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Sample records for province solomon islands

  1. Factors influencing smallholder commercial tree planting in Isabel Province, the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Stephanie; Hansen, Christian Pilegaard; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2017-01-01

    Small-scale forestry systems provide subsistence products and income generation for smallholders, and a range of environmental services. However, smallholders often face constraints to the adoption of small-scale forestry. In the Solomon Islands, family-based plantations of commercial timber...... through a case study of Isabel Province, the Solomon Islands. These factors were investigated in five tree-planting villages using a mixed methods approach, in which a household survey of tree planters and non-tree planters was complemented with qualitative methods. Descriptive statistics, probit...

  2. Bionomics of the malaria vector Anopheles farauti in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: issues for malaria elimination

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    Mackenzie Donna O

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Solomon Islands, the Malaria Eradication Programmes of the 1970s virtually eliminated the malaria vectors: Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis, both late night biting, endophagic species. However, the vector, Anopheles farauti, changed its behaviour to bite early in the evening outdoors. Thus, An. farauti mosquitoes were able to avoid insecticide exposure and still maintain transmission. Thirty years on and the Solomon Islands are planning for intensified malaria control and localized elimination; but little is currently known about the behaviour of the vectors and how they will respond to intensified control. Methods In the elimination area, Temotu Province, standard entomological collection methods were conducted in typical coastal villages to determine the vector, its ecology, biting density, behaviour, longevity, and vector efficacy. These vector surveys were conducted pre-intervention and post-intervention following indoor residual spraying and distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets. Results Anopheles farauti was the only anopheline in Temotu Province. In 2008 (pre-intervention, this species occurred in moderate to high densities (19.5-78.5 bites/person/night and expressed a tendency to bite outdoors, early in the night (peak biting time 6-8 pm. Surveys post intervention showed that there was little, if any, reduction in biting densities and no reduction in the longevity of the vector population. After adjusting for human behaviour, indoor biting was reduced from 57% pre-intervention to 40% post-intervention. Conclusion In an effort to learn from historical mistakes and develop successful elimination programmes, there is a need for implementing complimentary vector control tools that can target exophagic and early biting vectors. Intensified indoor residual spraying and long-lasting insecticide net use has further promoted the early, outdoor feeding behaviour of An. farauti in the Solomon Islands

  3. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria

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    Whittaker Maxine

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 1 whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. Methods A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD and 22 key informant interviews (KII were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Results Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. Conclusion A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an

  4. Malaria elimination in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands: establishing a surveillance-response system to prevent introduction and reintroduction of malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Matthew; Kenilorea, Geoffrey; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Bobogare, Albino; Losi, Landry; Atkinson, Jo-An; Vallely, Andrew; Whittaker, Maxine; Tanner, Marcel; Wijesinghe, Rushika

    2011-08-11

    The Solomon Islands National Malaria Programme is currently focused on intensified control and progressive elimination. Recent control efforts in Isabel Province have reduced their malaria incidence to 2.6/1,000 population in 2009 1 whereas most neighbouring provinces have much higher incidences. A malaria surveillance-response system that involves testing all travellers entering Isabel Province using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) to prevent cases being imported had been proposed by local health authorities. This study provides information on the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a new approach of surveillance and response in the context of low levels of indigenous malaria transmission in Isabel Province. A total of 13 focus group discussions (FGD) and 22 key informant interviews (KII) were conducted in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. Key topics included: the travel patterns of people to, from and within Isabel Province; the acceptability, community perceptions, attitudes and suggestions towards the proposed surveillance programme; and management of suspected malaria cases. This information was triangulated with data obtained from port authorities, airlines and passenger ships travelling to and from Isabel Province in the preceding two years. Travel within Isabel Province and to and from other provinces is common with marked seasonality. The majority of inter-provincial travel is done on scheduled public transport; namely passenger ships and aircrafts. In Isabel Province there is a healthy community spirit as well as high concern regarding malaria and its importation and there is currently effective malaria passive case detection and management. Conducting malaria screening at ports and airports would be acceptable to the community. A robust surveillance-response system is essential when moving towards malaria elimination. Many factors contribute positively towards the feasibility of an RDT based malaria surveillance system in Isabel Province. Due to

  5. Population screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencies in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, using a modified enzyme assay on filter paper dried bloodspots

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    Landry Losi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency poses a significant impediment to primaquine use for the elimination of liver stage infection with Plasmodium vivax and for gametocyte clearance, because of the risk of life-threatening haemolytic anaemia that can occur in G6PD deficient patients. Although a range of methods for screening G6PD deficiency have been described, almost all require skilled personnel, expensive laboratory equipment, freshly collected blood, and are time consuming; factors that render them unsuitable for mass-screening purposes. Methods A published WST8/1-methoxy PMS method was adapted to assay G6PD activity in a 96-well format using dried blood spots, and used it to undertake population screening within a malaria survey undertaken in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands. The assay results were compared to a biochemical test and a recently marketed rapid diagnostic test. Results Comparative testing with biochemical and rapid diagnostic test indicated that results obtained by filter paper assay were accurate providing that blood spots were assayed within 5 days when stored at ambient temperature and 10 days when stored at 4 degrees. Screening of 8541 people from 41 villages in Isabel Province, Solomon Islands revealed the prevalence of G6PD deficiency as defined by enzyme activity Conclusions The assay enabled simple and quick semi-quantitative population screening in a malaria-endemic region. The study indicated a high prevalence of G6PD deficiency in Isabel Province and highlights the critical need to consider G6PD deficiency in the context of P. vivax malaria elimination strategies in Solomon Islands, particularly in light of the potential role of primaquine mass drug administration.

  6. Toward a three-century reconstruction of climate variability from a slow-growing coral in the Western Province, Solomon Islands

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    Maupin, C. R.; Quinn, T. M.; Taylor, F. W.; lin, K.; Shen, C.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability in the west Pacific warm pool (WPWP), a major heat and moisture source to the atmosphere, is strongly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Modeling work has suggested that multi-century scale reconstructions of ENSO variability from the tropical west Pacific may be necessary to fully characterize the nature of the ENSO system. Much of the previous coral-based climate studies have used the fast-growing coral genus Porites, although a few studies have used the long-lived, slow-growing coral genus Diploastrea. Here we present an oxygen isotope time series from a three century long D. heliopora coral from near Olasana Island, Western Province, Solomon Islands (WPSI, 8°07.92' S, 156°54.50' E), a location in the WPWP that experiences significant temperature and salinity anomalies during ENSO events. We first used a forward model to generate a pseudoproxy time series for the Olasana region, utilizing available gridded sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) data spanning 1970-2007. There are strong correlations between predicted and measured coral δ18O, between both monthly (r = 0.84) and monthly anomaly (r = 0.69) records. These results demonstrate that the Olasana D. heliopora coral δ18O record is a robust proxy of local surface ocean conditions. There is also a robust relationship between the Olasana δ18O record and NINO3.4 index of ENSO activity during 1938-2007, which provides confidence that the Olasana δ18O record can be used to characterize the ENSO state in this region back in time. Finally, we present results from near the core bottom (~1700 CE), which provide a first window into a gap of coral-based ENSO reconstructions in the immediate preindustrial (~1700-1850 CE).

  7. Changes in vector species composition and current vector biology and behaviour will favour malaria elimination in Santa Isabel Province, Solomon Islands

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    Beebe Nigel W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2009, Santa Isabel Province in the Solomon Islands embarked on a malaria elimination programme. However, very little is known in the Province about the anopheline fauna, which species are vectors, their bionomics and how they may respond to intensified intervention measures. The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data on the malaria vectors and to ascertain the possibility of successfully eliminating malaria using the existing conventional vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN. Methods Entomological surveys were undertaken during October 2009. To determine species composition and distribution larval surveys were conducted across on the whole island. For malaria transmission studies, adult anophelines were sampled using human landing catches from two villages - one coastal and one inland. Results Five Anopheles species were found on Santa Isabel: Anopheles farauti, Anopheles hinesorum, Anopheles lungae, Anopheles solomonis, and Anopheles nataliae. Anopheles hinesorum was the most widespread species. Anopheles farauti was abundant, but found only on the coast. Anopheles punctulatus and Anopheles koliensis were not found. Anopheles farauti was the only species found biting in the coastal village, it was incriminated as a vector in this study; it fed early in the night but equally so indoors and outdoors, and had a low survival rate. Anopheles solomonis was the main species biting humans in the inland village, it was extremely exophagic, with low survival rates, and readily fed on pigs. Conclusion The disappearance of the two major vectors, An. punctulatus and An. koliensis, from Santa Isabel and the predominance of An. hinesorum, a non-vector species may facilitate malaria elimination measures. Anopheles farauti was identified as the main coastal vector with An. solomonis as a possible inland vector. The behaviour of An. solomonis is novel as it has

  8. Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm in the Solomon Islands.

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    Bradbury, Richard S; Hii, Sze Fui; Harrington, Humpress; Speare, Richard; Traub, Rebecca

    2017-02-01

    Although hookworm is highly prevalent in the Solomon Islands, the species involved are unknown. We initiated this study in response to finding Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworm in a peacekeeper in Australia who had returned from the Solomon Islands. Kato-Katz fecal surveys performed in 2013 and 2014 in 2 village groups in East Malaita, Solomon Islands, identified hookworm-positive samples. These specimens were tested by cytochrome oxidase 1 (cox-1) gene multiplex PCR and sequenced. Of 66 positive specimens, 54 (81.8%) contained only Necator americanus, 11 (16.7%) contained only A. ceylanicum, and 1 (1.5%) contained both species. A. duodenale was not found. Haplotype analysis of cox-1 sequences placed all human isolates (99% bootstrap support) of A. ceylanicum within the zoonotic clade rather than the human-specific clade. This study confirms that A. ceylanicum is endemic in the East Malaita region of this Pacific Island nation. The strain of the A. ceylanicum in this region can be shared among humans, dogs, and cats.

  9. Solomon Islands School Leaders Readiness for Inclusive Education

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    Porakari, James; Sevala, Brenda; Miniti, Patrick; Saemane, George; Sharma, Umesh; Forlin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of students with disabilities was initiated by the Ministry of Education and Human Resource Development in the Solomon Islands in 2013. This paper investigates the knowledge, skills, and values of school leaders in public and private schools in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands, in regard to providing support for inclusive…

  10. April 2007 Solomon Islands, Papua New Guinea Images

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An earthquake measuring 8.1 struck 345 kilometers northwest of the Solomon Islands' capital Honiara at 0740 local time on 2 April. (2040 GMT 1 April). The earthquake...

  11. Solomon Islands: reaching street children in Honiara.

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    Gatu, R

    2000-01-01

    The situation of homeless children in Honiara, Solomon Islands had attracted the attention of Sister Doreen of the Angelican Sisters of the Church. One discovery was that these young people had little knowledge of sexuality but were often sexually active. This article discusses the workshop developed by the Angelican Sisters of the Church that addresses the needs of the youth, particularly on the topics of adolescent sexual and reproductive health and HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). About 34 young people attended the 4-day seminar, which aimed to empower the kids into making the right decision and changing their behavior. Among the activities during the program were the use of games, information and practical sessions, which included a condom demonstration in the form of a bingo game. The workshop was a success, with kids started teaching their peers and parents and more requests for such workshops indicated that young people in Honoria are hungry for information on sex, sexuality, HIV/AIDS and STDs.

  12. Surgical care in the Solomon Islands: a road map for universal surgical care delivery.

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    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Kushner, Adam; Jagilly, Rooney; Pickacha, Douglas; Agiomea, Kaeni; Hou, Levi; Houasia, Patrick; Hendricks, Phillip L; Ba'erodo, Dudley

    2011-06-01

    Access to surgical care and emergency obstetrical care is limited in low-income countries. The Solomon Islands is one of the poorest countries in the Pacific region. Access to surgical care in Solomon Islands is limited and severely affected by a country made up of islands. Surgical care is centralized to the National Referral Hospital (NRH) on Guadalcanal, leaving a void of care in the provinces where more than 80% of the people live. To assess the ability to provide surgical care to the people living on outer islands in the Solomon Islands, the provincial hospitals were evaluated using the World Health Organization's Global Initiative for Emergency and Essential Surgical Care Needs Assessment Tool questionnaire. Data on infrastructure, workforce, and equipment available for treating surgical disease was collected at each provincial hospital visited. Surgical services are centralized to the NRH on Guadalcanal in Solomon Islands. Two provincial hospitals provide surgical care when a surgeon is available. Six of the hospitals evaluated provide only very basic surgical procedures. Infrastructure problems exist at every hospital including lack of running water, electricity, adequate diagnostic equipment, and surgical supplies. The number of surgeons and obstetricians employed by the Ministry of Health is currently inadequate for delivering care at the outer island hospitals. Shortages in the surgical workforce can be resolved in Solomon Islands with focused training of new graduates. Training surgeons locally, in the Pacific region, can minimize the "brain drain." Redistribution of surgeons and obstetricians to the provincial hospitals can be accomplished by creating supportive connections between these hospitals, the NRH, and international medical institutions.

  13. Syllable restructuring in early Solomon Islands Pidgin English

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    Andrei A. Avram

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper looks at the various syllable restructuring strategies used in early Solomon Islands Pidgin English. These depend on the phonological shape of the etyma and consist of epenthesis, paragoge and consonant deletion. Also examined is the quality of the epenthetic and of the paragogic vowels. Contrary to claims recently put forth in the literature, vowel harmony appears to play no part in the selection of these intrusive vowels. Finally, syllable restructuring in early Solomon Islands Pidgin English is shown to have striking similarities to that attested in other early varieties of Melanesian Pidgin English.

  14. Spatial Terms, Polysemy and Possession in Longgu (Solomon Islands).

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    Hill, Deborah; Goddard, Cliff

    1997-01-01

    Identifies lexical equivalents of semantic primitives "above, under, inside, on the side," as defined by Natural Semantic Metalanguage theory, in Longgu (Solomon Islands) and argues that the first three have both a semantically primitive rational sense and a secondary topological sense. Morphosyntactic issues are discussed, including…

  15. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Solomon Islands: the climbing species

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    Gardner, R.O.

    2010-01-01

    Eleven climbing species of Piper in the Solomon Islands are recognized: P. abbreviatum, P. betle, P. bosnicanum, P. caninum, P. celtidiforme, P. fragile, P. insectifugum (syn. P. austrocaledonicum), P. interruptum, P. macropiper, P. majusculum, and, as the only endemic, P. sclerophloeum, for which a

  16. Magnitude 8.1 Earthquake off the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On April 1, 2007, a magnitude 8.1 earthquake rattled the Solomon Islands, 2,145 kilometers (1,330 miles) northeast of Brisbane, Australia. Centered less than ten kilometers beneath the Earth's surface, the earthquake displaced enough water in the ocean above to trigger a small tsunami. Though officials were still assessing damage to remote island communities on April 3, Reuters reported that the earthquake and the tsunami killed an estimated 22 people and left as many as 5,409 homeless. The most serious damage occurred on the island of Gizo, northwest of the earthquake epicenter, where the tsunami damaged the hospital, schools, and hundreds of houses, said Reuters. This image, captured by the Landsat-7 satellite, shows the location of the earthquake epicenter in relation to the nearest islands in the Solomon Island group. Gizo is beyond the left edge of the image, but its triangular fringing coral reefs are shown in the upper left corner. Though dense rain forest hides volcanic features from view, the very shape of the islands testifies to the geologic activity of the region. The circular Kolombangara Island is the tip of a dormant volcano, and other circular volcanic peaks are visible in the image. The image also shows that the Solomon Islands run on a northwest-southeast axis parallel to the edge of the Pacific plate, the section of the Earth's crust that carries the Pacific Ocean and its islands. The earthquake occurred along the plate boundary, where the Australia/Woodlark/Solomon Sea plates slide beneath the denser Pacific plate. Friction between the sinking (subducting) plates and the overriding Pacific plate led to the large earthquake on April 1, said the United States Geological Survey (USGS) summary of the earthquake. Large earthquakes are common in the region, though the section of the plate that produced the April 1 earthquake had not caused any quakes of magnitude 7 or larger since the early 20th century, said the USGS.

  17. The Impact of Village-Based Kindergarten on Early Literacy, Numeracy, and School Attendance in Solomon Islands

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    Lee-Hammond, Libby; McConney, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    This research, a collaboration of an international aid organisation, an institute of higher education, and an external evaluation consultant, assesses the early literacy, numeracy, and school attendance outcomes resulting from an early childhood development programme undertaken in several villages in the province of Makira, Solomon Islands. The…

  18. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

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    Harris Ivor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (≥38°C at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/μL. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/μL for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%, indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162 compared to P. falciparum (36/118. The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and

  19. Pre-Deployment Handbook: Solomon Islands

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    2014-06-01

    Guadalcanal Island. Guadalcanal Island. 208 The Battle of Guadalcanal became one of the most important, and bloody campaigns, fought in the Pacific...sit in one chamber ) of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the

  20. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

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    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  1. Assessing vulnerability to climate change and socioeconomic stressors in the Reef Islands group, Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This article assesses the vulnerability to climatic and socioeconomic stresses in the Reef Islands, Solomon Islands, an atoll island group in the Southwest Pacific. Climate change and the associated sea-level rise are often seen as the most pressing challenges to atoll communities, yet this study...... infrastructure, economic marginalization and weak governance of Solomon Islands. Findings suggest that some of these non-climatic stresses are currently – and in the short term – more important determinants of local vulnerability than climate change and sea-level rise. Certainly, these stresses are likely...

  2. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.

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    Mason, Daniel S; Marks, Michael; Sokana, Oliver; Solomon, Anthony W; Mabey, David C; Romani, Lucia; Kaldor, John; Steer, Andrew C; Engelman, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data. Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution. The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-21.0), and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7-21.9). The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2-13.2), and the highest prevalence was found in infants impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6-34.8), and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2-29.5). The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1-4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9-5.8). Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6); with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies. Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies for scabies may reduce the burden of both conditions and their downstream complications.

  3. The name of the white-eye from Rendova Island (Solomon Islands)

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    Mees, G.F.

    1955-01-01

    Of the various races of white-eyes that inhabit the central group of the Solomon Islands, the race from the island of Rendova was the first to become known to science. Tristram (1882) recorded this race, which he indentified with Tephras olivaceus Ramsay, described the previous year from the

  4. Crustal strain phenomena in the Solomon Islands, constraints from field evidence, and relationship to the India-Pacific plates' boundary

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    Ramsay, W. R. H.

    1982-08-01

    The Solomon Islands lie along the India-Pacific plates' margin and have recorded a history of deformation resulting from the interaction of these two plates. Various kinematic models have been proposed for the Solomons and these have involved a variety of plate tectonic processes. It is pointed out that almost without exception these models have been based on a provincial geological classification of the island group in which it is assumed that two of these provinces—Pacific and Central provinces—commenced their geological development in regions distant from one another. Invariably such models require that Santa Isabel represents part of a collision zone between these two provinces, though field evidence from Santa Isabel for such a collision has in the past been largely lacking. These various kinematic models are examined in the light of more recent field evidence, and a premise on which they have been based—initial separate development for two of the provinces—is questioned. Rather it is here suggested that the Central and Pacific provinces developed in roughly similar positions, one with the other as they occur today, and that they were at least in part separated from Oligocene time onward by a linear peridotite-gabbro ridge, Korighole-Florida high, which acted as a sediment barrier to much of the coarser clastic and volcanogenic sedimentation. The initial development of the Solomon Islands began in an oceanic environment with the extrusion of extensive submarine tholeiitic 'flood basalts' and intrusion of associated gabbroic and ultramafic rocks at depth, during the Late Mesozoic to Early Tertiary. This igneous phase occurred with the whole of the island group representing the western margin of the Ontong Java Plateau. Subsequent asymmetric development of the Solomons during the Eocene and Oligocene resulted in uplift, shearing, and the initiation of arc volcanism, plutonism, and arc-related sedimentation in the Central province to the west. In contrast

  5. The Prevalence of Scabies and Impetigo in the Solomon Islands: A Population-Based Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel S Mason

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scabies and impetigo are common, important and treatable skin conditions. Reports from several Pacific island countries show extremely high prevalence of these two conditions, but for many countries, including the Solomon Islands, there is a paucity of epidemiological data.Ten rural villages in the Western Province of the Solomon Islands were included in the study, chosen so that data collection could be integrated with an existing project investigating clinical and serological markers of yaws. All residents were eligible to participate, and 1908 people were enrolled. Participants were interviewed and examined by a paediatric registrar, who recorded relevant demographic information, and made a clinical diagnosis of scabies and/or impetigo, severity and distribution.The total unweighted prevalence of scabies was 19.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 17.5-21.0, and age and gender weighted prevalence 19.2% (95%CI 16.7-21.9. The adult prevalence of scabies was 10.4% (95%CI 8.2-13.2, and the highest prevalence was found in infants < 1 year of age (34.1%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] compared with adults: 3.6, 95%CI 2.2-6.0 and children aged 1-4 years (25.7%, AOR 2.6, 95%CI 1.7-3.9. Scabies affected two or more body regions in 80.9% of participants, and 4.4% of scabies cases were classified as severe. The total unweighted prevalence of active impetigo was 32.7% (95%CI 30.6-34.8, and age and gender weighted prevalence 26.7% (95%CI 24.2-29.5. The highest prevalence was found in children aged 1-4 years (42.6%, AOR compared with adults: 4.1, 95%CI 2.9-5.8. Scabies infestation was associated with active impetigo infection (AOR 2.0, 95%CI 1.6-2.6; with 41.1% of active impetigo cases also having scabies.Scabies and impetigo are very common in the rural Western Province of the Solomon Islands. Scabies infestation is strongly associated with impetigo. Community control strategies for scabies may reduce the burden of both conditions and their downstream

  6. A Case of Ancylostoma ceylanicum Infection Occurring in an Australian Soldier Returned from Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speare, Rick; Bradbury, Richard Stewart; Croese, John

    2016-08-01

    A 26-year-old male member of the Australian Defense Force presented with a history of central abdominal pain of 4 weeks duration and peripheral eosinophilia consistent with eosinophilic enteritis. Acute hookworm disease was diagnosed as the cause. Adult worms recovered from feces after therapy with albendazole were morphologically consistent with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. As the patient had been deployed with the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands for 6 months prior to this presentation, it is very likely that the A. ceylanicum was acquired in Solomon Islands. Until now, it has been assumed that any Ancylostoma spp. recovered from humans in Solomon Islands is A. duodenale. However, this case demonstrates that human hookworm infection acquired in the Solomon Islands could be caused by A. ceylanicum.

  7. Geologic Survey of the 2 April 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiau, W. B.; Jackson, K. L.; Billy, D.; Bonte-Grapentin, M.; Kruger, J.; McAdoo, B. G.; Moore, A. L.; Tiano, B.

    2007-12-01

    The 2 April 2007 magnitude 8.1 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami caused extensive damage to coral reefs, coastal erosion, and in some locations, 3 meters of uplift, subsidence, and numerous landslides in the Western and Choiseul Provinces. Extensive damage to the coral reefs ranged from shattered branching corals to 4 meter head corals snapped off their bases and toppled over. The fringing reef on the east coast of Ranongga sustained the greatest degree of damage as it was uplifted 3 m above sea level and remains completely exposed. Sediment samples were collected along transects extended from offshore to onshore environments for larger islands, such as Ghizo, where the tsunami did not pass over the entire island. Smaller islands, such as Nusa Aghana, a transect was conducted from the outer barrier reefs, through the lagoon, across the island, and offshore on the opposing side of the island. Offshore data was collected using a side-scan sonar system that records bathymetry and images coral reef morphology. This data was coupled with snorkeling and SCUBA diving to ground truth the offshore lagoon and reef environments. Sediment samples were collected offshore every 5 m and were documented by underwater photos and GPS coordinates. Offshore to onshore sediment transects reveal that sediment was eroded from seaward facing shorelines, deposited a thin veneer of sediment on islands, and transported the majority of the sediment on coral reefs on the lagoon side of islands, essentially burying coral and lagoonal sediment. Coral reef damaged by the earthquake and tsunami represents a major concern for an already threatened ecosystem. Recovery of the fishing and dive tourism economies rely on the healthy reestablishment of the reef.

  8. From Multilingualism to Bilingualism: Changes in Language Use, Language Value, and Social Mobility among Engdewu Speakers in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerine Hicks, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    On the island of Santa Cruz in the Solomon Islands, the Engdewu language is facing imminent language shift because of the increasing use of the lingua franca Solomon Islands Pijin in the community. In this article, I argue that this language shift is occurring because of changes to the social structure in Baemawz, one of the villages where Engdewu…

  9. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  10. The serological status of Solomon Island blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, R E; Faoagali, J L

    1999-09-01

    The serological status of Solomon Island blood donors in 1995 and in particular the seroprevalence of antibodies to Hepatitis B and C and prevalence of risk factors for these chronic infections was studied. A questionnaire of risk factors for Hepatitis B and C was undertaken. All blood donors had been previously screened for HIV antibody without any positive cases recorded. 598 donors had serum collected of which 36 samples (6.0%) were third generation HCV EIA antibody positive and 3 samples were RIBA positive but none were PCR positive. 25.1% of samples were positive for HBsAg and anti-HBc antibody was found in 84.4%. Elevated ALT levels (>35 U/l) were found in 6.5% of samples but there was no statistically significant association with HCV or HBsAg status. 15.4% were TPHA positive and 5.4% had RPR titers more than or equal to 1. Anti-HTLV-1 antibody was positive in 12.3% randomly selected samples. All 10 positive samples were then found to be antibody indeterminate with Western blot assay. Of the 585 samples with completed questionnaires, analysis of the relationship between anti-HCV status with tattoo status and ear piercing also failed to reach statistical significance. Consistent with other studies from tropical malaria-prone countries, a positive anti-HCV antibody test even by the third generation EIA is probably a false positive test in most cases. In addition, high prevalence rates of HBV, yaws or syphilis infection were demonstrated.

  11. A review of health leadership and management capacity in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Augustine; Roberts, Graham; Hall, John

    2012-04-01

    ACCESS AND UTILISATION OF HEALTH CARE: The armed conflict that engulfed the Solomon Islands between 1998 and 2003 significantly disrupted the provision of health care especially in rural and remote areas. There is one doctor for 3,300 people and approximately 13 nurses and midwives for 10,000 people. Despite limitations 87% of people seek health care when sick. FINANCING THE HEALTH SYSTEM: The SIG placed a series of reservations on ministerial goods and services budgets that effectively the budget by 33%, severely impacting provincial budgets and resulting in acquired debts. Shortfalls have been addressed by allocating Health Sector Support Program funds to the provinces to allow services to continue, a strategy that will likely recur, but by which donor support replaces government provision Provincial health accountants have received training in MYOB in 2009 but acquittal systems require higher level accounting skills for reports to be submitted on time to permit the release of subsequent funding tranches. HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH: The shortage of doctors and specialists is a key challenge. As at December 2010, there were a total of 2,728 health workers in the public sector in Solomon Islands. Staff costs consume on average 55% of provincial health grants Filled Public Service Division staff establishments and budgetary reservations have reduced the ability to meet the salary and wage costs of new graduates. Solomon Islands is currently negotiating to assist Vanuatu in filling its nursing staff vacancies with its surplus The return of 75 Cuban trained medical officers from 2013 presents the management challenge of accessing budget provisions for so many new positions and in funding the infrastructure needed to house, equip and maintain them in service. HEALTH MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE: Provincial health managers are operationally responsive to local needs, managerially responsible to provincial governments, while being concerned with adherence to central MHMS policy

  12. The Solomon Islands tsunami of 6 February 2013 field survey in the Santa Cruz Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, H. M.; Papantoniou, A.; Biukoto, L.; Albert, G.

    2013-12-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  13. Bridging near and remote Oceania: mtDNA and NRY variation in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfin, Frederick; Myles, Sean; Choi, Ying; Hughes, David; Illek, Robert; van Oven, Mannis; Pakendorf, Brigitte; Kayser, Manfred; Stoneking, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Although genetic studies have contributed greatly to our understanding of the colonization of Near and Remote Oceania, important gaps still exist. One such gap is the Solomon Islands, which extend between Bougainville and Vanuatu, thereby bridging Near and Remote Oceania, and include both Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups. Here, we describe patterns of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nonrecombining Y chromosome (NRY) variation in over 700 individuals from 18 populations in the Solomons, including 11 Austronesian-speaking groups, 3 Papuan-speaking groups, and 4 Polynesian Outliers (descended via back migration from Polynesia). We find evidence for ancient (pre-Lapita) colonization of the Solomons in old NRY paragroups as well as from M2-M353, which probably arose in the Solomons ∼9,200 years ago and is the most frequent NRY haplogroup there. There are no consistent genetic differences between Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups, suggesting extensive genetic contact between them. Santa Cruz, which is located in Remote Oceania, shows unusually low frequencies of mtDNA and NRY haplogroups of recent Asian ancestry. This is in apparent contradiction with expectations based on archaeological and linguistic evidence for an early (∼3,200 years ago), direct colonization of Santa Cruz by Lapita people from the Bismarck Archipelago, via a migration that "leapfrogged" over the rest of the Solomons. Polynesian Outliers show dramatic island-specific founder events involving various NRY haplogroups. We also find that NRY, but not mtDNA, genetic distance is correlated with the geographic distance between Solomons groups and that historically attested spheres of cultural interaction are associated with the recent genetic structure of Solomons groups, as revealed by mtDNA HV1 sequence and Y-STR haplotype diversity. Our results fill an important lacuna in human genetic studies of Oceania and aid in understanding the colonization and genetic history of

  14. Prospects for climate change on three Polynesian outliers in Solomon Islands: Exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld; May, Wilhelm; Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    2011-01-01

    -physical conditions, economic base and social organization – the exposure, sensitivity and adaptation options of island populations are analyzed. It is argued that the three islands are likely to be very differently affected for reasons related to all three categories of characteristics. Local adaptive capacity......This paper discusses future prospects for climate change, impacts and adaptation of three small islands in Solomon Islands. Based on a review of literature a climate change scenario is suggested and with point of departure in a survey of three characteristics of the islands – bio...

  15. Students' Beliefs about Learning Mathematics: Some Findings from the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kele, Andriane; Sharma, Sashi

    2014-01-01

    Students' beliefs and attitudes can impact on their mathematics learning and performance. Yet, there appears to be minimal literature that deals with the educational implications of this dimension. This paper focuses on the beliefs of Year 12 Solomon Islands students in mathematics learning. The students' beliefs are analysed and themes…

  16. A Case Study of Culturally Informed Disability-Inclusive Education Policy Development in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Suzanne; Pillay, Hitendra; Tones, Megan; Nickerson, Julie; Duke, Jennifer; Esibaea, Benedict; Malefoasi, Ambrose; Fa'asala, Casper Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Inclusive education in general, and disability-inclusive education in particular, is a high-level priority for development work in aid-supported countries. This paper presents a bottom-up process of developing disability-inclusive education policy in one country--the Solomon Islands. It is well understood that the promotion of quality in…

  17. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers and Facilitators of Inclusive Education in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Simi, Janine

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports perceived barriers and facilitators of disability-inclusive education, and outcomes of an effective system of inclusive education in the Solomon Islands. Data were gathered from a variety of stakeholder group participants (n = 10) and individual key informants (n = 2), ranging from parents of children with disabilities to…

  18. Technical and Vocational Education and Training in Peace Education: Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maebuta, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Technical and vocational education and training programs as a form of peace education are examined in this paper. It explores the notion of educating for a culture of peace through refocusing technical and vocational education and training programs on sustainable community development in the Solomon Islands. It further highlights the policy and…

  19. Pijin at School in Solomon Islands: Language Ideologies and the Nation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, Christine

    2013-01-01

    In this article, I analyze the reasons that have excluded Pijin, the lingua franca of Solomon Islands, South West Pacific, from being used as a medium of instruction, and why this may now become possible. Following a short sociolinguistic sketch, I present the colonial and post-colonial linguistic ideologies that shaped sociolinguistic…

  20. Operational research to inform a sub-national surveillance intervention for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atkinson Jo-An

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Successful reduction of malaria transmission to very low levels has made Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, a target for early elimination by 2014. High malaria transmission in neighbouring provinces and the potential for local asymptomatic infections to cause malaria resurgence highlights the need for sub-national tailoring of surveillance interventions. This study contributes to a situational analysis of malaria in Isabel Province to inform an appropriate surveillance intervention. Methods A mixed method study was carried out in Isabel Province in late 2009 and early 2010. The quantitative component was a population-based prevalence survey of 8,554 people from 129 villages, which were selected using a spatially stratified sampling approach to achieve uniform geographical coverage of populated areas. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa-stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Local perceptions and practices related to management of fever and treatment-seeking that would impact a surveillance intervention were also explored using qualitative research methods. Results Approximately 33% (8,554/26,221 of the population of Isabel Province participated in the survey. Only one subject was found to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf (96 parasites/μL using Giemsa-stained blood films, giving a prevalence of 0.01%. PCR analysis detected a further 13 cases, giving an estimated malaria prevalence of 0.51%. There was a wide geographical distribution of infected subjects. None reported having travelled outside Isabel Province in the previous three months suggesting low-level indigenous malaria transmission. The qualitative findings provide warning signs that the current community vigilance approach to surveillance will not be sufficient to achieve elimination. In addition, fever severity is being used by individuals as an indicator for malaria and a trigger for timely treatment

  1. Operational research to inform a sub-national surveillance intervention for malaria elimination in Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful reduction of malaria transmission to very low levels has made Isabel Province, Solomon Islands, a target for early elimination by 2014. High malaria transmission in neighbouring provinces and the potential for local asymptomatic infections to cause malaria resurgence highlights the need for sub-national tailoring of surveillance interventions. This study contributes to a situational analysis of malaria in Isabel Province to inform an appropriate surveillance intervention. Methods A mixed method study was carried out in Isabel Province in late 2009 and early 2010. The quantitative component was a population-based prevalence survey of 8,554 people from 129 villages, which were selected using a spatially stratified sampling approach to achieve uniform geographical coverage of populated areas. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa-stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Local perceptions and practices related to management of fever and treatment-seeking that would impact a surveillance intervention were also explored using qualitative research methods. Results Approximately 33% (8,554/26,221) of the population of Isabel Province participated in the survey. Only one subject was found to be infected with Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) (96 parasites/μL) using Giemsa-stained blood films, giving a prevalence of 0.01%. PCR analysis detected a further 13 cases, giving an estimated malaria prevalence of 0.51%. There was a wide geographical distribution of infected subjects. None reported having travelled outside Isabel Province in the previous three months suggesting low-level indigenous malaria transmission. The qualitative findings provide warning signs that the current community vigilance approach to surveillance will not be sufficient to achieve elimination. In addition, fever severity is being used by individuals as an indicator for malaria and a trigger for timely treatment-seeking and case reporting

  2. Solomon Islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Hamilton

    Full Text Available The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands' future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet.

  3. "We can move forward": challenging historical inequity in public health research in Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speare Richard

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In resource-poor countries, such as Solomon Islands, the research agenda on health is often dominated by researchers from resource-rich countries. New strategies are needed to empower local researchers to set directions for health research. This paper presents a process which seeks to enable a local and potentially more equitable research agenda at a remote hospital in Solomon Islands. Methods In preparation for a health research capacity-building workshop at Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Malaita, Solomon Islands, a computer-based search was conducted of Solomon Islands public health literature. Using a levels-of-agreement approach publications were categorised as: a original research, b reviews, c program descriptions and d commentaries or discussion. Original research publications were further sub-categorised as: i measurement, ii descriptive research and iii intervention studies. Results were reviewed with Solomon Islander health professionals in a focus group discussion during the health research workshop. Focus group participants were invited to discuss reactions to literature search results and how results might assist current or future local researchers to identify gaps in the published research literature and possible research opportunities at the hospital and surrounding communities. Focus group data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Of the 218 publications meeting inclusion criteria, 144 (66% were categorised as 'original research', 42 (19% as 'commentaries/discussion', 28 (13% as 'descriptions of programs' and 4 (2% as 'reviews'. Agreement between three authors' (MRM, DM, AC independent categorisation was 'excellent' (0.8 κ. The 144 'original research' publications included 115 (80% 'descriptive studies' (κ = 0.82; 19 (13% 'intervention studies' (κ = 0.77; and 10 (7% 'measurement studies'(κ = 0.80. Key themes identified in the focus group discussion challenged historical inequities evident

  4. Solomon Islands Largest Hawksbill Turtle Rookery Shows Signs of Recovery after 150 Years of Excessive Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Richard J.; Bird, Tomas; Gereniu, Collin; Pita, John; Ramohia, Peter C.; Walter, Richard; Goerlich, Clara; Limpus, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic South Pacific is the Arnavon Islands, which are located in the Manning Strait between Isabel and Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands. The history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. Throughout the 1800s Roviana headhunters from New Georgia repeatedly raided the Manning Strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with European whalers. By the 1970s the Arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline and the national government intervened, declaring the Arnavons a sanctuary in 1976. But this government led initiative was short lived, with traditional owners burning down the government infrastructure and resuming intensive harvesting in 1982. In 1991 routine beach monitoring and turtle tagging commenced at the Arnavons along with extensive community consultations regarding the islands’ future, and in 1995 the Arnavon Community Marine Conservation Area (ACMCA) was established. Around the same time national legislation banning the sale of all turtle products was passed. This paper represents the first analysis of data from 4536 beach surveys and 845 individual turtle tagging histories obtained from the Arnavons between 1991-2012. Our results and the results of others, reveal that many of the hawksbill turtles that nest at the ACMCA forage in distant Australian waters, and that nesting on the Arnavons occurs throughout the year with peak nesting activity coinciding with the austral winter. Our results also provide the first known evidence of recovery for a western pacific hawksbill rookery, with the number of nests laid at the ACMCA and the remigration rates of turtles doubling since the establishment of the ACMCA in 1995. The Arnavons case study provides an example of how changes in policy, inclusive community-based management and long term commitment can turn the tide for one of the most charismatic and endangered species on our planet. PMID:25853880

  5. Molecular analysis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase variants in the Solomon Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, A.; Ishii, A.; Hirono, K.; Miwa, S. [National Institute of Health, Tokyo (Japan); Kere, N. [Medical Research and Training Institute, Honiara (Japan); Fujii, H. [Tokyo Women`s Medical College, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is one of the most prevalent genetic disorders, and >100 million people are considered to have mutant genes. G6PD deficiency is frequent in the area where plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic, probably because the G6PD-deficient subjects are resistant to the parasite. Falciparum and vivax malarias have been highly endemic in the Solomon Islands, and a high frequency of G6PD deficiency has also been expected. A recent investigation showed that the frequency of G6PD deficiency in the Solomon Islands was 8.4%-14.4%. Although >80 G6PD variants from various populations have been molecularly analyzed, little is known about those in Melanesians. G6PD Maewo, which was originally found in Vanuatu, has so far been the only Melanesian variant whose structural abnormality was determined. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Community perceptions of mental health needs: a qualitative study in the Solomon Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Silove Derrick; Ritchie Jan; Bunde-Birouste Anne; Blignault Ilse; Zwi Anthony B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychosocial and mental health needs in the aftermath of conflict and disaster have attracted substantial attention. In the Solomon Islands, the conceptualisation of mental health, for several decades regarded by policy makers as primarily a health issue, has broadened and been incorporated into the national development and social policy agendas, reflecting recognition of the impact of conflict and rapid social change on the psychosocial wellbeing of the community as a who...

  7. A decade of peace: Mental health issues and service developments in the Solomon Islands since 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maukera, Rex; Blignault, Ilse

    2015-12-01

    To describe the impact on mental health and psychosocial wellbeing of the armed conflict that occurred in the Solomon Islands from 1998-2003 and the subsequent political unrest and natural disasters, and the developments in mental health services since 2003. A literature and document review was conducted, supplemented by the written reflections of senior staff in the Solomon Islands Mental Health Service. Conflict and natural disaster have had a significant impact on the mental health and functioning of individuals, families and communities. National health system reform has been accompanied by the reorientation of the mental health services from custodial care to care in the community and greater emphasis on mental health promotion and prevention. The dedication of the small group of Solomon Islands mental health professionals, supported by local health service managers and external donors, has been a major strength. However, they face significant challenges. Continued investment in mental health, including the treatment and prevention of mental and substance use disorders, is essential for mental health and development outcomes. All development stakeholders, including civil society, government, academic and research institutions, and development partners, have a role to play. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appleyard Bridget

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally prior to programme implementation. Method Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out in Malaita and Temotu Provinces, Solomon Islands in 2008. These discussions explored user perceptions of acceptability and preference for three brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs and identified a number of barriers to their proper and consistent use. Results Mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria were the main determinants of bed net use. Knowledge of malaria and the means to prevent it were not sufficient to guarantee compliance with LLIN use. Factors such as climate, work and evening social activities impact on the use of bed nets, particularly in men. LLIN acceptability plays a varying role in compliance with their use in villages involved in this study. Participants in areas of reported high and year round mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria reported LLIN use regardless of any reported unfavourable characteristics. Those in areas of low or seasonal mosquito nuisance were more likely to describe the unfavourable characteristics of LLINs as reasons for their intermittent or non-compliance. The main criterion for LLIN brand acceptability was effectiveness in preventing mosquito bites and malaria. Discussions highlighted considerable confusion around LLIN care and washing which may be impacting on their effectiveness and reducing their acceptability in Solomon Islands. Conclusion Providing LLINs that are acceptable

  9. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Bobogare, Albino; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Boaz, Leonard; Appleyard, Bridget; Toaliu, Hilson; Vallely, Andrew

    2009-06-04

    In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally prior to programme implementation. Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in Malaita and Temotu Provinces, Solomon Islands in 2008. These discussions explored user perceptions of acceptability and preference for three brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and identified a number of barriers to their proper and consistent use. Mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria were the main determinants of bed net use. Knowledge of malaria and the means to prevent it were not sufficient to guarantee compliance with LLIN use. Factors such as climate, work and evening social activities impact on the use of bed nets, particularly in men. LLIN acceptability plays a varying role in compliance with their use in villages involved in this study. Participants in areas of reported high and year round mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria reported LLIN use regardless of any reported unfavourable characteristics. Those in areas of low or seasonal mosquito nuisance were more likely to describe the unfavourable characteristics of LLINs as reasons for their intermittent or non-compliance. The main criterion for LLIN brand acceptability was effectiveness in preventing mosquito bites and malaria. Discussions highlighted considerable confusion around LLIN care and washing which may be impacting on their effectiveness and reducing their acceptability in Solomon Islands. Providing LLINs that are acceptable will be more important for improving compliance in areas of low

  10. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarnat, Eli M; Blanchard, Benjamin; Guénard, Benoit; John Fasi; Evan P Economo

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies) in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp.), Guadalcanal (107 spp.), Malaita (70 spp.), Santa Isabel (68 spp.), and Rennell (66 spp.). Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago's ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity.

  11. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Sarnat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp., Guadalcanal (107 spp., Malaita (70 spp., Santa Isabel (68 spp., and Rennell (66 spp.. Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago’s ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity.

  12. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in remote villages in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Humpress; Bradbury, Richard; Taeka, James; Asugeni, James; Asugeni, Vunivesi; Igeni, Tony; Gwala, John; Newton, Lawrence; Fa, Chillion Evan; Kilivisi, Fawcett Laurence; Esau, Dorothy; Flores, Angelica; Ribeyro, Elmer; Liku, Daisy; Muse, Alwin; Asugeni, Lyndel; Talana, Jeptha; Shield, Jennifer; MacLaren, David J; Massey, Peter D; Muller, Reinhold; Speare, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Although soil-transmitted helminths (STH) are endemic in Solomon Islands, there are few recent reports on their prevalence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of STH in residents of remote communities in Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional convenience-sampled survey of residents of four adjacent villages in Malaita, Solomon Islands was performed in Atoifi and Na'au in April 2011 and in Abitona and Sifilo in April 2012. All residents older than one year were invited to participate, which involved providing a single sample of faeces examined using a modified Kato-Katz technique and completing a questionnaire that asked demographic and STH-related behaviour questions. The overall participation rate was 52.8%, with 402 participants comprising 49.8% males. Hookworm was the predominant STH with only a single case of trichuriasis found in Atoifi. The total prevalence of hookworm was 22.6% (95% confidence interval: 18.6-27.1); the prevalence of hookworm in Abitona, Na'au and Sifilo was 20.0%, 29.9% and 27.4%, respectively, whereas in Atoifi it was 2.3% (P < 0.001). Intensity was low in all villages. Although health behaviours differed significantly between Atoifi and the other three villages, the type of toilet used was the only significant association with hookworm. Residents of Atoifi have a relative freedom from STH compared to the other three villages. Rather than a region-wide morbidity control approach, a "one village at a time" approach aiming to eliminate STH and dealing with each village as a separate autonomous unit empowered to manage its own challenges may be a preferred option.

  13. Prevalence of soil-transmitted helminths in remote villages in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands

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    Humpress Harrington

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although soil-transmitted helminths (STH are endemic in Solomon Islands, there are few recent reports on their prevalence. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of STH in residents of remote communities in Solomon Islands. Methods: A cross-sectional convenience-sampled survey of residents of four adjacent villages in Malaita, Solomon Islands was performed in Atoifi and Na’au in April 2011 and in Abitona and Sifilo in April 2012. All residents older than one year were invited to participate, which involved providing a single sample of faeces examined using a modified Kato-Katz technique and completing a questionnaire that asked demographic and STH-related behaviour questions. Results: The overall participation rate was 52.8%, with 402 participants comprising 49.8% males. Hookworm was the predominant STH with only a single case of trichuriasis found in Atoifi. The total prevalence of hookworm was 22.6% (95% confidence interval: 18.6–27.1; the prevalence of hookworm in Abitona, Na’au and Sifilo was 20.0%, 29.9% and 27.4%, respectively, whereas in Atoifi it was 2.3% (P < 0.001. Intensity was low in all villages. Although health behaviours differed significantly between Atoifi and the other three villages, the type of toilet used was the only significant association with hookworm. Discussion: Residents of Atoifi have a relative freedom from STH compared to the other three villages. Rather than a region-wide morbidity control approach, a “one village at a time” approach aiming to eliminate STH and dealing with each village as a separate autonomous unit empowered to manage its own challenges may be a preferred option.

  14. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

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    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-06-25

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change.

  15. New Records and Name Changes for the Orchids in the Solomon Islands

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    Tian-Chuan Hsu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One genus (Anoectochilus and 12 species (Agrostophyllum neoguineense, Anoectochilus papuanus, Arundina graminifolia, Bulbophyllum aemulum, B. bisepalum, B. nubigenum, B. ochroleucum, B. phreatiopse, Corybas solomonensis, Crepidium laevis, Didymoplexis striata, Epipogium roseum of orchids (Orchidaceae are first recorded to the flora of the Solomon Islands during the 2012–2015 field expeditions. Geographic data, ecological and taxonomic notes and illustrations of those species are provided. A new combination (Pinalia oligotricha and a new name (Dendrobium bougainvilleanum are also proposed for fitting recent systematic alterations within Orchidaceae.

  16. The effects of land-use change on endemic avifauna on Makira, Solomon Islands : endemics avoid monoculture

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    Davies, Tamara Ellen; Clarke, Rohan H.; Ewen, John G.; Fazey, Ioan Raymond Albert; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Cresswell, Will

    2015-01-01

    Date of Acceptance: 29/04/2015 Unprecedented rates of deforestation on tropical islands are threatening high numbers of endemic species. A lack of empirical evidence for the impacts of land-use change on biodiversity is hindering conservation activities in these regions. We assessed the impacts of land-use change on the avifauna of the tropical island of Makira in the Solomon Islands. We examined species richness and community assemblages, with a particular focus on endemism and functional...

  17. Health Impacts of Climate Change in the Solomon Islands: An Assessment and Adaptation Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands’ responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  18. Exploring the potential impacts of tourism development on social and ecological change in the Solomon Islands.

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    Diedrich, Amy; Aswani, Shankar

    2016-11-01

    Pacific Island communities may be vulnerable to negative impacts of economic development, which is often considered a strategy for reducing vulnerability to environmental change. Studies that evaluate potential impacts of economic development in isolated communities may be inaccurate to only focus on asking people to anticipate impacts of phenomena they have had minimal exposure to. We used an open-ended approach to evaluate how communities in the Solomon Islands perceived change, and used this information to anticipate potential impacts of the government's plans to develop tourism. Our results showed mostly negative expectations of change, particularly socio-cultural, which was perceived as being driven by diminishing social capital, foreign influence, and economic development. Despite minimal exposure, locals supported tourism and had more positive expectations of change associated with this activity. Our findings emphasize the need for locally appropriate planning to ensure intended positive impacts of tourism and other forms of economic development.

  19. “What Will You Do with Our Stories?” Truth and Reconciliation in the Solomon Islands

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    Louise Vella

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Solomon Islands Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC was the first TRC in the Pacific Islands. Its goals and activities – truth-seeking, reconciliation and the production of a report with a narrative of the conflict that focused on human rights violations – reflect the normative values of global transitional justice discourses. In this paper I draw on interviews with former staff of the TRC and my own experiences of working for the TRC to explore the implications of importing international transitional justice mechanisms into the local Solomon Islands context, and to draw attention to the cultural limitations of truth-telling. I argue that in order for peacebuilding tools to be effective in Solomon Islands, a strong commitment to, and understanding of, local context is required; transitional justice mechanisms must resonate with local understandings and practices of conflict resolution and peacemaking. The TRC has the potential to play a positive role in building peace in Solomon Islands if it is viewed as a component of an ongoing process.Truth and memory alone will not bring about justice, reconciliation or peace; the memories and truths that are collected and produced by the TRC ought to be used for future action, addressing ongoing injustices and grievances.

  20. Developing a Sustainable Need-Based Pediatric Acute Care Training Curriculum in Solomon Islands

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    Daniel Ta Yo Yu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe Johns Hopkins Hospital Pediatric Emergency Department (PED was invited to collaborate with the National Referral Hospital (NRH, Solomon Islands, to establish an acute care pediatric education program for the country’s inaugural class of national medical graduate trainees.ObjectiveTo develop and evaluate a sustainable, need-based post-graduate training curriculum in pediatric acute care, resuscitation, and point-of-care ultrasound.MethodsA need-based training curriculum was developed utilizing the ADDIE model and was implemented and revised over the course of 2 years and two site visits. Implementation followed a train-the-trainer model. The curriculum consisted of high-yield didactics including workshops, simulations, hands-on ultrasound sessions, and lectures at the NRH. A mixed-methods design was used to evaluate the curriculum, including pre/posttesting, qualitative group discussions, and individual surveys. The curriculum was revised in response to ongoing learner evaluations and needs assessments. Continuing educational sessions after the site visit demonstrated sustainability.ResultsThe curriculum included 19 core topics with 42 teaching sessions during the two site visits. A total of 135 pre/posttests and 366 individual surveys were collected from 46 trainees. Completion rates were 78.2% for surveys and 71.3% for pre/posttests. Pre/posttest scores increased from 44 to 63% during the first site visit and 69.6 to 77.6% during the second. Learners reported a mean 4.81/5 on a standard Likert scale for curriculum satisfaction. Group discussions and surveys highlighted key areas of knowledge growth, important clinical care advances, and identified further needs. Initial sustainability was demonstrated by continued ultrasound sessions led by local graduate trainees.ConclusionA collaborative team including Johns Hopkins PED staff, Solomon Islands’ graduate trainees, and NRH administration initiated a professional education

  1. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices regarding Diarrhea and Cholera following an Oral Cholera Vaccination Campaign in the Solomon Islands.

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    Eleanor Burnett

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In response to a 2011 cholera outbreak in Papua New Guinea, the Government of the Solomon Islands initiated a cholera prevention program which included cholera disease prevention and treatment messaging, community meetings, and a pre-emptive cholera vaccination campaign targeting 11,000 children aged 1-15 years in selected communities in Choiseul and Western Provinces.We conducted a post-vaccination campaign, household-level survey about knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea and cholera in areas targeted and not targeted for cholera vaccination. Respondents in vaccinated areas were more likely to have received cholera education in the previous 6 months (33% v. 9%; p = 0.04, to know signs and symptoms (64% vs. 22%; p = 0.02 and treatment (96% vs. 50%; p = 0.02 of cholera, and to be aware of cholera vaccine (48% vs. 14%; p = 0.02. There were no differences in water, sanitation, and hygiene practices.This pre-emptive OCV campaign in a cholera-naïve community provided a unique opportunity to assess household-level knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding diarrhea, cholera, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH. Our findings suggest that education provided during the vaccination campaign may have reinforced earlier mass messaging about cholera and diarrheal disease in vaccinated communities.

  2. Polymorphisms associated with a tropical climate and root crop diet induce susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in Solomon Islands

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    Naka, Izumi; Yamauchi, Taro; Natsuhara, Kazumi; Eddie, Ricky; Kimura, Ryosuke; Nakazawa, Minato; Ishida, Takafumi; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Ohashi, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The people of the Solomon Islands represent an Austronesian (AN)-speaking population’s adaptation to a humid tropical environment and subsistence of tuberous crops. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of other populations (e.g. the Human Genome Diversity Project [HGDP]) have suggested the existence of genotypes adaptive to ecoregion, diet, and subsistence, and that those genotypes are also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, the incidence of non-communicable diseases has been increasing in the Solomon Islands. In the present study, we explored the association of genotypes adaptive to a tropical environment and tuberous crop diet with metabolic and cardiovascular conditions in rural and urban AN-speaking Melanesian and Micronesian populations of the Solomon Islands. A total of 561 participants were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) potentially associated with a tropical environment (rs174570 and rs2237892) and a tuberous crop diet (rs162036, rs185819, and rs2722425). The results showed that the allele frequencies of the Solomon Islands populations adopted patterns similar to those in populations from other hot, tropical areas with a tuberous crop diet in previous studies. Furthermore, rs162036, rs185819, rs2237892, and rs2722425 were all strongly associated with one or more metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. The derived allele of rs2722425 (i.e. rs2722425-G) was significantly associated with an elevated LDL level (P = 0.000264) even after the significance level was adjusted for multiple testing (i.e., α = 0.0005). Our results suggest that the inhabitants of the Solomon Islands exhibit the effects of the tropical environment and tuberous crop diet on their allele frequencies, and that their susceptibility to metabolic and cardiovascular diseases is therefore considered to be associated with their environment and diet. PMID:28253292

  3. Critical care resources in the Solomon Islands: a cross-sectional survey

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    Westcott Mia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are minimal data available on critical care case-mix, care processes and outcomes in lower and middle income countries (LMICs. The objectives of this paper were to gather data in the Solomon Islands in order to gain a better understanding of common presentations of critical illness, available hospital resources, and what resources would be helpful in improving the care of these patients in the future. Methods This study used a mixed methods approach, including a cross sectional survey of respondents' opinions regarding critical care needs, ethnographic information and qualitative data. Results The four most common conditions leading to critical illness in the Solomon Islands are malaria, diseases of the respiratory system including pneumonia and influenza, diabetes mellitus and tuberculosis. Complications of surgery and trauma less frequently result in critical illness. Respondents emphasised the need for basic critical care resources in LMICs, including equipment such as oximeters and oxygen concentrators; greater access to medications and blood products; laboratory services; staff education; and the need for at least one national critical care facility. Conclusions A large degree of critical illness in LMICs is likely due to inadequate resources for primary prevention and healthcare; however, for patients who fall through the net of prevention, there may be simple therapies and context-appropriate resources to mitigate the high burden of morbidity and mortality. Emphasis should be on the development and acquisition of simple and inexpensive tools rather than complicated equipment, to prevent critical care from unduly diverting resources away from other important parts of the health system.

  4. Assessment of the quality of neonatal care in the Solomon Islands.

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    Tosif, Shidan; Nasi, Titus; Gray, Amy; Sadr-Azodi, Nahad; Ogaoga, Divi; Duke, Trevor

    2017-09-14

    To identify strengths and obstacles for improving the quality of newborn care in the Solomon Islands. Improving the quality of newborn care is a priority in the Sustainable Development Goals and the Action Plan for Healthy Newborns in the Western Pacific. The neonatal mortality rate in the Solomon Islands, a lower-middle-income country, has improved slower than overall child mortality. In 2013, neonatal mortality (13.2/1000) constituted 44% of under-5 deaths (30.1/1000). A cross-sectional study of newborn care in five provincial hospitals using a World Health Organization assessment tool for hospital quality of care. Twelve months of neonatal records of the National Referral Hospital (NRH) labour ward and nursery were audited. Essential medications and basic equipment were generally available. Challenges included workforce shortages and lack of expertise, high costs, organisation and maintenance of equipment, infection control and high rates of stillbirth. Over 12 months at the NRH labour ward, there were 5412 live births, 65 (1.2%) 'fresh' stillbirths and 96 (1.8%) 'macerated' stillbirths. Over the same period, there were an associated 779 nursery admissions, and the main causes of mortality were complications of prematurity, birth asphyxia, congenital abnormalities and sepsis. Total neonatal mortality at NRH was 16 per 1000 live births, and 77% of deaths occurred in the first 3 days of life. Infrastructure limitations, technical maintenance and equipment organisation were obstacles to newborn care. Greater health-care worker knowledge and skills for early essential newborn care, infection control and management of newborn complications is needed. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  5. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands

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    Kekuabata Esau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. The Approach Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Discussion and Conclusions Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health

  6. Environmental change in a modified catchment downstream of a gold mine, Solomon Islands.

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    Albert, Simon; Kvennefors, Charlotte; Jacob, Krista; Kera, Joshua; Grinham, Alistair

    2017-12-01

    Solomon Islands is rapidly developing its natural resource exploitation sector, but data needed to assess consequent environmental impacts are scarce. We assessed catchments surrounding the Gold Ridge gold mine (Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands) and found that extensive changes in river course, and water and sediment quality have occurred downstream of the gold mine since its development. Sediment run-off from exposed areas associated with the mine pit has increased, elevating turbidity (up to 2450 NTU) and metal and arsenic levels, with levels of the latter being up to 0.141 mg/L in surface waters and 265 mg/kg in sediments. An overfull, inoperative tailings storage facility associated with the currently inactive gold mine with fluctuating arsenic levels (up to 0.087 mg/L in the water; 377 mg/kg in the sediment) presents an ongoing threat to the environment. Arsenic, due to its toxicity, appears to be the greatest threat, with sediment and water guideline levels in rivers exceeded 10-fold and exceeded nearly 20-fold in the tailings dam sediments. Despite elevated metal and arsenic content in the area, no toxic inorganic arsenic was found to have bioaccumulated in locally harvested food. In summary, the natural environment surrounding the Gold Ridge mine has been modified substantially and requires an ongoing monitoring program to ensure the ecosystem services of food and water for the local communities continue to be safe. This study informs not only the local area but also provides a microcosm of the broader global challenges facing the regulation of extractive industries in proximity to subsistence communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Solomon Islands Tsunami of 6 February 2013 in the Santa Cruz Islands: Field Survey and Modeling

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    Fritz, Hermann M.; Papantoniou, Antonios; Biukoto, Litea; Albert, Gilly; Wei, Yong

    2014-05-01

    On February 6, 2013 at 01:12:27 UTC (local time: UTC+11), a magnitude Mw 8.0 earthquake occurred 70 km to the west of Ndendo Island (Santa Cruz Island) in the Solomon Islands. The under-thrusting earthquake near a 90° bend, where the Australian plate subducts beneath the Pacific plate generated a locally focused tsunami in the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean. The tsunami claimed the lives of 10 people and injured 15, destroyed 588 houses and partially damaged 478 houses, affecting 4,509 people in 1,066 households corresponding to an estimated 37% of the population of Santa Cruz Island. A multi-disciplinary international tsunami survey team (ITST) was deployed within days of the event to document flow depths, runup heights, inundation distances, sediment and coral boulder depositions, land level changes, damage patterns at various scales, performance of the man-made infrastructure and impact on the natural environment. The 19 to 23 February 2013 ITST covered 30 locations on 4 Islands: Ndendo (Santa Cruz), Tomotu Noi (Lord Howe), Nea Tomotu (Trevanion, Malo) and Tinakula. The reconnaissance completely circling Ndendo and Tinakula logged 240 km by small boat and additionally covered 20 km of Ndendo's hard hit western coastline by vehicle. The collected survey data includes more than 80 tsunami runup and flow depth measurements. The tsunami impact peaked at Manoputi on Ndendo's densely populated west coast with maximum tsunami height exceeding 11 m and local flow depths above ground exceeding 7 m. A fast tide-like positive amplitude of 1 m was recorded at Lata wharf inside Graciosa Bay on Ndendo Island and misleadingly reported in the media as representative tsunami height. The stark contrast between the field observations on exposed coastlines and the Lata tide gauge recording highlights the importance of rapid tsunami reconnaissance surveys. Inundation distance and damage more than 500 m inland were recorded at Lata airport on Ndendo Island. Landslides were

  8. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands.

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    Natuzzi, Eileen S; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-08-03

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Social Learning through Participatory Integrated Catchment Risk Assessment in the Solomon Islands

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    Suzanne Hoverman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries a social learning approach has been shown to support Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM by fostering stakeholders' understanding of system complexity, recognition of mutual dependence, appreciation of others' perspectives, and development of the capacity to work together and to create mutual trust. Much less is known about social learning's potential in less developed small island states, particularly postconflict island states, where integration must navigate prescriptive management, limited resources, widely differing world views, a history of adversarial relationships, and unsuccessful attempts at government-community collaboration. This paper analyzes the transformative aspects of a social learning experience that occurred during research facilitating participatory integrated catchment management in the Pacific. The study elicited community and expert knowledge to create systems understanding to generate and analyze complex scenarios for integrated catchment risk assessment in the Kongulai catchment, Solomon Islands. Separate sequenced and then combined discussions led to facilitated exploration of others' subjective assessment of catchment risks and management options. Issues of transparency, trust, accountability, and mutual responsibility were explored in carefully created discursive spaces, assisted by the immediacy of personal contact and the absence of complex bureaucratic structures. Despite historical difficulties, through the use of bridging individuals, participants were generally able to transcend the constraints of their individual knowledge cultures, expand awareness and appreciation of the complexity of human-environment systems for IWRM, and envisage new opportunities for productively working together in integrated catchment management.

  10. Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013.

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    Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet; Nilles, Eric

    2014-11-01

    On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands' population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities.

  11. Hospital visits due to domestic violence from 1994 to 2011 in the Solomon Islands: a descriptive case series.

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    Farrell, Penny C; Negin, Joel; Houasia, Patrick; Munamua, Alex B; Leon, David P; Rimon, Mia; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C

    2014-09-01

    The Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of domestic violence in the world. This paper is a descriptive case series of all cases of domestic violence presenting to the Solomon Islands National Referral Hospital (NRH) over 18 years. Data were routinely collected from a database of all patients who were treated by NRH general surgery and orthopedic clinicians between 1994 and 2011, inclusive. The total number of cases in the injury database as a result of domestic violence was 387. The average number of cases in the database per year from 1994 to 2011 was 20. There were 6% more female patients (205 of 387; 53%) than male (182 of 387; 47%). Of the cases in which the perpetrator of the violence against a female patient was specified (111 of 205 female cases), 74% (82 of 111) were the patient's husband. Only 5% (5 of 111) of cases in females were inflicted by another female. This analysis provides the best available information on domestic violence cases requiring a visit to a tertiary hospital in a Pacific Island in the specified time period and is undoubtedly an under-estimate of the total cases of domestic violence. Preventing and treating domestic violence in the Solomon Islands and in the Pacific is an important challenge and there is a significant role for secondary and tertiary health services in screening for and preventing domestic violence.

  12. Community perceptions of mental health needs: a qualitative study in the Solomon Islands

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    Silove Derrick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial and mental health needs in the aftermath of conflict and disaster have attracted substantial attention. In the Solomon Islands, the conceptualisation of mental health, for several decades regarded by policy makers as primarily a health issue, has broadened and been incorporated into the national development and social policy agendas, reflecting recognition of the impact of conflict and rapid social change on the psychosocial wellbeing of the community as a whole. We sought to understand how mental health and psychosocial wellbeing were seen at the community level, the extent to which these issues were identified as being associated with periods of 'tension', violence and instability, and the availability of traditional approaches and Ministry of Health services to address these problems. Methods This article reports the findings of qualitative research conducted in a rural district on the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Key informant interviews were conducted with community leaders, and focus groups were held with women, men and young people. Wellbeing was defined broadly. Results Problems of common concern included excessive alcohol and marijuana use, interpersonal violence and abuse, teenage pregnancy, and lack of respect and cooperation. Troubled individuals and their families sought help for mental problems from various sources including chiefs, church leaders and traditional healers and, less often, trauma support workers, health clinic staff and police. Substance-related problems presented special challenges, as there were no traditional solutions at the individual or community level. Severe mental illness was also a challenge, with few aware that a community mental health service existed. Contrary to our expectations, conflict-related trauma was not identified as a major problem by the community who were more concerned about the economic and social sequelae of the conflict. Conclusion

  13. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

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    Simon Albert

    Full Text Available Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort, and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  14. Establishing an early warning alert and response network following the Solomon Islands tsunami in 2013

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    Bilve, Augustine; Nogareda, Francisco; Joshua, Cynthia; Ross, Lester; Betcha, Christopher; Durski, Kara; Fleischl, Juliet

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Problem On 6 February 2013, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake generated a tsunami that struck the Santa Cruz Islands, Solomon Islands, killing 10 people and displacing over 4700. Approach A post-disaster assessment of the risk of epidemic disease transmission recommended the implementation of an early warning alert and response network (EWARN) to rapidly detect, assess and respond to potential outbreaks in the aftermath of the tsunami. Local setting Almost 40% of the Santa Cruz Islands’ population were displaced by the disaster, and living in cramped temporary camps with poor or absent sanitation facilities and insufficient access to clean water. There was no early warning disease surveillance system. Relevant changes By 25 February, an EWARN was operational in five health facilities that served 90% of the displaced population. Eight priority diseases or syndromes were reported weekly; unexpected health events were reported immediately. Between 25 February and 19 May, 1177 target diseases or syndrome cases were reported. Seven alerts were investigated. No sustained transmission or epidemics were identified. Reporting compliance was 85%. The EWARN was then transitioned to the routine four-syndrome early warning disease surveillance system. Lesson learnt It was necessary to conduct a detailed assessment to evaluate the risk and potential impact of serious infectious disease outbreaks, to assess whether and how enhanced early warning disease surveillance should be implemented. Local capacities and available resources should be considered in planning EWARN implementation. An EWARN can be an opportunity to establish or strengthen early warning disease surveillance capabilities. PMID:25378746

  15. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Simon; Aswani, Shankar; Fisher, Paul L; Albert, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  16. High Rates of Asymptomatic, Sub-microscopic Plasmodium vivax Infection and Disappearing Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in an Area of Low Transmission in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltmann, Andreea; Darcy, Andrew W; Harris, Ivor; Koepfli, Cristian; Lodo, John; Vahi, Ventis; Piziki, David; Shanks, G Dennis; Barry, Alyssa E; Whittaker, Maxine; Kazura, James W; Mueller, Ivo

    2015-05-01

    Solomon Islands is intensifying national efforts to achieve malaria elimination. A long history of indoor spraying with residual insecticides, combined recently with distribution of long lasting insecticidal nets and artemether-lumefantrine therapy, has been implemented in Solomon Islands. The impact of these interventions on local endemicity of Plasmodium spp. is unknown. In 2012, a cross-sectional survey of 3501 residents of all ages was conducted in Ngella, Central Islands Province, Solomon Islands. Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and light microscopy (LM). Presence of gametocytes was determined by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). By qPCR, 468 Plasmodium spp. infections were detected (prevalence = 13.4%; 463 P. vivax, five mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax, no P. ovale or P. malariae) versus 130 by LM (prevalence = 3.7%; 126 P. vivax, three P. falciparum and one P. falciparum/P. vivax). The prevalence of P. vivax infection varied significantly among villages (range 3.0-38.5%, p<0.001) and across age groups (5.3-25.9%, p<0.001). Of 468 P. vivax infections, 72.9% were sub-microscopic, 84.5% afebrile and 60.0% were both sub-microscopic and afebrile. Local residency, low education level of the household head and living in a household with at least one other P. vivax infected individual increased the risk of P. vivax infection. Overall, 23.5% of P. vivax infections had concurrent gametocytaemia. Of all P. vivax positive samples, 29.2% were polyclonal by MS16 and msp1F3 genotyping. All five P. falciparum infections were detected in residents of the same village, carried the same msp2 allele and four were positive for P. falciparum gametocytes. P. vivax infection remains endemic in Ngella, with the majority of cases afebrile and below the detection limit of LM. P. falciparum has nearly disappeared, but the risk of re-introductions and outbreaks due to travel to nearby islands

  17. A new species of Abyssocladia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Poecilosclerida, Cladorhizidae) and other carnivorous sponges from the far eastern Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacelet, Jean; Kelly, Michelle

    2014-06-16

    Two species, one each of Abyssocladia Lévi, 1964, and Asbestopluma Topsent, 1901, are recorded from the far eastern Solomon Islands for the first time. Abyssocladia lakwollii sp. nov. is characterized by the pedunculate disc-shape of the body, the unusually large size of the isochelae I microscleres, and by the shape of the cleistochelae with crossed central teeth. Asbestopluma (A.) desmophora Kelly & Vacelet, 2011, first described from a seamount on Macquarie Ridge (Australia EEZ) and eastern waters to the north and south of New Zealand, is also recorded from the far eastern Solomon Islands. The specimens differ only slightly from their southern counterparts in dimensions of some spicules, and in the ornamentation detail of the basal teeth of the large and small anisochelae. 

  18. The accuracy of clinical malaria case reporting at primary health care facilities in Honiara, Solomon Islands

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    Kunimitsu Ayano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of malaria case reporting is challenging due to restricted human and material resources in many countries. The reporting often depends on the clinical diagnosis because of the scarcity of microscopic examinations. Particularly, clinical malaria case reporting by primary health care facilities (local clinics, which constitutes the baseline data of surveillance, has never previously been sufficiently evaluated. In order to improve the malaria reporting system to the level required to eventually eliminate this disease, this study estimates the gaps between the records of clinics and government statistics regarding the incidence of clinical malaria, and then also examines some factors that might explain the data discrepancy, including such variables as clinic staffing and record keeping. Methods All medical records for outpatients in 2007, handwritten by nurses, were collected from local clinics in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The all-monthly clinical malaria cases were then recalculated. The corresponding monthly data in official statistics were provided by the government. Next, in order to estimate any data discrepancy, the ratio of the cases recorded at clinics to the cases reported to the government was determined on the monthly basis. Finally, the associations between the monthly discrepancy and other variables were evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. Results The mean data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics was 21.2% (n = 96. Significant associations were observed between the discrepancy and the average number of patients (coefficient: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.07, illegible handwriting (coefficient: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15, the use of tally sheets (coefficient:-0.38, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.22, and the clinic level (coefficient:-0.48, 95%CI:-0.89,-0.06. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate the huge data discrepancy between the records of clinics and

  19. The contribution of nearshore fish aggregating devices (FADs) to food security and livelihoods in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Joelle A; Beare, Doug; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Albert, Simon; Warren, Regon; Teri, James; Siota, Faye; Andrew, Neil L

    2014-01-01

    Fish aggregating devices, or FADs, are used widely in developing countries to concentrate pelagic fish, making them easier to catch. Nearshore FADs anchored close to the coast allow access for rural communities, but despite their popularity among policy makers, there is a dearth of empirical analysis of their contributions to the supply of fish and to fisheries management. In this paper we demonstrate that nearshore FADs increased the supply of fish to four communities in Solomon Islands. Estimated total annual fish catch ranged from 4300 to 12,000 kg across the study villages, with nearshore FADs contributing up to 45% of the catch. While it is clear that FADs increased the supply of fish, FAD catch rates were not consistently higher than other fishing grounds. Villages with limited access to diverse or productive fishing grounds seemingly utilized FADs to better effect. Villagers believed FADs increased household income and nutrition, as well as providing a source of fish for community events. FADs were also perceived to increase intra-household conflict and reduce fishers' participation in community activities. FADs need to be placed within a broader rural development context and treated as another component in the diversified livelihoods of rural people; as with other livelihood options they bring trade-offs and risks.

  20. Social Dynamics Shaping the Diffusion of Sustainable Aquaculture Innovations in the Solomon Islands

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    Jessica Blythe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainably feeding the world’s growing population represents one of our most significant challenges. Aquaculture is well positioned to make contributions towards this challenge. Yet, the translation of aquaculture production innovations into benefits for rural communities is constrained by a limited understanding of the social dynamics that influence the adoption of new agricultural practices. In this paper, we investigate the factors that shape the spread of small-scale tilapia aquaculture through rural Solomon Islands. Based on diffusion of innovation theory, we focus on three potentially influential factors: (i socio-economic characteristics of adopters; (ii the role of opinion leaders; and (iii characteristics of the innovation. We find that farmers who were wealthier, older, and had more diverse livelihoods were most likely to be adopters. Opinion leaders facilitated the adoption of tilapia aquaculture, but lacked the capacity to provide fundamental knowledge necessary to realize its potential benefits to food security. The paper argues for more explicit attention to the poorest households and makes the case for a deeper engagement with the broader social and institutional contexts that shape the adoption process. Aquaculture interventions that account for these social dynamics are critical for translating production innovations into sustainable benefits to rural communities.

  1. Barking up the wrong tree: injuries due to falls from trees in Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negin, Joel; Vizintin, Pavle; Houasia, Patrick; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C

    2014-12-11

    To investigate tree-related injuries in Solomon Islands by the types of trees involved, who is affected and the types of injuries caused. Descriptive case series of all cases of injuries related to trees presenting to the National Referral Hospital in Honiara from 1994 to 2011. Data were collected by the attending clinician using a Trauma Epidemiology form, which provides information on age, sex, cause of injury and type of fracture. Number of injuries by tree type, sex and age. Of the 7651 injuries in the database, 1107 (14%) were caused by falls from trees. Falls from coconut trees led to the highest number of injuries, followed by falls from mango, guava, apple and nut trees. Overall, 85% of injuries occurred in individuals aged trees, 77% of patients were aged tree types. Overall, 71% of injuries occurred among males. Of all injuries, 92% were fractures, 3% were dislocations and 5% were non-fracture, non-dislocation injuries. The arm (including wrist, elbow and hand) was the most common location of injury across all tree types. Distal radius fractures in the forearm were particularly common, as were ulna fractures. While mangos and guavas are undeniably delicious, the quest for their flesh can be hazardous. Children will always climb trees, but the search for food among children in lower-income settings may lead to higher rates of injury.

  2. An outbreak investigation of congenital rubella syndrome in Solomon Islands, 2013

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    Kara N Durski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: During May 2012, a rubella outbreak was declared in Solomon Islands. A suspected case of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS was reported from one hospital 11 months later in 2013. This report describes the subsequent CRS investigation, findings and measures implemented. Methods: Prospective CRS surveillance was conducted at the newborn nursery, paediatric and post-natal wards, and the paediatric cardiology and ophthalmology clinics of the study hospital from April to July 2013. Retrospective case finding by reviewing medical records was also undertaken to identify additional cases born between January and March 2013 for the same wards and clinics. Cases were identified using established World Health Organization case definitions for CRS. Results: A total of 13 CRS cases were identified, including two laboratory-confirmed, four clinically confirmed and seven suspected cases. Five CRS cases were retrospectively identified, including four suspected and one clinically confirmed case. There was no geospatial clustering of residences. The mothers of the cases were aged between 20 and 36 years. Three of the six mothers available for interview recalled an acute illness with rash during the first trimester of pregnancy. Discussion: Additional CRS cases not captured in this investigation are likely. Caring for CRS cases is a challenge in resource-poor settings. Rubella vaccination is safe and effective and can prevent the serious consequences of CRS. Well-planned and funded vaccination activities can prevent future CRS cases.

  3. Nobody asked the mother: women and maternity on Simbo, western Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dureau, C

    1993-09-01

    This article's focus is on the role of mothers in Simbo, one of the New Georgia islands in the western Solomon Islands. Mother's role is examined from the standpoint of the actual experiences of motherhood and mother's perceptions and reactions to child rearing, child care, burdensome tasks, and social participation. Anthropological studies emphasize non-Western notions of maternity or romanticize the primitive. Obscured in the process is who these women really are. Western feminist accounts of Third World women emphasize the oppression and uniformity of the "natural" mother. This characterization of Simbo women is presented as a single non-Western view and is unrelated to a global vision. Simbo women as mothers feel oppressed and are envious of Western notions of parenting, yet at the same time feel that Western child rearing deprives the child. Maternity is a state of ambivalence, where women feel both love for and oppression by children, spouses, and other women. The tasks and responsibilities of childbearing are more difficult because of increased fertility and changes in social practices. Women without children are viewed with sympathy and mild condescension. Changes in social practices are in part due to the presence of missionaries after 1903 and the over 200 year involvement of the islands in world trading. The most significant impact on women post-Christianity is the change from the emphasis on female-child relationships to male-female relationships. Pre-Christianity, marriage ceremonies stressed equality of spouses and their kin groups. New customs emphasize brideprice and the husband's authority over women's bodies. The change in power affects fertility levels, child care, women's work, and contraception. Men today do less labor relative to women and, when husbands are absent due to temporary labor migration, women may not have any help. The nuclear family is responsible for all labor. Women specifically tend the gardens and house, care for children, and

  4. The case for investing in family planning in the Pacific: costs and benefits of reducing unmet need for contraception in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Elissa C; Mackesy-Buckley, Sean; Subramaniam, Sumi; Demmke, Andreas; Latu, Rufina; Robertson, Annette Sachs; Tiban, Kabwea; Tokon, Apisai; Luchters, Stanley

    2013-06-10

    Unmet need for family planning in the Pacific is among the highest in the world. Better understanding of required investments and associated benefits of increased access to family planning in the Pacific may assist prioritisation and funding. We modelled the costs and associated health, demographic and economic impacts of reducing unmet need for family planning between 2010-2025 in Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands. Baseline data were obtained from census reports, Demographic and Health Surveys, and UN agency reports. Using a demographic modelling program we compared a scenario of "no change in unmet need" with two distinct scenarios: 1) all family planning needs met by 2020; and, 2) all needs met by 2050. Meeting family planning needs by 2020 would increase prevalence of modern contraception in 2025 from 36.8 to 65.5% in Vanuatu and 28.5 to 37.6% in the Solomon Islands. Between 2010-2025 the average annual number of unintended pregnancies would decline by 68% in Vanuatu and 50% in the Solomon Islands, and high-risk births would fall by more than 20%, averting 2,573 maternal and infant deaths. Total fertility rates would fall from 4.1 to 2.2 in Vanuatu and 3.5 in the Solomon Islands, contributing to slowed population growth and lower dependency ratios. The direct cost of reducing unmet need by 2020 was estimated to be $5.19 million for Vanuatu and $3.36 million for the Solomon Islands between 2010-2025. Preventing unintended pregnancies would save $112 million in health and education expenditure. In small island developing states such as Vanuatu and the Solomon Islands, increasing investment in family planning would contribute to improved maternal and infant outcomes and substantial public sector savings.

  5. Strengthening capacity for local evidence to inform local responders to HIV in a remote Solomon Island health service

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    David MacLaren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Documenting specific knowledge and attitudes about HIV in the culturally diverse nation of Solomon Islands is essential to inform locally targeted public health responses. As part of a large capacity-strengthening project at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands, researchers, using a ‘learn-by-doing’ process, worked with participants in public health research methods. Methods: Overall, 43 people attended research capacity building workshops in 2011; eight joined the HIV study group. A cross-sectional survey including semi-structured interviews on HIV was conducted by the group. In February 2014, a hospital administrator was interviewed about how the 2011 study informed local HIV responses. Results: Of the 53 survey participants, 64% self-assessed as having little or no HIV knowledge, but 90% knew HIV could be transmitted between men and women during sex. Less than 50% knew HIV could be transmitted between two men having sex, 45% thought HIV could be transmitted by mosquitoes and 55% agreed condoms help protect from HIV. Most participants reported negative attitudes towards people with HIV. Three years later the health administrator reported ad hoc responses to HIV because of low HIV prevalence, increasing noncommunicable diseases, staff turnover and resource shortages. Discussion: This HIV study was used to strengthen research skills in local health professionals and community members in Solomon Islands. It showed that community members require accurate information about HIV transmission and that entrenched stigma is an issue. Although results provided local evidence for local response, ongoing health system challenges and little local HIV transmission meant HIV services remain rudimentary.

  6. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the Gallego Volcanic Field, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific and geotectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, M. G.; Haldane, M. I.; Smith, D. J.; Billy, D.; Jordan, N. J.

    2011-08-01

    The Upper Miocene to present day Gallego Volcanic Field (GVF) is located in northwest Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, SW Pacific, and potentially includes the offshore Savo volcano. The GVF is a multi-centred complex covering an area of ~ 800 km 2 on Guadalcanal and a further ~ 30 km 2 on the island of Savo, north of west Guadalcanal. GVF volcanism is characterised by effusive eruptions of lava, intrusion of sub-volcanic plutons, as well as pyroclastic flow and fall deposits dominated by block and ash flow deposits. Geochemical analysis of a representative suite of samples from the GVF demonstrates that the GVF comprise largely a 'main suite' of basalts to andesites and minor trachyandesites. The predominant mineralogy of the GVF comprises plagioclase, amphibole, clinopyroxene and magnetite-ilmenite. Associated with the 'main suite' are cognate nodules composed of hornblendite, gabbros, and clinopyroxenite. Interpretation of major and trace element geochemistry and petrographic studies suggests that fractionation was dominated by early clinopyroxene, and later amphibole + clinopyroxene + minor plagioclase. Geochemical features such as the incompatibility of Sr suggest that plagioclase largely crystallised en-masse late in the fractionation sequence. The presence of amphibole and late fractionation of plagioclase is suggestive of derivation from initially water-rich magmas. The region is characterised by strong geographically-related geochemical variations as evidenced by the Woodlark (and Manus) basins: basalts become more arc-like within the ocean basins with decreasing distance to the subducting trench. The GVF-Savo volcanoes are spatially and geochemically affected by deep N-S fractures that show some evidence of sympathetic geochemical variations with distance from the trench (e.g. Sr/Y ratios). Comparison with a range of international data for Th/Nb vs Pb/Nb and Dy/Yb vs SiO 2 indicate that: amphibole was indeed a strong controlling phase on magmatic evolution

  7. Dispute Resolutions Sea Border Between the Province of Bangka Belitung Islands in Riau Islands Province

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    Djoko Sulistyono

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted and based on the existence of “persistence” claims of the province of Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands province that seven islands groups, which is disputes region territory. Therefore, this study would be likely to provide a solution in resolving the dispute between the two provinces. This study uses qualitative methods with descriptive analytical approach. This method is used, because the phenomenon of inter-regional constellation boundary disputes (including sea boundary is considered to be multidimensional. The data were taken from both the research field of primary data and secondary data, conducted through in-depth interviews with selected key informants and field observations, and combined with the study of literature through a search of the authentic evidence disputes the relevant past. Government (the Ministry of Home Affairs should immediately resolves disputes in the sea boundary segment cluster seven islands involving the provincial government Bangka Belitung islands and Riau islands provincial government with reference to the four approaches, namely: a the historical side; b juridical side; c side of the rule; d the social side of the culture. And coupled with the desire not to deny the people who live on the islands so expect to be appreciated by the government well.

  8. The Air Commander in the Solomon Islands Campaign: Unrivaled Unity of Effort in Joint Air Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    AFB, AL. 49 William L. McGee and Samuel Eliot Morison, The Solomons Campaigns, 1942-1943, from Guadalcanal to Bougainville: Pacific War Turning Point... McGee and Morison, The Solomons Campaigns, 133-134. 52 Eric M. Bergerud, Fire in the Sky: The Air War in the South Pacific (Boulder, CO: Westview...target. In an hour, the gasoline dump was on fire, parked planes were ablaze all over the field, and an ammunition depot was going up in smoke .29

  9. Y-chromosome diversity is inversely associated with language affiliation in paired Austronesian- and Papuan-speaking communities from Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Murray P; Mirazón Lahr, Marta

    2006-01-01

    The Solomon Islands lie in the center of Island Melanesia, bordered to the north by the Bismarck Archipelago and to the south by Vanuatu. The nation's half-million inhabitants speak around 70 languages from two unrelated language groups: Austronesian, a language family widespread in the Pacific and closely related to languages spoken in Island Southeast Asia, and "East Papuan", generally defined as non-Austronesian and distantly related to the extremely diverse Papuan languages of New Guinea. Despite the archipelago's presumed role as a staging post for the settlement of Remote Oceania, genetic research on Solomon Island populations is sparse. We collected paired samples from two regions that have populations speaking Austronesian and Papuan languages, respectively. Here we present Y-chromosome data from these samples, the first from Solomon Islands. We detected five Y-chromosome lineages: M-M106, O-M175, K-M9*, K-M230, and the extremely rare clade, K1-M177. Y-chromosome lineages from Solomon Islands fall within the range of other Island Melanesian populations but display markedly lower haplogroup diversity. From a broad Indo-Pacific perspective, Y-chromosome lineages show partial association with the distribution of language groups: O-M175 is associated spatially with Austronesian-speaking areas, whereas M-M106 broadly correlates with the distribution of Papuan languages. However, no relationship between Y-chromosome lineages and language affiliation was observed on a small scale within Solomon Islands. This pattern may result from a sampling strategy that targeted small communities, where individual Y-chromosome lineages can be fixed or swept to extinction by genetic drift or favored paternal exogamy. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 18:35-50, 2006. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Deformation Associated With the M8.1 April 1, 2007 Solomon Islands Earthquake Observed With InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelung, F.; Baker, S.

    2008-05-01

    On April 1, 2007, an Mw 8.1 earthquake occurred in the Solomon Islands located in the southwest Pacific. The earthquake resulted in considerable ground displacement and generated a tsunami that caused further damage on the island communities. Phased-Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) data onboard the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Advance Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) was used to detect the co- seismic deformation associated with the earthquake. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) analysis of images acquired before and after the earthquake provided measurements of the spatial extent and magnitude of deformation. To gain a better understanding of the fault geometry and earthquake parameters, we generated fault models using inverse modeling of the observed interferograms.

  11. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara Solomon Islands, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, Aneley; Baekalia, Margaret; Panda, Nixon; Lee, Alice; Puiahi, Elliot; Khan, Sabiha; Tahani, Donald; Manongi, Doris

    2016-12-08

    To determine the seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in Honiara, Solomon Islands. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in seven area health centers in Honiara. From March to June 2015, identification of eligible pregnant women in each site was conducted using systematic random sampling technique. A total of 243 pregnant women who gave written informed consent were enrolled. Standardized tool was used to record demographics, obstetric history and serology results. HBsAg and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were tested using point-of-care rapid diagnostic test. All HBsAg positive samples were verified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of participants was 26 ± 6 years. The overall hepatitis HBsAg prevalence was 13.8% with higher rate (22%) reported in women between 30-34 years of age. Majority of HBsAg positive participants were Melanesians (29 out for 33). None of the pregnant women in the 15-19 years and ≥ 40 years tested positive for HBsAg. There was no statistically significant difference in HBsAg prevalence by age, ethnicity, education and residential location. The overall HBeAg seroprevalence was 36.7%. Women between 20-24 years of age had the highest rate of 54.5%. Low level of knowledge about hepatitis B vaccination was reputed. Overall, 54.6% of participants were not aware of their hepatitis B vaccination status and only 65.2% of mothers reported their child had been vaccinated. Hepatitis B is a disease of public health importance in Solomon Islands and emphasize the need for integrated preventative interventions for its control.

  12. At the end of the line: independent overwater colonizations of the Solomon Islands by a hyperdiverse trans-Wallacean lizard lineage (Cyrtodactylus: Gekkota: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M.; Travers, Scott L; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Pikacha, Patrick; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    The islands of East Melanesia have generated key insights into speciation processes and community assembly. However, when and how these islands began to form, emerge and accumulate endemic taxa remains poorly understood. Here, we show that two divergent lineages within the world’s most diverse genus of geckos (Cyrtodactylus) occur in the Solomon Islands. One large-bodied species is nested within a radiation from far eastern New Guinea, with inferred colonization, spread and diversification since the late Miocene. In contrast, a newly sampled and relatively small species with a restricted distribution on Guadalcanal Island is a relict that diverged from extant congeners around the early to mid-Miocene. Similar Miocene divergences from extralimital relatives have been inferred for other endemic bird, bat and lizard lineages in East Melanesia. In contrast, across all lineages (including divergent relictual lineages), there is little evidence for endemic in situ diversification within East Melanesia predating the Pliocene (especially in the Solomon Islands). While some East Melanesian endemic lineages may have origins on progenitor islands during the Miocene or even earlier, current evidence suggests the in situ diversification and assembly of extant biological communities commenced around the end of the Miocene.

  13. Winners and losers as mangrove, coral and seagrass ecosystems respond to sea-level rise in Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Simon; Saunders, Megan I.; Roelfsema, Chris M.; Leon, Javier X.; Johnstone, Elizabeth; Mackenzie, Jock R.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Grinham, Alistair R.; Phinn, Stuart R.; Duke, Norman C.; Mumby, Peter J.; Kovacs, Eva; Woodroffe, Colin D.

    2017-09-01

    A 2007 earthquake in the western Solomon Islands resulted in a localised subsidence event in which sea level (relative to the previous coastal settings) rose approximately 30-70 cm, providing insight into impacts of future rapid changes to sea level on coastal ecosystems. Here, we show that increasing sea level by 30-70 cm can have contrasting impacts on mangrove, seagrass and coral reef ecosystems. Coral reef habitats were the clear winners with a steady lateral growth from 2006-2014, yielding a 157% increase in areal coverage over seven years. Mangrove ecosystems, on the other hand, suffered the largest impact through a rapid dieback of 35% (130 ha) of mangrove forest in the study area after subsidence. These forests, however, had partially recovered seven years after the earthquake albeit with a different community structure. The shallow seagrass ecosystems demonstrated the most dynamic response to relative shifts in sea level with both losses and gains in areal extent at small scales of 10-100 m. The results of this study emphasize the importance of considering the impacts of sea-level rise within a complex landscape in which winners and losers may vary over time and space.

  14. Responses of algal communities to gradients in herbivore biomass and water quality in Marovo Lagoon, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, S.; Udy, J.; Tibbetts, I. R.

    2008-03-01

    Settlement tiles were used to characterise and quantify coral reef associated algal communities along water quality and herbivory gradients from terrestrial influenced near shore sites to oceanic passage sites in Marovo Lagoon, the Solomon Islands. After 6 months, settlement tile communities from inshore reefs were dominated by high biomass algal turfs (filamentous algae and cyanobacteria) whereas tiles located on offshore reefs were characterised by a mixed low biomass community of calcareous crustose algae, fleshy crustose algae and bare tile. The exclusion of macrograzers, via caging of tiles, on the outer reef sites resulted in the development of an algal turf community similar to that observed on inshore reefs. Caging on the inshore reef tiles had a limited impact on community composition or biomass. Water quality and herbivorous fish biomass were quantified at each site to elucidate factors that might influence algal community structure across the lagoon. Herbivore biomass was the dominant driver of algal community structure. Algal biomass on the other hand was controlled by both herbivory and water quality (particularly dissolved nutrients). This study demonstrates that algal communities on settlement tiles are an indicator capable of integrating the impacts of water quality and herbivory over a small spatial scale (kilometres) and short temporal scale (months), where other environmental drivers (current, light, regional variability) are constant.

  15. Self-Recruitment in the Bumphead Parrotfish Under Different Levels of Fishing Pressure in the Solomon Islands

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge in the spatial patterns of fish larval dispersal is crucial for the establishment of a sustainable management of fisheries and species conservation. Direct quantification of larval dispersal is a challenging task due to the difficulty associated with larval tracking in the vast ocean. However, genetic approaches can be used to estimate it. Here, I employed genetic markers (microsatellites) as a proxy to determine dispersal patterns and self-recruitment levels using parentage analysis in the bumphead parrotfish (Bolbometapon muricatum) in the Solomon Islands. Tissue samples of 3924 fish (1692 juveniles, 1121 males and 1111 females) were collected from a spear-fishery at the Kia District in Santa Isabel Island. The samples come from three distinct zones with different fishing pressure histories (lightly fished, recently fished, and heavily fished). The mean dispersal distance estimated for the bumphead parrotfish was 36.5 Km (range 4 – 78 Km) and the genetic diversity for the population studied was low in comparison with other reef fishes. The parentage analysis identified 68 parent–offspring relationships, which represents a self-recruitment level of almost 50 %. Most of the recruits were produced in the zone that recently started to be fished and most of these recruits dispersed to the heavily fished zone. Comparisons of genetic diversity and relatedness among adults and juveniles suggested the potential occurrence of sweepstakes reproductive success. These results suggest that management measures must be taken straightaway to assure the sustainability of the spear-fishery. These measures may imply the ban on juveniles fishing in the heavily fished zone and the larger adults in the recently fished zone. Overall, the population dynamics of the studied system seem to be strongly shaped by self-recruitment and sweepstakes reproduction events.

  16. Preparedness of Pre-Service Teachers for Inclusive Education in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Simi, Janine; Forlin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Recent policy changes in the Pacific Islands have seen a strong emphasis on implementing inclusive education. Preparing teachers for this change in education will be essential if they are to have the knowledge, skills and understandings so that they can become inclusive practitioners. Pre-service teacher education will play a critical role in…

  17. A marked decline in the incidence of malaria in a remote region of Malaita, Solomon Islands, 2008 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellen Oloifana-Polosovai

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Setting: Atoifi Adventist Hospital (AAH, Solomon Islands, the only hospital in the East Kwaio region. Objective: To use routine surveillance data to assess the trends in malaria from 2008 to 2013. Design: Descriptive study of records from (1 AAH laboratory malaria records; (2 admissions to AAH for malaria; and (3 malaria treatments from outpatient records. Results: AAH examined 35 608 blood films and diagnosed malaria in 4443 samples comprised of 2667 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf and 1776 Plasmodium vivax (Pv. Between 2008 and 2013 the total number of malaria cases detected annually decreased by 86.5%, Pf by 96.7% and Pv by 65.3%. The ratio of Pf to Pv reversed in 2010 from 2.06 in 2008 to 0.19 in 2013. For 2013, Pf showed a seasonal pattern with no cases diagnosed in four months. From 2008 to 2013 admissions in AAH for malaria declined by 90.8%, and malaria mortality fell from 54 per 100 000 to zero. The annual parasite index (API for 2008 and 2013 was 195 and 24, respectively. Village API has identified a group of villages with higher malaria incidence rates. Conclusion: The decline in malaria cases in the AAH catchment area has been spectacular, particularly for Pf. This was supported by three sources of hospital surveillance data (laboratory, admissions and treatment records. The decline was associated with the use of artemisinin-based combined therapy and improved vertical social capital between the AAH and the local communities. Calculating village-specific API has highlighted which villages need to be targeted by the AAH malaria control team.

  18. Genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 (Gastropoda, Conoidea: Morphological and molecular studies, with the description of five new species from the Solomon Islands and New Caledonia

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    Manuel J. Tenorio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956 is reviewed. The morphological characters of the shell, radular tooth and internal anatomy of species in Profundiconus are discussed. In particular, we studied Profundiconus material collected by dredging in deep water during different scientific campaigns carried out in the Solomon Islands, Madagascar, Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia. We reconstructed a phylogeny of 55 individuals based on partial mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences. The phylogeny shows several clades containing individuals that do not match any of the known species of Profundiconus based on their shell and radular morphologies, and are introduced here as five new species: Profundiconus maribelae sp. nov. from the Solomon Islands; P. virginiae sp. nov. from Chesterfield Plateau (New Caledonia; P. barazeri sp. nov. from Chesterfield Plateau and the Grand Passage area (New Caledonia; P. puillandrei sp. nov. from Norfolk Ridge (New Caledonia, Kermadec Ridge (New Zealand and possibly Balut Island (Philippines; and P. neocaledonicus sp. nov. from New Caledonia. Furthermore, Profundiconus teramachii forma neotorquatus (da Motta, 1984 is raised to specific status as P. neotorquatus (da Motta, 1984.

  19. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF THE EARTHQUAKE (MW 8.1 AND TSUNAMI OF APRIL 1, 2007, IN THE SOLOMON ISLANDS, SOUTHWESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN

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    Michael A. Fisher

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available On April 1, 2007, a destructive earthquake (Mw 8.1 and tsunami struck the central Solomon Islands arc in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The earthquake had a thrust-fault focal mechanism and occurred at shallow depth (between 15 km and 25 km beneath the island arc. The combined effects of the earthquake and tsunami caused dozens of fatalities and thousands remain without shelter. We present a preliminary analysis of the Mw-8.1 earthquake and resulting tsunami. Multichannel seismic- reflection data collected during 1984 show the geologic structure of the arc’s frontal prism within the earthquake’s rupture zone. Modeling tsunami-wave propagation indicates that some of the islands are so close to the earthquake epicenter that they were hard hit by tsunami waves as soon as 5 min. after shaking began, allowing people scant time to react.

  20. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

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    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  1. Spatial distribution of plankton in Riau islands province, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayu, I. P.; Pratiwi, N. T. M.; Iswantari, A.; Hariyadi, S.; Mulyawati, D.; Subhan, B.; Arafat, D.; Santoso, P.; Sastria, M.

    2017-01-01

    Riau Islands which is located at 4ºLU - 1ºLS and 104ºBT - 107ºBT, consist of around 3200 islands. It has high marine biodiversity, especially micro-plankton. Biodiversity of marine phytoplankton is usually dominated by diatom and zooplankton by micro-crustacean and early stage of marine biota. Nowadays, biodiversity of micro-plankton is an important study to identify their origin and potential as alien and invasive species. The aim of this research was to determine the biodiversity of marine micro-plankton in Riau Islands. This research was conducted in 14 small islands (Karanggerih, Pemping, Panjang, Melur, Palantuah, Dendun, Mantang, Bunut, Kelong, Mercusuar, Tokong Hiu Kecil, Tokong Hiu Besar, Karimun, Penyengat) in Riau Islands Province. Samples of micro-plankton were collected from surface water using plankton net. Samples were observed under light microscope and identified morphologically. Biodiversity index was calculated. There were found 20-34 taxa of phytoplankton and 10-17 taxa of zooplankton in all sites. Phytoplankton was dominated by Bacillariophyceae group and zooplankton by Crustacean and Protozoa groups. This result is expected for biodiversity bank information and further research.

  2. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.

  3. Moving towards Universal Health Coverage through the Development of Integrated Service Delivery Packages for Primary Health Care in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Whiting

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Solomon Islands Government is pursuing integrated care with the goal of improving the quality of health service delivery to rural populations. Under the auspices of Universal Health Coverage, integrated service delivery packages were developed which defined the clinical and public health services that should be provided at different levels of the health system. The process of developing integrated service delivery packages helped to identify key policy decisions the government needed to make in order to improve service quality and efficiency. The integrated service delivery packages have instigated the revision of job descriptions and are feeding into the development of a human resource plan for health. They are also being used to guide infrastructure development and health system planning and should lead to better management of resources. The integrated service delivery packages have become a key tool to operationalise the government’s policy to move towards a more efficient, equitable, quality and sustainable health system.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on the abundance of Anopheles farauti larvae in large brackish water streams in Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands

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    Butafa Charles

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main vector of malaria in Solomon Islands is Anopheles farauti, which has a mainly coastal distribution. In Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, high densities of An. farauti are supported by large brackish streams, which in the dry season are dammed by localized sand migration. The factors controlling the high larval productivity of these breeding sites have not been identified. Accordingly the influence of environmental factors on the presence and density of An. farauti larvae was assessed in three large naturally dammed streams. Methods Larval sites were mapped and anopheline larvae were collected monthly for 12 months (July 2007 to June 2008 from three streams using standard dippers. Larval collections were made from 10 locations spaced at 50 m intervals along the edge of each stream starting from the coast. At each collection point, floating filamentous algae, aquatic emergent plants, sun exposure, and salinity were measured. These environmental parameters along with rainfall were correlated with larval presence and density. Results The presence and abundance of An. farauti larvae varied between streams and was influenced by the month of collection, and distance from the ocean (p 0.001. Larvae were more frequently present and more abundant within 50 m of the ocean during the dry season when the streams were dammed. The presence and density of larvae were positively associated with aquatic emergent plants (presence: p = 0.049; density: p = 0.001. Although filamentous algae did not influence the presence of larvae, this factor did significantly influence the density of larvae (p Conclusion This study has demonstrated that the presence and abundance An. farauti larvae are influenced by environmental factors within the large streams. Understanding these parameters will allow for targeted cost effective implementation of source reduction and larviciding to support the frontline malaria control measures i.e. indoor

  5. Extent, causes and impact of road traffic crashes in the Solomon Islands 1993-2012: data from the orthopaedic department at the National Referral Hospital, Honiara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Michael J; Negin, Joel; Farrell, Penny; Houasia, Patrick; Munamua, Alex B; Martiniuk, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic crashes constitute a considerable public health burden and represent the eighth leading cause of death and tenth leading cause of disability adjusted life years (DALYs) globally. However, very little is known about the extent, causes and impact of crashes in low- and middle-income countries including those in the Pacific. This lack of data is particularly true for the Solomon Islands. The study is a retrospective record review of a pre-existing, de-identified dataset. A standardised trauma form is completed for all patients presenting to the orthopaedic department at the National Referral Hospital in Honiara with a suspected fracture following a trauma. Data are coded using one of 27 unique codes. Data related to road traffic crashes were extracted from the larger dataset, cleaned and analysed in Microsoft Excel. The database contained 699 records coded with one of seven codes related to road traffic crashes. Patients in the database were most frequently injured whilst a passenger in a car (27.8%), as a pedestrian (24.0%), or as a passenger in an open truck (21.6%). Almost three-quarters of patients were male. Just under half (48.5%) were aged between 10 and 29 years. Alcohol was listed as a contributing factor in 23.8% of presentations. This is one of the first studies to provide data on road traffic crashes in the Solomon Islands. In this database, young males were most likely to be involved in a crash that resulted in a suspected fracture. Young males are in their prime years of productivity, and injuries that remove them from the workforce could have severe socioeconomic implications. This study found that more than half of injuries were borne by vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and motorcyclists, indicating a need for interventions that take these users into account. Finally, the study provides insight into the large impact that alcohol has on the risk of road traffic crashes.

  6. solomon f. d. paul

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics. SOLOMON F. D. PAUL. Articles written in Journal of Genetics. Volume 96 Issue 1 March 2017 pp 87-96 RESEARCH ARTICLE. Single-nucleotide polymorphism of INS, INSR, IRS1, IRS2, PPAR-G and CAPN10 genes in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome · MAHESWARI ...

  7. Vibrio galatheae sp. nov., a novel member of the Vibrionaceae family isolated from the Solomon Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giubergia, Sonia; Machado, Henrique; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Based on genetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics, a novel species belonging to the genus Vibrio is described. The facultative anaerobic strain S2757T was isolated from a mussel collected in the Solomon Sea (Solomon Islands). Phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of 16S rRNA and ...

  8. Island Identification at River Estuary Based on Toponymy (Case Study: River Estuary of Bulungan, BulunganRegency, North Kalimantan Province

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    Yulius Yulius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Toponymy is the scientific study of geographical names. Island Toponym represents step of island identi- fication by identifying its name and geographic position. Island Identification in toponymy was conducted through desk study and field survey. Desk study was implemented to obtain earlier description of islands physical condition, social and culture of local people. Field survey to obtain names of the islands was carried out by interviewing local people and positions were measured by using a simple GPS system then validated using nautical chart Dishidros publications 1997 and Image from Google Earth in 2013. The Survey at Bulungan Regency of East Kalimantan Province, 19 islands had been identified 7 islands which have not been listed at DEPDAGRI (Ministry of Internal Affairs in 2004 but the other 10 islands have been named, and 9 island which is not drawn yet in sea chart published by DISHIDROS TNI-AL.

  9. Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum (Malpighiaceae), a new species from Loyalty Islands, New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Stigmaphyllon (Malpighiaceae) is described: Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum Butaud. It is restricted to the coral islands of Ouvéa, Lifou and Maré in the Loyalty Islands Province (New Caledonia) and is most similar to Stigmaphyllondiscolor (Gand.) C.E.Anderson, known from New Caledonia and Solomon Islands. Previously, plants now known as Stigmaphyllonpatricianum-firmenichianum were included in Stigmaphyllontaomense (Baker f.) C.E.Anderson, endemic to the northern part of Grande-Terre and Belep Islands (New Caledonia). A new circumscription of Stigmaphyllontaomense is proposed. The regional key for New Caledonian species of Stigmaphyllon is updated.

  10. [Dynamic changes of landscape pattern and hemeroby in Ximen Island wetland, Zhejiang Province, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cui; Xie, Xue-Fen; Wu, Tao; Jiang, Guo-Jun; Bian, Hua-Jing; Xu, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Abstract: The hemeroby type classification system of Ximen Island wetland of Zhejiang Province was established based on the multiple datasets: SOPT-5 image data with a spatial resolution of 5 m in 2007 and 2010, its wetland land cover and land use status, the National Land Use Classification (on trail), and sea area use classification of marine industry standards as well as remote sensing data features. Meanwhile, the dynamic relationship between the landscape pattern and the degree of hemeroby in Ximen Island was investigated with the landscape indices and hemeroby index (HI) derived from the landscape pattern index and GIS spatial analysis. The results showed that the wetland landscape spatial heterogeneity, fragmentation and dominance index dropped, and the landscape shape index complexity was low. The human disturbance center developed from a dispersion type to a concentration type. The landscape type of the disturbance center was bare land and settlement. The HI rose up from the sea to the land. Settlement, wharf and traffic land had the highest HI. The HI of the mudflat cultivation, mudflats and raft-cultivation dramatically changed. Marine-terrestrial interlaced zone showed a low total HI with unstable characteristics. The number of patches declined of undisturbed, partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes. Mean patch areas of partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes increased, and that of the undisturbed decreased. Mean shape index of the undisturbed landscape decreased, while the partially disturbed and completely disturbed landscapes showed a trend of shape complication.

  11. Variability In The Solomon Sea From Altimetric Sea Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melet, A.; Gourdeau, L.; Kessler, W.; Verron, J.

    2007-12-01

    In the southwest tropical Pacific, subtropical waters from the SEC flow in the Solomon Sea, mainly through the western boundary New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, and join the equatorial western Pacific by three narrow straits. The NGCU transports part of the spiciness anomalies generated in the South East Pacific and subducted in the thermocline. Because the NGCU is a primary source of the EUC, variations of its characteristics are expected to play a role in the equatorial thermocline features and more generally on decadal climate variability. Therefore, the study of the Solomon Sea is a key issue of the SPICE program. In this study, we focus on the variability of the Solomon Sea in term of sea level. The Solomon Sea is semi closed with a complex topography and numerous islands. Thus, the use of classical gridded altimetric products is inadequate. Consequently, this work is based on original along track Topex/Poseidon data. New data processing (CTOH/LEGOS) has been applied to recover proper data and to gain more information on the altimetric signal in this region. A track-by-track specific and customized post processing has been used to finalize the dataset. These new altimetric data have been assessed against tide gauge data. The analysis of the resulting sea level anomalies exhibits the highest variability observed in the tropical Pacific in an area centred near 8°S and expanding from each side of the Solomon Islands, outside of the WBC. Sea level variability presents a wide temporal spectrum, from intraseasonal to interannual ranges with the notable influence of the monsoon and of ENSO. In the Solomon Sea, three frequencies emerge : 60, 365 and 2000 days. The 60-days frequency seems particularly important in the Solomon Sea compared with the surrounding waters and an EOF analysis is used to understand its features. We also depict the signature of the New Guinea Coastal Current (NGCC), the western boundary current flowing north along the eastern coast of Papua

  12. Twisted Reed-Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde ne Nielsen, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We present a new general construction of MDS codes over a finite field Fq. We describe two explicit subclasses which contain new MDS codes of length at least q/2 for all values of q ≥ 11. Moreover, we show that most of the new codes are not equivalent to a Reed-Solomon code.......We present a new general construction of MDS codes over a finite field Fq. We describe two explicit subclasses which contain new MDS codes of length at least q/2 for all values of q ≥ 11. Moreover, we show that most of the new codes are not equivalent to a Reed-Solomon code....

  13. Establishing physiographic provinces for an integrative approach of the coastal zone management - The case of Rhodes Island, Aegean Sea, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Vasileios; Angelos Hatiris, Georgios; Sioulas, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    The coastal zone is a dynamic natural system affected by terrestrial and marine processes as well as human intervention. The sediments derived by the land and supplied by the adjacent catchment are reworked and distributed according to the prevailing hydrodynamic regime. Based on inland and coastal physiography of Rhodes Island, six (6) main Physiographic Provinces were identified, which incorporate 56 main drainage basins and 168 interfluves. Moreover, the variety of coastal types was mapped and the total length of the island's coastline ( 285 km) was measured by using geospatial tools (ArcGIS and Google Earth). The coastline is comprised of depositional sandy beaches (44.5%), rocky coasts (47%) and coasts altered from anthropogenic constructions (8.5%). The Physiographic Provinces were defined in order to facilitate an Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) scheme for Rhodes Island and also adaptation measures. Overexploitation of the island's natural coastal environment by the tourism industry, mainly in the northern and northeastern parts of the island, left a series of adverse effects on the coastal area, such as erosion of beaches, water and energy overconsumption and land degradation.

  14. Solomon Schechter Day School. Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Pesach; Siegel, Morton

    By 1969 32 Solomon Schechter Day Schools existed to provide students with elementary and secondary education in the context of Conservative Judaism. These day schools are designed to extend the options for religious education already available in the afternoon congregational schools operating in many synagogues. This document outlines the…

  15. Reed-Solomon convolutional codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gluesing-Luerssen, H; Schmale, W

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we will introduce a specific class of cyclic convolutional codes. The construction is based on Reed-Solomon block codes. The algebraic parameters as well as the distance of these codes are determined. This shows that some of these codes are optimal or near optimal.

  16. Geochemical Evidence of Island-Arc Origin for Sumatra Island; A New Perspective based on Volcanic Rocks in Lampung Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Zulkarnain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i4.128Since decades, Sumatra Island is considered as the Eurasia continental margin where the Indian Ocean plate has been subducted oblique beneath the continental plate of Sumatra. But, the occurrences of volcanic rocks in almost all areas of Lampung Province in the southernmost of Sumatra Island, as the presence of the Quaternary Tanggamus Volcano in the western part of the province together with the Quaternary Rajabasa Volcano in the eastern area cannot be justified using the consideration. Spider diagrams of trace and rare earth elements of volcanic rocks from the western and eastern areas of the province reveal that the rocks come from three different tectonic settings, namely island-arc, active continental margin (ACM, and intra continental plate. All basalt and one dacite of western volcanic rocks show a character of island-arc origin, while the eastern volcanic rocks are reflecting characters of ACM and intra continental plate. Plot of the rocks in the diagram of Ta/Yb versus Ce/P and in Ta/Yb versus Th/Yb confirmed the tectonic environments and specifically classify the intra continental plate into Within Plate Volcanic Zone (WPVZ. The island-arc group is characterized by Ta/Yb ratio of less than 2.0 and Ce/P less than 1.8. The ACM group is recognized having Ta/Yb ratio between 2 and 4 with Ce/P more 1.8, while the WPVZ group is defined as a group having Ta/Yb more than 6 and Ce/P more than 1.0. The result indicates that the western part of Sumatra is an island-arc fragment and the eastern part belongs to the Eurasia continental margin. The concentration of volcanics having ACM character from areas around the Sumatra Fault System to the east indicates that the collision zone between the Sumatra island-arc fragments with the Eurasia continental margin is probably located along the SFS. More statistical data is still needed from other Sumatra volcanics to confirm this conclusion.

  17. Time-space variability of satellite chlorophyll-α in the Easter Island Province, southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Andrade

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Easter Island Province (EIP encompasses Easter Island (EI and Salas y Gómez Island (SGI, which are located in the eastern boundary of the south Pacific subtropical gyre. This province is one of the most oligotrophic region in the world ocean with a high degree of endemism and distinguished by having the clearest waters in the world. Issues related to the biophysical coupling that sustains biological production in this region are still poorly understood. Satellite data compiled over a ten year period was used to characterize the spatial and temporal chlorophyll-α (Chl-α variability around the EIP and determine the relationship between Chl-α and several physical forcing. Results shows a clear Chl-α annual cycle around the EIP, with maximum concentration during the austral winter. Chl-α spatial distribution shows a strong zonal dipole over EI that divides the island into two zones: southeast and northwest. Due to its small size and low elevation of SGI, it does not generate a significant local effect in Chl-α concentration, but a Chl-α increase is observed southeast of this island (~2 km associated to a seamount. The mean geostrophic current in the EIP flows eastward, associated with the southeastern boundary of the subtropical gyre. However, recurrent mesoscale eddies traveling northwestward and produce large surface current variability with periods of high velocities in opposite direction. In the spring, wakes of high Chl-α concentration can be observed over EI, associated with the generation and detachment of submesoscale eddies from EI, which could have important biological implications during periods of low regional biological production.

  18. Malaria on isolated Melanesian islands prior to the initiation of malaria elimination activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Government's Pacific Malaria Initiative (PacMI is supporting the National Malaria Program in both Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, complementing assistance from the Global Fund for AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM. Two remote island groups - Tafea Province, Vanuatu and Temotu Province, Solomon Islands have been selected by the governments of both countries as possible malaria elimination areas. To provide information on the prevalence and distribution of the disease within these island groups, malariometric surveys were conducted during the wet seasons of 2008. Methods In Tafea Province, a school-based survey was conducted which included the 2-12 y age group, while in Temotu a village based all-ages survey was conducted. An effort was made to sample villages or schools from a wide an area as possible on all islands. Diagnosis was initially based on Giemsa stained blood slides followed by molecular analysis using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results In Tafea Province, 73% (5238/7150 of children (2-12 y were surveyed and in Temotu Province, in the all-ages survey, 50.2% (8742/17410 of the provincial population participated in the survey. In both Vanuatu and Solomon Islands malariometric surveys of their southern-most islands in 2008 showed relatively low over-all malaria parasite prevalence (2 to 3%. Other features of malaria in these island groups were low parasitaemia, low gametocyte carriage rates, low spleen rates, low malaria associated morbidity, a high incidence of asymptomatic infections, and a predominance of Plasmodium vivax over Plasmodium falciparum. Conclusion For various reasons malaria rates are declining in these provinces providing a favourable situation for local malaria elimination. This will be advanced using mass distribution of bed nets and selective indoor residual spraying, the introduction of rapid diagnostic tests and artemisinin combination therapy, and intensive case detection and

  19. Education: Solomons Winner in Lengthy Plagiarism Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, Steve

    1980-01-01

    Reports the outcome of a plagiarism suit against organic chemistry professor T. W. Graham Solomons by two emeritus professors at New York University. The ruling of not guilty leaves the way open for Solomons' counterclaim that he lost sales of the book because of the suit. (Author/SA)

  20. Two new species of Crocodile Skinks (Squamata: Scincidae: Tribolonotus) from the Solomon Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittmeyer, Eric N; Austin, Christopher C

    2017-05-15

    We describe two new species of the scincid lizard genus Tribolonotus from the islands of Buka and Choiseul in the Solomon Archipelago, closely related to, and previously included within, T. pseudoponceleti. One species, T. parkeri sp. nov., is endemic to Buka Island and was revealed in our previous study via taxonomically focused analyses of both next-generation sequencing data and morphology. Here, we also further support the validity of this species by more taxonomically comprehensive Bayesian species delimitation of three Sanger sequenced nuclear loci. The second species, T. choiseulensis sp. nov., is endemic to Choiseul Island and was revealed by an expanded morphological data analysis. These results suggest that numerous other species found on multiple island groups in the Solomon Archipelago may similarly represent complexes of multiple, closely related species, and that the biodiversity of the region is vastly underestimated.

  1. Phylogeography of the prehensile-tailed skink Corucia zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ingerid J; Donnellan, Stephen C; Bull, C Michael

    2012-01-01

    The biogeography of islands is often strongly influenced by prior geological events. Corucia zebrata (Squamata: Scincidae) is endemic to the geologically complex Solomon Archipelago in Northern Melanesia. We examined the level of divergence for different island populations of C. zebrata and discussed these patterns in light of Pleistocene land bridges, island isolation, and island age. Corucia zebrata was sampled from 14 locations across the Solomon Archipelago and sequenced at two mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4; 1697 bp in total) and four nuclear loci (rhodopsin, an unknown intron, AKAP9, and PTPN12). Measures of genetic divergence, analyses of genetic variation, and Bayesian phylogenetic inference were used and the data assessed in light of geological information. Populations of C. zebrata on separate islands were found to be genetically different from each other, with reciprocal monophyly on mitochondrial DNA. Populations on islands previously connected by Pleistocene land bridges were marginally less divergent from each other than from populations on other nearby but isolated islands. There are indications that C. zebrata has radiated across the eastern islands of the archipelago within the last 1–4 million years. Nuclear loci were not sufficiently informative to yield further information about the phylogeography of C. zebrata on the Solomon Archipelago. Analyses of the mitochondrial data suggest that dispersal between islands has been very limited and that there are barriers to gene flow within the major islands. Islands that have been isolated during the Pleistocene glacial cycles are somewhat divergent in their mitochondrial genotypes, however, isolation by distance (IBD) and recent colonization of isolated but geologically younger islands appear to have had stronger effects on the phylogeography of C. zebrata than the Pleistocene glacial cycles. This contrasts with patterns reported for avian taxa, and highlights the fact that biogeographic regions for

  2. Surveillance for malaria outbreak on malaria-eliminating islands in Tafea Province, Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone Pam in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C W; Iata, H; Yaviong, J; Kalkoa, M; Yamar, S; Taleo, G; Isozumi, R; Fukui, M; Aoyama, F; Pomer, A; Dancause, K N; Kaneko, A

    2017-01-01

    The risk of malaria outbreak surfaced in Vanuatu after Tropical Cyclone (TC) Pam in March 2015. In June and July 2015 we conducted malariometric surveys on the islands of Tanna, Aneityum, and Erromango in Tafea Province, where malaria elimination had been targeted, to determine if malaria incidence had increased after TC Pam. No Plasmodium infection was detected by microscopy and PCR in 3009 survey participants. Only 6·3% (190/3007) of participants had fever. Spleen rates in children aged ⩽12 years from Aneityum and Tanna were low, at 3·6% (14/387) and 5·3% (27/510), respectively. Overall bed net use was high at 72·8% (2175/2986); however, a significantly higher (P malaria incidence in Tafea Province through comprehensive intervention measures had reduced the indigenous parasite reservoir and limited the latter's potential to spur an outbreak after TC Pam. The path towards malaria elimination in Tafea Province was not adversely affected by TC Pam.

  3. MORPHOTECTONIC ANALYSIS AT TANIMBAR TRENCH AS A BASE FOR GAS PIPE LAYING BETWEEN MASELA BLOCK AND SELARU ISLAND, MOLUCCAS PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ediar Usman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located at Masela Block and its surrounding, Moluccas Province. Result of the deep sea measurement and global data conversion provide description of three dimensions around the track lines area. This result is overlay with seismic data, that can give morphotectonic implication between Asian and Australian Plates. Track lines of MGI-2010-MSL-1, 2 and 3 show that the profile of the sea floor, form the high morphology which represents the volcanic islands. It forms west – east direction of fold-thrust belt non-volcanic outer Banda arc. The southern part trench of the Australian Continent reflected the platform system and undulation morphology. The sea floor profile ( VE 1:5 show that the slope profile ranges between 0º and 8º. Furthermore, the morphology of the sea floor can be classified as a relatively flat slope. Due to this condition, this area may be used for gas pipe laying along 146 km distance, between the Well of Abadi 1 at the Masela Block and Selaru Island at south Tanimbar Islands.

  4. Peculiarities of litter invertebrates’ multispecies complexes formation on the Khortitsa Island (Zaporizhzhya province)

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorchenko, D.; Brygadyrenko, V.

    2008-01-01

    Peculiarities of litter invertebrates’ complexes formation under conditions of the Khortitsa National Reserve (Zaporizhzhya province) are studied. The dispersion of taxonomic groups of different levels (families and species) in litter mesofauna is swayed by the inter- and intrasystem factors; the largest influence has the power of litter and its humidity. The rate of ecological factors’ influence at different taxonomic levels may diverge.

  5. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto; Fitri Agustriani

    2017-01-01

    CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located i...

  6. A province-wide school nutrition policy and food consumption in elementary school children in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullally, Megan L; Taylor, Jennifer P; Kuhle, Stefan; Bryanton, Janet; Hernandez, Kimberley J; MacLellan, Debbie L; McKenna, Mary L; Gray, Robert J; Veugelers, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Although the majority of Canadian provinces have indicated that they have adopted new school nutrition policies, there have been few if any systematic evaluations of these policies. In Prince Edward Island, a nutrition policy for elementary schools was adopted province-wide in 2006. In the present study, we assessed the nutritional benefits of the new policy by examining changes in student food consumption prior to and one year following implementation of the policy. We surveyed fifth and sixth grade children from 11 elementary schools in Prince Edward Island in 2001/02 (pre-policy implementation) and fifth and sixth grade children from the same 11 schools in 2007 (post-policy implementation). Food consumption was assessed using a self-administered validated food frequency questionnaire. We applied multilevel logistic regression to compare pre-/post-policy implementation differences in the proportion of students meeting Canada's Food Guide recommendations for vegetables and fruit (VF) and milk and alternatives (MA) and in the proportion of students consuming < 3 servings of low nutrient dense foods (LNDF) daily. Relative to students in 2001/02, students surveyed in 2007 were 2.14 (95% CI 1.62-2.82) times more likely to report consuming less than three daily servings of LNDF and were more likely to meet recommendations for VF (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.00-2.07) and MA (OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.98-1.64). The present study is the first in Canada to show favourable changes in student food consumption that parallel the introduction of a school nutrition policy.

  7. Peculiarities of litter invertebrates’ multispecies complexes formation on the Khortitsa island (Zaporizhzhya province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. О. Fedorchenko

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of litter invertebrates’ complexes formation under conditions of the Khortitsa National Reserve (Zaporizhzhya province are studied. The dispersion of taxonomic groups of different levels (families and species in litter mesofauna is swayed by the inter- and intrasystem factors; the largest influence has the power of litter and its humidity. The rate of ecological factors’ influence at different taxonomic levels may diverge.

  8. Assessment of Carbon Status in Marine Protected Area of Payung Island Waters, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available CO2 is a greenhouse gas that receive more attention than the other gases because the properties of carbon easily deformed and diffuseed. Changes in the concentration of CO2 in the water will impact on changes in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere that affect sea surface temperatures. It continuously will result in a change of marine capture fisheries. Payung Island is one of the important areas in South Sumatra that acts as the provider of the fishery. This because Payung Island is located in the mouth of Musi and Telang River covered by mangrove, has a very important ecological function. However, the condition of the carbon in the waters of the Payung Island has not explored further. This elementary study is to determine status on Payung Island waters as a sink or source of CO2. The study was conducted in June until August 2015. The research stages include surface water sampling, measurement of the CO2 in the atmosphere, the analysis of the concentration of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC and Total Alkalinity (TA, and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 calculation.  Atmospheric CO2 were measured insitu, while the DIC and TA were analyzed using titration methods. Partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2 obtained from the calculation using the software CO2Calc using data of  DIC, TA, nutrients and atmospheric CO2. The results showed that the content of DIC and TA on the Payung Island waters has similar distribution pattern  i.e. high in areas close to the river, and getting lower in the area which were closer to the sea. The comparisons between pCO2 atmosphere and pCO2 waters showed that Payung Island waters generally act as a carbon sink in area towards the sea but however, in the territorial waters adjacent to the river as a source of carbon.   Keywords: carbon, marine protected area, Payung Island waters

  9. [Secondary productivity of macrobenthos in rocky intertidal zone of Yushan Islands, Zhejiang Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hai-feng; Shi, Hui-xiong; You, Zhong-jie; Lou, Zhi-jun; Liu, Hong-dan; Jin, Xin-fei

    2011-08-01

    In order to understand the current status of macrobenthos in intertidal zone of Yushan Islands, macrobenthos samples were collected from 5 sections in the intertidal zone in four seasons from March 2009 to January 2010, with the density, biomass, secondary productivity, and P/B value of the macrobenthos investigated by using Brey's empirical formula. The mean density of the marobenthos was 1419.5 ind x m(-2), mean biomass in ash free dry mass (AFDM) was 565.53 g x m(-2), mean annual secondary productivity was 285.58 g x m(-2) x a(-1) (AFDM), and mean annual P/B value was 0.51. The secondary productivity was mainly affected by mollusca and gastropda, with five critical species Septifer virgatus, Modiolus modiolus, Serpulorbis imbricata, Tetraclita japonica, and T. squamosa contributed 84.0% of the total. The P/B value in the study area was lower than that in other sea areas, showing that the generation turnover rate of the macrobenthos in the intertidal zone of Yushan Islands was slower, and the community structure was more stable.

  10. King Solomon's Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine M. Thompson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from silver hoards found in Phoenicia is linking Tarshish, the legendary source of King Solomon's silver, to ores in the western Mediterranean. Biblical passages sometimes describe this lost land as a supplier of metals (especially silver to Phoenician sailors who traded in the service of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre in the 10th century BC. Classical authors similarly attribute the mercantile supremacy of the Phoenicians to their command of lucrative supplies of silver in the west, before they colonised the coasts and islands of its metalliferous regions around 800 BC. Conservative rejections of such reports have correctly emphasised a lack of evidence from silver. Lead isotope analyses of silver hoards found in Phoenicia now provide the initial evidence for pre-colonial silver-trade with the west; ore-provenance data correlate with the ancient documents that indicate both Sardinia and Spain as suppliers, and Sardinia as the island of Tarshish.

  11. High-resolution climate projections for the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia: Challenges and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L. McGregor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The regional climate of Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB Province, eastern Indonesia is simulated for 130 years (1971–2100 for the SRES A2 Delayed Development or ‘Business as Usual’ emissions scenario using the CSIRO conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM. Regional climate simulations are generated using a multiple downscaling technique where a CCAM 200 km uniform-grid global simulation is driven by bias-corrected sea surface temperatures (SSTs from host coupled Global Climate Models (GCMs. Next, the 200 km resolution CCAM simulations are dynamically downscaled to 14 km resolution for the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa. To provide an ensemble of results, separate simulations are performed from six host GCMs. The present-day model results are validated against available observations. Generally, the CCAM 14 km resolution simulations produce rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures that are similar to the observations. However, the 14 km simulations have rainfall biases of around 5 mm/day in the wet December–February season and lesser biases in the other seasons. Climate projections are examined for two future time intervals centred on 2030 and 2060. The simulations of rainfall changes by 2060 suggest both increases and decreases of up to 5% in December–February, with more acute declines of 10% in some areas, and decreases of up to 10% in March–May. For the other seasons, generally little change is simulated. The regional temperatures are projected to increase by about 1 °C by 2030 and 1.6–2 °C by 2060. The high-resolution model outputs enable detailed differentiation between locations across the islands. Our results show that due to orographic effects there are steep climate gradients, resulting in significant local differences in climate projections. We discuss the challenges and implications of these results for adaptation planning.

  12. Solomon Receives 2005 Harry H. Hess Medal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, G. Michael; Solomon, Sean C.

    2006-02-01

    Sean C. Solomon received the Harry H. Hess Medal at the 2005 Fall Meeting Honors Ceremony, which was held on 7 December in San Francisco, Calif. The medal is given for outstanding achievements in research on the constitution and evolution of the Earth and other planets. It is a privilege to present Sean C. Solomon as the American Geophysical Union's Harry H. Hess Medal recipient. During more than 30 years of accomplished research he has established himself as one of the remarkable leadersin geophysical research today.

  13. Impact of marine tourism on the recreational water quality of Muk Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat Tanyaros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the water consisting of several parameters in the surrounding area of Muk Island were examined. Reference surface water was also concurrently sampled at stations located outside the recreational area stations. Relative modifications (RM in the recreational area stations water quality were assessed as the difference between the magnitude of a specific parameter recorded at the recreational area stations and the concurrently recorded value of the parameter at the reference station, relative to the mean value at the reference station. In this study, the specific parameters of dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, total suspended solids (TSS, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN = NO-2 + NO-23 + NH+3 and orthophosphate(PO-34 were shown to be significantly modified in December and April, but non-significantly modified inSeptember. The total coliform bacteria (TC and fecal coliform (FC in seawater at the recreational area stations were found to be higher than the coastal water quality standard. With a water quality criteria based coastal water quality standard fortourism, a significant but not dangerous level of pollution was observed in this area. TC and FC were the most significant pollutants in the recreational area stations.

  14. 1250-IJBCS-Article-Dr Solomon Anagho

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    quantum dot. Nche George NDIFOR-ANGWAFOR and Solomon Gabche ANAGHO*. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Dschang, Cameroon. * Corresponding author, Tel: +237 7757 8567, P.O. Box 814, Bamenda, North-West Region, Cameroon. E-mail: sg_anagho@yahoo.com. ABSTRACT.

  15. Robust Reed Solomon Coded MPSK Modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir M. Husni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, construction of partitioned Reed Solomon coded modulation (RSCM, which is robust for the additive white Gaussian noise channel and a Rayleigh fading channel, is investigated. By matching configuration of component codes with the channel characteristics, it is shown that this system is robust for the Gaussian and a Rayleigh fading channel. This approach is compared with non-partitioned RSCM, a Reed Solomon code combined with an MPSK signal set using Gray mapping; and block coded MPSK modulation using binary codes, Reed Muller codes. All codes use hard decision decoding algorithm. Simulation results for these schemes show that RSCM based on set partitioning performs better than those that are not based on set partitioning and Reed Muller Coded Modulation across a wide range of conditions. The novel idea here is that in the receiver, we use a rotated 2^(m+1-PSK detector if the transmitter uses a 2^m-PSK modulator.

  16. Prince Edward Island implements province-wide drug information system. A small step for DIS; a giant leap for the pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giokas, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    On March 13, 2008, Friendly Pharmacy in Charlottetown made a small but significant piece of Canadian healthcare history. It was the first drugstore to go online with Prince Edward Island's Drug Information System (DIS), the centrepiece of the province's All Drugs All People program. PEI is the first province to implement a DIS solution using a common pan-Canadian messaging standard based on Health Level 7 Version 3, an internationally recognized set of standards for clinical, financial and administrative messaging. PEI's initiative has positive implications for the rest of Canada. It is an important step toward the creation of a pan-Canadian interoperable electronic health record system covering all facets of patient care.

  17. Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Camiguin of Mindanao Province and Dinagat Island in the Philippines, with a new genus and three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young June; Marshall, David C; Mohagan, Alma; Hill, Kathy B R

    2016-03-30

    This paper provides the first faunal checklist for the family Cicadidae (Hemiptera) from Camiguin of Mindanao Province and Dinagat Island in the Philippines, comprising ten species belonging to nine genera. Cryptotympana shillana Lee & Mohagan sp. nov., Orientopsaltria inermis (Stål, 1870), Purana crassinotata Lee, 2015, and Huechys parvula Haupt, 1924 are recorded for the first time from Camiguin. Platypleura dinagatensis Lee sp. nov., Chremistica kyoungheeae Lee, 2010, Dundubia vaginata (Fabricius, 1787), Oncotympana pallidiventris Stål, 1870, and Philipsalta nigrina Lee, Marshall & Hill sp. nov. are newly recorded from Dinagat Island. A new genus Philipsalta Lee, Marshall & Hill gen. nov. is erected. Huechysini Distant, 1905 syn. nov. is synonymized with Cicadettini Buckton, 1889. Information on geographic distributions of the Camiguin and Dinagat species is also provided.

  18. Effects of habitat fragmentation on the use of nest site resources by great tits in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Zhang; Jiji Sun; Yanping Wang; Pingping Jiang; Ping Ding; Gaofu Xu

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of habitat fragmentation on the use of nest site resources by a secondary cavity-nesting bird species, the great tit (Parus major), we placed 443 artificial nest boxes on 21 islands in Thousand Island Lake from February to August 2008. Among the nest boxes 72 (16.3%) were used by great tits. We analyzed the relationships between island area, island isolation, predator activity, vegetation cover and nest box orientation and the use of nest boxes by great tits. Great ...

  19. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  20. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study.

  1. Flows entering the Solomon Sea: observed features during the FLUSEC-1 cruise in August 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, C.; Melet, A.; Eldin, G.; Lefevre, J.; Sudre, J.; Varillon, D.

    2007-12-01

    The properties of water masses transported into the equatorial band by the subtropical gyre in the thermocline and below are of primary importance for long-term climate variations. At decadal timescales, the circulation of the southwest Pacific Ocean is suspected to play a major role in that variability. However, the region remains undersampled because of its remote location and the dynamics of the circulation is still poorly understood. Within the context of the Southwest Pacific ocean Circulation and Climate Experiment (SPICE), an oceanographic cruise has been staged from the IRD center of Nouméa on the R/V Alis in August 2007. The main section has been conducted at the entrance of the Solomon Sea from the Louisade archipelago to Guadalcanal Island, roughly along 10°S from 154°E to 160°E. Climatology across this section suggests that waters originating from the South Equatorial Current are transported by two main pathways through the Solomon Sea before joining the equatorial band. The main objective of that cruise is to quantify the respective contributions of the western boundary current in the west, and of the direct flow of the SEC in the east, to the circulation in the Solomon Sea. Conductivity- Temperature-Depth and 02 concentration profiles have been collected from the surface down to 2000 m depth in order to discriminate these different flows and the corresponding water mass properties. Currents measured by L-ADCP have also provided direct insights on the dynamical description of the deep flows entering this region. In addition to these in situ observations, outputs of a regional ocean circulation model dedicated to the dynamics of the Solomon Sea will be jointly analyzed and discussed.

  2. Appreciating Unity in Diversity: An Interview with Andrew Solomon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2014-01-01

    The theme of the AMS 2014 Annual Conference is "Unity in Diversity," a concept that also describes the work of conference keynote speaker Andrew Solomon. Solomon is a writer and lecturer on psychology and politics; winner of the National Book Award; and an activist for LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender] rights, mental health,…

  3. Regional Solutions for Regional Problems: East Timor and Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    Italy , New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States. David Stevens, Strength Through Diversity: The Combined Naval Role...being in critical condition. He was initially treated at the Australian Military Hospital in Dili and was then transferred to the Darwin Hospital

  4. The Regional Assistance Mission to the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Thus, unlike many other recent interventions— where there has been a terra nullis approach and an egregious assumption that all things having to do...April 1998, the government of Papua New Guinea invited Australia to lead the Peace Monitoring Group ( PMG ). The mission of the unarmed PMG was to...conduct ceasefire monitoring activities, coordinate a weapons disposal program, and disseminate informa- tion about the peace process. The PMG was led by

  5. Defying Definition: Rethinking Education Aid Relationships in Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The discourse of aid--its language, structures and practice--powerfully ascribes roles and attributes to those involved in aid relationships such as developed/developing, partner, recipient/donor etcetera. This discourse is driven by a complex system of diverse and often competing ideas, values, actors and relationships, within which individuals…

  6. Atmospheric corrosion in subtropical areas: XRD and electrochemical study of zinc atmospheric corrosion products in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)]. E-mail: jmorales@ull.es; Diaz, F. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hernandez-Borges, J. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez, S. [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2006-02-15

    In the present paper, zinc sheets have been exposed for 4 years to the action of different atmospheres in 35 test sites located in the province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. Corrosion products formed on the surface of the samples have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the first and second year of exposure. Zincite, hydrozincite, simonkolleite, zinc chlorohydroxysulphate, zinc oxysulphate and zinc hydroxysulphate have been identified in the test sheets. Preliminary results of an electrochemical study of the breakdown potential of zinc samples are also presented in order to test the protective effect of the film formed on the surface of the samples. It was found that the protective effect of this film increases linearly with exposure time.

  7. Geochemical stratigraphy and correlation within large igneous provinces: The final preserved stages of the Faroe Islands Basalt Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, J. M.; Hole, M. J.; Jolley, D. W.; Passey, S. R.

    2017-08-01

    The Faroe Islands Basalt Group (FIBG) comprises a gross stratigraphic thickness of over 6.5 km of dominantly extrusive basaltic facies erupted during the Late Palaeocene to Early Eocene. In this study we present 140 major and trace element analyses from flow by flow field and borehole sample profiles, through the Enni Formation, which comprises the final phase of volcanism preserved on the Faroe Islands. The sample profiles target geographically spaced and overlapping stratigraphic sequences tied relative to a 3D ArcGIS surface for the regionally extensive volcaniclastic Argir Beds marker unit. From these profiles five geochemical groups including one low TiO2 (Low-Ti 1.5 wt%) groups differentiated by Nb, Zr, Y and V variations are identified in conjunction with previous studies. The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of these groups is mapped across the islands and demonstrates a complex inter-digitated flow field evolution. Within the finer scale variations, broad spatial and temporal development trends are identified demonstrating the potential for correlation within the volcanic succession at the local, tens of kilometers scale. Low-Ti lavas formed in association with lithospheric thinning and developed extensive flow fields between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland contemporaneous to the eruption of High-Ti smaller melt fraction lava flows in both locations. The progression of High-Ti lava groups preserved on either side of the developing rift zone is very similar, but is not, however, chronostratigraphic due to multiple inter-digitations of the chemical types. We tentatively suggest that a previously proposed rift-oblique transfer zone between the Faroe Islands and East Greenland enabled non-uniform lithospheric thinning and the preservation of a near-continuous High-Ti melting region between these areas beyond the onset of Low-Ti eruptions which were initially fed from the west. This study highlights the complex nature of late stage flood basalt

  8. Decoding Reed-Solomon Codes beyond half the minimum distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Nielsen, Rasmus Refslund

    1999-01-01

    We describe an efficient implementation of M.Sudan"s algorithm for decoding Reed-Solomon codes beyond half the minimum distance. Furthermore we calculate an upper bound of the probabilty of getting more than one codeword as output...

  9. Conceptual design for a universal Reed-Solomon decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.; Deutsch, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    An algorithm which enables one Reed-Solomon decoder to process other Reed-Solomon encoded data from a different code is presented. The sole requirement is that both codes have the same length, the same rate, and the same field of coefficients. It is pointed out that only very simple pre- and post-processing hardware is needed to resolve an encoder/decoder incompatibility and that no encoder modification is needed.

  10. Coral recruitment and recovery after the 2004 Tsunami around the Phi Phi Islands (Krabi Province) and Phuket, Andaman Sea, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Y.; Phongsuwan, N.; Richter, C.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 tsunami left a discontinuous pattern of destruction in the reefs along Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. Here, a comparative assessment of coral recruitment was carried out to assess differences in recovery between damaged and undamaged sites in near-shore fringing reefs 1 and 3 years after the tsunami. Settlement plates showed high frequencies of coral spat after 4 months (coral rubble is a key determinant of recruitment success. Low regeneration success of some species e.g. branching acroporids and rebounding tourism industry at sites like Patong and partly around the Phi Phi Islands (dense carpets of filamentous algae) led to the assumption of selectivity and eventually to an alternation of the coral community even though live coral cover might be recovered soon.

  11. Aluminum and Manganese Distributions in the Solomon Sea: Results from the 2012 PANDORA Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, S. M.; Resing, J. A.; Jeandel, C.; Lacan, F.

    2016-02-01

    Much is still unknown about the sources of trace nutrients to the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC), which ultimately contribute to high-nutrient regions in the Eastern Tropical Pacific. One region that is possibly a source of trace nutrients to the EUC is the Solomon Sea, located east of Papua New Guinea. A study during the summer of 2012, PANDORA, was conducted on board the R/V l'Atalante to determine currents and the geochemical makeup within the basin. Water samples were analyzed for aluminum and manganese using Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). At many stations, aluminum distributions exhibit a sub-surface minimum, located at approximately the same depth as a salinity maximum. Additionally, aluminum is enriched along coastal areas, particularly in the outflow of the Vitiaz Strait, which is concurrent with the findings of Slemons et al. 2010. These regions of high aluminum are also likely regions of iron enrichment. Manganese distributions in the Solomon Sea are similar to data collected north of the region by Slemons et al. 2010, and show a scavenged distribution with local inputs in the surface and concentrations decreasing at depth. This region has strong western boundary currents, and input from coastal margins, two large rivers, island mining sites, and hydrothermal activity, making it an important study-site to determine how trace nutrients are transported to the open ocean.

  12. Photobacterium galatheae sp. nov., a bioactive bacterium isolated from a mussel in the Solomon Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Henrique; Giubergia, Sonia; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina

    2015-01-01

    A novel, Gram-negative marine bacterium, S2753T, was isolated from a mussel of the Solomon Sea, Solomon Islands. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence and whole genome sequence data placed strain S2753T in the genus Photobacterium with the closest relative being Photobacterium halotolerans...... DSM 18316T (97.7 % 16S rRNA gene similarity). Strain S2753T was able to grow from 15 to 40 °C and in NaCl concentrations of 0.5 to 9 % (w/v). The predominant fatty acids were 16 : 1ω7c/16 : 1ω6c (27.9 %), 16 : 0 (22.1 %) and 18 : 1ω7c/8 : 1ω6c (21.4 %). The genomic DNA G+C mol content was 49.5 mol%. Based...

  13. The geochemical effects of olivine slurry replenishment and dolostone assimilation in the plumbing system of the Franklin Large Igneous Province, Victoria Island, Arctic Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Ben; Lissenberg, C. Johan; Bédard, Jean H.; Beard, Charlie

    2015-02-01

    The Neoproterozoic (~723-716 Ma) Franklin Large Igneous Province exposed on Victoria Island in the Canadian Arctic is comprised of a sill-dominated magma plumbing system overlain by the coeval Natkusiak flood basalts. We have investigated three sections, separated by a total of >50 km of distance, of a sill (the Fort Collinson Sill Complex) emplaced just above a prominent sedimentary marker unit. The sill is characterized by a basal olivine-enriched layer (OZ: up to 55 % olivine) and an upper gabbroic unit. The observed diversity of olivine compositions in the OZ implies that bulk-rock MgO versus FeO arrays reflect accumulation of a heterogeneous olivine crystal cargo. We suggest that the OZ was formed as a late olivine slurry replenishment in a partially crystallized gabbroic sill, propagating for over 50 km along strike. This interpretation is consistent with Pb-isotope data, which show that at least three geochemically distinct magmas were emplaced into the Fort Collinson Sill Complex. The OZs exhibit a gradual westward evolution toward more Fe-rich bulk compositions. This is best explained by progressive mixing of the replenishing olivine slurry with a resident gabbroic mush during westward flow. Pb-isotopic signatures suggest that magmas near the inferred conduit feeder assimilated small amounts (rock, which may have locally buffered olivine compositions to high-Fo contents.

  14. The Upper Miocene magmatism of the Island of Elba (Central Italy): compositional characteristics, petrogenesis and implications for the origin of the Tuscany Magmatic Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Giampiero; Peccerillo, Angelo

    2016-08-01

    Late Miocene intrusive magmatism of the Island of Elba, Tuscany (central Italy), consists of stocks, laccoliths, sills, and dikes showing dominant monzogranite and granodiorite compositions, with minor leucogranitic dike-sill complexes, aplites and pegmatites. A few mafic rocks occur as dikes, and as microgranular enclaves hosted inside the main intrusions. The Elba magmatism belongs to the Tuscan Magmatic Province, an 8.5 to 0.3 Ma old association of mafic to felsic rocks, of mantle and crustal origin, cropping out in Tuscany and northern Latium. Major and trace element abundances of Elba rocks are extremely variable, testifying to complex origin and evolutionary history for magmas. 87Sr/86Sr (~ 0.708-0.723) and 143Nd/144Nd (~0.5121-0.5124) are close or within the field of upper continental crust, with mafic dikes showing the lowest Sr- and the highest Nd-isotope ratios. Petrological, geochemical and textural data of Elba igneous rocks are better explained by invoking a leading role for multiple mixing processes between crust-derived felsic magmas and mafic-intermediate melts of ultimate mantle origin, accompanied by fractional crystallisation. Proxies of crustal anatectic melts are represented by some highly radiogenic-Sr rocks from northern Monte Capanne pluton. Crustal magmas were formed by melting of sedimentary rocks, likely metagreywakes, at pressures exceeding 0.3 GPa. Mafic-intermediate magmas have calcalkaline to shoshonitic compositions and originated in an anomalous mantle, moderately contaminated by siliceous sediments. Selective enrichments in Sr, Ba and LREE are shown by some intermediate rocks (Orano dikes), revealing the occurrence of a distinct magma type at Elba. Similar compositions are also observed at Capraia island, San Vincenzo and Campiglia (southern Tuscany), suggesting a regional relevance for this magma type. Sr-Ba-LREE-rich rocks do not show obvious genetic relationships with other Tuscany magmas and may represent a distinct end

  15. Piper (Piperaceae) in the Philippine Islands: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2006-01-01

    Piper in the Philippine Islands is reviewed. Fifteen climbing species are recognized (many fewer than in previous treatments) and distinguished in a key. Most are widely distributed through Malesia, with ranges that end eastwards in the Solomon Islands or Australia. Piper myrmecophilum, the only

  16. Obituary: Philip M. Solomon, 1939-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Philip Solomon, one of the pioneers and leading researchers in molecular astrophysics, died on 30 April 2008 at his apartment on the upper west side of Manhattan after a battle with cancer. His pioneering research included both theoretical and very extensive observational studies of stellar atmospheres, interstellar molecules, high redshift galaxies, and the Earth's stratosphere. Phil was Distinguished Professor at The State University of New York [SUNY], Stony Brook, where he had been since 1974. Phil was born on 29 March 1939 in Manhattan, New York City, to Nat and Betty Solomon. Nat Solomon was a labor organizer and a printer. Phil attended the University of Wisconsin, where he received his BS in 1959 and where he met his future wife Sheila who was studying art. His Ph.D., "On the Role of Light Molecules in Astrophysics," was also from the University of Wisconsin under the guidance of Art Code and Bob Bless. After postdoctoral positions at Princeton and lectureships at Columbia and the University of California, San Diego, Phil spent two years as a Professor at the University of Minnesota. After two years at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he came to SUNY, Stony Brook, as Professor of Astronomy in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences. In 1988 Phil was selected as a Humboldt Senior Distinguished Scientist, and, in 1999, he was honored with the rank of Distinguished Professor at SUNY. Phil took sabbatical and other leaves at Churchill College and the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge; the Institute for Advanced Study; l'Ecole Normale Superieure, Paris; Institut d'Astrophysique, Paris; and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique [IRAM], France. Phil published more than 160 papers and supervised seven Ph.D. students. He served on numerous review, visiting, and advisory panels. Phil's first theoretical research focused on opacity and abundance of light molecules such as H2, CO, and CN in stellar atmospheres, but then shifted quickly to the

  17. African Journals Online: Northern Mariana Islands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, San Marino, Sao Tome and Principe, Saudi Arabia, Self-Pay, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Sint Maarten (Dutch part), Slovakia (Slovak Republic), Slovenia, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Spain ...

  18. A practical strategy for responding to a case of lymphatic filariasis post-elimination in Pacific Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Humpress; Asugeni, James; Jimuru, Christopher; Gwalaa, John; Ribeyro, Elmer; Bradbury, Richard; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymphatic filariasis (LF) due to Wuchereria bancrofti is being eliminated from Oceania under the Pacific Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis Programme. LF was endemic in Solomon Islands but in the 2010-2020 Strategic Plan of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF, Solomon Islands was listed as non-endemic for LF. In countries now declared free of LF an important question is what monitoring strategy should be used to detect any residual foci of LF? This paper describes how a new case ...

  19. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jesus; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic; Hermida, Nuria; Amblas, David; Arrese, Beatriz; Martín-Sosa, Pablo; Acosta, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Concepcion Bank is the largest seamount in the Canary Islands Seamount Province (CISP), an oceanic area off NW Africa including 16 main seamounts, the Canaries archipelago and the Selvagens subarchipelago. The Bank is located 90 km northeast of Lanzarote Island and has been identified as a candidate Marine Protected Area (MPA) to be included in the Natura 2000 network. A compilation of complementary datasets consisting of multibeam bathymetry, TOPAS seismic reflection profiles, side scan sonar sonographs, Remotely Operated Vehicle video records and seafloor samples allowed describing in detail and ground truthing the submarine landforms and bioconstructions exhibited by the bank. The Concepcion Bank presently rises up to 2,433 m above the adjacent seafloor and exhibits two main domains: an extensive summit plateau and steep flanks. The sub-round summit plateau is 50km by 45 km and ranges from 158 to 1,485 m depth. The steep flanks that bound it descend to depths ranging between 1,700 and 2,500 m and define a seamount base that is 66km by 53 km. This morphology is the result of constructive and erosive processes involving different time scales, volumes of material and rates of change. The volcanic emplacement phase probably lasted 25-30 million years and was likely responsible for most of the 2,730 km3 of material that presently form the seamount. Subsequently, marine abrasion and, possibly, subaerial erosion modulated by global sea level oscillations, levelled the formerly emerging seamount summit plateau, in particular its shallower (Bank may result from tectonic tilting normal to a NNE-SSW fracture line. This fracture may still be expressed on the seafloor surface at some scarps detected on the seamount's summit. Sediment waves and cold-water coral (CWC) mounds on the bank summit plateau are the youngest features contributing to its final shaping, and may be indicative of internal wave effects. Numerous submarine canyons generally less than 10 km in length are

  20. THE IMAGES OF SUBSURFACE TERTIARY – QUARTENARY DEPOSITS BASED ON GROUND PENETRATING RADAR RECORDS OF SUBI KECIL ISLAND COAST, NATUNA DISTRICT, RIAU ARCHIPELAGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Budiono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface Tertiary to Quaternary deposits from coast of Subi Kecil Island, Natuna Distric, Riau Archipelago Province, were imaged with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR. The GPR survey was carried out by using GSSI Surveyor III/20 with 270 MHz and 40 MHz of 3200 MLF antennas. GPR data were processed using software GSSI’s RADAN for Windows NT™. The interpretation were done by using the radar facies as a groups of radar reflections. The GPR images of study area can be recoqnized in to several facies such as parallel, sub parallel, chaotic, oblique, mound and reflection-free. The calibration were done with geological data along the coast (cliff and outcrop. Unit A is the uppermost layer which is characterized by continous to non continous pararel reflection, srong reflector and high amplitude and is interpreted as alluvium deposits. Below the unit A is unit B which is characterized by non continous sub parallel, chaotic and mound reflector, strong reflector and high amplitude. Unit C and D (Mio-Oligocene are overlain by unit A and B include chaotic, reflection-free and, locally, discontinuous parallel, oblique mound reflector radar facies, correlatable at the cliff face to massive sands, mostly representing near coastal deposits. These units are bounded by continuous, high amplitude reflections that can be easily correlatable throughout the GPR profiles, serving as important stratigraphic markers. The GPR survey may improve the reconstruction of the depositional environments through the recognition of massive and unconsolidated sand deposits within unit A and B (Holocene. The stratigraphic framework was also improved through the recognition of the discontinuity surface between Units C and D.

  1. M.T. AJAYI, o. SOLOMON AND L0. AJAYI

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.T. AJAYI, o. SOLOMON AND L0. AJAYI. ABSTRACT. This study examined farmers' perception and knowledge of health problems aflecting their agricultural ..... F AO, Rome. FAO, (2000). Extension and Education Analysis. SDdimensions. FAO, Rome. Forastieri, V. (1999). The International Labour Organization (ILO) ...

  2. Decoding Reed–Solomon Codes Using Euclid's Algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 4. Decoding Reed–Solomon Codes Using Euclid's Algorithm. Priti Shankar. General Article Volume 12 ... Author Affiliations. Priti Shankar1. Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  3. Graph Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    We treat a specific case of codes based on bipartite expander graphs coming from finite geometries. The code symbols are associated with the branches and the symbols connected to a given node are restricted to be codewords in a Reed-Solomon code. We give results on the parameters of the codes...

  4. Joint Synchronization Of Viterbi And Reed-Solomon Decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Joseph I.; Chauvin, Todd H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Rabkin, Jay; Belongie, Mignon L.

    1995-01-01

    Synchronization times reduced to reduce loss of data. Scheme for decoding received doubly encoded binary-data signal provides for joint synchronization of two decoders. Applies to concatenated error-correcting channel coding communication system in which, at transmitter, data first encoded by interleaved Reed-Solomon code (block code), then by convolutional code.

  5. Status ekologis mangrove Pulau Sembilan, Kabupaten Langkat Provinsi Sumatera Utara (Ecological status of mangrove of Sembilan Island, Langkat Regency, North Sumatra Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Muhtadi; Rudi H. Siregar; Rusdi Leidonald; Zulham A. Harahap

    2016-01-01

    Sembilan Island was one of the 17 islands located in the East Coast of North Sumatra. This island is surrounded by mangrove with varying thickness and density. Information on the identification and potential of mangrove in this island already reported but limited to a narrow area. Information about the value and status of mangrove ecology in this island have not been written, so it was needed to carry out for a study of mangrove ecological analysis. This information could be used later as a r...

  6. Morphometry of Concepcion Bank: Evidence of Geological and Biological Processes on a Large Volcanic Seamount of the Canary Islands Seamount Province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Rivera

    Full Text Available Concepcion Bank is the largest seamount in the Canary Islands Seamount Province (CISP, an oceanic area off NW Africa including 16 main seamounts, the Canaries archipelago and the Selvagens subarchipelago. The Bank is located 90 km northeast of Lanzarote Island and has been identified as a candidate Marine Protected Area (MPA to be included in the Natura 2000 network. A compilation of complementary datasets consisting of multibeam bathymetry, TOPAS seismic reflection profiles, side scan sonar sonographs, Remotely Operated Vehicle video records and seafloor samples allowed describing in detail and ground truthing the submarine landforms and bioconstructions exhibited by the bank. The Concepcion Bank presently rises up to 2,433 m above the adjacent seafloor and exhibits two main domains: an extensive summit plateau and steep flanks. The sub-round summit plateau is 50km by 45 km and ranges from 158 to 1,485 m depth. The steep flanks that bound it descend to depths ranging between 1,700 and 2,500 m and define a seamount base that is 66km by 53 km. This morphology is the result of constructive and erosive processes involving different time scales, volumes of material and rates of change. The volcanic emplacement phase probably lasted 25-30 million years and was likely responsible for most of the 2,730 km3 of material that presently form the seamount. Subsequently, marine abrasion and, possibly, subaerial erosion modulated by global sea level oscillations, levelled the formerly emerging seamount summit plateau, in particular its shallower (<400 m, flatter (<0.5° eastern half. Subsidence associated to the crustal cooling that followed the emplacement phase further contributed the current depth range of the seamount. The deeper and steeper (2.3° western half of Concepcion Bank may result from tectonic tilting normal to a NNE-SSW fracture line. This fracture may still be expressed on the seafloor surface at some scarps detected on the seamount's summit

  7. Balanced Reed-Solomon codes for all parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Halbawi, Wael

    2016-10-27

    We construct balanced and sparsest generator matrices for cyclic Reed-Solomon codes with any length n and dimension k. By sparsest, we mean that each row has the least possible number of nonzeros, while balanced means that the number of nonzeros in any two columns differs by at most one. Codes allowing such encoding schemes are useful in distributed settings where computational load-balancing is critical. The problem was first studied by Dau et al. who showed, using probabilistic arguments, that there always exists an MDS code over a sufficiently large field such that its generator matrix is both sparsest and balanced. Motivated by the need for an explicit construction with efficient decoding, the authors of the current paper showed that the generator matrix of a cyclic Reed-Solomon code of length n and dimension k can always be transformed to one that is both sparsest and balanced, when n and k are such that k/n (n-k+1) is an integer. In this paper, we lift this condition and construct balanced and sparsest generator matrices for cyclic Reed-Solomon codes for any set of parameters.

  8. An indigenous soil classification system for Bellona Island - a raised atoll in the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2010-01-01

    perceive the same four out of seven soil types as highly useful for cultivation and rank these soil types similarly according to their suitability for different crops such as yam, watermelon, cassava and sweet potato. It is concluded that the indigenous soil classification is in line with the soil...

  9. "Everything was a Stage": An Oral History with Ruth Solomon, Founding UCSC Professor of Theater Arts and Dance

    OpenAIRE

    Reti, Irene H.; Beal, Tandy

    2014-01-01

    Ruth Solomon arrived at the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1970 as a professor in the theater arts board and an affiliate of the brand-new College Five (now Porter College). At UC Santa Cruz, Solomon created a visionary program within the theater arts board that synthesized dance and theater. She taught at UC Santa Cruz until 1995. Solomon also founded and coordinated UCSC’s prestigious Summer Dance Theater Institute from 1972 until 1980. In 1953 Solomon entered Bard College...

  10. Examples of Mechanism Design : From King Solomon to eBay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Weerdt, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The judgment of king Solomon is an early example of mechanism design. Mechanism design attempts to achieve desired outcomes in situations with self-interested players by setting the rules of the game in a specific way. We will see that the game Solomon proposed would not have worked if the women

  11. Transfers and Altruistic Punishments in Solomon's Game experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Ottone, Stefania

    2005-01-01

    Our research is a variant of the third party punishment game that we call Solomon's Game. The main feature of this game is that players can not only punish unfair people but also help those individuals who are the victims of that unfairness. The aim of this experiment is to compare the human tendency to punish unfair behavior to the desire to help victims of that unfairness, in presence of a budget constraint and without the expectation of a long-run pecuniary gain.

  12. Recreation service delivery by local governments in the North West Province] / Victor Solomon Mogajane

    OpenAIRE

    Mogajane, Victor Solomon

    2011-01-01

    Service delivery in all aspects of life is a major problem facing the local, provincial and national governments in South Africa. Service delivery, in particular recreation as a field intending to better the total quality of life of the people seems not to receive the attention it deserves. From the comprehensive reviewed literature it was revealed that participation in recreation has numerous benefits such as improving personal health, a key determinant to health status. Recre...

  13. Status ekologis mangrove Pulau Sembilan, Kabupaten Langkat Provinsi Sumatera Utara (Ecological status of mangrove of Sembilan Island, Langkat Regency, North Sumatra Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Muhtadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sembilan Island was one of the 17 islands located in the East Coast of North Sumatra. This island is surrounded by mangrove with varying thickness and density. Information on the identification and potential of mangrove in this island already reported but limited to a narrow area. Information about the value and status of mangrove ecology in this island have not been written, so it was needed to carry out for a study of mangrove ecological analysis. This information could be used later as a reference in sustainable mangrove management. The objective of the study was to determine the value and ecological status of mangroves. The research was conducted in September 2015. The data were collected at 9 sampling points namely; 4 points in the east, 2 points in the south and 3 points in the west part of the study areas. The spot check method was used in the study. The results showed that there were 28 species of mangrove belonging to 13 families. It's divided into  26 species of true mangrove and two species of associated mangroves. Mangrove’s zonation was Avicennia/Sonneratia on the front and ferns (A. Aureum and A. speciosum in the section near the mainland. Mangrove thickness reached 134 - 1683 m. The density of mangrove was 333 - 4601 individuals/ha with the cover area of 2522 - 5810 cm2/ha. The results of the importance index value of mangrove showed that A. marina has a great influence and role in the community of mangrove vegetation, especially in the eastern part. Therefore, the mangrove in Sembilan Island was categorized into damage to good condition. The good category was recorded in the western part of the island, while the damaged category was found in the east part of the island. Pulau Sembilan merupakan satu diantara 17 pulau yang terdapat di wilayah Pantai Timur Sumatera Utara. Hampir sepanjang pantai di Pulau Sembilan di tumbuhi oleh mangrove dengan ketebalan yang bervariasi. Informasi tentang identifikasi dan potensi mangrove di

  14. Solomon M. Hsiang Receives 2013 Science for Solutions Award: Citation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Solomon Hsiang is representative of a new generation in the geosciences community, whose work spans several disciplines, drawing on methods and concepts from far outside the traditional physical science domain in order to make progress on difficult questions at the intersection of natural science, social science, and public policy. Broadly speaking, by examining how humanity has responded to climate variability and change in the distant and recent past, Sol's research elucidates the question of how humanity may respond to a changing climate in the future. Combining large, independent sets of social science, meteorological, and climatological data and analyzing them with tools more common in microeconomics than natural science, Sol, still at an early stage of his career, has made critical contributions to an incipient revolution in our understanding of the sensitivity and adaptability of humans and their social arrangements to climate variability and change. Such insights will greatly improve the information base from which effective public policy is developed.

  15. Kaskaskia Island Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-07-01

    include a Victorian era brick church and a small shrine housing a historic bell. 1.2. AUTHORIZATION AND HISTORY The plan of improvement for Kaskaskia...kinship ties. Inter- marriage among island families has been common, and a complicated web of kinship lines exists. Almost all residents of the island know...impact of disaster on kin relationships." Journal of Marriage and the Family. 37:481-494, August. Emge, W.P.; Solomon, R.C.; Johnson, J.H.; Bingham, R.C

  16. King Solomon's Silver? Southern Phoenician Hacksilber Hoards and the Location of Tarshish

    OpenAIRE

    Christine M. Thompson; Sheldon Skaggs

    2013-01-01

    Evidence from silver hoards found in Phoenicia is linking Tarshish, the legendary source of King Solomon's silver, to ores in the western Mediterranean. Biblical passages sometimes describe this lost land as a supplier of metals (especially silver) to Phoenician sailors who traded in the service of Solomon and Hiram of Tyre in the 10th century BC. Classical authors similarly attribute the mercantile supremacy of the Phoenicians to their command of lucrative supplies of silver in the west, bef...

  17. ANALYSES OF FORAMINIFERS MICROFAUNA AS ENVIRONMENTAL BIOINDICATORS IN KOTOK BESAR, KOTOK KECIL AND KARANG BONGKOK ISLANDS, KEPULAUAN SERIBU, DKI JAKARTA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazar Nurdin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kepulauan Seribu is a well-known destination of marine tourism in Indonesia. Inevitably, the place has been affected by human activities. Hence it is important to preserve and conserve the area so as it is still suitable for reef community to grow and develop. One of the methods to evaluate the feasibility for reef environment is calculated by FoRAM Index (FI values. Benthic foraminifera as a tool for environmental bioindicators were collected from 15 marine surface sediment samples in the vicinity areas of Kotok Besar, Kotok Kecil and Karang Bongkok islands in Kepulauan Seribu to assess the FI values. Approximately 20 genera of benthic foraminifera were found in the study area. The genera are dominated by Amphistegina and Calcarina along with Operculina, Quinqueloculina, Peneroplis, and Discorbis. The finding signifies reef flat environment as the dominant morphology, although the presence of fore slope is also observed particularly at the western part of Kotok Besar island. The assemblages of Operculina and Quinqueloculina suggest that the abundance of benthic foraminifera is influenced not only by the morphology of seafloor, but also by tidal current and terrestrial influence. The FI formula using foraminifers found in the study area results values above 4, thus the area can be reviewed as a decent environment for reef growth and development.

  18. PENGEMBANGAN PARIWISATA BAHARI BERBASIS MASYARAKAT DI PULAU KALEDUPA, KABUPATEN WAKATOBI, PROVINSI SULAWESI TENGGARA (Community Based Marine Tourism Development in Kaledupa Island, Wakatobi Regency, South East Sulawesi Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadiwijaya Lesmana Salim

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengetahui pengembangan pariwisata bahari berbasis masyarakat di Pulau Kaledupa dan sekitarnya, Kabupaten Wakatobi, Provinsi Sulawesi Tenggara. Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Oktober – November 2014. Penelitian menggunakan metode analisis prospektif partisipatif, wawancara, analisis pengaruh antar-variabel kunci, membangun skenario, dan analisis implikasi strategis dan aksi antisipatif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat tiga variabel utama yang harus dititikberatkan dalam pengembangan wisata bahari di Pulau Kaledupa dan sekitarnya, yaitu informatif, koordinasi antar instansi, dan sumberdaya alam. Penitikberatan pada ketiga variabel tersebut diharapkan dapat menghilangkan kesalahpahaman dan kesalahpenafsiran atas informasi yang diberikan sehingga dapat menunjang hubungan yang harmonis antar pemangku kepentingan pengembangan wisata bahari. Koordinasi yang harmonis diharapkan dapat mensinergikan antar perencanaan, pengembangan dan pengelolaan. Diharapkan pula sumberdaya alam yang ada berkesinambungan tanpa mengurangi dan merusak kualitasnya.   ABSTRACT The research on community based marine tourism development at Kaledupa island has been conducted on October – November 2014. This research used participatory prospective analysis, interview, Influence Analysis of inter key variables, scenario building, and Analysis of Strategic Implication and Anticipative act. The result shows that there are three key variables that should be focused on marine tourism development at Kaledupa island i.e informative, inter-institutions coordination, and natural resources. These variables should be focused in order to relieve misconception and misinterpretation on information which is given, so that it can support harmonic relationship between marine tourism stakeholders. The synergy of planning, development, and management can be expected from harmonic coordination. It is also expected that existing natural resources

  19. Living on the margin: dealing with climate change in remote Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel

    In the global debate of climate change the fate of small islands states has played a significant role, in spite of the relatively few people affected. This thesis examines how such islands, here mainly represented by two atoll groups in remote parts of Solomon Islands in the Southwest Pacific, Reef...... include problems of achieving land tenure security outside the home island, unresolved issues of housing of migrants, problems of finding proper jobs, and expensive and irregular ship connections to the islands. It is argued that if these barriers are overcome, voluntary migration may be considered...

  20. Factors Contributing to the Implementation of Inclusive Education in Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Umesh; Loreman, Tim; Macanawai, Setareki

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the outcomes of focus group discussions reflected in presentations of concept maps relating to the implementation of inclusive education in the Pacific based on the views of 39 stakeholders from four countries (Fiji, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu). Five themes emerged, with one of the strongest being that of culture,…

  1. Breast cancer risk, fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A gene-environment interactions in a province-wide case control study in Prince Edward Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; VanLeeuwen, John; Cribb, Alastair; Andreou, Pantelis; Guernsey, Judith Read

    2012-05-01

    Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI) Canada. Specific objectives were: (1) to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2) to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46-1.17). Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.

  2. Breast Cancer Risk, Fungicide Exposure and CYP1A1*2A Gene-Environment Interactions in a Province-Wide Case Control Study in Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Read Guernsey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific certainty regarding environmental toxin-related etiologies of breast cancer, particularly among women with genetic polymorphisms in estrogen metabolizing enzymes, is lacking. Fungicides have been recognized for their carcinogenic potential, yet there is a paucity of epidemiological studies examining the health risks of these agents. The association between agricultural fungicide exposure and breast cancer risk was examined in a secondary analysis of a province-wide breast cancer case-control study in Prince Edward Island (PEI Canada. Specific objectives were: (1 to derive and examine the level of association between estimated fungicide exposures, and breast cancer risk among women in PEI; and (2 to assess the potential for gene-environment interactions between fungicide exposure and a CYP1A1 polymorphism in cases versus controls. After 1:3 matching of 207 cases to 621 controls by age, family history of breast cancer and menopausal status, fungicide exposure was not significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (OR = 0.74; 95% CI: 0.46–1.17. Moreover, no statistically significant interactions between fungicide exposure and CYP1A1*2A were observed. Gene-environment interactions were identified. Though interpretations of findings are challenged by uncertainty of exposure assignment and small sample sizes, this study does provide grounds for further research.

  3. Orthogonality of binary codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Charles T.

    1991-07-01

    A simple method is developed for determining the orthogonality of binary codes derived from Reed-Solomon codes and other cyclic codes of length (2 exp m) - 1 over GF(2 exp m) for m bits. Depending on the spectra of the codes, it is sufficient to test a small number of single-frequency pairs for orthogonality, and a pair of bases may be tested in each case simply by summing the appropriate powers of elements of the dual bases. This simple test can be used to find self-orthogonal codes. For even values of m, the author presents a technique that can be used to choose a basis that produces a self-orthogonal, doubly-even code in certain cases, particularly when m is highly composite. If m is a power of 2, this technique can be used to find self-dual bases for GF(2 exp m). Although the primary emphasis is on testing for self orthogonality, the fundamental theorems presented apply also to the orthogonality of two different codes.

  4. F00280: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Solomons Island, Maryland, 1986-04-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  5. Adapting postcolonial societies: two case studies from the Pacific island region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Rodd

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sovereign Pacific island states attract little attention from the great powers. They achieved independence peacefully, mostly from the United Kingdom, and have generally maintained functional democratic societies. Nonetheless, some Pacific states have struggled with the political, institutional and economic legacy of colonization. Tensions between indigenous norms and practices and the expectations of a transposed Western model of society have led to crises. This paper focuses on two Pacific Island states, Fiji and the Solomon Islands. The collapse of the state in the Solomons at the turn of this century, and repeated military coups in Fiji, are due in part to the failure of British-derived institutions to be fully accepted. In both these countries, indigenous people have proposed reforms of these inherited models. Nonetheless, as we shall see, the recent rewriting of these two countries’ constitutions has maintained the fundamentals of the Westminster system, and a government by Westernized indigenous élites.

  6. FROM DAVID T0 SOLOMON (1 KINGS 1-2): AN AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOURNAL OF PHILOSOPHY A ND (Y ]L HIRE. Bathsheba, 'fSolomon your son shall reign after me, and shall sit upon my throne in my stead” (1 Kings .... the likelihood is that the designated person may murder the incumbent to hasten his ascension to the throne32 In almost all societies the king was the embodiment of the ...

  7. On the Dimension of Graph Codes with Reed–Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Høholdt, Tom; Pinero, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We study a class of graph based codes with Reed-Solomon component codes as affine variety codes. We give a formulation of the exact dimension of graph codes in general. We give an algebraic description of these codes which makes the exact computation of the dimension of the graph codes easier....

  8. Multi-Trial Guruswami–Sudan Decoding for Generalised Reed–Solomon Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Johan Sebastian Rosenkilde; Zeh, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An iterated refinement procedure for the Guruswami–Sudan list decoding algorithm for Generalised Reed–Solomon codes based on Alekhnovich’s module minimisation is proposed. The method is parametrisable and allows variants of the usual list decoding approach. In particular, finding the list...

  9. Parallel Subspace Subcodes of Reed-Solomon Codes for Magnetic Recording Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han

    2010-01-01

    Read channel architectures based on a single low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are being considered for the next generation of hard disk drives. However, LDPC-only solutions suffer from the error floor problem, which may compromise reliability, if not handled properly. Concatenated architectures using an LDPC code plus a Reed-Solomon (RS) code…

  10. Key-equations for list decoding of Reed-Solomon codes and how to solve them

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Peter; Brander, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    A Reed-Solomon code of length n can be list decoded using the well-known Guruswami-Sudan algorithm. By a result of Alekhnovich (2005) the interpolation part in this algorithm can be done in complexity O(s^4l^4nlog^2nloglogn), where l denotes the designed list size and s the multiplicity parameter...

  11. 77 FR 47279 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Patuxent River; Solomons, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... understanding this rule. If the rule would affect your small business, organization, or governmental... establishing special local regulations during the ``Chesapeake Challenge'' power boat races, a marine event to... Chesapeake Bay Power Boat Association will sponsor power boat races on the Patuxent River near Solomons, MD...

  12. Changes in shifting cultivation systems on small Pacific islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertz, Ole; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Elberling, Bo

    2012-01-01

    , Solomon Islands, where shifting cultivation is still maintained in the traditional way. Fallow length has increased despite population growth due to redistribution of the cultivated area, migration-induced extensification and changes in crops. Productivity of the farming system remains high although......The limited information on change in shifting cultivation systems of small islands of the Pacific stands in contrast to increasing evidence of this farming system's demise in other parts of the tropics. Here, we assess changes in agricultural activities during the past 40 years of Bellona Island...... there are indications of soil degradation in the centre of the island. However, there are no signs that the traditional shifting cultivation system in Bellona may become unsustainable in the near future and extreme land use transformations seen in other Pacific islands are not found here...

  13. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  14. Islands, Island Studies, Island Studies Journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Baldacchino

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Islands are sites of innovative conceptualizations, whether of nature or human enterprise, whether virtual or real. The study of islands on their own terms today enjoys a growing and wide-ranging recognition. This paper celebrates the launch of Island Studies Journal in the context of a long and thrilling tradition of island studies scholarship.

  15. Adaptive Single-Trial Error/Erasure Decoding of Reed-Solomon Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Senger, Christian; Schober, Steffen; Bossert, Martin; Zyablov, Victor V

    2011-01-01

    Algebraic decoding algorithms are commonly applied for the decoding of Reed-Solomon codes. Their main advantages are low computational complexity and predictable decoding capabilities. Many algorithms can be extended for correction of both errors and erasures. This enables the decoder to exploit binary quantized reliability information obtained from the transmission channel: Received symbols with high reliability are forwarded to the decoding algorithm while symbols with low reliability are erased. In this paper we investigate adaptive single-trial error/erasure decoding of Reed-Solomon codes, i.e. we derive an adaptive erasing strategy which minimizes the residual codeword error probability after decoding. Our result is applicable to any error/erasure decoding algorithm as long as its decoding capabilities can be expressed by a decoder capability function. Examples are Bounded Minimum Distance decoding with the Berlekamp-Massey- or the Sugiyama algorithms and the Guruswami-Sudan list decoder.

  16. General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit Based High-Rate Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughry, Thomas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    As the volume of data acquired by space-based sensors increases, mission data compression/decompression and forward error correction code processing performance must likewise scale. This competency development effort was explored using the General Purpose Graphics Processing Unit (GPGPU) to accomplish high-rate Rice Decompression and high-rate Reed-Solomon (RS) decoding at the satellite mission ground station. Each algorithm was implemented and benchmarked on a single GPGPU. Distributed processing across one to four GPGPUs was also investigated. The results show that the GPGPU has considerable potential for performing satellite communication Data Signal Processing, with three times or better performance improvements and up to ten times reduction in cost over custom hardware, at least in the case of Rice Decompression and Reed-Solomon Decoding.

  17. Evaluation of Extended CCSDS Reed-Solomon Codes for Bandwidth efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Dahl; Justesen, Jørn; Larsen, Knud J.

    1999-01-01

    on the recommendation aimed at improving the presentation in the recommendation. We comment on the selection of a pseudo-randomiser sequence in the recommendation and suggest an alternative with better properties. An alternative to higher rate Reed-Solomon codes is investigated by puncturing the convolutional codes....... Finally, we present advantages and disadvantages by placing the frame synchronizer before and after the Viterbi decoder, and we suggest an option where the attached sync marker is not convolutionally encoded....

  18. The Solomon Sea: its circulation, chemistry, geochemistry and biology explored during two oceanographic cruises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Ganachaud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The semi-enclosed Solomon Sea in the southwestern tropical Pacific is on the pathway of a major oceanic circuit connecting the subtropics to the equator via energetic western boundary currents. Waters transiting through this area replenish the Pacific Warm Pool and ultimately feed the equatorial current system, in particular the equatorial undercurrent. In addition to dynamical transformations, water masses undergo nutrient and micronutrient enrichment when coming in contact with the coasts, impacting the productivity of the downstream equatorial region. Broadscale observing systems are not well suited for describing the fine-scale currents and water masses properties in the Solomon Sea, leaving it relatively unexplored. Two multidisciplinary oceanographic cruises were conducted in the Solomon Sea region, the first in July–August 2012 and the second in March 2014, by investigators from France and the United States. The experimental approach combined physical, chemical, geochemical and biogeochemical analyses, providing access to a wide range of space and time scales of the circulation. This collection of data allows describing the fine-scale structure of the currents and the water properties, transformations and mixing from the surface to the sill depth in the Solomon Sea and in the straits connecting it to the equator. Ocean-margin exchanges were documented through a comprehensive sampling of trace elements and isotopes as efficient tracers of natural fertilization processes. As air chemistry is largely impacted by the regional volcanic plumes, rainwater pH was also sampled. Dinitrogen fixation rates were measured and found to be among the highest in the global ocean, highlighting this region as a hot spot of nitrogen fixation. This study provides an overview of the climatic context during both cruises and the physical circulation and water masses properties. It provides a comprehensive description of all measurements made onboard, and

  19. A new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Solomon ground skink, Sphenomorphus solomonis (Boulenger) (Sauria: Scincidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Duszynski, Donald W; Fisher, Robert N; Austin, Christopher C

    2014-01-01

    Between September 1990 and November 1991, 19 Sphenomorphus spp. skinks, including nine S. jobiense, three S. simus, and seven Solomon ground skinks, S. solomonis (Boulenger), were collected from Madang and Morobe Provinces, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and examined for coccidia. A single S. solomonis was found to be infected with a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875. Oöcysts of Eimeria perkinsae n. sp. are ellipsoidal with a smooth, colourless, bi-layered wall, measure 18.6 × 14.7 μm, and have a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.3; both micropyle and oöcyst residuum are absent, but a fragmented polar granule is present. Sporocysts are ovoidal, 8.9 × 6.4 μm, L/W 1.4; neither Stieda, sub-Stieda or para-Stieda bodies are present; a sporocyst residuum consisted of a loose cluster of granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites are comma-shaped with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the first report of coccidia from this skink genus.

  20. FPGA-based Implementation of a Streaming Decoder for Shortened Reed-Solomon Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Fedorov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches to decoding shortened block codes are the padding of received codeword with zeros or correction of the syndrome polynomial values. Such approaches make stream-oriented decoding of continuous input data stream impossible. The paper offers a new technique for decoding the shortened Reed-Solomon codes. Its hardware implementation allows us to provide stream processing, reduce latency in clock cycles, and decrease a required quantity of hardware resources as compared to decoder implementation with padding of received packet with zeros. A distinctive feature of the proposed technique is that the decoder processes a stream of code words of different lengths without changing their structure and insertion of additional delays and that it is possible to use the modules of existing Reed-Solomon decoders for full codeword length. To enable this, a notion of error locator corrector for shortened code is introduced and a technique of their calculation is offered. Error locator correctors are calculated during the reception of a codeword in parallel to syndrome polynomial calculation. Their values allow us to modify the polynomial values of locators and errors at the output of the key equation solver. The paper considers a shortened code decoder that is implemented on the full code decoder modules based on Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, describes architecture of additional modules and required modifications of the algorithm. It shows the way to save hardware resources by using the multipliers in Berlekemp-Massey key equation solver to correct values. The Altera FPGA-based decoder has been tested in and compared to the Reed-Solomon II decoder IP from Altera.

  1. The Role of the CMB in Redshift Related Departures from the Gao–Solomon Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R.

    2017-11-01

    A strong correlation between the far-IR and HCN(1‑0) line luminosities, known as the Gao–Solomon relation, has been observed to hold over more than 10 orders of magnitude in the local universe. Departures from this relation at redshifts ≳1.5 have been interpreted as evidence for increased dense gas star formation efficiency in luminous galaxies during the period of peak of star formation in the history of the universe. We examine whether the offsets from the relation can be explained by the hotter Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) at high redshift, which, due to a loss of contrast against the hotter background, reduces the observable molecular-line flux far more significantly than the far-IR continuum bands. Simple line-of-sight modeling argues for highly significant departures from the Gao–Solomon relation at high redshift for kinetic temperatures ∼15 K, while more complex toy-galaxy models based on NGC 1068 suggest a much weaker effect with the galaxy integrated HCN line flux falling by only 10% at z = 3, within the intrinsic scatter of the relation. We conclude that, while the CMB is unlikely to explain the deviations reported in the literature, it may introduce a second-order effect on the relation by raising the low-luminosity end of the Gao–Solomon relation in cooler galaxies. A similar examination of the CO-IR relation finds tantalizing signs of the CMB having a measurable effect on the integrated CO emission in high-redshift galaxies, but these signs cannot be confirmed with the current data.

  2. Decoding of interleaved Reed-Solomon codes using improved power decoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puchinger, Sven; Rosenkilde ne Nielsen, Johan

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new partial decoding algorithm for m-interleaved Reed-Solomon (IRS) codes that can decode, with high probability, a random error of relative weight 1 − Rm/m+1 at all code rates R, in time polynomial in the code length n. For m > 2, this is an asymptotic improvement over the previous...... state-of-the-art for all rates, and the first improvement for R > 1/3 in the last 20 years. The method combines collaborative decoding of IRS codes with power decoding up to the Johnson radius....

  3. The Guruswami--Sudan Decoding Algorithm for Reed--Solomon Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEliece, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    This article is a tutorial discussion of the Guruswami-Sudan (GS) Reed-Solomon decoding algorithm, including self-contained treatments of the Kotter and Roth-Ruckenstein (RR) improvements. It also contains a number of new results, including a rigorous discussion of the average size of the decoder's list, an improvement in the RR algorithm's stopping rule, a simplified treatment of the combinatorics of weighted monomial orders, and a proof of the monotonicity of the GS decoding radius as a function of the interpolation multiplicity.

  4. Analysis of Iterated Hard Decision Decoding of Product Codes with Reed-Solomon Component Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Jørn; Høholdt, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Products of Reed-Solomon codes are important in applications because they offer a combination of large blocks, low decoding complexity, and good performance. A recent result on random graphs can be used to show that with high probability a large number of errors can be corrected by iterating...... minimum distance decoding. We present an analysis related to density evolution which gives the exact asymptotic value of the decoding threshold and also provides a closed form approximation to the distribution of errors in each step of the decoding of finite length codes....

  5. NP-Hardness of Reed-Solomon Decoding, and the Prouhet-Tarry-Escott Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Gandikota, Venkata; Ghazi, Badih; Grigorescu, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Establishing the complexity of {\\em Bounded Distance Decoding} for Reed-Solomon codes is a fundamental open problem in coding theory, explicitly asked by Guruswami and Vardy (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, 2005). The problem is motivated by the large current gap between the regime when it is NP-hard, and the regime when it is efficiently solvable (i.e., the Johnson radius). We show the first NP-hardness results for asymptotically smaller decoding radii than the maximum likelihood decoding radius of...

  6. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Isnaniawardhani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the nature of the generation is small to medium and the locations are dispersed. The geological condition of Maluku Province is conducive for the formation of geothermal resources. The advanced utilization of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is in Tulehu located about 8 kilometers NE of Ambon. It is expected that 60 MW electric will be produced at the first stage in 2019. A total of 100 MW resources were estimated. Other places of geothermal potentials are Lauke and Tawen both located in Ambon Island with the potentials of 25 MW respectively. In Oma Haruku, Saparua and Nusa Laut the geothermal potentials were estimated to be 25 MW each. The total amount of geothermal energy in Maluku Province is thus, 225 MW which will contribute significantly to the needs of projected 184 MW in the year 2025. Keywords: Maluku Province, geothermal energy, suitable, dispersed, conducive

  7. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  8. Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands......An update introduction including recent legislative changes on the Folkchurch of the Faroe Islands...

  9. The Shock of the Whole: Phenomenologies of Global Mapping in Solomon Nikritin’s The Old and the New

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, S.

    2016-01-01

    A painting made in 1935 by the Soviet artist Solomon Nikritin offers an intriguing vision of global cartography at work in the social world. The Old and the New depicts an illegible globe amid figures symbolising tradition and progress in a desolate landscape. This article presents a reading of the

  10. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S

    2017-06-06

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  11. RAID-6 reed-solomon codes with asymptotically optimal arithmetic complexities

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian-Jheng

    2016-12-24

    In computer storage, RAID 6 is a level of RAID that can tolerate two failed drives. When RAID-6 is implemented by Reed-Solomon (RS) codes, the penalty of the writing performance is on the field multiplications in the second parity. In this paper, we present a configuration of the factors of the second-parity formula, such that the arithmetic complexity can reach the optimal complexity bound when the code length approaches infinity. In the proposed approach, the intermediate data used for the first parity is also utilized to calculate the second parity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach supporting the RAID-6 RS codes to approach the optimal arithmetic complexity.

  12. Novel Polynomial Basis with Fast Fourier Transform and Its Application to Reed-Solomon Erasure Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian-Jheng

    2016-09-13

    In this paper, we present a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm over extension binary fields, where the polynomial is represented in a non-standard basis. The proposed Fourier-like transform requires O(h lg(h)) field operations, where h is the number of evaluation points. Based on the proposed Fourier-like algorithm, we then develop the encoding/ decoding algorithms for (n = 2m; k) Reed-Solomon erasure codes. The proposed encoding/erasure decoding algorithm requires O(n lg(n)), in both additive and multiplicative complexities. As the complexity leading factor is small, the proposed algorithms are advantageous in practical applications. Finally, the approaches to convert the basis between the monomial basis and the new basis are proposed.

  13. Design of Application-Specific Instructions and Hardware Accelerator for Reed-Solomon Codecs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jaesung

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new application-specific digital signal processor (ASDSP instructions and their hardware accelerator to efficiently implement Reed-Solomon (RS encoding and decoding, which is one of the most widely used forward error control (FEC algorithms. The proposed ASDSP architecture can implement various programmable primitive polynomials, and thus, hardwired RS codecs can be replaced. The new instructions and their hardware accelerator perform Galois field (GF operations using the proposed GF multiplier and adder. Therefore, the proposed digital signal processor (DSP architecture can significantly reduce the number of clock cycles compared with existing DSP chips. The proposed GF multiplier was implemented using the Faraday 0.25 m standard cell library and it can perform RS decoding at a rate up to 228.1 Mbps at 130 MHz.

  14. Positioning the Testimony of Job Ben Solomon, An Enslaved African American Muslim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sulaiman Al-Badaai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayyub Ben Suleiman Diallo, better known as Job ben Solomon was among thousands of African Muslims enslaved in America. Job was a son of a high Priest from Senegal. He was kidnapped by his African enemy and sold as a slave in the New World in 1731. He worked on a tobacco plantation in Maryland. He ran away and was captured and imprisoned. Job’s literacy in Arabic attracted the attention of the philanthropist James Oglethorpe who helped to free him. In 1733, Job sailed to England and later returned to Africa. Upon Job’s request, Thomas Bluett wrote Some Memoirs of the Life of Job the Son of Solomon (1734. Allan Austin claims in his book African Muslims in Antebellum America: Transatlantic Stories and Spiritual Struggles (1997 that Job might be considered as the “father of African American Literature”. Muhammad Al-Ahari (2006 states that this account “is perhaps the earliest biography of any African-Americans”. However, William Andrews (1988 with other scholars consider the year of 1760 the appearance of slave narrative as genre. What is more, African Muslim slave narratives have been excluded from African American anthologies. Florence Marfo (2009 in her article entitled “African Muslims in African American Literature” discusses some possible reasons for this omission which mostly relate to the perceived identity of enslaved African American Muslims and the absence of an anti-slavery goal in their narratives. This paper aims to position Job’s testimony in the light of arguments made by the other scholars.

  15. Prevalence of Active and Latent Yaws in the Solomon Islands 18 Months after Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Both yaws and trachoma are endemic in the Pacific. Mass treatment with azithromycin is the mainstay of the WHO strategy for both the eradication of yaws and the elimination of trachoma as a public health problem, but the dose recommended for trachoma is lower than that for yaws. In countries where both diseases are endemic, there is a potential for synergy between yaws and trachoma control programs if mass treatment with the lower dose of azithromycin was shown to be effective for the treatment of yaws. In an earlier study, we demonstrated a profound reduction in the clinical and serological prevalence of yaws following a single round of mass treatment with azithromycin 20 mg/kg undertaken for the purposes of trachoma elimination.This survey was conducted 18 months following a single round of azithromycin mass treatment in the same communities in which we had conducted our previous six-month follow-up survey. We examined children aged 1-14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis using the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA and the non-treponemal Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR test.A total of 1,284 children were enrolled in the study. Amongst children aged 5-14 years, 223 had a positive TPPA (27.5%, 95% CI 13.6-47.7%. The TPPA seroprevalence amongst this age group did not differ significantly from either our pre-mass treatment survey or our initial follow-up survey. Thirty-five children had positive TPPA and positive RPR (4.3%, 95% CI 2.1-8.7%, and this did not differ significantly from our initial post-mass drug administration (MDA follow-up survey (4.3% versus 3.5%, p = 0.43 but remained significantly lower than our initial pre-MDA survey (4.3% vs 21.7%, p <0.0001. Village-level MDA coverage was strongly associated with dual-seropositivity (p = 0.005. Amongst children aged 1-4 years, 16 had a positive TPPA (3.5%, 95% CI 1.6-7.1%. This did not differ significantly from the seroprevalence in this age group that had been predicted based on our previous surveys (3.5% vs 5%, p = 0.11. Fourteen children (1.1% were considered to have a skin lesion clinically consistent with yaws, but none of these individuals was seropositive for yaws. Of nine cases where a swab could be collected for PCR, all were negative for Treponema pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA.In this study we have shown that the benefit of a single round of mass treatment with azithromycin 20mg/kg appears to extend to 18 months without any further intervention. The lack of a significant change in seroprevalence from 6 to 18 months after mass treatment might suggest that interventions could be spaced at yearly intervals without a significant loss of impact, and that this might facilitate integration of yaws eradication with other neglected tropical disease (NTD control programmes. MDA coverage above 90% was associated with significantly better outcomes than coverages lower than this threshold, and strategies to improve coverage at all stages of yaws eradication efforts should be investigated.

  16. Counterinsurgency in a Test Tube. Analyzing the Success of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    included increased numbers of women, for example, their pres- ence having been found to better facilitate relations with Bougain- ville’s female ...eventually support the effort, a force that included infantry units from New Zea - land, Jordan, South Korea, Canada, the United Kingdom, Fiji, Italy...displays, but most importantly we had dogs dig- ging weapons out of the ground. We had mine detectors find- ing buried weapons. And we let people look

  17. New subspecies of Papilio and Graphium from the Solomon Islands, with Observations on Graphium Codrus (Lepidoptera, Papilionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racheli, T.

    1979-01-01

    During inspection of the Papilionid butterflies of the Nieuwenhuis collection in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, I found some new forms which are described below. Papilio toboroi straatmani ssp. nov. (pl. 1 figs. 1-2) Diagnosis. — Characterized by the large discal band on fore and

  18. Two new species of the genus Potamogeton L. (Potamogetonaceae) from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegleb, G.

    1993-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Potamogeton, P. papuanicus and P. solomonensis, are described. The systematic position of the species within the genus is discussed. Potamogeton papuanicus belongs either to section Nodosi or section Colorati, while P. solomonensis is related to section Sclerocarpi.

  19. Prince Edward Island. Reference Series No. 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Prince Edward Island and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, history, early trade, development, agriculture, the potato industry, forests, fisheries, aquaculture, industry, tourism, energy,…

  20. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  1. Pacific Island Polygons, Pacific Islands, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Islands for the United States. The Islands layer contains all islands within a NAVSTREETS coverage area. An island is represented as a polygonal feature. The...

  2. Explicit Solutions for the Solomon-Wilson-Alexiades’s Mushy Zone Model with Convective or Heat Flux Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo A. Tarzia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We complete the Solomon-Wilson-Alexiades’s mushy zone model (Solomon, 1982 for the one-phase Lamé-Clapeyron-Stefan problem by obtaining explicit solutions when a convective or heat flux boundary condition is imposed on the fixed face for a semi-infinite material. We also obtain the necessary and sufficient condition on data in order to get the explicit solutions for both cases which is new with respect to the original model. Moreover, when these conditions are satisfied, the two phase-change problems are equivalent to the same problem with a temperature boundary condition on the fixed face and therefore an inequality for the coefficient which characterized one of the two free interfaces of the model is also obtained.

  3. El plan de cuatro grupos de Solomon : evaluación educativa transhispanoamericana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter Gorenc

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicaron dos modalidades de talleres de investigación -corta y larga- para habilitar por espacio de diez años a 658 investigadores hispanoamericanos, divididos en 30 grupos. La eficiencia terminal de los talleres fue medida con un diseño de pre y post-test y las diferencias con una prueba t-Student -para muestras dependientes-. Los resultados mostraron que los valores del post-test eran más elevados -p ≤ 0.001- que los del pretest. Contrastando las dos versiones del taller, el promedio del largo fue significantemente mayor -p ≤ 0.001- que el del corto; esto, bajo la tutela de un diseño múltiple de pre y post-test y la prueba t-Student, pero para muestras independientes. Con el diseño de cuatro grupos de Solomon se estableció que el incremento significativo en el conocimiento sobre diseños de investigación no fue intervenido por los factores tratamiento y pretest -interacción- y no se observaron diferencias significativas entre ambas versiones. Two modalities of research design's workshops -long and short- were developed to qualify 658 Hispanamerican research workers, whom were divided into 30 groups, and were applyied along ten years. The terminal efficiency of the workshops was measured with a pre-post-test design and the differences were assessed with a t-test -for dependent samples-. The results showed that the values of the post-test were higher -p ≤ 0.001- than the pretest averages. Contrasting the two workshop versions, the average of the long workshop was significantly higher -p ≤ 0.001- than the short one, by means of a multiple pre-post-test design and the t-test for independent samples. Using Solomon four-group design it was feasible to establish that the significant increase of knowledge about research designs was not influenced by the interaction of the pretest and treatment factors and there was not observed any significant difference between both versions.

  4. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  5. Complexity Analysis of Reed-Solomon Decoding over GF without Using Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ning

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There has been renewed interest in decoding Reed-Solomon (RS codes without using syndromes recently. In this paper, we investigate the complexity of syndromeless decoding, and compare it to that of syndrome-based decoding. Aiming to provide guidelines to practical applications, our complexity analysis focuses on RS codes over characteristic-2 fields, for which some multiplicative FFT techniques are not applicable. Due to moderate block lengths of RS codes in practice, our analysis is complete, without big notation. In addition to fast implementation using additive FFT techniques, we also consider direct implementation, which is still relevant for RS codes with moderate lengths. For high-rate RS codes, when compared to syndrome-based decoding algorithms, not only syndromeless decoding algorithms require more field operations regardless of implementation, but also decoder architectures based on their direct implementations have higher hardware costs and lower throughput. We also derive tighter bounds on the complexities of fast polynomial multiplications based on Cantor's approach and the fast extended Euclidean algorithm.

  6. Implementation and modeling of parametrizable high-speed Reed Solomon decoders on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Flocke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important error correction codes in digital signal processing is the Reed Solomon code. A lot of VLSI implementations have been described in literature. This paper introduces a highly parametrizable RS-decoder for FPGAs. By implementing resource-sharing and by using a fully pipelined multiplier/adder-unit in GF(2m it was possible to achieve high throughput rates up to 1.3Gbit/s on a standard FPGA, while using only an attractive small amount of logical elements (LE. The implementation, written in a hardware description language (HDL, is based on an inversionless Berlekamp Algorithm (iBA, whose structure leads to a chain of identical processing elements (PE. The critical path of one PE runs only through one adder and one multiplier. A detailed description of a resource-sharing methodology for this Berlekamp Algorithm and the achievable gain are presented in this paper. The benchmarking for the design was done for different 8bit-codes against state-of-the-art FPGA-solutions and showed a gain of up to a factor of six regarding the AT-product, compared to other implementations.

  7. Complexity Analysis of Reed-Solomon Decoding over GF(2m without Using Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyuan Yan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been renewed interest in decoding Reed-Solomon (RS codes without using syndromes recently. In this paper, we investigate the complexity of syndromeless decoding, and compare it to that of syndrome-based decoding. Aiming to provide guidelines to practical applications, our complexity analysis focuses on RS codes over characteristic-2 fields, for which some multiplicative FFT techniques are not applicable. Due to moderate block lengths of RS codes in practice, our analysis is complete, without big O notation. In addition to fast implementation using additive FFT techniques, we also consider direct implementation, which is still relevant for RS codes with moderate lengths. For high-rate RS codes, when compared to syndrome-based decoding algorithms, not only syndromeless decoding algorithms require more field operations regardless of implementation, but also decoder architectures based on their direct implementations have higher hardware costs and lower throughput. We also derive tighter bounds on the complexities of fast polynomial multiplications based on Cantor's approach and the fast extended Euclidean algorithm.

  8. FFT Algorithm for Binary Extension Finite Fields and Its Application to Reed–Solomon Codes

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Sian Jheng

    2016-08-15

    Recently, a new polynomial basis over binary extension fields was proposed, such that the fast Fourier transform (FFT) over such fields can be computed in the complexity of order O(n lg(n)), where n is the number of points evaluated in FFT. In this paper, we reformulate this FFT algorithm, such that it can be easier understood and be extended to develop frequency-domain decoding algorithms for (n = 2(m), k) systematic Reed-Solomon (RS) codes over F-2m, m is an element of Z(+), with n-k a power of two. First, the basis of syndrome polynomials is reformulated in the decoding procedure so that the new transforms can be applied to the decoding procedure. A fast extended Euclidean algorithm is developed to determine the error locator polynomial. The computational complexity of the proposed decoding algorithm is O(n lg(n-k)+(n-k)lg(2)(n-k)), improving upon the best currently available decoding complexity O(n lg(2)(n) lg lg(n)), and reaching the best known complexity bound that was established by Justesen in 1976. However, Justesen\\'s approach is only for the codes over some specific fields, which can apply Cooley-Tukey FFTs. As revealed by the computer simulations, the proposed decoding algorithm is 50 times faster than the conventional one for the (2(16), 2(15)) RS code over F-216.

  9. Jostling for Position: The Future of Regional Power-Sharing and the Role of the Pacific Islands Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kylie Evans-Locke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Forum has long held the title of the most dominant regional association with links in trade, politics and regional security. Following two political coups in the region the PIF was forced to shift its approach to regional governance opting for a more active and hands-on role with its first such mission being the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI. The role undertaken by the PIF within RAMSI is noteworthy for its shifts and changes with an initially minimalist role morphed into an intermediary role as tensions rose between the major funding donor, Australia, and the host state, Solomon Islands in 2006-07. Although the PIF acted in a mediator role in this instance this has not been the normal role for the institution. This article examines the role the PIF has adopted in managing regional democratic stability through targeted development activities, whether their adopted role is applicable on a wider regional-level scale, and further, through examining key human-security related challenges, such as climate change, where the PIF fits into regional power-sharing institutions in the Pacific Islands of the future.

  10. Epidemic polyarthritis (Ross River) virus infection in the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, L; Gubler, D J; Bennett, P H

    1981-11-01

    An epidemic of Ross River virus infection occurred in the Cook Islands early in 1980 and affected the majority of the inhabitants of Rarotonga, the most populated island in the group. This represents the easternmost extension of the virus which, until 1979, was believed limited to Australia, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. The clinical manifestations of Ross River disease, predominantly polyarthritis, did not differ significantly from those observed previously in Australia. However, unlike the experience in Australia, where Ross River virus has never been isolated from a patient with polyarthritis, the agent was recovered from the serum of one-half of approximately 100 such patients with serologically proven infections. It is not known if this latter observation is the result of a change in the virus, the different virus isolation technique employed, or other factors. It was found that the incubation period of the disease could be as short as 3 days--much less than previously suspected. Ross River virus was isolated from six pools of Aedes polynesiensis mosquitoes collected in nature and it appeared that this species was the most probable vector on Rarotonga. In view of the widespread distribution of Ae. polynesiensis on islands, in the eastern Pacific it would not be surprising if Ross River virus occurs in other previously unaffected areas in the future.

  11. Developmental Strategies of Betel nut Industry in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jun; Han, Xuan; Liu, Li-yun; Feng, Mei-Li; Li, Zhuan; Qin, Hai-tang

    2010-01-01

    The developmental status of the betel nut industry is introduced, including cultivation situation, processing and development situation, and consumer market situation. The result shows that the cultivation of betel nut in Hainan Province develops rapidly and the primary processing of betel nut has formed certain scale, but the deep processing of betel nut is backward. Except for the minority of the betel nuts consumed by Hainan Island, a large majority of the betel nuts are processed into dry...

  12. Modelling of OBS Data Across the Vestbakken Volcanic Province

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Asude Arslan

    2011-01-01

    A P-Wave model of a 384 km long Ocean Bottom Seismometer profile has been modelled by use of ray-tracing. The profile, Bear Island South (BIS-2008), crossses the transtensional Vestbakken Volcanic Province and the boundary between northern Atlantic oceanic crust of the Barents Sea continental platform. This study is a part of the 4th International Polar Year (IPY) international project entitled The Dynamic Continental Margin Between the Mid-Atlantic-Ridge (Mohns Ridge, Knipovich Ridge)...

  13. Inter-comparison of the mean circulation in the Coral and Solomon Sea simulated by high resolution ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, C.; Durand, F.; Gasparin, F.; Melet, A.; Ganachaud, A.

    2010-12-01

    Of primary importance to the properties of water masses transported by the northern limb of the South Pacific subtropical gyre toward the equatorial band, the transfer within the Coral and, ultimately, the Solomon Sea is perturbed by the labyrinthine topography of the region. It results in highly energetic currents and complex pathways through the Vanuatu Archipelago and New Caledonia, at the entrance of the Coral Sea, and through the Solomon Sea once the flow has bifurcated northward along the coasts of Australia and of the Louisiade Archipelago of Papua New Guinea. In the Coral Sea, the existence of the North Vanuatu Jet and North Caledonian Jet is now well established but their variations as well as their detailed characteristics, including for instance their vertical extension, remain largely unknown. In this study, recourse to ocean simulations is made in order to highlight the representation of such complex circulation of the south western Pacific Ocean and to analyze the long term variability and physical mechanism implied in the jet dynamics. A brief overview of recent observations collected through the comprehensive observational SPICE program (CLIVAR/WCRP) will first be presented in order to set the context. Then, 6 different state-of-the-art numerical experiments with high horizontal resolution, ranging from 1/10 to 1/12 degree, and realistic topography regionally focused on the Coral and Solomon Sea or extracted from global experiments, are analyzed. Here, we will consider OGCMs forced by realistic and observed atmospheric fields but each model has its own strategy in terms of diffusion, topography representation and boundaries condition when appropriate. The focus is set primarily on the annual mean circulation of the upper ocean layers (above the 1000-m depth) and on the water mass transports simulated in the vicinity of the various topographic obstacles. The results will underline that most of high resolution numerical models have reached a high

  14. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages. Further developments in Earth system science, molecular biology, and trait data for islands hold continued promise for unlocking many of the unresolved questions...

  15. The susceptibility of a mixed model measure of emotional intelligence to faking: a Solomon four-group design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIEL S. WHITMAN

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used a Solomon four-group design to investigate the fakability of a widely used measure of emotional intelligence (EI. Administration instructions (faking/honest-response and testing effects (pre-test/no pre-test were the two conditions (i.e., 2 x 2 examined; two different Solomon four-group designs – one for fake-good instructional treatments and one for fake-bad instructional treatments – were assessed. Participants (n = 300 were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions and results indicate a significant pre-testing effect for fake-bad but not fake-good instructions. However, the interaction of testing and treatment was only significant for fake-good but not fake-bad. As expected, within-subjects designs resulted in higher distortion than between-subjects designs for both fake-good (d-value of 1.08 compared to 0.10 and fake-bad instructions (4.07 vs. 3.56, respectively. Participants were able to fake-bad more than fake-good, irrespective of the design used and scaling effects. Implications for EI assessments are discussed.

  16. Island Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Heinz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2010-2011, the Vancouver Island Transgender Needs Assessment, a community-based, applied research project, sought to identify the health and social needs of trans people on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. An advisory board consisting of trans-identified community members and trans-service providers guided this descriptive analysis. A total of 54 individuals identifying as transgender participated in a survey modeled after the TransPULSE Ontario instrument. Of the participants, 43% identified on the transmasculine spectrum, 39% on the transfeminine spectrum, and 18% as transgender/genderqueer only. Participants were surveyed in regard to education, employment, and income; housing; health care needs and services; suicidality; violence; life satisfaction and attitudes toward self; posttransition experiences; and community belonging. They reported health care, social support, and public education/acceptance as top needs. The article concludes with a specific needs profile and a community-generated set of recommendations stressing the need for an island-based information and resourcing center.

  17. Radio ECCA: A Distance Learning System in the Canary Islands. DERG Papers, Number 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepeda, Luis Espina

    The Cultural Radio Station of the Canary Islands (Radio ECCA), a distance learning system, is described. Various Spanish institutions have introduced the ECCA system of teaching into their respective provinces by collaborative agreements with Radio ECCA. The total enrollment of ECCA students in Spain (including the Canary Islands) reached 28,505…

  18. A Model of Teacher Support for Children with Autism: A Prince Edward Island Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Vianne; Breitenbach, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    Prince Edward Island is the smallest province in Canada with a population of 138,900. Three school boards, one French and two English, deliver grades Grades 1-12 to a total of only 24,301 students. Given its small population, Prince Edward Island provides a continuum of educational supports within an inclusionary model. There are no segregated…

  19. A new species of iguana Brachylophus Cuvier 1829 (Sauria: Iguania: Iguanidae) from Gau Island, Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert N.; Niukula, Jone; Watling, Dick; Harlow, Peter S.

    2017-01-01

    The south Pacific iguanas (Brachylophus) currently have three recognized living species in Fiji.  Recent surveys have uncovered more specific variation (morphological and genetic) within the genus and have better defined the geographic ranges of the named species.  One of these recent discoveries is a strikingly different iguana from all other island populations in Fiji which is restricted to Gau Island of the Lomaiviti Province.  Gau is the fifth largest island in Fiji and maintains excellent upland forests in the higher elevations.  We describe this population from Gau Island as a new species, Brachylophus gau sp. nov., in recognition of its type locality.

  20. A new biogeographically disjunct giant gecko (Gehyra: Gekkonidae: Reptilia) from the East Melanesian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M.; Clegg, Jonathan R.; Fisher, Robert N.; Richards, Stephen J.; Taylor, Peter N.; Jocque, Merlijn M. T.

    2016-01-01

    The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.

  1. A new biogeographically disjunct giant gecko (Gehyra: Gekkonidae: Reptilia) from the East Melanesian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Paul M; Clegg, Jonathan R; Fisher, Robert N; Richards, Stephen J; Taylor, Peter N; Jocque, Merlijn M T

    2016-12-14

    The East Melanesian Islands have been a focal area for research into island biogeography and community ecology. However, previously undescribed and biogeographically significant new species endemic to this region continue to be discovered. Here we describe a phylogenetically distinct (~20% divergence at the mitochondrial ND2 gene) and biogeographically disjunct new species of gecko in the genus Gehyra, from the Admiralty and St Matthias Islands. Gehyra rohan sp. nov. can be distinguished from all congeners by the combination of its very large size, ring of bright orange scales around the eye, moderate degree of lateral folding on the limbs and body, and aspects of head, body and tail scalation. Molecular data indicate mid to late Miocene divergence of the new species from nearest relatives occurring nearly 2000 kilometres away in Vanuatu and Fiji. Large Gehyra have not been recorded on the intervening large islands of the Bismark Archipelago (New Britain and New Ireland) and the Solomon Islands, suggesting this dispersal pre-dated the current configuration of these islands, extinction in intervening regions, or potentially elements of both. Conversely, low genetic divergence between disjunct samples on Manus and Mussau implies recent overseas dispersal via either natural or anthropogenic means.

  2. Implementasi Dan Evaluasi Kinerja Encoder-Decoder Reed Solomon Pada M-Ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-Qam Mengunakan Wireless Open-Access Research Platform (WARP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Noor Oktarini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teknik modulasi multilevel seperti M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (M-QAM memiliki kelemahan yaitu semakin tinggi level modulasi yang digunakan, maka semakin tinggi pula nilai BER yang dihasilkan. Hal ini menyebabkan kinerja sistem menjadi tidak maksimal karena sistem semakin tidak tahan terhadap noise.  Salah satu teknik error control coding yang digunakan untuk mendeteksi kesalahan sekaligus memperbaiki kesalahan yaitu kode Reed Solomon. Kelebihan dari kode Reed Solomon adalah sifatnya yang non-binary artinya data diolah dalam simbol sehingga kemampuan koreksi data lebih banyak. WARP merupakan salah satu jenis dari teknologi SDR yang bisa diprogram untuk membuat prototype sistem komunikasi nirkabel. Pengimplementasian encoder dan decoder reed solomon dengan menggunakan perangkat WARP bertujuan untuk membandingkan modulasi M-QAM dengan dan tanpa kode reed solomon, kemudian mengetahui kinerja code rate yang berbeda pada modulasi M-QAM, serta mengetahui pengaruh besarnya daya pancar dan jarak pada sistem komunikasi. Hasil implementasi terbaik terdapat pada sistem RS (15,9 yang mana dapat memperbaiki kesalahan di semua level modulasi karena memiliki kemampuan koreksi error ganda (t=3 dengan ukuran k yang sama. Dari hasil implementasi juga didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa nilai BER akan semakin besar terhadap bertambahnya jarak antar node untuk daya pancar tetap, ini menandakan jarak sangat mempengaruhi kualitas kinerja suatu sistem komunikasi.

  3. The new record orchids from Wawonii Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIAH SULISTIARINI

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Wawonii Island is belonging to Province of South-east Sulawesi, which covers area of about 650 km2. The areas is divided into four forest zones that were protected forests, production forests, limited production forests and social forests. This island was selected as a study site with consideration that this island estimated to have unique flora as same as to Sulawesi Island in general. In addition, so far there is no information about flora in this area. The study was conducted by exploring where the forest area visited, in order to collected and inventoried of plant with special attention to orchid species. Out of this study there are about 80 species of orchid were recorded and three species of them were Anoectochilus cetaceus Bl., Cryptostylis javanica J.J. Sm. and Malaxis koordersii (J.J. Sm. Bakh. f., identified as new record from Wawonii Island. Those three species according to previous information were admitted as endemic of Java. Although morphologically those three species collected from Wawonii were little bit different to which occurred in Java, but based on the species character they unable to be considered as different species. Consequently since those three the species found in Wawonii Island, those species should be categorized as non endemic of Java.

  4. Diseño de un codificador y decodificador digital Reed-Solomon usando programación en VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedón

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un procedimiento práctico para el diseño de un codificador/decodificador Reed-Solomon a través de la descripción funcional usando lenguaje descriptor de hardware (VHDL con la herramienta de programación Xilinx ISE 9.2i. Este trabajo propone un diseño que usa los beneficios que presenta la programación VHDL, su característica de modularidad, y la estrategia de seccionar el diseño en componentes menos complejos para facilitar el proceso. Además, se detalla la metodología del diseño del decodificador a través de procesamiento paralelo. Para la validación del comportamiento del codificador/decodificador, se realizaron simulaciones con el programa ModelSim XE 5.7c.

  5. Aristotle, the jewish sages and Solomon in an unpublished collection of sayings, Palabras breves: dichos de sabios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Haro Cortés

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edition of an unpublished collection of sayings, of Jewish origin, to be found in Manuscript 5644 of the Biblioteca Nacional in Madrid, on folios 78V (lxxxv to 84V (lxxxviv. The contents are to be found in the Libro de los buenos proverbios (translated from Arabic into Spanish and Hebrew in the 13th century; in the Pirqué Abot, the only wisdom tractate in the Mishnah; and in the Proverbs of Solomon, part of the Tanakh, i.e. the Hebrew bible. The compilation of the work involved selecting and reorganising materials from various sources, following the editor’s tastes and interests, and giving rise to a new literary product which is a perfect example of the process and techniques involved in the assimilation and transmission of the Jewish wisdom legacy to the Castilian Middle Ages.

  6. A man and his island: The island mirror in Michael Crummey’s Sweetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Brinklow

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1946 and 1975, dozens of islands and outports in the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador were abandoned as part of a government resettlement policy. Families and communities were torn apart, and a culture and way of life that revolved around the fishery changed irrevocably. The practice, which continues to this day, has been well documented, particularly by artists and writers. Michael Crummey’s 2014 novel Sweetland is a recent iteration. The relationship between humans and place is complex: on an island, with compressed space and a very real boundary that is the ocean, emotional attachments to one’s place are often heightened and distilled. What happens when a person is displaced from his or her island; when bonds of attachment are severed and one’s mirrored double is destroyed? Sweetland offers a fictional lens through which we see an example of a mirrored relationship between an island protagonist and his island setting. Exploring themes of attachment to place, and what Barry Lopez calls a “storied” or “reciprocal” relationship with the land, this paper examines what happens to a man when confronted with leaving an island he knows as deeply as his own body and soul; and how the island reacts.

  7. Application of Enhanced Hadamard Error Correcting Code in Video-Watermarking and his comparison to Reed-Solomon Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziech Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Error Correcting Codes are playing a very important role in Video Watermarking technology. Because of very high compression rate (about 1:200 normally the watermarks can barely survive such massive attacks, despite very sophisticated embedding strategies. It can only work with a sufficient error correcting code method. In this paper, the authors compare the new developed Enhanced Hadamard Error Correcting Code (EHC with well known Reed-Solomon Code regarding its ability to preserve watermarks in the embedded video. The main idea of this new developed multidimensional Enhanced Hadamard Error Correcting Code is to map the 2D basis images into a collection of one-dimensional rows and to apply a 1D Hadamard decoding procedure on them. After this, the image is reassembled, and the 2D decoding procedure can be applied more efficiently. With this approach, it is possible to overcome the theoretical limit of error correcting capability of (d-1/2 bits, where d is a Hamming distance. Even better results could be achieved by expanding the 2D EHC to 3D. To prove the efficiency and practicability of this new Enhanced Hadamard Code, the method was applied to a video Watermarking Coding Scheme. The Video Watermarking Embedding procedure decomposes the initial video trough multi-Level Interframe Wavelet Transform. The low pass filtered part of the video stream is used for embedding the watermarks, which are protected respectively by Enhanced Hadamard or Reed-Solomon Correcting Code. The experimental results show that EHC performs much better than RS Code and seems to be very robust against strong MPEG compression.

  8. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  9. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  10. Significance of vulnerability assessment in establishment of Hainan provincal disaster medical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Lu, Chuanzhu; Son, Wei; Miao, Junhong; Ding, Yipeng; Li, Longhe; Zhang, Leilei; Zhao, Nin; Hu, Bijiang; Zhang, Yunjun

    2011-08-01

    Hainan is an island province in south China with a high frequency of unconventional emergencies due to its special geographic location and national military defense role. Given the limited transportation route from Hainan to the outside world, self-rescue is more important to Hainan Province than other provinces in China and it is therefore imperative to establish an independent, scientific as well as efficient provincal disaster medical system in Hainan. The regulatory role for vulnerability analysis/assessment has been demonstrated in establisment of disaster medical system in varoius countries and or regions. In this paper, we attempt to describe/propose how to adopt vulnerability assessment through mathematical modeling of major biophysical social vulnerability factors to establish an independent, scientific, effieicnt and comprehensive provincial disaster medical system in Hainan. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cancer epidemiology in the small nations of Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna; Foliaki, Sunia; Bray, Freddie; Roder, David

    2017-10-01

    Pacific island countries and territories (PICTs) comprise 20,000-30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean. PICTs face challenges in relation to small population sizes, geographic dispersion, increasing adoption of unhealthy life-styles and the burden of both communicable and non-communicable diseases, including cancer. This study reviews data on cancer incidence and mortality in the PICTs, with special focus on indigenous populations. PICTs with populations of GLOBOCAN 2012 database. Scientific and grey literature was narratively reviewed for publications published after 2000. Of the 21 PICTs, seven countries were included in the GLOBOCAN 2012 (Fiji, French Polynesia, Guam, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu). The highest cancer incidence and mortality rates were reported in New Caledonia (age-standardized incidence and mortality rates 297.9 and 127.3 per 100.000) and French Polynesia (age-standardized incidence and mortality rates 255.0 and 134.4 per 100.000), with relatively low rates in other countries. Literature indicated that cancer was among the leading causes of deaths in most PICTs; thus they now experience a double burden of cancers linked to infections and life-style and reproductive factors. Further, ethnic differences in cancer incidence and mortality have been reported in some PICTs, including Fiji, Guam, New Caledonia and Northern Mariana Islands. Cancer incidence in the PICTs was recorded to be relatively low, with New Caledonia and French Polynesia being exceptions. Low recorded incidence is likely to be explained by incomplete cancer registration as cancer had an important contribution to mortality. Further endeavors are needed to develop and strengthen cancer registration infrastructure and practices and to improve data quality and registration coverage in the PICTs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Livelihoods and Fisheries Governance in a Contemporary Pacific Island Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulu, Reuben J; Eriksson, Hampus; Schwarz, Anne-Maree; Andrew, Neil L; Orirana, Grace; Sukulu, Meshach; Oeta, Janet; Harohau, Daykin; Sibiti, Stephen; Toritela, Andrew; Beare, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Inshore marine resources play an important role in the livelihoods of Pacific Island coastal communities. However, such reliance can be detrimental to inshore marine ecosystems. Understanding the livelihoods of coastal communities is important for devising relevant and effective fisheries management strategies. Semi-structured household interviews were conducted with householders in Langalanga Lagoon, Solomon Islands, to understand household livelihoods and resource governance in fishing-dependent communities. Households were engaged in a diverse range of livelihoods. Fishing, shell money production and gardening were the most important livelihoods. Proximity to an urban centre influenced how households accessed some livelihoods. Perceptions of management rules varied and different reasons were cited for why rules were broken, the most common reason being to meet livelihood needs. Current models of inshore small-scale fisheries management that are based on the notion of community-based resource management may not work in locations where customary management systems are weak and livelihoods are heavily reliant on marine resources. An important step for fisheries management in such locations should include elucidating community priorities through participatory development planning, taking into consideration livelihoods as well as governance and development aspirations.

  13. Performance Analysis of the Link-16/JTIDS Waveform with Concatenated Coding, Soft Decision Reed-Solomon Decoding, and Noise-Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Finally, JTIDS uses the ultra high frequency (UHF) spectrum; hence, communications are limited to line-of-sight unless suitable relay platforms are...Quadrature Phase Shift Keying RS Reed-Solomon SNR Signal to Noise Ratio SD Soft Decision UHF Ultra High Frequency xx...ameliorates this problem, because errors can be handled by the decoder as if they were random errors. A symbol interleaver is a device that shuffles the

  14. Dispatches from the Trench: Insights into the Complex Relationship Between the Short-Term Elastic Earthquake Cycle and Longer-Term Permanent Tectonic Deformation from the Coral Record at Ranongga, Western Solomons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalai, K.; Taylor, F. W.; Shen, C. C.; Lavier, L. L.; Frohlich, C.; Wallace, L. M.; WU, C. C.; Sun, H.; Papabatu, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Key insights into the amounts of plate convergence that have been accommodated as coseismic slip vs. other mechanisms over Holocene time scales are inferred from the timing and amounts of uplift associated with past megathrust earthquakes. A Mw 8.1 earthquake in 2007 helped us calibrate the relationship between megathrust rupture and the geography and amount of vertical displacement by measuring the amounts of coseismic uplift of shallow-living corals. We discovered, mapped and used 230Th ages of ancient in-situ corals extending 20 m higher than those killed by the 2007 uplift to build an uplift history on Ranongga and adjacent islands to reconstruct a series of forearc paleouplifts overlying the seismogenic zone extending from ~4 - 40 km from the trench. Our results are surprising: from mid-Holocene to present, we find distinct spatio-temporal heterogeneity in uplift across different sites that are located close together and find that there are far too few events (by ~50%) in our coral record to accommodate the current Australian-Pacific convergence rate of ~97mm/yr. These findings lead us to suggest that 1. uplift imposed during the 2007 Mw 8.1 event may be retained in some locations but removed in others prior to the next megathrust rupture; and 2. apart from large coseismic megathrust rupture, additional mechanisms such as smaller ruptures, slow slip events or aseismic creep, and/or splay faulting must help to accommodate at least half of the interplate convergence. Thus, we propose that the Western Solomon thrust be visualized as a fault zone, and not simply a fault plane: every time the system accommodates slip, a new set of cards is dealt. Though such a situation may or may not be unique to this region, coral paleogeodesy can provide detailed histories of vertical deformation at locations accruing uplift that can provide a foundation for hypotheses concerning the accommodation of interplate slip.

  15. Prince Edward Island Heart Health Dissemination Research Project: establishing a sustainable community mobilization initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, R; Mitchell, T; Gyorfi-Dyke, E; Sweet, L; Hebert, R; Moase, O; MacPhee, R; MacDonald, B

    2001-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Prince Edward Island Heart Health Program (PEIHHP) Dissemination Research Project. Prince Edward Island (PEI) is a small province in the Atlantic region of Canada with a population of 137,980. The Island's economy is dependent on the fishery, agriculture, and tourism industries. Although unemployment rates are high (14.4%), Prince Edward Island has the lowest poverty rate in the country at 15.2%, high levels of social support (86%), and the second lowest rate of high chronic stress (Report on the Health of Canadians, 1996, 1999).

  16. Classifying Pacific islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as well as human populations, built infrastructure and natural resources.

  17. Evaluation of comprehensive environmental effect about coastal zone development activities in Liaoning Province and management advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Cai, Yue-Yin; Sun, Yong-Guang; Ma, Hong-Wei

    2015-07-01

    Using spatial analysis function of Arcgis software, the present study investigated the building environment impact evaluation index system of coastal development in Liaoning Province. The factors of it included of current state of environmental quality, environmental impact of marine development and marine environmental disaster. Weighted factor analysis and comprehensive index method were utilized. At the end, comprehensive environment effect of coastal development in Liaoning Province were evaluated successfully. The result showed that the environmental effect of development activity were most serious, along the Zhao Jiatun coast in north of Zhimao bay and coast of Mianhua island in Dalian bay.

  18. What are the Spratly Islands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Charles S.; Vijayan, V. R.

    2010-10-01

    Seismic records, combined with dredged samples and a core, indicate that the Spratly Islands of the Dangerous Ground Province are constructed of presently active carbonate build-ups, known to extend back continuously at least to the Pleistocene and presumed to have initiated in the Miocene, most likely upon the crests of sea-floor cuestas that trend north-east-south-west parallel to the sea-floor spreading magnetic anomalies of the contiguous abyssal plain of the southern part of the South China Sea. The cuestas range from spectacular to subdued, constructed of Triassic and Cretaceous strata and no older rocks have been identified from dredges. The cuesta axes plunge towards the south-west away from the islands, suggesting that the reefs began colonising their more elevated parts, but the timing is uncertain. The highest seismically recorded cuesta crest is in 440 m of water and the islands and reefs are generally closely surrounded by water deeper than 1500 m. Since the so-called Mid-Miocene Unconformity (MMU), the region has been undergoing post-rift thermal subsidence. However, the nearby seismic lines show no evidence of drowned carbonate reefs. It is suggested that the coral-algal reefs colonised the crests of the most elevated cuestas that have maintained stability as shown by the 165 m core of one reef indicating periodic exposure with caliche horizons. Deepening water has protected the build-ups from extinction by post-rift draping strata in contrast to the Central Luconia Province, and the build-ups have been able to keep up with regional thermal subsidence. The dredged Mesozoic strata indicate that the Dangerous Ground is not exotic and should be interpreted as an integral part of the pre-rift Sundaland continent that included South China, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, western Sarawak and possibly part of Sabah. Igneous and metamorphic samples have been dredged. Although individual spot K/Ar dates cannot be accepted at face value, such rocks can also be

  19. Combined crustal-geological cross-section of Ellesmere Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephenson, Randell Alexander; Schiffer, Christian; Oakey, Gordon

    Ellesmere Island, in Canada’s Arctic, consists of a series of ~SW-NE trending tectonic provinces, the crustal structure and geological expression of which represent a combination of interplate, accretionary orogenesis in the Palaeozoic and, most recently, intraplate deformation in the Cenozoic...... (Eurekan “Orogeny”). An almost complete absence of information about the crustal or lithosphere structure of Ellesmere Island has been addressed by the acquisition of teleseismic data between 2010 and 2012 on a passive seismological array called ELLITE (“Ellesmere Island Teleseismic Experiment......”). The ELLITE array consisted of seven broadband stations, deployed for two years on a 520 km long, N-S orientated profile and was logistically supported by the GSC (Canada) and SEIS-UK. Extracted Receiver Functions (RFs) and a resulting composite two-dimensional crustal scale cross-section of Ellesmere Island...

  20. Reed solomon inner-convolutional outer concatenated code with error-erasure decoding for narrowband and broadband power line communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usana Tuntoolavest

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel concatenated coding system for both narrowband and broadband power line communications (NB-PLC and BB-PLC is proposed. The order of the inner and the outer codes switches from the G3-PLC standard and the interleaver is eliminated. The Error-and-erasure decoder (EED is selected as the Reed-Solomon inner code is because the impulsive noises clearly mark the erasure positions with a threshold-based algorithm. The nonbinary convolutional outer code with vector symbol decoding (VSD can correct longer burst errors. The results show that for BB-PLC, the bit error rate (BER of RS (63,51 error-only (ED with VSD is 1.5×10-5 and of EED-VSD is 9.0×10-9 at Eb /No 26 dB. For NB-PLC, the BER of ED-VSD is 7.9×10-5 and of EED-VSD is 2.2×10-8 at Eb /No 16 dB. Therefore, BER of EED-VSD is three to four orders of magnitude lower than ED-VSD. Moreover, NB-PLC reaches the desired BER around 10-7 at about 10 dB lower Eb /No than BB-PLC.

  1. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    yellow-nosed albatross Thalassarche carteri breed at. Marion Island. Of the remaining species, the lesser or black-faced sheathbill Chionis minor breeds at both islands, but is not strictly a seabird. It is one of two sheathbills that to- gether constitute the family Chionidae. Sheathbills for- age within seabird, especially penguin, ...

  2. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the Roman Volcanic Province, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Di Girolamo, P.; Serri, G.

    1991-01-01

    The volcanism in the Roman Province of Italy can be modelled by the partial melting of heterogeneously enriched mantle sources. The heterogeneity was created by materials derived from a subducted slab which can still be traced geophysically beneath the central Apennines. New petrographical and chemical data are presented for the high-K calc-alkaline and the shoshonitic volcanics of the Campania region. Primary magmas are present only locally. The existence of spatial zonation in the volcanism of Campania is documented for the first time. The shoshonitic, leucite-basanitic and leucititic volcanics of the Phlegraean Fields-Procida-Ischia and the Somma-Vesuvius areas are, at similar degrees of evolution, about two times richer in Nb and Ba than those of northwestern Campania and the Latium part of the Roman Province. Accordingly, distinct north-western and south-eastern subprovinces can be defined. The evaluation of enrichment factors, that is the abundance ratio between the average contents of each element in the relatively primitive lavas of the low K- and the high K suites, shows that the mantle sources prior to K-metasomatism were different in the two sub-provinces of the Roman Province. In the north-western one, they resembled the sources of ocean-island tholeiites and moderately enriched MOR-basalts. In the south-east they were similar to those of ocean island alkaline lavas and enriched MORB's. Modelling based on K, P, Ce, Sr, Rb, Ba, Th, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y, Nb and {87 Sr}/{86 Sr} was carried out. It indicates that the range of mantle sources of the volcanics in northwestern Campania and Latium can be modelled by the addition of 3 to 20% of materials derived by partial melting of carbonaceous pelites to a Sr-enriched mantle wedge comparable to the Honolulu mantle source least enriched in Nb. The production of Sr-enriched mantle wedge requires either the action of fluids produced by dehydration of subducted oceanic crust, or a small amount of metasomatism caused by

  3. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Small island literature is vast in focus and aim, and is rooted in many different disciplines. The challenge is to find common grounds for researching small islands conceptually and theoretically. The aim of this article is to comment on how to research small islands, including a discussion...... and interdisciplinary in focus and link socio-economic and ecological processes of small island societies at temporal and analytical scales....

  4. Multibeam collection for EW9511: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1995-10-16 to 1995-11-18, Honiara, Solomon Island to Suva, Fiji

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  5. Uranium provinces of North America; their definition, distribution, and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Warren Irvin

    1996-01-01

    formed initially by hot saline formational water related to diagenesis (»1,400 to 1,330 Ma) and later reconcentrated by hydrothermal events at »1,280–»1,000, »575, and »225 Ma. Subsequently in North America, only minor uranium mineralization occurred until after continental collision in Permian time (255 Ma). Three principal epochs of uranium mineralization occurred in the CPUP: (1) » 210–200 Ma, shortly after Late Triassic sedimentation; (2) »155–150 Ma, in Late Jurassic time; and (3) » 135 Ma, after sedimentation of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The most likely source of the uranium was silicic volcaniclastics for the three epochs derived from a volcanic island arc at the west edge of the North American continent. Uranium mineralization occurred during Eocene, Miocene, and Pliocene times in the RMIBUP, GCUP, and BRUP. Volcanic activity took place near the west edge of the continent during and shortly after sedimentation of the host rocks in these three provinces. Some volcanic centers in the Sierra de Peña Blanca district within the BRUP may have provided uranium-rich ash to host rocks in the GCUP.Most of the uranium provinces in North America appear to have a common theme of close associations to volcanic activity related to the development of the western margin of the North American plate. The south and west margin of the Canadian Shield formed the leading edge of the progress of uranium source development and mineralization from the Proterozoic to the present. The development of favorable hosts and sources of uranium is related to various tectonic elements developed over time. Periods of major uranium mineralization in North America were Early Proterozoic, Middle Proterozoic, Late Triassic–Early Jurassic, Early Cretaceous, Oligocene, and Miocene. Tertiary mineralization was the most pervasive, covering most of Western and Southern North America. 

  6. Studies on diversity and biogeography of island bryophytes:significances, progress and dircetion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jing

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are few studies on bryophytes diversity and biogeography of bryophytes in coastal islands.Our reviews on bryophyte diversity and biogeography of bryophytes on islands showed disputes existing on breeding characteristics,spreading ability of bryophytes and applicability of island biogeography theory on bryophytes.China has a large number of coastal islands,but most of them lack any bryophytes information.Therefore,studies on bryophytes in Chinese coastal islands are of theoretical and practical significances.Zhoushan archipelago of Zhejiang province is an ideal region for us to conduct bryophyte diversity and biogeographical study,especially for us to understand the influences of habitat fragmentation on the genetic diversity of bryophytes.The 4607 islands along the coast of Zhejiang and Fujiang,accounting for 62.5% of that of China,are suitable for us to study the gradient distribution of bryophyte diversity and its relationship with climate.

  7. Tidal Current Energy Resource Assessment Around Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ribal, Agustinus; Amir, Amir Kamal; Toaha, Syamsuddin; Kusuma, Jeffry; Khaeruddin

    2017-01-01

    International Journal bereputasi An early stage of assessing tidal current energy resources is carried out in this present work. Tidal current power is estimated around Buton Island, Southeast Sulawesi province, Indonesia. Two-dimensional, depth-integrated of Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) model has been used to simulate tidal elevation and barotropic tidal current around the island. Green???s function approach has been used to improve eight tidal constituents on the open boundary condition...

  8. Mesopelagic N2 Fixation Related to Organic Matter Composition in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas (Southwest Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Mar; Moisander, Pia H.; Berthelot, Hugo; Dittmar, Thorsten; Grosso, Olivier; Bonnet, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Dinitrogen (N2) fixation was investigated together with organic matter composition in the mesopelagic zone of the Bismarck (Transect 1) and Solomon (Transect 2) Seas (Southwest Pacific). Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) and the presence of compounds sharing molecular formulae with saturated fatty acids and sugars, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM) compounds containing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) were higher on Transect 1 than on Transect 2, while oxygen concentrations showed an opposite pattern. N2 fixation rates (up to ~1 nmol N L-1 d-1) were higher in Transect 1 than in Transect 2, and correlated positively with TEP, suggesting a dependence of diazotroph activity on organic matter. The scores of the multivariate ordination of DOM molecular formulae and their relative abundance correlated negatively with bacterial abundances and positively with N2 fixation rates, suggesting an active bacterial exploitation of DOM and its use to sustain diazotrophic activity. Sequences of the nifH gene clustered with Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, and included representatives from Clusters I, III and IV. A third of the clone library included sequences close to the potentially anaerobic Cluster III, suggesting that N2 fixation was partially supported by presumably particle-attached diazotrophs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer-probe sets were designed for three phylotypes and showed low abundances, with a phylotype within Cluster III at up to 103 nifH gene copies L-1. These results provide new insights into the ecology of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and suggest that organic matter sustains their activity in the mesopelagic ocean. PMID:26659074

  9. Personalised normative feedback for preventing alcohol misuse in university students: Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T Moreira

    Full Text Available Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse.Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls. Drinking behaviour measures were (i alcohol disorders; (ii frequency; (iii typical quantity, (iv weekly consumption; (v alcohol-related problems; (vi perceived drinking norms; and (vii positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers.Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis.We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population.Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467.

  10. Mesopelagic N2 Fixation Related to Organic Matter Composition in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas (Southwest Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Benavides

    Full Text Available Dinitrogen (N2 fixation was investigated together with organic matter composition in the mesopelagic zone of the Bismarck (Transect 1 and Solomon (Transect 2 Seas (Southwest Pacific. Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP and the presence of compounds sharing molecular formulae with saturated fatty acids and sugars, as well as dissolved organic matter (DOM compounds containing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P were higher on Transect 1 than on Transect 2, while oxygen concentrations showed an opposite pattern. N2 fixation rates (up to ~1 nmol N L-1 d-1 were higher in Transect 1 than in Transect 2, and correlated positively with TEP, suggesting a dependence of diazotroph activity on organic matter. The scores of the multivariate ordination of DOM molecular formulae and their relative abundance correlated negatively with bacterial abundances and positively with N2 fixation rates, suggesting an active bacterial exploitation of DOM and its use to sustain diazotrophic activity. Sequences of the nifH gene clustered with Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma- and Deltaproteobacteria, and included representatives from Clusters I, III and IV. A third of the clone library included sequences close to the potentially anaerobic Cluster III, suggesting that N2 fixation was partially supported by presumably particle-attached diazotrophs. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR primer-probe sets were designed for three phylotypes and showed low abundances, with a phylotype within Cluster III at up to 103 nifH gene copies L-1. These results provide new insights into the ecology of non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs and suggest that organic matter sustains their activity in the mesopelagic ocean.

  11. The Impact of the Prince Edward Island School Library Policy on the Development of School Library Programs across Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, Ray; Davies, Judy

    In Canada's smallest province, Prince Edward Island (PEI), the "PEI School Library Policy" and its supporting documents have guided the development of school library programs since 1989. This study explores the impact that policy has had on school library programs in PEI. The "Survey of School Library Resource Centers" probed…

  12. The aquatic Coleoptera of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records and faunal composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic Coleoptera (Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Elmidae, Dryopidae, Heteroceridae of Prince Edward Island, Canada is surveyed. Seventy-two species are now known to occur on Prince Edward Island, 26 of which are added to the island's faunal list. Three species, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte, Oulimnius latiusculus (LeConte, and Helichus striatus LeConte, are removed since there are no voucher specimens or published records to substantiate their presence. The name Dineutus horni is designated as an incorrect subsequent spelling of Dineutus hornii Roberts, 1895. The composition of the fauna is briefly discussed, both from regional and zoogeographic perspectives. There is only one introduced species, Helophorus grandis Illiger. Only one third of the aquatic fauna recorded on the neighbouring mainland has been found on Prince Edward Island, perhaps reflecting an island-associated diminution, the paucity of collecting, an area effect, or a combination of all these factors. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are compared. Prince Edward Island's is 36% smaller than the others, in contrast with the island's carabid fauna which is almost identical in magnitude with that of Cape Breton. This might reflect dispersal obstacles, the relative paucity of aquatic habitats on the island, or an insufficient collecting effort. Further research would be desirable, both to better discern the composition of the province's fauna, as well as to monitor the health of aquatic ecosystems in relation to anthropogenic activities.

  13. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2017-12-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Laptev Sea Shelf Province as part of the 2008 Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal (CARA) program. The province is situated in the Russian Federation and is located between the Taimyr Peninsula and the Novosibirsk (New Siberian) Islands. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined for this study: the West Laptev Grabens AU, the East Laptev Horsts AU, and the Anisin-Novosibirsk AU, two of which were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources. The East Laptev Horsts AU was not quantitatively assessed. The estimated mean volumes of undiscovered oil and gas for the Laptev Sea Shelf Province are approximately 3 billion barrels of crude oil, 32 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and <1 billion barrels of natural gas liquids, all north of the Arctic Circle.

  14. Legislative Hearing: Regulations on the Solomon Amendment to the Defense Act of 1983. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1286 and H.R. 1567, and H.R. 1622 and H.R. 2145 (February 23, 24; March 23, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Hearings on the Solomon amendment regulations proposed by the U.S. Department of Education are presented. The Solomon amendment requires that any student be registered under the military's Selective Service Act in order to receive Title IV federal student assistance. H.R. 1286 and H.R. 1567 would repeal the provision of the Military Selective…

  15. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  16. A practical strategy for responding to a case of lymphatic filariasis post-elimination in Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Humpress; Asugeni, James; Jimuru, Christopher; Gwalaa, John; Ribeyro, Elmer; Bradbury, Richard; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick

    2013-07-26

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) due to Wuchereria bancrofti is being eliminated from Oceania under the Pacific Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis Programme. LF was endemic in Solomon Islands but in the 2010-2020 Strategic Plan of the Global Programme to Eliminate LF, Solomon Islands was listed as non-endemic for LF. In countries now declared free of LF an important question is what monitoring strategy should be used to detect any residual foci of LF? The index case, a 44 year old male, presented to Atoifi Adventist Hospital, Malaita, Solomon Islands in April 2011 with elephantiasis of the lower leg. Persistent swelling had commenced 16 months previously. He was negative for antigen by TropBio Og4C3 ELISA and for microfilaria. A week later a survey of 197 people aged from 1 year to 68 years was conducted at Alasi, the index case's village, by a research team from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing. This represented 66.3% of the village population. Blood was collected between 22:00 and 03:00 by finger-prick and made into thick smears to detect microfilaria and collected onto filter paper for W. bancrofti antigen tests. A second group of 110 specimens was similarly collected from residents of the Hospital campus and inpatients. W. bancrofti antigen was tested for using the Trop-Bio Og4C3 test. One sample (1/307) from an 18 year old male from Alsai was positive for W. bancrofti antigen. No samples were positive for microfilaria. Although antigen-positivity indicated a live worm, the case was regarded as having been acquired some years previously. We propose that when LF has been eliminated from a country, a case of elephantiasis should be a trigger to conduct a survey of the case's community using a decision pathway. W. bancrofti antigen should be tested for with screening for microfilariae in antigen positive cases. The field survey was designed and conducted by local researchers, highlighting the value of local research capacity in remote areas.

  17. Lithospheric Evolution of Magmas from the Northern Galapagos Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M.; Geist, D.; Harpp, K. S.; Mittelstaedt, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes of the Northern Galapagos Providence (NGP) are crucial to understanding the interaction between the Galapagos Plume and the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC). The NGP consists of five islands and nine volcanic lineaments, all located south of the GSC. Major and trace element compositions of seamounts within the NGP provide insight into the lithospheric evolution of magma within the province. The FLAMINGO cruise (June, 2010) dredged forty-seven localities in the NGP. Major element compositions were determined by XRF and microprobe analysis of submarine rocks and glasses. Crystallization as a function of pressure and temperature is modeled with MELTS and projections into ternary phase diagrams. The Wolf-Darwin Lineament (WDL) is divided into three groups for evaluation of the lavas’ petrology: Northern Wolf-Darwin lineament (that closest to the GSC including Darwin Island), Middle Wolf-Darwin lineament (MWDL, which includes Wolf Island), and Southern Wolf-Darwin lineament (that closest to the Galapagos Platform). Lavas from two other lineaments to the east of the WDL and around Pinta Island are assessed as well. Two parental compositions are modeled, one enriched and one depleted (K2O/TiO2 >0.23 as enriched and K2O/TiO2 =0.04 as depleted). CaO/Al2O3 and Al2O3 variations with Mg# vary considerably as a function of pressure. Magmas from most of the subregions of the NGP evolved by crystallization of olivine and plagioclase, with little CPX crystallization. This indicates that crystallization beneath these volcanoes is limited to pressures 16.5% could be from very low extents of partial melting. The dominantly shallow crystallization depths within the NGP contrast with the deep crustal crystallization that characterizes magmas from the Galapagos Platform. We attribute the rarity of deep crustal fractionation as due to the relatively thin lithosphere south of the GSC as well as the extensional tectonic regime.

  18. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  19. CULTURAL TOURISM POTENTIAL IN THE NORTH CENTRAL PROVINCE OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijitapure Wimalaratana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International tourism has recorded a tremendous growth in the past and this trend will continue further uninterruptedly. Sri Lanka has been one of the major tourist attractions since antiquity. The end of a protracted civil war has been a blessing for the tourist industry and the consequent rapid expansion of tourist infrastructure in the island. Although the island is a small one, it is rich in religious and cultural diversity. Buddhism is the main religion of the majority of people, while Hinduism, Christianity and Islam are also practiced by portions of the population. The resultant rich cultural heritage of the island has been constructed around religious practices, historical monuments and ancient cities, meditation, yoga, folk music and dances, festivities, ceremonies and rituals. Special sites with multi religious attractions reflect the diversity and uniqueness of a rich culture. The North Central Province of Sri Lanka is especially rich in cultural resources owing largely to it housing two cities that served as the island’s capital for more than 1000 years in ancient times. Only a small fraction of this vast amount of resources has been utilized by the tourism industry so far. The paper argues that the promotion of religious and cultural tourism products in the North Central Province of Sri Lanka will open up new avenues of engagement for tourists and income generation for the island. Ancient monuments and religious sites, segments of culture tourism, would be magnates to overseas archeologists and Buddhist communities.

  20. Biogeographical Evidences Help Revealing the Origin of Hainan Island.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Both the continental or island origin of Hainan, and the Indo-Malaysian or East Asian affinity of its flora, are debatable. In this study, 196 families, 1283 genera and 3894 species of Hainan plants were recognized. Patterns of seed plant distribution were quantified at the generic and the family levels. The floras of Vietnam, and the adjacent Guangxi and Guangdong provinces of mainland China, were compared with Hainan. The results showed that the flora of Hainan Island is dominated by families and genera with tropical distributions. Among its floristic elements, tropical Asian distributions make up 23.85% of the total flora, while East Asian distributions contribute only 3.74%. There are only 7 genera and c. 10% of species endemic to Hainan Island. The Hainan flora has strong similarities to the flora of Vietnam at the family and the generic levels, and also to the flora of Guangxi, but less with the adjacent Guangdong province. The main conclusions are: Hainan's flora is tropical in nature with a strongly tropical Asian affinity, and it has very low endemism at the generic and species levels, which implies a continental origin. We conjecture that Hainan Island could have been adjacent to northern Vietnam and the Guangxi at least in Eocene. This suggestion is supported by palaeobotanical, palaeomagnetic and volcanism studies.

  1. Chasing the shadows, a trip to spice island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, A.; Soegijoko, W.; Baskoro, A. A.; Satyaningsih, R.; Simatupang, F. M.; Maulana, F.; Suherli, J.; Syamara, R.; Canas, L.; Stevenson, T.; Oktariani, F.; Santosa, I.; Ariadi, F.; Carvalho, N.; Soegijoko, K.

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Total Solar Eclipse provided us an opportunity to introduce astronomy to a much wider audience. The path of totality crossed the Indonesia from Sumatra to the Maluku Islands and ended its journey in the Pacific Ocean. Its path crossed over 4 major islands, 12 provinces and many cities. Most of the cities have minimum exposure to astronomy. langitselatan travelled to observe the eclipse and to do astronomy outreach at the eastern most island under the eclipse path. We chose Maba, a small village in East Halmahera, North Maluku as our site to observe the eclipse as well as conduct a workshop for teachers and students. The aim of the workshop is to introduce astronomy taking advantage of the eclipse as well as raise awareness and curiosity among students. In this paper, we will share a short report regarding the whole trip and event in Maba.

  2. Epidemiology of leprosy on five isolated islands in the Flores Sea, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Mirjam I.; Hatta, Mochammad; Kwenang, Agnes; Klatser, Paul R.; Oskam, Linda

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a population-based survey on five small islands in South Sulawesi Province (Indonesia) to collect baseline data previous to a chemoprophylactic intervention study aiming at interrupting the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae . Here we describe the present leprosy epidemiology on these

  3. Urban Aspirations and Theme Park and Casino-led Transformations at Hengqin Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong, C.E.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I consider one aspect of the Chinese urban governance process – the intended creation of the third ‘New Area’ in China (after Pudong in Shanghai and Binhai in Tianjin) on the island of Hengqin in the Pearl River Delta. Part of the Guangdong province and within the jurisdiction of

  4. Back to Treasure Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  5. [Nested species subsets of amphibians and reptiles in Thousand Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Wang, Yan-Ping; Ding, Ping

    2012-10-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a main cause for the loss of biological diversity. Combining line-transect methods to survey the amphibians and reptiles on 23 islands on Thousand Island Lake in Zhejiang province, along with survey data on nearby plant species and habitat variables collected by GIS, we used the"BINMATNEST (binary matrix nestedness temperature calculator)" software and the Spearman rank correlation to examine whether amphibians and reptiles followed nested subsets and their influencing factors. The results showed that amphibians and reptiles were significantly nested, and that the island area and habitat type were significantly associated with their nested ranks. Therefore, to effectively protect amphibians and reptiles in the Thousand Islands Lake area we should pay prior attention to islands with larger areas and more habitat types.

  6. Marion Island and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    . Surveys were undertaken from 19 November to 13 December 1997 and from 18 to 31 December 2001. At Marion Island, eggs are laid between 23 October and 19 December, with 70% laid from 2 to 14 November (Williams 1980). The area.

  7. The DeLong islands and Arctic tectonic reconstuctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pease, Victoria; Tegner, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Geological 'piercing points' (large igneous provinces and dike swarms, faults, fold and thrust belts, dissected basins, etc.) are unique in space and time and provide the means to constrain tectonic reconstructions. The De Long Archipelago, Russian Arctic, may provide such a piercing point for Arctic reconstructions given the distinctive geology of some of its islands. A joint Russian (VSEGEI) - Swedish (SWEDARCTIC) expedition to the De Long Archipelago in September of 2013 allowed us to perform fieldwork on the De Long islands of Bennett, Henrietta, and Jeanetta. This was the first geological investigation of Jeanetta island since the expedition of M. Ermoleav in 1933. The De Long Archipelago comprises five islands from 50km2 in size: Bennett, Henrietta, Jeanetta, Zhakov, and Vilkitsky. Of these, the last two are quite young, entirley volcanic, and geologically unrelated to the others. Our initial results from Bennett are presented in a companion abstract (Tegner & Pease, 2014). Henrietta Island comprises clastic, volcanoclastic, and volcanogenic rocks (sandstone, siltstone, tuffaceous clastic sediment, gabbro, basaltic dikes, sills and flows). The rocks are folded and faulted, and have been inferred to be Carboniferous (foraminifera), late Devonian to Carboniferous (K-Ar ages), and Ordovician (Ar-Ar age) in age. Jeanetta Island consists of sandstone, shale, dikes and volcanogenic rocks. Their ages are unknown, but may be correlated with the rocks of Henrietta Island. The geology of the Henrietta and Jeanetta islands appears unique in the archipelago and, depending on their age/provenance, may provide a 'piercing point' for Arctic tectonic reconstructions reflecting M'Clintockian, Caledonian, or Ellesmerian genesis. The application of modern geochronological and geochemical techniques will provide important information on the age and tectonic setting(s) of these clastic, volcanoclastic and volcanogenic deposits. We will present preliminary U-Pb zircon results from

  8. A small separate fatherland of our own: regional history writing and regional identity on islands in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Holmén

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gotland, Åland, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa and Bornholm are five islands in the Baltic Sea which constitute, or have until recently constituted, provinces or counties. Combining perspectives from the fields of island studies and history, this article investigates how regional history writing has contributed to the formation of regional identity on each island since the year 1800. The special geographic situation of the islands – somewhat secluded from the mainland but also connected to important waterways – has provided their inhabitants with shared historical experiences. Due to varying geographic and historical circumstances, the relationship between regional and national identity is however different on each island. While regional history writing has often aimed at integrating the island into the nation state, it has on Åland in the 20th century been used to portray its inhabitants as a separate nation.

  9. Adventive Staphylinidae (Coleoptera of the Maritime Provinces of Canada: further contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of adventive Palaearctic staphylinids, Ilyobates bennetti Donisthorpe, Meotica exilis (Knoch, Meotica 'pallens' (Redtenbacher, Anotylus insecatus (Gravenhorst, Anotylus tetracarinatus Block, Oxytelus sculptus Gravenhorst, and Lathrobium fulvipenne (Gravenhorst are newly recorded in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. One of these, M. exilis, a cosmopolitan species, is newly recorded in Canada and represents the first verifiable report of this species from North America. The history of M. exilis in North America is examined indicating that previous reports were the result of misidentification or of specimens of uncertain identity that can no longer be located. The confused nomenclature of this species is also discussed. The confused taxonomy of Meotica 'pallens' is discussed with regard to the identity of the species reported under this name in North America. Atheta dadopora Thomson is newly recorded in Prince Edward Island. Records are provided that establish the presence of L. fulvipenne in North America in five Canadian provinces. Observations on A. insecatus in the field establish that they are predators of dipteran larvae. New early dates of detection are reported for Quedius curtipennis Bernhauer, Tasgius ater (Gravenhorst, Philonthus cognatus Stephens, and Philonthus rectangulus Sharp. As a consequence, 87 species of adventive Staphylinidae are now known to occur in the Maritime Provinces, 76 of which have been recorded in Nova Scotia, 61 in New Brunswick, and 29 on Prince Edward Island. The staphylinid fauna is briefl y discussed in relation to its zoogeographic components and its regional composition.

  10. Aves, province of Guizhou, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen, G.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report our inventories of birds observed and collected at three field sites from the province of Guizhou,southeastern China. Our findings detailed herein complement our previous ornithological surveys from Guangxiprovince, as part of a comprehensive biotic survey of the region. Of 153 total bird species recorded, 17 were new for theprovince, among which several taxa of conservational importance, such as: Golden Pheasant Crysolophus pictus,Tawny Fish-Owl Ketupa flavipes, Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis, Fujian Flycatcher Niltava davidii, RedtailedLaughingthrush Garrulax milnei, and Slaty Bunting Latoucheornis siemsseni. These records provide the mostrecent insight into the current status of the habitats and the avian biodiversity of an important, yet sparsely surveyed andreported biogeographic region.

  11. Sustainable Agro-Industrial Ecology Concept of the Madura Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaya, Joyce Martha; Tanuwidjaja, Gunawan

    2017-07-01

    Madura as one small island in East Java Province, Indonesia faced many challenges due to limited transportation connectivity, limited water resources and karst geology. Due to this reasons, the Government of Indonesia proposed a strategic plan to improve the development of the island to Surabaya, the largest port for the Eastern of Indonesia. It was started with building the Surabaya - Madura (SuraMadu) Bridge with 5.7 km length in 2003. The bridge was finally completed in 2009, improving the traffic flow into the island and development of Madura Island. Unfortunately, the strategy would not be comprehensive without strategic development of the Madura Island, especially in Bangkalan District (Kabupaten Bangkalan). The Central Government has proposed a Green Industry with zero waste and clean energy concept. This industry and port would process the agriculture products from Madura for the export and Eastern part of Indonesia market. Therefore, an industrial ecology concept was needed to achieve the sustainable green industry for Eastern of Indonesia.

  12. EARTH ISLAND PROJECT NEWS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

      The section features Earth Island's Dolphin Safe tuna . label (asking readers to look for tuna cans without the Dolphin Safe label and alert us so we can have the cans removed from store shelves...

  13. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  14. Small islands adrift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  15. Mapping natural radioactivity of soils in the eastern Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo, M A; Rubiano, J G; Alonso, H; Tejera, A; González, A; González, J; Gil, J M; Rodríguez, R; Martel, P; Bolivar, J P

    2017-01-01

    The Canary Islands archipielago (Spain) comprises seven main volcanic islands and several islets that form a chain extending for around 500 km across the eastern Atlantic, between latitudes 27°N and 30°N, with its eastern edge only 100 km from the NW African coast. The administrative province of Las Palmas comprises the three eastern Canary Islands (Lanzarote, Fuerteventura and Gran Canaria). An extensive study of terrestrial gamma dose rates in surface soils has been carried out to cover the entire territory of the province (4093 km2). The average outdoor gamma dose rate in air at 1 m above ground is 73 nGyh-1 at Gran Canaria, 32 nGyh-1 at Fuerteventura, and 25 nGyh-1 at Lanzarote. To complete the radiological characterization of this volcanic area, 350 soil samples at 0-5 cm depth were collected to cover all the geologic typologies of the islands. These samples were measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry to determine the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The average values obtained were 25.2 Bq/kg, 28.9 Bq/kg, and 384.4 Bq/kg, respectively. Maps of terrestrial gamma activity, effective dose, and activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K for the region have been developed through the use of geostatistical interpolation techniques. These maps are in accord with the geology of the islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 58880 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Wedding Event, Catawba Island Club, Catawba Island, OH ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing... Island. DATES: This rule will be effective and enforced from 7:50 p.m. until 8:30 p.m. on October 5, 2013...

  17. Simulation of the effects of management alternatives on the stream-aquifer system, South Fork Solomon River Valley between Webster Reservoir and Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, R.D.; Reed, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    With extensive irrigation use of both surface water and groundwater in the South Fork Solomon River valley shortages of these water supplies have been created. A two-dimensional digital model of transient groundwater flow was applied to investigate the potential effects on the stream aquifer system of seven management alternatives. These alternatives included proposals to conserve surface water supplies by lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay, replacing the lateral canals with pipe, removing phreatophytes, decreasing surface water use by 75%, 50%, or 25% and replacing it with groundwater sources, and continuing 1978 groundwater use and 1970-78 average surface water use until the end of the 20th century. Results were assessed by comparison of drawdowns of hydraulic head in the alluvial aquifer and base flow for each simulation. As listed in order of the smallest to the greatest potential effects on the system relative to drawdown and base flow the alternatives are: (1) removal of one-half of the phreatophytes; (2) continuation of 1978 groundwater withdrawals and average 1970-78 surface water supply; (3) replacement of the lateral canals with pipe; (4) lining the Osborne Irrigation Canal with clay; (5) decrease of surface water use by 25% and replacement of it with groundwater; (6) decrease of surface water use by 50% and replacement of it with groundwater; and (7) decrease of surface water use by 75% and replacement of it with groundwater. The removal of one-half of the phreatophytes would result in a decrease in average drawdown in the alluvial aquifer to about 1.74 ft and an increase in base flow of the Solomon River to about 12.3 cu ft/sec. The decrease of surface water supply by 75 % and a corresponding increase in groundwater withdrawal would result in an increase in drawdown in the aquifer to about 2.5 ft and a decrease in base flow to about 6.8 cu ft/sec. (Lantz-PTT)

  18. Ethnobotany of nutmeg in the Spice Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gils, C; Cox, P A

    1994-04-01

    Nutmeg, endemic to the Maluku Province of Indonesia (formerly known as the Spice Islands), has long been of importance both as a spice and as a commodity that was once of geopolitical significance. Although its botany, cultivation, and history have been studied, ethnobotanical studies of nutmeg in its place of origin are noticeably lacking. The ethnobotany of nutmeg, Myristica fragrans Houtt. (Myristicaceae), was studied in the Indonesian provinces of Maluku and Central and East Java. Historical and current indigenous uses of the fruit and seed are described. Information regarding medicinal aspects was gathered from vendors of herbal remedies, healers, and midwives. It was found that M.fragrans is still used for both culinary and medicinal purposes in its area of origin. M.fragrans is used for diarrhea, mouth sores, and insomnia. In addition, no evidence was found to support previously published reports of nutmeg's hallucinogenic or other psychoactive properties other than a mild sedative action. A renewed suggestion is made that anecdotal reports of nutmeg use as a hallucinogen be revaluated more critically.

  19. Tourism infrastructure development prioritization in Sabang Island using analytic network process methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Hafnidar A.; Afifuddin, Moch.; Akbar, Herry

    2017-11-01

    Indonesia has been widely known as an archipelago country, with its geographical location is at the equator, which make this country as a tropical country. It has the topography of diverse islands which consist of lakes, mountains, and one of countries which have the longest coastline. This condition cause Indonesia has various beautiful tourism objects and become the attraction to the international tourists to come. Indonesia still has the other islands which are as beautiful as Bali Island offering different beauties. One of them is an island located in the most western island of Indonesia, which becomes the zero point of the country. It is Sabang Island in Aceh Province. Sabang Island is the small volcanic island located in the most western island of Sumatra. Infrastructure becomes the basic device in supporting this tourism aspect, which the buildings and service institutions play the important role in appropriate managing of economic and community needs. The problem in this study is how to determine the priority of tourism infrastructure development in Sabang Island. The objective of this study is to determine the priority rank of tourism infrastructure development and the priority rank of the potential investment in Sabang Island to be developed. The ranking results of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) calculations of tourism locations/zones and tourism supporting infrastructure found that Teupin Layeu and Gapang, and Rubiah Island have the highest priority to be developed in the hotel/accommodation infrastructure which scores are 0.02589 and 0.02120. Then followed by parking infrastructure in Teupin Layeu and access road to Km 0 which became as the main priority determined by Sabang government which scores are 0.01750 and 0.01618.

  20. Data mining for clustering naming of the village at Java Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Hidayat, Akik; Akmal; Setiana, Deni

    2017-10-01

    Clustering of query based data mining to identify the meaning of the naming of the village in Java island, done by exploring the database village with three categories namely: prefix in the naming of the village, syllables contained in the naming of the village, and full word naming of the village which is actually used. While syllables contained in the naming of the village are classified by the behaviour of the culture and character of each province that describes the business, feelings, circumstances, places, nature, respect, plants, fruits, and animals. Sources of data used for the clustering of the naming of the village on the island of Java was obtained from Geospatial Information Agency (BIG) in the form of a complete village name data with the coordinates in six provinces in Java, which is arranged in a hierarchy of provinces, districts / cities, districts and villages. The research method using KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Database) through the process of preprocessing, data mining and postprocessing to obtain knowledge. In this study, data mining applications to facilitate the search query based on the name of the village, using Java software. While the contours of a map is processed using ArcGIS software. The results of the research can give recommendations to stakeholders such as the Department of Tourism to describe the meaning of the classification of naming the village according to the character in each province at Java island.

  1. On the distribution of decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and the Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Boschi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of decapod crustaceans in the southernmost areas of South America and the Antarctic is assessed considering the Magellan Biogeographic Province instead of the antiboreal region. Possible associations between decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and those from the Antarctic region are analysed. Species records were assigned to seven geographic regions that were clustered using multivariate analyses based on species presence/absence and Bray-Curtis similarity. The results showed two well-established clusters, one of which included the Pacific and Atlantic areas of the Magellan Province, the southern tip of South America and the Kerguelen Arc islands, with the highest similarity between the southern tip and the Atlantic area. Another cluster was well separated and included the Antarctic and South Georgia with the highest similarity index. Earlier studies and results obtained here suggest that the faunas of southern Chile and southern Argentina are biogeographically related. There is a low level of association among decapod species from the circum-Antarctic region and the Magellan Province.

  2. Geology and assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Hope Basin Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Kenneth J.; Houseknecht, David W.; Pitman, Janet K.; Moore, Thomas E.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2018-01-04

    The Hope Basin, an independent petroleum province that lies mostly offshore in the southern Chukchi Sea north of the Chukotka and Seward Peninsulas and south of Wrangel Island, the Herald Arch, and the Lisburne Peninsula, is the largest in a series of postorogenic (successor) basins in the East Siberian-Chukchi Sea region and the only one with exploratory-well control and extensive seismic coverage.In spite of the seismic coverage and well data, the petroleum potential of the Hope Basin Province is poorly known. The adequacy of hydrocarbon charge, in combination with uncertainties in source-rock potential and maturation, was the greatest risk in this assessment. A single assessment unit was defined and assessed, resulting in mean estimates of undiscovered, technically recoverable resources that include ~3 million barrels of oil and 650 billion cubic feet of nonassociated gas.

  3. Seal Island and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuges Trip Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of visits to both Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge and Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge on August 14, 15, 16, 1982.

  4. Geologic Provinces of the Arctic, 2000 (prvarcst)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe Arctic portion of the U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the World in 2000.

  5. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  6. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  7. CURCULIONOIDEA FROM GOLESTAN PROVINCE, NORTHERN IRAN (Coleoptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Ghahari; Enzo Colonnelli

    2012-01-01

    The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera) thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran) according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera...

  8. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  9. 78 FR 48668 - PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission PSEG Long Island LLC, Long Island Electric Utility Servco LLC, Long Island Power Authority, Long Island Lighting Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take notice that...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, PSEG Long Island LLC (PSEG LI), Long Island Electric...

  10. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    mobility and convert the sky into a sovereign territory was especially pronounced in Britain. But the challenge of creating a sovereign space out of mobile and transparent air was an intricate problem both in legal and practical terms. This article shows how geopolitical interests called for an upward...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  11. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  12. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-15

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  13. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  14. 1957 Aleutian Islands, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The magnitude 8.6 (Mw) earthquake occurred south of the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutian Islands. It generated an 8-meter tsunami that did great damage on Adak...

  15. Oceanic archipelagos: a perspective on the geodynamics and biogeography of the World’s smallest biotic provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostas Triantis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the contributions of Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace, oceanic archipelagos have played a central role in the development of biogeography. However, despite the critical influence of oceanic islands on ecological and evolutionary theory, our focus has remained limited to either the island-level of specific archipelagos or single archipelagos. Recently, it was proposed that oceanic archipelagos qualify as biotic provinces, with diversity primarily reflecting a balance between speciation and extinction, with colonization having a minor role. Here we focus on major attributes of the archipelagic geological dynamics that can affect diversity at both the island and the archipelagic level. We also re-affirm that oceanic archipelagos are appropriate spatiotemporal units to frame analyses in order to understand large scale patterns of biodiversity.

  16. [Diabetes mellitus mortality in Spain: a comparative analysis between Spanish provinces in the period of 1981-1986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, D; Gil, V; Picó, J A; Tobías, J; Quirce, F; Merino, J

    1995-04-15

    To find and compare mortality because of diabetes mellitus (DM) among the different provinces of Spain in the 1981 to 1986 period. The natural movement of population figures of the National Institute of Statistics (INE) and the census of 1981 and register of 1986 were used. A descriptive observation study of a crossover type. Standardisation of rates by the indirect method. Calculation of the ratio of standardised mortality for each province. At the national level, the Communities with an excess of mortality in 1981 were Andalusia, Melilla, the Community of Valencia, Murcia, the Balearics, the Canaries and Extremadura, as well as the provinces of Tarragona, Gerona, Ciudad Real and Albacete. In 1986 the following still had excess of mortality: Andalusia, the Community of Valencia, Murcia, the Balearics, the Canaries, Asturias and Cantabria, along with the provinces of Badajoz and Pontevedra. The provinces with an excess mortality because of diabetes mellitus are geographically grouped (with some exceptions) in the south and south-east of Spain and the island communities.

  17. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  18. Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Vianne

    2003-01-01

    This article profiles the educational system of Prince Edward Island and discusses initiatives for students who are at-risk. It describes programs and services for students who are at-risk, relevant educational legislation, areas of strength, challenges that need to be overcome, and areas of action. (Contains references.) (CR)

  19. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...

  20. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  1. The Scenario of the Potential Analysis Alternative Energy in Order to Strengthening District's Energy Resilience (The Case Study in South Sumatera Province)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry Muhrom, Muhammad; Ronny Rahman Nitibaskara, Tb; Herdiansyah, Herdis; Sari, Ravita

    2017-10-01

    The current development of fossil energy, which is the driving force of the economy in Indonesia, is a non-renewable energy and is in need to know when it will be exhausted so it may be replaced with renewable energy. Many powerplant systems in Indonesia are still using conventional system that utilizes fossil energy as the primary energy in the process of electricity generation. The occurrence of electrical energy crisis is marked by several electricity blackout phenomenon in some areas in South Sumatera province rotately, which is the proof that the installed power capacity has exceeded the capacity of generation power. Interconnection among several islands, namely Java Island, Sumatera Island, and Bali Island which has been interconnected with closed loop system through transmission network has not been able to overcome the electrical energy crisis. This paper aims to create alternative energy potential scenarios in the province of South Sumatera in sequence/ranking by using quantitative methods with sequential explanatory model formulated in the determination of alternative energy strategies then analyzed by using Analitycal Hierarchy Process(AHP) method. The simulation results from this research indicate that geothermal energy potentials get the highest value so that it becomes the priority of alternative energy strategy in South Sumatera Province.

  2. Correlations between silicic volcanic rocks of the St Mary's Islands (southwestern India) and eastern Madagascar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melluso, Leone; Sheth, Hetu C.; Mahoney, John J.

    2009-01-01

    The St Mary's, Islands (southwestern India) expose silicic volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks (rhyolites and granophyric dacites) emplaced contemporaneously with the Cretaceous igneous province of Madagascar, roughly 88-90 Ma ago. I he St Mary's Islands rocks have phenocrysts of plagioclase...... and isotopic Compositions very close to those of rhyolites exposed between Vatomandry Ilaka and Mananjary in eastern Madagascar, and are distinctly different from rhyolites front other sectors of the Madagascan province. We therefore postulate that the St Mary's and the Vatomandry-Ilaka Mananjary silicic rock...... outcrops were adjacent before the Late Cretaceous rifting that split Madagascar from India, If so, they provide a valuable tool to check and aid traditional Cretaceous India Madagascar reconstructions based on palaeomagnetism, matching Precambrian geological features, and geometric fitting of continental...

  3. Late Permian basalts in the Yanghe area, eastern Sichuan Province, SW China: Implications for the geodynamics of the Emeishan flood basalt province and Permian global mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbo; Zhang, Zhaochong; Santosh, M.; Lü, Linsu; Han, Liu; Liu, Wei

    2017-02-01

    We report the finding of a ∼20 m thick sequence of massive pyroxene-plagioclase-phyric basalt lava flows in the Yanghe area of the northeastern Sichuan Basin, within the Yangtze craton of SW China, which were previously considered to be located outside the Emeishan flood basalt province. This basaltic sequence above the middle Permian Maokou Formation (Fm.) is overlain by the late Permian Longtan Fm. Thus, the Yanghe basalts should be stratigraphically correlated with the Emeishan flood basalts. The Yanghe basalts show typical oceanic island basalt (OIB) affinity, and geochemically resemble Emeishan basalts, especially in the case of high-Ti (HT) basalts from the eastern domain of the Emeishan flood basalt province. The rocks have low age-corrected (87Sr/86Sr)t (t = 260 Ma) ratios (0.704158-0.704929) and Pb isotopic ratios [206Pb/204Pb(t) (18.264-18.524), 207Pb/204Pb(t) (15.543-15.58), and 208Pb/204Pb(t) (38.147-38.519)], and positive εNd(t) values (+3.15 to +3.61), suggesting that the lavas have not undergone any significant crustal contamination. The crystallization temperature of clinopyroxene is estimated to be 1368-1420 °C, suggesting anomalously thermal inputs from a mantle source and a possible plume-head origin. The fractionation of middle rare earth elements (MREE) to heavy REE (HREE) suggests that these rocks were produced by small degrees of partial melting of mantle peridotite within the garnet-spinel transition region. The stratigraphic relationships and similar geochemical signatures with the Emeishan flood basalts suggest that the Yanghe basalts are part of the Emeishan flood basalt province and can be considered as the northeastern limit of the Emeishan flood basalt province. Our finding extends the diameter of the Emeishan flood basalt province to ∼1200-1400 km, covering an area of up to ∼7 × 105 km2, two times more than previously estimated. The larger areal extent and giant eruption volume, incorporating the Sichuan Basin, lend support

  4. Epidemiology of Ectopic Pregnancy in Hamadan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Shobeiri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blastocyst implantation in any place other than uterus cavity endometrium is called ectopic pregnancy. The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy is different in various countries. This study has been conducted to investigate the epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010.Materials and Methods: The present study is a retrospective descriptive study. The data on 872 ectopic pregnancies were extracted by questionnaires from the files in the records department of hospitals and delivery centers in Hamadan province during 2000-2010. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the obtained data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software.Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during 2000-2010 was averagely 2.6 per 1000 pregnancies. Tubal pregnancy with 95.2% is the most prevalent type of ectopic pregnancy most of which had occurred in the right tube (52.4%. Most ectopic pregnancies (52.2% were in the age group of 25-34.Conclusion: The prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in Hamadan province during the mentioned years has been 2.6 in 1000 pregnancies, which is lower compared to many existing data. However, the prevalence of ectopic pregnancy in this province has increased over time, so that it has become 3.3 times as much from 2000-2010.

  5. Study of the Relationships between the Spatial Extent of Surface Urban Heat Islands and Urban Characteristic Factors Based on Landsat ETM+ Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jinqu; Wang, Yunpeng

    2008-01-01

    Ten cities with different population and urban sizes located in the Pearl River Delta, Guangdong Province, P.R. China were selected to study the relationships between the spatial extent of surface urban heat islands (SUHI) and five urban characteristic factors such as urban size, development area, water proportion, mean NDVI (Normalized Vegetation Index) and population density, etc. The spatial extent of SUHI was quantified by using the hot island area (HIA). All the cities are almost at the ...

  6. Landscapes of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, R. Randall; Minor, Scott A.; Muhs, Daniel R.; Pigati, Jeffery S.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Rosa Island (SRI) is the second-largest of the California Channel Islands. It is one of 4 east–west aligned islands forming the northern Channel Islands chain, and one of the 5 islands in Channel Islands National Park. The landforms, and collections of landforms called landscapes, of Santa Rosa Island have been created by tectonic uplift and faulting, rising and falling sea level, landslides, erosion and deposition, floods, and droughts. Landscape features, and areas delineating groups of related features on Santa Rosa Island, are mapped, classified, and described in this paper. Notable landscapes on the island include beaches, coastal plains formed on marine terraces, sand dunes, and sand sheets. In this study, the inland physiography has been classified into 4 areas based on relief and degree of fluvial dissection. Most of the larger streams on the island occupy broad valleys that have been filled with alluvium and later incised to form steep- to vertical-walled arroyos, or barrancas, leaving a relict floodplain above the present channel. A better understanding of the processes and mechanisms that created these landscapes enhances visitors’ enjoyment of their surroundings and contributes to improving land and resource management strategies in order to optimize and balance the multiple goals of conservation, preservation, restoration, and visitor experience.

  7. The characteristics of nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt) growth using agroforestry system in Ternate Island, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    TJOKRODININGRAT S.; ASHARI S.; SYEKHFANI S.; AINI N.

    2016-01-01

    Nutmeg (Myristica spp.) is a high economic value spice crops which is spread on the whole area of Ternate Island, North Maluku province. Nutmeg is generally cultivated using agroforestry system with many varieties of populations and species which is supposed to influence the characteristics of nutmeg plants and micro climate. Thus, understanding the plant characteristics and microclimate of nutmeg plantation using agroforestry system is very important. Nutmeg plantation using agroforestry sys...

  8. New records of Cerambycidae (Coleoptera for New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginald Webster

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty-eight species of Cerambycidae are newly recorded for New Brunswick, six species are newly recorded for Nova Scotia, and five species are newly recorded for Prince Edward Island for a total of 59 new provincial records. Of these, 22 species are newly recorded for the Maritime Provinces as a whole and three species and one subspecies, Brachyleptura circumdata (Olivier, Acmaeops discoideus (Haldeman, Oberea myops Haldeman and Leptura obliterata deleta (LeConte, are newly recorded for Canada.

  9. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  10. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J.; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries—Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. Objective: We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. Methods: This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a “likelihood versus impact” matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. Results: The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Conclusion: Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate

  11. Bathymetric patterns of deep-sea benthic communities from bathyal to abyssal depths in the western South Pacific (Solomon and Coral Seas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alongi, Daniel M.

    1992-04-01

    Ten stations were sampled from bathyal to abyssal depths (695-4350 m) in the Solomon and Coral Seas to determine variations in densities of Protozoa, meiofauna and macroinfauna in relation to environmental conditions and bacterial densities and productivity. Densities of large flagellates and amoebae did not change with water depth, whereas the abundance of other microbenthic groups either decreased (Foraminifera, ciliates) or increased (yeasts) significantly with increasing ocean depth. Numerically, the microbenthos was dominated by Foraminifera, followed in decreasing order of abundance by yeasts, large flagellates, amoebae and ciliates. Densities of total metazoan meiofauna and macroinfauna were low at most stations compared to communities of other regions at equivalent depths, and declined significantly with ocean depth, although many taxa and total macroinfaunal biomass did not. Differences in the rate of decline between total metazoan meiofaunal and macroinfaunal densities with depth were not significant. When the effect of water depth was held constant, only a few protozoan, meiofaunal and macroinfaunal taxa correlated with bacteria and sediment characteristics. Depth-related variables (e.g. low temperatures) appear to be the dominant factors regulating bathymetric patterns. However, there is some evidence that rapid transport of turbidites and other shallow-water materials (wood, vascular plant and fresh algal detritus) lead to episodes of erosion and deposition that may influence the distribution and standing crop of these deep-sea benthic communities. These events may be influential in other tectonically active basins within tropical oceans bordered by steep continental margins and dominated by extensive reefs and large rivers.

  12. Risk for commercial fishing deaths in Canadian Atlantic provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselback, P; Neutel, C I

    1990-07-01

    The risk of mortality related to occupation was determined for commercial fishermen in the Canadian Atlantic coast provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island. The subjects were a cohort of 31,415 fishermen licensed by the Canadian Department of Fisheries during 1975-83. Mortality and cause of death were obtained from the Canada Mortality Data Base and the Marine Casualty Investigation Unit (MCI), and were confirmed by examination of death certificates. Eighty four deaths likely to be related to fishing were recorded over 183,378 person-years of exposure for an annual mortality of 45.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0-55.6) per 100,000 fishermen. The rate of potential years of life lost up to age 75 was 1583 per 100,000 person-years of exposure. Inclusion of 14 additional deaths, which were possibly related to occupation, would increase these rates further. Bias in this study is likely to underestimate the risks. It is concluded that fishing is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of mortality related to work.

  13. Environmental Consequences of Rapid Urbanization in Zhejiang Province, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuchao Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China. Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  14. Environmental consequences of rapid urbanization in zhejiang province, East china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuchao; Yue, Wenze; Xu, Honghui; Wu, Jingsheng; He, Yue

    2014-07-11

    Since reforms carried out in the late 1970s, China has experienced unprecedented rates of urban growth. Remote sensing data and surface observational data are used to investigate the urbanization process and related environmental consequences, focusing on extreme heat events and air pollution, in Zhejiang Province (ZJP, East China). Examination of satellite-measured nighttime light data indicates rapid urbanization in ZJP during the past decade, initially forming three urban clusters. With rapid urban sprawl, a significant Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has emerged. During extreme heat events in summer, the UHI effect significantly exacerbates nocturnal heat stress in highly urbanized areas. Taking a long-term view, urbanization also causes additional hot days and hot degree days in urban areas. Urbanization also imposes a heavy burden on local and regional air quality in ZJP. Degraded visibility and an increase in haze days are observed at most meteorological stations, especially in the three urban clusters. The results show that urbanization has led to serious environmental problems in ZJP, not only on the city scale, but also on the regional scale. Maintaining a balance between the continuing process of urbanization and environmental sustainability is a major issue facing the local government.

  15. The pattern of anthrax cases on livestock in West Nusa Tenggara Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enymartindah

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on anthrax in endemic area was carried out from 1984 to 1994 in West Nusa Tenggara Province (NTB to uncover the occurrence of anthrax and the pattern of the disease in livestock. Data of anthrax incidence had been compiled for the 11 years from Animal Health Section and Type B Laboratory of the Livestock Service Office, NTB Province in Mataram. This was done to get the information about locations and times when the cases occurred, and the vaccination status of livestock in the anthrax area. The pattern of anthrax in livestock was analyzed by using time series analysis, and the long term trend was then illustrated by linier regression . During the years, anthrax cases in livestock were reported high in Sumbawa island, while the cases in Lombok island were relatively low. There were no anthrax cases reported from East Lombok District . The long term trend of anthrax occurrence in livestock from 1984 to 1994 tended to decrease (Y= 6,04 - 0,0162 X.

  16. Composite Sunrise Butte pluton: Insights into Jurassic–Cretaceous collisional tectonics and magmatism in the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth H.; Schwartz, J.J.; Žák, Jiří; Verner, Krystof; Barnes, Calvin G.; Walton, Clay; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wright, James E.; Kistler, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    The composite Sunrise Butte pluton, in the central part of the Blue Mountains Province, northeastern Oregon, preserves a record of subduction-related magmatism, arc-arc collision, crustal thickening, and deep-crustal anatexis. The earliest phase of the pluton (Desolation Creek unit) was generated in a subduction zone environment, as the oceanic lithosphere between the Wallowa and Olds Ferry island arcs was consumed. Zircons from this unit yielded a 206Pb/238U age of 160.2 ± 2.1 Ma. A magmatic lull ensued during arc-arc collision, after which partial melting at the base of the thickened Wallowa arc crust produced siliceous magma that was emplaced into metasedimentary rocks and serpentinite of the overthrust forearc complex. This magma crystallized to form the bulk of the Sunrise Butte composite pluton (the Sunrise Butte unit; 145.8 ± 2.2 Ma). The heat necessary for crustal anatexis was supplied by coeval mantle-derived magma (the Onion Gulch unit; 147.9 ± 1.8 Ma).The lull in magmatic activity between 160 and 148 Ma encompasses the timing of arc-arc collision (159–154 Ma), and it is similar to those lulls observed in adjacent areas of the Blue Mountains Province related to the same shortening event. Previous researchers have proposed a tectonic link between the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath Mountains and northern Sierra Nevada Provinces farther to the south; however, timing of Late Jurassic deformation in the Blue Mountains Province predates the timing of the so-called Nevadan orogeny in the Klamath Mountains. In both the Blue Mountains Province and Klamath Mountains, the onset of deep-crustal partial melting initiated at ca. 148 Ma, suggesting a possible geodynamic link. One possibility is that the Late Jurassic shortening event recorded in the Blue Mountains Province may be a northerly extension of the Nevadan orogeny. Differences in the timing of these events in the Blue Mountains Province and the Klamath–Sierra Nevada Provinces suggest that

  17. Assessment of tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingru; Yin, Baoshu

    2017-04-01

    Shandong province is located on the east coast of China and has a coastline of about 3100 km. There are only a few tsunami events recorded in the history of Shandong Province, but the tsunami hazard assessment is still necessary as the rapid economic development and increasing population of this area. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential danger posed by tsunamis for Shandong Province. The numerical simulation method was adopted to assess the tsunami hazard for coastal areas of Shandong Province. The Cornell multi-grid coupled tsunami numerical model (COMCOT) was used and its efficacy was verified by comparison with three historical tsunami events. The simulated maximum tsunami wave height agreed well with the observational data. Based on previous studies and statistical analyses, multiple earthquake scenarios in eight seismic zones were designed, the magnitudes of which were set as the potential maximum values. Then, the tsunamis they induced were simulated using the COMCOT model to investigate their impact on the coastal areas of Shandong Province. The numerical results showed that the maximum tsunami wave height, which was caused by the earthquake scenario located in the sea area of the Mariana Islands, could reach up to 1.39 m off the eastern coast of Weihai city. The tsunamis from the seismic zones of the Bohai Sea, Okinawa Trough, and Manila Trench could also reach heights of >1 m in some areas, meaning that earthquakes in these zones should not be ignored. The inundation hazard was distributed primarily in some northern coastal areas near Yantai and southeastern coastal areas of Shandong Peninsula. When considering both the magnitude and arrival time of tsunamis, it is suggested that greater attention be paid to earthquakes that occur in the Bohai Sea. In conclusion, the tsunami hazard facing the coastal area of Shandong Province is not very serious; however, disasters could occur if such events coincided with spring tides or other

  18. Constraining the age and origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean using geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; O'Neill, Craig

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of western margin of Australia from Greater India started around 155 Ma and progressed southwards. After the separation, the interceding intraplate region experienced large volumes of submarine volcanism, extending over 100 Myrs. The Christmas Island Seamount Province (CHRISP, as it has been dubbed) lies south of the Java-Sunda Trench, and contains numerous submerged volcanic seamounts, and two sub-aerially exposed island groups—Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. While recent geochronological investigations have shed light on the diverse eruption ages of the volcanics of this region, some islands/seamounts have demonstrated protracted volcanic histories, and it is not clear how the volcanic loading, tectonic subsidence, and subsequent emergence history of the islands relates to these discrete volcanic episodes. This study utilises a number of geophysical techniques to determine the crustal structure, loading and subsidence history, and last sub-aerial exposure age for the CHRISP. The study shows that flexural and subsidence modelling are reliable techniques in constraining the age of the seamounts when geochronological techniques are not possible. Utilising regional gravity signatures, we model the crustal structure underneath the Cocos (Keeling) Island, and constrain the thickness of the limestone cover between 900 and 2,100 m. Using age-depth subsidence curves for oceanic lithosphere the time since these seamounts were exposed above sea-level was determined, and a trend in exposure ages that youngs towards the west is observed. Two episodes of volcanism have been recorded at Christmas Island and they are of different origin. The younger phase in the Pliocene is a manifestation of flexure induced cracks produced in the lithosphere as it rides the subduction fore-bulge, whereas a low velocity seismic zone rising from the lower mantle, and tectonic reorganization, may be associated with the older Eocene volcanic phase, as well as much of

  19. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  20. CURCULIONOIDEA FROM GOLESTAN PROVINCE, NORTHERN IRAN (Coleoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ghahari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 195 species of Curculionoidea (Coleoptera thus far indicated from Golestan province (northern Iran according to both literature and original records are listed in this paper. New data for 61 species belonging to 18 genera collected during this research are also given. Besides the 42 species newly reported for the Golestan province, the following additional 15 species are newly recorded from Iran: Brachypera lunata, Ceutorhynchus anatolicus, Datonychus urticae, Hypera contaminata, Hypera viciae, Larinus canescens, L. adspersus, Lixus ascanii, Microplontus rugulosus, Neoglocianus smyrnensis, Otiorhynchus tetrarchus, O. scitus, Tychius cuprifer, T. picirostris, T. thoracicus.

  1. Overweight and Obesity and Associated Factors among School-Aged Adolescents in Six Pacific Island Countries in Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl

    2015-11-13

    The aim of this study was to assess overweight and obesity and associated factors in school-going adolescents in six Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 10,424 school-going adolescents predominantly 13-16 years old from Fiji, Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between dietary behaviour, substance use, physical activity, psychosocial factors, social-familial influences, and overweight or obesity. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was determined based on self-reported height and weight and the international child body mass index standards. Results indicate a prevalence of overweight or obesity of 24.3% and obesity of 6.1% in the six countries, ranging in terms of overweight or obesity and obesity from 12.0% and 0.4% in Vanuatu to 58.7% and 21.1% in Tonga, respectively. In multivariable regression analysis, being female was associated with overweight, carbonated soft drink use with obesity, sedentary behaviour with overweight or obesity, suicidal ideation with overweight, having close friends and peer support with overweight and obesity, parental or guardian supervision with overweight, and parental or guardian bonding was associated with overweight or obesity. High prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were found and several factors identified which can help guide interventions.

  2. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  3. and Prince Edward Island

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    1998). At Marion. Island, mean surface air temperature increased by 1.2°C between 1969 and 1999 and annual precipitation de- creased after the mid 1960s (Smith 2002). Mean sea surface temperature (SST) increased by 1.4°C between. 1949 and 2002 (Mélice et al. in press). At the same time, there was growing concern ...

  4. A typology of natural resource use for livelihood impact assessments in Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A. Rochester

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vulnerability of less developed regions is exacerbated by a lack of information to inform appropriate adaptation planning. We addressed this challenge in the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa (Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Indonesia by combining multiple sources of knowledge to develop a typology of natural resource use by communities of the province. This enabled an assessment of future impacts of drivers of change such as population growth and climate change. The typology was developed by cluster analysis of an inventory of the use of ecosystem goods and services (EGS by the 105 rural subdistricts in the province. The data were largely elicited from expert knowledge, augmented by a rapid rural appraisal of communities’ marine resource use in Sumbawa. Exploratory analysis of existing secondary data on livelihoods and land use provided context and skeleton data, which were developed further by experts. Overall, 82 EGS were identified from nine terrestrial, coastal, marine and freshwater habitats. EGS included livestock, cropping, forestry, wildlife hunting, fishing, aquaculture, mining, water (for drinking and agriculture and tourism. The typology comprised seven types that captured 42% of the variation in the data matrix. The types were moderately spatially aggregated and showed some congruence with administrative (district boundaries. We discuss the implications of the results for planning livelihood adaptation strategies, and out-scaling these among subdistricts of matching types.

  5. Modeling Study for Tangier Island Jetties, Tangier Island, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    transmission caused by structures are approximated in this class of wave models. 1.5.3 Task 3. Modeling channel hydrodynamics The Tangier Island boat ...the Tangier Island Boat Canal 2.1 Purpose A numerical modeling study investigated waves and hydrodynamics in and adjacent to the western portion of...fishing fleet, the U.S. Army Engineer District, Norfolk (CENAO) maintains the Tangier Island boat canal. CENAO is considering the construction of

  6. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    OpenAIRE

    Boyoung eKim; Grant eGoodall

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during ch...

  7. The Intertidal Biota of Volcanic Yankich Island (Middle Kuril Islands)

    OpenAIRE

    Kussakin, Oleg G.; Kostina, Elena E.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the intertidal biota of volcanic Yankich Island (Ushishir Islands, Kuril Islands) is given. The species composition and vertical distribution pattern of the intertidal communities at various localities are described in relation to environmental factors, such as nature of the substrate, surf conditions and volcanic vent water. The macrobenthos is poor in the areas directly influenced by high temperature (20-40°C) and high sulphur content. There are no marked changes in the int...

  8. Mantle heterogeneities beneath the Northeast Indian Ocean as sampled by intra-plate volcanism at Christmas Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; Rushmer, Tracy; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Turner, Simon; O'Neill, Craig

    2016-10-01

    The intra-plate region of the Northeast Indian Ocean, located between the Ninetyeast Ridge and the North West Shelf of Australia, contains numerous submerged seamounts and two sub-aerially exposed volcanic island groups. While the Cocos (Keeling) Archipelago is a coral atoll, Christmas Island is the only sub-aerially exposed volcanic island and contains Late Cretaceous, Eocene and Pliocene lavas. The lavas are predominantly basaltic in composition, except for one sampled flow that is trachytic. Although the evolution of the western margin of Australia, and the seismicity in the intra-plate region, has received considerable attention, the origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean is still a matter of debate. In order to constrain the origin of volcanism on Christmas Island and the associated Seamount Province we analysed 14 Christmas Island samples for major and trace element abundances and 12 of these for Nd, Hf and Pb isotope compositions. The trace element patterns of the lavas are similar to many ocean island basalts, while high 208Pb/204Pb and 207Pb/204Pb at a given 206Pb/204Pb suggest affiliation with the DUPAL anomaly. The reconstructed position of Christmas Island during the Eocene (44-37 Ma) places the island in close proximity to the (present-day) upper mantle low-seismic velocity anomalies. Moreover, an enriched mantle (EM-2) type component in addition to the DUPAL anomaly is observed in the Eocene volcanic phase. The younger Pliocene ( 4 Ma) sequences at Christmas Island are inferred to be the product of partial melting of existing material induced by lithospheric flexure.

  9. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  10. Environmental Prime Movers for Prehistoric Colonization of Islands in Remote Oceania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Alvaro; Callaghan, Richard T.; Fitzpatrick, Scott M.

    2016-04-01

    The peopling of Remote Oceania was one of the last great waves of human migration in the ancient past. Beginning around 3500 BP, peoples from Island Southeast Asia began colonizing western Micronesia, and shortly thereafter ca. 3400 BP, Lapita groups began moving east from Near Oceania (e.g., the Solomons and Bismarck Archipelago) to islands in Eastern Melanesia and West Polynesia, including Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa. It is remarkable that over the next 2500 years, even the most remote islands, known now to represent the distant nodes of the Polynesian triangle (New Zealand, Hawaii, and Easter Island), were eventually visited by Austronesian speakers and their descendants across this seemingly boundless ocean. One of the more enduring questions - and one that has perplexed scholars for decades - is how and when these ancient seafarers were able to develop navigational/wayfinding techniques and seafaring technologies to overcome a number of environmental challenges. This would ultimately help determine what combination of social and environmental stimuli forced or encouraged people to colonize some of the most isolated patches of land on earth. To advance our understanding of ancient Pacific colonization strategies, we integrate seafaring simulation models, ease of eastward travel estimates based on land distribution and wind pattern analysis, and new climatic datasets for precipitation in Micronesia and Polynesia to examine intra-annual variations in wind and precipitation that would have influenced travel. Combined with statistical modeling of winds and currents, we argue that: land distribution could have contributed to the pause in eastward expansion seen at about 3000 BP; simple downwind sailing and downwind sailing during eastward spells are viable navigation strategies for reaching islands to the east; seasonality of eastward winds would facilitate voyage planning and increase chances of success; knowledge of annual and interannual variability

  11. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Ren

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The majority of rabies cases occurred among 40–65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals.

  12. [Factors influencing infant mortality. Havana Province, 1983].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell-florit Serrate, P; Portuondo Dustet, N; Suarez Rosas, L; Ovies Garcia, A; Alvarez Fernandez, R; Lima Perez, M T

    1986-01-01

    Questionnaires intended to determine the factors involved in deaths in infants under 1 year have been completed in the province of Havana, Cuba, since 1980. The questionnaires are completed by obstetricians and pediatricians of the municipal health areas and analyzed at the secondary care level. This work examines the factors present in the 133 infant deaths occurring in Havana Province in 1983. The infant mortality rate in the province in 1983 was 14.1/1000 live births, the lowest ever recorded in the province. 74 of the deaths occurred in the early neonatal period, 13 in the late neonatal, and 46 in the postneonatal period. 22 of the early neonatal deaths were due to intrapartum anoxia, 15 to hyaline membrane disease, 10 to prematurity, 7 to bronchoaspiration, 3 to sepsis, 1 to bronchial pneumonia, and 13 to malformations. In the late neonatal and postneonatal periods, 11 deaths were attributed to acute diarrheal disease, 6 to meningitis, and 5 to accidents. 8 of the mothers were under 17 years old, 30 were 18-20, 57 were 21-30, and 16 were 31 or over. Maternal age was unknown for 22. 22 of the mothers were overweight, 29 were malnourished, 55 were of normal nutritional status, and the status of 27 was unknown. 67.7% of the early neonatal deaths were in low birth weight babies. Low educational level and rural residence were social factors in infant mortality.

  13. Flinders Mountain Range, South Australia Province, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Classic examples of folded mountain ranges and wind erosion of geologic structures abound in the Flinders Mountain Range (30.5S, 139.0E), South Australia province, Australia. Winds from the deserts to the west gain speed as they blow across the barren surface and create interesting patterns as they funnel through the gullies and valleys.

  14. (Francolinus francolinus) in Khouzestan Province, Southwestern Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Habitat destruction and indiscriminate hunting as well as agricultural pesticides are among the most crucial factors threatening the populations of these birds in Khouzestan Province, southwestern Iran. Using plot sampling, this study aims to investigate different vegetative factors including plant species,.

  15. Geologic Provinces of the Caribbean Region, 2004 (prv6bg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes a modified subset of polygon features that describe U.S. Geological Survey's defined geologic provinces of the World. Each province has a set...

  16. Island biogeography of the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmus, Matthew R; Mahler, D Luke; Losos, Jonathan B

    2014-09-25

    For centuries, biogeographers have examined the factors that produce patterns of biodiversity across regions. The study of islands has proved particularly fruitful and has led to the theory that geographic area and isolation influence species colonization, extinction and speciation such that larger islands have more species and isolated islands have fewer species (that is, positive species-area and negative species-isolation relationships). However, experimental tests of this theory have been limited, owing to the difficulty in experimental manipulation of islands at the scales at which speciation and long-distance colonization are relevant. Here we have used the human-aided transport of exotic anole lizards among Caribbean islands as such a test at an appropriate scale. In accord with theory, as anole colonizations have increased, islands impoverished in native species have gained the most exotic species, the past influence of speciation on island biogeography has been obscured, and the species-area relationship has strengthened while the species-isolation relationship has weakened. Moreover, anole biogeography increasingly reflects anthropogenic rather than geographic processes. Unlike the island biogeography of the past that was determined by geographic area and isolation, in the Anthropocene--an epoch proposed for the present time interval--island biogeography is dominated by the economic isolation of human populations.

  17. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  18. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A

    2010-06-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that non-structural manipulations that leave island structures intact can radically alter judgments of island violations. We argue here, building on work by Deane, Kluender, and others, that processing factors have the potential to account for this otherwise unexplained variation in acceptability judgments.We report the results of self-paced reading experiments and controlled acceptability studies which explore the relationship between processing costs and judgments of acceptability. In each of the three self-paced reading studies, the data indicate that the processing cost of different types of island violations can be significantly reduced to a degree comparable to that of non-island filler-gap constructions by manipulating a single non-structural factor. Moreover, this reduction in processing cost is accompanied by significant improvements in acceptability. This evidence favors the hypothesis that island-violating constructions involve numerous processing pressures that aggregate to drive processing difficulty above a threshold so that a perception of unacceptability ensues. We examine the implications of these findings for the grammar of filler-gap dependencies.

  19. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  20. Islands and Non-islands in Native and Heritage Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyoung; Goodall, Grant

    2016-01-01

    To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e., early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood) to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  1. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  2. Data-driven Modeling of the Solar Corona by a New Three-dimensional Path-conservative Osher-Solomon MHD Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xueshang; Li, Caixia; Xiang, Changqing; Zhang, Man; Li, HuiChao; Wei, Fengsi

    2017-11-01

    A second-order path-conservative scheme with a Godunov-type finite-volume method has been implemented to advance the equations of single-fluid solar wind plasma magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) in time. This code operates on the six-component composite grid system in three-dimensional spherical coordinates with hexahedral cells of quadrilateral frustum type. The generalized Osher-Solomon Riemann solver is employed based on a numerical integration of the path-dependent dissipation matrix. For simplicity, the straight line segment path is used, and the path integral is evaluated in a fully numerical way by a high-order numerical Gauss-Legendre quadrature. Besides its very close similarity to Godunov type, the resulting scheme retains the attractive features of the original solver: it is nonlinear, free of entropy-fix, differentiable, and complete, in that each characteristic field results in a different numerical viscosity, due to the full use of the MHD eigenstructure. By using a minmod limiter for spatial oscillation control, the path-conservative scheme is realized for the generalized Lagrange multiplier and the extended generalized Lagrange multiplier formulation of solar wind MHD systems. This new model that is second order in space and time is written in the FORTRAN language with Message Passing Interface parallelization and validated in modeling the time-dependent large-scale structure of the solar corona, driven continuously by Global Oscillation Network Group data. To demonstrate the suitability of our code for the simulation of solar wind, we present selected results from 2009 October 9 to 2009 December 29 show its capability of producing a structured solar corona in agreement with solar coronal observations.

  3. Relative sea-level changes and glacio-isostatic adjustment on the Magdalen Islands archipelago (Atlantic Canada) from MIS 5 to the late Holocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rémillard, Audrey M.; St-Onge, Guillaume; Bernatchez, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    The Magdalen Islands (Québec, Canada) in the centre of the Gulf of St. Lawrence are located in a strategic position for providing an overview of the relative sea-level (RSL) history of the Maritime Provinces of eastern Canada. Although data are available for the coastal terrestrial areas of the M...

  4. Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Stroke Stroke and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... non-Hispanic white adults to die from a stroke in 2010. In general, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ...

  5. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics...... and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...... the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  6. Multiple Household Water Sources and Their Use in Remote Communities With Evidence From Pacific Island Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark; MacDonald, Morgan C.; Chan, Terence; Kearton, Annika; Shields, Katherine F.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Hadwen, Wade L.

    2017-11-01

    Global water research and monitoring typically focus on the household's "main source of drinking-water." Use of multiple water sources to meet daily household needs has been noted in many developing countries but rarely quantified or reported in detail. We gathered self-reported data using a cross-sectional survey of 405 households in eight communities of the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and five Solomon Islands (SI) communities. Over 90% of households used multiple sources, with differences in sources and uses between wet and dry seasons. Most RMI households had large rainwater tanks and rationed stored rainwater for drinking throughout the dry season, whereas most SI households collected rainwater in small pots, precluding storage across seasons. Use of a source for cooking was strongly positively correlated with use for drinking, whereas use for cooking was negatively correlated or uncorrelated with nonconsumptive uses (e.g., bathing). Dry season water uses implied greater risk of water-borne disease, with fewer (frequently zero) handwashing sources reported and more unimproved sources consumed. Use of multiple sources is fundamental to household water management and feasible to monitor using electronic survey tools. We contend that recognizing multiple water sources can greatly improve understanding of household-level and community-level climate change resilience, that use of multiple sources confounds health impact studies of water interventions, and that incorporating multiple sources into water supply interventions can yield heretofore-unrealized benefits. We propose that failure to consider multiple sources undermines the design and effectiveness of global water monitoring, data interpretation, implementation, policy, and research.

  7. Mortality and cause-of-death reporting and analysis systems in seven pacific island countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Karen L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality statistics are essential for population health assessment. Despite limitations in data availability, Pacific Island Countries are considered to be in epidemiological transition, with non-communicable diseases increasingly contributing to premature adult mortality. To address rapidly changing health profiles, countries would require mortality statistics from routine death registration given their relatively small population sizes. Methods This paper uses a standard analytical framework to examine death registration systems in Fiji, Kiribati, Nauru, Palau, Solomon Islands, Tonga and Vanuatu. Results In all countries, legislation on death registration exists but does not necessarily reflect current practices. Health departments carry the bulk of responsibility for civil registration functions. Medical cause-of-death certificates are completed for at least hospital deaths in all countries. Overall, significantly more information is available than perceived or used. Use is primarily limited by poor understanding, lack of coordination, limited analytical skills, and insufficient technical resources. Conclusion Across the region, both registration and statistics systems need strengthening to improve the availability, completeness, and quality of data. Close interaction between health staff and local communities provides a good foundation for further improvements in death reporting. System strengthening activities must include a focus on clear assignment of responsibility, provision of appropriate authority to perform assigned tasks, and fostering ownership of processes and data to ensure sustained improvements. These human elements need to be embedded in a culture of data sharing and use. Lessons from this multi-country exercise would be applicable in other regions afflicted with similar issues of availability and quality of vital statistics.

  8. HUMAN PARASITE SURVEY ON NASI AND BERAS ISLANDS ACEH PROVINCE, SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Stafford

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survey parasit usus dan darah manusia terhadap penduduk pulau-pulau Nasi/Beras Propinsi Aceh, Sumatra, telah diadakan dihulan Januari, 1975. Sebanyak 83 pulasan darah dari 67 pria dan 16 wanita, serta 87 contoh tinja diperoleh dari 52 pria dan 35 wanita. Brugia malayi microfilaria ditemukan dalam 3 atau 3 persen dari darah yang diperiksa dan juga parasitemia yang disebabkan oleh Plasmodium malariae 1 atau 1 persen dan P. falciparum 2 atau 2 persen. Trichuris trichiura (86 persen , merupakan parasit usus yang paling banyak ditemukan, diikuti oleh cacing tambang (77 persen, Ascaris lumbricoides (60 persen, Entamoeba histolyrica (11 per sen, H. coli (10 persen . Endolimax nana hanya 5 atau 6 persen dan Iodamoeba butschlii dan Giardia lamblia, masing-masing 3 persen. Tidak ada ditemukan Schistosoma japonicum atau pun ova cestoda diantara penduduk yang diperiksa.

  9. Pericnemis melansoni sp. nov., a new damselfly (Odonata: Coenagrionidae from Compostela Valley Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J.T. Villanueva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species of damselfly, Pericnemis melansoni sp. nov. from Mindanao, is described and illustrated. It differs from its closest described relatives in lacking an elongate process on the posterior lobe of the prothorax, and in having the lower branches of the cerci longer than the upper branches.

  10. Environmental, Behavioral Factors and Filariasis Incidence in Bintan District, Riau Islands Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainul Ikhwan

    2016-08-01

    Tingkat mikrofilaria filariasis di Kabupaten Bintan masih tinggi, khususnya di Kecamatan Teluk Bintan, Teluk Sebong, dan Sri Kuala Lobam. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui hubungan faktor risiko lingkungan (faktor fisik, biologi, kimia, sosial budaya, ekonomi dan faktor perilaku dengan kejadian filariasis. Jenis penelitian observasional analitik yang dilakukan pada Mei – September 2015 dengan desain kasus kontrol, yang terdiri dari jumlah kasus 33 orang penderita filariasis dan kontrol 65 orang bukan penderita filariasis dengan teknik cluster sampling. Populasi penelitian adalah masyarakat di Kabupaten Bintan. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan uji kai kuadrat dan regresi logistik. Hasil menunjukkan adanya hubungan pengetahuan (nilai p = 0.045; OR = 1.365, kawat kasa (nilai p = 0.048; OR = 1.381, kandang ternak (nilai p = 0.018; OR = 3,5, rawa-rawa (nilai p = 0.038; OR = 1.358, perkebunan/hutan (nilai p = 0.035; OR = 0.373, dan penggunaan kelambu (nilai p = 0.036; OR = 1.417 sebagai faktor risiko kejadian filariasis. Sebagai kesimpulan, variabel yang paling berhubungan dengan kejadian filariasis di Kabupaten Bintan adalah pengetahuan (OR = 6.154, penggunaan kelambu (OR = 3.861 dan jarak dengan rawa-rawa (OR = 3.668.

  11. Reservoir quality of intrabasalt volcaniclastic units onshore Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province, northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    . Onshore samples are used as Faroese offshore volcaniclastic intervals are represented by a few confidential samples where the stratigraphic level is uncertain. The onshore samples have been taken from 29 geotechnical (made related to tunnel building, etc.) and 2 scientific (made related to research of the geology...

  12. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  13. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  14. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  15. Typologi of Island City in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Alvaryan; Benita, Tania

    2017-07-01

    As an archipelagic country, Indonesia consist of thousands of island. Some of them are big enough to contain growth and become the center of settlement and activity in Indonesia. However, growth and habitation are not only mushrooming in main island. Several small island also experience growth and become densely population places and simply become a city within island. This study aims to identify island city in Indonesia and creating the typology of the island city. This study is using exploratory approach and heavily rely on statistical figure of every single autonomous region as data sources. Eventually, this study found twelve (12) island cities in Indonesia, and three distinctive typology of island cities.

  16. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patiño, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert James; Borges, Paulo A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  17. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  18. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    security and stability. This is much harder than it sounds in a fragmented rural population such as Helmand province. The demands placed on leaders in...AH-1 “ Cobra ” and UH-1”Huey” helicopters to support ground operations commanders were able to deliver precision fires while retaining visible...them. Much will be asked of leaders in COIN operations in the future, but with a flexible organization, sound intelligence, the will to fight when

  19. Island tameness: living on islands reduces flight initiation distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, William E; Pyron, R Alexander; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-22

    One of Darwin's most widely known conjectures is that prey are tame on remote islands, where mammalian predators are absent. Many species appear to permit close approach on such islands, but no comparative studies have demonstrated reduced wariness quantified as flight initiation distance (FID; i.e. predator-prey distance when the prey begins to flee) in comparison with mainland relatives. We used the phylogenetic comparative method to assess influence of distance from the mainland and island area on FID of 66 lizard species. Because body size and predator approach speed affect predation risk, we included these as independent variables. Multiple regression showed that FID decreases as distance from mainland increases and is shorter in island than mainland populations. Although FID increased as area increased in some models, collinearity made it difficult to separate effects of area from distance and island occupancy. FID increases as SVL increases and approach speed increases; these effects are statistically independent of effects of distance to mainland and island occupancy. Ordinary least-squares models fit the data better than phylogenetic regressions, indicating little or no phylogenetic signal in residual FID after accounting for the independent variables. Our results demonstrate that island tameness is a real phenomenon in lizards.

  20. The genus Folsomides Stach (Collembola, Isotomidae) in Kermanshah Province (W Iran) with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbea, Javier I; Kahrarian, Morteza

    2015-02-27

    The genus Folsomides Stach, 1922 is represented by four species in the Iranian fauna, two of which are new to the science. Folsomides halshinicus sp. nov. and Folsomides subvinosus sp. nov. are found in Kermanshah Province (Western Iran). The new species belong to the Folsomides angularis (Axelson, 1905) group and they are distinguishable from other congeneric species by the macrochaetotaxy (11/22233 macrochaetae on thoracic II to abdominal V tergites) and the number of chaetae on dens. A table with the diagnostic characters for the identification of Iranian species of Folsomides is given. Some figures of F.vinosus Fjellberg, 1993 from Canary Island was given after study of type specimens.

  1. Pseudoisotachis Pocsii Váňa, A New Genus and Species of Liverwort from the Subantarctic Marion Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Váňa Jiří

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new genus and new species of liverwort, Pseudoisotachis Váňa and Pseudoisotachis pocsii Váňa, is described from Marion Island, part of the Prince Edward Islands, a subantarctic archipelago situated in the Kerguelen Province of the southern Indian Ocean. Family placement of the new genus and species is uncertain due to absence of androecia, gynoecia and sporophytes; morphologically it is compared with some genera of Isotachidaceae and with the genus Orthocaulis of Anastrophyllaceae. The new species is described and illustrated.

  2. The study of geochemical behavior of rare earth elements in apatites from the Hormoz Island, Persian Gulf

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Rostami; Marziyeh Bazamad; Behzad Hajalilou; Mohssen Moazzen

    2014-01-01

    The study area is located about 3 km southwest of the Hormoz Island in the Hormozgan province, in the Persian Gulf. The main rock units in the region consist of a highly altered acidic pluton cratophyre, which is responsible for apatite formation, diabasic dike, marl and altered basalt. Apatite is the only phosphate mineral in the Hormoz Island, which has accumulated REE in its crystal structure. The amount of Na2O and SiO2 oxides in apatite are high and the average content of the main ele...

  3. Submarine geology and geomorphology of active Sub-Antarctic volcanoes: Heard and McDonald Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S. J.; Coffin, M. F.; Whittaker, J. M.; Lucieer, V.; Fox, J. M.; Carey, R.; Arculus, R. J.; Bowie, A. R.; Chase, Z.; Robertson, R.; Martin, T.; Cooke, F.

    2016-12-01

    Heard and McDonald Islands (HIMI) are World Heritage listed sub-Antarctic active volcanic islands in the Southern Indian Ocean. Built atop the Kerguelen Plateau by Neogene-Quaternary volcanism, HIMI represent subaerial exposures of the second largest submarine Large Igneous Province globally. Onshore, processes influencing island evolution include glaciers, weathering, volcanism, vertical tectonics and mass-wasting (Duncan et al. 2016). Waters surrounding HIMI are largely uncharted, due to their remote location. Hence, the extent to which these same processes shape the submarine environment around HIMI has not been investigated. In early 2016, we conducted marine geophysical and geologic surveys around HIMI aboard RV Investigator (IN2016_V01). Results show that volcanic and sedimentary features prominently trend east-west, likely a result of erosion by the eastward flowing Antarctic Circumpolar Current and tidal currents. However, spatial patterns of submarine volcanism and sediment distribution differ substantially between the islands. >70 sea knolls surround McDonald Island suggesting substantial submarine volcanism. Geophysical data reveals hard volcanic seafloor around McDonald Island, whereas Heard Island is characterised by sedimentary sequences tens of meters or more thick and iceberg scours - indicative of glacial processes. Differences in submarine geomorphology are likely due to the active glaciation of Heard Island and differing rock types (Heard: alkali basalt, McDonald: phonolite), and dominant products (clastics vs. lava). Variations may also reflect different magmatic plumbing systems beneath the two active volcanoes (Heard produces larger volumes of more focused lava, whilst McDonald extrudes smaller volumes of more evolved lavas from multiple vents across the edifice). Using geophysical data, corroborated with new and existing geologic data, we present the first geomorphic map revealing the processes that shape the submarine environment around HIMI.

  4. Islands in the ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tina; Kjær, Kurt H.; Haile, James Seymour

    2012-01-01

    nunataks on the northern hemisphere - some 30 km from the nearest biological source. They constitute around 2 km(2) of ice-free land that was established in the early Holocene. We have investigated the changes in plant composition at these nunataks using both the results of surveys of the flora over......Nunataks are isolated bedrocks protruding through ice sheets. They vary in age, but represent island environments in 'oceans' of ice through which organism dispersals and replacements can be studied over time. The J.A.D. Jensen's Nunataks at the southern Greenland ice sheet are the most isolated...... where the botanical survey was exhaustive. As no animals and humans are found on the nunataks, this change in diversity over a period of just 42 years must relate to environmental changes probably being climate-driven. This suggests that even the flora of fairly small and isolated ice-free areas reacts...

  5. PRASYARAT KEBERHASILAN KERJA SAMA SISTER PROVINCE : STUDI KASUS SISTER PROVINCE ANTARA JAWA TENGAH DENGAN PROVINSI FUJIAN-CINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermini S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of Indonesian local government autonomy gives many consequences. One of it is the augmentation of cooperation with foreign countries conducted by local government. One type of the cooperation is sister province. This cooperation still bring lack of success story and best practices. Rather brings clear profits, mostly sister province cooperation has no clear benefits. By using the case of sister province cooperation between Central Java province and Fujian, this research providing the answer why central java wants to cooperate with Fujian under the scheme sister province due to the massive criticism of Free Trade Area with China. By using Scholte’s Globalization approach, and Botenbal’s lowered politics issue this paper argue that the sister province cooperation between Central Java and Fujian is being conduct for the cause of spillover effect and due to long road historical demographic background between these two provinces.

  6. Global Collembola on Deception Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Penelope; Potapov, Mikhail; Russell, David; Convey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Three new non-indigenous springtail species are recorded in recent collections made on Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, maritime Antarctic: Deuteraphorura (Deuteraphorura) cebennaria (Gisin) (Collembola: Onychiuridae), Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek (Tullbergiidae), and Proisotoma minuta Axelson (Isotomidae). One of these, D. (D.) cebennaria, is described. Additionally, two new indigenous species, Mesaphorura macrochaeta Rusek and Proisotoma minuta Axelson, are also recorded. The total number of Collembola species now known from the island is 14, comprised of eight native species and six non-indigenous species. This number of non-indigenous species recorded at Deception Island compares with only a single non-indigenous springtail recorded at any other maritime or continental Antarctic location. The reason underlying this high level of occurrence of non-indigenous species on Deception Island is likely to be a combination of the island's high level of human visitation and the presence of relatively benign terrestrial habitats associated with areas of geothermal activity. Two of the new records represent species recently assessed as being of the highest risk to become invaders in the less extreme environments of the subantarctic, thereby emphasising the importance and urgency of adopting and applying effective biosecurity measures to protect the unique and vulnerable ecosystems of this region. Also documented are the impacts on the soil fauna of the island from human trampling, which drastically reduced densities of both native and non-indigenous species to 1% of the abundance typical of non-trampled sites. PMID:23438196

  7. PIPS: pathogenicity island prediction software.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siomar C Soares

    Full Text Available The adaptability of pathogenic bacteria to hosts is influenced by the genomic plasticity of the bacteria, which can be increased by such mechanisms as horizontal gene transfer. Pathogenicity islands play a major role in this type of gene transfer because they are large, horizontally acquired regions that harbor clusters of virulence genes that mediate the adhesion, colonization, invasion, immune system evasion, and toxigenic properties of the acceptor organism. Currently, pathogenicity islands are mainly identified in silico based on various characteristic features: (1 deviations in codon usage, G+C content or dinucleotide frequency and (2 insertion sequences and/or tRNA genetic flanking regions together with transposase coding genes. Several computational techniques for identifying pathogenicity islands exist. However, most of these techniques are only directed at the detection of horizontally transferred genes and/or the absence of certain genomic regions of the pathogenic bacterium in closely related non-pathogenic species. Here, we present a novel software suite designed for the prediction of pathogenicity islands (pathogenicity island prediction software, or PIPS. In contrast to other existing tools, our approach is capable of utilizing multiple features for pathogenicity island detection in an integrative manner. We show that PIPS provides better accuracy than other available software packages. As an example, we used PIPS to study the veterinary pathogen Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, in which we identified seven putative pathogenicity islands.

  8. Groundwater vulnerability on small islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, S.; Allen, D. M.; Foster, S.; Hsieh, A.; Larocque, I.; Klassen, J.; van Pelt, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    The majority of naturally occurring freshwater on small islands is groundwater, which is primarily recharged by precipitation. Recharge rates are therefore likely to be impacted by climate change. Freshwater resources on small islands are particularly vulnerable to climate change because they are limited in size and easily compromised. Here we have compiled available aquifer system characteristics and water-use data for 43 small island developing states distributed worldwide, based on local expert knowledge, publications and regional data sets. Current vulnerability was assessed by evaluating the recharge volume per capita. For future vulnerability, climate change projections were used to estimate changes in aquifer recharge. We find that 44% of islands are in a state of water stress, and while recharge is projected to increase by as much as 117% on 12 islands situated in the western Pacific and Indian Ocean, recharge is projected to decrease by up to 58% on the remaining 31 islands. Of great concern is the lack of enacted groundwater protection legislation for many of the small island developing states identified as highly vulnerable to current and future conditions. Recharge indicators, shown alongside the state of legal groundwater protections, provide a global picture of groundwater supply vulnerability under current and future climate change conditions.

  9. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  10. Trend in cataract surgical rate in iran provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Rezvan, Farhad; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Gilasi, Hamidreza; Etemad, Koroush; Mahdavi, Alireza; Asgari, Soheila

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the trend of changes in Cataract Surgical Rate (CSR) in the provinces of Iran during 2006 to 2010 and identify high risk areas. This report is part of the national Iranian CSR Study. The percentage change in CSR in 2010 compared to 2006 was conducted in each province, retrospectively. One hundred and ten centers were chosen from all provinces, to determine CSR in each, the weight of major (>3,000 annual surgeries) and minor (3,000 annual surgeries or less) centers was calculated based on the number of selected centers, and multiplied by the number of surgeries in each province. In eight provinces, CSR was decreased by 1-60%. One province (Booshehr) showed no change. Eighteen provinces had 2-79% increase. No 2006 data was available in three provinces. North Khorasan had the most decrease while Kerman had the most increase in CSR. Six of these 8 provinces had CSR>3,000 despite a decrease in 2010, but North Khorasan had CSRCSR had a gap from 3,000 despite an ascending trend, and in two, the gap was quite considerable. Although CSR has an improving trend in most provinces in Iran, it is decreasing in some provinces, and despite an already low CSR, the exacerbation continues. The growing population of over 50 year olds calls for prompt measures in such provinces. Even in improving provinces, some lag behind the minimum recommended by WHO, and the growth rate of the over 50 population reveals the necessity of immediate planning.

  11. Effects of health empowerment intervention on resilience of adolescents in a tribal area: A study using the Solomon four-groups design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Kaushik; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Sinha, Multipada; Shahbabu, Bhaskar

    2017-10-01

    Resilience prevents the emergence of stress-related mental health problems among adolescents. Adolescents in tribal areas of India are more prone to develop such problems. The primary objective was to determine the effect of combined life skills-based health empowerment intervention on the resilience of school-going adolescents in a tribal area. The secondary objectives were to determine the effect of the intervention on internal health locus of control and self-determination and to compare the effect of intervention on resilience between non-tribal and tribal adolescents. We conducted this quasi-experimental study using a Solomon four-group design among 742 adolescents in two schools of Purulia, West Bengal, India. Students of the pretested group were examined for resilience using the Child Youth Resilience Measurement scale. A life skills education-based health empowerment intervention was administered among students of the experimental group. Post-test data on resilience, self-determination, internal health locus of control and pathological behaviour was obtained 3 months after the completion of intervention. A multi-level general linear mixed model was constructed to determine the effect of intervention on resilience. Resilience was less among tribal adolescents at baseline. The intervention significantly improved resilience [βAdjusted = 11.19 (95% CI = 10.55, 11.83], with a greater increase for tribal adolescents [βtribal-nontribal = 1.53 (95% CI = 0.03, 3.03)]. The intervention also significantly improved internal health locus of control (marginal mean increment 1.38 ± 0.05), self-determination (marginal mean increment 3.71 ± 0.09) and reduced pathological behaviour of the adolescents. Our study informed the current health policy that the existing life skills education-based programme should be reviewed and modified to include generic life skills, and the life skills education-based programme should be coupled with developmental interventions

  12. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Euichi Hirose; Budhi Hascaryo Iskandar; Yusli Wardiatno

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2...

  13. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  14. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    the differences between the single-island and multi-island smart energy system, and examine the integration challenges of the multi-island smart energy system in the Philippines. The integration challenges of the national energy system with island smart energy development are discussed with suggestions....

  15. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Glider Observations of Circulation Around an Island ...the coastal problem involves circulation around islands , which has been less studied over the years. Island circulation is distinguished from...processes include boundary currents, eddies shed in the island’s wake, and island coastally trapped waves. This project aims to improve the understanding

  16. 27 CFR 9.170 - Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long Island. 9.170 Section... Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Long Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Long Island viticultural area are...

  17. 27 CFR 9.68 - Merritt Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merritt Island. 9.68... Merritt Island. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Merritt Island.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Merritt Island...

  18. 21 CFR 808.89 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rhode Island. 808.89 Section 808.89 Food and Drugs... and Local Exemptions § 808.89 Rhode Island. The following Rhode Island medical device requirements are... from preemption under section 521(b) of the act: Rhode Island General Laws, Section 5-49-2.1, and...

  19. [Relationships between island characteristics and arthropod diversity in Thousand-Island Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-jun; Xu, Zhi-hong; Lu, Jian-bo; Zhao, Gai; Zhang, Qun

    2009-09-01

    In April, May, August, and October 2006, grid-based sampling method was adopted to investigate the diversity and abundance of arthropods on 50 islands in the Thousand-island Lake, with the effects of island area, island altitude, island shape, inter-island distance, and island-mainland distance on arthropod species richness analyzed. With the increase of island area, the richness of total arthropod species and that of the arthropod species with high- and low- dispersal ability all increased, and the relationships between island area and arthropod species richness corresponded to the classical island biogeography model. The island area, island altitude, and island shape had comprehensive effects on the arthropod species richness, while inter-island distance and island-mainland distance had less effects. The richness of total arthropod species had a significant positive correlation with island altitude and island shape, that of the arthropod species with high- dispersal ability was significantly positively correlated with island area and island altitude, while no significant relationship was observed between the richness of arthropod species with low-dispersal ability and the island characteristics.

  20. 77 FR 34894 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone.... This rule is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and...

  1. Maps showing geology, oil and gas fields, and geological provinces of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C. J.; Viger, R.J.; Anderson, C.P.

    1999-01-01

    This digitally compiled map includes geology, geologic provinces, and oil and gas fields of South America. The map is part of a worldwide series on CD-ROM by World Energy Project released of the U.S. Geological Survey . The goal of the project is to assess the undiscovered, technically recoverable oil and gas resources of the world and report these results by the year 2000. For data management purposes the world is divided into eight energy regions corresponding approximately to the economic regions of the world as defined by the U.S. Department of State. South America (Region 6) includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Islands, French Guiana, Guyuna, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

  2. Mantle hydration and the role of water in the generation of large igneous provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Xia, Qun-Ke; Kuritani, Takeshi; Hanski, Eero; Yu, Hao-Ran

    2017-11-28

    The genesis of large igneous provinces (LIP) is controlled by multiple factors including anomalous mantle temperatures, the presence of fusible fertile components and volatiles in the mantle source, and the extent of decompression. The lack of a comprehensive examination of all these factors in one specific LIP makes the mantle plume model debatable. Here, we report estimates of the water content in picrites from the Emeishan LIP in southwestern China. Although these picrites display an island arc-like H 2 O content (up to 3.4 by weight percent), the trace element characteristics do not support a subduction zone setting but point to a hydrous reservoir in the deep mantle. Combining with previous studies, we propose that hydrous and hot plumes occasionally appeared in the Phanerozoic era to produce continental LIPs (e.g., Tarim, Siberian Trap, Karoo). The wide sampling of hydrous reservoirs in the deep mantle by mantle plumes thus indicates that the Earth's interior is largely hydrated.

  3. Guest editorial introduction: Understanding island cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Grydehoj

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Island studies research has traditionally focused on relatively rural, peripheral, and isolated communities, yet island cities (strongly urbanized small islands or archipelagos or major population centres of large islands or archipelagos also represent an important research area. Island spatiality has a host of historical and continuing effects on urban development, influencing urban densification and agglomeration, zonal differentiation, and neighbourhood formation in cities both big and small. This special section of Island Studies Journal includes papers on the island cities and urban archipelagos of Peel (Isle of Man, British Isles, Nuuk (Greenland, Palma de Majorca (Spain, Belize City (Belize, and Mumbai (India. The Island Cities and Urban Archipelagos research network seeks to help enrich wider island studies scholarship and contribute to introducing the island dimension to urban studies.

  4. Blood recipient notification for hepatitis C in Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Til, L D; Sweet, L E

    2000-01-25

    Two of the major risk factors for hepatitis C are injection drug use and receipt of blood or blood products. Many patients are unaware that they have received transfusions. In 1998 Prince Edward Island conducted a province-wide look-back notification program to notify patients who had received transfusions in PEI between Jan. 1, 1984, and June 1, 1990. The authors present the results of the notification program. A registry for recipients of blood and blood products was created from the province's Red Cross blood bank records. The registry data were linked with Vital Statistics data to determine death status and with Health Registration data to determine residence status of recipients (in PEI or moved out of province). All identified recipients with a current PEI mailing address were sent a letter recommending hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing. Laboratory records were checked to determine HCV test results. The registry contained data for 6086 recipients of blood or blood products during the look-back period; 51.1% (3109/6086) had died by the time of notification. Of the remainder, 18.4% (549/2977) were not directly notified because they had moved out of province, had refused delivery of the notification letter or had died recently, or because identifying information was missing from the blood bank records. Of the recipients who were notified 80.4% (1953/2428) underwent testing, and 2.2% (43/1953) were found to be HCV positive. Most of these (58.1% [25/43]) had undergone testing before notification. The HCV positivity rate differed significantly between recipients tested before notification and those tested after notification (9.9% v. 1.1%, p < 0.001). HCV-positive recipients were more likely than other notified recipients to have had multiple transfusions (39.5% v. 9.5%, p < 0.001). Before notification 4.1% of PEI recipients had undergone HCV testing. After notification 91.2% of PEI recipients were identified as tested, dead or moved out of province. The notification

  5. Wake Island Supplemental Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    and recreational purposes include groupers (Cephalapholis argus), porgy (Monotaxis grandoculis), and jacks (Carangidae). Sharks are abundant...Possibly Extinct on Wake Island Swiftlet, Guam; Yayaguak (Collecalia bartschi) Endangered Crow, Mariana; Aga (Corvus kubaryi) Endangered

  6. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Goal of the Laysan Island Restoration is to restore Laysan to a "Pristine" state which would require minimal monitoring and habitat for Endemic Endangered...

  7. Cat Island NWR Biological Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A summary report describing the discussion and recommendations resulting from a multidisciplinary review of the biological program at Cat Island NWR.

  8. Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal announcement

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a letter from the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife stating that documents pertaining to the Hawaiian Islands Wilderness proposal have been...

  9. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project supports restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  10. Papahanaumokuakea - Laysan Island Restoration 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project will support restoration activities at Laysan Island. Staff and volunteers continue efforts to eradicate alien invasive species such as Indian dropseed...

  11. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  12. Sediment Management Options for Galveston Island, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Galveston Island is a major tourist and commercial center on the Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. The shoreline along the...approximately 235°. The island is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico , the Galveston Entrance Channel to the northeast, West Bay to the northwest, and San...plants on both ends of the island are the best strategies to widen the beaches of Galveston Island, improve tourism , and better protect the island

  13. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-01-01

    Introduction/Background: US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Objective: The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods: In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-...

  14. Human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangping; Gong, Zhenyu; Chen, Enfu; Lin, Junfen; Lv, Huakun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shelan; Sun, Jimin

    2015-09-01

    To explore the epidemiological characteristics of human rabies in Zhejiang Province, China. Descriptive and statistical analyses were performed using data collected through interview with human rabies cases or their relatives during 2007 to 2014. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect the data. Two hundred and one cases of human rabies were diagnosed in Zhejiang Province between 2007 and 2014, with a gradually declining annual incidence. Of the rabies cases identified, 61.2% were aged 40-65 years, and the male to female ratio was 2.30:1; 63.7% of cases occurred in the summer and autumn. The two most reported occupations were farmer (69.2%) and rural laborer (15.4%). Wenzhou, Jinhua, and Huzhou were the three cities with the most reported cases. The majority of cases (92.8%) were attributed to canines, and 71.0% of animal vectors were household animals. Less than half of the cases (41.4%) sought wound treatment after exposure. Post-exposure passive immunization was given to 9.7% and active immunization to 2.3%. Cases with a wound on the head/face only had a significantly shorter incubation than those with wounds at other sites (prabies cases occurred among 40-65-year-old male residents of northern, mid-west, and southeast Zhejiang Province. Further health education is needed to increase the coverage of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in people exposed to possible rabid animals and rabies vaccine use in household animals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  16. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  17. A systematic literature review of pediculosis due to head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories: what country specific research on head lice is needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speare, Rick; Harrington, Humpress; Canyon, Deon; Massey, Peter D

    2014-06-24

    Lack of guidelines on control of pediculosis in the Solomon Islands led to a search for relevant evidence on head lice in the Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs). The aim of this search was to systematically evaluate evidence in the peer reviewed literature on pediculosis due to head lice (Pediculus humanus var capitis) in the 22 PICTs from the perspective of its value in informing national guidelines and control strategies. PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and Scopus were searched using the terms (pediculosis OR head lice) AND each of the 22 PICTs individually. PRISMA methodology was used. Exclusion criteria were: i) not on topic; ii) publications on pediculosis not relevant to the country of the particular search; iii) in grey literature. Of 24 publications identified, only 5 were included. Four related to treatment and one to epidemiology. None contained information relevant to informing national guidelines. Current local evidence on head lice in the PICTs is minimal and totally inadequate to guide any recommendations for treatment or control. We recommend that local research is required to generate evidence on: i) epidemiology; ii) knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers and community members; iii) efficacy of local commercially available pharmaceutical treatments and local customary treatments; iv) acceptability, accessibility and affordability of available treatment strategies; and iv) appropriate control strategies for families, groups and institutions. We also recommend that operational research be done by local researchers based in the PICTs, supported by experienced head lice researchers, using a two way research capacity building model.

  18. Early Substance Use Initiation and Suicide Ideation and Attempts among School-Aged Adolescents in Four Pacific Island Countries in Oceania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the correlations between early initiation (<12 years of smoking cigarettes, alcohol use, and drug use (cannabis with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in school-aged adolescents in four Pacific Island countries in Oceania. The sample included 6540 adolescents (≤13 to ≥16 years old from Kiribati, Samoa, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to assess the association between pre-adolescent substance use initiation and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Results indicate a prevalence of 25.8% suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (ranging from 17.2% in Vanuatu to 34.7% in Kiribati and 34.9% suicide attempts in the past 12 months (ranging from 23.5% in Vanuatu to 62.0% in Samoa. The prevalence of early cigarette smoking initiation was 15.7%, early alcohol initiation 13.8%, and early drug use initiation was 12.9%. Students who reported pre-adolescent substance use initiation, compared with non-substance users, were more likely reporting suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. The concurrent initiation of cigarette smoking, alcohol, and drug use should be targeted in early prevention programmes in order to prevent possible subsequent suicidal behaviours.

  19. Contributions to Bryophyte Flora of Zonguldak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet ÖREN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With this study, some new bryophyte taxa have been added for the bryophyte flora of Zonguldak. One taxon from Anthoceratophyta (Hornworts, 11 from Marchantiophyta (Liverworts and 55 from Bryophyta (Mosses, totally 67 taxa are determined as new for the bryophyte flora of Zonguldak province with examination of specimens collected from field trips held on different habitats between 2012-2014. Among them, 14 taxa are newly reported from A2 square according to the Henderson grid system. Considering previous studies, the number of specific and infra specific taxa in the research area are reached up to 282.

  20. Bottom water hydrodynamic provinces and transport patterns of the northern South China Sea: Evidence from grain size of the terrigenous sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yi; Chen, Zhong; Li, Liang; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Gang; Zheng, Xufeng; Wang, Shuhong; Mo, Aibin

    2017-05-01

    Sediment transport in the source-to-sink systems of the northern South China Sea (SCS) has been of increasing interest during the past few decades. However, the mechanisms for sediment redistribution remain unclear. Sources and transport patterns in the northern SCS were investigated in this study based on grain size analyses of 205 surface sediment samples. Detailed characterizations of hydrodynamic conditions and sediment transport have been made using the log-ratio method to partition grain size components of surface sediments in the northern SCS. Results reveal that sediment dispersal patterns in the region generally contain traction, saltation, graded and uniform suspension modes. Based on the spatial distribution characteristics, the study area can be classified into three hydrodynamic provinces. Province A contains high traction concentrations that are exposed to the longshore current and topographic features, which are distributed in the Taiwan Shoal, Dongsha Islands and extends from the Pearl River estuary to the southeast of Hainan Island. Province B is characterized by higher values of saltation and graded suspension, which are widespread along the northern slope of the SCS, and its formation is interpreted as the result of interactions between down- and along-slope processes. Province C reaches its greatest concentration in the abyssal areas, particularly in the vicinity of Luzon Island, which settles only under calm conditions. Combined with previous data concerning magnetic susceptibility distributions of surface sediments from the northern SCS, the sediment transport route near the mainland is traced. Furthermore, based on distribution pattern of sortable silts and hydrodynamic provenance of the terrigenous sediments, the sediment transport route in the deep water region of the northern SCS is outlined. It flows along marginal channels which cut across the continental slope along isobaths. Taken together, the combination of grain-size components and

  1. Colorectal cancer trends in Kerman province, the largest province in Iran, with forecasting until 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roya, Nikbakht; Abbas, Bahrampour

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. The aim of this study is determination its trends in Kerman province and individual cities separately until year 2016. This analytical and modeling study was based of cancer registry data of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, collected during 2001-2010. Among 20,351 cancer case, 792 were colorectal cancer cases in age group 18-93 years with a mean of 59.4 and standard deviation of 15.1. By applying time series and data trends, incidences were predicted until 2016 for the province and each city, with adjustment for population size. In colorectal cases, 413 (52%) were male, and 379 (48%) were female. The annual increasing rate in Kerman province overall was and can be expected to be 6%, and in the cities of the province Rafsanjan, Bardsir, Bam, Kerman, Baft, Sirjan, Jiroft, Kahnuj and Manujan had an increasing range from 5 to 14% by the year 2016. But in Ravar, Zarand and Shahrbabak reduction in rates of at least 2% could be predicted. The time series showed that the trend of colorectal cancer in female will increase 15% and in male 7% by year 2016. Given the trend of this cancer is increasing so that resources will be consumed in the treatment of the patients, efforts shoudlbe focused on prevention and early diagnosis of the disease. Screening could have an important role leading to improved survival.

  2. Drought Characteristics over the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christina M Botai; Joel O Botai; Jaco P de Wit; Katlego P Ncongwane; Abiodun M Adeola

    2017-01-01

    .... The present study assessed drought conditions using two categories of drought indicators computed from precipitation data sets measured by weather stations across the Western Cape Province, South...

  3. Tectonics, islands and island hopping in the Early Palaeozoic benthos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harper, D.A.T.; Liljeroth, M.; Rasmussen, C.M.Ø.

    2011-01-01

    Analyses confirm the roles of the oceanic provinces as both cradles and museums of evolution (Harper & Mac Niocaill, 2002), with reference to the development of the global brachiopod fauna through the Floian-Sandbian (mid Early – early Late Ordovician) interval. Moreover, groups of taxa with

  4. Pathogenologic analysis on fungal keratitis in 81 eyes in Hainan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the etiological and epidemiological characteristics of fungal keratitis in the Hainan Province of China with a warm and humid tropical climate. METHODS: Eighty-one patients(81 eyeswith fungal keratitis who attended the Corneal Services of Hainan Province Eye Hospital from January 2014 to December 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The characteristics of fungal population, the age distributions of patients, the seasonal distribution of disease and the risk factor were analyzed. The treatment of fungal keratitis was reviewed. The positive rates of KOH based smear and fungal culture were assessed and analyzed using the Chi-squared test. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients of fungal keratitis(including 81 eyeswere involved. The ration of the male and female was 2:1. The median age was 51 years. Corneal trauma seems to be the most common risk factor. Of all cases, 45 patients(55%were greater than or equal to 50 years old. Twenty-eight(35%were between 30-50 years old. Eight(10%were less than or eaqual to 30 years old. Twenty-nine cases(36%appeared in the first quarter indicated that fungal keratitis was most popular in the winter in Hainan Province. Standard fungal cultures were performed in 81 cases. Seventy-one of the 81 samples(88%grew fungi. Fungal smear tests were performed in 80 cases. Forty-one cases(51%were confirmed to be fungal keratitis by 10% KOH count. Statistical differences were found in the positive rates between fungal culture and fungal smear test(χ2=23.730, PCONCLUSION: The predominant fungal species isolated is Fusarium sp. followed by asporogenous strain. The fungal keratitis is most popular in the first quarter in Hainan Island. Corneal trauma seems to be the most common risk factor. Multidisciplinary approach, including the combined application of surgery and antifungal drugs is the treatment strategy common used for the fungal keratitis. The positive rate of fungal culture is higher than fungal smear test.

  5. Aleutian Canada goose transplant from Buldir Island to Agattu Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, summer 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Geese were captured on Buldir Island by searching the upper and lower edge of the lowland tall plant association where tall plants offer cover and short plants offer...

  6. Multibeam collection for EW9510: Multibeam data collected aboard Maurice Ewing from 1995-09-28 to 1995-10-15, departing from Kao-hsiung, Taiwan and returning to Honiara, Solomon Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  7. 46 CFR 7.85 - St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. 7.85... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.85 St. Simons Island, GA to Little Talbot Island, FL. (a) A line drawn... Island Light. (b) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to latitude 30°29.4′ N...

  8. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    to the low thickness of the lithospheric mantle and preheating of the lower crust by earlier Mio-Pliocene volcanism. Rare earth element modelling of mantle melting calls for enriched source compositions and a beginning of melting within the garnet stability field for all Payenia basalts. The Río Colorado......The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...... rocks with 4 to 12 wt.% MgO and 44 to 50 wt.% SiO2. The southern Payenia province is dominated by intraplate basalts and the trace element patterns of the Río Colorado and Payún Matrú lavas suggest little or no influence from subducted slab components. The mantle source of these rocks is similar to some...

  9. Traditional medicine of Madura island in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    MANGESTUTI, SUBEHAN; WIDYAWARUYANTI, Aty; ZAIDI, SyedFaisalHaider; AWALE, Suresh; 門田, 重利

    2007-01-01

    インドネシアのジャワ島の東部に位置するマドゥラ島は,マドゥラジャムウと呼ばれ,その土地だけの伝統薬で有名な島である。マドゥラの婦人は,日々の健康のため島の東部にある昔のSumenep王国の一族から伝承されているジャムウを使用している。王室の一族は,伝統薬についての知識を代々継承し,書物として記録されている。本論文は,マドゥラのSumenep王族による婦人の健康とビューティケアーに使用された伝統薬の処方,材料,方剤の作製,投与方法等について伝統薬を使用するための技術,情報を網羅したハイライトである。Madura Island is part of East Java Province, Indonesia, and is famous for its local traditional medicine, called Madurese jamu (jamu = herbal traditional medicine of Indonesia). Madurese women use jamu on a regular basis for health purposes, incl...

  10. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  11. The origin of the Line Islands: plate or plume controlled volcanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, L. P.; Konter, J. G.; Koppers, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    Geochemical compositions of melts produced in the Earth's mantle provide key data for our understanding of the Earth's internal structure. Particularly, the range in compositions for oceanic intraplate volcanism has fueled the ongoing debate on the dynamic origin of hotspots. Traditionally, hotspots have been interpreted to originate from narrow, upwelling plumes of hot mantle material that reach the bottom of the tectonic plates. Progressively younger volcanoes, as seen at, for example, Hawaii, are then derived from plume melts. However, such a plume may originate from the core-mantle boundary, the top of seismically defined superplumes, or the origin may not lie in a buoyantly upwelling plume at all. The presence of an age progressive volcanic chain and a large igneous province, a high buoyancy flux, the geochemical composition of the erupted lavas, and seismically slow velocities have been used to distinguish different hotspot origins. Volcanic chains that lack most of these features may originate from the eruption of shallow melts along lithospherically controlled cracks. A unique area to study this type of volcanism is the Line Islands. These islands define a complex chain of volcanoes south of Hawaii that morphologically define multiple sub-groups. Moreover, recent age dating has revealed a complex geochronology. Combined geochronological and geochemical data from the Line Islands allude to the presence of shallow mantle melts that feed eruptions where there are weaknesses in the plates due to fractures or fissures. The Line Islands consist of elongated ridges, seamounts, atolls and islands that form the northern segment of the Line-Tuamotu chain of volcanoes. The volcanic chain is divided into three morphologically distinct regions; the northern, central and southern provinces. Long en echelon ridges of the Line Islands Cross Trend intersect the northern province at 14-16°N, which consists of the section between the Molokai and Clarion fracture zones. The

  12. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  13. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euichi Hirose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia. Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  14. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

  15. Hymenoptera of Ni de province: Studies on Sphecidae fauna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is based on 1240 specimens obtained from the field studies in the vicinity of Ankara province in Turkey between the years of 2006 - 2008. In fauna studies carried out in Nide province between May 2006 - October 2008, the specimens of Sphecinae Latreille, 1802, Pempheredoninae Dahlbom, 1835 ...

  16. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  17. Validating homicide rates in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    homicide rate of 85/100 000 in the province was approximately 1.8 times the national average,[3] albeit based on crude rates that did not account for provincial differences in the age profile. SAPS data suggest that there has been a significant decline in homicide rates in the Western Cape relative to other provinces since.

  18. The evaluation of public psychiatric services in three provinces of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To describe the quality of care in communityand hospital-based care in three provinces in terms of 13 standards of care and the criteria associated with each; and to explore the similarities and differences between provinces. Design. A descriptive study in the form of a survey using interviews, observation and ...

  19. New records of mosses for Zhejiang province,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHENG Liyuan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have found and reported 31 newly recorded species of mosses of Zhejiang province via investigation and specimen identification for bryophytes in the QingliangFeng.Two of them are new genera of Zhejiang province:Trichodon Schimp.and Zygodon Hook.& Taylor.The maintaxonomic characters,habitats and geographical distributions of these species are presented in this paper.

  20. Perinatal mortality in the Cape Province, 1989 - 1991

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-05-05

    May 5, 1995 ... Objective. To determine the number of deliveries, the low- birth-weight rate and the perinatal mortality rate at provincial and province-aided hospitals and clinics in each planning region of the Cape Province. Design. A record of the number of deliveries, low-birth- weight infants, stillbirths and early neonataJ ...

  1. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  2. Dynamic Ecological Footprint in Jiangxi Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Jinqiao

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces the related research progress of ecological footprint theory. According to the data of Jiangxi Province from 1995 to 2004, this paper measures the per capita ecological footprint and supply in recent 10 years. Result shows that ecological deficit of Jiangxi Province of China is relatively low, but is increasing gradually.

  3. Provision of Adequate Water Supply in Benin Province: Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examines the performance of the local governments in the provision of adequate sources of potable water in their different areas of jurisdiction in the Benin Province. The work covers the four Native Administration areas of Benin, Esan, Afemai and Asaba Divisions, which made up the Benin Province during ...

  4. Aleutian Canada goose survey at Alaid and Nizki Islands, Near Island Group, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Arctic foxes, introduced to Alaid and Nizki islands in 1911, 1920 and 1935, were removed from the two islands in 1975 and 1976 by means of shooting and trapping...

  5. Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and San Juan Islands Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Protection Island and San Juan Islands NWRs for the next 15 years. This plan outlines...

  6. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  7. Bird and mammal abundance at Nizki Island with notes on observations at Alaid Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, spring 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To document migratory bird use and response following elimination of introduced Arctic foxes from an island in the western Aleutian Islands. Fox elimination from an...

  8. Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Plum Island (Pond Island, Thacher's Island Refuges): Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Parker River NWR, Pond Island NWR, and Tacher's Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report...

  9. New Coleoptera records from New Brunswick, Canada: Anthribidae, Brentidae, Dryophthoridae, Brachyceridae, and Curculionidae, with additions to the fauna of Quebec, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Reginald P; Anderson, Robert S; Sweeney, Jon D; Demerchant, Ian

    2012-01-01

    We report 63 species of Curculionoidea that are new to New Brunswick (three species of Anthribidae, four species of Brentidae, three species of Dryophthoridae, three species of Brachyceridae, 50 species of Curculionidae). Among these are 27 species (two Anthribidae, two Brenthidae, one Brachyceridae, 22 Curculionidae) that are also newly recorded for the Maritime provinces, and one species, Plesiobaris disjuncta Casey (Curculionidae) that is newly recorded for Canada from New Brunswick and Quebec. Bagous planatus LeConte is reinstated to the faunal list of New Brunswick. Two species of Curculionidae are newly recorded from Nova Scotia and the Maritime provinces, and two others are reported for the first time for Prince Edward Island.

  10. Dengue virus serotype in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisal

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available WHO estimated 50 million dengue infections happen every year in the world. In Indonesia, there were 90,245 DHF cases on 2012 with 816 deaths. In the Province of Aceh, 2,269 cases happened in the same year. This study aimed to identify dengue virus serotype in Aceh. Sampling was done in Kota Banda Aceh Hospital, Kota Lhokseumawe Hospital, Kabupaten Aceh Tamiang Hospital, Kabupaten Aceh Barat Hospital, and Kabupaten Simeulue Hospital between May to December 2012. This was a clinical laboratory research with observation design using cross sectional approach. Research’s population was sample from patients with dengue clinical symptom. Using purposive sampling technique, we have collected 100 samples from the five hospitals (20 samples from each hospital. From RT-PCR, we found 16 positive samples (9 samples were DENV-4, 3 samples were DENV-1, 2 samples were DENV-2, and 2 samples were DENV-3.

  11. Showcasing bioscience in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spero, Denice

    2013-02-01

    There are a number of well-recognized bioscience companies located in the greater Providence area. They represent a significant and growing source of jobs and future revenue, which promises to play a role in the revitalization and expansion of Rhode Island's economy. In an effort to support these companies and to showcase their research, the Rhode Island Medical Journal is highlighting five of these innovative enterprises in this issue. The companies selected are members of the Rhode Island BioScience Leaders organization, and their research spans a wide range of science, from biologics and informatics to innovative coatings for medical devices. They include ProThera Biologics, EpiVax, Tivorsan Pharmaceuticals, BioIntraface, and VeroScience.

  12. URBAN HEAT ISLAND AEROSPACE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Y. Grishchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  Modern cities are characterized by special urban landscape and special urban climate. Urban heat island is a phenomenon closely associated with urban territories. There are many methods developed for studying urban heat island, they can be combined into two groups: imagery-based methods and physicomathematical methods. Using spatial imagery can provide revealing thermal anomalies evolution in time and space, spatial distribution of various thermal anomalies, differences in quantitative measures of various thermal anomalies. Despite the fact that imagery-based methods are seemed to be very widespread among scientists all over the world, still there are some problems with using spatial imagery. The best spatial resolution of accessible thermal imagery is 60 m (ETM+ sensor, and sometimes it is not enough for urban studies (many urban objects have smaller dimensions. The problem of urban heat island is rather serious in modern world, and it needs data of very good quality.

  13. Pediatric burns in Khuzestan Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshyarikhah, Hojjat; Shayestehfard, Marzieh; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Cheraghian, Bahman; Latifzadeh, Shila; Madari, Zahra

    2012-04-01

    Burn injuries are the most frequently occurring injuries among pediatric populations worldwide, and they are significant pediatric injuries in Iran. This study was conducted to analyze the pattern of pediatric burns in Khuzestan province in the south-west of Iran from April 2006 to March 2007. The location of the study was Taleghani Hospital, a sole center for burn patients in Khuzestan province. The number of patients with burns admitted to the center in 1 year (from April 2006 to March 2007) was 211. Data were obtained by reviewing the medical records of patients hospitalized at the center. Of the patients, 85 (40.3%) were female and 126 (59.7%) were male. Of the 85 female patients, 50 were from urban areas and 35 were from rural areas. Of the 126 male patients, 68 (54%) were from urban areas and 58 (46%) were from rural areas. The mean ± SE age of the children ranging between 0 and 11 years was 3.20 ± 0.188. Scalding was the predominant cause of burns and caused 86.7% of the burns. The age of the patients with scald injuries (2.95 ± 2.56 years) was significantly lower than that of patients with flame injuries (4.28 ± 3.3 years) (P=0.007). Correlation analysis showed that younger children and urban residents are more vulnerable to scald injuries. The mean body surface area of burns was 20.5 ± 10.26 cm in all patients. Scalding was the most common cause of burns. Age burn accidents in children in Khuzestan. An appropriate burn prevention program, with focus on education, is needed to prevent this injury.

  14. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  15. Petit Manan National Wildlife Refuge and satellite stations Cross Island National Wildlife Refuge, Seal Island National Wildlife Refuge, Franklin Island National Wildlife Refuge, Pond Island National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Petit Manan NWR, Cross Island NWR, Seal Island NWR, Franklin Island NWR, and Pond Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during...

  16. The Big Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Boasting snow-covered mountain peaks and tropical forest, the Island of Hawaii, the largest of the Hawaiian Islands, is stunning at any altitude. This false-color composite (processed to simulate true color) image of Hawaii was constructed from data gathered between 1999 and 2001 by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) instrument, flying aboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The Landsat data were processed by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to develop a landcover map. This map will be used as a baseline to chart changes in land use on the islands. Types of change include the construction of resorts along the coastal areas, and the conversion of sugar plantations to other crop types. Hawaii was created by a 'hotspot' beneath the ocean floor. Hotspots form in areas where superheated magma in the Earth's mantle breaks through the Earth's crust. Over the course of millions of years, the Pacific Tectonic Plate has slowly moved over this hotspot to form the entire Hawaiian Island archipelago. The black areas on the island (in this scene) that resemble a pair of sun-baked palm fronds are hardened lava flows formed by the active Mauna Loa Volcano. Just to the north of Mauna Loa is the dormant grayish Mauna Kea Volcano, which hasn't erupted in an estimated 3,500 years. A thin greyish plume of smoke is visible near the island's southeastern shore, rising from Kilauea-the most active volcano on Earth. Heavy rainfall and fertile volcanic soil have given rise to Hawaii's lush tropical forests, which appear as solid dark green areas in the image. The light green, patchy areas near the coasts are likely sugar cane plantations, pineapple farms, and human settlements. Courtesy of the NOAA Coastal Services Center Hawaii Land Cover Analysis project

  17. Streamlined Islands in Ares Valles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 June 2002) The Science Although liquid water is not stable on the surface of Mars today, there is substantial geologic evidence that large quantities of water once flowed across the surface in the distant past. Streamlined islands, shown here, are one piece of evidence for this ancient water. The tremendous force of moving water, possibly from a catastrophic flood, carved these teardrop-shaped islands within a much larger channel called Ares Valles. The orientation of the islands can be used as an indicator of the direction the water flowed. The islands have a blunt end that is usually associated with an obstacle, commonly an impact crater. The crater is resistant to erosion and creates a geologic barrier around which the water must flow. As the water flows past the obstacle, its erosive power is directed outward, leaving the area in the lee of the obstacle relatively uneroded. However, some scientists have also argued that the area in the lee of the obstacle might be a depositional zone, where material is dropped out of the water as it briefly slows. The ridges observed on the high-standing terrain in the leeward parts of the islands may be benches carved into the rock that mark the height of the water at various times during the flood, or they might be indicative of layering in the leeward rock. As the water makes its way downstream, the interference of the water flow by the obstacle is reduced, and the water that was diverted around the obstacle rejoins itself at the narrow end of the island. Therefore, the direction of the water flow is parallel to the orientation of the island, and the narrow end of the island points downstream. In addition to the streamlined islands, the channel floor exhibits fluting that is also suggestive of flowing water. The flutes (also known as longitudinal grooves) are also parallel to the direction of flow, indicating that the water flow was turbulent and probably quite fast, which is consistent with the hypothesized

  18. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  19. Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Immunizations Immunizations and Asians and Pacific Islanders Asian/Pacific Islander ... 35 months reached the Healthy People goal for immunizations for hepatitis B, MMR (measles-mumps-rubella), polio ...

  20. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  1. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  2. Fire Island National Seashore : alternative transportation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    As part of its General Management Plan (GMP) process, Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) seeks to develop a long-term management model to protect Fire Islands resources, while facilitating a safe, rewarding, and relevant experience for the publi...

  3. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  4. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  5. Libraries in Rhode Island: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/rhodeisland.html Libraries in Rhode Island To use the sharing features ... Island Hospital / a Lifespan Partner Peters Health Sciences Library 593 Eddy Street Providence, RI 02903-4971 401- ...

  6. Infant Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Immunizations Infant Health & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke ... Mortality and Asians and Pacific Islanders Among Asian/Pacific Islanders, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is the fourth leading cause of ...

  7. Bair Island Restoration Project Monitoring Plan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bair Island is located adjacent to the San Francisco Bay in Redwood City, San Mateo County, California (Figure 1). Historically, Bair Island was part of a large...

  8. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  9. 77 FR 51473 - Safety Zone; Bostock 50th Anniversary Fireworks, Long Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... Island Sound; Manursing Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of Manursing Island, NY for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  10. 33 CFR 80.720 - St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Simons Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. 80.720 Section 80.720 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Island, GA to Amelia Island, FL. (a) A line drawn from St. Simons Light to the northernmost tank on...

  11. Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation

    OpenAIRE

    DJAMALI, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    The “Island Biogeography; ecology, evolution, and conservation” is an excellent textbook for the island biology. After a brief chapter “The natural laboratory paradigm”, in which the structure of the book is described, the second chapter gives a comprehensive description of the physical characteristics of the islands; their origin, formation, geological evolution, and natural physical disturbances. In chapter 3, the status of the global biodiversity distribution on the Earth’s islands is shor...

  12. Past, Present, Future Erosion at Locke Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, Bruce N.

    2006-08-08

    This report describes and documents the erosion that has occurred along the northeast side of Locke Island over the last 10 to 20 years. The principal cause of this erosion is the massive Locke Island landslide complex opposite the Columbia River along the White Bluffs, which constricts the flow of the river and deflects the river's thalweg southward against the island.

  13. The Limacidae of the Canary Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regteren Altena, van C.O.

    1950-01-01

    CONTENTS Introduction............... 3 Systematic survey of the Limacidae of the central and western Canary Islands 5 Biogeographical notes on the Limacidae of the Canary Islands . . . . 21 Alphabetical list of the persons who collected or observed Limacidae in the Canary Islands.............. 31

  14. Ecology and Evolution: Islands of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Richard

    This book was designed for middle and junior high school science classes and focuses on island biogeography, ecology, and evolution. Sections include: (1) "Galapagos: Frame of Reference"; (2) "Ecology and Islands"; and (3) "Evolution." Nineteen standards-based activities use the Galapagos Islands as a running theme…

  15. Unsupervised statistical identification of genomic islands using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop some statistical methods to determine these external genetic elements or genomic islands in genomes based on their differential oligonucleotide usage patterns compared to the rest of the genome. Genomic islands identified by these unsupervised statistical methods include integron and pathogenicity islands.

  16. 50 CFR 32.59 - Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rhode Island. 32.59 Section 32.59 Wildlife... § 32.59 Rhode Island. The following refuge units have been opened for hunting and/or fishing and are listed in alphabetical order with applicable refuge-specific regulations. Block Island National Wildlife...

  17. The island-mainland species turnover relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Yoel E; Losos, Jonathan B; Algar, Adam C

    2012-10-07

    Many oceanic islands are notable for their high endemism, suggesting that islands may promote unique assembly processes. However, mainland assemblages sometimes harbour comparable levels of endemism, suggesting that island biotas may not be as unique as is often assumed. Here, we test the uniqueness of island biotic assembly by comparing the rate of species turnover among islands and the mainland, after accounting for distance decay and environmental gradients. We modelled species turnover as a function of geographical and environmental distance for mainland (M-M) communities of Anolis lizards and Terrarana frogs, two clades that have diversified extensively on Caribbean islands and the mainland Neotropics. We compared mainland-island (M-I) and island-island (I-I) species turnover with predictions of the M-M model. If island assembly is not unique, then the M-M model should successfully predict M-I and I-I turnover, given geographical and environmental distance. We found that M-I turnover and, to a lesser extent, I-I turnover were significantly higher than predicted for both clades. Thus, in the first quantitative comparison of mainland-island species turnover, we confirm the long-held but untested assumption that island assemblages accumulate biodiversity differently than their mainland counterparts.

  18. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Xiong, Lu; Wang, Fuli; Xu, Xiaozhen; Wang, Jiao; Lin, Feng; Li, Chunhua; Lu, Ling; Zhou, Yuanping

    2016-01-01

    Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the "Li" aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35), 1b (n=31), 3b (n=16), 2a (n=8), 3a (n=6), and 1a (n=4). By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. A Unique Pattern of HCV Genotype Distribution on Hainan Island in China Revealed by Evolutionary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Different genotypes of HCV may differ in both disease progression and response to antiviral therapies. Hainan Island has been inhabited by the “Li” aboriginal minority for centuries. We aimed to provide a better understanding of HCV infection on Hainan Island, so that the information would help improve strategies for HCV prevention and control on the island and in the wider country. Methods: Using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing, we determined HCV sequences from 100 patients living on Hainan Island. Results: Phylogenetic analysis classified these sequences into six subtypes: 6a (n=35, 1b (n=31, 3b (n=16, 2a (n=8, 3a (n=6, and 1a (n=4. By including reference sequences reported from elsewhere in China, phylogeographic trees were reconstructed to indicate their migration patterns. While the predominant 6a isolates were estimated to have origins in Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, the increase in 3b strains must have resulted from IDU network transmission from the southwest. A Bayesian Skyline Plot for subtype 1a, which is rare in China, showed a rapid population growth since 1998. Although slowed in rate around 2005, this growth continued to the present. Not found for any other HCV lineage. Conclusions: Overall, a delayed growth pattern may indicate the unique history of 1a dissemination in China and its recently increasing prevalence, despite measures taken to improve HCV prevention.

  20. Pillow basalts of the Angayucham terrane: oceanic plateau and island crust accreted to the Brooks Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallister, J.S.; Budahn, J.R.; Murchey, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Angayucham Mountains (north margin of the Yukon-Koyukuk province) are made up of an imbricate stack of four to eight east-west trending, steeply dipping, fault slabs composed of Paleozoic, Middle to Late Triassic, and Early Jurassic oceanic upper crustal rocks. Field relations and geochemical characteristics of the basaltic rocks suggest that the fault slabs were derived from an oceanic plateau or island setting and were emplaced onto the Brooks Range continental margin. The basalts are variably metamorphosed to prehnite-pumpellyite and low-greenschist facies. Major element analyses suggest that many are hypersthene-normative olivine tholeiites. The Triassic and Jurassic basalts are geochemically most akin to modern oceanic plateau and island basalts. Field evidence also favors an oceanic plateau or island setting. The great composite thickness of pillow basalt probably resulted from obduction faulting, but the lack of fault slabs of gabbro or peridotite suggests that obduction faults did not penetrate below oceanic layer 2, a likely occurrence if layer 2 were anomalously thick, as in the vicinity of an oceanic island. -from Authors

  1. Field study of thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned buildings in a tropical island climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shilei; Pang, Bo; Qi, Yunfang; Fang, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The unique geographical location of Hainan makes its climate characteristics different from inland areas in China. The thermal comfort of Hainan also owes its uniqueness to its tropical island climate. In the past decades, there have been very few studies on thermal comfort of the residents in tropical island areas in China. A thermal environment test for different types of buildings in Hainan and a thermal comfort field investigation of 1944 subjects were conducted over a period of about two months. The results of the survey data show that a high humidity environment did not have a significant impact on human comfort. The neutral temperature for the residents in tropical island areas was 26.1 °C, and the acceptable temperature range of thermal comfort was from 23.1 °C to 29.1 °C. Residents living in tropical island areas showed higher heat resistance capacity, but lower cold tolerance than predicted. The neutral temperature for females (26.3 °C) was higher than for males (25.8 °C). Additionally, females were more sensitive to air temperature than males. The research conclusions can play a guiding role in the thermal environment design of green buildings in Hainan Province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Magnetostratigraphy of the Etendeka Large Igneous Province, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, S. C.; Muxworthy, A. R.; Mac Niocaill, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province (≈ 135 Ma) has not been linked to a known mass extinction event, despite large igneous provinces being postulated as a cause. The reason why some large igneous provinces appear the cause of huge fluctuations in the global biosphere, an example being the link between Siberian trap volcanism and the Permo-Triassic boundary, while others seem to have only a minor effect is still debated. Establishing detailed histories of these large igneous provinces is important for understanding why such variations in effect may occur. Why does the volume of the province not reflect the magnitude of the effects seen? During the early Cretaceous, reversals of Earth's magnetic field were more frequent than at other times in Earth's history. Magnetostratigraphy is therefore a tool capable of providing high resolution constraints on the history and duration of the Paraná - Etendeka large igneous province volcanism. Detailed sampling of the Etendeka volcanic stratigraphy, followed by progressive demagnetisation of 893 specimens, yields 70 individual polarities gained from throughout the central volcanic succession. Correlation of the individual sections sampled reveals a minimum of 16 separate polarities are recorded. Subsequent links to the geomagnetic polarity timescale suggest a minimum province duration of > 1 Myrs, with no obvious period of short, high volume volcanism as is often suggested. A protracted duration (>1Myr) may therefore provide the reason why at least the Paraná - Etendeka appears to have no associated extinction event.

  3. On a Crowded Desert Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Samuel

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reference sources most appropriate for a desert island. In addition to "Robinson Crusoe" (Daniel Defoe) and a reference guide to the literature of travel, the list includes basic books on reference work, guides to reference sources, journals, an almanac, encyclopedias, a guide to English usage, and a book of quotations. (14 references)…

  4. Extinction debt on oceanic islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, Kostas A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Ladle, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    the magnitude of such future extinction events has been hampered by potentially inaccurate assumptions about the slope of species-area relationships, which are habitat- and taxon-specific. We overcome this challenge by applying a method that uses the historical sequence of deforestation in the Azorean Islands...

  5. Kondisi dan Keanekaragaman Karang Batu di Perairan Pulau Gangga Sulawesi Utara (Condition and Biodiversity of Hard Coral at Gangga Island, North Sulawesi Gangga Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemmy Souhoka

    2013-12-01

    North Minahasa District, North Sulawesi Province is located at 1º 46'19"N - 125º 03' 11" E. Coral reef ecosystem dominated of its coastal areas. Increasing human activities in the area was thought to influence the condition of coral reef and its diversity. This study aims to observe the condition and biodiversity of hard coral in the Gangga Island waters. This study was conducted in May 2011 at 5 (five stations, i.e. Station 1 (Lihaga Island, Station 2 (Gangga 1, Station 3 (Tindila Island, Station 4 (Panjang Beach and Station 5 (Gangga 2. The Line Intercept Transect (LIT method was applied in this study. There were 106 species of hard corals consisting of 16 families found in location. The condition of hard corals was classified into middle to good, and the persentage of coverage was in between 24.24 - 73.30 %. Corals at station 1 were in the good location and they have the highest diversity index (1.17, while the highest evenness index was at Station 3 (0.91. Generally, at Gangga Island, the domination of hard coral was 10.958 cm or 43,83  % (depth 3m and 12.116 cm or 48,46 % (depth 6m of the total transect (25,000 cm with coral species of Acropora sp (2.344 cm or 9,38 % at depth of 3m and Porites nigrecens (3.751 cm or 15 % was dominant at depth of  6m. Result of this study can be used in management coral reef ecosystem policy of the goverment of North Sulawesi. Keywords: condition, hard coral, diversity, Gangga Island

  6. 46 CFR 7.70 - Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. 7.70 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.70 Folly Island, SC to Hilton Head Island, SC. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Folly Island to latitude 32°35′ N. longitude 79°58.2′ W. (Stono Inlet Lighted Whistle...

  7. 46 CFR 7.80 - Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. 7.80 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.80 Tybee Island, GA to St. Simons Island, GA. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Savannah Beach on Tybee Island 255° true across Tybee Inlet to the shore of Little...

  8. Returning from the Horizon: Introducing Urban Island Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Barceló Pinya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Island studies tends to focus on peripheral, isolated, and marginal aspects of island communities, while urban studies has showed scant awareness of islandness: Although many people research cities on islands, there is little tradition of researching island cities or urban archipelagos per se. Island cities (densely populated small islands and population centres of larger islands and archipelagos nevertheless play import cultural, economic, political, and environmental roles on local, regional, and global scales. Many major cities and ports have developed on small islands, and even villages can fulfil important urban functions on lightly populated islands. Island concepts are also deployed to metaphorically describe developments in urban space. The journal Urban Island Studies explores island and urban processes around the world, taking an island approach to urban research and an urban approach to island research.

  9. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  10. Challenges, advances and perspectives in island biogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A.V. Borges

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Island biogeographical research is becoming more and more fashionable, with the continuous identification of new challenges that are critical for the advancement of science. In this contribution we identify biases and limitations associated with island biogeographical studies, and also describe recent advances and propose new perspectives. The main proposals include: 1 downscaling island biogeographical studies to local/plot scale; 2 investigating geographical patterns of intra-specific genetic variation to infer dispersal processes among and within islands; 3 using applied biogeographical research to respond to the current island biodiversity crisis; and 4 applying new computer-intensive methods such as artificial intelligence (AI approaches.

  11. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... by the National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997, requires us to develop a CCP for each... libraries in northwestern Washington: Anacortes Public Library, Bellingham Public Library, Clinton Public Library, Coupeville Public Library, Evergreen State College Library, Island Public Library, Jefferson...

  12. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  13. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  14. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  15. Temporal variations of heavy metals in coral Porites lutea from Guangdong Province, China: Influences from industrial pollution, climate and economic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Z.; Liu, J.; Zhou, C.; Nie, B.; Chen, T.

    2006-01-01

    The eight heavy metals Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb have been determined in samples of coral Porites lutea collected from Dafangji Island waters (21°21′N, 111°11′E), Dianbai County, Guangdong Province, China, by the ICP-MS method. The samples represent the growth of coral in the period of 1982–2001. The results showed that the waters were polluted by the heavy metals Cu, Ni, Zn, and Pb in certain years, but not by other metals. The contamination may have come from industrial sources, including electroplating, metallurgy, mining, and aquatic industries in the coastal areas.

  16. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  17. Geologic Provinces of Southeast Asia, 2000 (prv3bl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of Southeast Asia (Brunei, Indonesia,...

  18. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  19. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  20. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...