the occurrence of microseismicity in the Columbia Basin but not the pattern. Microseismicity appears to occur in unaltered fresh basalt. Faulted basalt associated with the YFB is highly brecciated and commonly altered to clay. The high stress, abundance of ground water in confined aquifers of the CRBG, and altered basalt in fault zones suggest that the frontal faults on the anticlinal ridges probably have some aseismic deformation. 85 refs

  13. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  14. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging.All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives.The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC using serology alone may reflect the natural history of NCC.

  15. Food fortification knowledge in women of child-bearing age at Nkowankowa township in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selekane A. Motadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, there is evidence that three micronutrients deficiencies are of public health concern among children. They are vitamin A, iodine and iron deficiencies. Communities particularly affected are those in situations where poverty, unemployment, civil unrest, war and exploitation remain endemic. Malnutrition is an impediment to productivity, economic growth and poverty eradication. It is estimated that 32% of the global burden would be removed by eliminating malnutrition, including micronutrients deficiencies. Setting: The study was carried out in NkowaNkowa township of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Aim: The main objective was to determine the women’s knowledge on food fortification. Methods: The study design was descriptive. The snowballing method was used to identify women of child-bearing age. Data were collected from 120 participants using a questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic, general questions on women’s knowledge on food fortification. The questionnaire was administered by the researcher using the local language Xitsonga. Results: The findings of the study revealed that a majority of 204 (57.0% of the participants were able to define food fortification correctly while 257 (72.0% of the participants knew which foods are fortified as well as the benefits of a food fortification programme. The majority (252 [70.0%] of the participants knew that maize meal is one of the food vehicle used for fortification in South Africa. Conclusion: Most of the questions were answered correctly by more than 50.0% of the participants. The researcher deduced that the study participants are knowledgeable about food fortification based on the response given in relation to the programme.

  16. The accuracy of nurse performance of the triage process in a tertiary hospital emergency department in Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L N Goldstein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Triage in the emergency department (ED is necessary to prioritise management according to the severity of a patient’s condition.The South African Triage Scale (SATS is a hospital-based triage tool that has been adopted by numerous EDs countrywide.Many factors can influence the outcome of a patient’s triage result, and evaluation of performance is therefore pivotal. Objectives. To determine how often patients were allocated to the correct triage category and the extent to which they were incorrectly promoted or demoted, and to determine the main reasons for errors in a nurse-led triage system. Methods. Triage forms from a tertiary hospital ED in Gauteng Province, South Africa, were collected over a 1-week period and reviewed retrospectively. Results. A total of 1 091 triage forms were reviewed. Triage category allocations were correct 68.3% of the time. Of the incorrect category assignments, 44.4% of patients were promoted and 55.6% demoted. Patients in the green category were most commonly promoted (29.4% and patients who should have been in orange were most commonly demoted (35.0%. Trauma patients were more likely to be incorrectly promoted and non-trauma patients to be incorrectly demoted. Mistakes were mainly due to discriminator errors (57.8%, followed by numerical miscalculations (21.5%. The leading omitted discriminators were ‘abdominal pain’, ‘chest pain’ and ‘shortness of breath’. Conclusions. Mis-triaging using the SATS can be attributed to incorrect or lack of discriminator use, numerical miscalculations and other human errors. Quality control and quality assurance measures must target training in these areas to minimise mis-triage in the ED.

  17. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  18. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  19. A long-lived Late Cretaceous-early Eocene extensional province in Anatolia? Structural evidence from the Ivriz Detachment, southern central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Plunder, Alexis; Kirst, Frederik; Corfu, Fernando; Schmid, Stefan M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Central Anatolia exposes previously buried and metamorphosed, continent-derived rocks - the Kırşehir and Afyon zones - now covering an area of ∼300 × 400 km. So far, the exhumation history of these rocks has been poorly constrained. We show for the first time that the major, >120 km long, top-NE 'Ivriz' Detachment controlled the exhumation of the HP/LT metamorphic Afyon Zone in southern Central Anatolia. We date its activity at between the latest Cretaceous and early Eocene times. Combined with previously documented isolated extensional detachments found in the Kırşehir Block, our results suggest that a major province governed by extensional exhumation was active throughout Central Anatolia between ∼80 and ∼48 Ma. Although similar in dimension to the Aegean extensional province to the east, the Central Anatolian extensional province is considerably older and was controlled by a different extension direction. From this, we infer that the African slab(s) that subducted below Anatolia must have rolled back relative to the Aegean slab since at least the latest Cretaceous, suggesting that these regions were underlain by a segmented slab. Whether or not these early segments already corresponded to the modern Aegean, Antalya, and Cyprus slab segments remains open for debate, but slab segmentation must have occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  20. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  1. An Assessment of Radiological Hazards from Gold Mine Tailings in the Province of Gauteng in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamunda, Caspah; Mathuthu, Manny; Madhuku, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Radiological hazards associated with exposure to Naturally Occurring Radionuclides Materials from gold mine tailings in the province of Gauteng in South Africa were evaluated. A comparison was made with soil samples from a control area. In this study, gamma spectroscopy was used to measure the activity concentrations of these radionuclides in 56 soil samples from the mine tailings and 10 soil samples from the control area. The average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the mine tailings were found to be 785.3 ± 13.7, 43.9 ± 1.0 and 427.0 ± 13.1, respectively. On the other hand, the average activity concentrations in Bq∙kg−1 for Uranium-238, Thorium-232, and Potassium-40 from the control area were found to be 17.0.1 ± 0.4, 22.2 ± 0.5 and 496.8 ± 15.2, respectively. Radiological hazard parameters calculated from these activity concentrations were higher than recommended safe limits. In particular, calculated average values for the external hazard (Hex) and the internal hazard (Hin) from the mine tailings were found to be 2.4 and 4.5. Both these values were higher than unity, posing a significant health risk to the population in the area. PMID:26797624

  2. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANALGESIC PROPERTIES OF PENTANISIA PRUNELLOIDES FROM THE EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Miya Gugulethu; Ajayi, Oyemitan Idris; Opeoluwa, Oyedeji Oyehan; Oluwatobi, Oluwafemi Samuel; Benedicta N, Nkeh-Chungag; Phindile, Songca Sandile; Oyedeji; Omowumi, Adebola

    2016-01-01

    Pentanisia prunelloides is a medicinal plant widely used to remedy various ailments including infections, fever and rheumatism in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. There is scanty report on the phytochemical and biological properties of the plant; hence various solvent extracts of the dried plant materials were phytochemically screened, and its aqueous extract evaluated for acute toxicity effect, analgesic and antiinflammatory properties in rodents. Different extracts of both leaf and rhizome were obtained separately with ethanol, methanol and water. Portions of the filtrate were used for qualitative screening of secondary metabolites and remaining portions were concentrated and dried. Dried grounded leaf and rhizome of the plant were also used for quantitative screening for some major components. The aqueous extract of the leaf and rhizome were used for acute toxicity (LD 50 ) test, antiinflammatory and analgesic activities in rodents. The qualitative phytochemical screening showed the presence of several phytoconstituents with saponins, flavonoids and alkaloids constituting highest constituents in the leaf and rhizome. The LD50: of the aqueous extracts (from leaf or rhizome) was found to be ≥5000 mg/kg orally. The leaf and rhizome aqueous extract (250-500 mg/kg) significantly (pphytochemicals which could be associated with their medicinal uses. The aqueous leaf and rhizome extracts are similarly non-toxic orally, showed antiinflammatory and analgesic potentials thus rationalizing its use in folkloric medicine.

  3. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyegunhi Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  4. Grain size statistics and depositional pattern of the Ecca Group sandstones, Karoo Supergroup in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiyegunhi, Christopher; Liu, Kuiwu; Gwavava, Oswald

    2017-11-01

    Grain size analysis is a vital sedimentological tool used to unravel the hydrodynamic conditions, mode of transportation and deposition of detrital sediments. In this study, detailed grain-size analysis was carried out on thirty-five sandstone samples from the Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Grain-size statistical parameters, bivariate analysis, linear discriminate functions, Passega diagrams and log-probability curves were used to reveal the depositional processes, sedimentation mechanisms, hydrodynamic energy conditions and to discriminate different depositional environments. The grain-size parameters show that most of the sandstones are very fine to fine grained, moderately well sorted, mostly near-symmetrical and mesokurtic in nature. The abundance of very fine to fine grained sandstones indicate the dominance of low energy environment. The bivariate plots show that the samples are mostly grouped, except for the Prince Albert samples that show scattered trend, which is due to the either mixture of two modes in equal proportion in bimodal sediments or good sorting in unimodal sediments. The linear discriminant function analysis is dominantly indicative of turbidity current deposits under shallow marine environments for samples from the Prince Albert, Collingham and Ripon Formations, while those samples from the Fort Brown Formation are lacustrine or deltaic deposits. The C-M plots indicated that the sediments were deposited mainly by suspension and saltation, and graded suspension. Visher diagrams show that saltation is the major process of transportation, followed by suspension.

  5. Forecasting the number of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis cases in south of Fars province, Iran using seasonal ARIMA time series method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafi, Mehdi; Ghaem, Haleh; Tabatabaee, Hamid Reza; Faramarzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    To predict the trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis and assess the relationship between the disease trend and weather variables in south of Fars province using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) model. The trend of cutaneous leishmaniasis was predicted using Mini tab software and SARIMA model. Besides, information about the disease and weather conditions was collected monthly based on time series design during January 2010 to March 2016. Moreover, various SARIMA models were assessed and the best one was selected. Then, the model's fitness was evaluated based on normality of the residuals' distribution, correspondence between the fitted and real amounts, and calculation of Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC). The study results indicated that SARIMA model (4,1,4)(0,1,0) (12) in general and SARIMA model (4,1,4)(0,1,1) (12) in below and above 15 years age groups could appropriately predict the disease trend in the study area. Moreover, temperature with a three-month delay (lag3) increased the disease trend, rainfall with a four-month delay (lag4) decreased the disease trend, and rainfall with a nine-month delay (lag9) increased the disease trend. Based on the results, leishmaniasis follows a descending trend in the study area in case drought condition continues, SARIMA models can suitably measure the disease trend, and the disease follows a seasonal trend. Copyright © 2017 Hainan Medical University. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The association between ethnic identity and condom use among young men in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyembezi, Anam; Resnicow, Ken; Ruiter, Robert A C; van den Borne, Bart; Sifunda, Sibusiso; Funani, Itumeleng; Reddy, Priscilla

    2014-08-01

    This article reports on the association between ethnic identity and condom use among Black African men in the rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Individual face-to-face structured interviews were conducted by trained community research assistants among 1,656 men who had undergone traditional initiation and male circumcision. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between two components of ethnic identity (cultural affiliation and cultural alienation) and condom use. Overall, 49.2 % of the participants reported using condoms consistently and, of these users, 66.4 % used them correctly. Logistic regression adjusting for age, employment status, education level, and nation of origin showed that participants who expressed high as opposed to low cultural affiliation were significantly more likely to use condoms consistently and correctly when having sex, especially if they reported to have more than one sexual partner. Cultural alienation was negatively related with consistent condom use, whereas its association with correct use was unclear. The findings of this study suggest that positively emphasizing the ethnic identity of African black men may promote condom use.

  7. Psychological strengths, coping and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services In The North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rothmann

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatively high numbers of suicides occur in the South African Police Services. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between sense of coherence, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control and coping on the one hand and suicide ideation among police personnel on the other hand. The study population (N = 287 consisted of uniformed police personnel in the North West Province. The results showed that sense of coherence and generalised self-efficacy are related to suicide ideation of police members. A discriminant analysis showed that sense of coherence, coping strategies and medical status correctly classified 81,48% of participants who scored high on suicide ideation. Opsomming ‘n Relatiewe hoë getal selfmoorde kom in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens voor. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die verband tussen koherensiesin, algemene selfdoeltreffendheid, lokus van beheer en coping enersyds en selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming van polisiepersoneel andersyds te bepaal. Die studiepopulasie (N = 287 het bestaan uit polisiepersoneel in die Noordwes-Provinsie. Die resultate het aangetoon dat koherensiesin en algemene selfdoeltreffendheid verband hou met selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming by polisieper-soneel. ‘n Diskriminantontleding het aangetoon dat koherensiesin, coping-strategieë en mediese toestand 81,48% van die deelnemers met hoë tellings ten opsigte van selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming korrek geklassifiseer het.

  8. Nutritional status of children on the National School Nutrition Programme in Capricorn District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Malongane

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. School feeding programmes are intended to alleviate short-term hunger, improve nutrition and cognition of children, andprovide incomes to families.Objectives. To assess the nutritional status of children receiving meals provided by the National School Nutrition Programme (NSNP inCapricorn Municipality, Limpopo Province, South Africa.Methods. The setting was 18 randomly selected schools on the NSNP in Capricorn District. The total sample comprised 602 randomlyselected schoolchildren from grades 4 to 7, aged 10 (26.6%, 11 (35.4% and 12 (35.4%. Socioeconomic characteristics, anthropometricmeasurements, dietary patterns and school attendance were determined. Children were interviewed to assess their nutritional status using avalidated questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, standard deviations (SDs and ranges were used for socioeconomic parametersand dietary patterns, and z-scores for anthropometric data.Results. The results showed that boys (9.5% and girls (7.8% were underweight. The prevalence of stunting in the sample was 11.3% forboys and 7.4% for girls, whereas boys (3.6% and girls (4.2%were wasted, with az-score of –2 SD. School attendance was good.Conclusion. The nutritional status of most subjects in the study was within the acceptable range as indicated by the assessment of growthusing anthropometric measurements.

  9. Census and vaccination coverage of owned dog populations in four resource-limited rural communities, Mpumalanga province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conan, Anne; Geerdes, Joy A C; Akerele, Oluyemisi A; Reininghaus, Bjorn; Simpson, Gregory J G; Knobel, Darryn

    2017-09-22

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0-3 months excluded) among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% - 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah). For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16) to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.

  10. Knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school learners in the rural area of MoletjiMashashane Limpopo Province South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mamabolo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Teenagers at the reproductive age face the dilemma of choosing the best birth control method. Knowledge of emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs associated with an intention to use other contraceptive methods has rarely been investigated. This study investigated the knowledge of emergency contraceptives among secondary school learners in the rural area of Moletji-Mashashane, Limpopo Province, South Africa. Objective. To assess the knowledge of and barriers against emergency contraception among secondary school learners. Methods. An anonymous questionnaire was used in the study. It included single and multiple-choice questions. Results. A total of 469 learners aged 14 - 18 years completed the anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The results showed that secondary school learners did not have good knowledge of emergency contraceptives; 47.5% reported that they had heard of emergency contraceptives, while 52.5% reported that they had never heard of emergency contraceptives. The majority of learners had misperceptions about the details and safety of ECPs. However, 48.4% reported that emergency contraceptives are effective in preventing pregnancy. Conclusion. The awareness of ECPs was not high in this group. An improved multisectoral approach to education about emergency contraceptives, with greater participation by schools and the Department of Health, is advised. A systematic and long-term intervention among secondary school learners must be conducted to educate learners about emergency contraceptives.

  11. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

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    Sayyed Gholam Reza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran. The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6% males and 155 (47.4% females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%, 48 (14.7%, and 45 (13.8% cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4% of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2% patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years cases (P=0.16. The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE occurring in young people.

  12. Interpreting gravity anomalies in south Cameroon, central Africa

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    Tadjou Jean Marie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The area involved in this study is the northern part of the Congo craton, located in south Cameroon, (2.5°N - 4.5°N, 11°E - 13°E. The study involved analysing gravity data to delineate major structures and faults in south Cameroon. The region’s Bouguer gravity is

  13. Heat flow in Railroad Valley, Nevada and implications for geothermal resources in the south-central Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C.F.; Sass, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Basin is a province of high average heat flow (approximately 90 mW m-2), with higher values characteristic of some areas and relatively low heat flow (characteristic of an area in south-central Nevada known as the Eureka Low. There is hydrologie and thermal evidence that the Eureka Low results from a relatively shallow, hydrologically controlled heat sink associated with interbasin water flow in the Paleozoic carbonate aquifers. Evaluating this hypothesis and investigating the thermal state of the Eureka Low at depth is a high priority for the US Geological Survey as it prepares a new national geothermal resource assessment. Part of this investigation is focused on Railroad Valley, the site of the largest petroleum reservoirs in Nevada and one of the few locations within the Eureka Low with a known geothermal system. Temperature and thermal conductivity data have been acquired from wells in Railroad Valley in order to determine heat flow in the basin. The results reveal a complex interaction of cooling due to shallow ground-water flow, relatively low (49 to 76 mW m-2) conductive heat flow at depth in most of the basin, and high (up to 234 mW m-2) heat flow associated with the 125??C geothermal system that encompasses the Bacon Flat and Grant Canyon oil fields. The presence of the Railroad Valley geothermal resource within the Eureka Low may be reflect the absence of deep ground-water flow sweeping heat out of the basin. If true, this suggests that other areas in the carbonate aquifer province may contain deep geothermal resources that are masked by ground-water flow.

  14. Mantle sources and magma evolution of the Rooiberg lavas, Bushveld Large Igneous Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, T.; Haase, K. M.; Klemd, R.; Teschner, C.

    2018-06-01

    We report a new whole-rock dataset of major and trace element abundances and 87Sr/86Sr-143Nd/144Nd isotope ratios for basaltic to rhyolitic lavas from the Rooiberg continental large igneous province (LIP). The formation of the Paleoproterozoic Rooiberg Group is contemporaneous with and spatially related to the layered intrusion of the Bushveld Complex, which stratigraphically separates the volcanic succession. Our new data confirm the presence of low- and high-Ti mafic and intermediate lavas (basaltic—andesitic compositions) with > 4 wt% MgO, as well as evolved rocks (andesitic—rhyolitic compositions), characterized by MgO contents of N, Nb/Y and Ti/Y), indicating a different petrogenesis. MELTS modelling shows that the evolved lavas are formed by fractional crystallization from the mafic low-Ti lavas at low-to-moderate pressures ( 4 kbar). Primitive mantle-normalized trace element patterns of the Rooiberg rocks show an enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE), rare-earth elements (REE) and pronounced negative anomalies of Nb, Ta, P, Ti and a positive Pb anomaly. Unaltered Rooiberg lavas have negative ɛNdi (- 5.2 to - 9.4) and radiogenic ɛSri (6.6 to 105) ratios (at 2061 Ma). These data overlap with isotope and trace element compositions of purported parental melts to the Bushveld Complex, especially for the lower zone. We suggest that the Rooiberg suite originated from a source similar to the composition of the B1-magma suggested as parental to the Bushveld Lower Zone, or that the lavas represent eruptive successions of fractional crystallization products related to the ultramafic cumulates that were forming at depth. The Rooiberg magmas may have formed by 10-20% crustal assimilation by the fractionation of a very primitive mantle-derived melt within the upper crust of the Kaapvaal Craton. Alternatively, the magmas represent mixtures of melts from a primitive, sub-lithospheric mantle plume and an enriched sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM

  15. Impacts of supplemental irrigation as a climate change adaptation strategy for maize production: a case of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ndhleve, S; Nakinand, MDV; Longo-Mbenza, B

    2017-01-01

    Dry spells and climatic hazards are responsible for maize output decline, sometimes to levels below potential yield levels. There is a pressing need to reduce the gap between actual and potential maize yield/ha, especially among farmers in semi-arid regions. This present study examines the potential role of supplemental irrigation and its differential impact on maize yield in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. In this study, maize yield data were generated from information recorded ov...

  16. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in swine from a community-based study in 21 villages of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Krecek, R C; Michael, L M; Schantz, P M; Ntanjana, L; Smith, M F; Dorny, P; Harrison, L J S; Grimm, F; Praet, N; Willingham, A L

    2008-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causative organism of porcine cysticercosis and human neurocysticercosis is known to occur in areas of South Africa including Eastern Cape Province but, despite increasing reports of its occurrence throughout the subregion, the prevalence is yet to be clearly established. The parasite presents a potentially serious agricultural problem and public health risk in endemic areas. The human populations considered to be at highest risk of infection with this zoonot...

  17. Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. – a new huntsman spider species from fynbos vegetation in Western Cape Province, South Africa (Araneae, Sparassidae, Palystinae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Peter; Kunz, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is described from habitats close to Kleinmond, in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Spiders of this new species live in the typical fynbos vegetation of the Western Cape region. They build retreats between apical leaves of Leucadendron bushes. The systematic position of Palystes kreutzmanni sp. n. is discussed. Male and female show characters of different species groups, especially the female copulatory organ seems to be unique within the genus Palystes L. Koch, 1875. PMID:21594031

  18. Permian-Triassic boundary microbialites at Zuodeng Section, Guangxi Province, South China: Geobiology and palaeoceanographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuheng; Chen, Zhong-Qiang; Kershaw, Stephen; Yang, Hao; Luo, Mao

    2017-05-01

    A previously unknown microbialite bed in the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary beds of Zuodeng section, Tiandong County, Guangxi, South China comprises a thin (5 cm maximum thickness) stromatolite in the lower part and the remaining 6 m is thrombolite. The Zuodeng microbialite has a pronounced irregular contact between the latest Permian bioclastic limestone and microbialite, as in other sites in the region. The stromatolite comprises low-relief columnar and broad domal geometries, containing faint laminations. The thrombolite displays an irregular mixture of sparitic dark coloured altered microbial fabric and light coloured interstitial sediment in polished blocks. Abundant microproblematic calcimicrobe structures identified here as Gakhumella are preserved in dark coloured laminated areas of the stromatolite and sparitic areas in thrombolites (i.e. the calcimicrobial part, not the interstitial sediment) and are orientated perpendicular to stromatolitic laminae. Each Gakhumella individual has densely arranged segments, which form a column- to fan-shaped structure. Single segments are arch-shaped and form a thin chamber between segments. Gakhumella individuals in the stromatolite and thrombolite are slightly different from each other, but are readily distinguished from the Gakhumella- and Renalcis-like fossils reported from other P-Tr boundary microbialites in having a smaller size, unbranching columns and densely arranged, arch-shaped segments. Renalcids usually possess a larger body size and branching, lobate outlines. Filament sheath aggregates are also observed in the stromatolite and they are all orientated in one direction. Both Gakhumella and filament sheath aggregates may be photosynthetic algae, which may have played an important role in constructing the Zuodeng microbialites. Other calcimicrobes in the Zuodeng microbialite are spheroids, of which a total of five morphological types are recognized from both stromatolite and thrombolite: (1) sparry calcite

  19. Landscape scale attributes of elk centers of activity in the central Black Hills of South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia H. Stubblefield; Kerri T. Vierling; Mark A. Rumble

    2006-01-01

    We researched the environmental attributes (n = 28) associated with elk (n = 50) summer range (1 May ­30 Sep) in the central Black Hills of South Dakota, USA, during 1998-­2001. We defined high-use areas or centers of activity as landscapes underlying large concentrations of elk locations resulting from the shared fidelity of...

  20. Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Book review: Vetter, H. 2005. Terralog. Turtles of the World. Vol. 3. Central and South America/Schildkröten der Welt Band 3. Mittel- und Südamerika: 1-128, color pictures 606 + 9. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, Germany.ISBN 3-930612-82-8; 29.7 x 20.8 cm

  1. Online Bibliographic Databases in South Central Pennsylvania: Current Status and Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Charles

    A survey of libraries in south central Pennsylvania was designed to identify those that are using or planning to use databases and assess their perceived training needs. This report describes the methodology and analyzes the responses received form the 57 libraries that completed the questionnaire. Data presented in eight tables are concerned with…

  2. Positions, Dispositions and Practices in Education Policy in Central and South East Europe (Research in Progress)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos Kecojevic, Živa; Gaber, Slavko

    2012-01-01

    In the article, we present the conceptualisation and selected results of ongoing research dealing with the particular area of top decision making in education in Central and South East Europe. Aiming at a Bourdieuian type of objectification of key agents of decision making in education--ministers--a group of researchers from the region is in the…

  3. Abundance of Armillaria within old-growth eastern hemlock stands in South-Central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Fromm; Donald D. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Abstract—In early summer 2002, 329 soil-sampling pits were dug within an old-growth, eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis [L.] Carrière) stand in south-central Pennsylvania recently infested with the hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand). For comparison, 199 similar pits were dug in an adjacent hardwood stand. Rhizomorphs of...

  4. Lichen communities and species indicate climate thresholds in southeast and south-central Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather T. Root; Bruce. McCune; Sarah. Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Because of their unique physiology, lichen communities are highly sensitive to climatic conditions,making them ideal bioindicators for climate change. Southeast and south-central Alaska host diverse and abundant lichen communities and are faced with a more rapidly changing climate than many more southerly latitudes. We develop sensitive lichen-based indicators for...

  5. Determining habitat potential and surveying for nine rare plant species in south-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Clark; Christine M. Groebner

    2001-01-01

    In south-central Utah, lands within and adjacent to Capitol Reef National Park contain populations of nine rare plant species. In an effort to enhance the combined knowledge about these species, the Bureau of Land Management, the USDA Forest Service, and the National Park Service signed an Interagency Agreement and hired an interagency biologist and field crew to...

  6. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan

  7. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian)

  8. An Examination of Social Media Policy Usage of South Central United States' Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Virginia J.; Luse, Donna W.; Hodge, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Since the use of social media tools by universities has expanded exponentially, a university can easily find itself in a precarious situation in a moment's notice because social media tools have been used inadvertently. This study investigated the social media policies of AACSB-International accredited schools in the SREB South Central Region of…

  9. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  10. Forest health restoration in south-central Alaska: a problem analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrell W. Ross; Gary E. Daterman; Jerry L. Boughton; Thomas M. Quigley

    2001-01-01

    A spruce beetle outbreak of unprecedented size and intensity killed most of the spruce trees on millions of acres of forest land in south-central Alaska in the 1990s. The tree mortality is affecting every component of the ecosystem, including the socioeconomic culture dependent on the resources of these vast forests. Based on information obtained through workshops and...

  11. Lifestyle factors associated with obesity in a cohort of males in the central province of Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. W. I. A. Jayawardana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has become a global epidemic. The prevalence of obesity has also increased in the South Asian region in the last decade. However, dietary and lifestyle factors associated with obesity in Sri Lankan adults are unclear. The objective of the current study was to investigate the association of dietary and lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity in a cohort of males from the Central Province of Sri Lanka. Methods A total of 2469 males aged between 16 and 72 years ( x ¯ = 31 $$ \\overline{x}=31 $$ were included in the study. The sample comprised individuals who presented for a routine medical examination at the National Transport Medical Institute, Kandy, Sri Lanka. The Body Mass Index (BMI cutoff values for Asians were used to categorize the participants into four groups as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. The data on dietary and lifestyle patterns such as level of physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours and other socio demographic data were obtained using validated self-administered questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression model was fitted to assess the associations of individual lifestyle patterns with overweight and obesity. Results The mean BMI of the study group was 22.7 kg m−2 and prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 31.8 and 12.3%, respectively. Mean waist circumference of the participants was 78.6 cm with 17.1% of them being centrally obese. After adjusting for potential confounders, weight status was associated with older age (P < 0.0001, ethnicity (P = 0.0033 and higher income (P = 0.0006. While higher physical activity showed a trend for being associated with lower odds of being obese (odds ratio: 0.898 – confidence interval: 0.744–1.084, alcohol intake, consumption of fruits, level of education, sleeping hours, smoking, consumption of fish, meat, dairy, sweets or fried snacks were not significantly associated with the weight

  12. The Scenario of the Potential Analysis Alternative Energy in Order to Strengthening District's Energy Resilience (The Case Study in South Sumatera Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry Muhrom, Muhammad; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The current development of fossil energy, which is the driving force of the economy in Indonesia, is a non-renewable energy and is in need to know when it will be exhausted so it may be replaced with renewable energy. Many powerplant systems in Indonesia are still using conventional system that utilizes fossil energy as the primary energy in the process of electricity generation. The occurrence of electrical energy crisis is marked by several electricity blackout phenomenon in some areas in South Sumatera province rotately, which is the proof that the installed power capacity has exceeded the capacity of generation power. Interconnection among several islands, namely Java Island, Sumatera Island, and Bali Island which has been interconnected with closed loop system through transmission network has not been able to overcome the electrical energy crisis. This paper aims to create alternative energy potential scenarios in the province of South Sumatera in sequence/ranking by using quantitative methods with sequential explanatory model formulated in the determination of alternative energy strategies then analyzed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. The simulation results from this research indicate that geothermal energy potentials get the highest value so that it becomes the priority of alternative energy strategy in South Sumatera Province.

  13. From Central Asia to South Africa: In Search of Inspiration in Rock Art Studies

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    Rozwadowski Andrzej

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the story of discovering South African rock art as an inspiration for research in completely different part of the globe, namely in Central Asia and Siberia. It refers to those aspect of African research which proved to importantly develop the understanding of rock art in Asia. Several aspects are addressed. First, it points to importance of rethinking of relationship between art, myth and ethnography, which in South Africa additionally resulted in reconsidering the ontology of rock images and the very idea of reading of rock art. From the latter viewpoint particularly inspiring appeared the idea of three-dimensionality of rock art ‘text’. The second issue of South African ‘origin,’ which notably inspired research all over the world, concerns a new theorizing of shamanism. The paper then discusses how and to what extent this new theory add to the research on the rock art in Siberia and Central Asia.

  14. Factors influencing the adolescent pregnancy rate in the Greater Giyani Municipality, Limpopo ProvinceSouth Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Mushwana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative, descriptive and explorative survey was conducted to determine factors that influence adolescent pregnancy rate among teenage girls (n = 147 attending four high schools in the Greater Giyani Municipality in South Africa. Data was collected using a validated questionnaire which had a reliability of 0.65. Response frequency distributions, two-way frequency tables, Chi-square tests and Cochran–Armitage Trend Tests were used to determine the effect with the demographic characteristics of participants. Participants reported that health services were not conveniently available for them. Their relationship with nurses was poor (p < 0.05 as reported by 73% of participants with regard to maintenance of confidentiality. Participants reported key psychosocial variables such as inadequate sexual knowledge (61%, changing attitudes towards sex (58.9% and peer pressure (56.3% as contributory to high pregnancy rate. Recommendations were made to improve school health services, reproductive education in school curricula focussing on reproductive health, sexuality and guidance for future research.

  15. Estimation of Economic Value of Use of Wastewater at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Sasouli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate use of non-conventional water resources including surface runoff and sewage is produced an issue that has emerged as a necessity particularly in Iran. This thread has been created specifically in Tehran. The current study was aimed to investigate the economic value of sewage at Agricultural Sector in South of Tehran with produced approach in the contaminated and clean area. From the results, the average yield of wheat production among the farmers from polluted water was 376 kg ha-1 more than farmers who used clean water. Moreover, the economic value of water was 110 Rials more than farmers who used clean water. According to the results, the total value of wastewater in Tehran in 1405 would be equivalent to 335,480 million Rials. The priorities for interests of irrigation using wastewater from an agricultural perspective suggests that availability and reliability of wastewater than other water sources and low cost of its use is the most important benefit. The next priority result of irrigation with wastewater is increasing crop yield and improving soil fertility. This explains why farmers despite the legal prohibition of the use of untreated sewage continue to utilize this source of irrigation water.

  16. Petrology of metabasites in the south of Arousan, northeastern Isfahan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Bayat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Metagabbro, metadiabase and metabasalt of the Chah Palang and Me'raji mountains associated with Lower Paleozoic metamorphites are situated in the south of Arousan. Metabasites of these areas are relatively similar in terms of mineralogy and geochemical characteristics. Rock-forming minerals of the Me'raji metabasites are feldspar, amphibole, biotite, sphene, epidote, chlorite ± calcite. Metagabbro and metadiabase of the Chah Palang area are similar to the Me'raji metabasites in mineralogy and geochemistry. Volcanic rocks are overlain by metagabbros and consist of plagioclase, biotite, sphene, sanidine, chlorite, epidote and iron oxides. The rigid dykes, which are found in the volcanic units are associated with metagabbros and mineralogically are similar to the metavolcanics. Amphibolitic dykes are composed of amphibole, plagioclase and biotite with preferred orientation. Metabasites show limited range of differentiation. Me'raji metabasites are basalt and trachy-basalt in composition, whereas the Chah Palang ones present basalt and trachy-basalt composition. Similar to metabasites of the other parts of Iran, the studied basic rocks demonstrate alkaline to transitional chemical characteristic and are formed in an extensional environment by low-degree partial melting of a garnet-spinel peridotite. Metamorphic episodes have changed the studied rocks to amphibolite and greenschist, but the primitive igneous textures are preserved.

  17. Modeling the complexities of water, hygiene, and health in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Learmonth, Gerard P; Netshandama, Vhonani O; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2012-12-18

    Researchers have long studied the causes and prevention strategies of poor household water quality and early childhood diarrhea using intervention-control trials. Although the results of such trails can lead to useful information, they do not capture the complexity of this natural/engineered/social system. We report on the development of an agent-based model (ABM) to study such a system in Limpopo, South Africa. The study is based on four years of field data collection to accurately capture essential elements of the communities and their water contamination chain. An extensive analysis of those elements explored behaviors including water collection and treatment frequency as well as biofilm buildup in water storage containers, source water quality, and water container types. Results indicate that interventions must be optimally implemented in order to see significant reductions in early childhood diarrhea (ECD). Household boiling frequency, source water quality, water container type, and the biofilm layer contribution were deemed to have significant impacts on ECD. Furthermore, concurrently implemented highly effective interventions were shown to reduce diarrhea rates to very low levels even when other, less important practices were suboptimal. This technique can be used by a variety of stakeholders when designing interventions to reduce ECD incidences in similar settings.

  18. Vegetation mapping of the Mond Protected Area of Bushehr Province (south-west Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabian, Ahmadreza; Naqinezhad, Alireza; Mahiny, Abdolrassoul Salman; Mostafavi, Hossein; Liaghati, Homan; Kouchekzadeh, Mohsen

    2009-03-01

    Arid regions of the world occupy up to 35% of the earth's surface, the basis of various definitions of climatic conditions, vegetation types or potential for food production. Due to their high ecological value, monitoring of arid regions is necessary and modern vegetation studies can help in the conservation and management of these areas. The use of remote sensing for mapping of desert vegetation is difficult due to mixing of the spectral reflectance of bright desert soils with the weak spectral response of sparse vegetation. We studied the vegetation types in the semiarid to arid region of Mond Protected Area, south-west Iran, based on unsupervised classification of the Spot XS bands and then produced updated maps. Sixteen map units covering 12 vegetation types were recognized in the area based on both field works and satellite mapping. Halocnemum strobilaceum and Suaeda fruticosa vegetation types were the dominant types and Ephedra foliata, Salicornia europaea-Suaeda heterophylla vegetation types were the smallest. Vegetation coverage decreased sharply with the increase in salinity towards the coastal areas of the Persian Gulf. The highest vegetation coverage belonged to the riparian vegetation along the Mond River, which represents the northern boundary of the protected area. The location of vegetation types was studied on the separate soil and habitat diversity maps of the study area, which helped in final refinements of the vegetation map produced.

  19. Endoscopy services in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, are insufficient for the burden of disease: Is patient care compromised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loots, E; Clarke, D L; Newton, K; Mulder, C J

    2017-10-31

    Endoscopy services are central to the diagnosis and management of many gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. To evaluate the adequacy of endoscopy services in the public sector hospitals of KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) Province, South Africa, in 2016. A cross-sectional study was performed using a questionnaire completed by the clinical heads of endoscopy units in the public hospitals in KZN. The heads of 11 of the 12 endoscopy units responded. Two units were in tertiary-level hospitals and nine in regional hospitals. A total of 22 353 endoscopic procedures were performed annually, averaging 2 032 cases per annum per centre; they were performed by 89 endoscopists, of whom 72 (80.1%) were general surgeons. There were 0.06 registered gastroenterologists (GEs) per 100 000 population. Each endoscopist performed an average of 263 endoscopies per annum. There were 1.18 endoscopy rooms available per unit, and two units had on-site fluoroscopy available. The average waiting period for an upper endoscopy was 27 (range 7 - 60) days, for colonoscopy 29 (range 7 - 90) days and for duodenoscopy/endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography 13 (range 4 - 20) days. This included patients with alarm symptoms for GI cancers. Equipment breakages interrupted most services, except for one hospital that had a service contract. Unit heads cited lack of equipment, trained staff and maintenance contracts as major shortcomings. Endoscopy units in KZN are not adequately equipped to deal with the endoscopy workload and services are plagued by frequent disruptions, which impact negatively on service delivery. There is a need to train more GEs. Patient care is compromised in these public hospitals.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Orientia tsutsugamushi from Rodents Captured following a Scrub Typhus Outbreak at a Military Training Base, Bothong District, Chonburi Province, Central Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Ruang-areerate, Toon; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Richards, Allen L.; Jeamwattanalert, Pimmada; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Sangjun, Noppadon; Prasartvit, Anchana; Jatisatienr, Araya; Jatisatienr, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium, is the causative agent of scrub typhus, a vector-borne disease transmitted by infected chiggers (trombiculid mite larvae). In 2002, an outbreak of scrub typhus occurred among Royal Thai Army troops during the annual field training at a military base in Bothong district, Chonburi province, central Thailand. This report describes the outbreak investigation including its transmission cycle. Results showed that 33.9% of 17...

  1. The Multiplier Effect of the Gandoriah Beach Marine Tourism to the Coastal Community of Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province

    OpenAIRE

    Mazidah, Nurnaini; Nugroho, Firman; Bathara, Lamun

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted on March 25, 2016 until 11 April 2016 which is placed in Gandoriah Beach, Kelurahan Pasir, Central Pariaman District, Pariaman City West Sumatra Province. This study aims to identify economic activities and socio-cultural as the impact of the presence of marine tourism and determine the impact of tourism activities on the beach Gandoriah to the economy of coastal communities. The method used in this research is survey method. There are 64 respondents, that consist ...

  2. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in Central and South Asia: 1990-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; George, Ronnie; Asokan, Rashima; Flaxman, Seth R; Keeffe, Jill; Leasher, Janet; Naidoo, Kovin; Pesudovs, Konrad; Price, Holly; Vijaya, Lingam; White, Richard A; Wong, Tien Y; Resnikoff, Serge; Taylor, Hugh R; Bourne, Rupert R A

    2014-05-01

    To examine the prevalence, patterns and trends of vision impairment and its causes from 1990 to 2010 in Central and South Asia. Based on the Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 and ongoing literature searches, we examined prevalence and causes of moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; presenting visual acuity Central Asia, the estimated age-standardised prevalence of blindness decreased from 0.4% (95% CI 0.3% to 0.6%) to 0.2% (95% CI 0.2% to 0.3%) and of MSVI from 3.0% (95% CI 1.9% to 4.7%) to 1.9% (95% CI 1.2% to 3.2%), and in South Asia blindness decreased from 1.7% (95% CI 1.4% to 2.1%) to 1.1% (95% CI 0.9% to 1.3%) and MSVI from 8.9% (95% CI 6.9% to 10.9%) to 6.4% (95% CI 5.2% to 8.2%). In 2010, 135 000 (95% CI 99,000 to 194,000) people were blind in Central Asia and 10,600,000 (95% CI 8,397,000 to 12,500,000) people in South Asia. MSVI was present in 1,178,000 (95% CI 772,000 to 2,243,000) people in the Central Asia, and in 71,600,000 (95% CI 57,600,000 to 92,600,000) people in South Asia. Women were generally more often affected than men. The leading causes of blindness (cataract) and MSVI (undercorrected refractive error) did not change from 1990 to 2010. The prevalence of blindness and MSVI in South Asia is still three times higher than in Central Asia and globally, with women generally more often affected than women. In both regions, cataract and undercorrected refractive error were major causes of blindness and MSVI.

  3. Transit traverse in Missouri, 1900-1937. Part 2, South-central Missouri, 1908-37

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staack, John George

    1940-01-01

    This bulletin, which for convenience is to be published in eight parts, contains the results of all transit traverse* done In Missouri through 1937 by the Geological Survey, United States Department of the Interior, including those heretofore published. (See page X.) Each of the parts deals with one of eight sections into which the State has been divided for this purpose and which have been designated northeastern, northwestern, southeastern, southwestern, central, east-central, south-central, and west-central Missouri. In each part descriptions of the points for which geodetic positions have been determined are listed according to the quadrangles in which the points occur. Results of transit traverse other than that done by the Geological Survey have not been included.South-central Missouri, as the term is used in this bulletin and as the subject of part 2 of the bulletin, is that section of the State lying south of latittude, 38°00' and between longitudes 91°15' and 93°00'.

  4. The Value of Decentralisation in Wastewater Management: Gauteng Province Case Study, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Chris Reynders

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a semi-arid water scarce country like South Africa, the efficient use of limited water resources and measures to extend the service value of these resources is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. The conventional supply-sided management approach to water supply causes increased wastewater generation with accompanied increased pollution loads requiring higher levels of mitigation environmental pollution. Where disposal of wastewater treatment effluent takes place in rivers and natural water bodies, the lack of adequate natural compensating capacity of such water bodies typically result in severe ecological damage of the aquatic environment. With a shift of emphasis to a sustainable demand side management approach (as opposed to a supply side one, the avoidance of water wastage and high wastewater generation represents both resource conservation and environmental protection friendly approaches and contribute to overall sustainability. The integrated nature of water supply and wastewater management systems require an approach that considers these systems holistically. A new paradigm for water management is therefore needed to ensure that the issues of waste disposal and pollution are dealt with in a sustainable manner taking into account the emerging objectives of modern society for resource conservation and environmental protection. A balance therefore has to be found between the uses of additional fresh water resources as a means of satisfying en ever increasing water demand on the one hand and alternative unconventional resource exploration and employment, without the risk of depletion of natural available fresh water resource flow, irreversible harm to the environment and social and economic constraints. This paper explores wastewater and grey water reuse as unconventional resources in a qualitative manner within this balancing equation. It further proposes a methodology for deriving monetary indicator values for wastewater

  5. Women as whole blood donors: offers, donations and deferrals in the province of Huelva, south-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados Madrona, Dalmiro; Fernández Herrera, María Dolores; Prados Jiménez, Dalmiro; Gómez Giraldo, Sonsoles; Robles Campos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Women seem more willing to donate blood than men despite the limitations that affect their donation rate. The aim of our study was to determine the role of women in altruistic donation of blood in Huelva, a province in south-western Spain. We registered 87,601 offers to donate whole blood between January 1st, 2005 and December 31st, 2009. We statistically analysed variables such as sex, age, offers, deferrals and donations, problems in venous access, vasovagal reactions, weight and blood pressure to establish their significance according to donor gender. With regards to gender, 52.3% of donors were women and 47.7% men. Of the 87,601 offers to donate blood, 46.5% were from females and 53.5% from males. More females than males made their first donation during the study period. However, 43.9 % of donations were from women, whereas 56.1% were from men. Overall 8.7% of offers were deferred, 62.7% of which due to a low haemoglobin concentration, which was the most frequent cause of deferral in women. Difficulties in venous access and vasovagal reactions were also more frequent in female donors than in male donors. By the end of the study period, donor fidelity was 58.6% for men and 48.6% for women. In the province of Huelva, women are more altruistically inclined than men to give blood, with the percentages of donors and first-time donors being higher among females. However, there are restrictions to women giving blood, especially low haemoglobin concentration, which reduce the number of female blood donations. Women also have more difficulty when blood is withdrawn and are more susceptible to vasovagal reactions, which negatively affect their experience as donors. Measures should be taken to reduce these barriers to encourage women to continue to offer to donate blood, thereby ensuring that they become regular donors, which is a key factor in guaranteeing an adequate supply of blood within the region of Andalusia.

  6. Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisinyana H. Khunou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD was introduced as a strategy to ircumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area. Objectives: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongstprofessional and other category nurses (OCNs at a public hospital in the North-West Provinceand describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working inthe hospital. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs, 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005, which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire–short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18. Results: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73 and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77 were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74 and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79. The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77 and OCNs (91%, n = 82 disagreed with the statement that ‘level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD’. Conclusions: The National Department of Health should consider

  7. Factors associated with good TB infection control practices among primary healthcare workers in the Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Michelle; Janse van Rensburg, André; Kigozi, Gladys; van Rensburg, Hcj Dingie

    2016-11-04

    Despite the availability of TB infection control guidelines, and good levels of healthcare worker knowledge about infection control, often these measures are not well implemented. This study sought to determine the factors associated with healthcare workers' good TB infection control practices in primary health care facilities in the Free State Province, South Africa. A cross-sectional self-administered survey among nurses (n = 202) and facility-based community healthcare workers (n = 34) as well as facility observations were undertaken at all 41 primary health care facilities in a selected district of the Free State Province. The majority of respondents were female (n = 200; 87.7 %) and the average age was 44.19 years (standard deviation ±10.82). Good levels of knowledge were recorded, with 42.8 % (n = 101) having an average score (i.e. 65-79 %) and 31.8 % (n = 75) a good score (i.e. ≥ 80 %). Most respondents (n = 189; 80.4 %) had positive attitudes towards TB infection control practices (i.e. ≥ 80 %). While good TB infection control practices were reported by 72.9 % (n = 161) of the respondents (i.e. ≥75 %), observations revealed this to not necessarily be the case. For every unit increase in attitudes, good practices increased 1.090 times (CI:1.016-1.169). Respondents with high levels of knowledge (≥80 %) were 4.029 (CI: 1.550-10.469) times more likely to have good practices when compared to respondents with poor levels of knowledge (control were the main factors associated with good infection control practices. Although many respondents reported good infection control practices - which was somewhat countered by the observations - there are areas that require attention, particularly those related to administrative controls and the use of personal protective equipment.

  8. Regional geologic characteristics of uranium ores and assessment of metallogenetic potentials in the central part of Eastern Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenguang; Tao Quan; Zhang Shouben

    1997-10-01

    Regional geologic characteristics, metallogenetic conditions and prospects of uranium ores in the central part of the Eastern Liaoning Province of North China is studied systematically. It demonstrates that the Archaean basement of the study area consists of a special type of granite-greenstone belts in China. It is called the granite-greenstone belts of the Liaoning-model, in which the granitic rocks are mainly migmatitic granite and granite-gneiss of migmatitic genesis. The greenstone belts in this area have undergone strong metamorphism. Large amounts of Precambrian geochronological studies have been made with U-Pb isotopic method on zircon; and a new Precambrian geologic time scale has been established. It is also proved that multistage activation of the Early Precambrian basement and the proto-platform took place in Early Proterozoic. Emphases are laid on uranium and thorium abundances and their variations as well as primary uranium contents of rocks in the granite-greenstone terrain and those of the Lower Proterozoic. At the same time, uraninite as accessory mineral in granitic rocks is found to exist more or less. Early Precambrian strata and many kinds of mineral deposits occurring in the strata are in origin chiefly of syngenetic hot brine sedimentation and of submarine extrusive gas-hydrothermal sedimentation superimposed by metamorphism. Metallogenetic features and models of various types of uranium deposits are studied emphatically and compared with similar large deposits abroad. In addition, overall synthetical appraisals are made for this area; and on this basis, prospecting directions and favourable sections of uranium metallization are suggested. (4 refs., 4 tabs.)

  9. The Function of Credit Scheme to Improve Family Income among Beef Cattle Farmers in Central Java Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, E.; Ekowati, T.; Roessali, W.; Gayatri, S.

    2018-02-01

    The aims of study were: (i) identify of beef cattle fattening credit scheme, (ii) calculating and analyze of beef cattle farmers’ income, (iii) analyze of factors influencing beef cattle credit scheme towards farmer’s income. The research was held in five regencies in Central Java Province. Beef cattle fattening farm was standardized as an elementary unit. Survey method was used, while Two Stage Cluster Purposive Sampling was used for determining of sample. Data were analyzed using statistical method of quantitative descriptive and inferential statistics in term of income analysis and multiple linear regression models. The result showed that farmers used their own capital to run the farm. The average amount was IDR 10,769,871. Kredit Ketahanan Pangan dan Energi was credit scheme which was dominantly access by farmers. The average credit was IDR 23,312,200/farmer with rate of credit equal to 6.46%, the time of credit returning equal to 24.60 monthand the prediction of average collateral equal to IDR 35,800,00. The average of farmers’ income was IDR 4,361,611.60/2.96 head of beef cattle/fattening period. If the labour cost did not calculate as a cost production, hence the farmer’ income was IDR 7,608,630.41 or in other word the farmer’ income increase 74.44%. Factors of credit scheme which partially significant influence to the farmers’ income were number of own capital usage and value of credit collateral. Meanwhile, name of credit scheme, financing institution as a creditor, amount of credit, rate of credit scheme and time of returning credit were not significantly influence towards farmers’ income.

  10. PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS OF FLATFOOT AMONG 6 TO 10 AGED CHILDREN IN CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Senadheera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of flatfoot is highly variable in different world populations. Previous studies have found that many factors are associated with flatfoot. The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of flatfoot and its association with age, gender and BMI in group of 6-10 aged children in Central province of Sri Lanka. Methods: A total of 722 children aged 6 to 10 were used to assess normalize navicular height using two clinical measurements (navicular height, truncated foot length. Weight and height of the subjects were measured to calculate body mass index. Age and gender of the children were also recorded. Calculated normalize navicular heights were plotted in a distribution curve and area under the curve between +1SD and -1SD was considered as normal foot. Area under the curve which is left to the -1SD was considered as flatfoot. Results: Overall prevalence of flatfoot among 6-10 aged children in the present sample was 16.06%. The prevalence of flatfoot in 6,7,8,9 and 10 aged children were 26.35%, 16.19%, 12.75%, 13.57% and 11.1%, respectively. Prevalence of flatfoot was high in overweight children (21.05%. Prevalence of flatfoot among males and females were 47% and 53%,respectively. Conclusion: This study suggests that there is a significant association between flatfoot and age (p<0.05. Prevalence of flat foot decreases with advancing age. Furthermore, there is a significant association between flatfoot and body mass index (p<0.05. Prevalence of flatfoot is higher in overweight children than normal weight and underweight children. There is no significant association between flatfoot and gender.

  11. The effect of marketing innovation, market orientation, and social capital on competitive advantage and marketing performance: A study in MSMEs of embroidery Central Java Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ag. Sunarno Handoyo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with marketing innovation, market orientation, and social capital in affecting the competitive advantage and marketing performance in Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs of embroidery in Central Java Province. In this respect, this study tried to test and analyze the effect of marketing innovation, market orienta-tion, and social capital on competitive advantage and marketing performance in Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs of embroidery in Central Java Province. The samples are 150 respondents as the owners of the embroidery business in Central Java Province. The technical analysis used is Structure Equations Modeling with AMOS Software version 22. The results show that: (1 marketing innovation has significant effect on competitive advantage; (2 market orientation has significant effect on competi-tive advantage; (3 social capital has significant effect on competitive advantage; (4 competitive advantage has significant effect on marketing performance; (5 marketing innovation has significant effect on marketing performance; (6 market orientation has significant effect on marketing performance; (7 social capital has no significant effect on marketing performance. The implication of this study is that the MSMEs of embroidery could improve marketing performance by increasing marketing innovation, market orientation, social capital and competitive advantage. This study also shows that competitive advantage is an intervening variable on marketing performance.

  12. orphological Evaluation and Classification of Melon Genotypes in Khorasan Provinces (Razavi, North and South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aireza sobhany

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Melon is a tropical species that originates from Iran or Africa and Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, Russia, Saudi Arabia, India and China are the most important centers of genetic diversity of cultivated varieties (1. The original area for cantaloupe and melon is Iran. Dry and warm climate is the best condition for Melon. This plant needs heat and light for good grows. Cloudy and rainy weather at the time of fruit ripening may affect melon taste and quality(2. According to the FAO statistics in 2012, the total area devoted to melon was 1,339,006 hectares with an average yield of 23.8 tons per hectare and 31,925,787 tons production. The highest production belonged to China (55% of world production. Iran produces about 5.4 percent of world production which is about 1450000 tons from 80,000 hectares (2. Recently, a great number of studies have studied the correlation between melon yield and its components. The first branch (5, the number of primary branches, the number of fruits per plant and fruit weight per plant (6, length and width of fruit and fruit shape index were the most important melons traits which have been evaluated by other studies (4. Fruit yield has significant positive correlation with the length of the stem, primary branches, the date of the first appearance of female flowers and fruit weight. Studies revealed that there is a negative correlation between the number of fruits per plant and the average fruit weight. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 2008 with 17 landrace seeds collected from different locations of Khorasan provinces included Kashmar, sarakhs, Boshruye, Sabzevar, Dargaz and Bajestan. Experiment was designed based on randomized complete block design with three replications at agricultural Research Station of Khorasan Razavi. Results and Discussion: The cultivars did not show any different in the time of emergence as all of them emerged 4 to 7 days after the first irrigation. The comparison

  13. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located in the mouth of Musi and Telang River covered by mangrove, has a very important ecological function. However, the condition of the carbon in the waters of the Payung Island has not explored further. This elementary study is to determine status on Payung Island waters as a sink or source of CO2. The study was conducted in June until August 2015. The research stages include surface water sampling, measurement of the CO2 in the atmosphere, the analysis of the concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC and Total Alkalinity (TA, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 calculation.  Atmospheric CO2 were measured insitu, while the DIC and TA were analyzed using titration methods. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 obtained from the calculation using the software CO2Calc using data of  DIC, TA, nutrients and atmospheric CO2. The results showed that the content of DIC and TA on the Payung Island waters has similar distribution pattern  i.e. high in areas close to the river, and getting lower in the area which were closer to the sea. The comparisons between pCO2 atmosphere and pCO2 waters showed that Payung Island waters generally act as a carbon sink in area towards the sea but however, in the territorial waters adjacent to the river as a source of carbon.   Keywords: carbon, marine protected area, Payung Island waters

  14. Population-attributable fraction of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the Central Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Mohammadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in Iran over the past decade. This study aimed to determine the population-attributable fraction (PAF of hypertension associated with obesity, abdominal obesity, and the joint effect of both in the central provinces of Iran. Prevalence of hypertension was extracted from the Iranian Ministry of Health Non-Communicable Disease Risk Factor InfoBase 2009. Measure of association between obesity and hypertension was extracted from Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, for males and females, in order to calculate the PAF of hypertension associated with obesity. Age standardization of the reported prevalence of obesity was done using the World Health Organization method. The PAF of hypertension associated with the joint effect of obesity and abdominal obesity in females was highest in Semnan Province: 22.7 [95% confidence interval (CI: 4.2–35.6], followed by Qom 21.09 (95% CI: 3.7–33.1, and Yazd 20.3 (95% CI: 3.5–32.1. In males, the highest PAF was observed in Qom Province 31.07 (95% CI: 16.7–41.1, followed by Semnan 29.6 (95% CI: 15.9–39.3, Qazvin 25.9 (95% CI: 13.7–34.5, Tehran 24.2 (95% CI: 12.7–32.3, and Isfahan 20.4 (95% CI: 3.5–27.4. Prevalence of hypertension is higher in more developed provinces. PAFs suggest that a sizable share of hypertension in these provinces is associated with obesity. It is recommended that health promotion programs focus on obesity in the provinces with a higher share of hypertension due to obesity.

  15. Long-run relative importance of temperature as the main driver to malaria transmission in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a simple econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komen, Kibii; Olwoch, Jane; Rautenbach, Hannes; Botai, Joel; Adebayo, Adetunji

    2015-03-01

    Malaria in Limpopo Province of South Africa is shifting and now observed in originally non-malaria districts, and it is unclear whether climate change drives this shift. This study examines the distribution of malaria at district level in the province, determines direction and strength of the linear relationship and causality between malaria with the meteorological variables (rainfall and temperature) and ascertains their short- and long-run variations. Spatio-temporal method, Correlation analysis and econometric methods are applied. Time series monthly meteorological data (1998-2007) were obtained from South Africa Weather Services, while clinical malaria data came from Malaria Control Centre in Tzaneen (Limpopo Province) and South African Department of Health. We find that malaria changes and pressures vary in different districts with a strong positive correlation between temperature with malaria, r = 0.5212, and a weak positive relationship for rainfall, r = 0.2810. Strong unidirectional causality runs from rainfall and temperature to malaria cases (and not vice versa): F (1, 117) = 3.89, ρ = 0.0232 and F (1, 117) = 20.08, P < 0.001 and between rainfall and temperature, a bi-directional causality exists: F (1, 117) = 19.80; F (1,117) = 17.14, P < 0.001, respectively, meaning that rainfall affects temperature and vice versa. Results show evidence of strong existence of a long-run relationship between climate variables and malaria, with temperature maintaining very high level of significance than rainfall. Temperature, therefore, is more important in influencing malaria transmission in Limpopo Province.

  16. Using participatory risk analysis to develop a song about malaria for young children in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chad M; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Kruger, Taneshka; McNeill, Fraser

    2018-04-27

    In 2015, malaria infected over 212 million people and killed over 429,000 individuals, mostly children under 5 years of age, with 90% of malaria cases occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim was to develop an age and culturally appropriate song for Tshivenda-speaking children under 5 years of age to decrease the risk of malaria in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Document review was used to identify appropriate disease determinants to decrease risk in children develop lyrics and music for a song about malaria in line with the principles of participatory risk analysis. The age and cultural appropriateness of the song as well as disease determinants chosen were reviewed using a modified Delphi technique, by 10 purposively selected experts in malaria (4), Vhavenda music (3) and early childhood education (3). Thereafter, the song was translated into Tshivenda and reviewed by two focus groups living in the study area, one including female caregivers and pre-school teachers (n = 7) and a second comprising of male community based malaria control personnel (n = 5). The experts surveyed and both focus groups strongly supported the inclusion of knowledge about the link between mosquitoes and malaria and that children should know the signs of malaria to facilitate early diagnosis. Although the expert group felt that bed nets should not be mentioned, both focus groups suggested the inclusion of bed nets and it was observed that community members were purchasing their own nets. Focus group members also felt that young children should not be involved in internal residual spraying initiatives. It was concluded that although risk communication on malaria prevention and treatment in young children should be aimed at caregivers, an age and culture appropriate song about malaria could be developed to help young children protect themselves. This song focused on understanding the link between mosquitoes and malaria, preventing exposure and recognising signs of disease.

  17. Diabetes mellitus in Zambia and the Western Cape province of South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sarah Lou; Ayles, Helen; Beyers, Nulda; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter; Muyoyeta, Monde; du Toit, Elizabeth; Yudkin, John S; Floyd, Sian

    2016-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for diabetes mellitus and examine its diagnosis and management in the study communities. This is a population-based cross-sectional study among adults in 24 communities from Zambia and the Western Cape (WC) province of South Africa. Diabetes is defined as a random blood glucose concentration (RBG)⩾11.1mmol/L, or RBGdiabetes diagnosis. For individuals with a prior diagnosis of diabetes, RBGprevalence of diabetes was 3.5% and 7.2% respectively. The highest risk groups identified were those of older age and those with obesity. Of those identified to have diabetes, 34.5% in Zambia and 12.7% in WC were previously unaware of their diagnosis. Among Zambian participants with diabetes, this proportion was lower among individuals with better education or with higher household socio-economic position. Of all those with previously diagnosed diabetes, 66.0% in Zambia and 59.4% in WC were not on any diabetes treatment, and 34.4% in Zambia and 32.7% in WC had a RBG concentration beyond the recommended level, ⩾7.8mmol/L. The diabetes risk factor profile for our study communities is similar to that seen in high-income populations. A high proportion of individuals with diabetes are not on diabetes treatment and of those on treatment a high proportion have high glycaemic concentrations. Such data may assist in healthcare planning to ensure timely diagnosis and management of diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult chronic care patients in North West Province, South Africa

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    Arvin Bhana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB, heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of treatment efforts among such patients. Objective. To explore the characteristics, correlates and diagnoses of alcohol use disorders among chronic care patients in SA. Method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three public health clinic facilities in the North West Province of SA. A total of 1 322 patients were recruited from non-emergency waiting areas. Results. Proportions of patients with abstinence, hazardous, harmful and dependent consumption were determined using logistic regression. Of the patients screened, nearly half (45% drank alcohol and, of these, 10% were classified as hazardous drinkers, 1.7% as harmful drinkers, and 1.6% as dependent drinkers (overall 3% alcohol use disorder. Abstinence proportions were 60% and 38% among women and men, respectively. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores for men were 63% higher than for women. The lowest patient abstinence proportion (47% and highest dependent drinking (10% was for TB. The highest abstinence proportion was for diabetes (65%, and the highest hazardous and harmful drinking was among TB (14% and HIV (7% patients. Conclusions. The high levels of risky drinking among chronic care patients, particularly among patients receiving treatment for HIV and TB, are concerning. Instituting appropriate screening measures and referral to treatment would be an important first step in mitigating the effects of risky alcohol use among chronic care patients.

  19. Census and vaccination coverage of owned dog populations in four resource-limited rural communities, Mpumalanga province, South Africa

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    Anne Conan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs (Canis familiaris are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village. All households of the villages were visited to obtain information on the number, sex, age and rabies vaccination status of dogs. From May to October 2013, 2969 households were visited in the four villages and 942 owned dogs were reported. The populations were all young and skewed towards males. No differences were observed in the sex and age distributions (puppies 0–3 months excluded among the villages. Athol had a higher proportion of dog-owning households than Hluvukani and Utah. Vaccination coverages were all above the 20% – 40% threshold required for herd immunity to rabies (38% in Hluvukani, 51% in Athol, 65% in Dixie and 74% in Utah. For the preparation of vaccination campaigns, we recommend the use of the relatively stable dog:human ratio (between 1:12 and 1:16 to estimate the number of dogs per village in Bushbuckridge Municipality.

  20. Demographics and care-seeking behaviors of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Susan A; Scott, Jennifer A; Leaning, Jennifer; Kelly, Jocelyn T; Joyce, Nina R; Mukwege, Denis; Vanrooyen, Michael J

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of the ongoing conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is the use of sexual violence. In spite of the brutality of these crimes, the experiences of women affected by sexual violence in Eastern DRC remain poorly characterized. This analysis aimed to (1) provide detailed demographics of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital; (2) examine how demographic factors might impact patterns of sexual violence; and (3) describe care-seeking behavior among sexual violence survivors. The demographics and care-seeking behavior of sexual violence survivors in South Kivu Province were described from a retrospective registry-based study of sexual violence survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital (2004-2008). A total of 4311 records were reviewed. The mean age of survivors was 35 years. Most women (53%) were married, self-identified with the Bashi tribe (65%), and reported agriculture as their livelihood (74%). The mean time delay between sexual assault and seeking care was 10.4 months. Five reasons were identified to help explain the lengthy delays to seeking care: waiting for physical symptoms to develop or worsen before seeking medical attention, lack of means to access medical care, concerns that family would find out about the sexual assault, stigma surrounding sexual violence, and being abducted into sexual slavery for prolonged periods of time. Many sexual assault survivors have very delayed presentations to medical attention. Promoting timely access of medical care may best be facilitated by reducing stigma and by educating women about the benefits of early medical care, even in the absence of injuries or symptoms.

  1. Energy system modelling and GIS to build an Integrated Climate Protection Concept for Gauteng Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaschek, Jan; Kober, Ralf; Fahl, Ulrich; Lozynskyy, Yuriy

    2016-01-01

    South Africa and specifically its economically dominant province of Gauteng aim to reduce their influence on climate change. Especially the transport sector is seen as one of the key drivers of future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper describes the methodology used to combine the application of two models in order to provide a basis for informed policy recommendation for GHG mitigation. The TEMT model provides real world emission factors adapted to local conditions in Gauteng for numerous vehicle technology concepts. Those data feed into the TIMES-GEECO energy system model which identifies future technology use for different alternative scenarios. Finally, the scenario results are illustrated spatially using a GIS programme. The results of the scenario analysis show that under implemented policies GHG emissions in Gauteng are likely to increase substantially. Pollutant emissions are currently high as a result of a comparably old vehicle fleet. The spatial display of these results shows where the traffic network is concentrated and the location of so-called emission hot-spots. Energy efficient policies for the transport sector of Gauteng can achieve a significant reduction of emissions and energy consumption. Alternative powertrains and the use of locally produced biofuels can play a significant role in such policies. - Highlights: • Two models to assess the transport sector have been developed. • The methodology covers the energy system and locational information. • Application to Gauteng to provide input for a Climate Protection Concept. • Energy efficient polices will help to significantly reduce transport emissions. • Local renewable resources and efficient powertrains should be part of this policy.

  2. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

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    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  3. Fluid evolution and ore genesis of the Dalingshang deposit, Dahutang W-Cu ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ning-Jun; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiong, Suo-Fei; Pi, Dao-Hui

    2018-02-01

    The Dalingshang W-Cu deposit is located in the North section of the Dahutang ore field, northern Jiangxi Province, South China. Vein- and breccia-style tungsten-copper mineralization is genetically associated with Mesozoic S-type granitic rocks. Infrared and conventional microthermometric studies of both gangue and ore minerals show that the homogenization temperatures for primary fluid inclusions in wolframite ( 340 °C) are similar to those in scheelite ( 330 °C), but about 40 °C higher than those of apatite ( 300 °C) and generally 70 °C higher than those in coexisting quartz ( 270 °C). Laser Raman analysis identifies CH4 and N2 without CO2 in fluid inclusions in scheelite and coexisting quartz, while fluid inclusions in quartz of the sulfide stage have variable CO2 content. The ore-forming fluids overall are characterized by high- to medium-temperature, low-salinity, CH4, N2, and/or CO2-bearing aqueous fluids. Chalcopyrite, muscovite, and sphalerite are the most abundant solids recognized in fluid inclusions from different ores. The H-O-S-Pb isotope compositions favor a dominantly magmatic origin for ores and fluids, while some depleted δ34S values (- 14.4 to - 0.9‰) of sulfides from the sulfide stage are most likely produced by an increase of oxygen fugacity, possibly caused by inflow of oxidized meteoric waters. The microthermometric data also indicate that a simple cooling process formed early scheelite and wolframite. However, increasing involvement of meteoric waters and fluid mixing may trigger a successive deposition of base metal sulfides. Fluid-rock interaction was critical for scheelite mineralization as indicated by in-situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in scheelite.

  4. Adolescent mothers’ utilisation of reproductive health services in the Gauteng province of the republic of South Africa

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    VJ Ehlers

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A financial grant was received from the World Health Organization (WHO during 1998 to establish whether adolescent mothers (aged 19 or younger at the birth of their babies utilized contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and termination of pregnancy (TOP services in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. This report refers to data obtained from 111 questionnaires completed by dolescent mothers between January 2000 and May 2000 in the Gauteng Province; 61 in the Pretoria and 50 in the Garankuwa areas, and excluding the 12 completed questionnaires used foi pretesting the research instrument. The biographic data of the 111 adolescent mothers indicated that the minority were married, employed or earned sufficient income to care for themselves and their babies. However, the minority used contraceptives prior to conception, none used emergency contraceptives or termination of pregnancy (TOP services. The minority attended ante-natal clinics five or more times during their pregnancies, and a negligible number indicated that they had ever been treated for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs. These findings indicate that the 111 adolescent mothers in Gauteng who participated in this survey did not make optimum use of the available reproductive health (RH care services. Education about sex, pregnancy and contraceptives should commence at the age of 10, but no later than the age of 12 as the majority of respondents did not have the necessary knowledge to make informed decisions about their futures. The accessibility of contraceptive, emergency contraceptive and TOP services for adolescents should be investigated in specific areas and attempts made to enhance such accessi- bility. This might necessitate offering these services over weeker| ds or during evenings when school girls could attend without fear of meeting their mothers, aunts or teachers at these clinics.

  5. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

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    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland. Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  6. Farmer’s perception of climate change and responsive strategies in three selected provinces of South Africa

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    Zelda A. Elum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The world has responded to climate change phenomenon through two broad response mechanisms (mitigation and adaptation strategies with the aim of moderating the adverse effects of climate change and/or to exploit any arising beneficial opportunities. The paper aims to examine the trend in climate parameters, farmers’ perception of climate change, constraints faced in production and to identify the strategies (if any that farmers have adopted to cope with the effects of changing climate. A one-way analysis of variance, percentage analysis and Garrett ranking technique were applied to a set of primary data collected from 150 randomly sampled farmers with the aid of questionnaires in three purposively selected provinces through the months of June to August 2015. The analytical results of obtained recent weather data revealed that the climate parameters have significantly changed over time and these were substantiated by farmers’ experiences. The farmers are engaging in various climate-response strategies, among which, the planting of drought-tolerant varieties is most common. Therefore, it is important to enhance farmers’ access to improved drought-tolerant seeds and efficient irrigation systems. Also observed, is that the lack of awareness of insurance products and inability to afford insurance premiums were the principal reasons majority of the farmers did not have insurance. These present a need to strengthen insurance adoption among farmers through various supporting programmes that may include premium subsidies and media outreach. The paper under one platform provides evidence of changing climate, farmers’ responses towards mitigating perceived adverse effects of the changed climate, and South Africa’s national policy on adaptation and mitigation.

  7. Risk factors for failure in small businesses in the footwear and textile industry of Gauteng Province, South Africa

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    Zeleke Worku

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was based on the 5-yearlong study (2007 to 2012 of Small, Micro and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMMEs that conduct business in Gauteng Province, South Africa conducted by Marivate (2014 from 2007 to 2012. The sample consisted of 187 businesses (36.52% that utilized financial services routinely provided by the South African Small Enterprises Development Agency (SEDA, and 325 businesses (63.48% that utilized non-financial services provided by SEDA. Out of the 187 businesses that utilized financial services, 85.42% of them were viable, whereas 14.58% of them were not viable. Out of the 325 businesses that utilized non-financial services, 43.25% of them were viable, whereas 56.75% of them were not viable. The degree of entrepreneurial skills in each of the 512 businesses that were selected for the study was measured by using a composite index defined by Le Brasseur, Zannibbi & Zinger (2013. The multilevel logistic regression model (Hosmer and Lemeshow was used for identifying and quantifying predictors of utilization of financial and non-financial services provided by SEDA to SMMEs. Predictors of long-term survival were estimated by using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model (Cleves, Gould & Gutierrez, 2004. The results showed that the 187 businesses that utilized financial services (36.52% were relatively more viable in comparison with businesses that utilized non-financial services (63.48%. Results obtained from the Cox Proportional Hazards Model showed that long-term viability in the 512 businesses that were selected for the study was significantly influenced by utilization of financial services, degree of entrepreneurial skills, and the ability to order large volumes of stock in bulk, in a decreasing order of strength. The top 3 predictors of utilization of financial services in the 187 businesses that utilized financial services were degree of entrepreneurial skills, the ability to order large volumes of stock in bulk, and access to

  8. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  9. Geology of the State of Morelos and contiguous areas in south-central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Carl F.

    1959-01-01

    The area described lies in south-central Mexico and embraces all but the southeastern corner and easternmost border of the State of Moreles, the second smallest State in the Mexican Republic. It includes small contiguous parts of the State of Mexico, in the northeastern corner, and of the State of Guerrero in the southwestern corner. Limiting geographic coordinates are 98 45 to 99 39 west longitude and 18 18 to 19 08 north latitude, the northern boundary being only 35 km south of Mexico City, capital of the Republic. The geological map does not cover the entire rectangle outlined, but is irregular in form and measures roughly 4150 sq. km, three-quarters of it representing two0thirds of the State of Moreles and the rest lying outside the State. The region ranges in altitude from 730 m above sea level at Iguala near the south edge of the map, to a general level of about 3000 m at the north edge, although individual peaks rise to 3900 m and Popocatepetl Volcano, a few kilometers east of the northeastern border of the map, rises to 5452 m above sea level. Annual rainfall ranges from a minimum of about 640 mm in the low country, to 1200 mm and more at altitudes above 2000 m. Most of it falls in summer between June and September. Winter frosts are rare below 1800 m. The climate is of savanna to steppe type; soils are thin and may be classified as belonging to the tachernoses group, with strong development of calcareous evaporates (caliche) at altitudes below 1800 m. The northern border of the area forms the southern half of the late Pliocene to Recent Neo-volcanic Belt of basic volcanism that crosses Mexico in the direction N. 80 W., and thus has constructional topography. The rest of the area belongs to the Balsas Basin physiographic province, which is characterized by maturely dissected terrain tributary to the large Balsas River. All but the southwestern corner of the area drains southward via the Amacuzac River into the Mexcala-Balsas River, and thence westward into

  10. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

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    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  11. Self-enrolment antenatal health promotion data as an adjunct to maternal clinical information systems in the Western Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heekes, Alexa; Tiffin, Nicki; Dane, Pierre; Mutemaringa, Themba; Smith, Mariette; Zinyakatira, Nesbert; Barron, Peter; Seebregts, Chris; Boulle, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Information systems designed to support health promotion in pregnancy, such as the MomConnect programme, are potential sources of clinical information which can be used to identify pregnancies prospectively and early on. In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility and value of linking records collected through the MomConnect programme, to an emergent province-wide health information exchange in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, which already enumerates pregnancies from a range of other clinical data sources. MomConnect registrations were linked to pregnant women known to the public health services using the limited identifiers collected by MomConnect. Three-quarters of MomConnect registrations could be linked to existing pregnant women, decreasing over time as recording of the national identifier decreased. The MomConnect records were usually the first evidence of pregnancy in pregnancies which were subsequently confirmed by other sources. Those at lower risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes were more likely to register. In some cases, MomConnect was the only evidence of pregnancy for a patient. In addition, the MomConnect records provided gestational age information and new and more recently updated contact numbers to the existing contact registry. The pilot integration of the data in the Western Cape Province of South Africa demonstrates how a client-facing system can augment clinical information systems, especially in contexts where electronic medical records are not widely available.

  12. An improved model for provision of rural community-based health rehabilitation services in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province of South Africa

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    Rudzani E. Luruli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1991, Riakona Community Rehabilitation Programme initiated community-based rehabilitation (CBR in the Vhembe District of Limpopo Province. Subsequently, the South African government adopted the programme. Aim: The aim of the study was to suggest an improvement in the model of providing CBR services. Setting: The study was conducted in six rehabilitation centres located in hospitals in the Vhembe District in Limpopo Province of South Africa. Method: A mixed-mode research design with qualitative and quantitative elements was used to conduct the study. Content analysis, the chi-square test for Goodness of Fit and the Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney non-parametric tests were conducted. Results: The key determinants of client satisfaction with the services that the community rehabilitation workers rendered included provision of assistive devices and the adoption of a holistic approach to their work. Overall, satisfaction per domain for each one of the five domains of satisfaction scored less than 90%. More than 80% of clients were satisfied with empathy (83% and assurance (80% domains. Tangibles, reliability and responsiveness domains had scores of 78%, 72% and 67%, respectively. These results, together with the reasoning map of conceptual framework description, were used as the building blocks of the CBR model. Conclusion: The improved CBR model is useful for putting the programme into practice. This is particularly so for the CBR managers in the districts of the Limpopo Province. Keywords: client satisfaction, disability, community-based rehabilitation, community rehabilitation worker

  13. Sero-prevalence of Taenia spp. infections in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotetsi-Khambule, A M; Njiro, S; Katsande, T C; Thekisoe, O M M; Harrison, L J S

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine sero-prevalence of bovine and porcine cysticercosis in cattle and pigs in rural farming communities in Free State and Gauteng Provinces, Republic of South Africa. Blood samples were collected for a period of twelve months from live cattle (n=1315; 1159) and pigs (n=436; 240) and the serum extracted and stored before analysis by a monoclonal antibody based (HP10) antigen detection ELISA. Results revealed a generally high sero-prevalence and wide distribution throughout the two provinces with Free State having a higher sero-prevalence in both cattle and pigs (23% and 34%) than Gauteng province (15% and 14%). Consumption of infected meat that is either not inspected/missed at meat inspection; poor livestock management practices and limited sanitation in rural communities might have contributed to the occurrence of Taenia spp. infections in the two provinces. It is therefore, recommended that cysticercosis status of animals be established before slaughter. This would assist in ensuring that infected animals are not slaughtered for human consumption or zoonosis preventive measures are taken. Furthermore, public awareness programs on life cycles of T. saginata, T. solium and T. hydatigena and the use of more sensitive diagnostic tools are recommended as part of effective control strategies against taeniid infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A further contribution to the knowledge of two inadequately known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, currently assigned to the genus Plateurytion Attems, 1909 (Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luis Alberto

    2015-10-06

    Two poorly known species of geophilid centipedes from the Andes of South-Central Chile, i.e., Plateurytion mundus (Chamberlin, 1955) and Plateurytion zapallar (Chamberlin, 1955) (Myriapoda: Chilopoda: Geophilomorpha), are herein redescribed and illustrated after type specimens of both taxa and new material of the latter, rectifying the condition of the coxosternites of the second maxillae, which are medially joined through a narrow, hyaline and non-areolate membranous isthmus only (instead of "broadly fused as in Pachymerium", as stated by Chamberlin), this being consistent with the current generic assignment of these species under Plateurytion Attems, 1909. New data on many morphological features of specific value, until now unknown, are also given for both taxa. Plateurytion zapallar is reported for the first time from Coquimbo region, 11 Km N of Los Vilos (Elqui province), Valparaíso region, Quebrada Huaquén, Pichicuy (Petorca province), La Campana National Park (Quillota province), and Quebrada el Tigre, Cachagua (Valparíso province). A key for identification of the South American species currently included in Plateurytion is given.

  15. From The Mountain To The Sea: Exchange Between The South-Central Highlands And The South Coast During The Early Horizon Period

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Michele

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the evidence of the exchange of obsidian and cinnabar, highly coveted resources that traveled in prehistoric Peru from the south-central highlands to the Paracas culture area. The evidence for exchange of these materials is compared with evidence of cultural exchange between the coast and the south-central highlands, focusing on ceramic materials uncovered from excavations at the archaeological site Atalla, located in the region of Huancavelica, Peru. The article argues t...

  16. Prediction of groundwater flowing well zone at An-Najif Province, central Iraq using evidential belief functions model and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abadi, Alaa M; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Shahid, Shamsuddin

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate groundwater flowing well zone potential in An-Najif Province of Iraq in a data-driven evidential belief function model developed in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. An inventory map of 68 groundwater flowing wells was prepared through field survey. Seventy percent or 43 wells were used for training the evidential belief functions model and the reset 30 % or 19 wells were used for validation of the model. Seven groundwater conditioning factors mostly derived from RS were used, namely elevation, slope angle, curvature, topographic wetness index, stream power index, lithological units, and distance to the Euphrates River in this study. The relationship between training flowing well locations and the conditioning factors were investigated using evidential belief functions technique in a GIS environment. The integrated belief values were classified into five categories using natural break classification scheme to predict spatial zoning of groundwater flowing well, namely very low (0.17-0.34), low (0.34-0.46), moderate (0.46-0.58), high (0.58-0.80), and very high (0.80-0.99). The results show that very low and low zones cover 72 % (19,282 km(2)) of the study area mostly clustered in the central part, the moderate zone concentrated in the west part covers 13 % (3481 km(2)), and the high and very high zones extended over the northern part cover 15 % (3977 km(2)) of the study area. The vast spatial extension of very low and low zones indicates that groundwater flowing wells potential in the study area is low. The performance of the evidential belief functions spatial model was validated using the receiver operating characteristic curve. A success rate of 0.95 and a prediction rate of 0.94 were estimated from the area under relative operating characteristics curves, which indicate that the developed model has excellent capability to predict groundwater flowing well zones. The produced map of groundwater

  17. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  18. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  19. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearnshaw, John

    2015-03-01

    The Aoraki Mackenzie International Dark Sky Reserve is a new reserve created in 2012 by the International Dark-Sky Association in the central South Island of New Zealand, and covers over 4300 square kilometres around Mt John University Observatory. It is the first such reserve to be recognized at gold tier level and is the largest dark sky reserve in the world. Astro-tourism in the new reserve will be a prominent activity in the coming years.

  20. Enculturating environments: rock art and the archaeology of interior south-central California

    OpenAIRE

    Sturt, Fraser C.; Robinson, David; Bernard, Julienne

    2010-01-01

    The disarticulation of rock art from the archaeological record and its changing environment remains a primary obstacle facing many rock art researchers across the globe, but particularly in the American Far West, and California specifically (Robinson & Sturt 2009). A schism, so to speak, exists between the archaeological record and rock art as well as 'dirt' archaeologists and rock art specialists. This is because, in California, and particularly in the rock art rich area of south-central...

  1. The effect of a local source on the composition of precipitation in south-central Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott D. Boyce; Samuel S. Butcher

    1976-01-01

    Bulk precipitation samples were collected from ten sites in south-central Maine during the period 18 June to 30 September 1974. Data from the chemical analyses of the precipitation were used to determine regional deposition patterns of the ionic constituents. Acidic pH values ranging from 3.8 to 5.0 are characteristic of the region, but relatively alkaline pH values of...

  2. Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central, and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    De La Rocque et al. 2011) and their spread into higher elevations of Africa, Latin America , and Asia (Epstein 2001). Dengue fever and...denguehemorrhagic fever have resurgeddramatically in Latin America (Zell 2004). In North America ,West Nile virus has impacted signiÞcantly the health and welfare of...VECTOR CONTROL, PEST MANAGEMENT, RESISTANCE, REPELLENTS Field Evaluations of Topical Arthropod Repellents in North, Central , and South America KENDRA

  3. Geological analysis of paleozoic large-scale faulting in the south-central Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Speksnijder, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed structural and sedimentological analysis reveals the existence of an east-west directed fundamental fault zone in the south-central Pyrenees, which has been intermittently active from (at least) the Devonian on. Emphasis is laid on the stUdy of fault-bounded post-Variscan (StephanoPermian) sedimentary basins, and the influence of Late Paleozoic faulting on the underlying Variscan basement. The present structure of the basement is rather complex as it results from multiple Variscan an...

  4. Fire and climate suitability for woody vegetation communities in the south central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther; Struckhoff, Matthew; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Guyette, Richard P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate and fire are primary drivers of plant species distributions. Long-term management of south central United States woody vegetation communities can benefit from information on potential changes in climate and fire frequencies, and how these changes might affect plant communities. We used historical (1900 to 1929) and future (2040 to 2069 and 2070 to 2099) projected climate data for the conterminous US to estimate reference and future fire probabilities

  5. Seroprevalence and awareness of porcine cysticercosis across different pig production systems in south-central Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderosoye Adenuga

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite most pigs being kept confined in pens rather than raised in free-roaming systems, porcine cysticercosis appears to be endemic in south-central Cambodia and is associated with smallholder production. Further investigation is needed to identify which Taenia species are causing infections among pigs, and how seroprevalence and zoonotic risk may vary across the country, to understand the risks to public health and assess where interventions might be needed.

  6. Crystallisation of mela-aillikites of the Narsaq region, Gardar alkaline province, south Greenland and relationships to other aillikitic carbonatitic associations in the province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, B. G. J.; Craven, J. A.; Kirstein, L. A.

    2006-11-01

    Aillikites (carbonated, melilite-free ultramafic lamprophyres grading to carbonatites) are minor components of the Gardar alkaline igneous province. They occur principally as minor intrusions and as clasts in diatremes, but more voluminous aillikitic intrusions crop out near the Ilímaussaq Complex, which they predate by a few million years. These larger intrusions were emplaced at 1160 ± 5 Ma. They are essentially carbonate-free and, consisting almost wholly of ferromagnesian silicate and oxide minerals, are mela-aillikites. Typically the mela-aillikites are fine-grained rocks composed largely of olivine, clinopyroxene, phlogopite and magnetite that crystallised in open systems, permitting loss of volatile-rich residues. The petrography is highly complex, involving at least 28 mineral species. Pyroxenitic veins were emplaced while the host-rocks were still at high temperatures and represent channels through which fluorinated silico-carbonatitic residual melts escaped, with exsolving CO 2 as propellant. Precipitation of Ca-rich minerals including monticellite, perovskite, vesuvianite, wollastonite and cuspidine was a result of dissociation of the calcium carbonate in the residual melts. Late-stage crystallisation was in a highly oxidising environment in which the 'common minerals' attain extreme compositions (almost pure forsterite, ferrian-diopside, highly magnesian ilmenite, Ba-Ti-rich phlogopite and Sr-rich kaersutite). Spatially associated diatremes may be vents through which CO 2-rich gases erupted. The whole-rock compositions are considered to be well removed from those of co-existing melts: compaction and expulsion of highly mobile residual melts is inferred to have left the mela-aillikites as aberrant cumulates. The mela-aillikites are a late-Gardar manifestation of the aillikitic magmatism that occurred intermittently in the province for over 120 Ma. Repetitive formation of metasomite vein systems in the deep lithospheric mantle is postulated. These

  7. Tribal engagement strategy of the South Central Climate Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Taylor, April; Winton, Kimberly T.

    2014-01-01

    The South Central Climate Science Center was established by the U.S. Department of the Interior in 2012 to increase understanding of climate change and coordinate an effective response to climate-change effects on Native American tribes and natural and cultural resources that the Department manages. The eight regional Climate Science Centers of the U.S. Department of the Interior work closely with natural-resource management agencies, university researchers, and others such as tribes and private landowners on climate-change issues. The relatively large number of Native Americans in the south central United States and their special knowledge of changing ecosystems make working with tribes and tribal members on climate-change issues particularly important in this part of the Nation. This circular describes priorities of the South Central Climate Science Center and provides information about resources available from Climate Science Centers and partner agencies regarding climate change. The circular also describes how this Climate Science Center, tribes and tribal members, and others can collaborate to minimize potential harmful effects of climate change on human society and our surrounding ecosystems.

  8. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Greeff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4,7 million people living with HIV (PLWA, has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision o f care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect o f stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents’ emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma and several dimensions for each type o f stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  9. Determination of Mineralization Zones Using Interpretation of IP and RS Data in The GarmabCopper Deposit (South Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Adelpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Garmab copper deposit is located northeast of Qaen (South Khorasan province in the1:100,000 scale map of Abiz in the eastern tectonic zone of Iran. It is hosted by Late Paleocene-Eocene lava flows consisting mainly of andesite, trachy¬andesite, andesite-basalt and basalt lavas, as well as pyroclastic rocks, including tuffs and ignimbrites. The Lut Block has undergone intense magmatic activitywith a variety of geochemical characteristics due to changing tectonic conditions (e.g., compression during subduction followed by tensional conditions; Karimpour et al., 2012; Zarrinkoub et al., 2012. The Lut Block has a great potential for the discovery of new mineral deposits, like the Mahrabad and Khonik porphyry copper-gold deposits (Malekzadeh shafarodi, 2009, the Dehsalam porphyry copper deposit (Arjmandzadeh, 2011, high sulfidation epithermal gold deposits such as Chah Shalghami (Karimpour, 2005 and IOCG deposits such as Kuh-E-Zar and Qaleh Zari (Mazlomi et al., 2008. Materials and methods After field studies of the Garmab area, 32 thin sections and 21 polished sections were prepared for petrological and mineralogical studies.In addition, 10 least-altered and fractured samples of volcanic rocks were selected for geochemical studies. Major oxides were determined using XRF analyses at the Zarazma laboratory. Induced polarization and resistivity geophysical data were collected and correlated with geological and alteration maps. The geophysical datawere collectedfrom 420 individual points, using a dipole-dipole arrangement along five profiles separated 60m apart.This covered the study area entirely. After a change in the mineralization trend was observed,additional profileswere designed, twoon bearings of 25º and three on 75º. Results The Garmab volcanic rocks exhibit typical geochemical characteristics of subduction zone magmas including strong enrichment in LILE and depletion in HFSE. Based on the discrimination plot of Irvine and

  10. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples

  11. Interventions for improving management of chronic non-communicable diseases in Dikgale, a rural area in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimela, Eric; Alberts, Marianne; Bastiaens, Hilde; Fraeyman, Jesicca; Meulemans, Herman; Wens, Johan; Van Geertruyden, Jeane Pierre

    2018-05-04

    Chronic disease management (CDM) is an approach to health care that keeps people as healthy as possible through the prevention, early detection and management of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to develop interventions to improve management of chronic diseases in the form of an integrated, evidence-based chronic disease management model in Dikgale, a rural area of Limpopo Province in South Africa. A multifaceted intervention, called 'quality circles' (QCs) was developed to improve the quality and the management of chronic diseases in the Dikgale Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). These QCs used the findings from previous studies which formed part of the larger project in the study area, namely, the quantitative study using STEPwise survey and qualitative studies using focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews. The findings from previous studies in Dikgale HDSS revealed that an epidemiological transition is occurring. Again, the most widely reported barriers from previous studies in this rural area were: lack of knowledge of NCDs; shortages of medication and shortages of nurses in the clinics, which results in patients having long waiting-time at clinics. Lack of training of health care providers on the management of chronic diseases and the lack of supervision by the district and provincial health managers, together with poor dissemination of guidelines, were contributing factors to the lack of knowledge of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) management among nurses and community health care workers (CHWs). Consideration of all of these findings led to the development of model which focuses on integrating nursing services, CHWs and traditional health practitioners (THPs), including a well-established clinical information system for health care providers. A novel aspect of the model is the inclusion of community ambassadors who are on treatment for NCDs and are, thus, repositories of knowledge who can serve as a bridge between

  12. Domestic water carrying and its implications for health: a review and mixed methods pilot study in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geere Jo-Anne L

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of access to safe water remains a significant risk factor for poor health in developing countries. There has been little research into the health effects of frequently carrying containers of water. The aims of this study were to better understand how domestic water carrying is performed, identify potential health risk factors and gain insight into the possible health effects of the task. Methods Mixed methods of data collection from six were used to explore water carrying performed by people in six rural villages of Limpopo Province, South Africa. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and through observation and measurement. Linear regression modelling were used to identify significant correlations between potential risk factors and rating of perceived exertion (RPE or self reported pain. Independent t-tests were used to compare the mean values of potential risk factors and RPE between sub-groups reporting pain and those not reporting pain. Results Water carrying was mainly performed by women or children carrying containers on their head (mean container weight 19.5 kg over a mean distance of 337 m. The prevalence of spinal (neck or back pain was 69% and back pain was 38%. Of participants who carried water by head loading, the distance walked by those who reported spinal pain was significantly less than those who did not (173 m 95%CI 2-343; p = 0.048. For head loaders reporting head or neck pain compared to those who did not, the differences in weight of water carried (4.6 kg 95%CI -9.7-0.5; p = 0.069 and RPE (2.5 95%CI -5.1-0.1; p = 0.051 were borderline statistically significant. For head loaders, RPE was significantly correlated with container weight (r = 0.52; p = 0.011 and incline (r = 0.459; p = 0.018 Conclusions Typical water carrying methods impose physical loading with potential to produce musculoskeletal disorders and related disability. This exploratory study is limited by a small sample size

  13. High risk of suicide among highschool learners in uMgungundlovu District KwaZuluNatal Province South Africa

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    N Khuzwayo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, suicide affects the most vulnerable populations, including adolescents and young adults. It is estimated that suicide will contribute more than 2% to the global burden of disease by 2020. Information about the prevalence of suicidal behaviour and the sociodemographic characteristics and risk factors associated with suicide in the South African (SA rural context is important for local and national policy and contributes to global understanding of the phenomenon.Objective. To investigate key demographic factors and behaviours associated with planning and attempting suicide among high-school learners.Methods. In a cross-sectional study, we used stratified random sampling to select 16 schools in uMgungundlovu District, KwaZulu-Natal Province, SA. All grade 10 learners (N=1 759 at these schools completed a self-administered questionnaire (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. Data analysis was carried out with Stata 13 statistical software using generalised estimating equations.Results. In total, 222 learners (12.6% of the 1 759 had made plans to attempt suicide during the previous 12 months, 261 (14.8% had actually attempted suicide, and 218 attempts had resulted in the learner being treated by a doctor or nurse (12.4%. The risk of planning suicide increased with age. For male learners, being threatened with a weapon on school property (adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.7, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.9 - 7.1; p<0.01 or bullied through Facebook or WhatsApp (AOR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5 - 7.1; p<0.01 significantly increased the likelihood of making a suicide attempt that resulted in treatment by a doctor or nurse. For female learners, engaging in risk behaviours increased this likelihood, risk factors including being physically hurt by someone they were dating (1 - 3 times AOR 3.3, 95% CI 1.9 - 5.7; p<0.01, ≥4 times AOR 10.0, 95% CI 2.5 - 40.2 (p<0.01 and number of drinks consumed

  14. A comparison of some methods used to estimate the grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Schmidt

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available The grazing capacity of a game ranch in Northern Province was estimated in a number of different ways using rainfall and herbaceous composition and phytomass data. The results indicate that the grazing capacity under the present environmental conditions should be approximately 50 of the recommended agricultural grazer stocking rate. This is in agreement with recent literature, indicating that the methods used should be suitable for determining a first approximation of grazing capacity in the mixed bushveld of Northern Province.

  15. Elemental composition of coal fly ash: Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province in South Africa case study using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Ch.P.; Fatoba, O.; Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Nechaev, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare-earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash is of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b

  16. Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Michélle; van Rooyen, Francois C; Walsh, Corinna M

    2017-12-01

    Higher socioeconomic status impacts profoundly on quality of life. Life-event stressors, such as loss of employment, marital separation/divorce, death of a spouse and food insecurity, have been found to accelerate disease progression among people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of this study was to determine significant independent sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status in people from rural and urban communities in the Assuring Health for All study, which was undertaken in rural Trompsburg, Philippolis and Springfontein and urban Mangaung, in the Free State Province of South Africa. Sociodemographic and food security factors associated with HIV status were determined in 886 households. Logistic regression with forward selection (p rural participants, 97 (17.1%) were HIV-infected, and 172 (40.6%) of the 424 urban participants. A relatively high percentage of respondents had never attended school, while very few participants in all areas had a tertiary education. The unemployment rate of HIV-infected adults was higher than that of HIV-uninfected adults. A high percentage of respondents in all areas reported running out of money to buy food, with this tendency occurring significantly more among urban HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected respondents. In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to feed their children, with significantly more HIV-infected urban respondents compared to their uninfected counterparts reporting this. Most participants in all areas had to cut the size of meals, or ate less because there was not enough food in the house or not enough money to buy food. During periods of food shortage, more than 50% of respondents in all areas asked family, relatives or neighbours for assistance with money and/or food, which occurred at a higher percentage of HIV-infected rural participants compared to HIV-uninfected rural participants. More than half of all

  17. Mio-Pliocene aridity in the south-central Andes associated with Southern Hemisphere cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, William H; Fisher, G Burch; Burbank, Douglas W; Ciccioli, Patricia L; Alonso, Ricardo N; Gorin, Andrew L; Silverhart, Perri H; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C; Christoffersen, Michael S

    2017-06-20

    Although Earth's climate history is best known through marine records, the corresponding continental climatic conditions drive the evolution of terrestrial life. Continental conditions during the latest Miocene are of particular interest because global faunal turnover is roughly synchronous with a period of global glaciation from ∼6.2-5.5 Ma and with the Messinian Salinity Crisis from ∼6.0-5.3 Ma. Despite the climatic and ecological significance of this period, the continental climatic conditions associated with it remain unclear. We address this question using erosion rates of ancient watersheds to constrain Mio-Pliocene climatic conditions in the south-central Andes near 30° S. Our results show two slowdowns in erosion rate, one from ∼6.1-5.2 Ma and another from 3.6 to 3.3 Ma, which we attribute to periods of continental aridity. This view is supported by synchrony with other regional proxies for aridity and with the timing of glacial ‟cold" periods as recorded by marine proxies, such as the M2 isotope excursion. We thus conclude that aridity in the south-central Andes is associated with cold periods at high southern latitudes, perhaps due to a northward migration of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, which disrupted the South American Low Level Jet that delivers moisture to southeastern South America. Colder glacial periods, and possibly associated reductions in atmospheric CO 2 , thus seem to be an important driver of Mio-Pliocene ecological transitions in the central Andes. Finally, this study demonstrates that paleo-erosion rates can be a powerful proxy for ancient continental climates that lie beyond the reach of most lacustrine and glacial archives.

  18. Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouaib Ammari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we will size an optimum hybrid central content three different generators, two on renewable energy (solar photovoltaic and wind power and two nonrenewable (diesel generator and storage system because the new central generator has started to consider the green power technology in order for best future to the world, this central will use all the green power resource available and distributes energy to a small isolated village in southwest of Algeria named “Timiaouine”. The consumption of this village estimated with detailed in two season; season low consumption (winter and high consumption (summer, the hybrid central will be optimized by program Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER PRO, this program will simulate in two configuration, the first with storage system, the second without storage system and in the end the program HOMER PRO will choose the best configuration which is the mixture of both economic and ecologic configurations, this central warrants the energetic continuity of village. Article History: Received May 18th 2017; Received in revised form July 17th 2017; Accepted Sept 3rd 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Ammari, C., Hamouda,M., and Makhloufi,S. (2017 Sizing and Optimization for Hybrid Central in South Algeria Based on Three Different Generators. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 6(3, 263-272. http://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.263-272

  19. Warm and Dry Spells (WDS in Austral Winter over Central South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Satyamurty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.

  20. Population-based Seroprevalence of HTLV-I Infection in Golestan Province, South East of Caspian Sea, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalavi, Khodaberdi; Moradi, Abdolvahab; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2013-03-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 is an oncornavirus that causes adult T cell leukemia (ATL) HTLV-I-associated myelopathy⁄tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Golestan province is located in North West of Khorasan province known as an endemic area for HTLV-I in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate seroprevalence of HTLV-I in Golestan province. In this cross-sectional descriptive study in 2007, blood samples were collected from 2034 healthy people residing in different parts of Golestan province. Sera were assessed for HTLV-I/II-specific antibodies by ELISA method and reactive samples were confirmed by Western blot. Demographic and serologic data were entered in SPSS version 11.5 and statistical analysis was performed. An overall HTLV-I/II prevalence of 0.7% was observed in 15 cases by ELISA. Six out of 15 were confirmed as HTLV-I by western blot. Regional variation in the prevalence of HTLV-I was observed; 0%, 0%, 0.1%, 1.9%, 0.3%, 0%, and 2.6% tested HTLV-I-positive from west to east of Golestan Province regions, respectively. Seropositivity increased with age. No association between HTLV-I infection and sex status was detected. Highest rate of HTLV-I seroprevalence was shown in east of this region located in neighborhood with Khorasan province, the only confirmed endemic area in Iran. It seems that eastern area of our province is endemic for HTLV-I. Further comprehensive detailed epidemiological and molecular studies are recommended.

  1. Early urban and colonized regions of central and south Italy : A case study in comparative landscape archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, P; Darvill, T; Gojda, M

    2001-01-01

    Systematic field surveys and topographical research undertaken to date in various Italian regions south of Rome shou, that responses to early urbanization in central and south Italy, and the interplay of early urbanization with Greek and Roman colonization, differed widely between regions. In this

  2. A 600-year-long stratigraphic record of tsunamis in south-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Isabel; Dura, Tina; Ely, Lisa L.; Horton, Benajamin P.; Nelson, Alan R.; Cisternas, Marco; Nikitina, Daria; Wesson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    The stratigraphy within coastal river valleys in south-central Chile clarifies and extends the region’s history of large, earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis. Our site at Quidico (38.1°S, 73.3°W) is located in an overlap zone between ruptures of magnitude 8–9 earthquakes in 1960 and 2010, and, therefore, records tsunamis originating from subduction-zone ruptures north and south of the city of Concepción. Hand-dug pits and cores in a 3-m-thick sequence of freshwater peat in an abandoned meander (a little-examined depositional environment for tsunami deposits) and exposures along the Quidico River show five sand beds that extend as much as 1.2 km inland. Evidence for deposition of the beds by tsunamis includes tabular sand beds that are laterally extensive (>100 m), well sorted, fine upward, have sharp lower contacts, and contain diatom assemblages dominated by brackish and marine taxa. Using eyewitness accounts of tsunami inundation, 137Cs analyses, and 14C dating, we matched the upper four sand beds with historical tsunamis in 2010, 1960, 1835, and 1751. The oldest prehistoric bed dates to 1445–1490 CE and correlates with lacustrine and coastal records of similar-aged earthquakes and tsunamis in south-central Chile.

  3. IAU South West and Central Asian Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Hakopian, S. A.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    The International Astronomical Union (IAU) announced its Strategic Plan on Astronomy for Development in 2009, during the International Year of Astronomy (IYA). One of its main components was the creation of the Office of Astronomy for Development (OAD) and corresponding Regional Offices (ROADs) for implementation and coordination of its aims. The OAD was created in Cape Town, South Africa and later on ROADs were created in 8 regions. Since 2015, Armenia hosts one of them, IAU South West Asian (SWA), later renamed to South West and Central Asian (SWCA) ROAD. At present, already 6 countries have officially joined (Armenia, Georgia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Turkey), but the Office serves for a rather broad region, from Eastern Europe to Central Asia. Armenia's geographical location and its historical role in astronomy (both for well-known archaeoastronomical heritage and the presence of the famous Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) founded by Viktor Ambartsumian in 1946) serve as a link between Europe and Eastern Partnership countries, Middle East and Asia in general. We run activities in 3 directions, Task Forces (TF): TF1 Universities and Research, TF2 Children and Schools and TF3 Public Outreach. We present our projects and all other accomplishments and discuss the role of our ROAD in maintaining contacts and development of astronomy in the region, as well as contacts between Europe and the Eastern Partnership countries. Most up-to-date information about the IAU SWCA ROAD is available on its webpage at http://iau-swa-road.aras.am/eng/index.php.

  4. Cretaceous alkaline volcanism in south Marzanabad, northern central Alborz, Iran: Geochemistry and petrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghieh Doroozi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The alkali-basalt and basaltic trachy-andesites volcanic rocks of south Marzanabad were erupted during Cretaceous in central Alborz, which is regarded as the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Based on petrography and geochemistry, en route fractional crystallization of ascending magma was an important process in the evolution of the volcanic rocks. Geochemical characteristics imply that the south Marzanabad alkaline basaltic magma was originated from the asthenospheric mantle source, whereas the high ratios of (La/YbN and (Dy/YbN are related to the low degree of partial melting from the garnet bearing mantle source. Enrichment pattern of Nb and depletion of Rb, K and Y, are similar to the OIB pattern and intraplate alkaline magmatic rocks. The K/Nb and Zr/Nb ratios of volcanic rocks range from 62 to 588 and from 4.27 to 9 respectively, that are some higher in more evolved samples which may reflect minor crustal contamination. The isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd respectively vary from 0.70370 to 0.704387 and from 0.51266 to 0.51281 that suggest the depleted mantle as a magma source. The development of south Marzanabad volcanic rocks could be related to the presence of extensional phase, upwelling and decompressional melting of asthenospheric mantle in the rift basin which made the alkaline magmatism in Cretaceous, in northern central Alborz of Iran.

  5. Deglaciation events in part of the Manchester South 7.5' quadrangle south-central New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Byron D.

    1971-01-01

    The study-area lies in south-central New Hampshire, and is bordered on the west by the Merrimack River, the principal north-south drainage route of central New Hampshire. The classical two tills of New England outcrop in the area. In a unique exposure of the sandy upper till, a loose ablation unit overlies a compact basal unit. Both upper till facies overlie a sheared section of dense, olive-gray lower till. Outwash sequences mapped in the study-area are progressively younger to the north, indicating backwastage of the Wisconsinan ice sheet. Primary structures in proglacial Lake Merrimack sediments include contorted bedding, buckled laminae, and folds. A large slumped section in lake sediments exhibits three distinct deformation zones, characterized by brittle, ductile, and unconsolidated deformation. Cross-cutting relationships establish four fold generations and a deformation sequence in the slumped section. Slip in each fold generation was along nearly parallel slip-lines, as deduced from analyses of fold rotation senses. The primary and slump deformation features contrast sharply with the intense style of deformation of lake beds below till at an apparent ice readvance cut. The deduced drag fold slip-line agrees with till fabric point maxima and dip-slip on one group of thrust faults. A southerly movement of readvancing ice is inferred.The study-area was deglaciated about 13,000 years ago, according to a proposed deglaciation model for New Hampshire. The model is based on Nye's theoretical glacier surface gradient, and evidence for active retreat of the Wisconsinan ice sheet.

  6. Epidemiology of severe mental illness in Hunan province in central China during 2014-2015: A multistage cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxin Wang

    Full Text Available Severe mental illness (SMI represents major social and public health problem in China, especially in low- or middle-income regions. We aim to assess the prevalence and distribution of SMI in Hunan province in central China.Multistage stratified random sampling methods were used to select qualified subjects in 123 districts and counties in Hunan province. 89465 individuals were randomly identified, and 72999 (81.6% completed the supplemental 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 and Cue questionnaire of psychiatric abnormal behaviors. 6082 suspected individuals having high or moderate risk, or psychiatric cues, were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I by psychiatrists.720 respondents were definitely diagnosed as SMI. The 1-month and lifetime prevalence was 9.35‰ and 10.10‰, respectively. The most frequent SMI was schizophrenia, followed by bipolar disorder, intellectual disability, epileptic mental disorder, paranoid psychosis and schizoaffective disorders, with 1-month prevalence ranging from 0.11‰ to 6.50‰ and lifetime prevalence ranging from 0.24‰ to 6.86‰. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that lower education, farmer occupation, retirees or jobless/unemployed, unmarried or divorced and age of 30-64 years old were major factors that associated with the increased risk of SMI. In addition, only 33.3% of 528 patients who completed questionnaire sought help in psychiatric institutions, and up to 51.7% of 720 patients were not referred to the SMI management system in Hunan province.These findings provided a large-scale prevalence data of SMI in a provincial sample of China. The psychiatric disorders brought economical and psychological burden for family and society, which may shed light on the significance of scaling up province-wide mental health service and strengthening the SMI management.

  7. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  8. Serum uric acid is associated with dietary and lifestyle factors in elderly women in suburban Guangzhou in Guangdong province of south China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Z; Zhu, C; Qian, X; Zhu, J; Wu, Z; Chen, L

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of hyperuricemia and lifestyle risk factors for hyperuricemia in elderly women. Cross-sectional study. The suburban area of Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China. The study included 856 Chinese women aged 60 to 102 years who received their annual health examinations in the suburban area of Guangzhou, south China in 2002. Information on anthropometric measurements and lifestyle factors were obtained via a questionnaire processed by the attending physicians or nurses. Blood biochemistry was performed after subjects fasted for 8-14 h. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between hyperuricemia, meat intake quintiles, physical activity quintiles, and alcohol intake quintiles. The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the studied population was 12.01%. Alcohol, meat and seafood consumption; being overweight or obese; hypertension; and abnormal triglyceride levels were strongly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia. Physical activity was inversely related to the prevalence of hyperuricemia. The odds ratios for hyperuricemia for quintiles of physical activity were 1.00, 0.74, 0.72, 0.63, and 0.55 (P<0.01). Our data suggest that the prevalence of hyperuricemia is high in elderly women in suburban Guangzhou in Guangdong province of South China. Obesity, meat and seafood intake and alcohol consumption are associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia, whereas daily physical activity is inversely related to the prevalence of hyperuricemia.

  9. HIV/AIDS, STIs and condom use beliefs among male prison inmates in two South African provinces: Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, T; Conerly, R; Braithwaite, R L; Sifunda, S; Ogbuawa, N; Bhengu, S; Reddy, P

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics of a random sample of prison inmates from two provinces in South Africa with respect to correct knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and sexual transmitted infection (STI) risk and beliefs about condom use. This cross-sectional descriptive study of 357 prison inmates formed part of a larger longitudinal investigation designed to implement a health education intervention for prison inmates in the KwaZulu-Natal (KZN) and Mpumalanga (MP) provinces of South Africa. Mean differences for groups were compared across sites using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Inmates from KZN were less likely to agree that 'It is important to use condoms every time you have sex' F (1355) = 25.8, pCondoms work well to prevent the spread of HIV' F (1355) = 11.7, pCondoms also prevent pregnancy' F (1355) = 5.1, pcondom use behaviour suggested that future prevention efforts focus on the importance of using condoms to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS and other STIs.

  10. FOOD HABITS AND FEEDING HABITS OF BARRAMUNDI FISH (Lates calcarifer Block IN TERUSAN DALAM (INSIDE CANAL WATERS, EAST COAST OF SOUTH SUMATERA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasyid Ridho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about the food habits and feeding habits of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Block in Terusan Dalam (inside canal waters, East coast of South Sumatera Province, had been done during March to June 2012. The purpose of this research was to analyze the food habits and feeding habits of  Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Block on Terusan Dalam (inside canal waters, East coast of South Sumatera Province. Sampling method of the fish was purposive sampling method using Tangsi net. The results of this research showed that the number of fish from March to June totaled 31 individuals of fish. Based on the Relative Importance Index (RII, the natural food of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer Block in March to June 2012 consisted of shrimp as the main food with the Relative Importance Index 72.37-99.51%, the fish was as the complement food with the Relative Importance Index 11.33-27.63%, and as the additional food was the worm with Relative Importance Index 0.49%. Keywords: Barramundi, food habits, feeding habits

  11. Mapping and characterization from aeromagnetic data of the Foum Zguid dolerite Dyke (Anti-Atlas, Morocco) a member of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouiflane, Mustapha; Manar, Ahmed; Medina, Fida; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Rimi, Abdelkrim

    2017-06-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was carried out in the Anti- Atlas, Morocco covering the main areas traversed by the Great CAMP Foum Zguid dyke (FZD). This ;doleritic; dyke belongs to the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), a Large Igneous Province which is associated with the fragmentation of the supercontinent Pangaea and the initial stages of rifting of the Central Atlantic Ocean. It also coincides in time with the mass extinction of the Triassic - Jurassic boundary. Based on the study of geological maps and Google Earth satellite images, it appears that the FZD is poorly exposed and, often covered by Quaternary deposits. This work proposes aeromagnetic modelling and interpretation of the FZD in order to better constrain its structural extent. The data have allowed (i) mapping of the dyke over great distances, under the Quaternary deposits and through areas where it was poorly characterized on the geological map; (ii) identifying major tectonic lineaments interpreted as faults; (iii) recognizing magnetic anomalies related to mafic intrusive bodies; and (iv) informing about regional structural context.

  12. Head and neck cancer burden and preventive measures in Central and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdomo, Sandra; Martin Roa, Guillermo; Brennan, Paul; Forman, David; Sierra, Mónica S

    2016-09-01

    Central and South America comprise one of the areas characterized by high incidence rates for head and neck cancer. We describe the geographical and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of head and neck cancers in the Central and South American region in order to identify opportunities for intervention on the major identified risk factors: tobacco control, alcohol use and viral infections. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years were estimated. Brazil had the highest incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer in the region for both sexes, followed by Cuba, Uruguay and Argentina. Cuba had the highest incidence and mortality rates of laryngeal cancer in the region for males and females. Overall, males had rates about four times higher than those in females. Most countries in the region have implemented WHO recommendations for both tobacco and alcohol public policy control. Head and neck squamous-cell cancer (HNSCC) incidence and mortality rates in the Central and South America region vary considerably across countries, with Brazil, Cuba, French Guyana, Uruguay and Argentina experiencing the highest rates in the region. Males carry most of the HNSCC burden. Improvement and implementation of comprehensive tobacco and alcohol control policies as well as the monitoring of these factors are fundamental to prevention of head and neck cancers in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Palynological and iridium anomalies at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, south-central Saskatchewan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, D.J.; Jarzen, D.M.; Orth, C.J.; Oliver, P.Q.

    1986-01-01

    The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in south-central Saskatchewan is marked by coincident anomalies in abundance of iridium and fern spores at the extinction level of a suite of Cretaceous pollen taxa. Evidence of disruption of the terrestrial flora includes the fern-spore abundance anomaly and local extinction of as much as 30 percent of angiosperm species. The reorganized earliest Tertiary flora is made up largely of surviving species that assumed new roles of dominance. Persistence of climatically sensitive taxa across the boundary indicates that if paleoclimate was altered by the terminal Cretaceous event, it returned quickly to the pre-event condition.

  14. Cave-dwelling bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) and conservation concerns in South central Mindanao, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Krizler C. Tanalgo; John Aries G. Tabora

    2015-01-01

    The stable microclimate in caves provides a relatively constant habitat for many bat species in the Philippines, but human encroachment continues to disrupt this habitat and imperil many of the species roosting in the caves.  In South central Mindanao, the diversity and conservation status of cave bats remain undocumented and unexplored.  We employed mist-netting to capture bats from five different caves within the town of Kabacan, northern Cotabato, Philippines.  A total of 14 bat species we...

  15. Unretrieved shooting loss of mourning doves in north-central South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Unretrieved loss for mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) in north-central South Carolina was between 27 and 41 percent of the retrieved kill for the 1973 through 1975 hunting seasons based on 1,396 doves shot by 281 hunters. Dove hunters hunted in groups, fired 8.6 shots per retrieved dove, and engaged in a substantial number of illegal activities. Increased dove populations and hunter bag resulted in increased unretrieved loss, numbers of shots per bagged bird, and illegal activities. Retriever dogs increased the efficiency of dove hunters.

  16. COELIAC DISEASE IN CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA: time for a concerted approach to its epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affifa FARRUKH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Central and South America offer an opportunity to resolve some of the current controversies that surround the epidemiology of celiac disease. Through a concerted action which brings together clinicians, researchers and patients there is an opportunity to establish robust data sets which will allow detailed analysis of environmental and genetic factors. In this review available data from the continent together with data from Spain and Italy are drawn together to give a current picture in the hope that it will stimulate further research.

  17. Spectra of the earthquake sequence February-March, 1981, in south-central Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    O. Kulhánek; T. van Eck; N. John; K. Meyer; Rutger Wahlström

    1983-01-01

    On February 13, 1981, a relatively strong earthquake occurred in the Lake Vanern region in south-central Sweden. The shock had a magnitude of M"SUB L" = 3.3 and was followed within three weeks by three aftershocks, with magnitudes 0.5 = or < M"SUB L" = or < 1.0. The focal mechanism solution of the main shock indicates reverse faulting with a strike in the N-S or NE-SW direction and a nearly horizontal compressional stress. The aftershocks were too small to yield data for a full mechanism solu...

  18. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  19. Connecting communities and business: Public-private partnerships as the panacea for land reform in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, M.J.; Cousins, B.; Bos, A.; Ntsholo, M.; Bruijn, M. de; Dijk, R. van

    2012-01-01

    Scattered among large-scale citrus orchards and game farms in Limpopo Province lie the densely populated former homelands of Venda, Gazankulu, and Lebowa. With few possibilities for development in these barren areas, many communities have lodged claims for the restitution of land from which they

  20. Geologic map of the Alamosa 30’ × 60’ quadrangle, south-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ren A.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Michael N. Machette,; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2015-10-15

    The Alamosa 30'× 60' quadrangle is located in the central San Luis Basin of southern Colorado and is bisected by the Rio Grande. The Rio Grande has headwaters in the San Juan Mountains of Colorado and ultimately discharges into the Gulf of Mexico 3,000 kilometers (km) downstream. Alluvial floodplains and associated deposits of the Rio Grande and east-draining tributaries, La Jara Creek and Conejos River, occupy the north-central and northwestern part of the map area. Alluvial deposits of west-draining Rio Grande tributaries, Culebra and Costilla Creeks, bound the Costilla Plain in the south-central part of the map area. The San Luis Hills, a northeast-trending series of flat-topped mesas and hills, dominate the landscape in the central and southwestern part of the map and preserve fault-bound Neogene basin surfaces and deposits. The Precambrian-cored Sangre de Cristo Mountains rise to an elevation of nearly 4,300 meters (m), almost 2,000 m above the valley floor, in the eastern part of the map area. In total, the map area contains deposits that record surficial, tectonic, sedimentary, volcanic, magmatic, and metamorphic processes over the past 1.7 billion years.

  1. Eruption age of permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors in the south Indian population

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    Gupta Rakhi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existing eruption schedules for permanent and deciduous dentition are based on studies in the Western population. Since Indians differ from Westerners racially, genetically, and environmentally, these studies fail to provide relevant guidance on the eruption schedule in the Indian population. This study aims at determining the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular molars and central incisors in the south Indian population. Materials and Methods: 10,156 apparently healthy Indian children in the age-group of 6-9 years were examined with mouth mirror and probe under adequate illumination for the status of the eruption of the permanent mandibular first molar and permanent mandibular central incisor. Pearson′s Chi-square test with Yates′ continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value for comparison of proportion between girls and boys. The values obtained in our study were compared with the standard values. The Z-test with continuity correction was used to calculate the P -value. Results: As per our study, the permanent mandibular first molars and central incisors erupted one to two years later compared to the values reported in Westerners. The earlier eruption of the permanent mandibular first molars compared to the permanent mandibular central incisors, as well as the earlier eruption of both the teeth in girls compared to boys, were in accordance with the existing literature. Conclusion: The eruption age reported by us may form a standard reference for eruption age in Indians.

  2. Chemostratigraphy and evolution of the Paraná Igneous Province volcanism in the central portion of the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Allan Silva; Licht, Otavio Augusto Boni; Vasconcellos, Eleonora Maria Gouvêa; Soares, Jan Savaris

    2018-04-01

    Analysis of borehole samples offers the potential to investigate the chemostratigraphic variations of a large igneous province in subsurface. New geochemical data based on multielement analyses of 829 chip samples that were obtained during the drilling of seven deep boreholes is presented for the central area of the Paraná Igneous Province (PIP). In order to detail the compositional variations found within the two main types from the Central-Northern Subprovince (CNSP), simple statistical treatment was carried out for part this database. Thus, the combination of low (L) and high (H) contents of Th, Nb, La and Yb was used as a means to create 16 geochemical subtypes for the Type 4 (LSi-LZr-HTi-HP) sequence. Likewise, other four elements (Cr, Ni, Cu and Pd) were selected with the same intention for the Type 1 (Central-Northern) (LSi-LZr-LTi-LP) sequence. When subtypes are plotted in the cross section, it is possible to observe that those with similar characteristics tend to be associated in groups (cycles). This analysis showed that the volcanic pile can be divided into at least eleven different cycles and also that they are laterally continuous throughout the section. The compositional changes observed in these volcanic cycles also display correlations with Mg#, Zr, Ti/Y and La/SmN ratios, for example. Therefore, since the reservoir is marked by periods of injection of more differentiated or more mafic magmas, it could be suggested that it was periodically recharged with batches of magma from the parental source.

  3. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  4. Utilization of research reactor to the environmental application in Thailand. Air quality study in Saraburi Province, central Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Ninlaphruk, Sumalee; Mungpayaban, Harinate; Siese, Piyamaporn; Suanmamuang, Boonlert

    2007-01-01

    Saraburi Province is facing difficulties due to high dust generating Industries which is the major economy of the area. Thus, the elemental composition of SPMs in Tumbon Na Phra Lan, Saraburi Province is being monitored. The samples were collected in each quarter from May 2005 to March 2006. Soil as well as fine particles from stacks of some selected manufacturers were also analyzed. The average weight of SPM was found lowest in wet season and highest in the middle of dry season. The average weight of SPM is also high in dry season and low in wet season. The elements found in the samples are Na, Mg, Al, As, Sr, Br, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, and Zn. Calcium is selected as the key elements since most postulated source of pollution is due industrial utilization of the limestone deposit. It is observed that the fine partials form stack are quite low which mean an effective emission control of fine particles form the selected manufacturers. The data is being utilized by the Pollution Control Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, the environmental authority in Thailand. The authority will use this data to find possible solution for air quality improvement of the area. Future collaboration with environmental authority will be on the study of Thalenoi conservation area in the southern part of Thailand. (author)

  5. THE STRUCTURE OF THE SEED YIELD OF BROAD BEANS IN THE SOUTH CENTRAL ZONE OF THE SOUTH OF THE CENTRAL BLACK EARTH REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. N. Kurkina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rich in high quality protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids and trace elements seeds, green fruits and young leaves broad beans (Vicia faba L. var. major Harz has long been used in the food, and the culture of beans are promising in biological agriculture and horticulture. The aim of this work was to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans in the South Central zone of the region. At the Botanical garden BelSU (Belgorod to study the structure of seed production of different varieties of broad beans (Belarusiskie, Velena, Russkie chernie, Aquadul and determined the biochemical composition of seeds. Optimal height of attachment of the first fruit for mechanical harvesting (20-25 cm characteristic of plants of all studied varieties. Weight of the fetus, according to the coefficient of variability, equal to 45%, distinguished by a strong variability on grades with a maximum grade of Velena. The length of fruit ranged from 9 to 13 cm and were characterized by moderate variability (V=20%. Seeds production is determinened not only by size of fruits of beans, but and its important components such as 1000 seed weight. Protein content in the seeds at 30% different varieties of broad beans domestic breeding. Contents of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and iron is higher in the cotyledons than in the skin. Dark purple color of the seed varieties of Russian black is due to the biosynthesis useful for human organism anthocyanins in seed peel.

  6. Analyzing implementation dynamics using theory-driven evaluation principles: lessons learnt from a South African centralized chronic dispensing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadzire, Bvudzai Priscilla; Marchal, Bruno; Mathys, Tania; Laing, Richard O; Ward, Kim

    2017-12-04

    Centralized dispensing of essential medicines is one of South Africa's strategies to address the shortage of pharmacists, reduce patients' waiting times and reduce over-crowding at public sector healthcare facilities. This article reports findings of an evaluation of the Chronic Dispensing Unit (CDU) in one province. The objectives of this process evaluation were to: (1) compare what was planned versus the actual implementation and (2) establish the causal elements and contextual factors influencing implementation. This qualitative study employed key informant interviews with the intervention's implementers (clinicians, managers and the service provider) [N = 40], and a review of policy and program documents. Data were thematically analyzed by identifying the main influences shaping the implementation process. Theory-driven evaluation principles were applied as a theoretical framework to explain implementation dynamics. The overall participants' response about the CDU was positive and the majority of informants concurred that the establishment of the CDU to dispense large volumes of medicines is a beneficial strategy to address healthcare barriers because mechanical functions are automated and distribution of medicines much quicker. However, implementation was influenced by the context and discrepancies between planned activities and actual implementation were noted. Procurement inefficiencies at central level caused medicine stock-outs and affected CDU activities. At the frontline, actors were aware of the CDU's implementation guidelines regarding patient selection, prescription validity and management of non-collected medicines but these were adapted to accommodate practical realities and to meet performance targets attached to the intervention. Implementation success was a result of a combination of 'hardware' (e.g. training, policies, implementation support and appropriate infrastructure) and 'software' (e.g. ownership, cooperation between healthcare

  7. IMPLEMENTASI SISTER PROVINCE PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH DENGAN NEGARA BAGIAN QUEENSLAND AUSTRALIA DI BIDANG PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Windiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization on national context has insisted the central government to work together and share duties and rights with the local government in order to achieve the national interest.  In Indonesia, UU 32/2004 about local government provide the chance for them to become more active in foreign policy, such as doing the cooperation in sister province/sister city program. The Central Java Province had done many sister province/sister city program with some partners aboard, such as Fujian province (China, Chungchoeng buk-do province (South Korea and the Queensland province (Australia.  The cooperation cover many sectors such as agriculture, city and village development, transportation and tourism, industry, trade and infestation, education, science and technology, and other sectors that will be confer in advance. From all of the cooperation that have been done between Central Java Province and Queensland, the author, is interested to have research on farming, because central government has had many cows imported from Australia.  This research is become important because central java province is one of the major of national fresh meat distributors. This research is using a qualitative method, with descriptive type of research.  This research has three research questions: How effective is the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? What is the obstacle that holds the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? How is the prospect of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? This result of this research is to prove that the implementation of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sectors is not effective.  Some of the implementation variables of this program have not been fulfilled. Communication, financial resources and bureaucracy structure are some of the variables that have weakness on this program.  Act of

  8. Helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic geophysical survey data, Hunton anticline, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D.; Smith, David V.; Deszcz-Pan, Maryla; Blome, Charles D.; Hill, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This report is a digital data release for multiple geophysical surveys conducted in the Hunton anticline area of south-central Oklahoma. The helicopter electromagnetic and magnetic surveys were flown on March 16–17, 2007, in four areas of the Hunton anticline in south-central Oklahoma. The objective of this project is to improve the understanding of the geohydrologic framework of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer. The electromagnetic sensor for the helicopter electromagnetic survey consisted of six different transmitter-receiver orientations that measured the earth's electrical response at six distinct frequencies from approximately 500 Hertz to approximately 115,000 Hertz. The electromagnetic measurements were converted to electrical resistivity values, which were gridded and plotted on georeferenced maps. The map from each frequency represents a different depth of investigation for each area. The range of subsurface investigation is comparable to the depth of shallow groundwater. The four areas selected for the helicopter electromagnetic study, blocks A–D, have different geologic and hydrologic settings. Geophysical and hydrologic information from U.S. Geological Survey studies are being used by modelers and resource managers to develop groundwater resource plans for the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer.

  9. Diet, dietary selectivity and density of South American grey fox, Lycalopex griseus, in Central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pedreros, Andrés; Yáñez, José; Norambuena, Heraldo V; Zúñiga, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    The South American grey fox Lycalopex griseus is a canid widely distributed in southern South America; however, some aspects of its biology are still poorly known. We studied the diet and density of L. griseus in the Lago Peñuelas Biosphere Reserve, in Central Chile. The trophic niche breadth was B = 6.16 (B sta = 0.47) and prey diversity was H' = 2.46 (H max ' = 3.17, J' = 0.78). The highest proportions of prey consumed in the diet were Oryctolagus cuniculus (52.21%) and other mammals (32.78%). We compared these results with a latitudinal gradient of diet results for this species in Chile. L. griseus eats mostly mammals (>90% of total prey), consuming the rodent Phyllotis darwini and reptiles in the northern zone; Oryctolagus cuniculus, Octodon degus and Abrocoma bennetti in the central zone; Abrothrix spp. and lagomorphs in the southern zone; and Lepus capensis and Ovis aries in the austral zone. The estimated density of L. griseus in Lago Peñuelas NR was 1.3 foxes/km 2 . © 2017 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Three-dimensional geologic model of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Pantea, Michael P.; Puckette, James O.; Halihan, Todd; Osborn, Noel; Christenson, Scott; Pack, Skip

    2010-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer of south-central Oklahoma encompasses more than 850 square kilometers and is the principal water resource for south-central Oklahoma. Rock units comprising the aquifer are characterized by limestone, dolomite, and sandstones assigned to two lower Paleozoic units: the Arbuckle and Simpson Groups. Also considered to be part of the aquifer is the underlying Cambrian-age Timbered Hills Group that contains limestone and sandstone. The highly faulted and fractured nature of the Arbuckle-Simpson units and the variable thickness (600 to 2,750 meters) increases the complexity in determining the subsurface geologic framework of this aquifer. A three-dimensional EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model was constructed to quantify the geometric relationships of the rock units of the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in the Hunton anticline area. This 3-D EarthVision (Trademark) geologic framework model incorporates 54 faults and four modeled units: basement, Arbuckle-Timbered Hills Group, Simpson Group, and post-Simpson. Primary data used to define the model's 54 faults and four modeled surfaces were obtained from geophysical logs, cores, and cuttings from 126 water and petroleum wells. The 3-D framework model both depicts the volumetric extent of the aquifer and provides the stratigraphic layer thickness and elevation data used to construct a MODFLOW version 2000 regional groundwater-flow model.

  11. Lead in drinking water: sampling in primary schools and preschools in south central Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Anne R; Steele, Janet E

    2012-03-01

    Studies in Philadelphia, New York City, Houston, Washington, DC, and Greenville, North Carolina, have revealed high lead levels in drinking water. Unlike urban areas, lead levels in drinking water in suburban and rural areas have not been adequately studied. In the study described in this article, drinking water in primary schools and preschools in five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns was sampled to determine if any exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) guidance level for schools and child care facilities of 20 parts per billion (ppb). The results showed a total of 32.1% of the samples had detectable lead levels and 3.6% exceeded the U.S. EPA guidance level for schools and child care providers of 20 ppb. These results indicate that about one-third of the drinking water consumed by children age six and under in the five suburban and rural south central Kansas towns studied has some lead contamination, exposing these children to both short-term and long-term health risks. The authors suggest a need for increased surveillance of children's drinking water in these facilities.

  12. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Luciano; Bianchi, Clara; Fernández, Laura; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia; Moirano, Juan

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based GNSS products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, seven-year long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay (Bianchi et al. 2016). As preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2% per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model fairly reproduces the observed mean delays, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited form the underling atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available at a scientific repository (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.858234). References: C. Bianchi, L. Mendoza, L. Fernandez, M. P. Natali, A. Meza, J. F. Moirano, Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies, Ann. Geophys., ISSN 0992-7689, eISSN 1432-0576, 34 (7), 623-639 (doi:10.5194/angeo-34-623-2016).

  13. Risk factors for visual impairment and blindness amongst black adult diabetics receiving treatment at Government healthcare facilities in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabaso, Raymond G; Oduntan, Olalekan A

    2014-11-21

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common systemic disease amongst Black South Africans. It may lead to diabetic retinopathy (DR), a common cause of visual impairment (VI) and blindness. DR may signifiantly increase the prevalence of VI and blindness. To assess risk factors for VI and blindness amongst a black diabetic South African population aged ≥ 40 years. The study was conducted in seven Government healthcare facilities (two hospitals, four clinics and one health centre) in Mopani District, Limpopo province, South Africa. This was a cross-sectional health facility-based quantitative study. Structured interviews were used to obtain information, which included sociodemographic profie, knowledge about DM and its ocular complications, presence of hypertension and accessibility to health facilities. Subsequently participants were examined for VI and blindness using an autorefractor, pinhole disc, ophthalmoscope and logMAR visual acuity chart. Anthropometric measurements (height, weight and waist) were also taken. Associations between 31 risk factors and VI as well as blindness were statistically examined. Participants (N = 225) included 161 women and 64 men aged 40-90 years (mean 61.5 ± 10.49 years); 41.3% of them had VI and 3.6% were blind. Cataracts (76.8%) and DR (7.1%) were the common causes of compensated VI and blindness. Risk factors that were associated with VI and blindness were age, monthly income, compliance with losing weight and physical activity. Findings suggest that lifestyle intervention and appropriate eyecare programmes may reduce VI and blindness in this population.

  14. A rapid assessment of a community health worker pilot programme to improve the management of hypertension and diabetes in Emfuleni sub-district of Gauteng Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndou, Tshipfuralo; van Zyl, Greer; Hlahane, Salamina; Goudge, Jane

    2013-01-24

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) and infectious chronic illnesses are recognised as significant contributing factors to the burden of disease globally, specifically in South Africa, yet clinical management is often poor. The involvement of community health workers (CHWs) in TB and HIV care in South Africa, and other low- and middle-income settings, suggests that they could make an important contribution in the management of NCDs. Using a rapid assessment, this study examines the outcomes of a pilot CHW programme to improve the management of hypertension and diabetes in Gauteng province, South Africa. A record review compared outcomes of patients receiving home visits (n56) with a control group (n168) attending the clinic, matched, as far as possible, on age, gender, and condition. Focus group discussions and semi-structured interviews with CHWs, patients, district, clinic, and NGO staff were used to obtain descriptions of the functioning of the programme and patient experiences. Despite the greater age and co-morbidity among those in the pilot programme, the findings suggest that control of hypertension was improved by CHW home visits in comparison to usual clinic care. However, too few doctor visits, insufficient monitoring of patient outcomes by clinic staff, and a poor procurement process for supplies required by the CHWs hampered the programme's activities. The role of CHWs in the management of hypertension should be given greater consideration, with larger studies being conducted to provide more robust evidence. Adequate training, supervision, and operational support will be required to ensure success of any CHW programme.

  15. Decline in syphilis seroprevalence among females of reproductive age in Northern Cape Province, South Africa, 2003-2012: utility of laboratory-based information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballah, Ngormbu J; Kuonza, Lazarus R; De Gita, Gloria; Musekiwa, Alfred; Williams, Seymour; Takuva, Simbarashe

    2017-05-01

    Strengthening current surveillance systems for syphilis is important to track and monitor disease burden. We used routinely collected laboratory information to generate surveillance estimates for syphilis trends among women of reproductive age (12-49 years) in the Northern Cape Province, a high syphilis burden region (2003 [8.6%] to 2011 [3.8%]) in South Africa. We extracted records meeting inclusion criteria from the National Health Laboratory Service electronic database for the period 2003-2012. A total of 286,024 women were included in the analysis. Syphilis seropositivity decreased between 2003 (5.7%) and 2012 (1.8%); p trend = 0.001, which was largely consistent with findings reported in the annual national syphilis and HIV survey from 2003 (8.6%) to 2011 (3.8%). Annually for the period from 2003 to 2012 there was an approximate 14% reduction in the prevalence ratio of syphilis seroprevalence (PR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.85-0.87, p syphilis seropositivity over this period. There were also declines in prevalence ratios for syphilis seropositivity for the various age groups for the period. This study shows that the national laboratory database in South Africa can be used as a complimentary surveillance tool to describe and understand trends in syphilis seroprevalence in South Africa.

  16. Clear-water abutment and contraction scour in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont Provinces of South Carolina, 1996-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, collected observations of clear-water aburment and contraction scour at 146 bridges in the Coastal Plain and Piedmont of South Carolina. Scour depths ranged from 0 to 23.6 feet. Theoretical scour depths were computed at each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths and often were excessive. A comparison of field data with dimensionless relations for laboratory data showed that the range of dimensionless variables used in laboratory investigations was outside of the range for field data in South Carolina, suggesting laboratory relations may not be applicable to field conditions in South Carolina. Variables determined to be important in developing scour within laboratory studies were investigated to understand their influence within the South Carolina field data, and many of these variables appeared to be insignificant under field conditions found in South Carolina. The strongest explanatory variables were embankment length, geometric-contraction ratio, approach velocity, and soil cohesion. Envelope curves developed with the field data are useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in South Carolina. These tools are simple to apply and are an improvement over the current methods for predicting theoretical scour.

  17. Choosing between agricultural development projects in the North-West Province of South Africa: a multiple criteria analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, Philippus Christoffel; Van der Merwe, Johannes Daniël; Van Schalkwyk, Herman Daniël

    2012-01-01

    In the light of past development failures, coupled with the pressure on government to deliver on their promises made towards agricultural development, a need was developed for a framework to assist government in choosing between agricultural development projects in the North West Province, consequently assisting government with their budget allocation towards agricultural development. Consequently, detailed agricultural development plans were drafted with the intent to provide a framework or ...

  18. The contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province, South Africa / Senye Monica Kedibone

    OpenAIRE

    Senye, Monica Kedibone

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province. The aim of the study was to identify the contribution of women entrepreneurs in the economic growth, to determine forces driving women to become entrepreneurs. The study also aimed at examining future challenges for women entrepreneurs as well as strategies to advance women entrepreneurs . The Quantitative research method was chosen for the study and the targeted populat...

  19. Municipal solid waste management on the south coastline of the Caspian Sea (Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan Provinces of Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Nasrabadi, Touraj; Hoveidi, Hassan

    2007-12-01

    The Caspian region (including the Golestan, Mazandaran, and Guilan provinces of Iran) occupies 58,678 square kilometers (22,651 square miles) and has a population of 6,270,192, according to the census of 1996. This part of Iran is attractive to tourists because of its proximity to the Caspian Sea. In addition, the region boasts invaluable forests and grasslands, and is the exclusive producer in the country of key agricultural crops like rice and tea. The lack of systematic solid waste management has put this region on the edge of irreparable environmental damage. The large number and dispersion of open-dumping landfills, as well as the faded role of functional elements like waste minimization and processing, have sped up the environmental deterioration. This article evaluates the current status of solid waste management in the Caspian region and suggests practical alternatives. As a result of a field and desk study, the authors offer some instructions for separation of putrescibles, paper and cardboard, plastics, and so forth. Finally, after considering all aspects of the environmental impact assessments for different alternatives, the authors recommend the construction of two compost-producing facilities in Golestan province with a combined capacity of 500 metric tons per day and a total cost of $60,000, and four incineration sites in southern and southwestern parts of the region (Mazandaran and Guilan provinces) with a total capacity of 2,000 metric tons per day and total cost of $75 million.

  20. Variations in Element Levels Accumulated in Different Parts of Boletus edulis Collected from Central Yunnan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Mei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ICP-AES and microwave assisted digestion were applied to determine P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Na, Cu, Ba, Ni, V, Cd, Sr, Co, and Li in the caps and stipes of Boletus edulis collected from six spatially distant sites in Yunnan province, China. Fruiting bodies of King Bolete are abundant in P, Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Na, followed by Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co. Contents of P, Mg, Zn, and Cu are more abundant in caps than in stipes of King Bolete. However, elements such as Na, Ba, Cd, Ni, V, Li, Sr, and Co prefer to accumulate in stipes of mushrooms from Yaoan, Chuxiong. The results of this study indicate that spatial variations of elements between caps and stipes are mainly related to different bedrock soil geochemistry and enrichment capability for various elements.

  1. The Triassic-Liassic volcanic sequence and rift evolution in the Saharan Atlas basins (Algeria). Eastward vanishing of the Central Atlantic magmatic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meddah, A.; Bertrand, H.; Seddiki, A.; Tabeliouna, M.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the Triassic-Liassic sequence in ten diapirs from the Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Based on detailed mapping, two episodes are identified. The first one consists of a volcano-sedimentary sequence in which three volcanic units were identified (lower, intermediate and upper units). They are interlayered and sometimes imbricated with siliciclastic to evaporitic levels which record syn-sedimentary tectonics. This sequence was deposited in a lagoonal-continental environment and is assigned to the Triassic magmatic rifting stage. The second episode, lacking lava flows (post magmatic rifting stage), consists of carbonate levels deposited in a lagoonal to marine environment during the Rhaetian-Hettangian. The volcanic units consist of several thin basaltic flows, each 0.5 to 1m thick, with a total thickness of 10–15m. The basalts are low-Ti continental tholeiites, displaying enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements [(La/Yb)n= 2.5-6] with a negative Nb anomaly. Upwards decrease of light-rare-earth-elements enrichment (e.g. La/Yb) is modelled through increasing melting rate of a spinel-bearing lherzolite source from the lower (6–10wt.%) to the upper (15–20wt.%) unit. The lava flows from the Saharan Atlas share the same geochemical characteristics and evolution as those from the Moroccan Atlas assigned to the Central Atlantic magmatic province. They represent the easternmost witness of this large igneous province so far known.

  2. The Triassic-Liassic volcanic sequence and rift evolution in the Saharan Atlas basins (Algeria). Eastward vanishing of the Central Atlantic magmatic province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meddah, A.; Bertrand, H.; Seddiki, A.; Tabeliouna, M.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the Triassic-Liassic sequence in ten diapirs from the Saharan Atlas (Algeria). Based on detailed mapping, two episodes are identified. The first one consists of a volcano-sedimentary sequence in which three volcanic units were identified (lower, intermediate and upper units). They are interlayered and sometimes imbricated with siliciclastic to evaporitic levels which record syn-sedimentary tectonics. This sequence was deposited in a lagoonal-continental environment and is assigned to the Triassic magmatic rifting stage. The second episode, lacking lava flows (post magmatic rifting stage), consists of carbonate levels deposited in a lagoonal to marine environment during the Rhaetian-Hettangian. The volcanic units consist of several thin basaltic flows, each 0.5 to 1m thick, with a total thickness of 10–15m. The basalts are low-Ti continental tholeiites, displaying enrichment in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements [(La/Yb)n= 2.5-6] with a negative Nb anomaly. Upwards decrease of light-rare-earth-elements enrichment (e.g. La/Yb) is modelled through increasing melting rate of a spinel-bearing lherzolite source from the lower (6–10wt.%) to the upper (15–20wt.%) unit. The lava flows from the Saharan Atlas share the same geochemical characteristics and evolution as those from the Moroccan Atlas assigned to the Central Atlantic magmatic province. They represent the easternmost witness of this large igneous province so far known.

  3. Transformer oils as a potential source of environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): an assessment in three central provinces of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Reza; Khakzad, Saeed; Koolivand, Ali; Dobaradaran, Sina; Khaloo, Shokooh Sadat; Jorfi, Sahand; Abtahi, Mehrnoosh

    2017-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of oils from all transformers of the national electrical grid in Tehran, Qom, and Alborz, three central provinces of Iran, was assessed. The concentration of PCBs in transformer oils was determined by gas chromatography. At the national level, the proportions of transformers with oil PCB contents of 5000 ppm were determined to be 85.7, 12.4, 1.6, 0.1, and 0.1%, respectively. About 0.5% of transformer oils (66,000 kg out of 13,342,000 kg) exhibited PCB levels higher than 50 ppm that based on the Stockholm Convention should be phased out before 2025. The contaminated oils contained 91.4% of detected PCBs (132 kg PCBs out of 144 kg PCBs) and were located in 1.9% of transformers (27 transformers out of 1449 transformers). Statistical analysis indicated that the year of manufacture and manufacturing company provided significant effects on PCB contamination (p value transformer oils in Tehran was higher than that of the other provinces that could be mainly caused by the older average year of manufacture. PCB levels higher than 499 ppm were also observed only in Tehran. This study provided valuable information for future studies on identification of PCB-contaminated transformers as well as planning and design of waste management facilities for PCB-contaminated oils at the national level.

  4. Demographic and social factors influencing public opinion on prostitution: an exploratory study in Kwazulu-Natal province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pudifin, S; Bosch, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years there has been grow...

  5. Paradiplomacy : a comparative analysis of the international relations of South Africa’s Gauteng, North West and Western Cape provinces

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. (Politics) South Africa’s 1996 Constitution makes provision for relatively autonomous provincial administrations, which share responsibility with the national government for important functional areas while also exercising exclusive authority over others. Although the Constitution is not explicit on the distribution of foreign policy competence, the dominant interpretation among South African policy-makers is that this functional area is the exclusive domain of the nationa...

  6. Parasites of South African wildlife. XIX. The prevalence of helminths in some common antelopes, warthogs and a bushpig in the Limpopo province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyk, Ilana C; Boomker, Joop

    2011-11-10

    Little work has been conducted on the helminth parasites of artiodactylids in the northern and western parts of the Limpopo province, which is considerably drier than the rest of the province. The aim of this study was to determine the kinds and numbers of helminth that occur in different wildlife hosts in the area as well as whether any zoonotic helminths were present. Ten impalas (Aepyceros melampus), eight kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), four blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), two black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou), three gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one nyala (Tragelaphus angasii), one bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus), one waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), six warthogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) and a single bushpig (Potamochoerus porcus) were sampled from various localities in the semi-arid northern and western areas of the Limpopo province. New host-parasite associations included Trichostrongylus deflexus from blue wildebeest, Agriostomum gorgonis from black wildebeest, Stilesia globipunctata from the waterbuck and Fasciola hepatica in a kudu. The mean helminth burden, including extra-gastrointestinal helminths, was 592 in impalas, 407 in kudus and blue wildebeest, 588 in black wildebeest, 184 in gemsbok, and 2150 in the waterbuck. Excluding Probstmayria vivipara, the mean helminth burden in warthogs was 2228 and the total nematode burden in the bushpig was 80. The total burdens and species richness of the helminths in this study were consistently low when compared with similar studies on the same species in areas with higher rainfall. This has practical implications when animals are translocated to areas with higher rainfall and higher prevalence of helminths.

  7. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  8. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  9. Occurrence of Coccolithophorids in the Northeastern and Central South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tien-Nan Yang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Coccolithophorids in the northeastern and central South China Sea (SCS were surveyed in March and October 1996. The cell density of coccolithophorids ranged from 25 x 103 cells L-1 to 31 x 103 cells L-1 in sea-surface water (0–25 m in depth, and from 12 x 103 cells L-1 to 62 x 103 cells L-1 in subsurface water (150 m in depth. The lowest cell number was recorded in the subsurface (150 m in depth in the central gyral area, while the highest one was at the same depth in the northeastern realm. A total of thirty-one species were identified. The species richness in the northeastern SCS is higher than in the central area. Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann Hay et Mohler, Gephyrocapsa oceanica Kamptner, Umbellosphaera Paasche spp. And Syracosphaera Lohmann spp. Dominated the surface assemblages, whereas Florisphaera profunda Okada et Honjo, Gladiolithus flabellatus (Halldal et Markali Jordan et Chamberlain predominated in the subsurface layer. In contrast, Palusphaera vandeli Lecal emend. R. E. Norris presented in both surface and subsurface assemblages.

  10. Economic Feasibility of Renewable Electricity Generation Systems for Local Government Office: Evaluation of the Jeju Special Self-Governing Province in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunil Park

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While environmental and energy concerns have become global issues, the government of South Korea has made notable efforts and formulated plans for the diffusion of renewable energy generation facilities for the nation’s public and governmental institutions. Accordingly, Jeju Island has become one of the most promising locations for utilizing renewable energy resources. This study aims to propose potential configurations for renewable energy generation facilities (mainly solar and wind energy facilities in response to the electricity demand of the main local governmental offices of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. The study utilizes the hybrid optimization of multiple energy resources software to simulate two optimized configurations for generation at a cost of energy of $0.306 per kWh (independent and $0.204 per kWh (grid-connected with 100% renewable fraction for the island. The implications of the simulation results and limitations of the study are discussed.

  11. The Impact of Total Quality Management Practices towards Competitive Advantage and Organizational Performance: Case of Fishery Industry in South Sulawesi Province of Indonesia

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    Musran Munizu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempt to test the effect of Total Quality Management (TQM practices towards competitive advantage and organizational performance. The design of this research has quantitative approach. Data was collected by questionnaire instrument. The unit of analysis is big and medium scale fishery companies. The respondents in this research are the managers of fishery companies. The study utilized primary data which is obtained through questionnaire. The number of population was 66 fishery companies in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. Random sampling is used in the study. 55 complete questionnaires were returned as a final sample. Three hypotheses have been developed through literature review and tested using Path Analysis performed by SPSS 18.00 software. The results show that TQM practices have positive and significant effect both on organizational performance and competitive advantage. Competitive advantage has a positive and significant effect on organizational performance. Organizational performance is more influenced by competitive advantage than TQM practices.

  12. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

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    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  13. Rapid detection of new and expanding human settlements in the Limpopo province of South Africa using a spatio-temporal change detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleynhans, W.; Salmon, B. P.; Wessels, K. J.; Olivier, J. C.

    2015-08-01

    Recent development has identified the benefits of using hyper-temporal satellite time series data for land cover change detection and classification in South Africa. In particular, the monitoring of human settlement expansion in the Limpopo province is of relevance as it is the one of the most pervasive forms of land-cover change in this province which covers an area of roughly 125 000 km2. In this paper, a spatio-temporal autocorrelation change detection (STACD) method is developed to improve the performance of a pixel based temporal Autocorrelation change detection (TACD) method previously proposed. The objective is to apply the algorithm to large areas to detect the conversion of natural vegetation to settlement which is then validated by an operator using additional data (such as high resolution imagery). Importantly, as the objective of the method is to indicate areas of potential change to operators for further analysis, a low false alarm rate is required while achieving an acceptable probability of detection. Results indicate that detection accuracies of 70% of new settlement instances are achievable at a false alarm rate of less than 1% with the STACD method, an improvement of up to 17% compared to the original TACD formulation.

  14. Challenges to Sustainable Safe Drinking Water: A Case Study of Water Quality and Use across Seasons in Rural Communities in Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of microbial-contaminated water can result in diarrheal illnesses and enteropathy with the heaviest impact upon children below the age of five. We aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of water quality in a low-resource setting in Limpopo province, South Africa. Surveys were conducted in 405 households in rural communities of Limpopo province to determine their water-use practices, perceptions of water quality, and household water-treatment methods. Drinking water samples were tested from households for microbiological contamination. Water from potential natural sources were tested for physicochemical and microbiological quality in the dry and wet seasons. Most households had their primary water source piped into their yard or used an intermittent public tap. Approximately one third of caregivers perceived that they could get sick from drinking water. All natural water sources tested positive for fecal contamination at some point during each season. The treated municipal supply never tested positive for fecal contamination; however, the treated system does not reach all residents in the valley; furthermore, frequent shutdowns of the treatment systems and intermittent distribution make the treated water unreliable. The increased water quantity in the wet season correlates with increased treated water from municipal taps and a decrease in the average contaminant levels in household water. This research suggests that wet season increases in water quantity result in more treated water in the region and that is reflected in residents’ water-use practices.

  15. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

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    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  16. Impact of Manufacturing Transfer on SO2 Emissions in Jiangsu Province, China

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    Ying Peng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of manufacturing transfer in Jiangsu province, China, on the spatial-temporal variations of SO2 emissions is investigated using estimated sector-specific SO2 emissions, and emissions in the different transfer-in and transfer-out regions were quantified during 2000–2011. Our results show that SO2 emissions had undergone three phases: an increase in the period of 2000–2005, a rapid decline in 2005–2008 and a slow decline in 2008–2011. Emissions from the south dominated the total emissions in the province. Cleaner production generally contributed to the reduced emissions, but rather, at the industrial scale. Pollution abatement was occasional and industrial structure was negligible in some years. The three phases also coincided with the three periods of the manufacturing transfer: transferred to the south from outside the province during 2000–2005, to the central from the south within the province during 2005–2008 and to the north from the south or partly from the inner central within the province during 2008–2011. With the manufacturing transfer, SO2 emission magnitudes and distributions were also changed. In the south, −12.36 and −5.62 Mt of SO2 emissions were transferred out during 2005–2008 and 2008–2011, respectively. Forty-three-point-four percent and 56.4% of the SO2 emissions in the south were transferred to the central and north during 2005–2008, respectively. The north region received 77.7% and 22.1% of SO2 emissions from the south and the central region during 2008–2011, respectively. The paper reveals that structure adjustments should be executed in a timely manner in the manufacturing transfer-in process so that the transfer-in regions can benefit from the economic boom without bearing a deteriorated environment.

  17. Early Jurassic clay authigenesis in the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province; infiltration of surface-derived fluids during Pangean rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, E. A.; van der Pluijm, B.; Vennemann, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of North America has a protracted and intricate tectonic history. The terminal collision of Gondwana and Laurentia in the late Paleozoic formed the Appalachian mountain belt, a trans-continental orogen that persisted for almost 100 million years until Mesozoic break-up of the supercontinent Pangea. A host of studies have targeted the evolution and migration of fluids through Appalachian crust in an effort to understand how fluid promotes mass and heat redistribution, and mediates crustal deformation, particularly during the assembly of Pangea. Folded clay units from the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province were sampled for stable and radiogenic isotope analysis. Separation of samples into different grain-size fractions characterizes detrital (host) and authigenic (neomineralized) clays. Stable H-isotope compositions reveal a systematic pattern with varying proportions of illite polytypes—the finer, younger fraction is D-depleted compared to the coarser, primarily detrital fraction. For each individual location, the H-isotopic composition of the fluid from which the authigenic population was grown is calculated. δDVSMOW of these fluids has a range from -77 to -52 ± 2 ‰, consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. The notably negative values for several samples indicates a meteoric composition of moderate to high elevation origin, suggesting that they are not connate waters, but instead preserve infiltration of fluids due to fracture-induced permeability. Key to this interpretation is 40Ar/39Ar-dating of a subset of these samples that reveals a post-orogenic age for authigenic clay mineralization in the Early Jurassic ( 180 Ma). These ages are evidence that surface fluid infiltration was unrelated to the Appalachian orogeny, but coeval with (upper) crustal extension from the initial break-up of Pangea and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

  18. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  19. Melittofauna and Other Potential Pollinators in Wetland and Uplands in South Central Nebraska (Insecta: Apoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cynthia N; Overall, Lisa M; Smith, Loren M; Lagrange, Ted; McMurry, Scott

    2017-03-10

    Our objective was to document potential wild pollinating insects in south central Nebraska. This intensively cultivated region is known as the Rainwater Basin and contains some of the most endangered wetland systems in North America. We used blue vane traps to passively collect insects and insect nets to actively collect on flowering plants from April through October in 2014 and 2015. Habitat types included playa wetlands, adjacent mixed and tallgrass prairies, and agricultural fields. Over 112,000 insects were collected; Hymenoptera represented 78% of the total, and the families Apidae and Halictidae comprised 99% of the total melittofauna. Insects from 13 orders were collected, but Hymenoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera were the most abundant potential pollinators.

  20. Modeling Prices for Sawtimber Stumpage in the South-Central United States

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    Rajan Parajuli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The South-Central United States, which includes the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, and Arkansas, represents an important segment of the softwood sawtimber market. By using the Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR method to account for the linkage among the four contiguous timber markets, this study examines the dynamics of softwood sawtimber stumpage markets within the region. Based on quarterly data from 1981 to 2014, the findings reveal that both pulpwood and chip-and-saw (CNS prices have a positive influence on the Texas and Arkansas sawtimber markets. Moreover, Granger-causality tests suggest that unidirectional causality runs from pulpwood and CNS markets to the respective sawtimber market. Compared to the pre-financial crisis period, sawtimber prices in these four states are 9%–17% lower in the recent years.

  1. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: dorneles@biof.ufrj.br; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) and Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta [Centro de Pesquisa e Gestao de Recursos Pesqueiros do Litoral Sudeste e Sul, IBAMA, 88301-700 Itajai, SC (Brazil)]. E-mail: gibteuthis@yahoo.com.br; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto [Laboratorio de Dinamica de Populacoes Marinhas, UNIRIO, 22290-240 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: pauloascosta@uol.com.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos, Dept. Oceanografia, UERJ, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: azevedo.alex@uol.com.br; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), 21941-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-07-15

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in {mu}g/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 {mu}g/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods.

  2. Cephalopods and cetaceans as indicators of offshore bioavailability of cadmium off Central South Brazil Bight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Aguiar dos Santos, Roberta; Silva da Costa, Paulo Alberto; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre Freitas; Machado Torres, Joao Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Regarding Brazilian coast, industrial and urban developments are concentrated along Central South Brazil Bight. Samples from inshore and offshore species from the concerned area were analyzed, comprising 24 cetaceans (9 species) and 32 squids (2 species). Cadmium was determined by GFAAS and our results were in agreement with certified values (DOLT-2, NRCC). Mean cadmium concentration (in μg/g, wet weight) observed in the digestive gland of sexually mature Argentine short-finned squids (Illex argentinus) was 1002.9. To our knowledge this is the highest cadmium level ever reported for a cephalopod. Concerning cetaceans, our results include one of the highest renal cadmium concentrations described for striped dolphins (71.29 μg/g, wet weight). Anthropogenic action, upwelling and cannibalism of Argentine short-finned squid on the studied area are possible reasons for such remarkable cadmium concentrations. - Cd levels in ommastrephid squids from Brazil are the highest ever reported for cephalopods

  3. Factors affecting condom usage among college students in South Central Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Amar; Sharma, Manoj

    The absence of consistent and correct usage of condoms increases the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STI) and HIV/AIDS. However, most studies done to date across the nation indicate a low usage of condoms among college students. This study identifies protective and risk factors associated with condom use among college students. The National College Health Assessment was administered to a random sample of students at a state comprehensive university in south central Kentucky. Findings revealed that among the sexually active students, approximately half never used condoms during vaginal intercourse. Further, among students engaging in oral sex, an alarmingly high proportion (95%) reported never using a condom during this act. These findings, along with differences noted in various subgroups (gender, housing, class standing), and other risk behaviors (alcohol, illicit drug use) are discussed.

  4. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow in the Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer, south-central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Scott; Osborn, Noel I.; Neel, Christopher R.; Faith, Jason R.; Blome, Charles D.; Puckette, James; Pantea, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    The Arbuckle-Simpson aquifer in south-central Oklahoma provides water for public supply, farms, mining, wildlife conservation, recreation, and the scenic beauty of springs, streams, and waterfalls. Proposed development of water supplies from the aquifer led to concerns that large-scale withdrawals of water would cause decreased flow in rivers and springs, which in turn could result in the loss of water supplies, recreational opportunities, and aquatic habitat. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board, in collaboration with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey, Oklahoma State University, and the University of Oklahoma, studied the aquifer to provide the Oklahoma Water Resources Board the scientific information needed to determine the volume of water that could be withdrawn while protecting springs and streams. The U.S. Geological Survey, in coopertion with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board, did a study to describe the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow of the aquifer.

  5. Satellite-based detection of volcanic sulphur dioxide from recent eruptions in Central and South America

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    D. Loyola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic eruptions can emit large amounts of rock fragments and fine particles (ash into the atmosphere, as well as several gases, including sulphur dioxide (SO2. These ejecta and emissions are a major natural hazard, not only to the local population, but also to the infrastructure in the vicinity of volcanoes and to aviation. Here, we describe a methodology to retrieve quantitative information about volcanic SO2 plumes from satellite-borne measurements in the UV/Visible spectral range. The combination of a satellite-based SO2 detection scheme and a state-of-the-art 3D trajectory model enables us to confirm the volcanic origin of trace gas signals and to estimate the plume height and the effective emission height. This is demonstrated by case-studies for four selected volcanic eruptions in South and Central America, using the GOME, SCIAMACHY and GOME-2 instruments.

  6. The challenges of reshaping disease specific and care oriented community based services towards comprehensive goals: a situation appraisal in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Helen; Schaay, Nikki; Dudley, Lilian; Goliath, Charlyn; Qukula, Tobeka

    2015-09-30

    Similar to other countries in the region, South Africa is currently reorienting a loosely structured and highly diverse community care system that evolved around HIV and TB, into a formalized, comprehensive and integrated primary health care outreach programme, based on community health workers (CHWs). While the difficulties of establishing national CHW programmes are well described, the reshaping of disease specific and care oriented community services, based outside the formal health system, poses particular challenges. This paper is an in-depth case study of the challenges of implementing reforms to community based services (CBS) in one province of South Africa. A multi-method situation appraisal of CBS in the Western Cape Province was conducted over eight months in close collaboration with provincial stakeholders. The appraisal mapped the roles and service delivery, human resource, financing and governance arrangements of an extensive non-governmental organisation (NGO) contracted and CHW based service delivery infrastructure that emerged over 15-20 years in this province. It also gathered the perspectives of a wide range of actors - including communities, users, NGOs, PHC providers and managers - on the current state and future visions of CBS. While there was wide support for new approaches to CBS, there are a number of challenges to achieving this. Although largely government funded, the community based delivery platform remains marginal to the formal public primary health care (PHC) and district health systems. CHW roles evolved from a system of home based care and are limited in scope. There is a high turnover of cadres, and support systems (supervision, monitoring, financing, training), coordination between CHWs, NGOs and PHC facilities, and sub-district capacity for planning and management of CBS are all poorly developed. Reorienting community based services that have their origins in care responses to HIV and TB presents an inter-related set of resource

  7. Proposals to enhance thermal efficiency programs and air pollution control in south-central Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueftan, Alejandra; González, Alejandro D.

    2015-01-01

    Major cities in South-central Chile suffer high levels of particulate matter PM 10 and PM 2.5 due to combustion of solid fuels for heating. Exposure to these air pollutants is recognized as a major contribution to ill health in the region. Here we discuss new strategies to reduce air pollution. Regulations and subsidies focusing on improved combustion by providing drier wood fuel and better stoves have been in effect since 2007. However, air pollution due to combustion of wood fuel has been steadily rising, along with reports on health consequences. The paper analyzes a survey of 2025 households in the city of Valdivia, which found that wood fuel quality, stove renewal, and awareness of programs are strongly affected by income level, and that higher consumption of wood fuel is found in households already having better stoves and drier wood fuel. The analysis suggests that regulations intended to improve combustion are influenced by user's behavior and have limited potential for lowering pollution. We conclude that thermal refurbishment has a larger potential for improvement, not yet been implemented as an energy policy for the majority. Here we propose improvements and additions to current programs to enhance effectiveness and cover the whole social spectrum. - Highlights: • High levels of PM 2.5 from wood combustion affect cities of south-central Chile. • Current programs on dry wood fuel and stoves renewal have not reduced air pollution. • Real operation of wood stoves strongly depends on user's behavior. • Buildings' energy efficiency has greater potential for reducing emissions. • Retrofit prevents degradation of native forest and improves indoor temperature

  8. P and S wave Coda Calibration in Central Asia and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D.; Mayeda, K.; Gok, R.; Barno, J.; Roman-Nieves, J. I.

    2017-12-01

    Empirically derived coda source spectra provide unbiased, absolute moment magnitude (Mw) estimates for events that are normally too small for accurate long-period waveform modeling. In this study, we obtain coda-derived source spectra using data from Central Asia (Kyrgyzstan networks - KN and KR, and Tajikistan - TJ) and South Korea (Korea Meteorological Administration, KMA). We used a recently developed coda calibration module of Seismic WaveForm Tool (SWFT). Seismic activities during this recording period include the recent Gyeongju earthquake of Mw=5.3 and its aftershocks, two nuclear explosions from 2009 and 2013 in North Korea, and a small number of construction and mining-related explosions. For calibration, we calculated synthetic coda envelopes for both P and S waves based on a simple analytic expression that fits the observed narrowband filtered envelopes using the method outlined in Mayeda et al. (2003). To provide an absolute scale of the resulting source spectra, path and site corrections are applied using independent spectral constraints (e.g., Mw and stress drop) from three Kyrgyzstan events and the largest events of the Gyeongju sequence in Central Asia and South Korea, respectively. In spite of major tectonic differences, stable source spectra were obtained in both regions. We validated the resulting spectra by comparing the ratio of raw envelopes and source spectra from calibrated envelopes. Spectral shapes of earthquakes and explosions show different patterns in both regions. We also find (1) the source spectra derived from S-coda is more robust than that from the P-coda at low frequencies; (2) unlike earthquake events, the source spectra of explosions have a large disagreement between P and S waves; and (3) similarity is observed between 2016 Gyeongju and 2011 Virginia earthquake sequence in the eastern U.S.

  9. Presence of rapidly degrading permafrost plateaus in south-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Baughman, Carson; Romanovsky, Vladimir E.; Parsekian, Andrew D.; Babcock, Esther; Stephani, Eva; Jones, Miriam C.; Grosse, Guido; Berg, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost presence is determined by a complex interaction of climatic, topographic, and ecological conditions operating over long time scales. In particular, vegetation and organic layer characteristics may act to protect permafrost in regions with a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) above 0 °C. In this study, we document the presence of residual permafrost plateaus in the western Kenai Peninsula lowlands of south-central Alaska, a region with a MAAT of 1.5 ± 1 °C (1981–2010). Continuous ground temperature measurements between 16 September 2012 and 15 September 2015, using calibrated thermistor strings, documented the presence of warm permafrost (−0.04 to −0.08 °C). Field measurements (probing) on several plateau features during the fall of 2015 showed that the depth to the permafrost table averaged 1.48 m but at some locations was as shallow as 0.53 m. Late winter surveys (augering, coring, and GPR) in 2016 showed that the average seasonally frozen ground thickness was 0.45 m, overlying a talik above the permafrost table. Measured permafrost thickness ranged from 0.33 to  >  6.90 m. Manual interpretation of historic aerial photography acquired in 1950 indicates that residual permafrost plateaus covered 920 ha as mapped across portions of four wetland complexes encompassing 4810 ha. However, between 1950 and ca. 2010, permafrost plateau extent decreased by 60.0 %, with lateral feature degradation accounting for 85.0 % of the reduction in area. Permafrost loss on the Kenai Peninsula is likely associated with a warming climate, wildfires that remove the protective forest and organic layer cover, groundwater flow at depth, and lateral heat transfer from wetland surface waters in the summer. Better understanding the resilience and vulnerability of ecosystem-protected permafrost is critical for mapping and predicting future permafrost extent and degradation across all permafrost regions that are currently warming

  10. Time spent in sedentary activities in a pediatric population in Pretoria Central, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Daniel T; Nsibambi, Constance A; Chebet, Milton

    2016-12-01

    Scant information exist on screen time behavior of South Africa children and whether they do not meet the recommendation of American Association of Pediatrics (AAP) concerning screen time activity for children is only speculative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the time spent in sedentary activities, especially screen time of South African children with regard to gender. This cross-sectional study involved a random sample of 1136 school children (548 boys; 588 girls) aged 9-13 years attending public schools in Central Pretoria, South Africa. Questionnaire was used to collect data on the participants' sedentary behaviors. The prevalence estimates for sedentary time activity was based on the guidelines (i.e., <2 or ≥2 hours per day) of AAP. The mean age of the children was 11.1±1.4 years. Sedentary activity data were collected from 548 boys (48.2%) and 588 (51.8%) girls. The majority of children spent more than two hours per day (exceeding the AAP recommendation for sedentary activity) watching TV (3.0%), worked or played on the computer (25.4%), read (1.0%), played music (27.9%), played board games (14.7%), washing clothes (8.0%), floor sweeping (10.5%), art work (18.2%), and spent time on other unspecified activities (28.6%). Boys spent more time (2 hours, 3-4 hours) watching TV (38.3%; P=0.001), playing computer (31.8 %; P=0.024) and board games (17.4%; P=0.012) than girls. The corresponding figures for girls were 35.7%, 19.2% and 12.5% for TV, computer and board games, respectively. However, the proportion of those who spent more time playing music was higher among girls (32.7%) than boys (22.4%) (P=0.002). Overall, the time spent exceeding AAP recommendation (≥ 2 hours) was not statistically (P=0.427) different between boys and girls. The time spent in sedentary activities, particularly in screen time activity among urban primary school children in Pretoria Central is excessively higher than the recommendation (i.e., ≥2 hours per day

  11. Association of body weight and physical activity with blood pressure in a rural population in the Dikgale village of Limpopo Province in South Africa

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    Mkhonto Seth S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Africa is faced with an increasing burden of hypertension attributed mainly to physical inactivity and obesity. Paucity of population based evidence in the African continent hinders the implementation effective preventive and control strategies. The aim of this study was to determine the association of body weight and physical activity with blood pressure in a rural black population in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. Methods A convenient sample of 532 subjects (396 women and 136 men between the ages 20-95 years participated in the study. Standard anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, and physical activity were recorded by trained field workers. Results Anthropometric measurements showed that a high percentage of women were significantly (p p ≤ 0.05 with systolic and diastolic BP in women, and only WHR was statistically significant in men. The odds of being hypertensive also increased with BMI, WC and WHR in both women and men, including HC in women. No relationship was found between physical activity and high blood pressure. In the multivariate analysis only increase in HC and WHR was consistently associated with increase in SBP in women and WHR with hypertension in men. Conclusions The study findings indicate that women in this black South African rural population are overweight and obese than men and are at higher risk of hypertension as determined by selected anthropometric parameters.

  12. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  13. Occurrence of naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac residues in wastewater and river water of KwaZulu-Natal Province in South Africa.

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    Madikizela, Lawrence Mzukisi; Chimuka, Luke

    2017-07-01

    The present paper reports a detailed study that is based on the monitoring of naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac in Mbokodweni River and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located around the city of Durban in KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. Target compounds were extracted from water samples using a multi-template molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction prior to separation and quantification on a high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with photo diode array detector. The analytical method yielded the detection limits of 0.15, 1.00, and 0.63 μg/L for naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac, respectively. Solid-phase extraction method was evaluated for its performance using deionized water samples that were spiked with 5 and 50 μg/L of target compounds. Recoveries were greater than 80% for all target compounds with RSD values in the range of 4.1 to 10%. Target compounds were detected in most wastewater and river water samples with ibuprofen being the most frequently detected pharmaceutical. Maximum concentrations detected in river water for naproxen, ibuprofen, and diclofenac were 6.84, 19.2, and 9.69 μg/L, respectively. The concentrations of target compounds found in effluent and river water samples compared well with some studies. The analytical method employed in this work is fast, selective, sensitive, and affordable; therefore, it can be used routinely to evaluate the occurrence of acidic pharmaceuticals in South African water resources.

  14. Expression Analysis of Multiple Genes May Involve in Antimony Resistance among Leishmania major Clinical Isolates from Fars Province, Central Iran

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    Nafiseh GHOBAKHLOO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL is being faced with serious difficulties in Fars Province, due to emerging of resistance against meglumine antimonite (Glucantime®. In this context, determining some biomarkers for drug sensitivity monitoring seems to be highly essential. Different studies have been carried out to decipher the genes might be involved in antimony resistant phenotype in Leishmania spp. Here, we selected three genes: AQP (as drug transporter, TDR-1-1(as drug activator, and γ-GCS (inducing reduction environment for comparative expression analysis on clinical resistant and sensitive isolates of L. major.Methods: The clinical isolates of L. major were collected from CL patients referred to Valfajr Health Center, Shiraz from Oct 2011 to Feb 2012. The susceptibility test was performed to confirm drug sensitivity of strains in vitro as well. Then, the gene expression analysis was performed by quantitative real-time PCR using SYBR® Green.Results: By comparison of expression level between strains, up regulation of γ-GCS gene and down regulation of AQP gene were observed in resistant strains compared to the sensitive isolates; however, down regulation of AQP was not statistically specific. Analysis of TDR-1-1 gene unexpectedly showed a high level of expression in the non-responsive cases.Conclusion: The γ-GCS, at least, can be considered as a suitable molecular marker for screening antimony sensitivity in clinical isolates, although AQP and TDR-1-1gene seem not to be reliable resistant markers. 

  15. Analysis of 24 Y chromosomal STR haplotypes in a Chinese Han population sample from Henan Province, Central China.

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    Shi, Meisen; Liu, Yaju; Zhang, Juntao; Bai, Rufeng; Lv, Xiaojiao; Ma, Shuhua

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed haplotypes for 24 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 17 Yfiler loci (DYS19, DYS385a/b, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS437, DY438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and Y-GATA-H4) and 7 additional STRs (DYS388, DYS444, DYS447, DYS449, DYS522 and DYS527a/b) in 1100 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Henan Province using AGCU Y24 STR kit systems. The calculated average gene diversity (GD) values ranged from 0.4105 to 0.9647 for the DYS388 and DYS385a/b loci, respectively. The discriminatory capacity (DC) was 72.91% with 802 observed haplotypes using 17 Yfiler loci, by the addition of 7 Y-STRs to the Yfiler system, the DC was increased to 79.09% while showing 870 observed haplotypes. Among the additional 7 Y-STRs, DYS449, DYS527a/b, DYS444 and DYS522 were major contributors to enhancing discrimination. In the analysis of molecular variance, the Henan Han population clustered with Han origin populations and showed significant differences from other Non-Han populations. In the present study, we report 24 Y-STR population data in Henan Han population, and we emphasize the need for adding additional markers to the commonly used 17 Yfiler loci to achieve more improved discriminatory capacity in a population with low genetic diversity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Crustally derived granites in Dali, SW China: new constraints on silicic magmatism of the Central Emeishan Large Igneous Province

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    Zhu, Bei; Peate, David W.; Guo, Zhaojie; Liu, Runchao; Du, Wei

    2017-10-01

    We have identified a new crustally derived granite pluton that is related to the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP). This pluton (the Wase pluton, near Dali) shows two distinct SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age groups ( 768 and 253 Ma). As it has an intrusive relationship with Devonian limestone, the younger age is interpreted as its formation, which is related to the ELIP event, whereas the 768 Ma Neoproterozoic-aged zircons were inherited from Precambrian crustal component of the Yangtze Block, implying the pluton has a crustally derived origin. This is consistent with its peraluminous nature, negative Nb-Ta anomaly, enrichment in light rare earth elements, high 87Sr/86Sr(i) ratio (0.7159-0.7183) and extremely negative ɛ(Nd)(i) values (-12.15 to -13.70), indicative of melts derived from upper crust materials. The Wase pluton-intruded Devonian strata lie stratigraphically below the Shangcang ELIP sequence, which is the thickest volcanic sequence ( 5400 m) in the whole ELIP. The uppermost level of the Shangcang sequence contains laterally restricted rhyolite. Although the rhyolite has the same age as the Wase pluton, its geochemical features demonstrate a different magma origin. The rhyolite displays moderate 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.7053), slightly negative ɛ(Nd)(i) (-0.18) and depletions in Ba, Cs, Eu and Sr, implying derivation from differentiation of a mantle-derived mafic magma source. The coexistence of crustally and mantle-derived felsic systems, along with the robust development of dike swarms, vent proximal volcanics and thickest flood basalts piles in Dali, shows that the Dali area was probably where the most active Emeishan magmatism had once existed.

  17. Outbreak of variant pseudorabies virus in Bartha-K61-vaccinated piglets in central Shandong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongfang; Zhang, Zhendong; Lv, Lin; Xiao, Yihong; Qu, Yajin; Ma, Haiying; Niu, Yujuan; Wang, Guangwen; Liu, Sidang

    2015-09-01

    An epidemic that mainly endangered 3-7-day-old piglets struck many farms in Shandong Province, China in 2013 and caused heavy losses. To identify the pathogenesis, the type of lesions, and the causative agent, systemic examinations were performed. Autopsy showed multiple lesions, including necrotic foci of the spleen and liver, punctate hemorrhage of the renal cortex, and interstitial pneumonia. Histological examinations showed typical nonsuppurative encephalitis, necrotic lymphocytes, and reticuloendothelial cells in lymphatic tissues, as well as eosinophilic inclusion bodies in the nuclei of reticuloendothelial cells, necrotic foci in liver cells, and hemorrhagic glomeruli. The average seroprevalence rate of field pseudorabies virus (PRV; Suid herpesvirus 1) of a representative farm tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 46%, indicating that the PRV infectious pressure was quite severe especially among gilts, young multiparous sows, boars, and growing-finishing pigs. The glycoprotein E (gE) gene of PRV was detected in 8 of 10 clinical samples, and the virus in the positive samples induced obvious cytopathic effects. An immunoperoxidase monolayer assay showed that PRV antigens were distributed both in the nucleoli and cytoplasm of infected cells. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the gE gene showed that the strain isolated herein, TaiAn SD 2013, was highly similar to previously isolated strains, especially those isolated in northern China in 2013, and was closely related to other isolates from Asia. Evidence confirmed that the variant PRV was the etiologic agent of this epidemic, suggesting that the Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide complete protection against PRV infection. Further challenge tests are ongoing to investigate the virulence of variant PRV. © 2015 The Author(s).

  18. Willingness to pay for water and water rights definition: study among smallholder irrigators in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' L.

    2009-01-01

    Internationally there is growing understanding that water rights are important and that a lack of effective water rights systems creates major problems for the management of increasingly scarce water supplies. In South Africa the smallholder irrigation sector faces two major challenges. Firstly

  19. The impact of the water rights definition on smallholder irrigators' willingness to pay for water in Limpopo province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Farolfi, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Frija, A.; Haese, D' L.

    2010-01-01

    Water rights are currently receiving increased attention from scholars and policymakers due to the growing understanding that ill-defined water rights impair efficient use. In South Africa, smallholder irrigation faces problems of low water use efficiency and cost recovery of government investments.

  20. Community perception of quality of (primary health care services in a rural area of Limpopo Province, South Africa: a qualitative study

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    T-AB Mashego

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to survey perceptions of quality of (primary health care services provided in rural communities in the Limpopo province. Ten focus groups discussions were held with community members chosen by convenience from public places from four villages in the central region of the Limpopo Pro