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Sample records for province northeast thailand

  1. Survey of the Synanthropic Flies Associated with Human Habitations in Ubon Ratchathani Province of Northeast Thailand

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    Tarinee Chaiwong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synanthropic fly surveys were performed to determine the species composition and abundance in Ubon Ratchathani province in Northeast Thailand. Adult fly collections were conducted in various human habitations from two districts—Muang Ubon Ratchathani and Warinchamrap, at fresh-food markets, garbage piles, restaurants, school cafeterias, and rice paddy fields. Customized reconstructable funnel fly traps baited with 250 g of 1-day tainted beef were used for fly collections from September 2010–February 2011. A total of 3,262 flies were captured, primarily consisting of three families including: Calliphoridae (6 species, Muscidae (3 species, and Sarcophagidae (11 species. The blow fly, Chrysomya megacephala, and the house fly, Musca domestica, were the dominant species collected from both districts at all collection sites. C. megacephala was predominant in paddy fields, restaurants and garbage piles, while M. domestica was numerically dominant in fresh-food markets and school cafeterias. The current survey identified various species of synanthropic flies with close associations to humans and with the ability to transmit human pathogens in Ubon Ratchathani province; providing crucial information that may be used for developing control and sanitation management plans in this particular area.

  2. Opisthorchis viverrini Infection Among People in the Border Areas of Three Provinces, Northeast of Thailand.

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    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Wakkuwattapong, Rujirakul; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Pengsaa, Prasit; Jomkoa, Darawan; Joosiri, Apinya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is still a serious problem in Northeastern and Northern Thailand. Active surveillance is required to determine updated data for further prevention and control planning. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the prevalence and risk factors for O. viverrini in three provinces, Northeastern Thailand. A cross- sectional survey was conducted during October 2015 to March 2016 at Kaeng Sanam Nang district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Waeng Noi district of Khon Kaen province, and Khon Sawan district of Chaiyaphum province, Thailand. Stool samples were examined by using a modified Kato-Katz Thick smear technique. From a total of 978 participants screened, O. viverrini infection was found in 1.74%, the majority opf positive cases being male (6.62%), age group 51-60 years old (4.21%), educated at primary school (8.43%), occupied with agriculture (9.62%),having an income high knowledge level (42.43%), good attitude level (34.76%), and fair level (38.04%). The present study indicates the O. viverrini infection rate is low, but elderly males with primary school education involved in agriculture are still frequently effected particularly in Khon Sawan district. Therefore, this risk group requires behavior modification and continued monitoring.

  3. High Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Resistance to Clarithromycin: a Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeast of Thailand.

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    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a cause of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric malignancy, infection being a serious health problem in Thailand. Recently, clarithromycin resistant H. pylori strains represent the main cause of treatment failure. Therefore this study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin in Suranaree University of Technology Hospital, Suranree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima, Northeastern Thailand, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeast of Thailand. This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out between June 2014 and February 2015 with 300 infected patients interviewed and from whom gastric mucosa specimens were collected and proven positive by histology. The gastric mucosa specimens were tested for H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by 23S ribosomal RNA point mutations analysis using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Correlation of eradication rates with patterns of mutation were analyzed by chi-square test. Of 300 infected patients, the majority were aged between 47-61 years (31.6%), female (52.3%), with monthly income between 10,000-15,000 Baht (57%), and had a history of alcohol drinking (59.3%). Patient symptoms were abdominal pain (48.6%), followed by iron deficiency anemia (35.3%). Papaya salad consumption (40.3%) was a possible risk factor for H. pylori infection. The prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to clarithromycin was 76.2%. Among clarithromycin-resistant strains tested, all were due to the A2144G point mutation in the 23S rRNA gene. Among mutations group, wild type genotype, mutant strain mixed wild type and mutant genotype were 23.8%, 35.7% and 40.5% respectively. With the clarithromycin-based triple therapy regimen, the efficacy decreased by 70% for H. pylori eradication (P<0.01). Recent results indicate a high rate of H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin. Mixed of wild type and mutant genotype is the most common mutant genotype in

  4. Ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from the floodplain of the Chi River, Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand, with the first record of male Tanycypris siamensis Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009.

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    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip

    2014-07-17

    The species diversity of ostracods in the floodplain of the Chi River basin, Mahasarakham Province, Northeast Thailand was examined in this study. Twenty-two samples were collected in the cool season (February 2010). Twenty-six species belonging to 18 genera were recorded, three of which are new to the Oriental region (Fabaeformiscandona subacuta (Yang, 1982), Ilyocypris monstrifica (Norman, 1862) and Limnocythere stationis Vávra, 1891) and one (Hemicypris ovata Sars, 1903) is a new record for Thailand. The most common species were Strandesia kraepelini (G.W. Müller, 1906) and Physocypria crenulata (Sars, 1903) occurring in 77% and 64% of the sampled localities, respectively. Additionally, males of Tanycypris siamensis Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009 were found and are here described for the first time. This discovery shows that the morphology of the hemipenis and of the Zenker organs of T. siamensis is similar to that of species in the genus Cypricercus. Additional comments on chorology and ecology of several taxa are also given. 

  5. The introduction of oil palm in Northeast Thailand: a new cash crop for smallholders?

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    Somnuek, Siriluk; Slingerland, M.A.; Grünbühel, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Thai Government’s objective to increase energy security through biodiesel, oil palm was introduced to Northeast Thailand in 2005. Nong Khai Province was selected as a pilot project because of its suitable environmental conditions. This study assesses the acceptance of policy

  6. A prospective study of diet, lifestyle, and genetic factors and the risk of cancer in Khon Kaen Province, northeast Thailand: description of the cohort.

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    Sriamporn, Supannee; Parkin, D M; Pisani, P; Vatanasapt, V; Suwanrungruang, K; Kamsa-ard, P; Pengsaa, P; Kritpetcharat, O; Pipitgool, V; Vatanasapt, P

    2005-01-01

    Cohort studies are the preferred design in observational epidemiology, but few involving the general population have been performed in Asia, and most concern affluent urban populations. The Khon Kaen study has recruited about 25,000 subjects, aged mainly 35-64, from villages in the relatively underdeveloped north-east of Thailand. All subjects underwent simple physical examination, completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire (including sections on lifestyle, habits, and diet) and donated specimens of blood, which were processed and stored in a biological bank at -20 degrees C. Female subjects (about 16,500) were offered screening by Pap smear, and specimens of cells from the cervix were stored at -20 degrees C. This paper describes the methodology of the study, and the characteristics of the participants. Almost all subjects are peasant farmers, with low annual income and body mass, although 14.6% of women had a BMI in the obese range (>30 kg/m(2)). Smoking was common among men (78% regular smokers, most of whom used home-produced cigarettes), but rare among women. Fertility levels were relatively high, with a more than half the women having four or more live births. 23.4% of subjects were infected with the liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, known to be highly endemic in this region. Follow-up of the cohort is by record-linkage to the provincial cancer registry. By 2003, 762 cancer cases had occurred, the most common being cancers of the liver (363 cases) and cervix uteri (44 cases). The antecedents of these cancers are being investigated using a nested case-control approach. The cohort will yield increasing numbers of cancers for study in the next decade, giving important information on the relative importance of dietary and lifestyle factors in a rural population, undergoing gradual transition to a more westernised lifestyle.

  7. Latent Profile Analysis of Good Citizenship of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand

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    Siphai, Sunan; Srisa-ard, Boonchoom

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was 1) to develop good citizenship indicators of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand. 2) to classify latent profile of good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. The sample was 800 Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. Findings 1) there…

  8. The Role of Islamic Faith-Based Organization in Building Solidarity and Resilience Among People of Different Faiths in Northeast Thailand: a Case Study of Foundation for Education and Development of Muslims in Northeast Thailand-FEDMIN

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    Sohsan, Imron

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to examine the role of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience between Muslims and Buddhists and to find a model of peaceful coexistence among people of different faiths in northeast Thailand called “Isan region”. The research area was focused on the peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Buddhist in particular in Ban Nong Muen Tao village, Mueang, Udon Thani province. The study found that there were four important roles of FEDMIN in building solidarity a...

  9. Respiratory Tract Problems among Wood Furniture Manufacturing Factory Workers in the Northeast of Thailand.

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    Soongkhang, I; Laohasiriwong, W

    2015-01-01

    Wood furniture manufacturing factory workers are at high risk of exposure to wood dust in wood working processes. Wood dust exposure could cause respiratory symptoms, such as reduce lung function, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. The Northeast region of Thailand has many wood furniture manufacturing factories. However, limited studies were carried out to explore the effect of wood dust exposure on workers. This study aimed to assess the respiratory symptoms and determine factors associated with these symptoms among wood furniture manufacturing factory workers. This cross-sectional analytical research used a multistage random sampling to select 511 workers from three provinces in the Northeast of Thailand. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire interview. The content validity of questionnaire was tested by 3 experts and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.82. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regressions. The result indicated that 29.94% of these workers had respiratory symptoms, including coughing(18.79%), nasal secretion (15.66%), and stuffy nose (15.07%). Factors that were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms (p-value furniture manufacturing factory workers had respiratory symptoms with related to both personal preventive behaviors and their working environments. Therefore, the raising awareness for using personal protective equipment during work will help them to prevent from various respiratory track problems.

  10. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

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    Wilawan Thipmontree

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40% and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1% were the two major causes of AUFI. In the second period, scrub typhus (137 patients, 28.3% was found to be more common than leptospirosis (61 patients, 12.7%. Amongst patients with leptospirosis, the proportion of male patients and the median age were similar. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Autumnalis was the major infecting serogroup in both study periods. The case fatality rate of leptospirosis was significantly higher in 2011–2012 as compared with the case fatality rate in 2001–2002 (19.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001. In summary, we found that number of leptospirosis cases had decreased over time. This trend is similar to reportable data for leptospirosis complied from passive surveillance by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. However, the case fatality rate of severe leptospirosis has increased. Severe lung hemorrhage associated with leptospirosis remained the major cause of death.

  11. Diversity of root-associated arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in a rubber tree plantation chronosequence in Northeast Thailand.

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    Herrmann, Laetitia; Lesueur, Didier; Bräu, Lambert; Davison, John; Jairus, Teele; Robain, Henri; Robin, Agnès; Vasar, Martti; Wiriyakitnateekul, Wanpen; Öpik, Maarja

    2016-11-01

    Rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) is of major economic importance in Southeast Asia and for small land holders in Thailand in particular. Due to the high value of latex, plantations are expanding into unsuitable areas, such as the northeast province of Thailand where soil fertility is very low and therefore appropriate management practices are of primary importance. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) contribute to plant growth through a range of mechanisms and could play a key role in a more sustainable management of the rubber plantations. We described the diversity of AMF associated with rubber tree roots in Northeast Thailand in relation to tree age and soil parameters along a chronosequence of rubber tree plantations. Cassava fields were included for comparison. Rubber tree and cassava roots harbored high diversity of AMF (111 Virtual Taxa, VT), including 20 novel VT. AMF VT richness per sample was consistently high (per site mean 16 to 21 VT per sample) along the chronosequence and was not related to soil properties. The composition of AMF communities differed between cassava and rubber tree plantations and was influenced by soil texture and nutrient content (sand, K, P, Ca). AMF community composition gradually shifted with the age of the trees. Our results suggest that the high diversity of AMF in this region is potentially significant for maintaining high functionality of AMF communities.

  12. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

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    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  13. Biodiversity of the Betta smaragdina (Teleostei: Perciformes) in the northeast region of Thailand as determined by mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS1 gene sequences.

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    Kowasupat, Chanon; Panijpan, Bhinyo; Laosinchai, Parames; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Phongdara, Amornrat; Wanna, Warapond; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee

    2014-12-01

    In Thailand, there are currently five recognized species members of the bubble-nesting Betta genus, namely Betta splendens, B. smaragdina, B. imbellis, B. mahachaiensis and B. siamorientalis. In 2010, we indicated the possibility, based on COI barcoding evidence, that there might be two additional species, albeit cryptic, related to the type-locality B. smaragdina in some provinces in the northeast of Thailand. In the present study, after a more extensive survey of the northeast, and phylogenetic analyses based on COI and ITS1 sequences, the B. smaragdina group may be composed of at least 3 cryptic species members. The phylogenetic positions of these B. smaragdina group members in the bubble-nesting bettas' tree together with those of their congeners have been consolidated by better DNA sequence quality and phylogenetic analyses. With a better supported tree, the species statuses of B. siamorientalis and the Cambodian B. smaragdina-like fish, B. stiktos, are also confirmed.

  14. Reconsidering Compulsory English in Developing Countries in Asia: English in a Community of Northeast Thailand

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    Draper, John

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the issue of compulsory English in the Asia-Pacific region and examines the English component of a single-site exploratory study of multilingualism in a disadvantaged ethnic minority (DEM) community of Northeast Thailand. The concept of ethnolinguistic vitality was used as a framework for an analysis of community language…

  15. Rural Poverty and Diversification of Farming Systems in Upper Northeast Thailand

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    Marc Dufumier

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In northeast Thailand, 85% of the farmers are smallholders who are unable to meet their basic needs from agricultural production only. These tiny farms survive thanks to non-farm income, which faces increased difficulties as other economic sectors ran out of steam during the recent economic crisis of the late 1990s. In this context, farmers have to rely more on their agricultural production activity and income. But how can this be made possible in a region well-known for its very constraining soil and climatic conditions? To answer this question, and to examine the whole complexity of agricultural development issues, this article proposes an analysis of recent agrarian transformations and an understanding of farmers’ current practices and strategies. A diagnostic analysis of a village agrarian system located in Khon Kaen Province in upper northeast Thailand was carried out in 2002 by using a combination of field observations, interviews with key witnesses of the local history, and a farm survey of 26 diverse households. The recent history illustrates that farmers have shown a high adaptability to rapid changes in their economic environment, such as changing market demand for agricultural products and labour. The differentiation among farming households has led to different types of farmers with different resources, practices, and strategies. Families belonging to the most frequent type have a very tiny holding and their members are permanently or seasonally involved in unskilled off-farm activities. Their low and unstable total cash income is often insufficient to meet the family’s basic needs and they become deeply indebted. As efforts to improve water availability are being made, many Isarn families could improve their living conditions by diversifying their agricultural production systems with more small-scale fruit, vegetable, fish, or livestock production to improve household food security and cash income, eventually combined with non

  16. Occupational Risk Factors of Lymphohematopoietic Cancer in Rayong Province, Thailand.

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    Punjindasup, Apinya; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ekpanyaskul, Chatchai

    2015-11-01

    The Lymphohematopoietic Cancer (LHC) incidence rate in Thailand has been rising over the past decade with unknown etiology, including Rayong province. One hypothesis of LHC risks is exposure to occupational carcinogens. To determine the association of occupational exposure and LHC risks in Rayong province, Thailand. This matched hospital-based case-control study was conducted in a Rayong provincial hospital from September 2009 to January 2013. One LHC case was matched with four controls in gender and age, ±5 years. Demographic data, residential factors, behavioral factors, and occupational exposure-including chemical exposure-were obtained by interviews and collected by occupational health care officers. The risk factor was analyzed by conditional logistic regression and reported in odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. This study found 105 LHC cases which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study, yielding a 66% cover rate of cases reported in the database. The histology of LHC were 51 leukemia cases (47.7%), 43 lymphoma cases (42.0%), and 11 multiple myeloma cases (10.3%). The results revealed that occupational exposure to pesticide and smoke were statistically significantly associated with LHC with adjusted ORs 2.26 (95% CI 1.30-3.91) and 1.99 (95% CI = 1.13-3.51), respectively. When stratified to histological subtype of LHC by WHO 2000, leukemia was statistically significantly associated with occupational exposure to smoke, adjusted ORs 2.43 (95% CI 1.11-5.36), with occupational pesticide exposure a significant risk of lymphoma, adjusted ORs 4.69 (95% CI 2.01-10.96). However, neither fumes, wood dust, working outdoors, cleaners, contact with animals, petroleum products and chlorine; nor occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene or organic solvents, were statistically significant risk factors of LHC. In addition, there were no significant risks in the demographic data, residential factors, and behavioral

  17. Nutritional Status among Rural Community Elderly in the Risk Area of Liver Fluke, Surin Province, Thailand.

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    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Namwichaisirikul, Niwatchai; Loyd, Ryan A; Churproong, Seekaow; Ueng-Arporn, Naporn; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Rujirakul, Ratana; Nimkhuntod, Porntip; Wakhuwathapong, Parichart; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is becoming an aging society, this presenting as a serious problem situation especially regarding health. Chronic diseases found frequently in the elderly may be related to dietary intake and life style. Surin province has been reported as a risk area for liver fluke with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinma especially in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the nutritional status and associated factors among elderly in Surin province, northeast of Thailand. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 405 people aged 60 years and above, between September 2012 and July 2014. The participants were selected through a randomized systematic sampling method and completed a pre-designed questionnaire with general information, food recorded, weight, height, waist circumference, and behavior regarding to food consume related to liver fluke infection. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The majority of participants was female (63.5%), age between 60-70 years old (75.6%), with elementary school education (96.6%), living with their (78.9%), and having underlying diseases (38.3%). Carbohydrate (95.3%) was need to improve the consumption. The participants demonstrated under-nutrition (24.4%), over-nutrition (16.4%), and obesity (15.4%). Elderly had a waist circumference as the higher than normal level (34.0%). Gender, female, age 71-80 years old, elementary school and underlying diseases were significantly associated with poor nutritional status. The majority of them had a high knowledge (43.0%), moderate attitude (44.4%), and moderate practice (46.2%) regarding food consumption related to liver fluke infection. In conclusion, these findings data indicated that elderly age group often have an under- or over-nutritional status. Carbohydrate consumption needs to be improved. Some elderly show behavior regarding food consumption that is related to liver fluke infection hat needs

  18. Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Khorat Plateau Province, Thailand and Laos, 2016

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    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-05-25

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 2.3 trillion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Khorat Plateau Province of Thailand and Laos.

  19. Quality of Life, Mental Health and Educational Stress of High School Students in the Northeast of Thailand.

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    Assana, Supat; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Rangseekajee, Poonsri

    2017-08-01

    Majority of high school students in Thailand aim to study at universities. Therefore, they spend a lot of time studying in both classrooms and tutorial classes, that could cause stress, health problems and deteriorate their Quality Of Life (QOL). However, there has been no study on these issues in Thai context. To describe the status of QOL, mental health, educational stress, well-being and determine factors associated with QOL among high school students in the Northeast of Thailand. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Northeast of Thailand among 1,112 students of grade 10th, 11th and 12th. Multistage random sampling was used to select high schools in 5 provinces. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess QOL, educational stress, anxiety, depression and well-being. The association between the covariates was observed by using Generalized Linear Mixed (logistic regression) Model (GLMM). The prevalence of high level of QOL was 36% (95%CI: 32.30 to 41.69); whereas, 26.18% (95% CI: 16.72 to 35.63) had high level of educational stress and 16.41% (95% CI: 2.20 to 30.71) had severe anxiety. Prevalence of depression was 18.55% (95%CI: 9.86 to 27.23) and low level of well-being was 13.41% (95% CI: 0.18 to 27.14). The factors significantly associated with high QOL were; not having depression (Adj. OR= 3.07; 95%CI: (2.23 to 4.22); plevel of general well-being (Adj. OR=3.19; 95% CI:1.99 to 5.09; plevel of anxiety (OR=1.60; 95%CI:1.01 to 2.67). Most of the high school students had low to moderate levels of QOL, educational stress and anxiety. Depression, anxiety and general well-being had influences on QOL of high school students.

  20. Paragonimiasis prevalences in Saraburi Province, Thailand, measured 20 years apart.

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    Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Vanvanitchai, Yuvadee; Dekumyoy, Paron; Komalamisra, Chalit; Kojima, Somei; Waikagul, Jitra

    2008-07-01

    Saraburi Province, Central Thailand has been a paragonimiasis-endemic area since 1956. This study compared the prevalences of human paragonimiasis in two villages near Chet Khot Waterfall, Kaeng Khoi District, investigated in 1984-1985 and 2005. The results from the 1980s showed 6.3% and 1% of villagers were positive for Paragonimus eggs in sputum and stool, respectively. In 2005, Paragonimus eggs were not found in feces or sputum. An IgG-ELISA for paragonimiasis was conducted on 33 serum samples collected in the 1980s, 23 collected in 2005 and 25 diagnosed with other parasitic infections. Ninety percent of the samples from the eighties were positive for paragoimiasis, and 43% from 2005 were positive, equivalent to 10.9% and 4.9% of the total population examined in the 1980s and 2005, respectively. Serodiagnosis is currently the best method for detecting paragonimiasis. The positive cases in the 1980s were age 10-60 years and in 2005 were age 34- 67-years-old. The prevalence and intensity of Paragonimus metacercariae in fresh Waterfall crabs collected from Chet Khot Waterfall were significantly lower in the 1980s than in 2005. The prevalence of paragonimiasis in this endemic area has decreased to the level that no egg-producing cases were detected. No infections were found in villagers age < 30 years, despite the high density of metacercariae in the crabs, indicating a change in the habit of eating raw food among the younger people.

  1. Colophospermum mopane wood utilisation in the Northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa

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    Makhado, RA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Colophospermum mopane wood was quantified from six villages in the northeast of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. One hundred and eighty individuals were interviewed from the selected villages. Three villages were located...

  2. Quetelet index, hemoglobin and parasitic infection of rural women in northeast Thailand.

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    Saowakontha, S; Pongpaew, P; Schelp, F P; Rojsathaporn, K; Sriboonlue, P; Vudhivai, N; Intarakhao, C; Pipitgool, V; Mahaweerawat, U; Supawan, V

    1994-09-01

    The Quetelet index, hemoglobin and parasitic infection rates of adolescent and young women from 21 villages in Northeast Thailand were assessed. Data were collected in the hot, rainy and cold seasons of the year. The proportion of undernourished females varied between 10 and 15% when a cut-off point of 18.7 of the Quetelet index was chosen. 23 to 33% of the women had hemoglobin levels below 12 g%. Parasitic infection rates with various intestinal helminths were high but not related to the nutritional status or anemia.

  3. Action research to strengthen women weavers' self-care in North-East Thailand.

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    Nilvarangkul, Kessarawan; Srithongchai, Niramol; Saensom, Donwiwat; Smith, John F; Supornpan, Ausa; Tumnong, Chuanpit

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this research was to improve self-care and work safety practices among women weavers in North-East Thailand. Action research was used with a sample of 107 weavers and 15 community and local government stakeholders from six rural villages. Formative and summative evaluation was carried out over 10 months following initial implementation of five action plans, and after 5 years. Qualitative data were collected via focus groups, formal and informal interviews and research field notes. Women's self-care issues and safety problems, and weaving-related environmental pollution emerged from the content analyses. Five action plans were created. Results showed that through action research the women were empowered to identify personal and work-related health issues, environmental contamination concerns, and lack of social and community support systems. Over time they developed capacity for working collectively to address these. Five year follow-up revealed many of the changes made were ongoing, and well-integrated into community life. The study reaffirmed the potential for public health or community nurses and other health personnel for enhancing community health status via action research with vulnerable populations; in this case, rural village women weavers in North-East Thailand. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. The Impact of Visual Disability on the Quality of Life of Older Persons in Rural Northeast Thailand

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    La Grow, Steven; Sudnongbua, Supaporn; Boddy, Julie

    2011-01-01

    A high rate of self-reported visual disability was found among a sample of persons aged 60 and older in the course of a study that assessed the impact of feelings of abandonment among older persons in a remote rural area in northeast Thailand (Sudnongbua, La Grow, & Boddy, 2010). This study assessed the impact of self-reported visual…

  5. The Role of Islamic Faith-Based Organization in Building Solidarity and Resilience among People of Different Faiths in Northeast Thailand: A Case Study of Foundation for Education and Development of Muslims in Northeast Thailand-FEDMIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Imron Sohsan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this paper are to examine the role of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience between Muslims and Buddhists and to find a model of peaceful coexistence among people of different faiths in northeast Thailand called “Isan region”. The research area was focused on the peaceful coexistence between Muslims and Buddhist in particular in Ban Nong Muen Tao village, Mueang, Udon Thani province. The study found that there were four important roles of FEDMIN in building solidarity and resilience among people of different faiths. Firstly, demonstrating the real image of Islam and Muslims to the other people of different faiths through the FEDMIN leaders’ role and personality in practicing peaceful coexistence, FEDMIN’s Santhitham Wittaya School, Muslim village model, which were described as “an intellectual contribution of Muslim community for the public”, FEDMIN Muslim area as a field trip attraction to the Authorities. Secondly, encouraging Muslims and Buddhists to set up a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action based on socially engaged Islam and Buddhism concept which was demonstrated by the faith-based community forum as “comfort space” in which a suitable atmosphere of dialogue of action can exist. Third, empowering religious institution to play a vital role in preaching the principles of peaceful coexistence to believers becoming citizen of the society through Islamic sermon- Khutbah, Islamic class, establishing Santhitham Wittaya school as a substantive contribution from Muslim community to the public, and Community Radio Station project as a positive media which supported to create an atmosphere of citizenship among people of different faiths in the village.

  6. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS): A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rawee Hanpachern; Yuthask Chatkaewnapanon

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT) development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried...

  7. Comparative analysis of ITS1 nucleotide sequence reveals distinct genetic difference between Brugia malayi from Northeast Borneo and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Mun-Yik; Noordin, Rahmah; Lau, Yee-Ling; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Idris, Zulkarnain Md

    2013-01-01

    Brugia malayi is one of the parasitic worms which causes lymphatic filariasis in humans. Its geographical distribution includes a large part of Asia. Despite its wide distribution, very little is known about the genetic variation and molecular epidemiology of this species. In this study, the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) nucleotide sequences of B. malayi from microfilaria-positive human blood samples in Northeast Borneo Island were determined, and compared with published ITS1 sequences of B. malayi isolated from cats and humans in Thailand. Multiple alignment analysis revealed that B. malayi ITS1 sequences from Northeast Borneo were more similar to each other than to those from Thailand. Phylogenetic trees inferred using Neighbour-Joining and Maximum Parsimony methods showed similar topology, with 2 distinct B. malayi clusters. The first cluster consisted of Northeast Borneo B. malayi isolates, whereas the second consisted of the Thailand isolates. The findings of this study suggest that B. malayi in Borneo Island has diverged significantly from those of mainland Asia, and this has implications for the diagnosis of B. malayi infection across the region using ITS1-based molecular techniques.

  8. Thai district Leaders’ perceptions of managing the direct observation treatment program in Trang Province, Thailand

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    Jiraporn Choowong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thailand is 18th out of the 22 countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB burden. It will be a challenge for Thailand to achieve the UN Millennium Development target for TB, as well as the new WHO targets for eliminating TB by 2035. More knowledge and a new approach are needed to tackle the complex challenges of managing the DOT program in Thailand. Contextual factors strongly influence the local implementation of evidence in practice. Using the PARIHS model, the aim has been to explore district leaders’ perceptions of the management of the DOT program in Trang province, Thailand. Methods A phenomenographic approach was used to explore the perceptions among district DOT program leaders in Trang province. We conducted semi-structured interviews with district leaders responsible for managing the DOT program in five districts. The analysis of the data transcriptions was done by grouping similarities and differences of perceptions, which were constructed in a hierarchical outcome space that shows a set of descriptive categories. Results The first descriptive category revealed a common perception of the leaders’ duty and wish to comply with the NTP guidelines when managing and implementing the DOT program in their districts. More varied perceptions among the leaders concerned how to achieve successful treatment. Other perceptions concerned practical dilemmas, which included fear of infection, mutual distrust, and inadequate knowledge about TB. Further, the leaders perceived a need for improved management practices in implementing the TB guidelines. Conclusion Using the PARIHS framework to gain a retrospective perspective on the district-level policy implementation of the DOT program and studying the leadership’s perceptions about applying the guidelines to practice, has brought new knowledge about management practices. Additional support and resources from the regional level are needed to manage the challenges.

  9. Thai district Leaders' perceptions of managing the direct observation treatment program in Trang Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2016-07-28

    Thailand is 18th out of the 22 countries with the highest tuberculosis (TB) burden. It will be a challenge for Thailand to achieve the UN Millennium Development target for TB, as well as the new WHO targets for eliminating TB by 2035. More knowledge and a new approach are needed to tackle the complex challenges of managing the DOT program in Thailand. Contextual factors strongly influence the local implementation of evidence in practice. Using the PARIHS model, the aim has been to explore district leaders' perceptions of the management of the DOT program in Trang province, Thailand. A phenomenographic approach was used to explore the perceptions among district DOT program leaders in Trang province. We conducted semi-structured interviews with district leaders responsible for managing the DOT program in five districts. The analysis of the data transcriptions was done by grouping similarities and differences of perceptions, which were constructed in a hierarchical outcome space that shows a set of descriptive categories. The first descriptive category revealed a common perception of the leaders' duty and wish to comply with the NTP guidelines when managing and implementing the DOT program in their districts. More varied perceptions among the leaders concerned how to achieve successful treatment. Other perceptions concerned practical dilemmas, which included fear of infection, mutual distrust, and inadequate knowledge about TB. Further, the leaders perceived a need for improved management practices in implementing the TB guidelines. Using the PARIHS framework to gain a retrospective perspective on the district-level policy implementation of the DOT program and studying the leadership's perceptions about applying the guidelines to practice, has brought new knowledge about management practices. Additional support and resources from the regional level are needed to manage the challenges.

  10. Risk Areas of Liver Flukes in Surin Province of Thailand using Geographic Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirakul, Ratana; Ueng-arporn, Naporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-05-01

    Opisthorchiasis, caused by Opisthorchis viverrini, is of considerable public health importance in Southeast Asia, particularly in Lao PDR and Thailand. This study aims to analyze the risk areas for liver flukes in Surin province, Thailand using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The 5 main factors (131 variables) were: (1) personal data (2) knowledge, attitude and practice, (3) health service unit, (4) environmental data, and (5) climate data. The relationship between these mainfactors and liver fluke infection was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Potential surface analysis (PSA) with geographic information systems (GIS) was performed to create maps displaying areas at risk for liver fluke infection in Surin province. The population density (148-169 pop/km2; X73), human attitude (< 50%; X111), and land use (wetland; X64), were statistically significant with liver fluke infection by a percentage of 88.60% (Adjusted R2 = 0.886). The heavy risk areas covered 221.39 km2 and including 8 districts; Si Narong, Sangkha, Phnom Dong Rak, Mueang Surin, Non Narai, Samrong Thap, Chumphon Buri and Rattanaburi. Present study identifies the increased risk areas for liver flukes in Surin Province and may be useful for future planning of prevention and control.

  11. Occurrence of blow fly species (Diptera: calliphoridae) in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchu, Nophawan; Sukontason, Kom; Sanit, Sangob; Chidburee, Polprecha; Kurahashi, Hiromu; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2012-12-01

    Based on the current forensic importance of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae), their biological aspects have been studied increasingly worldwide. The blow fly fauna in Phitsanulok Province, Northern Thailand was studied from May 2009 to April 2010 in the residential, agricultural, mountainous and forested areas of Muang, Wat Bot, Nakhon Thai and Wang Thong districts, respectively, in order to know the occurrence of blow flies in this province. Collections were carried out monthly using commercial funnel fly traps and sweeping methods, with 1-day tainted pork viscera as bait. Identification of adult blow flies exhibited 14 634 specimens, comprising of 5 subfamilies, 14 genera and 36 species. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, 1794) and Achoetandrus rufifacies (Macquart, 1843) were the most and second most abundant species trapped, respectively. These two species of carrion flies prevailed in all the types of land investigated. We calculated and compared the diversity indices, species evenness and richness, and similarity coefficients of the blow fly species in various areas. The data from this study may be used to identify the potential of forensicallyimportant fly species within Phitsanulok Province and fulfill the information on blow fly fauna in Thailand.

  12. Sponge assemblage of some Upper Permian reef limestones from Phrae province (Northern Thailand

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    Baba Senowbari-Daryan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge fauna of uppermost Permian reef or reefal limestones of the Phrae province in northern Thailand include representatives of hexactinellida, sclerospongea,"sphinctozoans", and "inozoans". The "sphinctozoans" and "inozoans"are described in detail. Following taxa are new:"Sphinctozoans": Phraethalamia tubulara n. gen., n. sp., Ambithalamia pérmican. gen., n. sp."Inozoans": Bisiphonella tubulara n. sp., Solutossaspongia crassimuralis n.gen., n. sp.The genus name Belyaevaspongia nom. nov. is proposed for PolysiphonellaBelyaeva, 1991 (in Boiko et al., 1991, non Polysiphonella Russo, 1981.

  13. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

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    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  14. Malacological survey in Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand, pre- and post-Indian Ocean tsunami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-Aroon, Pusadee; Lohachit, Chantima; Harada, Masakazu; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa

    2006-01-01

    Three malacological surveys were conducted in the Takua Pa District of Phang-Nga Province, southern Thailand, before and after the Indian Ocean Tsunami disaster. Twenty-nine species of fresh- and brackish-water snails were found, in which 10 species of freshwater snails were present, including live Pila polita; 8 species were of medical importance. Two brackish-water snails, Nerita articulata and Littorinopsis scabra, were absent after the tsunami disaster, while brackish-water Cerithidea cingulata and C. djadjariensis harbored 9 types of trematode cercariae.

  15. A Benthic Macroinvertebrate Multimetric Index for Assessment of the Ecological Integrity of Northeast Streams, Thailand

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    Nantiya Rattanachan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index for assessing the ecological quality of streams in Northeastern Thailand. ANOSIM indicated that the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage in both of each basin and each season were not significantly different (R = 0.09, p = 0.24 and R = 0.07, p = 0.35, respectively. The efficacy metrics of each basin consisting of the Mekong II, the Chi, and the Mun basins were integrated and calibrated. A total of 255 data sets of water physico-chemical and benthic macroinvertebrates during the dry period (cool and hot seasons were obtained. The stream classification could be divided into three groups: the reference group (48 stations, the stressed group (42 stations, and the intermediate group (165 stations. Twelve out of 56 metrics have been considered as a core metric for the development of a biological index for quality streams in the Northeast, including Total taxa, EPT taxa, Ephemeroptera taxa, Coleoptera taxa, % EPT, % Chironomidae, % Tolerant individuals, % Intolerant individuals, Beck's index, HBI, Predator taxa, and Clinger taxa. Moreover, this metric set covered the structure and function of organisms including the diversity of species, community structure, tolerance/intolerance measures, functional feeding group, and habit. From the efficacy validation of the biological index, the results of stream assessment corresponded to the classification sites with the physico-chemical characteristics.

  16. Does Agrotourism Benefit Mountain Farmers? A Case Study in Phu Ruea District, Northeast Thailand

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    Sukanlaya Choenkwan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Agrotourism is widely advocated as a useful strategy to develop mountain agriculture and improve farmers’ income and quality of life. However, the relationship between agriculture and tourism is complex, and the extent to which tourism benefits farmers remains uncertain. This paper examines the relationship between agriculture and tourism and assesses to what extent agrotourism benefits farmers in Phu Ruea district, a popular tourist destination in the mountains of northeast Thailand. The Phu Ruea agrotourism system generated gross income for the district of almost US$ 16 million in 2014. About 80% of this income came from sales from specialty-crop farms and of tourism services operated by the households of local farms. The agrotourism system also created many employment opportunities for local people. There were 1500 people directly involved in the system, 90% of whom were farmers or members of farm households. Thus, there is no doubt that many local farmers derive significant benefits from their involvement in the agrotourism system. Although the Phu Ruea agrotourism system can be seen as a successful strategy for developing mountain agriculture, agrotourism is not a magic strategy to solve all the problems of rural development in the mountains. Only some localities are attractive to tourists, and only some farmers have the knowledge, skills, and resources to take advantage of the opportunities offered by tourism.

  17. Spectroscopic properties for identifying sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogmued, J.; Monarumit, N.; Won-in, K.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    Gemstone commercial is a high revenue for Thailand especially ruby and sapphire. Moreover, Phrae is a potential gem field located in the northern part of Thailand. The studies of spectroscopic properties are mainly to identify gemstone using advanced techniques (e.g. UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry, FTIR spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy). Typically, UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometry is a technique to study the cause of color in gemstones. FTIR spectrometry is a technique to study the functional groups in gem-materials. Raman pattern can be applied to identify the mineral inclusions in gemstones. In this study, the natural sapphires from Ban Bo Kaew were divided into two groups based on colors including blue and green. The samples were analyzed by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer, FTIR spectrometer and Raman spectroscope for studying spectroscopic properties. According to UV-Vis-NIR spectra, the blue sapphires show higher Fe3+/Ti4+ and Fe2+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than those of green sapphires. Otherwise, green sapphires display higher Fe3+/Fe3+ absorption peaks than blue sapphires. The FTIR spectra of both blue and green sapphire samples show the absorption peaks of -OH,-CH and CO2. The mineral inclusions such as ferrocolumbite and rutile in sapphires from this area were observed by Raman spectroscope. The spectroscopic properties of sapphire samples from Ban Bo Kaew, Phrae Province, Thailand are applied to be the specific evidence for gemstone identification.

  18. A survey of folk remedies for gastrointestinal tract diseases from Thailand's three southern border provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Tuwaemaengae, Tuwaeyah; Bensulong, Fatin; Asae, Asma; Mosamae, Kholeel

    2012-10-31

    Gastrointestinal tract diseases commonly occur in Thailand. However, surveying for finding out traditional drugs has never been done. To quantify and categorize the folk medicinal remedies that are used for healing the gastrointestinal tract by the traditional healers living in Thailand's three southern border provinces. The Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat provinces were selected. Semi-structured interviews of nine healers were conducted to collect information that included the remedy names, herbal ingredients, plant parts used, preparation, properties and treatment methods. The data were then further analyzed. The results revealed that 39 multi-species remedies and 36 single-species remedies were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 103 plant species and 5 other materia medica were used as therapeutics. Most of the plants used were of the Zingiberaceae, Fabaceae and Euphorbiaceae families. Furthermore, it was found that although most of the healers used different remedies for a particular disease, some of the ingredients might have been similar. For example, Caesalpinia bonduc (L.) Roxb. was an ingredient used for parasitic disease remedies, and Senna alata (L.) Roxb. was used for constipation remedies. A review of the literature revealed 57 plant species and 2 other materia medica that have already been tested for their biological activities, whereas 46 plant species and 3 materia medica have never been tested. Consequently, research should be performed to confirm the pharmacological properties of folk remedies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

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    Marc Souris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  20. Micromapping of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in diferent regions of northeast Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritipsombut, Jaruwan; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Phollarp, Prachatip; Bouakhasith, Dalouny; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Schelp, Frank P

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in different regions of northeast (NE) Thailand and Vientiane, Laos People's Democratic Republic (PDR), a total of 1,809 blood samples were collected consecutively from individuals attending antenatal care services at 11 community hospitals in different regions of NE Thailand and three hospitals in Vientiane, Laos PDR, from May 2009 to April 2010. All individuals were investigated for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies using standard methods. For individuals from NE Thailand, the carrier frequencies were 41.7% for Hb E [β26(B8)Glu→Lys, GAG>AAG], 5.8% for α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal), and 0.9% for β-thal. The THAI deletion type of α(0)-thal was found in one individual from an ethnic minority. From a group of pregnant Laotian women, 30.1% were Hb E carriers. The prevalence of α(0)-thal of 8.6% for the Laotian women was similar to that found in the upper northeastern part of Thailand. The frequency of β-thal was 2.3 %. The proportion of carriers of α(+)-thal and Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, α142, Term→Gln (TAA>CAA in α2)] ) from Thailand and Laos was significantly different. The frequency of Hb Paksé [α142, Term→Tyr (TAA>TAT in α2)] was relatively low for Thailand as well as for Laos. The results indicate that thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies are a significant health burden in the region and that a prevention and control program for severe thalassemia diseases should be established in Laos.

  1. Genetic Variation and Population Genetics of Taenia saginata in North and Northeast Thailand in relation to Taenia asiatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee; Thaenkham, Urusa; Kusolsuk, Teera; Maipanich, Wanna; Saguankiat, Surapol; Pubampen, Somjit; Phuphisut, Orawan

    2013-01-01

    Taenia saginata is the most common human Taenia in Thailand. By cox1 sequences, 73 isolates from four localities in north and northeast were differentiated into 14 haplotypes, 11 variation sites and haplotype diversity of 0.683. Among 14 haplotypes, haplotype A was the major (52.1%), followed by haplotype B (21.9%). Clustering diagram of Thai and GenBank sequences indicated mixed phylogeny among localities. By MJ analysis, haplotype clustering relationships showed paired-stars-like network, having two main cores surrounded by minor haplotypes. Tajima's D values were significantly negative in T. saginata world population, suggesting population expansion. Significant Fu's F s values in Thai, as well as world population, also indicate that population is expanding and may be hitchhiking as part of selective sweep. Haplotype B and its dispersion were only found in populations from Thailand. Haplotype B may evolve and ultimately become an ancestor of future populations in Thailand. Haplotype A seems to be dispersion haplotype, not just in Thailand, but worldwide. High genetic T. saginata intraspecies divergence was found, in contrast to its sister species, T. asiatica; among 30 samples from seven countries, its haplotype diversity was 0.067, while only 2 haplotypes were revealed. This extremely low intraspecific variation suggests that T. asiatica could be an endangered species.

  2. Healthy dietary habits, body mass index, and predictors among nursing students, northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, R; Nanakorn, S; Sanseeha, L; Nagahiro, C; Kodama, N

    1999-03-01

    This study aimed to assess body mass index (BMI) of nursing students, and examine the links between health behavior in terms of healthy dietary habits, positive health habits, dieting and BMI. A structured questionnaire was used for obtaining information on dietary habits, positive health habits, demographic characteristic including body weight, and height by administering self-answering questionnaires to all of nursing students in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th year-classes of the College of Nursing located in northeast Thailand. Three hundred and eleven female nursing students with an average age of 19.9 (SD = 1.4), had an average BMI of 20.3 kg/m2 (SD = 1.9). Most of the subjects (82.6%) were in the acceptable weight category (BMI > 18.5-24.99 kg/m2), 5.1% underweight (BMI or = 25.0 kg/m2). About half of them (50.8-66.2%) practiced healthy dietary habits in terms of avoiding eating fat/cholesterol, enriched fiber foods, while one-fourth practiced daily fruit consumption. Positive health habits in terms of having breakfast, and taking exercise over the last two weeks, were practiced by 49.5% and 59.8%, respectively. Persistent health problem occurred 13.5% amongst the subjects. The univariate analyses revealed significant associations between dieting with the BMI; perception of body size with the BMI; the enriched fiber food consumption with dieting; and the avoidance of fat/cholesterol with dieting. It suggests that the choice of food was predominantly attributable to dieting. Results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed that dietary belief, dieting, and exercise had effects on the strength of the association (p = 0.0191, 0.0024, 0.0165; Odds ratios = 0.97, 2.21, 1.87, respectively). The results and implications are discussed.

  3. Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, Using an Enhanced Spatiotemporal Surveillance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    THOMAS AND OTHERS ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE FOR DENGUE Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province...of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand. Abstract. Dengue is of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus (DENV...with confirmed dengue (initiates) and associated cluster individuals (associates) with entomologic sampling. A total of 438 associates were enrolled

  4. Mapping Sargassum beds off, ChonBuri Province, Thailand, using ALOS AVNI2 image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noiraksar, Thidarat; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Sawayama, Shuhei; Phauk, Sophany; Hayashizaki, Ken-ichi

    2012-10-01

    Sargassum species grow on rocks and dead corals and form dense seaweed beds. Sargassum beds play ecological roles such as CO2 uptake and O2 production through photosynthesis, spawning and nursery grounds of fish, feeding ground for sea urchins and abalones, and substrates for attached animals and plants on leaves and holdfasts. However, increasing human impacts and climate change decrease or degrade Sargassum beds in ASEAN countries. It is necessary to grasp present spatial distributions of this habitat. Thailand, especially its coastal zone along the Gulf of Thailand, is facing degradation of Sargassum beds due to increase in industries and population. JAXA launched non-commercial satellite, ALOS, providing multiband images with ultra-high spatial resolution optical sensors (10 m), AVNIR2. Unfortunately, ALOS has terminated its mission in April 2011. However, JAXA has archived ALOS AVNIR2 images over the world. They are still useful for mapping coastal ecosystems. We examined capability of remote sensing with ALOS AVNIR2 to map Sargassum beds in waters off Sattahip protected area as a natural park in Chon Buri Province, Thailand, threatened by degradation of water quality due to above-mentioned impacts. Ground truth data were obtained in February 2012 by using continual pictures taken by manta tow. Supervised classification could detect Sargassum beds off Sattahip at about 70% user accuracy. It is estimated that error is caused by mixel effect of bottom substrates in a pixel with 10 x 10 m. Our results indicate that ALOS AVNIR2 images are useful for mapping Sargassum beds in Southeast Asia.

  5. Smoking behaviour and associated factors of illicit cigarette consumption in a border province of southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketchoo, Chittawet; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; McNeil, Edward

    2013-07-01

    Illicit cigarette consumption has increased worldwide. It is important to understand this problem thoroughly. To investigate behaviours and factors associated with illicit cigarette consumption in southern Thailand. A survey and qualitative study were conducted in a border province in southern Thailand next to Malaysia. A modified snowballing technique was used to recruit 300 illicit and 150 non-illicit cigarette smokers. A questionnaire was used to interview subjects. Illicit cigarette packs were obtained in order to identify their characteristics. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for data analysis. Smoking of illicit cigarettes has become accepted in the communities. They were available in supermarkets and vendor shops. Friends and other illicit smokers known by illicit cigarette smokers were an important source of information for access to illicit cigarette products. The main factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes, compared with smoking non-illicit cigarettes, were younger age, higher education and higher average monthly expenditure on cigarettes (most illicit smokers smoked illicit cigarettes (average price per packet = 33 THB (US$1.1), while most non-illicit smokers smoked hand-rolled cigarettes (average price per packet = 7 THB (US$0.2)) and knowledge of other illicit cigarette smokers. The low price of illicit cigarettes was the main reason for their use. Selling strategies included sale of singles, sale in shops and direct sale through social networking. Illicit cigarette consumption has become more acceptable especially among young adult smokers. Age and extent of social networks are important factors associated with smoking illicit cigarettes.

  6. Prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among schoolchi ldren in Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand

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    Pisit Suntaravitun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among primary schoolchildren in rural areas from Bang Khla District, Chachoengsao Province, Central Thailand. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and March 2017 among 203 schoolchildren in four rural schools using purposive sampling. All stool samples were examined using simple direct smear method and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections was 14.8% (30/203. Seven intestinal parasite species (two helminths and five protozoa were identified in the stool samples. The most common intestinal protozoa in schoolchildren was Giardia intestinalis (n = 11, 5.4% followed by Blastocystis hominis (n = 9, 4.4%, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar (n = 5, 2.5%, Entamoeba coli (n = 2, 1.0% and Endolimax nana (n = 1, 0.5%. Hookworm (n = 1, 0.5% and Strongyloides stercoralis (n = 1, 0.5% were the most frequent helminths. No significant statistical differences in the prevalence rates of infections were observed by gender, age and school location (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitic infection is a significant public health problem among schoolchildren in rural areas of Thailand. Therefore, health education and environmental sanitation improvement are recommended as preventive control measures.

  7. The mangosteen flowering date model in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, southern Thailand

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    Poontarasa OUNLERT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is one of the economically important fruits of Thailand. Recent studies show that the climatic variability affects the flowering period of tropical fruit trees. The objectives of this study are: 1 to investigate the correlation between climatic factors (in particular with, rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and dry period before flowering and mangosteen flowering date and 2 to develop the poisson regression model to predict the flowering date of mangosteen in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. This model is useful in guiding farmers to manage mangosteen orchards. The results showed that the rainfall, the maximum and minimum temperatures, the relative humidity, and the dry period before flowering dates affect mangosteen flowering dates. The model which will be used as a guideline for mangosteen flowering date prediction was log(μ=10.85+0.0001x1-0.0564x2-0.0634x3-0.0232x4+0.0003x5 where μ where is the mean of mangosteen flowering date, x1 is rainfall, x2 is maximum temperature, x3 is minimum temperature, x4 is relative humidity, and x5 is dry period before flowering date.

  8. Alcoholic beverages drinking among female students in a tourist province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittipichai, Wirin; Sataporn, Hatairat; Sirichotiratana, Nithat; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2011-12-29

    This study aimed to investigate alcoholic beverages drinking and predictive factors among female students. The participants were 377 subjects from 3 high schools in a tourist province, of Thailand. Data collection was done through self-administered questionnaire. Scales of the questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from 0.84 - 0.88. The data were analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed as follows. About half (51%) of them have ever drunk and 10.5% of drinkers have drunk once a week. In addition, 15.6% of drinkers began their first drink when they were under 10 years old. Risk factors for alcohol consumption of female student were age, GPA, drinker in family, peer pressure, advertisement and accessibility to alcoholic beverages while protective factors were perception of drinking impacts on family and moral values. Students who have a drinking family member were 4.6 times more likely to drink than those who do not have.

  9. A new Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Phetchaburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Olivier S G; Sumontha, Montri; Bauer, Aaron M

    2016-03-09

    A new Bent-toed Gecko, Cyrtodactylus phetchaburiensis sp. nov. is described from the Tha Yang District of Phetchaburi Province, western Thailand. It is a medium-sized Cyrtodactylus (SVL to at least 63.2 mm), with small, mostly keeled tubercles in 20 regular longitudinal rows on dorsum; 33 scales across mid-venter between lowest rows of flank tubercles; enlarged row of femoral scales present; five precloacal pores in male, femoral pores and precloacal groove absent; 5-6 broad basal lamellae and 11 narrow distal lamellae beneath digit IV of pes; and a single median row of transversely enlarged subcaudal scales present. It has a dorsal colour pattern of large, dark, diffusely-edged markings on a fawn background and a pair of dark scapular patches. The species is a member of the Central Indochinese (Thai-Myanmar) clade of Cyrtodactylus and is most closely related to C. oldhami (Theobald), from which it differs in colour pattern.

  10. An ecological study of Bithynia snails, the first intermediate host of Opisthorchis viverrini in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Chen; Ho, Richard Cheng Yong; Feng, Chen-Chieh; Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the food-borne trematodiasis, liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini, is a major public health concern in Southeast Asia. While epidemiology and parasitic incidence in humans are well studied, ecological information on the O. viverrini intermediate hosts remains limited. This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting the distribution and abundance of the first intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos snails. Water quality and snails were sampled in 31 sites in Muang District, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand from June 2012 to January 2013 to characterize the B.s. goniomphalos snail habitats. Species relative abundance and Shannon's diversity and evenness indices were employed to describe snail compositions and diversities across different habitat types. Statistical analyses were conducted to examine the extent to which the water quality variables and species interactions account for the relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails. The results showed that the freshwater habitats of ponds, streams and rice paddies possessed significantly different abiotic water qualities, with water temperature and pH showing distinct statistical differences (Psnail diversity and species evenness, with high B.s. goniomphalos snail abundance at rice paddy habitats. The differences in snail abundance might be due to the distinct sets of abiotic water qualities associated with each habitat types. The relative abundance of B.s. goniomphalos snails was found to be negatively correlated with that of Filopaludina martensi martensi snails (r=-0.46, Psnail population. Field work observations revealed that rice planting seasons and irrigation could regulate snail population dynamics at rice paddy habitats. This study provides new ecological insights into the factors affecting Bithynia snail distribution and abundance. It bridges the knowledge gap in O. viverrini disease ecology and highlights the potential effect of anthropogenic irrigation practices on B

  11. Population-based study of Streptococcus suis infection in humans in Phayao Province in northern Thailand.

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    Dan Takeuchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Streptococcus suis infection in humans has received increasing worldwide recognition. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective study of S. suis infection in humans was conducted in Phayao Province in northern Thailand to determine the incidence and the risk behaviors of the disease in this region in 2010. Thirty-one cases were confirmed. The case fatality rate was 16.1%, and the estimated incidence rate was 6.2 per 100,000 in the general population. The peak incidence occurred in May. The median age of the patients was 53 years and 64.5% were men. Consumption of raw pork products was confirmed in 22 cases and the median incubation period (range was 2 days (0-11 after consumption of raw pork products. Isolates from 31 patients were confirmed as serotype 2 in 23 patients (74.2% and serotype 14 in eight patients (25.8%. The major sequence types (STs were ST1 (n = 20 for serotype 2 and ST105 (n = 8 for serotype 14. The epidemiological analysis suggested three possible clusters, which included 17 cases. In the largest possible cluster of 10 cases in Chiang Kham and its neighboring districts in May, the source of infection in four cases was identified as a raw pork dish served at the same restaurant in this district. Microbiological analysis confirmed that three of four cases associated with consumption of raw pork at this restaurant were attributable to an identical strain of serotype 2 with ST1 and pulsotype A2. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest a high incidence rate of S. suis infection in the general population in Phayao Province in 2010 and confirm a cluster of three cases in 31 human cases. Food safety control should be strengthened especially for raw pork products in northern Thailand.

  12. Fruit and Vegetables Consumption: A Pointer for Cholangiocarcinoma Prevention in Northeast Thailand, the Highest Incidence Area in the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songserm, Nopparat; Woradet, Somkiattiyos; Charoenbut, Pattaraporn

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) caused by opisthorchiasis is a specific public health problem in the Greater Mekong subregional countries. The Northeast Thailand is considered a world's prime area of CCA. Many epidemiological studies found the association between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA, but their results were inconclusive. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA prevention in the Northeast Thailand. The authors conducted a comprehensive search of scholarships on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS published during 1990 and 2015. Selected studies about fruit and vegetables consumption and CCA were analyzed. The fixed-effect model was used to estimate pool odds ratios for the consumption vs. nonconsumption. Based on a meta-analysis, consumption of mixed fruit [odds ratio (OR) = 0.79; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.96], mixed vegetables (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.50-0.75), and combined fruit and vegetables (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.57-0.80) was associated with the reduction of CCA risk statistically. These findings support that fruit and vegetables consumption is associated with CCA risk reduction. If implemented in a larger geographical area, the study will shed light on possibilities to future reduction of CCA. Educators can replicate the study to solve CCA or other types of cancer and discover the best practice.

  13. Socio-economic, health and nutritional status of the villagers in the Nong Wai irrigation area, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harinasuta, C; Sornamani, S; Migasena, P; Vivatanasesth, P; Pongpaew, P; Intarakao, C; Vudhivai, N

    1976-12-01

    Studies were carried out from June 1974 to May 1975 on the socio-economic status, health and nutritional status of the people in 4 villages, in the irrigation area of the Nong Wai Pioneer Agricultural Project of Khon Kaen Province, Northeast Thailand. The result obtained were compared with those in 2 non-irrigated villages in the same province, in order to identify the health and nutritional problems which might arise during the water resource development in the irrigation area. It was found that in the irrigated villages 90% of the peoples were farmers, while in the non-irrigated villages all were farmers. The socio-economic status of the people in the irrigated villages was much better than those in the non-irrigated ones. The income per family in the former was about three times greater than that in the latter. In the study of the health conditions of the villagers, the vulnerable age group including pre-school children under 7 years of age and school children in the elementary school class 1 and class 2, aged 7-9 years old, served as subjects for investigation. Haematological and physical examinations revealed many children with mild to moderate anaemia, vitamin B2 deficiency and a few cases of hepatomegaly. Anaemic children were found to be more prevalent in the non-irrigated villages than in the irrigated area. The overall parasitic infection rates in children in the irrigated and non-irrigated villages were similar with respect to severity of the infection. Hookworm infection, opisthorchiasis, strongyloidiasis and giardiasis were the leading parasitic infections, while amoebiasis was rare. Ascariasis and trichuriasis were not found. However, the first two helminthic infections had a low grade of intensity. The nutritional status of pre-school children, showed that there were more children with good growth in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated one. Serum proteins, albumin and globulin, and urinary urea nitrogen-creatinine ratio revealed normal

  14. Morphological Characteristics and Phylogenetic Trends of Trematode Cercariae in Freshwater Snails from Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chontananarth, Thapana; Tejangkura, Thanawan; Wetchasart, Napat; Chimburut, Cherdchay

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of cercarial infection in freshwater snails and their evolutionary trends were studied in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. A total of 2,869 individual snails were examined for parasitic infections. The results showed that 12 snail species were found to host larval stages of trematodes with an overall prevalence of 4.7%. The infected specimens included 7 types at the cercarial stage; cercariae, megalurous cercariae, echinostome cercariae, furcocercous cercariae, parapleurolophocercous cercariae, virgulate cercariae, and xiphidiocercariae. Regarding molecular identification, ITS2 sequence data of each larval trematode were analyzed, and a dendrogram was constructed using the neighbor-joining method with 10,000 replicates. The dendrogram was separated into 6 clades (order/family), including Echinostomatida/Echinostomatidae, Echinostomatida/Philophthalmidae, Opisthorchiida/Heterophyidae, Plagiorchiida/Prosthogonimidae, Plagiorchiida/Lecithodendriidae, and Strigeatida/Cyathocotylidae. These findings were used to confirm morphological characteristics and evolutionary trends of each type of cercariae discovered in Nakhon Nayok province. Furthermore, this investigation confirmed that the ITS2 data of cercariae could be used to study on phylogenetic relationships or to determine classification of this species at order and/or family level when possible.

  15. Epidemiology of cercarial stage of trematodes in freshwater snails from Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chontananarth, Thapana; Wongsawad, Chalobol

    2013-03-01

    To investigate the epidemiological situation of cercarial trematodes infection in freshwater snails from different water resources in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The snail specimens were collected from 13 districts of Chiang Mai province during April 2008 to February 2012. The prevalence of cercarial infection in snails was investigated using the crushing method. The drawing was done with the help of a camera lucida for the morphological study. A total of 2 479 snail individuals were collected and classified into 7 families, 11 genera, and 14 species, Among them, 8 snails species were found to be infected with an overall prevalence of 17.27% (428/2 479), which infected with nine groups of cercariae; gymnocephalous cercaria, strigea cercaria, megalurous cercaria, monostome cercaria, parapleurolophocercous cercaria (Haplorchis cercaria), pleurolophocercous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria (Transversotrema cercaria), xiphidiocercaria, and virgulate cercaria. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found to be the dominant type among the cercarial infection in the snails (64.25%). The various species of snails found in the research location act as the intermediate hosts for the high prevalence of parasitic infection of many species of mammals. This work will provide new information on both the distribution and first intermediate host of trematodes.

  16. Quality of life and health promoting behaviors among disabled people in two provinces of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taechaboonsermsak, Pimsurang; Pitikultang, Supachai; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2009-12-01

    To examine health behaviors and quality of life among disabled people in two provinces of Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5,352 disabled people selected by multistage cluster sampling from Chiang Mai and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces during April to June 2008. The WHOQOL-BREF-THAI and health promoting behavior scales were used to measure QOL and health behavior. Among the health promoting behaviors, exercise and health responsibility of the disabled people were mostly at the 'need to improve' level (46.6 and 52.8%), while their nutritional behavior and stress management level were mostly at the 'good' level (80.8 and 43.8%). Overall quality of life was mostly at the 'moderate' level (79.3%). Exercise and stress management were found to have a significant positive relationship with the quality of life at low level (r = 0.18, r = 0.12) at p < 0.01. The results indicated that person who had health promoting behaviors by exercise and appropriate stress management had a good QOL. Encouraging of family and health authority support in exercise and stress management may help them having a good QOL.

  17. Molecular confirmation of trematodes in the snail intermediate hosts from Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

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    Sothorn Anucherngchai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of trematode infections in the snails intermediate host Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata collected from Ratchaburi Province by a molecular approach in order to construct a dendrogram to identify species at the cercarial stage. Methods: Specimens were collected from nine districts located in Ratchaburi Province using the stratified sampling method. The samples were examined for cercarial infection using the crushing method. All specimens were amplified by region of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 based on the PCR technique, and the sequence data were aligned in order to construct the dendrogram by maximum likelihood with 10 000 bootstrap replicates. Results: Five cercarial types were observed comprising parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria. The overall prevalence of cercarial infection was found to be 7.92% (63 / 795. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria was found in the highest level of prevalence followed by xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria, respectively. The parapleurolophocercous cercaria samples were identified and separated into Haplorchis taichui and Haplorchis pumilio, while xiphidiocercaria were identified as Lecithodendriidae and megarulous cercaria were identified as Philophthalmus. The dendrogram separated the cercariae into five groups, which were comprised of parapleurolophocercous cercaria, xiphidiocercaria, megarulous cercaria, furcocercous cercaria and transversotrema cercaria using the sequence of Angiostrongylus cantonensis as an out-group. Conclusions: This is the first study to report on the prevalence of cercarial infection in Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The high prevalence of cercariae was revealed by the infection in Tarebia granifera and Melanoides tuberculata. Thus, the sequence data of ITS2 can be used to investigate the

  18. Nutrient budgets, soil fertility management and livelihood analysis in Northeast Thailand: a basis for integrated rural development strategies in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoud, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords:  Rainfed lowland rice-based systems, Northeast Thailand, nutrient balance analyses, sustainability assessment, sustainable natural resource management, integrated rural development strategies, livelihood

  19. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in K...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection in Trang Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manomat, Jipada; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Bualert, Lertwut; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan; Siripattanapipong, Suradej; Mungthin, Mathirut; Naaglor, Tawee; Piyaraj, Phunlerd

    2017-11-01

    Autochthonous cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania martiniquensis and Leishmania siamensis have been considered emerging infectious diseases in Thailand. The disease burden is significantly underestimated, especially the prevalence of Leishmania infection among HIV-positive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with Leishmania infection among patients with HIV/AIDS living in Trang province, southern Thailand, between 2015 and 2016. Antibodies against Leishmania infection were assayed using the direct agglutination test (DAT). DNA of Leishmania was detected by ITS1-PCR using the buffy coat. Species of Leishmania were also identified. Of 724 participants, the prevalence of Leishmania infection was 25.1% (182/724) using either DAT or PCR assays. Seroprevalence of Leishmania infection was 18.5% (134/724), while Leishmania DNA detected by the PCR method was 8.4% (61/724). Of these, 24.9% (180/724) were asymptomatic, whereas 0.3% (2/724) were symptomatic VL and VL/CL (cutaneous leishmaniasis). At least five species were identified: L. siamensis, L. martiniquensis, L. donovani complex, L. lainsoni, and L. major. Multivariate analysis showed that CD4+ levels Leishmania infection. Those who were PCR positive for Leishmania DNA were significantly associated with a detectable viral load, whereas non-injection drug use (NIDU) and CD4+ levels Leishmania seropositivity. A magnitude of the prevalence of underreporting Leishmania infection among Thai patients with HIV was revealed in this study. Effective public health policy to prevent and control disease transmission is urgently needed.

  1. Social entrepreneur competencies of social activists involved with children and youths: A case study of Nan province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kanyarach Wongphuka; Teeradej Chai-Aroon; Supavan Phainoi; Piyawat Boon-Long

    2017-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship is a well-integrated social movement which is composed of business and non-profit sectors. In Thai society, social entrepreneurs still lack competencies to certify practices. Therefore, this research aimed to: 1) explain motivation and social entrepreneur attributes and 2) assess the social entrepreneur competencies of activists with regard to children and youths in Nan province, Thailand. Thirty-two social activists who actively worked on children and youth issues ...

  2. Seasonal Transmission of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato and a Lecithodendriid Trematode Species in Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Snails in Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kopolrat, Kulthida; Kiatsopit, Nadda; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H.; Petney, Trevor N.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal changes play roles in the transmission success of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT). This study examined the seasonal transmission patterns of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (s.l.) and a virgulate cercaria (family Lecithodendriidae) in the snail intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand. Snail samples were collected monthly during the rainy, cool, and hot seasons during 2012–2013 to determine the prevalence and intensity of larval trematode infections. The prevalence of O. viverrini s.l. varied significantly with season, being 0.31%, 1.05%, and 0.37% in the rainy, cool, and hot seasons, respectively (P snails infected with O. viverrini s.l. were significantly smaller (P snails. Seasonal variation and the different sizes of B. s. goniomphalos parasitized by O. viverrini s.l. and virgulate trematodes indicate complex host–parasite interactions with important implications for the epidemiology of O. viverrini s.l. PMID:25918210

  3. The majority of cockroaches from the Samutprakarn province of Thailand are carriers of parasitic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamavit, Pennapa; Sahaisook, Panupong; Niamnuy, Nunthawadee

    2011-01-01

    We undertook a study of the mechanical transmission of parasitic organisms in cockroaches in the Samutprakarn province of Thailand. In this study, 920 cockroaches were obtained from 18 open-air shopping markets in 5 districts and 1 subdistrict of this province. All cockroaches were captured during their feeding time in their natural habitat. Direct wet smear and modified acid-fast bacilli staining were used to identify the parasites from the external surface or cuticle of the cockroaches. The results show that 498 (54.1 %) of the cockroaches harbored parasitic organisms. Of these, 56.1 % were protozoa and the remaining 43.9 % were helminthes (pathogenic helminthes- 1.4 %, non-pathogenic helminthes- 42.5 %). Of the pathogenic helminthes, the species included Strongyloides stercoralis (6 instances of the free-living adult male, 0.8 %), Ascaris lumbricoides (2 decorticated eggs, 0.3 %), Trichuris trichiura (2, 0.3 %), and Taenia spp . (1 egg, 0.1 %). The protozoa types that were identified included Cyclospora spp. (10 oocysts, 1.3 %) , Endolimax nana (10 cysts, 1.3 %) , B. hominis (9 instances of the vacuolated form, 1.2 %) , Isospora belli (75 oocysts, 9.6 %) , Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (36 cysts, 4.6 %) , Cryptosporidium spp . (220 oocysts, 28.1 %), Chilomastix mesnilli (2 cysts, 0.3 %), Entamoeba coli (31 cysts, 4.0 %), Balantidium coli (45 trophozoites, 5.8 %), and Iodamoeba butschlii (1 cyst, 0.1 %). These results show that cockroaches isolated from these markets are carriers of several parasitic organisms that cause commonly found symptoms of illness such as diarrhea or bowel disorder.

  4. Application of traditional knowledge to create indigo-dyed fabric products in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand

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    Chanitsara Duangbubpa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indigo fabric is created by dying silk or cotton with color from the true indigo plant (Indigofera tinctoria and is a valuable commodity in Northeastern Thai communities. This is a qualitative investigation with two principal research aims: 1 To study the history and background of indigo-dyed fabric in Sakon Nakhon Province; 2 To study the current conditions and application of traditional knowledge in creating indigo-dyed fabric in Sakon Nakhon Province, Thailand. Data for this investigation were collected from document analysis and field research between July 2013 and July 2014. Results show that weaving groups are sponsored by the government and the local community to produce indigo-dyed fabric that can be transformed into a variety of different products that meet consumer needs. These products include blankets, scarves, shawls, formal wear and bags. Weaving communities prefer to use materials from the surrounding environment. Community members cultivate their own true indigo plants using the traditional processes inherited from generation to generation. The dye creation process requires plant matter to be soaked in water for 24 hours before it can be used in the dye mixture. The traditional dye mixture is 4 liters of indigo plant, 2 liters of natural lye water and 1 tablespoon of white lime. During the dyeing process, the cotton fabric is stirred and wring in the dye mixture until the color holds. The fabric is then rested and the process is repeated to achieve the desired hue. The quality of the dye is then tested by washing the fabric in clean water. By applying the resourcefulness of traditional knowledge used in the dye creation process to the marketing and sale of indigo fabric, the entire production will benefit

  5. Effect of soil surface salt on the density and distribution of the snail Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand

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    Apiporn Suwannatrai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Opisthorchis viverrini infection is associated with human cholangiocarcinoma and northeast Thailand has the highest incidence of this disease in the world. Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos is the major freshwater snail intermediate host of O. viverrini in this area and an analysis based on geographical information systems was used to determine the effect of variation in soil surface salt on the density and distribution of this snail. A malacological survey was carried out in 56 water bodies in the Khorat basin, northeast Thailand at locations with various soil surface salt levels. Mollusk samples were collected from 10 ecologically representative water body sites with 10-20 sampling stations in each. The shoreline of clear, shallow water bodies was found to be the preferred B. s. goniomphalos habitat. The snails were exclusively found in water with salinity levels ranging between 0.05 and 22.11 parts per thousand (ppt, which supports the notion that B. s. goniomphalos prefers water with some saline content over pure, freshwater. The highest snail population densities were in rice fields, ponds, road-side ditches and canals within a water salinity range of 2.5-5.0 ppt. However, the presence of B. s. goniomphalos was negatively correlated with water salinity (P ≤0.05, both with regard to density and distribution. The areas with the highest density of B. s. goniomphalos were those with less than 1% soil surface salt (potential index = 0.314, while the lowest densities were found in areas exceeding 50% soil surface salt (potential index = 0.015.

  6. Increasing incidence of hospital-acquired and healthcare-associated bacteremia in northeast Thailand: a multicenter surveillance study.

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    Maliwan Hongsuwan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in public hospitals in developing countries. We evaluated trends in incidence of hospital-acquired bacteremia (HAB and healthcare-associated bacteremia (HCAB and associated mortality in a developing country using routinely available databases. METHODS: Information from the microbiology and hospital databases of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand was linked with the national death registry for 2004-2010. Bacteremia was considered hospital-acquired if detected after the first two days of hospital admission, and healthcare-associated if detected within two days of hospital admission with a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days. RESULTS: A total of 3,424 patients out of 1,069,443 at risk developed HAB and 2,184 out of 119,286 at risk had HCAB. Of these 1,559 (45.5% and 913 (41.8% died within 30 days, respectively. Between 2004 and 2010, the incidence rate of HAB increased from 0.6 to 0.8 per 1,000 patient-days at risk (p<0.001, and the cumulative incidence of HCAB increased from 1.2 to 2.0 per 100 readmissions (p<0.001. The most common causes of HAB were Acinetobacter spp. (16.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.9%, and Staphylococcus aureus (13.9%, while those of HCAB were Escherichia coli (26.3%, S. aureus (14.0%, and K. pneumoniae (9.7%. There was an overall increase over time in the proportions of ESBL-producing E. coli causing HAB and HCAB. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a high and increasing incidence of HAB and HCAB in provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, increasing proportions of ESBL-producing isolates, and very high associated mortality.

  7. Surface study of irradiated sapphires from Phrae Province, Thailand using AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarumit, N.; Jivanantaka, P.; Mogmued, J.; Lhuaamporn, T.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    The irradiation is one of the gemstone enhancements for improving the gem quality. Typically, there are many varieties of irradiated gemstones in the gem market such as diamond, topaz, and sapphire. However, it is hard to identify the gemstones before and after irradiation. The aim of this study is to analyze the surface morphology for classifying the pristine and irradiated sapphires using atomic force microscope (AFM). In this study, the sapphire samples were collected from Phrae Province, Thailand. The samples were irradiated by high energy electron beam for a dose of ionizing radiation at 40,000 kGy. As the results, the surface morphology of pristine sapphires shows regular atomic arrangement, whereas, the surface morphology of irradiated sapphires shows the nano-channel observed by the 2D and 3D AFM images. The atomic step height and root mean square roughness have changed after irradiation due to the micro-structural defect on the sapphire surface. Therefore, this study is a frontier application for sapphire identification before and after irradiation.

  8. A causal model of depression among older adults in Chon Buri Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piboon, Kanchana; Subgranon, Rarcharneeporn; Hengudomsub, Pornpat; Wongnam, Pairatana; Louise Callen, Bonnie

    2012-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to develop and empirically test a theoretical model that examines the relationships between a set of predictors and depression among older adults. A biopsychosocial model was tested with 317 community dwelling older adults residing in Chon Buri Province, Thailand. A face-to-face interview was used in a cross-sectional community-based survey. A hypothesized model of depression was tested by using path analysis. It was found that the modified model fitted the data and the predictors accounted for 60% of the variance in depression. Female gender, activities of daily living, loneliness, stressful life events, and emotional-focused coping had a positive direct effect on depression. Social support and problem-focused coping had a negative direct effect on depression. Additionally, perceived stress, stressful life events, loneliness, and income had a negative indirect effect on depression through social support. Female gender, activities of daily living, and perceived stress also had a positive indirect effect on depression through emotional-focused coping. Stressful life events, perceived stress, and income had a negative indirect effect on depression through problem-focused coping. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the variables that predict depression in older adults. Thus, health care providers should consider the effects of these contributing factors on depression in the older adult person and can devise a program to prevent and promote health in older adults alleviating depression.

  9. Morphology and geochemistry of placer gold from Wang River, Lampang Province, Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D.; Lee, I.

    2011-12-01

    Wang River (Mae Nam Wang) in Lampang Province, Northern Thailand which is surrounded with many lode gold deposits has potential to develop as a placer gold deposit. Gold particles from 10 sites in Wang River range from fine to coarse (electrum or high purity gold with high fineness (1000Au/Au+Ag) levels up to 951 as well as a minor amount of Cu and Hg. Normally, the zoning patterns of Au and Ag are common in placer gold and the high fineness in rim can be explained by either selective extraction of Ag or precipitation of Au. However, there is no significant difference in fineness between core and rim in gold grains in this study even though there are differences in composition among grains. Many cavities are also shown filling with silicate and/or clay mineral in microtextures. These geochemical signatures from microtextures are capable of providing genetic implication. Furthermore, the combination of results such as shape parameter, geochemical signature, and assemblages of heavy minerals can be a useful tool in exploration for gold.

  10. Effectiveness of school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools of Saraburi Province, Thailand.

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    Banchonhattakit, Pannee; Tanasugarn, Chanuantong; Pradipasen, Mandhana; Miner, Kathleen R; Nityasuddhi, Dechavudh

    2009-07-01

    This research was designed to test the effectiveness of a school network for childhood obesity prevention (SNOCOP) in primary schools; a program that aimed to improve student behavior in terms of knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity prevention, and their food consumption behavior. A quasi-experimental pretest-posttest time series study was conducted. By 2-stage stratified sampling selection 180 students from 6 schools were assigned to the intervention group and 195 students from 6 schools to the control group at Saraburi Province, Thailand in 2006- 2007. In addition, thirty-one participants being school administrators, teachers, parents, and community members from six schools formed the social network initiating the intervention. The schoolchildren in the intervention group improved their eating behavior, knowledge, attitude, intention towards obesity preventive behavior. The six schools of the intervention group changed school policies and school activities aiming to reduce the proportion of obesity among their student. No such activities could be observed in the control group. These findings suggest that the School-Social Network of Childhood Obesity Prevention program is an effective means to prevent childhood obesity.

  11. The prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand

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    Kornanong Yuenyongchaiwat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated prevalence and risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS in a suburban community in Pathum Thani province, Thailand. Anthropometric data, blood pressure, blood glucose and lipid levels were recorded from 222 participants, 35-65 years old. Identification of MetS was based on guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program III. The study found the prevalence of MetS was 36.49% with no significant differences between male and female participants. An advancing body mass index (BMI emerged as one of the most significant risk factors. Participants with BMI > 23 kg*m -2 had an increased risk of MetS (OR 3.17. Furthermore, participants in the age group 55-65 years had an increased risk of MetS (OR 2.28. Lack of exercise and high waist to height ratio were also important risk factors (OR 2.38 and 3.37, respectively. Therefore, increased physical activity or exercise and weight control are advised to reduce the prevalence of MetS.

  12. Seroprevalence of antibody against diphtheria among the population in Khon Kaen province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansiddhi, Hataichanok; Vuthitanachot, Viboonsuk; Vuthitanachot, Chanpim; Prachayangprecha, Slinporn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-03-01

    To assess diphtheria immunity in the northeastern region of Thailand, a seroepidemiological survey was undertaken in 2011 from 516 healthy individuals (age range 2-87 years) in Khon Kaen province. Diphtheria antitoxin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titers of ≥0.1 IU/mL were considered to be protective antitoxin levels. Among the studied population, 94.8% have fully protective levels. The younger population (age range 2-19 years) has higher diphtheria immunity with seroprotection rates of 96.8% to 97.9%, compared with the adult population. The proportion of protective diphtheria antitoxin levels declines to 88.3% to 91.9% in the middle-aged group (20-50 years), and appeared to be higher again in the older age-group (50-70 years). To avoid epidemic spreading, promoting immunization booster programs will be helpful, especially among the adult population (20-50 years). Finally, this study may serve as a valuable guide in deciding exactly which age-groups should be targeted by such an effort. © 2012 APJPH.

  13. Factors influencing life happiness among elderly female in Rayong Province, Thailand.

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    Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Tuntichaivanit, Chutigai; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Charupoonphol, Phitaya

    2009-12-01

    To study the factors influencing life happiness of elderly female in Rayong province, Thailand. A cross-sectional survey research was conducted among 233 elderly female aged between 60-80 years using multi-stage random sampling. The data were collected from June 6th to July 31st 2008 by interviewing questionnaires. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient and Stepwise multiple regression analysis. About half (50.2%) of the elderly female had moderate level of life happiness, followed by low level (27.1%) and high level (22.7%). The factors which significantly influenced the life happiness of the elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships (p self-esteem, social support, and family relationships could significantly predict life happiness of the elderly female by 91.4%. Self-esteem had the highest predictive power of life happiness among elderly female. The important factors influencing life happiness of elderly female were self-esteem, social support, and family relationships. To promote life happiness of elderly female, responsible organizations should establish activities that enhance the elderly female's self-esteem, provide sufficient social support, and promote good family relationships.

  14. Accessibility to health services among migrant workers in the Northeast of Thailand [version 1; referees: 2 approved

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    Suprawee Khongthanachayopit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is an increasing trend of trans-border migration from neighboring countries to Thailand. According to human rights laws, everyone must have access to health services, even if they are from other nationalities.  However, a small minority of health personnel in Thailand discriminate against immigrant workers, as they are from a lower financial bracket. Methods. This cross-sectional study aims to determine the prevalence of accessibility to health services and factors associated with access to health services among migrant workers who work along the Northeast border of Thailand. A total of 621 legal migrant workers were randomly selected to respond to a structured questionnaire about the satisfaction of health services, using the 5As of health services: availability; accessibility; accommodation; affordability; acceptability.  Associations between independent variables and access to health services were analysed   using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results. The results indicated that the majority of these registered migrant workers were female (63.9% with an average age of 29± 8.61 years old, and were married (54.3%. Most of the workers worked at restaurants (80%, whereas only 20% were in agricultural sectors. Only 14% (95% CI: 11-17% of migrant workers had access to health services. The factors that were significantly associated with accessibility to health service experienced ill health during the past one year (OR = 2.48; 95%CI; 1.54–3.97; p-value<0.001; have been married (OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 1.40 – 3.90; p-value <0.001. Conclusions. Most of the migrant workers could not access health services. The ones who did access health services were married or ill.

  15. Development and application of single-tube multiplex real-time PCR for lineage classification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis based on large sequence polymorphism in Northeast Thailand.

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    Faksri, Kiatichai; Hanchaina, Rattanavinan; Sangka, Arunnee; Namwat, Wises; Lulitanond, Viraphong

    2015-07-01

    An appreciation of the genetic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is needed for effective planning of strategies in tuberculosis (TB) control. Large sequence polymorphisms (LSPs) are the molecular epidemiological and evolutionary markers for classification of Mtb into East Asian (EA) or Beijing, Indo-Oceanic (IO), Euro-American (EuA) and East African-Indian (EAI) lineages. We aimed to develop a single-tube multiplex real-time PCR assay using melting curve analysis for lineage classification of Mtb based on LSPs. The technique was optimized and tested with well-characterized strains (n = 89). The developed technique was then applied to classify Mtb isolates from TB patients (n = 256) randomly recruited from 19 provinces covering Northeast Thailand in 2013-2014. The technique demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity based on well-characterized strains compared to conventional techniques. The detection limit of the technique is 0.05 ng of genomic DNA of Mtb. The 256 Mtb isolates represented IO (n = 178, 70%), Beijing (n = 60, 23%) and EuA (n = 18, 7%) lineages. Significant associations of the Beijing lineage with drug resistance (p < 0.001) and younger average age of TB patients (p < 0.001) compared to other lineages were shown. The single-tube multiplex real-time PCR technique provides a simple, rapid and high performance tool for characterizing Mtb based on LSPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigation of coastline changes in three provinces of Thailand using remote sensing

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    Tochamnanvita, T.; Muttitanon, W.

    2014-11-01

    The measuring of coastal in the certain short period of time is almost impossible, but applying the remote sensing with the satellite imagery bring mankind to track down and analyze the approximately length of the coastal changes at the Nano technology speed. An attempt has been made to study the length of shoreline changes along three provinces in the upper gulf of Thailand. The significant purpose is to investigate coastline length changes and to evaluate those different coastal changes at different times. Two specialties of chosen areas are the outstanding location at mouth of river in curve pattern and ecological important mangrove forest, as nominated and designated area listed in Ramsar convention, international wetlands treaty. In employing the remote sensing will help to investigate the shoreline erosion, stable or construction shoreline. Rapid and drastic shoreline changes have been compared and measured base on satellite image Landsat 5 TM on 1994, 2002 and 2007 at path129 row 051. There were geometrically co-registered and, in the process were resampled to 25 m. By composing RGB band, fusion, supervised classification. By apply different theories will give different results but the similarly pattern. Training sites were selected by signature editor, area of interest, evaluate by seperabilitly and contingency. Principle component analysis (PCA) was employed as a method of change detection. This is to conclude that these shoreline areas were in erosion from natural processes and manmade activities, for example, aquaculture and agriculture expansion, such as shrimp farm. These coastal line lost were not just losing the land; it's losing the soul of the cycle of marine life, economically, and environmentally. Moreover, this project, in the future, could benefit to set the recovery buffer zone for mangrove restoration also.

  17. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs and cats in Songkhla and Satun provinces, Thailand

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    Ketsarin Kamyingkird

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To update the microfilaria infection in companion animals, this study determined the prevalence and risk factors of microfilaria infection in dogs and cats collected from eight districts in Songkhla and Satun provinces, southern Thailand. In total, 482 samples (394 dogs and 88 cats were subjected to microscopic examination (ME, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequencing analysis. The overall prevalence of microfilaria infection in dogs and cats was 24.1% (95/394 and 36.4% (32/88 using PCR, respectively. Furthermore, the overall results were positive 7.7% (37/482 using ME compared to 26.3% (127/482 using PCR. Sequencing analysis of all positive PCR products identified the microfilaria as Dirofilaria immitis. D. immitis infection in each sampled district of Songkhla and Satun provinces was in the range 0–48% for dogs and in the range 15.4–75% for cats. Risk factor analysis showed that there was significantly higher D. immitis infection in dogs older than 2 yr. The study updated the prevalence of D. immitis infection in dogs and cats in two southern provinces of Thailand and there was a high D. immitis infection rate in old dogs (aged > 2 yr.

  18. Epidemiology, microbiology and mortality associated with community-acquired bacteremia in northeast Thailand: a multicenter surveillance study.

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    Manas Kanoksil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: National statistics in developing countries are likely to underestimate deaths due to bacterial infections. Here, we calculated mortality associated with community-acquired bacteremia (CAB in a developing country using routinely available databases. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Information was obtained from the microbiology and hospital database of 10 provincial hospitals in northeast Thailand, and compared with the national death registry from the Ministry of Interior, Thailand for the period between 2004 and 2010. CAB was defined in patients who had pathogenic organisms isolated from blood taken within 2 days of hospital admission without a prior inpatient episode in the preceding 30 days. A total of 15,251 CAB patients identified, of which 5,722 (37.5% died within 30 days of admission. The incidence rate of CAB between 2004 and 2010 increased from 16.7 to 38.1 per 100,000 people per year, and the mortality rate associated with CAB increased from 6.9 to 13.7 per 100,000 people per year. In 2010, the mortality rate associated with CAB was lower than that from respiratory tract infection, but higher than HIV disease or tuberculosis. The most common causes of CAB were Escherichia coli (23.1%, Burkholderia pseudomallei (19.3%, and Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%. There was an increase in the proportion of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBL producing E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae over time. CONCLUSIONS: This study has demonstrated that national statistics on causes of death in developing countries could be improved by integrating information from readily available databases. CAB is neglected as an important cause of death, and specific prevention and intervention is urgently required to reduce its incidence and mortality.

  19. On three new species of non-marine ostracods (Crustacea: Ostracoda) from Northeast Thailand.

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    Savatenalinton, Sukonthip

    2015-01-28

    Three new species of non-marine ostracods, Strandesia martensi n. sp., Strandesia pholpunthini n. sp. and Oncocypris rostrata n. sp., are here described from the Northeastern part of Thailand. Strandesia martensi n. sp. is similar to Strandesia perakensis Victor & Fernando, 1981 and to Strandesia sanoamuangae Savatenalinton & Martens, 2010. It can be distinguished from these two species by the presence of a large dorsal hump on both valves, large anterior overlapping, the general shape of valve, the ornamentation of valve surface and the markedly long proximal seta of caudal ramus. The main distinguishing characters of Strandesia pholpunthini n. sp. are the compression on the right valve at the posterior extremity and the fact that left valve overlaps right valve anteriorly, while right valve overlaps left valve posteriorly. This results in unequal anterior and posterior extremities, which can be seen clearly in the dorsal view. Oncocypris rostrata n. sp. is the first record of this genus in Thailand. It obviously differs from others in the beak-like anterior extremity in dorsal view, the valve structure in interior view, the valve ornamentation comprising of large pustules and large pits and the morphology of male reproductive organ, especially the first segment of the right prehensile-palp bearing a long apical spine and a large protrusion on the distal margin toward the second segment. A note on morphology, chorology and a key to the species of Oncocypris are given.

  20. Effect of supplementation on vitamin A and zinc nutriture of children in northeast (NE) Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udomkesmalee, E.; Dhanamitta, S.; Charoenklatkul, S.; Tantipopipat, S.; Banjong, O.; Rojroongwasinkul, N.; Kramer, T.R.; Smith, J.C. Jr. (Mahidol Univ., Nakhon Pathom (Thailand) USDA, Beltsville, MD (United States))

    1991-03-11

    Previous surveys of the nutritional status of young children in NE Thailand suggested that they may benefit from vitamin A (VA) and/or zinc (Zn) supplementation. 140 children, with low plasma retinol concentrations were entered in a double-blind study. They were randomized and supplemented with either VA, Zn, VA + Zn or placebo each weekday for 6 mos. All subjects consumed their usual diet that provided adequate protein, less than recommended calories, fat, Zn and VA. Biochemical indices of VA and Zn status increased significantly. The children had adequate VA liver stores as assessed by relative dose response. Zn supplementation resulted in improvement of vision restoration time in dim light using rapid dark adaptometry. VA and Zn synergistically normalized conjunctival epithelium after a 6 mo supplementation. Data suggest that functional improvements of populations with suboptimal VA and Zn nutriture can be accomplished by supplementation with {lt}2 times of RDA of these nutrients.

  1. Managing Tourism in the Greater Mekong Region (GMS: A Case Study of Chiang Khan Community, Northeast Thailand

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    Rawee Hanpachern

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine complex ‘sustainability’ aspects of the Community-based tourism concept in tourism and destination management in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS. This research is conceptualized in assessing the potential for Community-Based Tourism (CBT development in Chiang Khan, a small village by the Mekong River in the Northeast of Thailand. For collecting data, semi-interviews questions are designed. Focus-group discussion and indepth interviews are carried to include tourism stakeholders of the destination. This study argues that although a community may contain many tourism assets, it is not the only factor necessary for a ‘sustainable’ tourism to be developed in that community. Through a case study, its natural features, cultural activities, local lifestyle and the serene landscape of its location are exemplified as the important community-based tourism assets. However, a number of complex components and holistic approaches that worked well together Chiang Khan becoming a sustainable tourism destination. There elements and approaches that contribute to starting up Chiang Khan as a sustainable tourist destination include: its unique features of recreational activities and local businesses, knowledge and skills of the locals to develop tourism related businesses, and direct proper marketing strategies.

  2. Association between Diabetes Mellitus and Fatty Liver Based on Ultrasonography Screening in the World's Highest Cholangiocarcinoma Incidence Region, Northeast Thailand.

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    Thinkhamrop, Kavin; Khuntikeo, Narong; Phonjitt, Pichai; Chamadol, Nittaya; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Moore, Malcolm Anthony; Promthet, Supannee

    2015-01-01

    Fatty liver disease (FLD) can be a precondition for other liver pathology including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been suggested in some studies to be a risk factor for FLD as well as cancers, including cholangiocellular carcinoma; however, there are currently very few studies on FLD in DM subjects, although the rate of FLD continues to increase annually. To determine the association between DM and FLD ultrasonographic data were analyzed from the Cholangiocarcinoma Screening and Care Program (CASCAP), in northeast Thailand. DM was reported by the subjects based on the CASCAP health questionnaire. Factors that were associated with FLD were determined by prevalence, odds ratio (ORs) and its 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multiple logistic regression. There were 45,263 subjects with a mean age of 53.46 (±9.25) years. FLD was found in 36.3% of DM subjects but only in 20.7% of non-DM subjects. The association between DM and FLD was adjusted for all other factors including gender, age, education level, relatives diagnosed with CCA, smoking, alcohol consumption, and hepatitis B and C. The risk of DM in subjects having FLD was highly significant compared with the non-DM subjects (OR 2.13; 95%CI: 1.92 to 2.35; p-value < 0.001). Thus DM is significantly associated with FLD which in turn may facilitate the development of several diseases including CCA. DM should be taken into consideration in future ultrasonic investigations of FLD and CCA.

  3. Effect of chemical paclobutrazol on growth, yield and quality of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Har lium cultivar in northeast Thailand.

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    Benjawan, Chutichudet; Chutichudet, P; Chanaboon, T

    2007-02-01

    This investigation was carried out at Mahasarakham University Experimental Farm, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand in the late rainy season of the 2003 to 2004 with the use of Roi-Et soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The experiment aims to search for more information on the effect of different rates of chemical Paclobutrazol (PBZ) application on growth, yield and quality of edible okra pods. A Randomised Complete Block Design (RCDB) with four replications was used for the experiment. The experiments consisted of five treatments, i.e., 0 (T1), 4000 (T2), 8000 (T3), 12,000 (T4) and 16,000 ppm ha(-1) (T5) of chemical PBZ. The results showed that an increase in PBZ application rate highly decreased plant height, harvesting age and significantly decreased leaf area of the fifth leaf but highly increased pod length, fresh weight/pod and fresh pod yield ha(-1) of the okra plants. PBZ had no significant effect on stem diameter and diameter of pods of the okra plants. Total soluble solid, fibre content, titratable acid, vitamin C and pectin contents in pods were not affected by chemical PBZ application. Pod yield highly increased with an increase in rate of PBZ application. The highest edible pod yield reached a value of 4501 kg ha(-1) for the highest rate of PBZ application (T5).

  4. Measuring and factors influencing mathematics teachers' technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in three southernmost provinces, Thailand

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    Adulyasas, Lilla

    2017-08-01

    Technology becomes an important role in teaching and learning mathematics nowadays. Integrating technology in the classroom helps students have better understanding in many of mathematics concepts. One of the major framework for assessing the knowledge of integrating technology with the pedagogy and content in the classroom is Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework. This study aimed to measure mathematics teachers' TPACK in three southernmost provinces, Thailand and to study on factors influencing their TPACK. A quantitative study was carried out with 210 secondary level mathematics teachers in the three southernmost provinces, Thailand which were random by two stage sampling technique. Data were collected by using a questionnaire to identify the level of mathematics teachers' TPACK and the factors influencing their TPACK. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation and multiple regression analysis were used for analysing data. Findings reveal that the mean score of mathematics teachers' TPACK is 3.33 which is in the medium level and the three factors which have positive correlation at .05 level of significant with the level of TPACK are teaching experience factor, individual specialization factor and personal & organization factor. However, there are only two factors influencing mathematics teachers' TPACK. The two factors are individual specialization factor and personal & organization factors. These give better understanding on mathematics teachers' knowledge in integrating technology with the pedagogy and content which will be the important information for improving mathematics teachers' TPACK.

  5. High prevalence and molecular characteristics of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinwat, Nuananong; Angkittitrakul, Sunpetch; Coulson, Kari F; Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle R; Meunsene, Dethaloun; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine occurrence and antimicrobial resistance characteristics of Salmonella from pigs, pork and humans in Thailand and Laos provinces. The samples were collected from pigs, carcasses and workers in slaughterhouses, retail pork and butchers in fresh markets and patients in hospitals in Thailand (n=729) and Laos (n=458). A total of 295 of 729 samples (34.6 %) collected in Thailand and 253 of 458 (47.4 %) samples collected in Laos were positive for Salmonella. A total of 548 Salmonella isolates from Thailand (n=295) and Laos (n=253) were further analysed. Serovar Typhimurium was the most common serotype in Thai (34 %) and Laos (20.6 %) samples. Approximately 2.4 % of Thai isolates produced extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). All the ESBL producers possessed blaCTX-M-14, some of which were horizontally transferred. Class 1 integrons were common in Thai (31.9 %) and Laos (39.1 %) isolates, but none were associated with SGI1. The resistance cassette dfrA12-aadA2 was the most common, while the least common was aadA2-linG (n=1). The dfrA12-aadA2 gene cassette in five isolates and aadA2-linG were located on conjugative plasmid. Three pork isolates were fluoroquinolone resistant and carried an amino acid substitute, Ser-83-Tyr, in GyrA. The qnrS gene was found in 7.1 and 5.5 % of the Thai and Laos isolates, respectively, while qnrB was carried in another Laos isolate (1.9 %). All ESBL producers carried qnrS. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella was common in pigs, pork and human samples in this region. The bacteria carried mobile genetic elements and resistance genes on conjugative plasmids that could be readily transferred to other bacterial species.

  6. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

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    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  7. Mental health in a conflict area: Migration, economic stress and religiosity in the three southernmost provinces of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Jampaklay, Aree; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2017-03-01

    Three southern provinces of Thailand, Pattani, Yala and Narathiwat, have been involved in a long period of unrest due to differences between the population in the provinces and the Thai government with regard to language, culture and governance. The objectives of this article are to examine the effects of everyday stressors due to the conflict, including economic stress and migration, as well as the effect of religiosity on the reporting of psychiatric symptoms among adults in the three provinces. Data were drawn from a survey conducted in 2014. The survey included a probability sample of 2,053 Muslim adults aged 18-59 years.Mental health was assessed using World Health Organization's (WHO) Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) of 20 questions. Multilevel models were estimated to examine the influence of economic stress due to the conflict, as well as community and individual aspects of migration and religion on mental health. The data showed that migration from the household and the community and the economic effects of the unrest were associated with reporting of more psychiatric symptoms among adults in the southern provinces. Religion was related to reporting of fewer psychiatric symptoms at the individual and the community levels. The study documented increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms among persons reporting perceived household economic stress due to the conflict and the migration of family members.

  8. A geochronological study of mafic and acidic lavas from Veneto Volcanic province (North-East Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, Valentina; Webb, Laura; Bonadiman, Costanza; Marzoli, Andrea; Coltorti, Massimo

    2017-04-01

    The Veneto Volcanic Province (VVP), in the North-East of Italy represents one of the most important magmatic province of the Adria Plate. VVP magmatism occurred in a period ranging from late Paleocene to late Oligocene (De Vecchi et al., 1976). Five main volcanic districts can be defined from north-west to south-east: Val d'Adige, Marosticano, Lessini Hills, Berici Hills and Euganean Hills. Most of the volcanic products are relatively undifferentiated lavas, ranging in compostion from mela-nephelinites to quartz-normative tholeiites (Beccaluva et al., 2007). By contrast in the Euganean Hills volcanic and subvolcanic rocks range from subordinate basalts to prevalently acidic types, mostly quartz-trachytes and rhyolites (Milani et al., 1999). Despite of the deep petrological knowledge about this province, the radioisotopic ages of the related volcanic activities for each district are still poorly defined or even totally missing. 40Ar/39Ar ages on 9 samples have been obtained to determine the age range for the VVP. 40Ar/39Ar whole rock step heating analyses yielded ages ranging from 40.7 ± 0.2 Ma to 23.3 ± 1.5 Ma for basanites of Val d'Adige and Marosticano area, respectively. For the Lessinean district, 40Ar/39Ar whole rock analyses for two basanites, one trachybasalt and one alkali basalt close to 40 Ma, while a tholeiite from the same area yielded the youngest age for this district (i.e. 32.9 ± 1.8 Ma). This young age is comparable to 40Ar/39Ar ages obtained for the Euganean Hills intermediate-acidic rocks (Jourdan, pers. comm., 2016), suggesting a time-related shift from more alkaline to Si-saturated magmatism in the whole province. References Barbieri G., Medizza F. (1969). Contributo alla conoscenza geologica della regione di Bolca (Monti Lessini). Memorie dell'Istituto di Geologia e Mineralogia dell'Università di Padova, 27, 1-36. Beccaluva L., Bianchini G., Bonadiman C., Coltorti M., Milani L., Salvini L., Siena F., Tassinari R. (2007). Intraplate

  9. Fate of pesticides added to the soil in northeast of Santa Fe Province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Claudia; Aparicio, Virginia; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The use of pesticides in crop production has increased in the Northeast Santa Fe Province. This region has predominance of argiudolls, hapludalf and natracualf soils, with silt loam texture and 1.5 % of organic matter content. The main crops are sunflower, maize, cotton and sorghum. There are also extensive livestock production systems. The objective of this work was to study the presence and environmental fate of pesticides used in the agricultural systems of the Northeast Santa Fe Province. Different environmental matrices (soil, surface water and sediment) were sampled during the 2014-2015 cropping season in an area of about 180,000 ha of the "Arroyo el Rey" basin. Soil samples were collected at 0-5 cm depth in sunflower, sorghum, soybean and cotton cultivated fields. A total of 12 field plots were sampled, with glyphosate application and without glyphosate application. Water samples were collected at three locations: upper basin, medium basin, and lower basin in polypropylene bottles and stored at -20 °C until analysis. Glyphosate and AMPA was extracted from filtered water samples with a buffer solution (100 mM Na2B4O7•10H2O/100 mM K3PO4, pH=9) and derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (1 mg mL-1 in acetonitrile). Afterwards samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). A multi-residue determination of pesticides other than glyphosate and AMPA was used to detect pesticides in soil, water and sediment. Hydroxy atrazine (Atz-OH) (a degradation product of atrazine) and AMPA (a degradation product of glyphosate) were founded in the 100% of the soil samples. Below 70% of occurrence frequency were detected molecules such as Imidaclopyr (63%), Glyphosate (63%), Diethyltuolamide (61%), Atrazine (22%), Fluorocloridone (13%), Imazethapyr and Acetochlor To 1%). In water samples taken during 2014 the pesticides that exceeded the threshold of 0.1 μg.L-1 per molecule (European Economic Community) were AMPA

  10. Access to free or low-cost tuberculosis treatment for migrants and refugees along the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak province, Thailand.

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    Tschirhart, Naomi; Nosten, Francois; Foster, Angel M

    2016-07-07

    In Tak province, Thailand migrants and refugees from Myanmar navigate a pluralistic healthcare system to seek Tuberculosis (TB) care from a variety of government and non-governmental providers. This multi-methods qualitative study examined access to TB, TB/HIV and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment with an emphasis on barriers to care and enabling factors. In the summer and fall of 2014, we conducted 12 key informant interviews with public health officials and TB treatment providers. We also conducted 11 focus group discussions with migrants and refugees who were receiving TB, TB/HIV and MDR-TB treatment in Tak province as well as non-TB patients. We analyzed these data through thematic analysis using both predetermined and emergent codes. As a second step in the qualitative analysis, we explored the barriers and enabling factors separately for migrants and refugees. We found that refugees face fewer barriers to accessing TB treatment than migrants. For both migrants and refugees, legal status plays an important intermediary role in influencing the population's ability to access care and eligibility for treatment. Our results suggest that there is a large geographical catchment area for migrants who seek TB treatment in Tak province that extends beyond provincial boundaries. Migrant participants described their ability to seek care as linked to the financial and non-financial resources required to travel and undergo treatment. Patients identified language of health services, availability of free or low cost services, and psychosocial support as important health system characteristics that affect accessibility. Access to TB treatment for migrants and refugees occurs at the interface of health system accessibility, population ability and legal status. In Tak province, migrant patients draw upon their social networks and financial resources to navigate a pathway to treatment. We revised a conceptual framework for access to healthcare to incorporate

  11. The Dynamics of Avian Influenza: Individual-Based Model with Intervention Strategies in Traditional Trade Networks in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand

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    Chaiwat Wilasang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 is endemic to Southeast Asia. In Thailand, avian influenza viruses continue to cause large poultry stock losses. The spread of the disease has a serious impact on poultry production especially among rural households with backyard chickens. The movements and activities of chicken traders result in the spread of the disease through traditional trade networks. In this study, we investigate the dynamics of avian influenza in the traditional trade network in Phitsanulok Province, Thailand. We also propose an individual-based model with intervention strategies to control the spread of the disease. We found that the dynamics of the disease mainly depend on the transmission probability and the virus inactivation period. This study also illustrates the appropriate virus disinfection period and the target for intervention strategies on traditional trade network. The results suggest that good hygiene and cleanliness among household traders and trader of trader areas and ensuring that any equipment used is clean can lead to a decrease in transmission and final epidemic size. These results may be useful to epidemiologists, researchers, and relevant authorities in understanding the spread of avian influenza through traditional trade networks.

  12. Freshwater mollusks at designated areas in eleven provinces of Thailand according to the water resource development projects.

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    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Butraporn, Piyarat; Limsoomboon, Jareemate; Kaewpoolsri, Manus; Chusongsang, Yupa; Charoenjai, Prasasana; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Numnuan, Suthep; Kiatsiri, Songtham

    2007-03-01

    The study was conducted at 75 collecting loci in 15 districts of 11 provinces in Thailand during 1999-2004. A total of 12,079 live mollusks were collected, 11,874 were snails and 205 were clams. The snails were comprised of 39 species and classified into 9 families: Ampullariidae, Bithyniidae, Buccinidae, Potamiopsidae, Stenothyridae, Thiaridae, Viviparidae, Planorbidae and Lymnaeidae. The clams were comprised of 14 species classified into 2 families: Amblemidae and Corbiculidae. Fifteen species were medically important snails: Pomacea canaliculata, Pila ampullacea, P. pesmei, P. polita, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) funiculata, B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos, B. (D.) s. siamensis, Filopaludina (Siamopaludina) martensi martensi, F. (Filopaludina) sumatrensis polygramma, Melanoides tuberculata, Tarebia granifera, Helicorbis umbilicalis, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Indoplanorbis exustus and Radix rubiginosa. Of these 3 snail species harbored trematode cercariae. I. exustus harbored Echinostoma malayanum, Xiphidio and Schistosoma spindale, and R. rubiginosa and B. (D.) siamensis goniomphalos harbored Xiphidio and intestinal flukes, respectively.

  13. Distribution of Selected Heavy Metals in Sediment of the River Basin of Coastal Area of Chanthaburi Province, Gulf of Thailand

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    Jakkapan Potipat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from 24 stations in coastal area of Chanthaburi Province were collected during March 2012 to March 2013 and analyzed for heavy metal contents (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe, Cu and Zn, pH, organic matters and grain sizes. The correlation analyses showed that heavy metal concentrations were affected by the content of organic matter and the size of clay particles. The evaluation of the quality of sediment was carried out using the geoaccumulation index (Igeo and the enrichment factor (EF as well as the comparison with those in the Thailand's sediment quality guideline (SQG values. The results of the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values of the heavy metals content in the sediments revealed that the study area was unpolluted and not enriched, respectively. The relationship between the heavy metals concentration and the organic matter, and the clay particle was proposed by using the multiple regression equations.

  14. Existing drug resistance among Staphylococcus spp. from raw milk samples in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand by direct quadriplex PCR

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    Buppachat Trakarnchan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and mupirocin resistant among the isolates from milk, three hundred and eighty-one samples were collected in Khon Kaen province, Thailand, during January to March, 2014. Quadriplex PCR was a method of choice. The occurrence of S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. were 21.26 and 34.12%, respectively. Among the 81 S. aureus isolates, 82.72 (67/81, 11.11 (9/81, and 6.17% (5/81 were S. aureus, S. aureus carrying mecA, and S. aureus harboring mupA genes, respectively. These two mutant genes may possibly be transferred to other bacteria in milk. Therefore, good hygienic practices and strict control may limit the spread.

  15. Ten-Year Monitored Natural Recovery of Lead-Contaminated Mine Tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.

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    Phenrat, Tanapon; Otwong, Ashijya; Chantharit, Aphichart; Lowry, Gregory V

    2016-10-01

    Klity Creek has become Thailand's first official remediation ordered by the court in 2013, 15 years after the spill of lead (Pb)-contaminated mine tailing into the creek. The Pollution Control Department (PCD) decided to restore the creek through monitored natural recovery (MNR) since 2006 but has not been successful. Interestingly, the most recent remediation plan in 2015 will still apply MNR to five out of the seven portions of the creek, despite no scientific feasibility evaluation of using MNR to restore the creek. This study qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated the feasibility of using MNR to clean up the creek in order to protect the Klity children from excess Pb exposure. We analyzed the physical and chemical transformation of Pb contaminated sediment in the creek and developed a remedial action goal and cleanup level using the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). We empirically determined the natural recovery (NR) potentials and rates using 10 years of data monitoring the water and sediment samples from eight monitoring stations (KC1 to KC8). Klity Creek has NR potential for water except at KC2, which is closest to the spill and the other improperly managed Pb sources. However, the creek has no NR potential for sediment except at the KC8 location (NR rate = 11.1 ± 3.0 × 10-3 month-1) farthest from the spill. The MNR method is not suitable to use as the sole remedial approach for Klity Creek (KC2 to KC7). Although MNR is applicable at KC8, it may require up to 377 ± 76 years to restore the sediment to the background Pb concentration. Phenrat T, Otwong A, Chantharit A, Lowry GV. 2016. Ten-year monitored natural recovery of lead-contaminated mine tailing in Klity Creek, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand. Environ Health Perspect 124:1511-1520; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP215.

  16. Turning Red Rural Landscapes Yellow? Sufficiency Economy and Royal Projects in the Hills of Nan Province, Northern Thailand

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    Amalia Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the efforts of the royal family to moralise the environmental behaviour of their subjects in the name of the Sufficiency Economy philosophy solicited by King Bhumibol since the 1990s in Thailand. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nan province, Northern Thailand, in 2008 and 2009, I focus particularly on Royal Projects recently promoted to correct the rural practices of the ethnic minority groups living in the hills of Nan. In the past, many of these ethnic groups took part in the Maoist insurgency while at present, they represent a key basin of support- ers for the reformist Red Shirts movement which is currently threatening the role of the monarchy in Thai politics. The research suggests that the recently increased trend of staging new projects for sustainable agro-forestry management in a ‘red’ area as Nan does not only aim at improving the conditions of mountain peoples and of the environment, but simultaneously increases the political influence of the conservative forces over this ‘ungovernable’ territory in times of political crisis. ----- Dieser Artikel diskutiert die Bemühungen der königlichen Familie in Thailand seit den 1990-er Jahren, das Umweltverhalten ihrer Subjekte im Namen der Sufficiency Economy Philosophie von König Bhumibol zu moralisieren. Mit Bezug auf ethnografische Forschung in der Provinz Nan in Nordthailand in den Jahren 2008 und 2009 fokussiere ich insbesondere auf Royal Projects, die in letzter Zeit gefördert werden, um ländliche Praktiken ethnischer Minderheiten in den Bergen von Nan zu korrigieren. In der Vergangenheit waren viele dieser ethnischen Gruppen am maoistischen Aufstand beteiligt, während sie heute ein zentrales Auffangbecken für UnterstützerInnen der reformistischen Rothemden, die derzeit die Rolle der Monarchie in der thailändischen Politik in Frage stellen, darstellen. Die Forschung deutet an, dass der Trend zur Einführung von neuen Projekten f

  17. CONFLICT RESOLUTION: A CASE STUDY OF THE SEPARATIST MOVEMENT IN THE SOUTHERN BORDER PROVINCES OF THAILAND

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    Lutfee Abdulmani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This Undergraduate thesis tried to discuss about conflict resolution in the case of southern Thailand which are Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat, known as an escalating and brutal conflict and long history of insurgency, the crisis has been conducted primarily on the basis of Malay ethnic nationalism with religion and politics as an additional factors. The violence has already had important political consequences in the failure of Prime Minister Thaksin’s government. The government tries to solve the problem and lunched a strategy based on increased public participation, economic development, apologizing for the past misdeeds of the security services, ending the blacklisting of Muslim and opens a dialogue with insurgents, but the violence remains. In this research, the writer use an extensive of relevant published materials such as books, journals, reports, newsletters, official website and other sources o a wide variety of topics related with the subject of the topic. Keywords: Pattani, Yala, and Narathiwat. Conflict resolution. Malay ethnic

  18. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

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    Tongchai Thitiphuree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40  2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.

  19. Effectiveness of the multidimensional ergonomic intervention model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand

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    Pintakham K

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kanjanar Pintakham,1,2 Wattasit Siriwong1 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 2School of Health Science, Chiang Rai Rajabhat University, Chiang Rai, Thailand Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multidimensional ergonomic intervention (MEI model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD among street sweepers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The MEI model was designed on the basis of four core components: cognitive behavior therapy, ergonomic education training, stretching exercise, and the foam sleeve broom handle grip. Seventy-five street sweepers volunteered for the screening process on MSD of having level score ≥4 by physiotherapist. Face to face interviews were used mainly in order to diagnose MSD. Physical examination was performed by physiotherapist and physical performance by sports scientist. The findings showed that the MEI model among the intervention group significantly reduced MSD compared with that among control group at exit model and follow-up (P<0.01. This research suggests that the MEI model was appropriate to reduce MSD associated with repetitive movement and awkward postures on task. Keywords: repetitive movement, cognitive behavior therapy, stretching exercise, street sweepers

  20. Comparative phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Salmonella spp. in pig farms and slaughterhouses in two provinces in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Patchanee, Prapas

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella spp. are an important group of bacterial zoonotic pathogens which can cause acute food-borne diseases in humans. Pork products are the main source of salmonellosis, but the origins and transmission routes of the disease have not been clearly determined. The purpose of this study was to characterize Salmonella spp. isolated in pig production lines both from pig farms and from slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces in northern Thailand. The study focuses on the association among serotypes, antimicrobial resistance patterns and Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns to investigate possible sources of infection and to provide information which could help strengthen salmonellosis control programs in the region. A total of 86 strains of Salmonella comprising five majority serotypes were identified. Antibiotic resistance to tetracycline was found to be the most prevalent (82.56%) followed by ampicillin (81.40%) and streptomycin (63.95%). Seven clusters and 28 fingerprint-patterns generated by PFGE were identified among strains recovered from various locations and at different times, providing information on associations among the strains as well as evidence of the existence of persistent strains in some areas. Study results suggest that Salmonella control programs should be implemented at slaughterhouse production lines, including surveillance to insure good hygiene practices, in addition to regular monitoring of large populations of farm animals.

  1. Factors Predictive Of Alcohol Consumption Among Elderly People In A Rural Community: A Case Study In Phayao Province Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongthong, Donnapa; Somrongthong, Ratana; Wongchaiya, Pimpimon; Kumar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is recognized as a public health issue. Study objectives were to identify factors predictive of alcohol consumption among elderly people in Phayao province Thailand, where there was high prevalence of alcohol consumption. This was a cross-sectional study. Four hundred elderly people participated in a survey. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews. Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine the factors predictive of alcohol consumption among the study subjects. One thirds of elderly (31.7%) had consumed alcohol in their lifetime, and (15.7%) of them were current drinkers. Following univariate analysis, seven factors included gender, working, sickness, smoking, quality of life (QOL), daily activities and economic recession - were identified as being significantly associated with drinking (palcohol among elderly people: gender (OR=6.02, 95% CI=3.58-10.13), smoking (OR=4.34, 95% CI=2.57-7.34), economic recession (OR=2.79, 95%, CI=1.66-4.71), and QOL (OR=1.86, 95%, CI=1.09-3.16). Gender (male) and smoking were strongly predictive factors of elderly alcohol consumption. Hence, an effort to reduce alcohol consumption should be placed on male elderly and those who smoke.

  2. Coastal debris analysis in beaches of Chonburi Province, eastern of Thailand as implications for coastal conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thushari, Gajahin Gamage Nadeeka; Chavanich, Suchana; Yakupitiyage, Amararatne

    2017-03-15

    This study quantified coastal debris along 3 beaches (Angsila, Bangsaen, Samaesarn) in eastern coast of Thailand. Debris samples were collected from lower and upper strata of these beaches during wet and dry seasons. The results showed that Bangsaen had the highest average debris density (15.5m(-2)) followed by Samaesarn (8.10m(-2)), and Angsila (5.54m(-2)). Among the 12 debris categories, the most abundant debris type was plastics (>45% of the total debris) in all beach locations. Coastal debris distribution was related to economic activities in the vicinity. Fishery and shell-fish aquaculture activities were primary sources of debris in Angsila while tourism activities were main sources in Bangsaen and Samaesarn. Site-specific pollution control mechanisms (environmental awareness, reuse and recycling) are recommended to reduce public littering. Management actions in Angsila should focus on fishery and shell-fish culture practices, while Bangsaen and Samaesarn should be directed toward leisure activities promoting waste management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost and performance of malaria sector: a case study at Malaria Sector 11, Tak Province, Thailand.

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    Kamolratanakul, P; Butraporn, P; Prasittisuk, C; Prasittisuk, M; Indaratna, K

    1999-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the cost and performance of each operational unit at the malaria sector level and to calculate the unit cost of each activity accordingly. Data were collected at Malaria Sector No.11 situated at the western border of Thailand with Myanmar during the fiscal year of 1995. The unit cost was calculated by dividing the total cost of each activity by its output using appropriate units of analysis. The result showed that 67% of the total cost of malaria sector was labor cost and 45% of the total cost was allocated to diagnosis and treatment activities. Unit cost in terms of cost/visit, cost/case found, cost/case of falciparum malaria treated, cost/case of vivax malaria treated, cost/house spray and cost/impregnated net were US$1.85, 8.21, 10.07, 8.46, 2.24 and 1.54 respectively. The results of this study will provide important information as to the best use of limited available resources to determine which activities should be stopped, continued, increased or decreased at the malaria sector level.

  4. Costume Development Model for Tourism Promotion in Mae Hong Son Province, Thailand

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    Sarobol A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to study Pha Bong community’s dressing style and to develop a new ethnic costume that shows their identity to promote tourism in the province. Pha Bong Community is a community in Maehongson Province where two ethnic groups, people of Tai Yai (Shan and Sakor Karen, co-exist. The data collection methods include focus group and in-depth interview with target population, small group discussion and review of literature on costume development. The obtained data were then submitted to content analysis. First, it was found that they both have their own identity, resources, network marketing and inherited wisdom from their ancestors. Each group runs their business separately. Secondly, the research resulted in the creation of a new costume for the Pha Bong community created by members of two ethnic groups. This costume combines Karen symbol with Tai Yai (Shan clothing style. The motif and pattern of the fabric identify community members’ lifestyle, belief and value. It is recommended that development should be planned upon available resource and the need of the community. In addition, the community leader should encourage members to take parts in management and to cooperate for a sustainable development.

  5. Medicinal plants used for hypertension treatment by folk healers in Songkhla province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neamsuvan, Oratai; Komonhiran, Panadda; Boonming, Kamonvadee

    2018-03-25

    Hypertension is the most dominant risk factor for the development of cardiovascular, kidney, and eye diseases. In Thailand, illness and hospitalisation in the modern public health system due to high blood pressure is increasing. However, some Thai people have turned their attention to the use of herbal medicines for healthcare. Therefore, this study aimed (1) to study the folk knowledge of hypertension treatment and (2) to study plant utilisation in the treatment of high blood pressure by Songkhla folk healers. Field surveys and semi-structured interviews about theories of disease, principles of healing, and herbal usage (plant species, parts used, preparation, and application methods) were gathered. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics. The literatures regarding medicinal plants used in any traditional medicine, antihypertension activity, and toxicity was reviewed. Most healers believed that hypertension was caused by the disorder of fire and wind elements in the body. The medicinal plants containing hot and mild tastes, which had the potential for treating problems in the wind element, were applied. A total of 62 species were used for hypertension treatment. Most plants were in the Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Rutaceae, or Zingiberaceae family (4 species each). Herbal medicines were preferred to be prepared by boiling (78%) and consumed by drinking 1 teacup before 3 meals each day (26%). Piper retrofractum and Cleome viscosa had the greatest Frequency of Citation (FC = 6, n = 14). Thirty-seven species have been reported for use in traditional medicine. Twenty-four and 46 species have already been investigated for antihypertension activity and toxicity, respectively. Identifying medicinal plants that have been tested by experienced folk doctors would provide an opportunity for people to choose and consume local herbs that are easy to access in their local area. However, the remaining plants that have not been studied for antihypertension activity and

  6. Diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in two rubber plantations in Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

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    Suparoek Watanasit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ants play important roles in tropical rainforest ecosystems. In southern Thailand, many such areas have been extensivelylogged and replaced by rubber plantations. Since changes to the environment can cause changes to the diversity offlora and fauna, the objectives of this study were to determine habitat influences on the ant composition between homogenousand heterogeneous rubber plantations, and to investigate if any environmental factors can be directly correlated withchanges in the ant community. Three 100 m–line-transects, spaced 100 m apart, were laid out at two study sites. Four samplingmethods, hand collecting (HC, leaf litter sampling (LL, honey bait (HB and soil sampling (SS, were used to sample ants.Temperature, humidity, and precipitation were recorded. Samples were collected every two months from June 2004 to April2005. The results showed that a total of six subfamilies (Aenictinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinaemand Pseudomyrmecinae, comprising 29 genera and 87 species were found in the two study sites. The dominant genera werePheidole and Crematogaster, followed by Pheidologeton and Pachycondyla. The sampling methods used in this studyindicated that LL and HC were most suitable for sampling ants, and any combination of sampling methods detected moreant species than a single method did. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA grouped ant species between the two typesof rubber plantation, and also divided ant species into three groups by sampling method: HC group, SS group and LL+HBgroup. DCA did not group ant species by seasonal changes, however. Further, canonical correspondence analysis detectedno effect of temperature, humidity, or precipitation on the ant community.

  7. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

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    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  8. Trends in prevalence of clonorchiasis among patients in Heilongjiang province, Northeast China (2009-2012: implications for monitoring and control.

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    Su Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clonorchiasis is an important zoonotic parasitic disease worldwide. Past estimates showed the prevalence increased based on studies undertaken ten years or more ago. However, control strategies, changing ecology and migration may have resulted to changes in the prevalence of clonorchiasis. The purpose of the present study was to analysis the prevalence and epidemiological characterisation of clonorchiasis in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 4951 clinically suspected outpatients were examined from January 2009 to December 2012. Overall prevalence of clonorchiasis was 25.93% (1284/4951 by the combination strategy of the Kato-Katz technique (KK and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, with a significant increase from 22.53% in 2009 to 34.25% in 2012. Apart from Daxinganling city, clonorchiasis was reported throughout Heilongjiang Province and mainly along the Songhua River and Nen River basin, with an increased annual prevalence. The annual prevalence in men increased significantly in 2012 and was higher than that in women over 4 years. A similar pattern was seen for the annual infection rate in rural and urban areas. Farm labourers accounted for the majority of cases (65.93%, with a higher prevalence than in other occupations. Consumption of freshwater fish was considered the strongest risk factor of clonorchiasis. The infection rates in the 40-49 and 50-59 years age groups showed a significant increasing trend in 2012. Cases of re-infection were common. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study revealed that clonorchiasis remained widespread and prevalent in Heilongjiang Province. An integrated control programme is urgently needed to reduce the public health impact of clonorchiasis in this endemic area.

  9. Prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency among hill-tribe school children in Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanola, Jintana; Kongpan, Chatpat; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2014-07-01

    The prevalaence of anemia, iron deficiency, thalassemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency were examined among 265 hill-tribe school children, 8-14 years of age, from Omkoi District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. Anemia was observed in 20 school children, of whom 3 had iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of G-6-PD deficiency and β-thalassemia trait [codon 17 (A>T), IVSI-nt1 (G>T) and codons 71/72 (+A) mutations] was 4% and 8%, respectively. There was one Hb E trait, and no α-thalassemia-1 SEA or Thai type deletion. Furthermore, anemia was found to be associated with β-thalassemia trait in 11 children. These data can be useful for providing appropriate prevention and control of anemia in this region of Thailand.

  10. Can't see the forest for the rice: factors influencing spatial variations in the density of trees in paddy fields in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Moriaki; Vityakon, Patma; Rambo, A Terry

    2014-02-01

    The widespread presence of trees in paddy fields is a unique feature of Northeast Thailand's agricultural landscape. A survey of spatial variability in the density of trees in paddy fields in the Northeast Region was conducted utilizing high resolution satellite images and found that the mean density in the whole region was 12.1 trees/ha (varying from a high of 44.6 trees/ha to a low of 0.8 trees/ha). In general, tree densities are higher in the southeastern part of the region and much lower in the northern central part. Tree density was influenced by multiple factors including: (1) the history of land development, with more recently developed paddy fields having higher densities, (2) topography, with fields located at higher topographical positions having a higher mean density of trees, (3) access to natural forest resources, with fields in areas located close to natural forests having higher densities, (4) amount of annual rainfall, with fields in areas with higher average annual rainfall having higher tree densities, and (5) landholding size, with fields in areas with larger-sized landholdings having more trees. However, there is a considerable extent of co-variation among these factors. Although trees remain an important element of the paddy field landscape in the Northeast, it appears that their density has been declining in recent years. If this trend continues, then the vast "invisible forest" represented by trees in paddy fields may truly disappear, with negative consequences for the villagers' livelihoods, biodiversity conservation, and carbon sequestration in the rural ecosystem.

  11. Prevalence of parasitism among students of the Karen hill-tribe in Mae Chame district, Chiang Mai province, Thailand.

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    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Prownebon, Jarruratt; Kanmarnee, Penjit; Thaisom, Sunida; Yenthakam, Sutin; Nuchprayoon, Surang

    2004-09-01

    Infection caused by intestinal parasites is still a common health problem in a poor-hygiene population especially for children in developing countries. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 781 Karen students (age: 3 to 19, males: 325, females: 456) to determine the current status of intestinal parasitic infections in a mountainous area in the North of Thailand. The study was drawn from three schools in the Doi Inthanon region, in Mae Chame district of Chiang Mai province, from December 2002 to June 2003. The techniques used for the diagnosis were: stool concentration by using the 'formalin-ether' technique and perianal region examination by using the 'Scotch-tape' technique. The average rate of intestinal parasites for the group tested using the stool concentration technique was 42.06% (male: 46.87%, females: 38.82%); and 22.66% (males: 28.92%, females: 18.20%) when using the Scotch-tape technique.Among helminth-infected individuals, enterobiasis was found at the highest prevalence (15.49%). Other common infections were ascariasis (9.78%), trichuriasis (5.90%) and hookworm infection (2.20%). Strongyloildiasis was found only in 0.92%. For protozoa infection, the major cause is the non-pathogenic species "Entamoeba coli" (27.68%). The other non-pathogenic protozoa (Endolimax nana, Chilomastix meslini and Iodamoeba butschlii) had a low prevalence from ranged 0.18%-4.79%. The prevalence of pathogenic Giardia lamblia infection was 2.21%. Entamoeba histolytica infection was found in only one case. Based on the two techniques used, the results from the Scotch-tape provided a higher sensitivity for the detection of Taenia spp. and Enterobius vermicularis eggs. Drug treatment was given to all the infected students. School-based health education should be implemented in order to prevent and control the infections.

  12. Physicochemical properties of soils in the sago palm (Metroxylon spp.) growing area of Surat Thani province Thailand

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    Ruairuen, W.; Sparrow, E. B.; Fochesatto, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Sago palm is one of the most important plants for sustainable agriculture and rural development in tropical swampy and peaty soils. Where no major crops can grow without drainage or soil improvement. It stores large quantities of starch which can be further processed into various basic raw materials for food, animal feed, industrial uses and alternative energy. This study aims to investigate the physicochemical properties of soil across the sago palm growing areas at Surat Thani province Thailand, where major of sago palms growth naturally exists. The soil samples from three districts Khiri Rat Nikhom (KR; 9 sampling sites), Kanchanadit (KD; 5 sampling sites), and Khian Sa (KS; 2 sampling sites) were studied and compared at 0-15 cm depth during March to June 2016. Observations indicated that the physicochemical properties of soil varied in each growing area. Soil bulk densities averages were lower in KD (0.52 g cm-3) than those in KR (0.58 g cm-3) and KS (0.57 g cm-3). Soil texture around KD and KS were dominated by silty loam. While in KR soil texture was dominated by sandy loam. The average soil conductivity in KS (5.68 mS m-1) was higher than KR (2.62 mS m-1) and KD (1.65 mS m-1). Furthermore, we found the sago palms grow well in a range of soil pH from 5.52 to 7.15, average soil pH: KS (6.8) and KD (6.96), while acid in KR (5.84). We also discuss the conservation activities to adequately protect sago palm, most of which are significantly threatened by habitat destruction and unsustainable harvesting.

  13. Malaria in asymptomatic migrant workers and symptomatic patients in Thamaka District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand

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    Sirima Kitvatanachai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate malaria infections in asymptomatic legal migrant workers and symptomatic patients in Thamaka, Kanchanaburi Province. Methods: This study was conducted during April 26-29, 2008 using thick and thin blood Giemsa ’s stained. A total of 671 samples were collected in asymptomatic migrant workers and 38 samples in symptomatic patients in the same period. Results: The results showed the prevalence rate was 1.64% (11 out of 671 samples in asymptomatic migrant workers and P.vivax infections were found to be dominant (81.8%. Age group of infections showed between 16-42 years as a high risk of infection. Female: Male ratio was 1: 1.3. The infection rate was 35.7% (10 out of 38 samples in symptomatic patients with the highest infection being P. falciparum (80.0%. Age group of infections between 13-36 years. Male: Female ratio was 1: 1.4. About 43% of malarial infections came from Mohlumyai area, Myanmar. Conclusions: The high rate of malarial infections in Thamaka District still need surveillance, especially as migrant workers may spread malaria to the people living in this area if vector present.

  14. Estimates of Forest Biomass Carbon Storage in Liaoning Province of Northeast China: A Review and Assessment

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    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J.; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha−1 in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha−1 in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations. PMID:24586881

  15. Situation of Diabetes and Related Disease Surveillance in Rural Areas of Jilin Province, Northeast China

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    Rui Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have investigated the prevalence and awareness of diabetes mellitus (DM in China, but little is known about the situation of DM in the northeastern rural areas. Our present study investigated the prevalence, awareness and associated characteristics of DM in rural areas of Jilin Province, aiming to suggest more efforts for the prevention and control of DM. Methods: A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this cross-sectional study which took place in 2012. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews and physical examinations. Rao-Scott Chi-square test, t test and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results: The estimated prevalence of DM in rural areas of Jilin province was 7.2%. DM was positively associated with age, Body mass index (BMI, hypotension, dyslipidemia and was high in participants with a family history of diabetes and those who exercise frequently, but low for high education level and married participants. 69.0% participants with DM were aware of their diabetes status, 88.2% of whom received treatment and 34.4% of whom had received treatment controlled their DM status. Conclusions: We observed a high prevalence and low awareness status of DM among the rural residents in Jilin Province, but the rate of effective control in those who have received treatment was considerable. The low rate of disease surveillance should draw health authority’s attention.

  16. Wild-Caught and Farm-Reared Amphibians are Important Reservoirs of Salmonella, A Study in North-East Thailand.

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    Ribas, A; Poonlaphdecha, S

    2017-03-01

    The role of amphibians as Salmonella reservoirs has not been as well studied as in reptiles, where the literature is abundant. Recent outbreaks of salmonellosis associated with exotic pet frogs have occurred in United States. Frog farming and wild frog harvesting have increased the international trade in these species. This necessitates a better understanding of the risk of salmonellosis transmission from amphibians to humans. We explored the presence of Salmonella in amphibians (frogs and toads) in Thailand, where farmed and wild frogs as well as toads are present. These live animals are easily found in the local markets and are used as food. Exportation of frog meat from Thailand is common. During March-June 2014, ninety-seven frogs were collected from several habitats, including frog farms, urban areas and protected natural areas. The collected amphibians were tested for the presence of Salmonella. The overall prevalence of Salmonella was 69.07% (90.00% in farm animals, 0% in urban area animals and 44.83% in protected area animals). Eight serovars of Salmonella were isolated: subsp. diarizonae ser. 50:k:z, Hvittingfoss, Muenchen, Newport, Stanley, Thompson, Panama and Wandsworth. Six of the identified serovars, Hvittingfoss, Newport, Panama, Stanley, Thompson and Wandsworth, have been detected in humans in Thailand. According to our results, amphibians are reservoirs of Salmonella and can be a public health concern when used as a source of protein for humans. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. [Effect of climatic mean value change on the evaluation result of rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning Province, Northeast China].

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    Ji, Rui-peng; Yu, Wen-ying; Wu, Jin-wen; Feng, Rui; Zhang, Yu-shu

    2015-06-01

    The anomaly of mean temperature summation from May to September (ΔT5-9) was commonly used to assess delayed cold damage of rice in Northeast China, but whether the change of statistics years for climatic mean value (ΣT5-9) would affect the, evaluation results of Liaoning rice under cold damage needed to be further studied. By using the meteorological industry standard of the People's Republic of China "technical standard on rice cold damage evaluation" (QX/T 182- 2013) and the supplemental indices (ΔT5-9), the index (ΣT5-9) was calculated in four periods 1961-1990 (S1), 1971-2000 (S2), 1981-2010 (S3) and 1961-2010 (S4), and the spatial and temporal changes of cold damage in Liaoning Province were analyzed based on the ratio between cold damage stations and total stations (IOC) and the occurrence frequency. The results showed that the heat condition (Σ T5-9) in rice growing season increased obviously and the spatial and temporal changes were significant from 1961 to 2010. The original meteorological index of rice cold damage was improved by using quadratic polynomial model. The identification results were similar between S2 and S4. The variation coefficient of IOC in S3 was lower than that of the other three. Compared with the typical rice yield reduction years, the evaluation results accorded better with the actual situation in evaluating the rice delayed cold damage in Liaoning during study period by using the S3 climate mean value. The results could provide evidence for accurately evaluating the variation of rice cold damage in spatial and temporal distribution in Liaoning Province under the background of global climate change.

  18. Hydrological connectivity and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence in wetland environments: investigating rice-farming community's risk of exposure to melioidosis in North-East Thailand.

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    Chuah, C Joon; Tan, Esther K H; Sermswan, Rasana W; Ziegler, Alan D

    2017-06-01

    In our analysis of 136 water samples from wetland environments (rice paddies, natural wetland sites, man-made water bodies) in rural areas of North-East Thailand, Burkholderia pseudomallei was most prevalent in rice paddies (15 of the 30 positive sites). The high prevalence in the water of rice fields is indicative of the inherent vulnerability of farmers in rural agricultural areas in this area of Thailand and likely other locations in the tropics. Nearly all B. pseudomallei-positive sites were found within the vicinity of a large wetland associated with the Chi River, in the month of July 2014. Positive samples were found in water ranging in pH from 5.9 to 8.7, salinity ranging from 0.04 to 1.58 ppt, nitrate ranging from 0 to 10.8 ppm, and iron ranging from 0.003 to 1.519 ppm. Of these variables, only iron content was statistically higher in B. pseudomallei-positive versus B. pseudomallei-negative sites, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron may encourage the growth of this bacterium, which is responsible for melioidosis. Our results, when combined with data from other published studies, support the notion that B. pseudomallei can exist in a wide range of environmental conditions. Thus, we argue that health safety education is a more appropriate means of addressing farmer vulnerability than chemical or physical alterations to fields at large scales. Further, it may be important to investigate melioidosis through transdisciplinary approaches that consider the complex social and ecological contexts in which the disease occurs.

  19. Diversity and uses of Zingiberaceae in Nam Nao National Park, Chaiyaphum and Phetchabun provinces, Thailand, with a new record for Thailand

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    Surapon Saensouk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three tribes, 12 genera and 38 species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae along five routes in Nam Nao National Park were surveyed between January 2012 and December 2013 to determine their diversity, ecological data, phenology, uses and conservation status. The highest diversity was found in the tribe Zingibereae (6 genera and 21 species, of which the genera Curcuma and Zingiber comprised the highest number species (eight species each. A species key was constructed based on morphology. The ginger family was found in four forest-types—deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and pine forest. The most flowering bloom of the ginger family in Nam Nao National Park was during March to August and the most fruiting bloom was during June to September. The popular uses of Zingiberaceae were as a food, spice, in medicine, as ornamentation and in rituals. Eight species have been evaluated as of least concern and are presented in the IUCN Red List, while two rare species were reported in Thailand Red Data: Plants, while six rare Zingiberaceae species were identified based on the evaluation criteria of Saensouk (2011. Four species were endemic to Thailand. Moreover, Etlingera yunnanensis (T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen R. M. Smith was a new record for Thailand.

  20. Frequency distribution of specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in surface beach sand samples collected in Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province, Thailand

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    Changkit, N.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Youngchauy, U.; Polthum, S.; Kessaratikoon, P.

    2017-09-01

    The specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) in 50 surface beach sand samples collected from Bangsaen beach in Chonburi province in the easthern region of Thailand, were measured and evaluated. Experimental results were obtained by using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and gamma spectrometry analysis system in the special laboratory at Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization). The IAEA-SOIL-375 reference material was used to analyze the concentration of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th in all samples. It was found that the specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th were ranged from 510.85 - 771.35, 8.17 - 17.06 and 4.25 - 15.68 Bq/kg. Furthermore, frequency distribution of the specific activities were studied, analyzed and found to be the asymmetrical distribution by using a statistical computer program. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the investigated area were also calculated by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th. The results were also compared with the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) annual report data, Thailand and global radioactivity measurement and evaluations.

  1. Effects of an intervention to reduce insecticide exposure on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude: a quasi-experimental study in Shogun orange farmers in Krabi Province, Thailand

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    Boonyakawee P

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paisit Boonyakawee, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Robert S ChapmanCollege of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, ThailandAbstract: An intervention to reduce insecticide exposure in Shogun orange farmers was implemented in Krabi Province, Thailand. Intervention effects on insecticide-related knowledge and attitude were evaluated in a quasi-experimental study in two farms about 20 kilometers (km apart. The intervention was conducted at one farm; the other served as control. The study included 42 and 50 farmers at the intervention and control farms, respectively. The intervention included several components, including didactic instruction, practical demonstrations, use of a fluorescent tracer, and continuing guidance on insecticide use via a small, specially trained group within the overall intervention group. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first such intervention in Thailand. Knowledge and attitude were measured at baseline (pre-intervention, and at 2 and 5 months after the intervention (follow-up 1 and follow-up 2, respectively. Intervention effects were assessed with linear mixed models, specified to enable testing of effects at each follow-up time. The intervention was associated with substantial and statistically significant improvements in both knowledge score and attitude score (P < 0.001 for each score at each follow-up time. Intervention-related improvements in knowledge score and attitude score were equivalent to about 27% and 14% of baseline mean knowledge and attitude scores, respectively. Intervention-related benefits were similar at both follow-up times. Findings were similar before and after adjustment for covariates. These findings increase confidence that well-designed interventions can reduce farmers' insecticide exposure in Thailand and elsewhere. In future research, it would be desirable to address long-term intervention effects on farmers' health and quality of life.Keywords: insecticides

  2. Molecular genetic characterization of rabies virus glycoprotein gene sequences from rabid dogs in Bangkok and neighboring provinces in Thailand, 2013-2014.

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    Benjathummarak, Surachet; Fa-Ngoen, Chanon; Pipattanaboon, Chonlatip; Boonha, Khwanchit; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Pitaksajjakul, Pannamthip

    2016-05-01

    Because of its association with dogs, rabies virus (RABV) is still endemic in Thailand, where it is a serious public health problem. The genetic characterization of RABV in Thailand is limited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of RABV in the endemic area. Viral RNA from 48 brain specimens from rabid dogs, collected in Bangkok and seven neighboring provinces in 2013-2014, was extracted and sequenced. The complete rabies glycoprotein (G) gene sequences (1575 nt) were aligned, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the maximum-likelihood method. All of the Thai rabies virus isolates belonged to lyssavirus genotype 1 and clustered in the same lineage as isolates from South East Asia (SEA) and China. The Thai rabies virus isolates formed two distinct clades, THA-1 and THA-2. Clade THA-1 was the predominant clade and could be divided into two subclades, THA-1A and THA-1B. Clade THA-2 was closely associated with human Thai isolates collected in a previous study. The overall mean rate of evolution based on the G gene was approximately 1.56 × 10(-4) substitutions/site/year. The genetic identities among the isolates from Thailand and other SEA countries were >88.4 % at the nucleotide sequence level and 95 % at the amino acid sequence level. The deduced amino acid sequences of the G proteins of the RABV isolates were compared. A single amino acid change (N194T) in subclade THA-1A distinguished the Thai RABV isolates from other RABV isolates. Our results suggest that these Thai dog RABV isolates share a common ancestor with the RABV isolates circulating in the endemic regions of SEA countries and China. Furthermore, there were strong genetic relationship to RABV from Cambodia, Vietnam and Laos. These data extend our understanding of the relatedness and genetic variation of RABV in Thailand.

  3. [Compatible biomass models for main tree species with measurement error in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China].

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    Dong, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Jia, Wei-wei; Liu, Fu-xiang; Wang, He-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Based on the biomass data of 516 sampling trees, and by using non-linear error-in-variable modeling approach, the compatible models for the total biomass and the biomass of six components including aboveground part, underground part, stem, crown, branch, and foliage of 15 major tree species (or groups) in Heilongjiang Province were established, and the best models for the total biomass and components biomass were selected. The compatible models based on total biomass were developed by adopting the method of joint control different level ratio function. The heteroscedasticity of the models for total biomass was eliminated with log transformation, and the weighted regression was applied to the models for each individual component. Among the compatible biomass models established for the 15 major species (or groups) , the model for total biomass had the highest prediction precision (90% or more), followed by the models for aboveground part and stem biomass, with a precision of 87.5% or more. The prediction precision of the biomass models for other components was relatively low, but it was still greater than 80% for most test tree species. The modeling efficiency (EF) values of the total, aboveground part, and stem biomass models for all the tree species (or groups) were over 0.9, and the EF values of the underground part, crown, branch, and foliage biomass models were over 0.8.

  4. Characteristics and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection are genetic susceptibility and poor living conditions. This study aimed to investigate the Mdm2 gene, clarithromycin resistance, and possible risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods. Risk factors and clinical characteristics were analyzed, including patient demographic data, patient income, personal history, possible source of transmission, patient symptoms, endoscopic findings, patterns of clarithromycin resistance, and patterns of Mdm2 SNIP309. Results. Ingestion of pickled fish (OR = 11.27, 95% CI = 4.31-29.45, p Papaya salad (OR = 8.73, 95% CI = 4.54-16.79, p Papaya salad are positive risk factors. There was high prevalence of clarithromycin resistance. The Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous genotype might be a risk factor for gastric cancer and the fact that it is infrequent in Thailand.

  5. Performance of health product risk management and surveillance conducted by health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals in the northeast region of Thailand

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    Kanjanarach T

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Tipaporn Kanjanarach,1,2 Raksaworn Jaisa-ard,1,2 Nantawan Poonaovarat3 1Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Center for Research and Development of Herbal Health Products, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Health Consumer Protection, Chaiyapum Health Provincial Office, Chaiyapum, Thailand Background: Health personnel at sub-district health promotion hospitals (SD-HPHs are assigned to take responsibility for 15 activities related to health product risk management and surveillance (HP-RM&S. This cross-sectional survey aimed to identify factors that determined their job performance and to record their expressed needs to support HP-RM&S operation. In this study, job performance was defined as completion of all 15 activities. Methods: Self-administered postal questionnaires were used to collect data from 380 randomly selected health personnel who were in charge of HP-RM&S at SD-HPHs in the northeast of Thailand. Results: Thirty-six point one percent (n=137 of the respondents were able to perform all 15 of the HP-RM&S activities assigned to SD-HPHs. A logistic regression model identified three factors that statistically significantly determined the completion of all 15 HP-RM&S activities. These were: receiving a high or very high level of support from the community (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5, 4.1, the responsible persons for HP-RM&S did not hold an administrative position (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.7, and having at least one training session related to HP-RM&S per year (adjusted OR: 1.7; 95% CI 1.1, 2.6. There were 1,536 expressed needs which can be classified into four major categories, ie, training needs (41.6%, n=639, resource support (28.3%, n=435, mechanisms that facilitate HP-RM&S operation (24.1%, n=370 and adjusting of the scope of HP-RM&S (6.0%, n=92. The topics most frequently referred to in training needs were drug law, food law, and cosmetics

  6. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

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    Amir Adinezadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue proto­zoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009.Methods: Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider’s Drosophila (HIMEDIA and RPMI1640 (GIBCO for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, respectively.Results: 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%, Dipylidium caninum (46%, Mesocestoides lineatus (19%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, Toxascaris leonina (53% and Toxocara canis (7%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8% at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47% showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17% showed titer of ≥1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears.Conclusion: The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species

  7. Characteristics and Risk Factors of Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis: A Prospective Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast Thailand

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    Taweesak Tongtawee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection are genetic susceptibility and poor living conditions. This study aimed to investigate the Mdm2 gene, clarithromycin resistance, and possible risk factors for Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods. Risk factors and clinical characteristics were analyzed, including patient demographic data, patient income, personal history, possible source of transmission, patient symptoms, endoscopic findings, patterns of clarithromycin resistance, and patterns of Mdm2 SNIP309. Results. Ingestion of pickled fish (OR = 11.27, 95% CI = 4.31–29.45, p<0.0001, salt crab (OR = 8.83, 95% CI = 1.99–39.14, p<0.001, and Papaya salad (OR = 8.73, 95% CI = 4.54–16.79, p<0.01. The prevalence of clarithromycin resistance was 56% (wild type, A2143/2142A, is 23.8%; mutation, A2143/2142CG, is 35.7%; wild type + mutation is 40.5%. The genetic polymorphisms of Mdm2 SNIP309 were SNIP309 T/T homozygous in 78%, SNIP309 G/T heterozygous in 19%, and SNIP309 G/G homozygous in 3%. Conclusion. Pickled fish, salt crab, and Papaya salad are positive risk factors. There was high prevalence of clarithromycin resistance. The Mdm2 SNIP309 G/G homozygous genotype might be a risk factor for gastric cancer and the fact that it is infrequent in Thailand.

  8. Potential Impact of Climate Change on Area Affected by Waterlogging and Saline Groundwater and Ecohydrology Management in Northeast Thailand

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    Phayom Saraphirom

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling approach was employed to predict potential impact of climate change on waterlogging and salinity distribution with the ecohydrology options for land management under the projected climate conditions in Huai Khamriam subwatershed in the northeastern region, Thailand. The prediction was simulated using the variable density groundwater model SEAWAT supported with recharge estimation model HELP3 under the projected weather data from PRECIS RCM scenario A2. As the result of the higher precipitation simulated by PRECIS RCM scenario A2, the predicted groundwater recharge was likely to be higher in the middle of this century onward. The areas affected by shallow saline groundwater were found to increase with the climate change scenario as well as for the base case. Based on scenario simulation, climate change did not have substantial impact on salinity distribution, but it was significant impact to the expansion of waterlogging areas. Management option using ecohydrology simulation approach was performed to reduce the recharge water to groundwater system, which consequently minimizes the impact of the higher precipitation in the future. The results indicated that establishment of the fast growing tree integrated with the shallow groundwater interception in the recharge areas could reduce the expansion of waterlogging and salinised areas under the climate change condition.

  9. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

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    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  10. Specific activities and radiological hazard assessment in beach sand samples in Songkhla province, Thailand after Fukushima Dai-Ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessaratikoon, P.; Boonkrongcheep, R.; Choosiri, N.; Daoh, M.; Udomsomporn, S.

    2017-06-01

    According to the Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident in Japan on March 11, 2011, specific activities of natural (40K, 226Ra and 232Th) and anthropogenic (137Cs) radionuclides in 210 beach sand samples which were collected from Maharat, Sai Kaew, Samila, Chalatat, Na Thab, Sakom and Soi Sawan beaches in Songkhla Province along the eastern coast of Thailand, have been studied and evaluated. The specific activity levels of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs in the area were found in the range 110.13 - 4574.12, 6.99 - 451.87, 3.75 - 665.76 and 0.58- 9.91 Bq/Kg, respectively. Furthermore, the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were calculated and compared with other research data in Thailand as well as global measurements and evaluations. Moreover, four radiological hazard indices for the studied area were also assessed by using the median values of specific activities of 40K, 226Ra and 232Th.

  11. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

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    Nisarat Songprasert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The cadmium (Cd contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG in urine (as an internal exposure dose and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose. Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available.

  12. Isolation and identification of Rhizoctonia-like fungi from roots of three orchid genera, Paphiopedilum, Dendrobium, and Cymbidium, collected in Chiang Rai and Chiang Mai provinces of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nontachaiyapoom, Sureeporn; Sasirat, Sawitree; Manoch, Leka

    2010-10-01

    Three orchid genera, Paphiopedilum, Cymbidium, and Dendrobium, are among the most heavily traded ornamental plants in Thailand. In this study, 27 isolates of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were isolated from root sections of mature orchids in the three orchid genera, collected from diverse horticultural settings in Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai provinces of Thailand. Fungal identification was done by the morphological characterization, the comparison of the internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S ribosomal DNA sequences, and the phylogenetic analysis. Epulorhiza repens was found to be the most common species found in the roots of various species of all three orchid genera, whereas Epulorhiza calendulina-like isolates were strictly found in the roots of Paphiopedilum species. We have also isolated and described an anamorph of Tulasnella irregularis, four new anamorphic species in the genus Tulasnella, and a new anamorphic species in the family Tulasnellaceae. Our study provides information on diversity of root-associated fungi of the orchid genera and at the sampling sites that were rarely addressed in the previous studies.

  13. The mutual influence of managerial ability and social networks of farmers on participation in an organic vegetable group in Khon Kaen province, Thailand

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    Panatda Utaranakorn

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study were to analyze farmers' managerial ability, social networks, and information sharing, and to describe the two-way relationship between managerial ability and social networks. We collected data through face-to-face interviews, using a structured questionnaire with a purposively selected random sample of 34 farmers in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand, in September 2013. All respondents belonged to an organic vegetable group. The findings revealed that almost all of the farmers have a high ability level in marketing, information searching, communication, and technical skills. Farmers with high ability, especially group leaders and group managers, have more chances to increase their networks through becoming consulters and transferring knowledge/technology. As a result, their social networks are more active and stronger, both inside and outside their villages. In addition, farmers with larger networks have more opportunities to assess information and exchange knowledge, so their ability can become even more effective.

  14. Development of a capacity building program for village health volunteers to support self-management in a high risk population for diabetes in a rural community in northeast Thailand

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    Pakinee Srisarakham

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Similar to other parts of the world, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in the Asia-Pacific Region has rapidly increased during the last few decades. The purposes of this pilot study were to determine the feasibility and the effects of a capacity building program for Village Health Volunteers (VHVs to support self-management in a T2DM high risk population from a rural subdistrict in Northeast Thailand. Both quantitative and qualitative data were collected using surveys, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed and used to develop a 12-week capacity building program for VHVs. This program was then implemented on 60 subjects at high risk of T2DM in the selected community. According to the paired t-test and Wilcoxon-signed rank test, VHVs had higher scores on knowledge and self-efficacy of T2DM prevention after a 12 week intervention (p = .03 and p = .02, respectively. Study participants at risk for T2DM also had a significant increase in T2DM knowledge and self-management (p < .001. Implementation of the capacity building program for VHVs in Northeast Thailand was feasible. The key successes were strong community bonding, community empowerment, and support from family and public health nurses. Effects of the program should be examined with those in other Asia-Pacific countries.

  15. Geographic information system-based analysis of the spatial and spatio-temporal distribution of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Golestan Province, north-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollalo, A; Alimohammadi, A; Shirzadi, M R; Malek, M R

    2015-02-01

    Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL), a vector-borne disease, poses serious psychological as well as social and economic burden to many rural areas of Iran. The main objectives of this study were to analyse yearly spatial distribution and the possible spatial and spatio-temporal clusters of the disease to better understand spatio-temporal epidemiological aspects of ZCL in rural areas of an endemic province, located in north-east of Iran. Cross-sectional survey was performed on 2983 recorded cases during the period of 2010-2012 at village level throughout the study area. Global clustering methods including the average nearest-neighbour distance, Moran's I, general G indices and Ripley's K-function were applied to investigate the annual spatial distribution of the existing point patterns. Presence of spatial and spatio-temporal clusters was investigated using the spatial and space-time scan statistics. For each year, semivariogram analysis and all global clustering methods indicated meaningful persistent spatial autocorrelation and highly clustered distribution of ZCL, respectively. Eight significant spatial clusters, mainly located in north and northeast of the province, and one space-time cluster, observed in northern part of the province and during the period of September 2010-November 2010, were detected. Comparison of the location of ZCL clusters with environmental conditions of the study area showed that 97.8% of cases in clusters were located at low altitudes below 725 m above sea level with predominantly arid and semi-arid climates and poor socio-economic conditions. The identified clusters highlight high-risk areas requiring special plans and resources for more close monitoring and control of the disease. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. GIS Database and Google Map of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Mueang Yang District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Joosiri, Apinya; Jantakate, Sirinun; Sangkudloa, Amnat; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Chimplee, Kanokporn; Khemplila, Kritsakorn; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern and northern regions. Database of population at risk are need required for monitoring, surveillance, home health care, and home visit. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a geographic information system (GIS) database and Google map of the population at risk of CCA in Mueang Yang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, northeastern Thailand during June to October 2015. Populations at risk were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST). Software included Microsoft Excel, ArcGIS, and Google Maps. The secondary data included the point of villages, sub-district boundaries, district boundaries, point of hospital in Mueang Yang district, used for created the spatial databese. The populations at risk for CCA and opisthorchiasis were used to create an arttribute database. Data were tranfered to WGS84 UTM ZONE 48. After the conversion, all of the data were imported into Google Earth using online web pages www.earthpoint.us. Some 222 from a 4,800 population at risk for CCA constituted a high risk group. Geo-visual display available at following www.google.com/maps/d/u/0/ edit?mid=zPxtcHv_iDLo.kvPpxl5mAs90 and hl=th. Geo-visual display 5 layers including: layer 1, village location and number of the population at risk for CCA; layer 2, sub-district health promotion hospital in Mueang Yang district and number of opisthorchiasis; layer 3, sub-district district and the number of population at risk for CCA; layer 4, district hospital and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis; and layer 5, district and the number of population at risk for CCA and number of opisthorchiasis. This GIS database and Google map production process is suitable for further monitoring, surveillance, and home health care for CCA sufferers.

  17. Preliminary investigation on the prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot District, Tak Province of Thailand

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    Siwalee Rattanapunya

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The increasing trend of prevalence of malaria and HIV co-infection in Mae Sot, Tak province was of a great concern on either pharmacodynamics or pharmacokinetics aspect. The study in a larger numbers of malaria patients in different endemic areas throughout the country with different time periods is underway.

  18. Preparing the readiness of tourism activities for destinations along the Mekong River to become the ASEAN Community: A case study in Chiang Khan at Loei Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Assoc. Prof. Dr. Patthira Phon-ngam

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this research were. 1) to study tourism potential in Chiang Khan Thailand and Sanakham in Lao PDR. 2) to study the readiness of communities and to prepare the community with tourism activities in Chiang Khan Thailand. 3) to study the needs of the tourism activities in Chiang Khan Thailand. The methodology used mix methodology of qualitative and quantitative research. The research findings were as follows: 1). The potential of tourism in Chiang Khan, Thailand cloud be classifie...

  19. Coral recruitment and recovery after the 2004 Tsunami around the Phi Phi Islands (Krabi Province) and Phuket, Andaman Sea, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawall, Y.; Phongsuwan, N.; Richter, C.

    2010-12-01

    The 2004 tsunami left a discontinuous pattern of destruction in the reefs along Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. Here, a comparative assessment of coral recruitment was carried out to assess differences in recovery between damaged and undamaged sites in near-shore fringing reefs 1 and 3 years after the tsunami. Settlement plates showed high frequencies of coral spat after 4 months (coral rubble is a key determinant of recruitment success. Low regeneration success of some species e.g. branching acroporids and rebounding tourism industry at sites like Patong and partly around the Phi Phi Islands (dense carpets of filamentous algae) led to the assumption of selectivity and eventually to an alternation of the coral community even though live coral cover might be recovered soon.

  20. A New Basal Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masateru; Jintasakul, Pratueng; Azuma, Yoichi; You, Hai-Lu

    2015-01-01

    A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of Thailand, Sirindhorna khoratensis gen. et sp. nov is described. The new taxon is based on composite skull and mandible including premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, quadrate, braincases, predentary, dentaries, surangular, and maxillary and dentary teeth. It is diagnostic by such characters as, sagittal crest extending along entire dorsal surface of the parietal and reaching the frontoparietal suture (autapomorphy), transversely straight frontoparietal suture, caudodorsally faced supraoccipital, no participation of the supraoccipital in the foramen magnum, mesiodistally wide leaf-shaped dentary tooth with primary and secondary ridges on the lingual surface of the crown, perpendicularly-erected and large coronoid process of dentary, and nonvisible antorbital fossa of the maxilla in lateral view. Phylogenetic analysis revealed S. khoratensis as among the most basal hadrosauroids. Sirindhorna khoratensis is the best-preserved iguanodontian ornithopod in Southeast Asia and sheds new light to resolve the evolution of basal hadrosauriforms.

  1. Diet, female reproduction and conservation of Jagor's water snake, Enhydris jagorii in Bung Ka Loh wetland, Uttaradit province, Thailand

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    Chattraphas Pongcharoen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jagor's water snake (Enhydris jagorii is a freshwater snake that is endemic to the Chao Phraya-Ta Chin basin, Thailand. However, habitat change and destruction are the main threats to this snake, where a large area of the wetland has been rapidly transformed into urban and agricultural areas. Moreover, uncontrolled fishing seriously threatens the remaining population of this snake. In order to protect this species, information on its natural history is required. This study was conducted in the Bung Ka Loh wetland during October, 2010 to August, 2014 when 108 specimens of this species were collected. Analysis of the stomach contents revealed that it is piscivorous, with cyprinids being the dominant prey. Prey items were usually less than 10% of the snake body mass and multiple prey items were occasionally found. No significant difference in diet was noted between the sexes. In addition, predation on this snake by Cylindrophis ruffus was first recorded in this study. The smallest gravid female collected had a snout-vent length of 34.0 cm. The clutch size and mass ranged from 1 to 28 embryos and 3.1–123.0 g, respectively, and both of these quantities increased significantly with increased female size. Reproduction was possibly seasonal and occurred in the rainy season. A preliminary study of other wetlands in the central plain of Thailand failed to detect the existence of this species. Accordingly, the conservation status of this species should be changed from Data Deficient to Critically Endangered.

  2. Growth variation and heritability in a second-generation Eucalyptus urophylla progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Chachoengsao province, Thailand

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    Lucky Nhlanhla Dlamini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, Eucalyptus urophylla was introduced with the main purpose of supplying raw material for pulp and chip wood production. The demand for genetically improved seed is increasing to support high productivity plantation establishment. One of the tree improvement activities established to meet the high demand for improved seed was a second generation progeny test at Lad Krating Plantation, Thailand to provide the best material for the successful plantation program. The aim of the current study was to compare growth variation of the first and second generation of Eucalyptus urophylla progeny that could provide information on suitable families for improved quality seed. The progeny test comprised the best 45 half-sib families selected from 80 half-sib families of the first-generation progeny test. The design of the progeny test was a randomized and complete block design (16 trees/plot × 45 plots/block × 9 blocks, with 4 rows of 4 trees at a spacing of 2 m × 1 m. Growth was assessed at age 3 yr. The average height and diameter at breast height over bark (DBH, was 13.72 m, and 8.75 cm, respectively. There were highly significant (p < 0.01 differences among provenances and families in both height and DBH. The individual heritability values for height and DBH were 0.48 and 0.60, respectively. The family heritability values for height and DBH were 0.98 and 0.99, respectively. These 45 half-sib families proved to be genetically superior ensuring higher productivity and contributing to the success of the Forest Industry Organization plantation at Lad Krating.

  3. Guest room safety management of resort hotels as destination in Thailand (A case study of Khao Kor District, Phetchabun Province)

    OpenAIRE

    Tinakhat, Phisunt

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to study the satisfactionlevel of guest room safety management of resort hotels in Khao Kor District,Phetchabun Province. A researcher adopted a quantitative methodology used aquestionnaire with the accidentally-met Thai 387 tourists travelling to KhaoKor District during winter season which is considered as a high season in thearea.  The data from the questionnairethen is analyzed as descriptive statistics. Some interviews are conducted withthe tourists to have mo...

  4. Techno-Economic and dynamic analysis of low velocity wind turbines for rural electrification in agricultural area of Ratchaburi Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipirodjanapong, Sumate; Namboonruang, Weerapol

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the analysis of potential wind speed of electrical power generating using for agriculture in Ratchaburi province, Thailand. The total area is 1,900 square kilometers. First of all, the agriculture electrical load (AEL) data was investigated from all farming districts in Ratchaburi. Subsequently, the load data was analyzed and classified by the load power and energy consumption at individual district. The wind turbine generator (WTG) at capacity rate of 200w, 500w, 1,000w, and 2,000w were adopted to implement for the AEL in each area at wind speed range of 3 to 6 m/s. This paper shows the approach based on the wind speed at individual district to determine the capacity of WTG using the capacitor factor (CF) and the cost of energy (COE) in baht per unit under different WTG value rates. Ten locations for wind station installations are practical investigated. Results show that for instance, the Damnoen Sa-duak (DN-04) one of WTG candidate site is identically significant for economic investment of installing rated WTG. The results of COE are important to determine whether a wind site is good or not.

  5. Quantification of contamination levels and particular risk of Salmonella spp. in pigs in slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadee, Pakpoom; Boonkhot, Phacharaporn; Patchanee, Prapas

    2014-11-01

    Salmonella spp. is one of the important foodborne pathogens, and the slaughtering process is recognized as a potential point of contamination and the spread of the pathogens. The three objectives of this study are first, to quantify the contamination levels of Salmonella spp. in pig skins and carcasses, second, to evaluate the outcomes from different pig supply sources and different practices at three critical steps (scalding, splitting, and washing) for Salmonella spp. contamination, and third, to assess risk of Salmonella spp. contamination in pork products after slaughtering level. The study was performed in three representative slaughterhouses in Chiang Mai and Lamphun provinces, Thailand. Investigation conducted from May 2013 through October 2013 found the overall prevalence and contamination levels mean to be 11.85% and 0.34 MPN/cm2, respectively. There was no statistically significant in Salmonella spp. prevalence and contamination levels detected with different patterns at the slaughterhouses which were supplied pigs from either co-operative or integrated farms. Factors found to reduce Salmonella spp. loads on carcasses included good practices, e.g., regular changing of water in the scalding tank after each batch and the use of chlorine in the washing step. Risk of Salmonella spp. contamination of pork products at the final stage of slaughtering was nearly 10%. Good practices and proper hygiene measures should be applied to minimize the risk of Salmonella spp. exposure in the slaughtering line, which can reduce the contamination pressure downstream at retail shops as well as for end consumers.

  6. Effects of Application of Social Marketing Theory and the Health Belief Model in Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening among Targeted Women in Sisaket Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichachai, Suparp; Songserm, Nopparat; Akakul, Theerawut; Kuasiri, Chanapong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major public health problem in Thailand, being ranked second only to breast cancer. Thai women have been reported to have a low rate of cervical cancer screening (27.7% of the 80% goal of WHO). We therefore aimed to apply the social marketing theory and health belief model in promoting cervical cancer screening in Kanthararom District, Sisaket Province. A total of 92 from 974 targeted women aged 3060 years were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group underwent application of social marketing theory and a health belief model program promoting cervical cancer screening while the control group received normal services. Two research tools were used: (1) application of social marketing theory and health belief model program and (2) questionnaire used to evaluate perceptions of cervical cancer. Descriptive and inferential statistics including paired sample ttest and independent ttest were used to analyze the data. After the program had been used, the mean score of perception of cervical cancer of experimental group was at a higher level (x=4.09; S.D. =0.30), than in the control group (x=3.82; S.D. =0.20) with statistical significance (psocial marketing and the health belief model be used to promote cervical cancer screening in targeted women and it can be promoted as a guideline for other health services, especially in health promotion and disease prevention.

  7. A survey into process and worker's characteristics in the wood furniture industry in Songkhla Province, southern region of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiseranee, P; Chongsuvivatwong, V

    1998-12-01

    A cross-sectional survey of the wood furniture industry was conducted in southern Thailand in February 1993. The aim was to examine the manufacturing process, occupational hazards at the workplace, workers' demographic characteristics, period of employment, incidence rate of work related injury and some reproductive history of workers. Altogether 69 managers and 1,000 workers participated in the study. There are 2 main types of wood industry, rubberwood and hardwood. The rubberwood industry is semi-automated with advanced technology, has a female-dominated workforce of 200-300 workers per factory and overseas-market orientation. The hardwood industry is based in small-scale workplaces ranging from 20 to 60 workers, domestic-market orientation and has a male-dominated workforce. Most of the workers were young, single, of low education and were high turnover rate laborforce, with arduous work and long working hours per week. Solvent was the most frequent chemical exposure. The person-year incidence of chemical exposure in female workers was higher than in male workers for every group of chemicals. The incidence of accidents was twice as high as the official rate. The standardized fertility ratio of female wood workers was only 51.6% of that of the Thai female population. There was a high abortion rate among women who became pregnant inside the wood industry compared to that among pregnancies outside the wood factory. Wood industry workers were exposed to occupational hazards and accident-prone work conditions.

  8. Perceptions and risky behaviors associated with Leptospirosis in an endemic area in a village of Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongbutdee, Jaruwan; Saengnill, Wacharapong; Jittimanee, Jutharat; Daendee, Suwaporn

    2016-03-01

    Leptospirosis, a disease caused by Leptospira species, a spirochaete bacterium that can develop in an appropriate environment and/or grow in human and/or animal hosts, is a serious problem for the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. To investigate people's perceptions and behavioral risks regarding leptospirosis infection. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data in May, 2013. Data on individuals' perceptions and risky behaviors concerning leptospirosis were collected from 104 completed questionnaires. Regarding perceptions of leptospirosis, we found them to be at a high level (97.1%) and risky behaviors regarding leptospirosis were reported at a moderate level (74.0%). The study found no correlation between perceptions and risky behaviors regarding leptospirosis (r 0.186, p-value 0.059). This study suggest that people in these areas have good knowledge about leptospirosis. However, some people have risky behavior associated with leptospirosis. Thus, a behavioral change campaign should be promoted to encourage people awareness of the dangers of such behavior.

  9. Policies, Socioeconomic, Institutional and Biophysical Factors Influencing the Change from Rice to Sugarcane in Nong Bua Lamphu Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakapunrat, Narinpat; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2017-06-01

    For the past decade, Thailand pursued a strategy of promoting biofuel crop production, including sugarcane, to meet the ever increasing energy demand and to increase the income of farmers. This study analyzed the influence of policy instruments implemented to promote the sugarcane cultivation, farm household socioeconomic levels, biophysical, and institutional factors driving the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. Primary information was collected from 230 farm households through a structured questionnaire. Relevant policy documents published by the responsible government agencies were the main sources of secondary information collected for policy analysis. The analyses revealed that farmers in the study area converted 25-75% of their rice fields into sugarcane farms as a result of implementation of policy instruments that made sugarcane financially far more attractive than rice. The results of the regression analysis showed that eight variables were found significant and positively influenced the conversion of rice fields into sugarcane farms. These were access to extension services, information, sugarcane loading stations, and ground water for irrigation, and duration of experience in sugarcane farming as well as household head's age and education. Irrespective of landholding size, the majority of farmers were not concerned about food security. In view of the finding, if feasible, in the form of additional price supports and commercial cane sugar index-based pricing strategies to promote sugarcane production should benefit all concerned farmers. Likewise, attention should be paid to deliver essential extension and marketing services in an effective way, particularly to those farmers who are not receiving such services.

  10. Preliminary survey of ants at a reserve area of Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

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    Niranee Binnima

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Prince of Songkla University is the first university established in the southern part of Thailand. A reserve area is planned at Ko Hong Hill near the university. The flora of this area has been previously explored but a few fauna species have been studied. Although ants are one of dominant groups in this forest, there is no record of their diversity. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the ant diversity in terms of species composition. Three sampling methods, pitfall trap (PF, hand collecting (HC and leaf litter sifting (LL were applied to collection of ants along 3 line transects each of 90 meter in length and 500 meter apart during April 2001. Six subfamilies (Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Dorylinae, Ponerinae, Dolichoderinae and Pseudomyrmecinae of ants, comprising 44 species, were found. The results also showed that HC was the most sufficient method resulting in the highest number of ant species, while the combination of two methods (HC and LL yielded the highest number of ant species.

  11. A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of the fruit piercing moths in Songkhla Province of Southern Thailand

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    Ratchanee Nilla-or5

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study on some ecological aspects of fruit piercing moths (FPM in Songkhla provinceof southern Thailand was conducted from December 2003 to November 2004. The objectives of this study were to determine species diversity, the seasonal abundance of the major moth species occurring in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff., citrus (Citrus reticulata Blanco and pomelo (C. maxima Merr. as well as to assess yield losses due to these insects in citrus cropping systems. Twenty-four species of FPM were collected from these crops. The greatest species richness and relative abundance were observed in citrus, covering 23 species from 452 individuals trapped. In pomelo, 20 different species were found among the 142 individuals trapped.In the longkong system, there were 13 species found among the 100 individuals trapped. The three most dominant species collected at the longkong site were Erebus ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner, E. hieroglyphica (Druryand Ophiusa coronata (Fabricius. From the citrus site the most common species trapped were O. coronata (Fabricius, E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner and Othreis fullonia (Clerck. The most abundant species from the pomelo site were Trigonodes hyppasia (Cramer, Mocis undata (Fabricius and E. ephesperis (Hu˙˙bner. Simpson's indices of diversity were 0.79, 0.89 and 0.88 in longkong, citrus and pomelo, respectively. Moth population levels peaked in July and November in citrus, and in June in both longkong and pomelo. These peak occurrences were directly synchronized with the ripening stage of the fruit or at the harvest periods. Fruit losses due to FPM in citrus were 24.8% and 22.7% in the 1st harvest season (July-August 2004 and the 2nd harvest season (November-December 2004, respectively.

  12. Effectiveness of the multidimensional ergonomic intervention model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort among street sweepers in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintakham, Kanjanar; Siriwong, Wattasit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of multidimensional ergonomic intervention (MEI) model to reduce musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) among street sweepers. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Chiang Rai Province. The MEI model was designed on the basis of four core components: cognitive behavior therapy, ergonomic education training, stretching exercise, and the foam sleeve broom handle grip. Seventy-five street sweepers volunteered for the screening process on MSD of having level score ≥4 by physiotherapist. Face to face interviews were used mainly in order to diagnose MSD. Physical examination was performed by physiotherapist and physical performance by sports scientist. The findings showed that the MEI model among the intervention group significantly reduced MSD compared with that among control group at exit model and follow-up (P<0.01). This research suggests that the MEI model was appropriate to reduce MSD associated with repetitive movement and awkward postures on task.

  13. Estimates of forest biomass carbon storage inLiaoning Province of Northeast China: a review and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dapao; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yin, You; Zhan, Jinyu; Lewis, Bernard J; Tian, Jie; Bao, Ye; Zhou, Wangming; Zhou, Li; Dai, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimates of forest carbon storage and changes in storage capacity are critical for scientific assessment of the effects of forest management on the role of forests as carbon sinks. Up to now, several studies reported forest biomass carbon (FBC) in Liaoning Province based on data from China's Continuous Forest Inventory, however, their accuracy were still not known. This study compared estimates of FBC in Liaoning Province derived from different methods. We found substantial variation in estimates of FBC storage for young and middle-age forests. For provincial forests with high proportions in these age classes, the continuous biomass expansion factor method (CBM) by forest type with age class is more accurate and therefore more appropriate for estimating forest biomass. Based on the above approach designed for this study, forests in Liaoning Province were found to be a carbon sink, with carbon stocks increasing from 63.0 TgC in 1980 to 120.9 TgC in 2010, reflecting an annual increase of 1.9 TgC. The average carbon density of forest biomass in the province has increased from 26.2 Mg ha(-1) in 1980 to 31.0 Mg ha(-1) in 2010. While the largest FBC occurred in middle-age forests, the average carbon density decreased in this age class during these three decades. The increase in forest carbon density resulted primarily from the increased area and carbon storage of mature forests. The relatively long age interval in each age class for slow-growing forest types increased the uncertainty of FBC estimates by CBM-forest type with age class, and further studies should devote more attention to the time span of age classes in establishing biomass expansion factors for use in CBM calculations.

  14. Changes in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes Across Generations and Gender Among a Population-Based Probability Sample From an Urbanizing Province in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Darawuttimaprakorn, Niphon; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Musumari, Patou Masika; Lukhele, Bhekumusa Wellington; El-Saaidi, Christina; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Feldman, Mitchell D; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Thailand has undergone rapid modernization with implications for changes in sexual norms. We investigated sexual behavior and attitudes across generations and gender among a probability sample of the general population of Nonthaburi province located near Bangkok in 2012. A tablet-based survey was performed among 2,138 men and women aged 15-59 years identified through a three-stage, stratified, probability proportional to size, clustered sampling. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out accounting for the effects of multistage sampling. Relationship of age and gender to sexual behavior and attitudes was analyzed by bivariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to adjust for possible confounding. Patterns of sexual behavior and attitudes varied substantially across generations and gender. We found strong evidence for a decline in the age of sexual initiation, a shift in the type of the first sexual partner, and a greater rate of acceptance of adolescent premarital sex among younger generations. The study highlighted profound changes among young women as evidenced by a higher number of lifetime sexual partners as compared to older women. In contrast to the significant gender gap in older generations, sexual profiles of Thai young women have evolved to resemble those of young men with attitudes gradually converging to similar sexual standards. Our data suggest that higher education, being never-married, and an urban lifestyle may have been associated with these changes. Our study found that Thai sexual norms are changing dramatically. It is vital to continue monitoring such changes, considering the potential impact on the HIV/STIs epidemic and unintended pregnancies.

  15. Health behavior after a multiprofessional intervention and training for ongoing volunteer-based community health programme intervention in the North-East of Thailand: what changed and what not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranrittichai, Kesinee; Senarak, Wiporn; Promthet, Supannee; Wiangnon, Surapon; Vatanasapt, Patravoot; Kamsa-Ard, Supot; Wongphuthorn, Prasert; Moore, Malcolm Anthony

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative research within the project entitled "Multiprofessional Intervention and training for Ongoing Volunteer-based Community Health Programs in the Northeast of Thailand (MITV-NET) " was aimed at explaining changes of health behavior of community people in the Northeast after the intervention. The participants comprised 15 community volunteers and 27 villagers. Data were collected by indepth interview, focus group discussion, participation and non-participation observation, and note taking. Analyses were conducted in parallel with data collection, through content and comparative analysis. It was found that the health behavior fell into 2 categories: easy-to-change and difficult-to-change. The former involved fun activities joined by community people that improved their health or made them recover from illnesses after a short period without becoming addicted. These activities could be done by themselves, for example, exercising and cooking. The difficult-to- change health behavior is habitual, for example, chewing betel nuts or eating uncooked food. The following factors were found affecting behavioral changes: 1) underlying disease; 2) enjoyment in doing activities; 3) habitual behaviour; 4) improved health in a short period; 5) ability of community leaders and volunteers; and 6) community health-supporting resources. It is suggested that improving people's health requires cooperation of community people through fun activities and some initial external support. People who persist in bad habits should be encouraged to stop by showing them health deteriorating effects.

  16. Fluoride concentrations in a range of ready-to-drink beverages consumed in Heilongjiang Province, north-east China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Maguire, Anne; Tianqui, Guan; Yanguo, Shi; Zohoori, Fatemeh V

    2017-03-01

    Consumption of ready-to-drink beverages, as a potential source of fluoride (F), has increased considerably in China over the last decade. To help inform the public and policy makers, this study aimed to measure F concentration of ready-to-drink beverages on sale in Heilongjiang province, north east China. Three batches of 106 drink products manufactured by 26 companies were purchased from the main national supermarkets in Harbin, Heilongjiang province, China. The F concentration of all samples was determined, in triplicate, using a fluoride ion-selective electrode in conjunction with a meter and a direct method of analysis. The products were categorised into 10 groups according to product type. F concentrations of the samples ranged from 0.012-1.625 mg/l with a mean of 0.189 mg/l and a median of 0.076 mg/l. More than half of the products (55%) had an F concentration of ≤0.1 mg/l, while 0.7 mg/l. The 'tea with milk' group contained the highest mean F concentration (1.350 mg/l), whereas the lowest mean F concentration (0.027 mg/l) was found for the 'fruit juice' group. For some products, such as tea, fruit juice and carbonated beverages, there were substantial variations in F concentration between batches, manufacturers and production sites. In conclusion, ready-to-drink products (apart from tea), sold in Heilongjiang province, China, when consumed in moderation are unlikely to constitute a substantial risk factor for the development of dental or skeletal fluorosis.

  17. The ant nest of Crematogaster rogenhoferi (Mayr, 1879 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae at Tarutao National Park, Satun Province, Southern Thailand

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    Suparoek Watanasit

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Nests of the ant Crematogaster rogenhoferi (Mayr, 1879 were investigated at Tarutao National Park, Satun Province. Fifteen ant nests were selected at random along Phante Malacca Bay between the 2-7 March 2004. They built their nests from leaf and stick debris on branches of trees, at between 248-469 cm above the ground level. The vegetation on which nests were built was composed of 5 species: Vitex pinnata L., Oleasalicifolia Wall, Syzygium gratum (Wight, Ardisia elliptica Thum and one unknown species. The physical features of each nest were recorded. The average dimensions of the nest width and length were 10.65±2.57 cm and 22.10±1.22 cm, respectively.Each nest was cut into small pieces for counting the numbers of each caste and developing stages. The results showed that the average number of queens, winged females, males and workers in each nest were 1.53±0.38, 1,753.33±506.55, 4,970.67±2,227.00, 15,577.93±2,637.84 respectively, while the developing stages of pupae, larvae, eggs were 1,589.93±480.37, 4,113.20±1,469.49 and 1,942.80±741.67 respectively. Thus the total number of ants in the population in each nest was 29,949.40±5,358.31.The relationships between the number of castes, developing stages and physical features of the nests were explored. The Spearman Rank Correlation indicated that the width of nest positively correlated with the number of queens (rs = 0.862, p = . 000, winged females (rs = 0.691, p = 0.004 and workers (rs = 0.667, p = 0.007. A comparison of the effects of vegetation types on the number of castes and development stages, showed that vegetation type did have an influence but only on the number of the worker caste (F = 7.712, P = 0.011, one-way ANOVA. Most workers were associated with nests from Vitex pinnata. No nests were found on the dominant tree species of the area probably due to its ability to produce an insect repellant oil.

  18. First signs of transition: The parallel decline of early baptism and early mortality in the province of Padua (northeast Italy, 1816‒1870

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    Alessandra Minello

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this article is to investigate the parallel decline of early baptism and early mortality at the beginning of the demographic transition in a European high-neonatal mortality context. Methods: We use an individual-nominative linked database of 33,000 births and 10,000 deaths for 11 parishes in the province of Padua (northeast Italy from 1816 to 1870. We utilize life tables, logistic regressions, and two-level logistic regressions, including characteristics of the family. Results: Life tables and regression models show that during the winter, the association between early baptism and the risk of death is pronounced. The connection persists also during the summer, when the exposure to low temperature could not influence the risk of death, and a reverse effect could prevail. (Children in periculo mortis were immediately baptized. Family behaviours influence both early baptism and early death. Conclusions: The data shows clearly that those social groups and families and those areas experiencing the most intense decline in early baptism were also those in which mortality during the first three months of life declined more. However, it is not true that - as suggested by commentators at the time - the strong statistical connection between the two events was just a direct one, with cold exposure exacerbated by early baptism increasing the risk of dying from hypothermia or respiratory diseases. Contribution: We first show that in the province of Padua during the central part of the 19th century (1816‒1870, there is a clear and strong statistical connection between the decline of early mortality and the decline of early baptism. Second, we try to disentangle the meaning of this connection.

  19. Microbiological quality of cooked foods and drinks sold in higher educational institutions around Yala, Pattani, and Narathiwat Provinces, Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalee, Abdullah D.; Sali, Khosiya; Hayeeyusoh, Nurainee; Hayeewangoh, Zubaidah; Thadah, Amporn

    2017-08-01

    Quality of cooked foods and drinks water sold within the vicinity of higher institutions located in Yala, Pattani and Narathiwat provinces were randomly sampled and microbiologically evaluated. As to Thai National Food Safety Standard, various food menu and drinks were subjected to conventionally determining the bacterial index; Most Probable Number (MPN) of coliform and fecal coliform as well as the detection of indicator organisms; Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella sp. As for bacterial index, results showed that curry-type likes PSU-stir-fried liver (7.5x106 CFU/g), and and the lowest was PSU-Koleh chicken Roast (1.72x103 CFU/g). The highest and lowest counts of soup-type items were observed in YPH-KaengSom soup (1.9x107 CFU/g), and PSU-Palo soup (0.4x103 CFU/g), respectively. Higher bacterial counts were also found in YPH-spicy stir-fried chicken (7.5 x 106 CFU/g), and YPH-squid salad (2.2x107 CFU/g). For drinks, bacterial count ranged 2.0 x 103 to 8.3 x 103 CFU/g, and NRU-iced grape juice having the highest bacterial count (2.0x106 CFU/g). Overall, foods not complying to the Thai National Food Safety Standard of 1 x 103 CFU/g from higher to lower were those of soup, stir-fried, salad, fried, and curry categories with as much as 4:17 (23.53%), 4:21 (19.05%), 2:11 (18.18%), 2:16 (12.5%) and 1:12 (8.33%), respectively. As for Coliform and fecal coliform, the highest (>1100 MPN/g) and the lowest (0.34 MPN/g),were not much found in all food categories with percentages of 23.53, 24.00, 13.79, 9.10, and 47.37 for curry (4:17), soup (6:15), stir-fried (4:29), fried (2:22), and salad (9:19), respectively. However, indicator organisms were not detected in almost all food samples except PSU-chicken yellowish curry, NRU-chicken TongYam soup, NRU-Long-tail tuna soup, NRU-KaengSom soup, YPE-watery soup, NRU-stir-fried liver, NRU-omelets, NRU-fried chicken, YPE-crispy fish salad, and NRU-salted eggs salad, which showed the presence of E. coli, but not

  20. Influence of agricultural activities, forest fires and agro-industries on air quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairuang, Worradorn; Hata, Mitsuhiko; Furuuchi, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Annual and monthly-based emission inventories in northern, central and north-eastern provinces in Thailand, where agriculture and related agro-industries are very intensive, were estimated to evaluate the contribution of agricultural activity, including crop residue burning, forest fires and related agro-industries on air quality monitored in corresponding provinces. The monthly-based emission inventories of air pollutants, or, particulate matter (PM), NOx and SO2, for various agricultural crops were estimated based on information on the level of production of typical crops: rice, corn, sugarcane, cassava, soybeans and potatoes using emission factors and other parameters related to country-specific values taking into account crop type and the local residue burning period. The estimated monthly emission inventory was compared with air monitoring data obtained at monitoring stations operated by the Pollution Control Department, Thailand (PCD) for validating the estimated emission inventory. The agro-industry that has the greatest impact on the regions being evaluated, is the sugar processing industry, which uses sugarcane as a raw material and its residue as fuel for the boiler. The backward trajectory analysis of the air mass arriving at the PCD station was calculated to confirm this influence. For the provinces being evaluated which are located in the upper northern, lower northern and northeast in Thailand, agricultural activities and forest fires were shown to be closely correlated to the ambient PM concentration while their contribution to the production of gaseous pollutants is much less. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Constraining the age and origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean using geophysical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Rajat; O'Neill, Craig

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of western margin of Australia from Greater India started around 155 Ma and progressed southwards. After the separation, the interceding intraplate region experienced large volumes of submarine volcanism, extending over 100 Myrs. The Christmas Island Seamount Province (CHRISP, as it has been dubbed) lies south of the Java-Sunda Trench, and contains numerous submerged volcanic seamounts, and two sub-aerially exposed island groups—Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. While recent geochronological investigations have shed light on the diverse eruption ages of the volcanics of this region, some islands/seamounts have demonstrated protracted volcanic histories, and it is not clear how the volcanic loading, tectonic subsidence, and subsequent emergence history of the islands relates to these discrete volcanic episodes. This study utilises a number of geophysical techniques to determine the crustal structure, loading and subsidence history, and last sub-aerial exposure age for the CHRISP. The study shows that flexural and subsidence modelling are reliable techniques in constraining the age of the seamounts when geochronological techniques are not possible. Utilising regional gravity signatures, we model the crustal structure underneath the Cocos (Keeling) Island, and constrain the thickness of the limestone cover between 900 and 2,100 m. Using age-depth subsidence curves for oceanic lithosphere the time since these seamounts were exposed above sea-level was determined, and a trend in exposure ages that youngs towards the west is observed. Two episodes of volcanism have been recorded at Christmas Island and they are of different origin. The younger phase in the Pliocene is a manifestation of flexure induced cracks produced in the lithosphere as it rides the subduction fore-bulge, whereas a low velocity seismic zone rising from the lower mantle, and tectonic reorganization, may be associated with the older Eocene volcanic phase, as well as much of

  2. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. II: Responses to mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy among falciparum malaria patients in provinces bordering Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satimai, Wichai; Sudathip, Prayuth; Vijaykadga, Saowanit; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Sawang, Surasak; Potithavoranan, Thanapon; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Delacollette, Charles; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Lawpoolsri, Saranath

    2012-08-28

    The area along the Thai-Cambodian border is considered an epicenter of anti-malarial drug resistance. Recently, parasite resistance to artemisinin-based therapies has been reported in the area. The artemisinin resistance containment project was initiated in November 2008, with the aim to limit resistant parasites and eliminate malaria in this region. This study describes the response to artemisinin-based therapy among falciparum malaria patients in the area, using data from the malaria surveillance programmed under the containment project. The study was conducted in seven provinces of Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border. Data of Plasmodium falciparum-positive patients during January 2009 to December 2011 were obtained from the electronic malaria information system (eMIS) Web-based reporting system. All P. falciparum cases were followed for 42 days, as the routine case follow-up protocol. The demographic characteristics of the patients were described. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the cure rate of the current standard anti-malarial drug regimen--mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy (MAS). The proportion of patients who remained parasite-positive at each follow-up day was calculated. In addition, factors related to the delayed parasite clearance on day-3 post-treatment, were explored. A total of 1,709 P. falciparum-positive cases were reported during the study period. Almost 70% of falciparum cases received MAS therapy (n = 1,174). The majority of cases were males, aged between 31 and 50 years. The overall MAS cure rate was > 90% over the three-year period. Almost all patients were able to clear the parasite within 7 to 14 days post-treatment. Approximately 14% of patients undergoing MAS remained parasite-positive on day-3. Delayed parasite clearance was not significantly associated with patient gender, age, or citizenship. However, delayed parasite clearance varied across the study area. Anti-malarial drug-resistant parasites

  3. Arsenic contamination in surface drainage and groundwater in part of the southeast Asian tin belt, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Fordyce, F.; Paijitprapapon, A.; Charoenchaisri, P.

    1996-02-01

    The occurrence of human health problems resulting from arsenic contamination of domestic water supplies in Ron Phibun District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand was first recognized in 1987. The area has an extensive history of bedrock and alluvial mining, the waste from which is typically rich in arsenopyrite and related alteration products. In 1994 a collaborative study was instigated involving Thai and British government authorities to establish the distribution and geochemical form of As in surface drainage and aquifer systems in the affected area, the probable sources of As contamination, and the potential for problem alleviation. Hydrochemical analyses of surface- and groundwaters have confirmed the presence of dissolved As at concentrations exceeding WHO potable water guidelines by up to a factor of 500. Contamination of the shallow alluvial aquifer system is systematically more severe than the underlying carbonate-hosted aquifer. Deep boreholes may therefore provide the best available potable water source for the local population. The presence of up to 39% of total As as arsenite (H3AsO3) within the carbonate aquifer may, however, constitute a ‘hidden’ toxicological risk, not evident in the shallow groundwater (in which arsenate species account for > 95% of total As). Mineralogical investigations of As-rich tailings and flotation wastes were undertaken to evaluate their likely impact on water quality. The results indicate that although some flotation wastes contain up to 30% As, the rate of leaching is extremely low. Consequently the As loading of drainage emanating from such waste is below the subregional average. Analyses of the silty alluvium that covers much of the central sector of the study area have highlighted As concentrations of up to 5000 mg kg-1, probably carried by disseminated arsenopyrite. Following sulfide dissolution, the mobility of As in this material may be high (with resultant contamination of shallow groundwater) due

  4. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. II: responses to mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy among falciparum malaria patients in provinces bordering Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satimai Wichai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The area along the Thai-Cambodian border is considered an epicenter of anti-malarial drug resistance. Recently, parasite resistance to artemisinin-based therapies has been reported in the area. The artemisinin resistance containment project was initiated in November 2008, with the aim to limit resistant parasites and eliminate malaria in this region. This study describes the response to artemisinin-based therapy among falciparum malaria patients in the area, using data from the malaria surveillance programmed under the containment project. Methods The study was conducted in seven provinces of Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border. Data of Plasmodium falciparum-positive patients during January 2009 to December 2011 were obtained from the electronic malaria information system (eMIS Web-based reporting system. All P. falciparum cases were followed for 42 days, as the routine case follow-up protocol. The demographic characteristics of the patients were described. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the cure rate of the current standard anti-malarial drug regimen--mefloquine-artesunate combination therapy (MAS. The proportion of patients who remained parasite-positive at each follow-up day was calculated. In addition, factors related to the delayed parasite clearance on day-3 post-treatment, were explored. Results A total of 1,709 P. falciparum-positive cases were reported during the study period. Almost 70% of falciparum cases received MAS therapy (n = 1,174. The majority of cases were males, aged between 31 and 50 years. The overall MAS cure rate was >90% over the three-year period. Almost all patients were able to clear the parasite within 7 to 14 days post-treatment. Approximately 14% of patients undergoing MAS remained parasite-positive on day-3. Delayed parasite clearance was not significantly associated with patient gender, age, or citizenship. However, delayed parasite clearance varied across the

  5. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

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    Sayyed Gholam Reza Mortazavi-Moghaddam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran. The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6% males and 155 (47.4% females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%, 48 (14.7%, and 45 (13.8% cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4% of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2% patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years cases (P=0.16. The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE occurring in young people.

  6. Radiation Dose and Risk Assessments from Polonium-210 in Green Mussels (Perna viridis) and Seafood Consumers Living nearby the Industrial Area in Chonburi Province, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumnoi, Y.; Phaopeng, N. [Office of Atoms for Peace - OAP (Thailand)

    2014-07-01

    Marine environmental samples including seawater (filtered and unfiltered), suspended particles, and green mussels (Perna viridis) were collected from Sriracha and Angsira areas located in Chonburi province in order to determine Po-210 radioactivity. The former was chosen because it is generally believed that this area has been contaminated by one of the largest industrial estates in Thailand and others human-activities (non-nuclear activities) nearby such as oil refineries and Coal Power Plants. Discharges, ashes, and wastes released from these activities may result in an increase of Po-210 concentration in marine environment when compared to other areas. The later was designated to serve as a control site in this study since this area is unlikely to be impacted by industrial activities. Our results revealed that, in the filtered seawater, averaged values of Po-210 level were 0.26 + 0.14 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 0.56 + 0.42 mBq/L (Angsira) and, in the unfiltered seawater, means of Po-210 radioactivity were 2.37 + 0.32 mBq/L (Sriracha) and 4.20 + 2.78 mBq/L (Angsira). Furthermore, the suspended particles contained Po-210 concentrations with averaged values of 14.11 + 8.87 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 102.21 + 51.49 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) while averaged Po-210 levels of 35.74 + 17.53 Bq/kg dw (Sriracha) and 71.12 + 62.88 Bq/kg dw (Angsira) were found in the green mussels examined. The present finding indicates that there is no radiological impact caused by those human activities to the marine environment at Sriracha. Radiation dose assessment was also performed in both the green mussels and human who consume green mussels. The results show that the green mussels farmed at Sriracha and Angsira received averaged radiation dose rates from Po-210 at 0.0007 and 0.0015 mGy/d, respectively. In addition, our results reveal that populations living in Chonburi province and ingesting the green mussels from these 2 locations received radiation dose rates from Po-210 at the means of 44.25 and

  7. Spatial-temporal analysis of pulmonary tuberculosis in the northeast of the Yunnan province, People's Republic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Li, Xin-Xu; Abe, Eniola Michael; Xu, Lin; Ruan, Yao; Cao, Chun-Li; Li, Shi-Zhu

    2017-03-24

    The number of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases in China ranks third in the world. A continuous increase in cases has recently been recorded in Zhaotong prefecture-level city, which is located in the northeastern part of Yunnan province. This study explored the space-time dynamics of PTB cases in Zhaotong to provide useful information that will help guide policymakers to formulate effective regional prevention and control strategies. The data on PTB cases were extracted from the nationwide tuberculosis online registration system. Time series and spatial cluster analyses were applied to detect PTB temporal trends and spatial patterns at the town level between 2011 and 2015 in Zhaotong. Three indicators of PTB treatment registration history were used: initial treatment registration rate, re-treatment registration rate, and total PTB registration rate. Seasonal trends were detected with an apparent symptom onset peak during the winter season and a registration peak during the spring season. A most likely cluster and six secondary clusters were identified for the total PTB registration rate, one most likely cluster and five secondary clusters for the initial treatment registration rate, and one most likely cluster for the re-treatment registration rate. The most likely cluster of the three indicators had a similar spatial distribution and size in Zhenxiong County, which is characterised by a poor socio-economic level and the largest population in Yunnan. This study identified temporal and spatial distribution of PTB in a high PTB burden area using existing health data. The results of the study provide useful information on the prevailing epidemiological situation of PTB in Zhaotong and could be used to develop strategies for more effective PTB control at the town level. The cluster that overlapped the three PTB indicators falls within the geographic areas where PTB control efforts should be prioritised.

  8. Behaviour of major, minor and trace elements (including REEs during kaolinization processes at Zonouz deposit, northeast of Marand, East Azarbaidjan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Alipour

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Zonouz kaolin deposit is located ~15 km northeast of Marand, East-Azarbaidjan province. Based on physical features in field investigations, such as color, five distinct kaolin types including (1 white, (2 lemon, (3 gray, (4 brown, and (5 yellow are distinguished in the deposit. Field evidence and petrographic studies indicate that the deposit is genetically close to trachy-andesite rocks. According to mineralogical data, the deposit contains quartz, kaolinite, montmorillonite, calcite, pyrophyllite, chlorite, muscovite-illite, dolomite, hematite, and anatase minerals. Geochemical data indicate that function of alteration processes on trachy-andesite rocks during development of Zonouz ore deposit was accompanied by leaching of elements such as Al, Na, K, Rb, Ba, V, Hf, Cu, Zr, Tm, Yb, and Lu, enrichment of elements such as U, Nb, and Ta, and leaching-fixation of elements such as Si, Fe, Ca, Mg, Ti, Mn, P, Cs, Sr, Th, Co, Cr, Ni, Y, Ga, LREE, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er. Incorporation of obtained results from mineralogical and geochemical studies show that physico-chemical conditions of alteration environment, the relative stability of primary minerals, surface adsorption, preferential sorption by metallic oxides, existing of organic matters, scavenging and concentration processes, and fixation in neomorphic mineralogical phases played important role in distribution of elements in the deposit. Geochemical studies show that development of the deposit is relative to two types of processes, (1 hypogene and (2 supergene. The distribution pattern of REEs indicates that differentiation degree of LREEs from HREEs in supergene kaolins is more than hypogene kaolins. Geochemical studies indicate that minerals such as Mn-oxides, zircon, anatase, hematite, cerianite, and secondary phosphates (monazite, rhabdophane, churchite, and zenotime are the potential hosts for rare earth elements in this deposit.

  9. Enhanced T-lymphocyte blastogenic response to tuberculin (PPD) in children of northeast (NE) Thailand supplemented with vitamin A (VA) and zinc (Zn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, T.R.; Udomkesmalee, E.; Dhanamitta, S.; Sirisinha, S.; Charoenkiatkul, S.; Tantipopipat, S.; Banjong, O.; Rojroongwasinkul, N.; Smith, J.C. Jr. (Dept. of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States) Mahidol Univ., Nakhon Pathom (Thailand))

    1991-03-15

    Beneficial effects of Va and/or Zn supplementation of children in NE Thailand are described in a companion abstract. In the same study, blastogenic response (BR) of T-lymphocytes to concanavalin-A (ConA) and PPD were assayed in cultures containing mononuclear cells (MNC) or whole blood (WB). Methods were previously described. Children were previously vaccinated with BCG. BR to ConA of MNC or WB from children supplemented with VA, Zn, VA + Zn or placebo were similar. BR to PPD of MNC was higher in children receiving VA + Zn than placebo, but not in children supplemented with VA or Zn alone. Data indicate that children with suboptimal VA and Zn nutriture supplemented with < 2 times RDA of these nutrients showed enhanced cellular immunity to PPD. This observation is relevant to BCG immunization program and thus may benefit public health.

  10. Faecal contamination of water and fingertip-rinses as a method for evaluating the effect of low-cost water supply and sanitation activities on faeco-oral disease transmission. I. A case study in rural north-east Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, J V

    1990-10-01

    Most villagers in north-east Thailand carry water to their homes and store it in separate containers depending on its subsequent use. In one village, information on water use was collated with the bacteriological quality of stored water, water sources and fingertip-rinses. Stored water quality was a function of water-related activities rather than quality at source (P less than 0.0001). Specifically water used for toilet, washing dishes and cooking-related activities was much more contaminated with faecal bacteria than that used for drinking and cooking. Salmonella spp. was significantly more common in water used for washing dishes than drinking (P less than 0.05). Escherichia coli contamination of fingertip-rinses was strongly associated with the individual's activity prior to testing (P less than 0.0001); child care, food and water-related activities produced much higher levels of fingertip contamination than others. Dirty utensils used for cooking and eating were usually left to soak and faecal bacterial growth occurred in this grossly contaminated soak-water. Cross-contamination via water handling was the main mechanism of stored water pollution. These results were used to develop a hygiene intervention study presented in a companion paper.

  11. Geology and origin of Ag-Pb-Zn deposits occurring in the Ulaan-Jiawula metallogenic province, northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Feng-jun; Li, Qiang-feng; Liu, Chun-hua; Ding, Cheng-wu

    2015-01-01

    Located at the conjunction area of China, Mongolia and Russia in NE Asia, the Ulaan-Jiawula (also referred as UJ) region, with an area of 400,000 km2, is one of the most important Ag-Pb-Zn, U, Sn, W, Nb-Ta, and Au metallogenic provinces in Asia. At present, 2126 deposits and showings including 500 Ag-Pb-Zn deposits have been discovered, explored and mined since the late 1960s. These Ag-Pb-Zn occurrences can be subdivided into three types according to their geological setting, texture, alteration and mineral assemblages: (1) low sulfidation epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposits; (2) intermediate sulfidation epithermal Ag-Pb-Zn deposits; (3) mixed-type Ag-Pb-Zn deposit consisting of vein-like and tabular ore bodies. The Eren Tologoi and Tsagenbulagen deposits are representative of low-sulphidation type Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization in the UJ region, and are associated with intensive adularization and sericitization. Ore occurs as mineralized quartz veins, veinlet groups and altered-fracture zones within Mesozoic alkaline and high-K calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, Ore mineralogy includes native silver, electrum, pyrite, galena, sphalerite, arsenopyrite, pyrargyrite and chalcopyrite. The Tsav and Jiawula deposits are typical of intermediate sulfidation Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization. The δ34S value of sulfide (pyrite and galena) separates from groups 1 and 2 varies from 1.5‰ to 3.5‰ and 2.0‰ to 4.5‰, respectively. The δ34S values of the Mesozoic volcanic host rocks for groups 1 and 2 deposits also show the positive δ34S values of 1.5-4.8‰, while the δ34S value of pyrite separate from the pre-Jurassic schist range from -6‰ to -8‰ which are much lower than Mesozoic volcanic host rocks and their associated ore deposits. There is no difference between the δ34S value of sulfide (pyrite and galena) separates from vein-like ore bodies of the group 3 deposits and their wall rocks, having δ34S value of 1.0-5.0‰ and 1.2-4.5‰ which are similar to that of groups 1 and 2 deposits

  12. Gamma-rays and heat-treatment conversions of point defects in massive rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province, Northeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Pedro L.; Barreto, Sandra B.; Miranda, Milena R.; Gonzaga, Raysa S. G.; Casals, Sandra A.

    2017-11-01

    An extensive characterization of trace elements and point defects in rose quartz from the Borborema Pegmatite Province (BPP) in the northeast of Brazil was carried out by complementary spectroscopic methods. The aim here was to document the change in the configuration of point defects into the quartz lattice induced by heat-treatment and ionizing radiation. The samples were extracted from the core of two granitic rare element (REL) pegmatites, Taboa (Carnaúba dos Dantas, RN) and Alto do Feio (Pedra Lavrada, PB). The contents of Al, P, Ti, Ni, Fe, Ge, Li, Be, B and K were measured by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Polished plates were heat-treated at 500 and 1000 °C and then irradiated with 50 kGy of γ rays. Point defects were characterized by optical (UV-Vis), infrared (IR), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies. In the as-received condition, [AlO4/H]0 centers, Li- and B-dependent OH defects were observed. Point defects related to Al and Li species were significantly affected by heat-treatment at 1000 °C and/or γ radiation. Paramagnetic centers such as [AlO4]0, [GeO4/Li]0, [TiO4/Li]0 and [O2 3-/Li]0 were created by the diffusion of Li+ ions from their original diamagnetic centers related to substitutional Al3+ and OH-species. The smoky color developed after irradiation and the signal intensities of the paramagnetic centers were independent from the original rose color grade. The samples from the Taboa (TB) pegmatite showed the highest concentration of Al, Ti, Fe and Li elements as well as the highest signal intensities for [AlO4]0, [AlO4/H]0, [GeO4/Li]0 and [TiO4/Li]0 centers. Although TB also showed the higher concentration of B element, the intensity of the 3597 cm-1 IR band related to [BO4/H]0 centers was higher for Alto do Feio (AF) samples. This result suggests that the uptake of B into the quartz core of each pegmatite took place through different mechanisms. It was concluded that the change in

  13. Effects of Feeding Rates on Growth Performance, Feed Utilization and Body Composition of Asian Red Tail Catfish (Hemibagrus wyckioides), Cultured in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippayadara, Nisarat; Doolgindachbaporn, Sompong; Suksri, Amnuaysilpa

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out at the Khon Kaen University, Nong Khai Campus, Thailand during November, 2011 to May, 2012 to search for the most appropriate rates of feeding rations for fingerling and juvenile Asian redtail catfish (Hemibagrus wyckioides). A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications was used for both experiments. Experiment 1 had four treatments, i.e., T1 (2%), T2 (3%), T3 (4%, control), and T4 (5%). The same experimental design was used for the experiment 2, where four treatments were used, i.e., T1 (1%), T2 (2%), T3 (3%, control) and T4 (4%). The percentages of the amounts of rations used for Experiments 1 and 2 were based on body-live weight per day. Fingerling and juvenile fish were used for the experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Each experiment was carried out for 10 weeks. The results showed that a rate of 5% body live weight per day for fingerling fish of T4 of experiment 1 is the most appropriate rate for the fingerling fish. An increase in ration rate highly increased final body live weight. For juvenile fish of the experiment 2, it was found that there were no significant differences in live weights amongst the treated fish yet weight gained and specific growth rates between T1 and the rest were highly significant, whereas the results of the juvenile fish of T2 up to T4 were similar hence, 2% body live weight per day of T2 is the most appropriate rate for juvenile fish.

  14. A comparative study between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques on the infection of pseudocercospora leaf spot disease of cowpea cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsiri, N; Laohasiriwong, S

    2009-03-01

    This glasshouse experiment was carried out in the 2004 at the Department of Agricultural Production, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 4400, Northeast Thailand to compare amounts of infection of Pseudocercospora leaf spot disease in leaves of cowpea cultivars being screened between detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques. The experiment was laid in a factorial arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. KVC7, IT81D-1228-14-1 and KKU25 cowpea cultivars were used as factor A, detached leaf and plastic growth pouches techniques were used as factor B and four levels of the concentrations of the spores of the disease, i.e., 0, l x 10(4), 5 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(5) of disease forming units mL(-1) of distilled water were used as factor C. The results showed that KVC7 and IT81D-1228-14-1 cultivars possessed immune and high resistant properties against the disease, respectively, whereas KKU25 cultivar ranked as a susceptible cultivar. Detached leaf technique gave higher amount of infection of the disease than plastic growth pouches technique and the differences were highly significant. A plentiful amount of Infected disease was attained with an inoculation rate of l x 10(5) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water, which was considered too high and the most appropriate concentrations for use lie on both concentrations, i.e., 1 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(4) forming units mL(-1) of distilled water. An interaction among factors AxBxC was severely found with KKU25 cultivar, particularly on day 28 after inoculation, whilst other two cultivars gave a minute amount of disease incidences (%) where detached leaf technique gave much higher disease incidences than plastic growth pouches technique, thus detached leaf technique should be of higher advantages.

  15. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.

  16. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. (I): Implementation of electronic-based malaria information system for early case detection and individual case management in provinces along the Thai-Cambodian border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Sudathip, Prayuth; Sawang, Surasak; Vijakadge, Saowanit; Potithavoranan, Thanapon; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Satimai, Wichai; Delacollette, Charles; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit

    2012-07-29

    The Bureau of Vector-borne Diseases, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has implemented an electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS) as part of a strategy to contain artemisinin resistance. The attempt corresponds to the WHO initiative, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to contain anti-malarial drug resistance in Southeast Asia. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the eMIS' functionality and outputs after implementation for use in the Thailand artemisinin-resistance containment project. The eMIS had been functioning since 2009 in seven Thai-Cambodian border provinces. The eMIS has covered 61 malaria posts/clinics, 27 Vector-borne Disease Units covering 12,508 hamlets at risk of malaria infections. The eMIS was designed as an evidence-based and near real-time system to capture data for early case detection, intensive case investigation, monitoring drug compliance and on/off-site tracking of malarial patients, as well as collecting data indicating potential drug resistance among patients. Data captured by the eMIS in 2008-2011 were extracted and presented. The core functionalities of the eMIS have been utilized by malaria staff at all levels, from local operational units to ministerial management. The eMIS case detection module suggested decreasing trends during 2009-2011; the number of malaria cases detected in the project areas over the years studied were 3818, 2695, and 2566, with sero-positive rates of 1.24, 0.98, and 1.16%, respectively. The eMIS case investigation module revealed different trends in weekly Plasmodium falciparum case numbers, when classified by responsible operational unit, local and migrant status, and case-detection type. It was shown that most Thai patients were infected within their own residential district, while migrants were infected either at their working village or from across the border. The data mapped in the system suggested that P. falciparum-infected cases and potential drug-resistant cases were

  17. Detection of Mycobacterium marinum in clinically asymptomatic Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens from ornamental fih shops in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

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    Anucha Sirimalaisuwan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect Mycobacterium marinum (M. marinum infections in healthy Siamese fighting fish from ornamental fish shops in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods: Mycobacterium spp. were isolated from 380 internal organs of healthy Siamese fighting fish using Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H10 culture media. A 924-bp DNA fragment from mycobacterial 16S rRNA was amplified and digested with BanI and ApaI restriction enzymes to yield unique restriction patterns for each mycobacterial specie. Results: Thirty-five mycobacterial isolates (8.42% were recovered from 380 Siamese fighting fish; 21 isolates (5.5% and 11 isolates (2.29% were identified as M. marinum and Mycobacterium chelonae, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the presence of M. marinum zoonotic bacterial pathogens in healthy Siamese fighting fish, and underlined the infection risk to humans of not only exposure to infected fish, but also when they manipulate clinically asymptomatic fish.

  18. Migrant workers’ occupation and healthcare-seeking preferences for TB-suspicious symptoms and other health problems: a survey among immigrant workers in Songkhla province, southern Thailand

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    Naing Tinzar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the unskilled and semi-skilled workforce in Thailand comprises migrant workers from neighbouring countries. While, in principle, healthcare facilities in the host country are open to those migrants registered with the Ministry of Labour, their actual healthcare-seeking preferences and practices, as well as those of unregistered migrants, are not well documented. This study aimed to describe the patterns of healthcare-seeking behaviours of immigrant workers in Thailand, emphasizing healthcare practices for TB-suspicious symptoms, and to identify the role of occupation and other factors influencing these behaviours. Methods A survey was conducted among 614 immigrant factory workers (FW, rubber tappers (RT and construction workers (CW, in which information was sought on socio-demography, history of illness and related healthcare-seeking behaviour. Mixed effects logistic regression modeling was employed in data analysis. Results Among all three occupations, self-medication was the most common way of dealing with illnesses, including the development of TB-suspicious symptoms, for which inappropriate drugs were used. Only for GI symptoms and obstetric problems did migrant workers commonly seek healthcare at modern healthcare facilities. For GI illness, FW preferred to attend the in-factory clinic and RT a private facility over government facilities owing to the quicker service and greater convenience. For RT, who were generally wealthier, the higher cost of private treatment was not a deterrent. CW preferentially chose a government healthcare facility for their GI problems. For obstetric problems, including delivery, government facilities were utilized by RT and CW, but most FW returned to their home country. After adjusting for confounding, having legal status in the country was associated with overall greater use of government facilities and being female and being married with use of both types of modern healthcare

  19. Detection and drug resistance profile of Escherichia coli from subclinical mastitis cows and water supply in dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand

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    Woranich Hinthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E. coli was predominant, followed by enteroaggregative E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli, which was found only in milk samples. Twenty-one patterns of antibiotic resistance were identified in this study. Ampicillin- and carbenicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common among the bacterial isolates from water samples. Meanwhile, resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the pattern found most commonly in the E. coli from milk samples. Notably, only the E. coli from water samples possessed ESBL phenotype and carried antibiotic resistance genes, blaTEM and blaCMY-2. This indicates that pathogenic E. coli in dairy farms is also exposed to antibiotics and could potentially transfer these genes to other pathogenic bacteria under certain conditions.

  20. Helicobacter Pylori Associated Gastritis Increases Risk of Colorectal Polyps: a Hospital Based-Cross-Sectional Study in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal polyps are common in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. The present study aimed to determine any correlation between Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and colorectal polyps in the Thai population. A total of 303 patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy with colonoscopy for investigation of chronic abdominal pain participated in this study from November 2014 to October 2015. A diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis was made if the bacteria were seen on histopathological examination and a rapid urease test was positive. Colorectal polyps were confirmed by histological examination of colorectal biopsies. Patient demographic data were analyzed for correlations. The prevalence of colorectal polyps was 77 (25.4%), lesions being found more frequently in Helicobacter pylori infected patients than non-infected subjects [38.4% vs. 12.5%; Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI): 2.26 (1.32 - 3.86), p gastritis were at high risk of having adenomas featuring dysplasia [OR (95% CI): 1.15 (1.16 - 7.99); P = 0.02]. There was no varaition in location of polyps, age group, sex and gastric lesions with respect to Helicobacter pylori status. This study showed that Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis is associated with an increased risk of colorectal polyps, especially adenomas with dysplasia in the Thai population. Patients with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis may benefit from concurrent colonoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal polyps as a preventive and early treatment for colorectal cancer.

  1. Detection and drug resistance profile ofEscherichia colifrom subclinical mastitis cows and water supply in dairy farms in Saraburi Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinthong, Woranich; Pumipuntu, Natapol; Santajit, Sirijan; Kulpeanprasit, Suphang; Buranasinsup, Shutipen; Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Aiumurai, Pisinee; Indrawattana, Nitaya

    2017-01-01

    Subclinical mastitis is a persistent problem in dairy farms worldwide. Environmental Escherichia coli is the bacterium predominantly responsible for this condition. In Thailand, subclinical mastitis in dairy cows is usually treated with various antibiotics, which could lead to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. E. coli is also a reservoir of many antibiotic resistance genes, which can be conveyed to other bacteria. In this study, the presence of E. coli in milk and water samples was reported, among which enteropathogenic E. coli was predominant, followed by enteroaggregative E. coli and enterohemorrhagic E. coli , which was found only in milk samples. Twenty-one patterns of antibiotic resistance were identified in this study. Ampicillin- and carbenicillin-resistant E. coli was the most common among the bacterial isolates from water samples. Meanwhile, resistance to ampicillin, carbenicillin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was the pattern found most commonly in the E. coli from milk samples. Notably, only the E. coli from water samples possessed ESBL phenotype and carried antibiotic resistance genes, bla TEM and bla CMY-2 . This indicates that pathogenic E. coli in dairy farms is also exposed to antibiotics and could potentially transfer these genes to other pathogenic bacteria under certain conditions.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of low back pain among Thai and Myanmar migrant seafood processing factory workers in Samut Sakorn Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Shigeru; Arphorn, Sara; Muto, Takashi; Koetkhlai, Kanatid; Naing, Saw Sandy; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and investigated risk factors for LBP among seafood processing factory workers in Thailand including migrant workers. The subjects were Thai and Myanmar workers in the typical seafood processing factory. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a self-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of LBP, general characteristics, life style, and working condition were investigated. The associations between LBP and risk factors were estimated by multiple logistic regression models. Of 254 workers, 165 completed the questionnaire. Half of these workers were Thai, the others were from Myanmar. The point prevalence of LBP was 28.5%. Risk factors for LBP were age over 40 yr, poor health status, history of back injury, twisting posture at work, and slipping on wet floors. The results suggest that health promotion should focus on working conditions rather than individual life style in order to prevent LBP. Furthermore, greater attention to other risk factors such as history of back injury and perception of health status after regular health check up, especially in older age groups may be needed.

  3. New records of Phacus and Monomorphina taxa (Euglenophyta for Thailand

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    Duangjan Kritsana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Phacus and Monomorphina (Euglenophyta from northern Thailand was studied in various water bodies of Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang and Phayao provinces. This paper presents 25 taxa of Phacus and 1 Monomorphina new for Thailand, including 3 Phacus taxa new for Southeast Asia. Several varieties and forms were recognized. All are briefly described, with original illustrations.

  4. Altered Immune Response of the Rice Frog Fejervarya limnocharis Living in Agricultural Area with Intensive Herbicide Utilization at Nan Province, Thailand

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    Khattapan Jantawongsri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate and paraquat have been intensively used in Nan Province for a long time. Prior observations indicated that herbicide contamination and adverse health effects were found on the rice frog Fejervarya limnocharis living in paddy fields at Nan Province. Contamination of herbicides may influence disease emergence by acting directly or indirectly upon the immune system of amphibian or by causing disruptions in homeostasis, it is thus interesting to investigate potential effects of herbicide contamination in Nan Province on immune responses of the rice frog living in agricultural areas. Frogs were caught from a paddy field with no history of herbicide utilization (reference site and a paddy field with intensive herbicide utilization (contaminated site during 2010-2011. After dissection, frog livers were fixed in 10% neutral buffer formalin, processed by paraffin method and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Number of melanomacrophage and melanomacrophage center (MMC were counted under a light microscope and used as markers of non-specific immune response. It was found that there was no significant sex-related difference in these numbers. However, there were significant seasonal differences in these numbers in both reference and contaminated site frogs, suggesting that seasonal difference in herbicide usage tend to affect frog's immune system in agricultural areas. Furthermore, numbers of melanomacrophage and MMC in early wet, late wet and early dry periods were markedly higher in the contaminated site frogs compared to those of the reference site frogs. The observation on amphibian's immune response to environmental contaminants could indicate the impacts of herbicide utilization on other vertebrates, as well as its role in amphibian declines.

  5. Potential of remote sensing techniques for tsunami hazard and vulnerability analysis – a case study from Phang-Nga province, Thailand

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    H. Römer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent tsunami disasters, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami or the 2011 Japan earthquake and tsunami, have highlighted the need for effective risk management. Remote sensing is a relatively new method for risk analysis, which shows significant potential in conducting spatially explicit risk and vulnerability assessments. In order to explore and discuss the potential and limitations of remote sensing techniques, this paper presents a case study from the tsunami-affected Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. It focuses on a local assessment of tsunami hazard and vulnerability, including the socio-economic and ecological components. High resolution optical data, including IKONOS data and aerial imagery (MFC-3 camera as well as different digital elevation models, were employed to create basic geo-data including land use and land cover (LULC, building polygons and topographic data sets and to provide input data for the hazard and vulnerability assessment. Results show that the main potential of applying remote sensing techniques and data derives from a synergistic combination with other types of data. In the case of hazard analysis, detailed LULC information and the correction of digital surface models (DSMs significantly improved the results of inundation modeling. The vulnerability assessment showed that remote sensing can be used to spatially extrapolate field data on socio-economic or ecological vulnerability collected in the field, to regionalize exposure elements and assets and to predict vulnerable areas. Limitations and inaccuracies became evident regarding the assessment of ecological resilience and the statistical prediction of vulnerability components, based on variables derived from remote sensing data.

  6. Artemisinin resistance containment project in Thailand. (I: Implementation of electronic-based malaria information system for early case detection and individual case management in provinces along the Thai-Cambodian border

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    Khamsiriwatchara Amnat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bureau of Vector-borne Diseases, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has implemented an electronic Malaria Information System (eMIS as part of a strategy to contain artemisinin resistance. The attempt corresponds to the WHO initiative, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to contain anti-malarial drug resistance in Southeast Asia. The main objective of this study was to demonstrate the eMIS’ functionality and outputs after implementation for use in the Thailand artemisinin-resistance containment project. Methods The eMIS had been functioning since 2009 in seven Thai-Cambodian border provinces. The eMIS has covered 61 malaria posts/clinics, 27 Vector-borne Disease Units covering 12,508 hamlets at risk of malaria infections. The eMIS was designed as an evidence-based and near real-time system to capture data for early case detection, intensive case investigation, monitoring drug compliance and on/off-site tracking of malarial patients, as well as collecting data indicating potential drug resistance among patients. Data captured by the eMIS in 2008–2011 were extracted and presented. Results The core functionalities of the eMIS have been utilized by malaria staff at all levels, from local operational units to ministerial management. The eMIS case detection module suggested decreasing trends during 2009–2011; the number of malaria cases detected in the project areas over the years studied were 3818, 2695, and 2566, with sero-positive rates of 1.24, 0.98, and 1.16%, respectively. The eMIS case investigation module revealed different trends in weekly Plasmodium falciparum case numbers, when classified by responsible operational unit, local and migrant status, and case-detection type. It was shown that most Thai patients were infected within their own residential district, while migrants were infected either at their working village or from across the border. The data mapped in the system suggested that P

  7. Co-Circulation of Canine Coronavirus I and IIa/b with High Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

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    Xinyu Wang

    Full Text Available To trace the evolution of canine coronavirus (CCoV, 201 stool samples from diarrheic dogs in northeast China were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs targeting the partial M and S genes of CCoV, followed by an epidemiological analysis. M gene RT-PCRs showed that 28.36% (57/201 of the samples were positive for CCoV; of the 57 positive samples, CCoV-I and CCoV-II accounted for 15.79% (9/57 and 84.21% (48/57, respectively. A sequence comparison of the partial M gene revealed nucleotide homologies of 88.4%-100% among the 57 CCoV strains, and 88.7%-96.2% identity between the 57 CCoV strains and the Chinese reference strain HF3. The CCoV-I and CCoV-II strains exhibited genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. The 57 CCoV strains exhibited high co-infection rates with canine kobuvirus (CaKV (33.33% and canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2 (31.58%. The CCoV prevalence in diarrheic dogs differed significantly with immunization status, regions, seasons, and ages. Moreover, 28 S genes were amplified from the 57 CCoV-positive samples, including 26 CCoV-IIa strains, one CCoV-IIb strain, and one CCoV-I strain. A sequence comparison of the partial S gene revealed 86.3%-100% nucleotide identity among the 26 CCoV-IIa strains, and 89.6%-92.2% identity between the 26 CCoV-IIa strains and the Chinese reference strain V1. The 26 CCoV-IIa strains showed genetic diversity when compared with reference strains from China and other countries. Our data provide evidence that CCoV-I, CCoV-IIa, and CCoV-IIb strains co-circulate in the diarrhoetic dogs in northeast China, high co-infection rates with CaKV and CPV-2 were observed, and the CCoV-II strains exhibited high prevalence and genetic diversity.

  8. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas

    2011-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine parts. In addition, the economic

  9. Biogeochemical characteristics of Rosa canina grown in hydrothermally contaminated soils of the Gümüşhane Province, Northeast Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vural, Alaaddin

    2015-08-01

    Kırkpavli alteration area (Gümüşhane, Northeast Turkey) is contaminated by heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, As, Cu and Zn. The quantity of accumulation of heavy metal trace elements and macroelements in 32 leaves of Rosa canina of the Kırkpavli alteration area has been studied within the scope of geochemical studies. Element contents of samples were assessed using various parameters including descriptive statistics, factor analysis, correlation coefficients and bioaccumulation factor. Concentrations were detected in the acceptable range for Mo, Cu, Pb, Ni, As, Cd, Sb, P, Ti, Na, Se and Sn. Concentrations of Co, Mn, Ba and Hg were detected close to the acceptable values, whereas Zn, Fe, Sr, V, Ca, Cr, Mg, B, Al, K, W, Sc, Cs and Rb concentrations were detected above the acceptable values. Principal component analysis was used to identify the elements that have a close relationship with each other and/or similar origins. It has been concluded that Zn, Cu, As and Mo content of the plant were related to hydrothermal alteration process and they behaved together, whereas Mn and Fe were especially products of weathering conditions, also behaved together. In terms of macroelements, Ca, Mg and Na had similar behaviour, while P and K had the same correlation.

  10. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first

  11. Prevalence and time trends of spina bifida in fourteen cities located in the Liaoning province of northeast China, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Gen; Wu, Qi-Jun; Chen, Yan-Ling; Huang, Yan-Hong; Gong, Ting-Ting

    2017-03-21

    The present study sought to assess the time trends of spina bifida on the basis of cases identified by the Liaoning Birth Defects Registry in 14 cities from 2006 to 2015. We calculated the prevalence of spina bifida, percent and average change of time trends, and contribution rates of each city. Poisson regression model was used to find the line of best fit for spina bifida prevalence by year, with year as a continuous independent variable. From 2006 to 2015, a total of 2,029 spina bifida cases were identified from 3,248,954 live births (6.25/10,000 live births). We observed statistically significant decreasing trend of overall time trend (11.57% each year). Chaoyang, Fuxin, and Huludao were the top three leading cities, with 14.30/10,000 live births, 9.70/10,000 live births, and 9.20/10,000 live births, respectively. Inversely, the bottom three cities with lowest prevalence were Anshan (2.64/10,000 live births), Dandong (3.43/10,000 live births), and Dalian (3.45/10,000 live births). Of note, we observed significant decreasing trends in over half of these cities (n = 8). In addition, the decreasing trend of overall time trend could be mainly attributed to cities of Shenyang, Fushun, and Jinzhou which accounted for nearly one third. In summary, our study suggested a decreasing time trend of spina bifida during the past decade in the Liaoning province. The findings of this study provide evidence that the nationwide folic acid supplement program has been an effective strategy to prevent spina bifida.

  12. TREMATODE INFECTION OF FRESHWATER SNAIL, FAMILY BITHYNIIDAE IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsantiwong, Jutharat; Prasopdee, Sattrachai; Piratae, Supawadee; Khampoosa, Panita; Thammasiri, Chalida; Suwannatrai, Apiporn; Boonmars, Thidarut; Viyanant, Vithoon; Ruangsitichai, Jiraporn; Tarbsripair, Pairat; Tesana, Smarn

    2015-05-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is restricted to and requires for its aquatic life cycle only Bithynia snail as first intermediate host but many species of cyprinid fish as second intermediate hosts. A survey in Thailand of trematode infection in freshwater snails of the family Bithyniidae carried out during October 2008 - July 2009 found a total of 5,492 snails, classified into ten species distributed in various geographic areas. Bithyniafuniculata and Gabbia pygmaea were localized to the north, B. s. goniomphalos, Wattebledia siamensis and W. crosseana to northeast and B. s. siamensis, Hydrobioides nassa and G. wykoffi to central region. W. baschi and G. erawanensis was found only in the south and Erawan waterfall, Kanchanaburi Province, respectively. Trematode infection rate was 3.15%. Cercariae were identified as belonging to six types, namely, amartae , monostome, mutabile, O. viverrini, virgulate, and unknown. The prevalence of cercarial infection in B. s. goniomphalos of amartae, mutabile, O. viverrini, virgulate, and unknown type cercaria was 0.55%, 0.74%, 1.07%, 2.87%, and 0.37%, respectively, and in B. s. siamensis monostome (1.10%) and virgulate (0.55%). Only virgulate cercariae were shed from W. crosseana (3.85%) and W. siamensis (5.19%). Cercariae of the unknown type were found in G. wykoffi (1.69%). No infection of O. viverrini cercariae was detected in the other species.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and Survival of Cholangiocarcinoma Patients in Northeastern Region of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkiattiyos Woradet

    Full Text Available In northeast Thailand, cholangiocarcinoma (CCA is a major cause of mortality. Patients with CCA have a poor prognosis and short-term survival. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL and survival time, and to explore whether change in HRQOL score is related to survival among CCA patients. The study was performed between February 2011 and January 2012, and included 171 patients with newly diagnosed CCA from 5 tertiary hospitals in four provinces of northeast Thailand. The HRQOL was measured at baseline, 1 month, and 2 months after diagnosis by the FACT-Hep questionnaire (Thai version 4. The outcome was survival time from diagnosis. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to evaluate the association between HRQOL and survival time. A higher overall score on HRQOL was associated with a significantly better survival (HR per 5 units increase in HRQOL was 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88-0.96. Two of the separate domains contributing to the overall HRQOL-functional well-being and hepatobiliary cancer subscale-were found to have independent effects on survival, even after adjustment for potential confounding variables, and the other domains of HRQOL. CCA patient whose HRQOL scores had improved (≥9 units at the 1st month of follow up had a reduced probability of dying from the disease (HR: 0.56, 0.32-0.95 after adjustment for the same confounding factors. A positive association between HRQOL at diagnosis and survival time was found. An improvement in HRQOL score in the first months after diagnosis further increases survival.

  14. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  15. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1) To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2) To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3) To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of ...

  16. Obesity and Lifestyle Factors in Male Hospital Out-patients in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was exploring the prevalence of obesity and to determine the factors associated with obesity among male out-patients in Thailand. In a crosssectional survey consecutive male out-patients from four district hospitals in Nakhon Pathom Province in Thailand were assessed with various measures, ...

  17. First middle Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimanee, Y.; Yamee, C.; Tian, P.; Chavasseau, O.; Jaeger, J.J. [Bureau for Paleontology & Museum, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. for Mineral Resources

    2008-03-15

    Sivaladapids are a group of Asian adapiform primates that were previously documented from deposits dating to the middle Eocene through the late Miocene in Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and China. The group is notable for the persistence of three genera, Sivaladapis, Indraloris and Sinoadapis, into the late Miocene. In Thailand, sivaladapids were previously documented only from late Eocene deposits of the Krabi mine. Here, we describe the first Southeast Asian Miocene sivaladapid, Siamoadapis maemohensis gen. et sp. nov. from a 13.3 to 13.1 Ma lignite layer from the Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand. It differs from other Miocene sivaladapids by its distinctly smaller size and in features of the dentition. This discovery enhances the paleoecological diversity of the middle Miocene primate fauna of Thailand, which now includes sivaladapids, a loris, tarsiids, and hominoids. In this respect, the fossil primate community from the middle Miocene of Thailand is similar in its composition to roughly contemporaneous assemblages from southern China, India, and Pakistan. However, the Thai fossils represent a distinct genus, suggesting a different biogeographic province with distinctive paleoenvironments.

  18. Co-Circulation of the Rare CPV-2c with Unique Gln370Arg Substitution, New CPV-2b with Unique Thr440Ala Substitution, and New CPV-2a with High Prevalence and Variation in Heilongjiang Province, Northeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Geng

    Full Text Available To trace evolution of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2, a total of 201 stool samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea in Heilongjiang province of northeast China from May 2014 to April 2015. The presence of CPV-2 in the samples was determined by PCR amplification of the VP2 gene (568 bp of CPV-2. The results revealed that 95 samples (47.26% were positive for CPV-2, and they showed 98.8%-100% nucleotide identity and 97.6%-100% amino acid identity. Of 95 CPV-2-positive samples, types new2a (Ser297Ala, new2b (Ser297Ala, and 2c accounted for 64.21%, 21.05%, and 14.74%, respectively. The positive rate of CPV-2 and the distribution of the new2a, new2b and 2c types exhibited differences among regions, seasons, and ages. Immunized dogs accounted for 48.42% of 95 CPV-2-positive samples. Coinfections with canine coronavirus, canine kobuvirus, and canine bocavirus were identified. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the identified new2a, new2b, and CPV-2c strains in our study exhibited a close relationship with most of the CPV-2 strains from China; type new2a strains exhibited high variability, forming three subgroups; type new2b and CPV-2c strains formed one group with reference strains from China. Of 95 CPV-2 strains, Tyr324Ile and Thr440Ala substitutions accounted for 100% and 64.21%, respectively; all type new2b strains exhibited the Thr440Ala substitution, while the unique Gln370Arg substitution was found in all type 2c strains. Recombination analysis using entire VP2 gene indicated possible recombination events between the identified CPV-2 strains and reference strains from China. Our data revealed the co-circulation of new CPV-2a, new CPV-2b, and rare CPV-2c, as well as potential recombination events among Chinese CPV-2 strains.

  19. Population pressure and fertility in pre-transition Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandingham, M; Hirschman, C

    2001-11-01

    Before the demographic transition in Thailand, fertility was high, but not uniformly so. As in other pre-transition settings, Thai fertility responded to pressures and opportunities created by socioeconomic structure and land availability. Drawing upon provincial data from the 1947 and 1960 censuses of Thailand, we find a strong 'frontier effect' on Thai fertility in the 1950s. Fertility was higher in sparsely settled frontier provinces and lower in provinces with higher population density relative to cultivatable land. This finding is robust and holds up with controls for agricultural employment, land quality, and the sex ratio (an indicator of sex-selective migration). The effect of population pressure lowers the likelihood of marriage and of marital fertility. The findings from Thailand are consistent with the research of Easterlin on the nineteenth century United States and with other pre-transition societies. We suggest how demographic transition theory might be broadened to include fertility dynamics in pre-transition societies.

  20. All projects related to Thailand | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the GMS : a Study of the East-West and North-South Corridors. Project. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2. Start Date: August 12, ...

  1. All projects related to Thailand | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-08-12

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2. Start Date: August 12, 2008. End Date: August 13, 2010. Topic: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE ...

  2. Two new species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirichamon, Yotsawate; Balslev, Henrik; Mathapa, Sawai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Callerya (Endl.); C. chlorantha and C. tennaserimensis are illustrated and described. They are commonly found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi province, South-western Thailand. It was also found that C. chlorantha might be associated wi...

  3. Utilization of Google Earth for Distribution Mapping of Cholangiocarcinoma: a Case Study in Satuek District, Buriram, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanasing, Wannaporn; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Loyd, Ryan A; Rujirakul, Ratana; Yodkaw, Eakachai; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious public health problem in the Northeast of Thailand. CCA is considered to be an incurable and rapidly lethal disease. Knowledge of the distribution of CCA patients is necessary for management strategies. This study aimed to utilize the Geographic Information System and Google EarthTM for distribution mapping of cholangiocarcinoma in Satuek District, Buriram, Thailand, during a 5-year period (2008-2012). In this retrospective study data were collected and reviewed from the OPD cards, definitive cases of CCA were patients who were treated in Satuek hospital and were diagnosed with CCA or ICD-10 code C22.1. CCA cases were used to analyze and calculate with ArcGIS 9.2, all of data were imported into Google Earth using the online web page www.earthpoint.us. Data were displayed at village points. A total of 53 cases were diagnosed and identified as CCA. The incidence was 53.57 per 100,000 population (65.5 for males and 30.8 for females) and the majority of CCA cases were in stages IV and IIA. The average age was 67 years old. The highest attack rate was observed in Thung Wang sub-district (161.4 per 100,000 population). The map display at village points for CCA patients based on Google Earth gave a clear visual deistribution. CCA is still a major problem in Satuek district, Buriram province of Thailand. The Google Earth production process is very simple and easy to learn. It is suitable for the use in further development of CCA management strategies.

  4. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  5. Fire and the production of Astraeus odoratus (Basidiomycetes sporocarps in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forests of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan H. Kennedy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Astraeus (Diplocystidiaceae forms ectomycorrhizal associations with many tree species and is a common gasteromycete in tropical and temperate ecosystems worldwide. In Thailand, Astraeus is most prevalent in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest (DOF in the north and north-east and its ecology is uniquely associated with fire. Rural villagers often burn the seasonally dry DOF ground vegetation causing significant environmental disturbance to promote the growth of Astraeus sporocraps—a local culinary delicacy and important source of household income. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the practice of burning DOF stimulates the production of Astraeus sporocarps in DOF. Burned and unburned Astraeus habitat was surveyed over two years at two sites in Chiang Mai province and one site in Mae Hong Son province. Changes in soil fungi after a fire as well as vascular vegetation growing with Astraeus were studied. All sporocarps collected were identified as Astraeus odoratus. Astraeus sporocarps were found in both burned and unburned areas in 2010. In 2011, an unusually wet year, no sporocarps were found in burned or unburned areas. The top 2 cm of soil experienced high temperatures which killed fungi, but lower depths were well insulated from the heat. A wide range of vascular flora grew in Astraeus habitat, the most common tree species being Dipterocarpus tuberculatus var. tuberculatus and Dipterocarpus obtusifolius var. obtusifolius. This study shows that Astraeus can produce sporocarps without fire and future work can focus on more environmentally benign methods of harvesting this popular mushroom.

  6. Health informatics model for helminthiasis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, C; Trevanich, A; Wongsaroj, T; Wongsawad, C; Reungsang, P

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, helminth infections continue to be prevalent, particularly among impoverished populations. This study attempts to create the first health informatics model of helminthiasis in Thailand. The authors investigate how a health informatics model could be used to predict the control and eradication in a national control campaign. Fish-borne helminthiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of South-East Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The epicentre of this disease is located in north-east Thailand, where high prevalence coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA). The current report was conducted to determine a mathematical model of surveillance for helminthiasis while also using a geographic information system. The fish-borne helminthiasis model or the predicted equation was Y1 = 3.028 + 0.020 (elevation) - 2.098 (clay). For soil-transmitted helminthiasis, the mathematical model or the predicted equation was Y2 = -1.559 + 0.005 (rainfall) + 0.004 (elevation) - 2.198 (clay). The Ministry of Public Health has concluded that mass treatment for helminthiasis in the Thai population, targeting high-risk individuals, may be a cost-effective way to allocate limited funds. This type of approach, as well as further study on the correlation of clinical symptoms with environmental and geographic information, may offer a novel strategy to the helminth crisis.

  7. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  8. Public Domain System Modeling in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vathananukij, Hansa

    2009-03-01

    Natural feature at northern region of Thailand has been regularly inundated and significantly encountered straight to central plain downstream. Rainy season in the year 1995, 2002, and 2006 caused land slide and serious flood damaged both northern and central plain of Thailand. It is important meaning for reducing these losses. This research adopted the public domain system model to simulate flood in northern Thailand. Public domain system models have been introduced to academic researchers in Thailand (RM-GIS Center/Engineering/KU) since 2001. SWAT model was one of them. It unified continuous time and basin scale together with geoinformatic system interface. The model could simulate daily, weekly, and monthly data for both pre-process and post-process. Base flow methodology was employed on stream flow hydrograph separation and analysis program which leashed by sliding interval methodology. Data access was approached by basic standard query language. Distant from the previous three prototype basins (Omkoi 1,500 km2, Upper Nan 10,000 km2, and Pasak 15,000 km2), a new research platform was on steep slope basin (Maewaang catchment in Chiangmai province). Drainage area was 533 square-kilometers, almost un-regulated with two observation stations. Results indicated that the most sensitive parameter to model simulation is curve number (CN) while more relative parameter to land surface interpreter is NDVI (from spatial assessment through multi-resolution of satellite imageries). NDVI has much significant applicability to environmental monitoring, particularly for terrestrial dynamics. Their relationships have been affined and affirmed to represent fundamental parameters in both global scale and local scale such as temperature, plantation, evapo-transpiration, etc. Assessment results on aspect and relative differences illustrated significant value for northern region of Thailand. Geoinformatic system structures on digital elevation model, basin delineation and model outputs

  9. An analysis on DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars (Carica papaya L.), grown in Thailand with the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchadaporn, Janthasri; Sureeporn, Katengam; Khumcha, U

    2007-09-15

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Horticulture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Ubon Ratchathani province, Northeast Thailand during June 2002 to May 2003 aims to identify DNA fingerprints of thirty papaya cultivars with the use of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Papaya cultivars were collected from six different research centers in Thailand. Papaya plants of each cultivar were grown under field conditions up to four months then leaf numbers 2 and 3 of each cultivar (counted from top) were chosen for DNA extraction and the samples were used for AFLP analysis. Out of 64 random primers being used, 55 pairs gave an increase in DNA bands but only 12 pairs of random primers were randomly chosen for the final analysis of the experiment. The results showed that AFLP markers gave Polymorphic Information Contents (PIC) of three ranges i.e., AFLP markers of 235 lied on a PIC range of 0.003-0.05, 47 for a PIC range of 0.15-0.20 and 12 for a PIC range of 0.35-0.40. The results on dendrogram cluster analysis revealed that the thirty papaya cultivars were classified into six groups i.e., (1) Kaeg Dum and Malador (2) Kaeg Nuan (3) Pakchong and Solo (4) Taiwan (5) Co Coa Hai Nan and (6) Sitong. Nevertheless, in spite of the six papaya groups all papaya cultivars were genetically related to each other where diversity among the cultivars was not significantly found.

  10. Outbreak of cercarial dermatitis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullavanijaya, P; Wongwaisayawan, H

    1993-02-01

    An epidemic of cercarial dermatitis caused by Schistosoma spindale cercaria occurred in November 1988 in a district called Chaiya, Surajthani province, in Southern Thailand. Fifty-eight Thai farmers in Chaiya, Surajthani gave a history of itch following immersion in water while planting rice. The area of rice field was flooded for 10 days before farmers started working. The duration of the disease ranged from 2 days to 1 month. Forty-one patients had the disease for the first time, seventeen had a history of previous manifestations. This epidemic was caused by S. spindale cercaria, which developed in the Indoplanorbis exustus snail, associated with flooding.

  11. Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-09-01

    Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank.

  12. A new species of Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906 (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae) from the Mae Chaem District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K

    2014-04-02

    A new species of the fire-colored beetle genus Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906, is described from the Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The new species, Pseudopyrochroa inthanonensis sp. nov., is superficially similar to Pseudopyrochroa basalis (Pic), Pseudopyrochroa cardoni (Fairmaire) and Pseudopyrochroa fainanensis (Pic) by virtue of body color, antennal form and prothoracic shape. It is the second species of the genus known from Thailand, the other being Pseudopyrochroa diversicornis (Blair).

  13. Knowledge and perceptions of the risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs among orthopaedic patients in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Phueanpinit, Pacharaporn; Pongwecharak, Juraporn; Krska, Janet; Jarernsiripornkul, Narumol

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a high incidence of adverse effects from non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in Thailand, but patients’ perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks is unknown. Objective This study aims to assess patients’ perceptions and knowledge of NSAID risks and factors affecting them. Setting University hospital in North-East of Thailand. Method A Cross-sectional study conducted over 4 months, using a self-administered questionnaire. Patients prescribed NSAIDs for at least one...

  14. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  15. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  16. Distribution of the Population at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma in Bua Yai District, Nakhon Ratchasima of Thailand Using Google Map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Sangkudloa, Amnat; Kaewthani, Sarochinee; Khemplila, Kritsakorn; Cherdjirapong, Karuna; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Polsripradist, Poowadol; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Joosiri, Apinya; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a major problem of health in Thailand, particularly in Northeastern and Northern regions, is generally incurable and rapidly lethal because of presentation in stage 3 or 4. Early diagnosis of stage 1 and 2 could allow better survival. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a distribution map of populations at risk for CCA in BuaYai district of Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeast Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in 10 sub-districts and 122 villages, during June and November 2015. The populations at risk for CCA were screened using the Korat CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) and then risk areas were displayed by using Google map (GM). A total of 11,435 individuals from a 26,198 population completed the KCVST. The majority had a low score of risk for CCA (1-4 points; 93.3%). High scores with 6, 7 and 8 points accounted for 1.20%, 0.13% and 0.02%. The population at risk was found frequently in sub-district municipalities, followed by sub-district administrative organization and town municipalities, (F=396.220, P-value=0.000). Distribution mapping comprised 11 layers: 1, district; 2, local administrative organization; 3, hospital; 4, KCVST opisthorchiasis; 5, KCVST praziquantel used; 6, KCVST cholelithiasis; 7, KCVST raw fish consumption; 8, KCVST alcohol consumption; 9, KCVST pesticide used; 10, KCVST relative family with CCA; and 11, KCVST naive northeastern people. Geovisual display is now available online. This study indicated that the population at high risk of CCA in Bua Yai district is low, therefore setting a zero model project is possible. Key success factors for disease prevention and control need further study. GM production is suitable for further CCA surveillance and monitoring of the population with a high risk score in this area.

  17. IDRC in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New knowledge about complex issues such as pension plans has improved rural employment, especially for women. IDRCinternAtionAl develoPMent reSeArCh Centre. IDRC in Thailand. IDRC support is helping: □ Children experience less pain from illness. □ Small poultry producers survive bird flu control measures.

  18. Copyright Perspectives from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereebenjapol, Piyathida

    2010-01-01

    Foreign students often have different conceptions of copyright than do American students. This article summarizes Thailand's Copyright Act B.E. 2537 (1994). Also included are guidelines for fair use from a Thai university, as well as a literature review discussing copyright issues in Taiwan and Japan.

  19. Thailand power profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul.

    1988-01-01

    After briefly outlining the recent political history in Thailand, the organization of the electricity supply system is described. The growth in power plants and the variety of their fuels are discussed. The government is currently pursuing an energy policy with an emphasis on indigenous resources and the electricity generators are encouraged to use natural gas.

  20. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  1. TWO NEW RECORDS OF Isomyia paurogonita FANG AND FAN, 1986 AND Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (DIPTERA: CALLIPHORIDAE FROM NORTHERN THAILAND, WITH REVISED KEY TO THE SPECIES OF Isomyia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nophawan Bunchu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the annual fly survey at Doi Nang Kaew in Doi Saket District, Chiang Mai Province of Thailand in 2011, Isomyia paurogonita Fang & Fan, 1986 (Diptera: Calliphoridae and Sumatria latifrons Malloch, 1926 (Diptera: Calliphoridae were collected for the first time in Thailand. They are the rare species of the subfamily Rhiniinae (tribe Cosminini. Prior to this finding, fifteen species of Isomyia and two species of Sumatria were recorded from Thailand. Therefore, 96 blow fly species have been found in this country. These new locality records of both flies are very important for further research on their biology and ecology in Thailand.

  2. Factors associated with hand foot mouth disease among children in day care center, Chiang Rai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chadaporn Inta; Tawatchai Apidechkul; Siriyaporn Sittisarn; Pilasinee Wongnuch; Pussadee Laor; Yanasinee Suma; Korakot Chansareewittaya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors associated with hand foot mouth disease (HFMD) among children in day care center in Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Methods: A community based case-control study was conducted to identify the factors associated with HFMD among the children under 6 years old who had been cared for in day care centers in Chiang Rai Province. A 47-item questionnaire had been developed and tested for validity and reliability before use. Index of item-objective con...

  3. Oligarchy in Thailand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern conception of oligarchy, which can be housed under an authoritarian regime as easily as it can under a liberal democratic one, can affect our understanding of the potential national political repercussions of extreme inequalities of wealth. This article has two goals: (1 to conceptually analyse the meaning of oligarchy; and (2 to make a descriptive case for its use in the Thai context. The test case of contemporary Thailand shows what exactly an oligarch or oligarchy means under a military regime and the potential effects for national politics of an oligarchy based on material wealth. Utilizing Jeffrey A. Winters’ Aristotelian-grounded conception of oligarchy for the contemporary world, this article argues that some political outcomes in Thailand are inexplicable without recourse to a modern variant of oligarchic theory and analysis.

  4. Village power in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electric power system in Thailand. 99% of the country is electrified, but much of this is with diesel generators which leaves high costs but a high level of service. The paper discusses renewable energy projects which have been sited in the country, and examples of hybrid systems which have been retrofit into existing diesel generator systems. Photovoltaic and hydroelectric power projects are described. Dedicated systems have been installed for water pumping and battery charging applications.

  5. Thailand: AIDS crisis looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G

    1990-03-31

    Although Thailand's Ministry of Public Health has recorded slightly under 15,000 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to date, an independent team of health and medical experts has estimated that 200,000-300,000 Thais are infected. Moreover, the team has predicted that 1.6 million people--2.5% of the population--will be infected by 1995 in the absence of an aggressive, immediate prevention campaign. When AIDS 1st emerged in Thailand in the mid-1980s, it was largely restricted to homosexual prostitutes who came into contact with foreign men in gay bars. Soon, however, HIV infections was spreading rapidly among intravenous drug abusers and the infection rate among this group is currently estimated to be 45%. Another heavily affected group has been poorly paid prostitutes who work in Thailand's brothels; rates of 44-70% infectivity have been recorded among these women. Most recently, HIV infection has shown signs of entering the general population. Of the recorded cases of HIV infection in Chiang Mai, 59% involve prostitutes, 17% are workers, 6% are civil servants, 7% are students, and 2% are housewives. The sex ratio of HIV-infected persons has changed from 17 males per 1 female in 1986 to 5 males for every 1 female in 1989. Since the change in government in 1988, Thailand has stepped up AIDS education and information dissemination activities and condom use has increased by as much as 70%. Given the gravity of the situation, however, assistance from the World Bank and United Nations agencies in addition to the World Health Organization are needed.

  6. Pesticide Use and Prevention Practices of Tangerine Growers in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalermphol, Juthathip; Shivakoti, Genesh P.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate pesticide use and prevention practices of tangerine growers in Fang district, Chiang Mai province in Northern Thailand. A questionnaire survey of 312 farmers in the study area, in-depth interviews and group discussions. Only 36% of the participants pursued the recommended prevention practices every time they used pesticides.…

  7. Pork Consumption and Seroprevalence of Hepatitis E Virus,Thailand, 2007–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuenchitra, Thippawan; Khantapura, Patchariya; Islam, Dilara; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Mason, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    The nationwide seroprevalence of hepatitis E IgG was determined among young men in Thailand. Overall seroprevalence was 14% (95% CI 13%–15%); range by province was 3%–26%. Seroprevalence was lowest in the south, an area predominantly occupied by persons of the Islam religion, whose dietary laws proscribe pork. PMID:25148245

  8. English-Teaching Problems in Thailand and Thai Teachers' Professional Development Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noom-ura, Sripathum

    2013-01-01

    This study surveys problems with English language teaching and learning and the professional development (PD) needs of high-school teachers in three provinces of three Secondary Educational Service Areas in Thailand. Both closed-and open-ended questionnaires were employed. The data was analyzed by frequency distribution and percentage; the…

  9. A new species of the genus Burmagomphus Williamson (Odonata: Gomphidae) from Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makbun, Noppadon

    2017-05-19

    Burmagomphus chiangmaiensis sp. nov. (holotype: Ban Luang, Chom Thong, Chiang Mai province, Thailand, 890-900 m, 14 v 2012) is described and illustrated. It can be differentiated from its most similar congener, B. apricus from China, by shape of posterior hamulus, yellow trapezoid band on occiput, and larger size.

  10. A new species and three taxonomic changes in Piper (Piperaceae) from Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwanphakdee, C.; Chantaranothai, P.

    2011-01-01

    A new species, Piper chiangdaoense from Doi Chiangdao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chiang Mai province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. Piper trichostigma is raised to specific status and an epitype is selected. Piper maculaphyllum and P. rubroglandulosum are reduced to the synonymy of P. argyrites

  11. Doctors and society: a Northern Thailand study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H E

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a survey together with other observations to characterize the medical profession in Northern Thailand. Data were obtained in early 1976 using a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by 132 physicians in three Northern Thai provinces. Officially approved Thai medicine is 'Western' in nature and is predominantly an urban phenomenon. Practitioners of indigenous medicine are widespread and although illegal, they are tolerated. Training of doctors conforms very largely to Western standards. This plus the limited demand for private medical care results in a high proportion of the graduates of Thai medical schools migrating abroad. Results of the survey indicate that doctors in Northern Thailand were predominantly government employees or staff of a private hospital. Less than 5% were solely in self-employment. However, most 'employee' doctors had a private 'after hours' practice. Two types of medical professionals were identified: the 'cosmopolitan' and the 'local' doctor. Difficulties in communicating with patients were indicated by about 30% of the respondent doctors. The level of dissatisfaction expressed by the doctors surveyed was relatively high--43%. Items most often mentioned were: over-work, low compensation and lack of cooperation of patients. Satisfaction most often mentioned were: service to others, independent occupation and prestige with which doctors are regarded. In the analysis, the influence of several independent variables on type of professionalism and on satisfaction-dissatisfaction was determined.

  12. Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  13. Biochemical studies of insecticide resistance in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethuan, S; Jirakanjanakit, N; Saengtharatip, S; Chareonviriyaphap, T; Kaewpa, D; Rongnoparut, P

    2007-06-01

    Biochemical analysis was performed on field caught Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to determine activities of enzymes including mixed function oxidases (MFO), nonspecific esterases (alpha- and beta-), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Biochemical tests were performed on F1 generation of Ae. aegypti field caught mosquitoes, while in Ae. albopictus F2 progenies were used. Twenty-six samples of Ae. aegypti mosquito were collected from areas across different parts of Thailand including Bangkok (central), and the provinces of Chiang Rai (north), Nakhon Sawan (north-central), Nakhon Ratchasrima (northeast), Chonburi (east), Chanthaburi (east), and Songkhla (south). Eight wild caught samples of Ae. albopictus were from Songkhla, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasrima and Kanchanaburi (west) provinces. The susceptibility to pyrethroids (deltamethrin, permethrin), organophosphate (fenitrothion) and carbamate (propoxur) insecticides were revealed in these samples. The biochemical test results were compared with those of the susceptible Bora (French Polynesia) strain. There was significant enhancement of MFO in pyrethroid resistant Ae. aegypti samples, except those from Songkhla and Hauykwang district in Bangkok. Biochemical assay results suggested that nonspecific esterases conferred fenitrothion resistance in Ae. aegypti in Nakhon Sawan, while insensitive AChE and/or nonspecific esterases could play role in fenitrothion resistance in Nakhon Ratchasrima. There was no consistent association of GST with pyrethroid resistance in Ae. aegypti. Low enzyme activities found in Ae. aegypti in Songkhla and in Ae. albopictus corresponded to their insecticide susceptibility status. The increased enzyme activity in field samples reflecting local history of insecticide employment was discussed.

  14. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi

  15. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  16. Molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Nosema ceranae in honeybees, Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vena Chupia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the contamination levels of Nosema ceranae in honeybees and its molecular linkages in different geographical areas of Northern Thailand. Methods: Seventy-eight apiaries in Northern Thailand were chosen at random. The detection was accomplished both by microscopic examination and multiplex PCR. Nosema positive samples were evaluated by PCR sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Of the samples subjected to microscopic examination, 11.54% were found to be positive for Nosema while 29.49% of the samples evaluated by PCR were found to be positive for the disease. Honeybees from four of the six provinces surveyed in Northern Thailand were positive for Nosema, with the highest prevalence in Chiang Mai Province (48.57%. There was a high diversity of Nosema strains in some locations, while the same strain of pathogen was identified in many locations in Northern Thailand. Conclusions: This is the first report about the contamination levels and distribution pattern of nosemosis in Thailand. The study found the same group of Nosema in different locations, and different groups of Nosema in the same location. This pattern of distribution will be an advantage for disease control in the future.

  17. Regional Rapid Growth in Cities and Urbanization in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanadorn Phuttharak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in Thailand, along with its impact, to understand the dynamics of urbanization and how it affects cities. The study selected UdonThani Province, Thailand, as a case study. This study collected data from academic and semi-academic documents, semi-structured interviews, participatory and non-participatory observations, and group discussion. The informants were residents within municipalities, government, and private officers related to city development, and NGOs. The results found that the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in UdonThani province include: 1 historic events from World War II to the Cold War; 2 events during the Vietnam War; 3 Capitalist policies; and 4 the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. The study also found impacts of regional rapid growth in UdonThani province including 1 land use change; 2 economic and societal change; 3 road and traffic problems; and 4 waste disposal problems.

  18. Urologic cancer in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojanapiwat, Bannakij

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a major health burden among non-communicable diseases, which has had a high impact on the healthcare system in Thailand. Based on GLOBOCAN, the prevalence of urologic cancer is increasing in Thailand. Prostate, bladder and kidney cancers are 6th, 15th and 22nd most common cancers, respectively, in both males and females. Prostate cancer is the fourth most common cancer in male. Cancer in the lower socioeconomic groups is a challenging problem due to greater exposure to the risk factors and more limited access to the healthcare service. The cancers are usually detected in advanced stages of the cancer. The most common histopathological finding of kidney cancer is a renal cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common histopathology of bladder. There is a trend of stage migration to earlier stages at first presentation, probably due to public awareness and laboratory screening. Patients with early stage are treated with minimally invasive modalities such as endoscopic, laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is the mainstay treatment of localized prostate cancer with the better outcome and less complication. Androgen deprivation therapy is usually for elderly or unfit patients. The strategy for early detection of early cancer is the important role of Thai urologists to manage these three common urologic cancers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Four colorful new species of dragon millipedes, genus Desmoxytes Chamberlin, 1923, from northern Thailand (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Paradoxosomatidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srisonchai, Ruttapon; Enghoff, Henrik; Likhitrakarn, Natdanai

    2016-01-01

    Four new dragon millipede species of the genus Desmoxytes from northern Thailand are described and illustrated: D. des sp. n. from Chiang Mai Province, D. breviverpa sp. n. from Phrae Province, D. takensis sp. n. from Tak Province and D. pinnasquali sp. n. from Phitsanulok Province. The new speci...... on the metaterga, and the shape of the paraterga. The coloration of all new species is clearly aposematic: ranging from purple-pink to red. The new species are discussed in relation to their congeners, and a distribution map is provided....

  20. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  1. Genetic diversity of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus based on two hypervariable effector genes in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamrongjet Puttamuk

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las being the most widely distributed around the world, and the only species detected in Thailand. To understand the genetic diversity of Las bacteria in Thailand, we evaluated two closely-related effector genes, lasAI and lasAII, found within the Las prophages from 239 infected citrus and 55 infected psyllid samples collected from different provinces in Thailand. The results indicated that most of the Las-infected samples collected from Thailand contained at least one prophage sequence with 48.29% containing prophage 1 (FP1, 63.26% containing prophage 2 (FP2, and 19.38% containing both prophages. Interestingly, FP2 was found to be the predominant population in Las-infected citrus samples while Las-infected psyllids contained primarily FP1. The multiple banding patterns that resulted from amplification of lasAI imply extensive variation exists within the full and partial repeat sequence while the single band from lasAII indicates a low amount of variation within the repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of Las-infected samples from 22 provinces in Thailand suggested that the bacterial pathogen may have been introduced to Thailand from China and the Philippines. This is the first report evaluating the genetic variation of a large population of Ca. L. asiaticus infected samples in Thailand using the two effector genes from Las prophage regions.

  2. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  3. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  4. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  5. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Winai PRALOMKARN; Supakorn, China; Dolrudee BOONSANIT

    2012-01-01

    The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been f...

  6. Education for development in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhorn, N

    1981-06-01

    In the future freedom for Thailand and for other developing countries will depend more than ever on political stability and economic expansion. Both of these factors are critically tied to education. For nearly 50 years Thailand has struggled to make democracy in Southeast Asia a reality but with little success. If democracy in Thailand is to withstand the encroachment of communism from the east, the people need to be educated to assume their civic responsibilities. 80% of the 46 million Thai citizens live in rural areas, and agriculture is their primary occupation. Yet, if agricultural production is to keep pace with demand, the already fast growing agriculturally related services and industries must expand and move into the rural areas. This means that education must spread to a larger segment of the population in these areas. The emphasis on reading and writing must remain in education, but the aims toward which these skills are directed need to change to reflect the new purpose of education in Thailand, i.e., socioeconomic and political development. Education leaders in Thailand must replace the purely personal goals of traditional practices with social and national goals that promote development. Education for life--Thailand's new goal--focuses on the political and economic problems of the country by initially concentrating on basic literacy. Possibly the most underdeveloped resource in Thailand is the human resources of the rural population. The structure of Thai education must also change if the rural people are to be served. Additionally, education in Thailand must be spread over a longer time; it must become a lifelong experience.

  7. An Assessment of Epidemiology Capacity in a One Health Team at the Provincial Level in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soawapak Hinjoy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A multi-sectoral core epidemiology capacity assessment was conducted in provinces that implemented One Health services in order to assess the efficacy of a One Health approach in Thailand. In order to conduct the assessment, four provinces were randomly selected as a study group from a total of 19 Thai provinces that are currently using a One Health approach. As a control group, four additional provinces that never implemented a One Health approach were also sampled. The provincial officers were interviewed on the epidemiologic capacity of their respective provinces. The average score of epidemiologic capacity in the provinces implementing the One Health approach was 66.45%, while the provinces that did not implement this approach earned a score of 54.61%. The epidemiologic capacity of surveillance systems in provinces that utilized the One Health approach earned higher scores in comparison to provinces that did not implement the approach (75.00% vs. 53.13%, p-value 0.13. Although none of the capacity evaluations showed significant differences between the two groups, we found evidence that provinces implementing the One Health approach gained higher scores in both surveillance and outbreak investigation capacities. This may be explained by more efficient capacity when using a One Health approach, specifically in preventing, protecting, and responding to threats in local communities.

  8. Bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae infesting mango trees (Mangifera indica L. in Southern Thailand, with two new species recorded for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen species of ambrosia beetles and two bark beetle belonging to the curculionid subfamilies Scolytinae andPlatypodinae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae were collected from three infested mango trees (Mangifera indica L. in theresearch orchards of the Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla Province. Two species,Arixyleborus grandis (Schedl and Xyleborinus sculptilis (Schedl, are recorded for the first time in Thailand.

  9. [Impacts of climate warming on growth period and yield of rice in Northeast China during recent two decades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Wen-jia; Geng, Ting; Chen, Qun; Chen, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    By using rice growth period, yield and climate observation data during the recent two decades, the impact of climate warming on rice in Northeast China was investigated by mathematical statistics methods. The results indicated that in the three provinces of Northeast China, the average, maximum and minimum temperatures in rice growing season were on the. rise, and the rainfall presented a downward trend during 1989-2009. Compared to 1990s, the rice whole growth periods of Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning provinces in 2000s were prolonged 14 d, 4.5 d and 5.1 d, respectively. The increase of temperature in May, June and September could extend the rice growth period, while that in July would shorten the growth duration. The rice growth duration of registered varieties and experiment sites had a similar increasing trend in Northeast China except for the Heilongjiang Province, and the extension of registered varieties growth period was the main factor causing the prolonged growth period of rice at experiment sites. The change in daily average, minimum and maximum temperatures all could affect the rice yield in Northeast China. The increasing temperature significantly increased the rice yield in Heilongjiang Province, especially in the west region of Sanjiang Plain. Except for the south of Liaoning Province, rice yields in other regions of Northeast China were promoted by increasing temperature. Proper measures for breeding, cultivation and farming, could be adopted to fully improve the adaptation of rice to climate warming in Northeast China.

  10. Genetic diversity of Taenia saginata (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from Lao People's Democratic Republic and northeastern Thailand based on mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanpool, Oranuch; Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Maleewong, Wanchai; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2017-03-11

    Taenia saginata is a tapeworm found in cattle worldwide. Analysis of genetic diversity in different geographical populations of T. saginata not only helps to understand the origin, transmission and spread of this organism, but also to evaluate the selection pressures acting on T. saginata and how it is responding to them. However, there are few reports of the genetic variability of T. saginata populations in different regions of the world, including Lao PDR and Thailand. We report the genetic diversity of T. saginata populations in Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand together with sequences of T. saginata from other countries deposited in GenBank. Mitochondrial cox1 sequence analysis revealed that 15 and 8 haplotypes were identified in 30 and 21 T. saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand, respectively. Fifty-three haplotypes were identified from 98 sequences. Phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses revealed that global isolates of T. saginata were genetically divided into five groups (A, B, C1, C2 and D). Taenia saginata isolates from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand belonged to either Group A or B. Taenia saginata from western Thailand clustered in groups C1, C2 and D, and populations from the northeast and western Thailand were found to be genetically distinct. Taenia saginata isolates in Lao PDR and Thailand were also found to be genetically diverse but the degree of genetic differentiation was low. Taenia saginata populations from Lao PDR and northeastern Thailand are genetically distinct from the population in western Thailand and it is proposed that T. saginata has been dispersed by different transmission routes in Southeast Asia.

  11. Best Management Practice for Understanding Learning in Sustainable Water Resource Management (WRM) for Secondary Science Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunrasaksakun, Chunwadee

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of training teachers to enhance their students' achievements in water resource and disaster course and to compare the effects of using the curriculum framework between training teachers or using curriculum framework in the secondary schools in Khon Kaen Province of Thailand. It was found that the…

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES IN LOWER NORTHERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Apichat; Yimthin, Thatcha; Fukruksa, Chamaiporn; Wongpeera, Wichuda; Yotpanya, Waranan; Polseela, Raxsina; Thanwisai, Aunchalee

    2015-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are used successfully for biological control of subterranean larval pests leading to reduced environmental contamination if chemical control measures are employed. Their diversity and distribution in Thailand are unclear, so the present study sought to obtain a better understanding these EPN populations in the lower northern region of Thailand. We collected 930 soil samples from 186 sites of Kamphaeng Phet, Nakhon Sawan, Phetchabun, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, Tak, Uthai Thani, and Uttaradit Provinces, Thailand from December 2011 to November 2012. Galleria mellonella was used as host for isolating and propagating EPNs. Seventy soil samples (7.5%) yielded EPNs of two genera, Steinernema (3.0%) and Heterorhabditis (4.5%). The majority of the isolated EPNs were found in loam at 26°C-33°C and pH values of 5.0-7.0. Molecular identification from partial 28S rDNA sequences revealed S. websteri, isolated from soil samples from Nakhon Sawan and Uthai Thani. Phylogenetic analysis of these EPNs showed they are closely related to S. websteri JC1032. The identification that S. websteri was the predominant EPN should enable its application for biological control in the local prevailing soil conditions.

  13. Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis among beef cattle slaughtered for food in Western Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiengcharoen, Jitbanjong; Nakthong, Chowalit; Mitchaothai, Jumlong; Udonsom, Ruenruthai; Sukthana, Yaowalark

    2012-09-01

    Beef is a main type of meat consumed by Thais. The prevalences of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies were investigated among beef cattle slaughtered for food in western Thailand. A total of 389 blood samples obtained from beef cattle from 24 herds were collected at 3 slaughterhouses in 3 western provinces of Thailand: Kanchanaburi, Ratchaburi and Nakhon Pathom. An indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was performed using cut-off values of 1:128 for T. gondii and 1:200 for N. caninum. The antibodies to T. gondii were found in 100 samples (25.7%) and antibodies to N. caninum were found in 23 samples (5.9%) a significant difference (p neosporosis in this study is still a risk for morbidity among cattle, including abortions. This is the first study in Thailand finding both T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies among beef cattle.

  14. Thailand discovers the wind power; Thailand entdeckt die Windkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Katja

    2013-04-15

    In Thailand, the monsoon supplies a constant wind for months. This monsoon can be used for the power generation. The currently two wind farms in Thailand deliver contiguously an output of 207 megawatts. The utilization of wind energy is to be expanded to 1,200 megawatts up to the year 2021. Thailand's area (761 square kilometers) supplies good to excellent wind conditions for large wind power plants. Small wind power plants are suitable for the local power consumption and particularly useful in remote areas or on islands. In Southeast Asia, Vietnam has the greatest potential for the utilization of wind energy. The 3,444 km long coast of Vietnam, its mountains and the monsoon provide particularly good wind conditions. In Asia, the wind energy market is a great growth market. At this, the People's Republic of China is the world's number 1.

  15. Patterns of Rainfall in Pattani Province from 1982 to 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padoongyot Duangmala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated daily rainfall data collected from 14 meteorological measurement stations in Pattani Province of Southern Thailand with respect to their spatial and seasonal variation. We propose a method, based on five-day aggregation and zero-adjusted log-transformation, that makes such data more amenable to standard statistical analysis, and we use this method to compare the patterns of variation in the data at different locations in the province. We also display methods for graphing the data using a geographical information system, and propose a new plot for simultaneously revealing patterns of variation in both area and season.

  16. Improving Flood Management Planning in Thailand | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Flood Management Planning in Thailand. Thailand experienced its worst flooding disaster in half a century in 2011, inundating large areas of Bangkok. According to World Bank estimates, this disaster caused US$46.5 billion in damage and reduced Thailand's economic growth potential. It also raised important ...

  17. Spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Pamaranon, Nutavadee; Kawkalong, Sarayuth; Noimoh, Tanom; Chanachai, Karoon; Parakgamawongsa, Tippawon; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-08-05

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become a worldwide endemic disease of pigs. In 2006, an atypical and more virulent PRRS (HP-PRRS) emerged in China and spread to many countries, including Thailand. This study aimed to provide a first description of the spatio-temporal pattern of PRRS in Thailand and to quantify the statistical relationship between the presence of PRRS at the sub-district level and a set of risk factors. This should provide a basis for improving disease surveillance and control of PRRS in Thailand. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect clusters of outbreaks and allowed the identification of six spatial clusters covering 15 provinces of Thailand. Two modeling approaches were used to relate the presence or absence of PRRS outbreaks at the sub-district level to demographic characteristics of pig farming and other epidemiological spatial variables: autologistic multiple regressions and boosted regression trees (BRT). The variables showing a statistically significant association with PRRS presence in the autologistic multiple regression model were the sub-district human population and number of farms with breeding sows. The predictive power of the model, as measured by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots was moderate. BRT models had higher goodness of fit the metrics and identified the sub-district human population and density of farms with breeding sows as important predictor variables. The results indicated that farms with breeding sows may be an important group for targeted surveillance and control. However, these findings obtained at the sub-district level should be complemented by farm-level epidemiological investigations in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of the factors affecting PRRS presence. In this study, the outbreaks of PRRS could not be differentiated from the potential novel HP-PPRS form, which was recently discovered in the country.

  18. Modeling the Geographic Consequence and Pattern of Dengue Fever Transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekoe, Collins; Pansombut, Tatdow; Riyapan, Pakwan; Kakchapati, Sampurna; Phon-On, Aniruth

    2017-05-04

    Dengue fever is one of the infectious diseases that is still a public health problem in Thailand. This study considers in detail, the geographic consequence, seasonal and pattern of dengue fever transmission among the 76 provinces of Thailand from 2003 to 2015. A cross-sectional study. The data for the study was from the Department of Disease Control under the Bureau of Epidemiology, Thailand. The quarterly effects and location on the transmission of dengue was modeled using an alternative additive log-linear model. The model fitted well as illustrated by the residual plots and the  Again, the model showed that dengue fever is high in the second quarter of every year from May to August. There was an evidence of an increase in the trend of dengue annually from 2003 to 2015. There was a difference in the distribution of dengue fever within and between provinces. The areas of high risks were the central and southern regions of Thailand. The log-linear model provided a simple medium of modeling dengue fever transmission. The results are very important in the geographic distribution of dengue fever patterns.

  19. Population Genetics of Plasmodium vivax in Four High Malaria Endemic Areas in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congpuong, Kanungnit; Ubalee, Ratawan

    2017-10-01

    Recent trends of malaria in Thailand illustrate an increasing proportion of Plasmodium vivax, indicating the importance of P. vivax as a major causative agent of malaria. P. vivax malaria is usually considered a benign disease so the knowledge of this parasite has been limited, especially the genetic diversity and genetic structure of isolates from different endemic areas. The aim of this study was to examine the population genetics and structure of P. vivax isolates from 4 provinces with different malaria endemic settings in Thailand using 6 microsatellite markers. Total 234 blood samples from P. vivax mono-infected patients were collected. Strong genetic diversity was observed across all study sites; the expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.5871 to 0.9033. Genetic variability in this study divided P. vivax population into 3 clusters; first was P. vivax isolates from Mae Hong Son and Kanchanaburi Provinces located on the western part of Thailand; second, Yala isolates from the south; and third, Chanthaburi isolates from the east. P. vivax isolates from patients having parasite clearance time (PCT) longer than 24 hr after the first dose of chloroquine treatment had higher diversity when compared with those having PCT within 24 hr. This study revealed a clear evidence of different population structure of P. vivax from different malaria endemic areas of Thailand. The findings provide beneficial information to malaria control programme as it is a useful tool to track the source of infections and current malaria control efforts.

  20. Isu Perkawinan Minoritas di Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Triyono

    2016-06-01

    Masyarakat dalam sebuah negara biasanya terbagi dalam dua kelompok besar, kelompok mayoritas dan kelompok minoritas. Kelompok mayoritas biasanya memegang kendali dalam setiap kebijakan yang akan dilaksanakan dalam lingkungan masyarakat tersebut, sementara kelompok minoritas terkadang dapat ikut berperan di dalamnya dan terkadang juga tidak mendapatkan peran apapun dalam melaksanakan sebuah kebijakan di lingkungan tersebut. Negara Thailand merupakan memiliki keunikan tersendiri, karena selain tetap memegang kebijakan dalam melaksanakan perkawinan adat ketimuran yang kental dengan nilai-nilai budaya Thailand, negara gajah putih ini juga memberikan ruang kepada perkawinan kelompok minoritas yang ada di negara itu. Perkawinan minoritas yang terjadi di negara ini antara lain adalah isu perkawinan sejenis yang dilakukan oleh kelompok minoritas LGBT dan isu perkawinan beda agama yang umumnya terjadi antara mereka yang beragama Islam dan Buddha di wilayah Thailand Selatan.

  1. Managing School Safety in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachernwaat Srichai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Child injuries are replacing infectious disease as the leading cause of mortality in developing countries. As school is one of the environments where children spend significant time during their formative years, school safety should be effectively managed, promoted, and prioritized. In Thailand however, school safety is considered to be of low priority compared with other educational issues, lacking effective policy, and with schools struggling to justify safety costs. This article proposes a novel application of lean thinking to control the cost, bureaucracy, and waste associated with managing and administering a safe school. Through a case study in northern Thailand, one primary school’s current safety scenario is reviewed with regard to people, finance, and operations, before applying a lean framework to improve the handling of safety suggestions. Results show significant capacity to improve the management of school safety, along with management implications and potential to expand the framework beyond Thailand.

  2. Morphological and molecular identification of Dirofilaria immitis from Jackal (Canis aureus) in North Khorasan, northeast Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Heidari; Eshrat B Kia; Kourosh Arzamani; Meysam Sharifdini; Iraj Mobedi; Zabihollah Zarei; Bahareh Kamranrashani

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is an important mosquito-borne zoonotic nematode of domestic and wild mammals throughout the world, causing cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. This parasite has been reported from carnivores in some provinces of Iran. However, in the present study, the occurrence of this filarial nematode is reported for the first time in wild canids of the North Khorasan Province, located in northeast Iran, based on morphological and molecular character...

  3. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  4. Notocotylus loeiensis N. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) from Rattus losea (Rodentia: Muridae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisiri, K; Morand, S; Ribas, A

    2011-02-01

    Notocotylus loeiensis n. sp. (Trematoda: Notocotylidae) is described from the cecum of the lesser rice field rat (Rattus losea), from Loei Province in Thailand with a prevalence of 9.1% (eight of 88 rats infected). The new species differs from previously described Notocotylus species mainly by the extreme prebifurcal position of the genital pore and the number of ventral papillae. This is the first description at the species level of Notocotylus from mammals in Southeast Asia.

  5. Replacing the Measles Ten-Dose Vaccine Presentation with the Single-Dose Presentation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Connor, Diana L.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T.; Joel S. Welling; Bryan A. Norman; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Wiringa, Ann E.; Wateska, Angela R.; Jana, Anirban; Willem G van Panhuis

    2011-01-01

    Introduced to minimize open vial wastage, single-dose vaccine vials require more storage space and therefore may affect vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps and processes entailed to deliver vaccines from manufacturers to patients). We developed a computational model of Thailand’s Trang province vaccine supply chain to analyze the effects of switching from a ten-dose measles vaccine presentation to each of the following: a single-dose Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine (which Thailand ...

  6. Trends in the farming of the snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yoonpundh, R.; Little, D.

    1997-01-01

    The production of snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) from wild stocks and traditional culture systems has been declining in central Thailand, although they are on the increase in modern culture practices adopted in some provinces. Net yields of T. pectoralis in traditional systems are about a third of those in modern systems. The potential of T. pectoralis as a candidate for more intensive waste-fed polyculture appears promising if seed supply constraints can be removed.

  7. Molecular epidemiological and serological studies of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in Thailand cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of community-onset Staphylococcus argenteus and Staphylococcus aureus sepsis in Thailand: a prospective multicentre observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Chantratita, N.; Wikraiphat, C.; Tandhavanant, S.; Wongsuvan, G.; Ariyaprasert, P.; Suntornsut, P.; Thaipadungpanit, J.; Teerawattanasook, N.; Jutrakul, Y.; Srisurat, N.; Chaimanee, P.; Anukunananchai, J.; Phiphitaporn, S.; Srisamang, P.; Chetchotisakd, P.

    2016-01-01

    : Staphylococcus argenteus is a globally distributed cause of human infection, but diagnostic laboratories misidentify this as Staphylococcus aureus. We determined whether there is clinical utility in distinguishing between the two. A prospective cohort study of community-onset invasive staphylococcal sepsis was conducted in adults at four hospitals in northeast Thailand between 2010 and 2013. Of 311 patients analysed, 58 (19%) were infected with S. argenteus and 253 (81%) with S. aureus. Mos...

  9. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25 s...

  10. Village-based tropical pasture seed production in Thailand and Laos – a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage species, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Cayman hybrid brachiaria (B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Mombasa guinea (Panicum maximum, Tanzania guinea (P. maximum, Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris x var. pauciflora and Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum, is currently being produced by more than 1,000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported (95%, with the remainder sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of a Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs Ubon Forage Seeds to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper details how the development of a smallholder-farmer seed-production program in Thailand and Laos produced positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed-growers. In addition, the strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination enabled pasture growers in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America, to establish more than 20,000 ha of pastures over the past 3 years. 

  11. Epidemiology of hand foot mouth disease in Northern Thailand in 2016: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panupong Upala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the correlations between the meteorological data and the number of hand foot mouth disease (HFMD cases in 2016 in Northern Thailand, and to estimate the medical costs. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. Data on numbers of HFMD cases were collected from 49 hospitals in three different provinces in Northern Thailand: 16 hospitals from Chiang Rai Province, 7 hospitals from Pha Yao Province, and 26 hospitals from Chiang Mai Province. A questionnaire had been developed and tested for validity and reliability before used. The specific form for collecting meteorological data was developed and used in the field. All information was recorded in the same data spread sheet before analysis. Chi-square and correlation tests were used for explaining the epidemiology of HFMD in the areas. An alpha error at 0.05 was used to determine the statistical significance level. Results: A total of 8 261 cases were analyzed in the study. 56.0% were males, 97.5% aged less than 6 years, 82.6% were out-patient department (OPD cases, 75.5% were reported in raining season, and 43.2% were from Chiang Mai Province. The number of HFMD cases had statistically significant correlations with temperature, air pressure, relative humidity, and rainfall amount. Averagely, 216 baht and 3 678 baht per case per visit had to be expended for medical cost in OPD and IPD cases, respectively. Most of the cases had been reported in the border areas: Thai-Myanmar, and Thai-Lao. Conclusions: Thailand health care system should provide a concrete schedule for taking care of HFMD patients during raining season, and should develop an effective preventive and control program for HFMD particularly among children less than 6 years.

  12. Genetic population structure of the malaria vector Anopheles baimaii in north-east India using mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Devojit K

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anopheles baimaii is a primary vector of human malaria in the forest settings of Southeast Asia including the north-eastern region of India. Here, the genetic population structure and the basic population genetic parameters of An. baimaii in north-east India were estimated using DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sub unit II (COII gene. Methods Anopheles baimaii were collected from 26 geo-referenced locations across the seven north-east Indian states and the COII gene was sequenced from 176 individuals across these sites. Fifty-seven COII sequences of An. baimaii from six locations in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand from a previous study were added to this dataset. Altogether, 233 sequences were grouped into eight population groups, to facilitate analyses of genetic diversity, population structure and population history. Results A star-shaped median joining haplotype network, unimodal mismatch distribution and significantly negative neutrality tests indicated population expansion in An. baimaii with the start of expansion estimated to be ~0.243 million years before present (MYBP in north-east India. The populations of An. baimaii from north-east India had the highest haplotype and nucleotide diversity with all other populations having a subset of this diversity, likely as the result of range expansion from north-east India. The north-east Indian populations were genetically distinct from those in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Thailand, indicating that mountains, such as the Arakan mountain range between north-east India and Myanmar, are a significant barrier to gene flow. Within north-east India, there was no genetic differentiation among populations with the exception of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area that was significantly differentiated from other populations. Conclusions The high genetic distinctiveness of the Central 2 population in the Barail hills area of the north-east India should be

  13. Galeommatid bivalves from Phuket, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established. The spec......Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established...... crustacean, the remainder hide under shale, rocks and coral blocks, often in small intra- or interspecific family flocks. The behaviour was also noted for some of the species. It is presumed that galeommatid species go through a lengthy planktonic phase....

  14. Modifying homes for persons with physical disabilities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsiri, Sirinart; Ploylearmsang, Chanuttha; Hawsutisima, Katanyu; Riewpaiboon, Wachara; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-02-01

    Thailand passed the Persons with Disabilities Empowerment Act in 2007. The Act, which is in compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, ensures that registered persons with disabilities are entitled to home environment modifications' benefits up to a maximum of 20 000 baht (670 United States dollars); however, the Act's enforcement is still weak in Thailand. In 2013, researchers developed a home modification programme, consisting of a multidisciplinary team of medical and nonmedical practitioners and volunteers, to modify homes for persons with disabilities. The programme recruited participants with physical disabilities and assessed their functioning difficulties. Participants' homes were modified to address identified functioning difficulties. The project was implemented in four provinces in collaboration with staff from 27 district hospitals located in north-eastern Thailand. After the home modifications, all 43 recruited participants reported reduced difficulties in all areas, except for participants with severe degrees of difficulties, such as those reporting being unable to walk and unable to get up from the floor. The participants' quality of life had also improved. The average EQ-5D-5L score, measuring quality of life, increased by 0.203 - from 0.346 at baseline to 0.549 after the modifications. Home modifications in low-resourced settings are technically and financially feasible and can lead to reducing functioning difficulties and improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Implementation requires government subsidies to finance home modifications and the availability of technical guidelines and training on home modifications for implementing agents.

  15. Conventional natural gas play atlas, northeast British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, B. [Petrel Robertson, Calgary, AB (Canada); Davidson, J.; Feduniak, B. [National Energy Board, Calgary, AB (Canada); Hayes, M.; Walsh, W.; Ferri, F.; Hickin, A.; Richardson, D.; Fournier, M.; Adams, C.; Kerr, B.; Lee, C. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, Victoria, BC (Canada); Johnson, J.; Mclean, D.; Barker, J.; Walker, D.; Farr, G. [British Columbia Oil and Gas Commission, Fort St. John, BC (Canada)] (and others)

    2006-07-01

    This report provides an assessment of British Columbia's undiscovered resources. Although it covers all of the province's gas potential areas, its main focus is the quantification of the remaining undiscovered conventional gas potential of northeast British Columbia. The Conventional natural gas play atlas for northeast British Columbia contains both established and conceptual plays. Play definitions include resources that are considered proven and developable with current technology. They include exploration concepts that have been typically exploited in the province's portion of the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin. Play descriptions were also provided. Unconventional plays such as coalbed gas, some tight gas, shale gas and gas hydrates were also included, although they were deemed not currently productive. The atlas provides a framework for the assessment process as well as a reference point for future analyses. The current play definitions are expected to evolve with new geological concepts, technological developments and changing commodity prices. The northeast BC geographic areas covered in this report include the Deep Basin; Liard Basin and Fold Belt; the Northern Foothills; the southern Foothills; Fort St. John; and, Fort Nelson/Northern Plains. A series of maps were created to spatially display cumulative data for all plays throughout northeast BC. Values for the following categories were assigned to PNG and NTS grid units: discovered gas in place; discovered initial established marketable gas; discovered remaining marketable gas; cumulative marketable gas produced; undiscovered gas in place; undiscovered marketable gas; ultimate gas in place; ultimate marketable gas and ultimate remaining marketable gas. refs., tabs., figs.

  16. Genotypic distribution of hepatitis C virus in Thailand and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasitthankasem, Rujipat; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Siripon, Nipaporn; Suya, Chutima; Chulothok, Phrutsada; Chaiear, Kasemporn; Rujirojindakul, Pairaya; Kanjana, Sawan; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Poovorawan, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection results in chronic infection, which can lead to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Global burden of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated at 150 million individuals, or 3% of the world's population. The distribution of the seven major genotypes of HCV varies with geographical regions. Since Asia has a high incidence of HCV, we assessed the distribution of HCV genotypes in Thailand and Southeast Asia. From 588 HCV-positive samples obtained throughout Thailand, we characterized the HCV 5' untranslated region, Core, and NS5B regions by nested PCR. Nucleotide sequences obtained from both the Core and NS5B of these isolates were subjected to phylogenetic analysis, and genotypes were assigned using published reference genotypes. Results were compared to the epidemiological data of HCV genotypes identified within Southeast Asian. Among the HCV subtypes characterized in the Thai samples, subtype 3a was the most predominant (36.4%), followed by 1a (19.9%), 1b (12.6%), 3b (9.7%) and 2a (0.5%). While genotype 1 was prevalent throughout Thailand (27-36%), genotype 3 was more common in the south. Genotype 6 (20.9%) constituted subtype 6f (7.8%), 6n (7.7%), 6i (3.4%), 6j and 6m (0.7% each), 6c (0.3%), 6v and 6xa (0.2% each) and its prevalence was significantly lower in southern Thailand compared to the north and northeast (p = 0.027 and p = 0.030, respectively). Within Southeast Asia, high prevalence of genotype 6 occurred in northern countries such as Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam, while genotype 3 was prevalent in Thailand and Malaysia. Island nations of Singapore, Indonesia and Philippines demonstrated prevalence of genotype 1. This study further provides regional HCV genotype information that may be useful in fostering sound public health policy and tracking future patterns of HCV spread.

  17. Trichinella Infection in Wildlife of Northeast of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borji, H; Sadeghi, H; Razmi, GhR; Pozio, E; La Rosa, G

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of Trichinella in some carnivores of Mashhad in northeast of Iran and to identify Trichinella species circulating in this area. Methods The present study was carried out using muscle tissue collected from 120 stray dogs, 26 wild boars, 25 rodents, two foxes and two hyenas captured in Mashhad City, province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Results Trichinella larvae were detected in three stray dogs by artificial digestion and compression. All larvae were identified as T. britovi using multiplex PCR. Conclusion This is the first report of identification of T. britovi in stray dog in Iran. PMID:23323092

  18. Trichinella Infection in Wildlife of Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Pozio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of Trichinella in some carnivores of Mashhad in northeast of Iran and to identify Trichinella species circulating in this area.Methods: The present study was carried out using muscle tissue collected from 120 stray dogs, 26 wild boars, 25 rodents, two foxes and two hyenas captured in Mashhad City, province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran.Results: Trichinella larvae were detected in three stray dogs by artificial digestion and compression. All larvae were identified as T. britovi using multiplex PCR.Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of T. britovi in stray dog in Iran.

  19. Rapid health response, assessment, and surveillance after a tsunami--Thailand, 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-28

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake triggered a devastating tsunami that caused an estimated 225,000 deaths in eight countries (India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Maldives, Seychelles, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand) on two continents. In Thailand, six provinces (Krabi, Phang-Nga, Phuket, Ranong, Satun, and Trang) were impacted, including prominent international tourist destinations. The Thai Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) responded with rapid mobilization of local and nonlocal clinicians, public health practitioners, and medical supplies; assessment of health-care needs; identification of the dead, injured, and missing; and active surveillance of syndromic illness. The MOPH response was augmented by technical assistance from the Thai MOPH-U.S. CDC Collaboration (TUC) and the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), with support from the office of the World Health Organization (WHO) representative to Thailand. This report summarizes these activities. The experiences in Thailand underscore the value of written and rehearsed disaster plans, capacity for rapid mobilization, local coordination of relief activities, and active public health surveillance.

  20. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade

  1. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1 To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2 To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3 To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of 86 individuals. Tools used for data collection were survey, observation, interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that hoteliers in North-eastern Thailand developed their businesses as a reaction to the economic crisis and failing trade. To attract more tourists to the region, hotel managers integrated traditional Thai art to their businesses, especially local Isan art. This investigation of nine hotels in Isan identified nine areas in which art has been integrated into hotel businesses. These are paintings, sculptures, architecture, literature, music and dance , the four Buddhist necessities of life (food, accommodation, clothing and medicine, beliefs, customs and ceremonies. By integrating elements of each of these categories into their hotels, business owners and managers have been able to generate extra trade.

  2. Importance of dental records for victim identification following the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petju, M; Suteerayongprasert, A; Thongpud, R; Hassiri, K

    2007-04-01

    To determine the usefulness of dental records for victim identification following the Indian Ocean tsunami disaster in Thailand, and to evaluate the dental identification system in Thailand, the homeland of a large number of the victims. A descriptive study conducted at the Thai Tsunami Repatriation Centre in Phangnga Province one year after the tsunami hit Thailand on the 26th December 2004. The dental records of 3750 dead bodies and 3547 missing persons in the Thai Tsunami Victim Identification (TTVI) database, updated on 12th December 2005, were analysed. The identification rate of missing persons with dental records was significantly higher than that of those without (Pvictims identified by dental records were returned home within the first four months after the disaster. Dental records were the primary identifier in 46.2% of those identified. However, among the Thai citizens reported missing, only 2.0% used dental identification, 18.1% had dental charts and 0.8% had dental X-rays. In addition, only 7.4% of Thai dental records could be used for dental identification and one-third of Thai victims remained the majority of those unidentified. Based on this study, the usefulness of dental records for victim identification in a disaster was confirmed. The dental identification system for nationals of Thailand could not work efficiently due to lack of dental records and insufficient recorded detail.

  3. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  4. Forest statistics for northeast Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Hazard

    1963-01-01

    This publication summarizes the results of the third inventory of six northeast Washington counties: Ferry, Lincoln, Pend Oreille, Spokane, Stevens, and Whitman. The collection of field data was made during the years 1957 to 1961 in three separate inventory projects.

  5. Northeast Snowfall Impact Scale (NESIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — While the Fujita and Saffir-Simpson Scales characterize tornadoes and hurricanes respectively, there is no widely used scale to classify snowstorms. The Northeast...

  6. Research on the competitiveness of high-tech industries in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wang, Yang; Wang, Ming-Quan; Xiao, Yan-Bo; Gao, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Based on characteristics of high-tech industry in Northeast China, high-tech industry competitiveness index system was developed, and the competitiveness of high-tech industry was evaluated through principal component analysis and location quotient method. The results showed that the scale of high-tech industry in Northeast China as a whole was small, and presented a decreasing trend for the proportion in the country. The competitiveness of high-tech industry in Northeast China lagged far behind that of the eastern and central regions. The high-tech industry competitiveness of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces in China ranked 15, 19 and 21, respectively. The manufacture of medicine in Jilin province, and the manufacture of aircraft and spacecraft and the related equipment in Liaoning and Heilongjiang provinces had high competitive advantage, but the manufacture of electronic equipment and communication equipment and the manufacture of computers and office equipment was lack of competitiveness. The development suggestions were put forward to improve the competitiveness of high-tech industries in Northeast China.

  7. Duean sip, théâtre de l’ethnorégionalisme sud. Les nomades de la mer et le cycle rituel du dixième mois dans la province de Phang Nga (sud de la Thaïlande Duean sip, Theater of the Southern Ethnoregionalism. The Sea Nomads and the Tenth Lunar Month Ritual Complex in the Phang Nga Province (Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Ferrari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available La cérémonie bouddhique du dixième mois lunaire, connue comme la fête des morts et des revenants, revêt dans la région de Phang Nga, au sud de la Thaïlande une importance et un rôle qui vont bien au-delà de sa signification religieuse. Il s’agit en effet d’un complexe rituel qui, en s’emboîtant avec les cérémonies du festival végétarien des Sino-Thaïs et avec d’autres cérémonies propres aux nomades de la mer (Moken, Moklen et Urak Lawoi, met en scène les fondements des relations interethniques qui caractérisent la région. Le partage du territoire et des rôles sociaux dans celui-ci sont au cœur de ce cycle rituel, qui devient de fait le théatre de l’ethnorégionalisme du sud de la Thaïlande.The bouddhist ceremony of the tenth lunar month, dedicated to the dead and the hungry ghosts, is a paramount feature in the region of Phang Nga, Southern Thailand. Its importance and role go well beyond its religious meaning. Indeed, it is a ritual ensemble which, by overlapping with the vegetarien festival of the Sino-Thais and with ceremonises held by the Sea Gypsies (Moken, Moklen and Urak Lawoi, displays the very foundations of the interethnic relationships that characterize the region. The sharing of the territory and of the social roles distributed within the region are the core of the ritual cycle, which is thus the theater of Southern Thai’s ethnoregionalism.

  8. Chemical characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 2013 Rayong oil spill-affected coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, S; Hattayanone, M; Tipmanee, D; Suttinun, O; Khumsup, C; Kittikoon, I; Hirunyatrakul, P

    2018-02-01

    Among Southeast Asian countries, Thailand has gradually accustomed to extremely prompt urbanization, motorization, and industrialization. Chonburi and Rayong provinces are two provinces involved in "eastern seaboard" industrial zones, which is an emerging economic region that plays a key role in Thailand's economy. The 2013 Rayong oil spill did not only cause damages to the coastal and maritime environment, but also undermine trust in the overall safety system and negatively affect the investor confidence. In this study, 69 coastal soils collected around Koh Samed Island were chemically extracted and analyzed for 15 PAHs by using a Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra system comprising a high-speed performance system with ASSP function. In this study, numerous diagnostic binary ratios were applied to identify potential sources of PAHs. Advanced statistical techniques such as hierarchical cluster analysis coupled with principal component analysis were also conducted for further investigations of source identifications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  10. Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum, a new species of black fly (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Hiroyuki; Srisuka, Wichai; Saeung, Atiporn; Choochote, Wej

    2013-05-01

    Simulium (Asiosimulium) furvum sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from female, male, pupal, and larval specimens collected from Maewa National Park, Lampang Province, Thailand. This new species represents the fourth member of the subgenus Asiosimulium Takaoka & Chochoote, one of two small black fly subgenera endemic in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by a pear-shaped spermatheca in the female; a ventral plate in the male with a laterally compressed median keel directed ventrally and with a deep notch posteromedially, and aedeagal membrane with stout spines; and by 22 gill filaments in the pupa. Taxonomic notes are provided to separate this new species from three known species, Simulium (Asiosimulium) oblongum Takaoka & Choochote and Simulium (Asiosimulium) wanchaii Takaoka & Choochote, both from Thailand, and Simulium (Asiosimulium) suchitrae Takaoka from Nepal.

  11. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Line transect estimates of Irrawaddy dolphin abundance along the eastern Gulf Coast of Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen eHines

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effective conservation of coastal marine mammals is largely dependent on reliable knowledge of their abundance, as well as the ecological and human factors driving their distribution. In developing countries, lack of resources and capacity frequently impedes research needed to estimate abundance and to determine the ecological requirements of coastal marine mammals and the impact of threats related to coastal development and fisheries. Over the course of five years, we developed practical research methods and trained local scientists in Thailand to use accepted line transect distance sampling methods for abundance assessment. The study focused on a little-known coastal and freshwater species found throughout Southeast Asia, namely the Irrawaddy dolphin, which has been sighted regularly along the coast of the eastern Gulf of Thailand. During five years of line transect boat surveys in Trat Province, the eastern-most province in Thailand, we found an average of 423 dolphins distributed within 12km of the coast. Compared to other abundance estimates of coastal Irrawaddy dolphins in Southeast Asia, this is a relatively large number. This population could extend into the northern coast of Cambodia, where surveys are currently being planned. The Thai government has begun talks with Cambodia about a transboundary marine protected area that would include areas in both countries where coastal Irrawaddy dolphins are found. Other analyses include photo-identification, modeling environmental factors that determine presence, determination of fresh vs. salt water foraging using stable isotopes, and an assessment of threats. Collaboration between scientists in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam is further needed to determine dolphin movement and habitat use across borders.

  13. Gavialis from the Pleistocene of Thailand and its relevance for drainage connections from India to Java.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeremy E; Buffetaut, Eric; Naksri, Wilailuck; Lauprasert, Komsorn; Claude, Julien

    2012-01-01

    The genus Gavialis comprises a single living but endangered species, G. gangeticus, as well as fossil species recorded in the Miocene to Pleistocene deposits of the Indian subcontinent. The genus is also represented in the Pleistocene deposits of Java by the species G. bengawanicus, which was recently recognized to be valid. Surprisingly, no detailed report of the genus exists between these two provinces and the recent evolutionary history of Gavialis is not understood. We report new material consisting of skull and mandibular remains of Gavialis from the Early Pleistocene of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand. The Gavialis material described herein is attributed to Gavialis cf. bengawanicus and sheds new light on the occurrence of the genus in mainland SE Asia. Comparison of this new material with other species referred to the genus Gavialis led us to preliminary restrict the content of the genus to three species, namely G. gangeticus Gmelin, G. bengawanicus Dubois and G. lewisi Lull. The occurrence of G. cf. bengawanicus in Thailand allows us to propose a scenario for the dispersal of Gavialis from Indo-Pakistan to Indonesia, thus bridging a geographical gap between these two provinces. Dispersal by sea appears a less likely possibility than dispersal through fluvial drainages.

  14. Folk toys in Central Thailand: Product development for a creative economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Pichetpruth

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Folk toys in Central Thailand are a part of local Thai local wisdom. Creative folk toys are a part of cultural heritage and Thai creative and sustainable economic development. So, this research aimed to study 1 the indigenous folk toys in central Thailand, 2 the toy production problems and solution guidelines, and 3 the toy product development for the creative economy. The study employed a qualitative research method. The target group consisted of the selected communities in Nonthaburi Province, Ayutthaya Province and Suphanburi Province and folk toy sources. The informants were: 15 folk toy enterprise presidents, government officers and local experts as the key informants, 45 folk toy enterprise members as the causal informants and 45 customers as the general informants. Data were collected by means of interview, observation, focus group discussion and workshop from field study. Qualitative data were analyzed by inductive analysis method with triangular verification and the research results were presented by a descriptive analysis method. The research results revealed that folk toys in Central Thailand were derived from local indigenous knowledge that was created and transmitted through the generations for at least 700 years. Most of the folk toys in Central Thailand were produced by natural, local and easily found materials, using natural colors. The beauty, styles and quality of natural and man-made children’s toys were based on parental competency. Moreover, creation of folk toys is a form of Thai handicraft. Thai people truly believe that toys are symbols of parental love and attention and the tools to build up children’s growth in terms of lifestyle and creative mind. The findings show that folk toys in Central Thailand are made of special soil, wood, bamboo, lan leaf, tan leaf and coconut shell. Folk toys are categorized in four groups: 1 fun toys, such as krataewien, explosive bamboo, king drum, nangkop drum, rhythm coconut shell

  15. Astronomical Network for Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer (Hutawarakorn), Busaba; Soonthornthum, Boonraksar; Poshyachinda, Saran

    We report the latest development of a pilot project in establishing the astronomical network for teachers in Thailand. The project has been recently granted by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology Thailand and operated by Sirindhorn Observatory Chiangmai University. The objectives of the project are (1) to establish a16-inch semi-robotic telescope which can be accessed from schools nationwide; and (2) to establish an educational website in Thai language which contains electronic textbook of astronomy online encyclopedia of astronomy observing projects astronomical database and links to other educational websites worldwide. The network will play important role in the development of teaching and learning astronomy in Thailand.

  16. Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryseels, C.; Uk, S.; Erhart, A.; Gerrets, R.; Sluydts, V.; Durnez, L.; Muela Ribera, J.; Hausmann Muela, S.; Menard, D.; Heng, S.; Sochantha, T.; D'Alessandro, U.; Coosemans, M.; Peeters Grietens, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their

  17. Dengue in Thailand and Cambodia: An Assessment of the Degree of Underrecognized Disease Burden Based on Reported Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Ole; Yoon, In-Kyu; Vong, Sirenda; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Gibbons, Robert V.; Mammen, Mammen P.; Ly, Sowath; Buchy, Philippe; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Buathong, Rome; Huy, Rekol; Letson, G. William; Sabchareon, Arunee

    2011-01-01

    Background Disease incidence data are needed to guide decision-making for public health interventions. Although dengue is a reportable disease in Thailand and Cambodia, the degree that reported incidence underrecognizes true disease burden is unknown. We utilized dengue incidence calculated from laboratory-confirmed outpatient and inpatient cases in prospective cohort studies to estimate the magnitude of dengue underrecognition and to establish more accurate disease burden estimates for these countries. Methods and Findings Cohort studies were conducted among children aged dengue field site consortium over at least 2 dengue seasons. Age-group specific multiplication factors (MFs) were computed by comparing data from three cohort studies to national surveillance data in the same province and year. In Thailand, 14,627 person-years of prospective cohort data were obtained in two provinces and 14,493 person-years from one province in Cambodia. Average annual incidence of laboratory-confirmed dengue was 23/1,000 and 25/1,000 in Thailand, and 41/1,000 in Cambodia. Calculated MFs in these provinces varied by age-group and year (range 0.4–29). Average age-group specific MFs were then applied to country-level reporting data and indicated that in Thailand a median 229,886 (range 210,612–331,236) dengue cases occurred annually during 2003–2007 and a median 111,178 (range 80,452–357,135) cases occurred in Cambodia in children dengue cases was 8.7 and 2.6-fold in Thailand, and 9.1 and 1.4-fold in Cambodia, respectively. During the high-incidence year 2007, >95,000 children in Thailand and >58,000 children in Cambodia were estimated to be hospitalized due to dengue. Conclusion Calculating MFs by comparing prospective cohort study data to locally-reported national surveillance data is one approach to more accurately assess disease burden. These data indicate that although dengue is regularly reported in many countries, national surveillance data significantly

  18. Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Nitin K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is a major public health problem in Thailand. The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has been trying to monitor and control this disease for many years. The methodology and the results from this study could be useful for public health officers to develop a system to monitor and prevent diarrhea outbreaks. Methods The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The data of patients with diarrhea at village level and the 2001–2006 population censuses were collected to achieve the objective. Spatial analysis, using geographic information systems (GIS and other methods, was used to uncover the hidden phenomena from the data. In the data analysis section, spatial statistics such as quadrant analysis (QA, nearest neighbour analysis (NNA, and spatial autocorrelation analysis (SAA, were used to identify the spatial patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province. In addition, local indicators of spatial association (LISA and kernel density (KD estimation were used to detect diarrhea hotspots using data at village level. Results The hotspot maps produced by the LISA and KD techniques showed spatial trend patterns of diarrhea diffusion. Villages in the middle and northern regions revealed higher incidences. Also, the spatial patterns of diarrhea during the years 2001 and 2006 were found to represent spatially clustered patterns, both at global and local scales. Conclusion Spatial analysis methods in GIS revealed the spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province from the year 2001 to 2006. To implement specific and geographically appropriate public health risk-reduction programs, the use of such spatial analysis tools may become an integral component in the epidemiologic description, analysis, and risk assessment of diarrhea.

  19. Marketing contraceptives in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M

    1988-01-01

    It can be difficult to administer and motivate field workers in family planning programs. In the case of social marketing, the last distributors in the chain are small shopkeepers who keep part of the final sale price. Thus contraceptives become part and parcel of their routine business, and the margin becomes both their remuneration and their motivation. In Thailand and most other countries with social marketing programs, part of the selling price also returns to the program, providing some degree of cost recovery. As family planning succeeds and per capita incomes rise, individuals will be able to pay an increasing part of the total cost of family planning. In the interim, international agencies and governments will continue to provide subsidies. In rural countries like Thailand, social marketing programs can be initiated and expanded relatively rapidly because they build on an existing infrastructure; they can also reach the most distant parts of the country. Skills of local advertising agencies are available in practically all Third World countries. Sales are a reliable record of progress and can be used to suggest innovations or practical solutions to problems. Small shopkeepers often feel more comfortable vending contraceptives than many experts would expect and as members of the community, intuitively know what the community's standards are. Individuals handling oral contraceptives often require some training and supervision by full-time staff who can answer questions that arise; local physicians may also be notified of the program for referral of problem cases. If there is a problem with social marketing programs, it is that they are sometimes too successful--leading to large bills for contraceptive commodities. However, if evaluated in terms of cost-effectiveness, they are less expensive than their alternatives. Along with access to voluntary sterilization and community-based distribution programs, social marketing is a keystone in the arch of family

  20. Geodynamics map of northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, Leonid M.; Khanchuk, Alexander I.; Badarch, Gombosuren; Miller, Robert J.; Naumova, Vera V.; Nokleberg, Warren J.; Ogasawara, Masatsugu; Prokopiev, Andrei V.; Yan, Hongquan

    2013-01-01

    This map portrays the geodynamics of Northeast Asia at a scale of 1:5,000,000 using the concepts of plate tectonics and analysis of terranes and overlap assemblages. The map is the result of a detailed compilation and synthesis at 5 million scale and is part of a major international collaborative study of the mineral resources, metallogenesis, and tectonics of northeast Asia conducted from 1997 through 2002 by geologists from earth science agencies and universities in Russia, Mongolia, northeastern China, South Korea, Japan, and the USA.

  1. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand* §

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-kai; Hyde, Kevin D.; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-cheng

    2008-01-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed. PMID:18837113

  2. Spatial and Temporal Analyses of Cervical Cancer Patients in Upper Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongsak, Natthapat; Chitapanarux, Imjai; Suprasert, Prapaporn; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Bunyatisai, Walaithip; Sripan, Patumrat; Traisathit, Patrinee

    2016-11-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. There have been several studies indicating that risk is associated with geographic location and that the incidence of cervical cancer has changed over time. In Thailand, incidence rates have also been found to be different in each region. Methods: Participants were women living or having lived in upper Northern Thailand and subjected to cervical screening at Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Generalized additive models with Loess smooth curve fitting were applied to estimate the risk of cervical cancer. For the spatial analysis, Google Maps were employed to find the geographical locations of the participants’ addresses. The Quantum Geographic Information System was used to make a map of cervical cancer risk. Two univariate smooths: x equal to the residency duration was used in the temporal analysis of residency duration, and x equal to the calendar year that participants moved to upper Northern Thailand or birth year for participants already living there, were used in the temporal analysis of the earliest year. The spatial-temporal analysis was conducted in the same way as the spatial analysis except that the data were split into overlapping calendar years. Results: In the spatial analysis, the risk of cervical cancer was shown to be highest in the Eastern sector of upper Northern Thailand (p-value analysis of residency duration, the risk was shown to be steadily increasing (p-value =0.008), and in the temporal analysis of the earliest year, the risk was observed to be steadily decreasing (p-value=0.016). In the spatial-temporal analysis, the risk was stably higher in Chiang Rai and Nan provinces compared to Chiang Mai province. According to the display movement over time, the odds of developing cervical cancer declined in all provinces. Conclusions: The risk of cervical cancer has decreased over time but, in some areas, there is a higher risk than in

  3. UPPER DEVONIAN-LOWER CARBONIFEROUS CONODONTS FROM CHIANG DAO CHERTS, NORTHERN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINE RANDON

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In Northern Thailand, radiolarites (radiolarian cherts are very common and their study provides an important tool to understand the regional geology and moreover to localise the suture zone(s. Some of these deep and distal oceanic series yield conodonts which provide to obtain precise age datings. The present work is focused on the Upper Devonian and Lower Carboniferous conodonts from the Chiang Dao area (Chiang Mai province. The conodont faunas from these oceanic cherts display juvenile characters which are interpreted to be a result from a constraining environment.

  4. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  5. Spatial distribution and temporal variability of solar radiant over southern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waewsak, J.; Chancham, C. [Thaksin Univ., Phatthalung (Thailand). Dept. of Physics, Renewable Energy System Research and Demonstration Center, Solar and Wind Energy Research Lab

    2009-07-01

    The potential for solar energy in Thailand has been estimated at over 50,000 MW for power generation. However, existing power plants in the country produce only 32 MW. Most the the systems have been installed in rural areas, islands and other off-grid sites. The availability and variability of global solar radiant intensity and its spatial distribution are key parameters for designing and testing outdoor solar energy systems. These parameters must be well understood in order to evaluate system efficiency at specific locations. Therefore, this study examined the spatial distribution and temporal variability of solar radiant over southern Thailand using the Surfer computer program. The incident of solar radiation on a horizontal plane was estimated at 14 synoptic stations using the Angstrom's correlation which was obtained from meteorological data. Rainfall quantity at 3 main meteorological stations was used to correlate the hours of sunshine and to predict them in meteorological stations where sunshine recorders were absent but where rainfall data were present. The 3 stations were at the Surat Thani, Phuket and Hat Yai airports. Angstrom's correlation coefficients were obtained using the correlation between the hours of sunshine and day length. The solar radiant was obtained once the extraterrestrial solar radiation was known. The study showed that the solar radiant over southern Thailand varies between 12.51 to 24.54 MJ per m{sup 2} per day. It was concluded that the temporal variation of solar radiant over southern Thailand is highly influenced by the North-East and South-West monsoons. 16 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  6. Why Thailand’s Military Stepped In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Thailand’s society and economy have experienced rapid change, growth, and modernization as a result of embracing globalization and export -driven economic... Globalisation ,” in Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, ed. Kevin Hewison, 52 (London: Routledge, 1997). 40 E. IMMEDIATE CAUSES...Just Bypassed: The Military, Bureaucracy and Globalisation .” In Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, ed. Kevin Hewison, 52

  7. An educational VSAT system for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kunchaicharoenkul, Kanokporn

    1996-01-01

    Very small aperture terminal (VSA T) networks offer great opportunities to combine satellite technology and the needs of education in Thailand. An educational VSAT network for Thailand needs a central hub station in Bangkok and seven remote sites with VSAT equipment. The network supports two way compressed video, voice and data links between the central hub and VSAT sites. This thesis examines rain margin, system availability, VSAT antenna size and transponder power util...

  8. Rainwater composition in northeast Uruguay

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zunckel, M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim in this paper is threefold: firstly to gain an initial understanding of rainwater chemistry in the northeast of Uruguay; secondly to identify possible sources that contribute to its chemical composition; and thirdly to establish a baseline...

  9. Hemoglobin Variants in Northern Thailand: Prevalence, Heterogeneity and Molecular Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on hemoglobin (Hb) variants among peoples of northern Thailand. Hence, we determined the prevalence of Hb variants among a large cohort from this region. A study was done on 23,914 subjects recruited from eight provinces during June 2012-January 2014. Hb was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis, and corresponding mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Among 23,914 subjects examined, 211 (0.88%) were found to carry 14 different Hb variants. Five α-globin chain variants were identified: Hb Q-Thailand (n = 40; 19.0%), Hb Hekinan (n = 8, 3.8%), Hb Siam (n = 2, 0.9%), Hb Beijing (n = 1, 0.5%), and Hb Kawachi (n = 1, 0.5%), not previously described in the Thai population. Seven β-globin variants, including Hb Hope, Hb Tak, Hb S, Hb J-Bangkok, Hb G-Makassar, Hb C, and Hb Korle-Bu, were found in 115 (54.5%), 30 (14.2%), 3 (1.4%), 3 (1.4%), 1 (0.5%), 1 (0.5%), and 1 (0.5%) subjects, respectively. The remaining five subjects (2.4%) were carriers of two different δ-globin chain variants. A different spectrum and frequencies of Hb variants were noted compared to other geographical areas. Haplotype analysis demonstrated multiple origins for Hbs Hope and Tak and confirmed a non-African origin of Hb C. Several genetic interactions between these variants with other hemoglobinopathies were encountered. Associated hematological phenotypes and novel Hb derivatives formed were presented. The prevalence and molecular heterogeneities of the Hb variants found in this large cohort of the northern Thai people's should prove useful in developing a screening program, and for the performance of additional population genetics studies of hemoglobinopathy in the region.

  10. Population Engagement and Consultation at the Local Level: Thailand Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putthasri, Weerasak; Mathurapote, Nanoot; Srisookwattana, Orapan

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization handbook on Strategizing National Health in the 21st Century has emphasized the importance of the process of population consultation on needs and expectations. According to Thailand National Health Act 2007, three innovative social tools for participatory healthy public policy process were proposed, i.e., health assembly, health impact assessment and health system statute (charter). In practice, population consultation process is required in the process of the tools implementation. Therefore, this paper aims to illustrate how local health statute implementation supports population participation and consultation at the local level. The first local health statute owned by Cha-lae sub-district in Songkla Province had been introduced in 2009. So far, there are above 500 sub-districts or "Tambon" having their own health system statutes. Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO), health and non-health sectors, community leaders and civil society seemed to be key actors or a mechanism for the local health statute. This demonstrated three crucial elements or sectors for policy development, i.e., policy maker, evidence support and society. Contents of the local health statute are wide ranged, including social determinants, risks and diseases, life style, health services, health fund, to mental and social health in regard to the local problem and context. Therefore, it needs the process of discussion and consultation to seek their common interest and expectation. Local health statute in Thailand is an example of engagement and consultation of the population for health policy. This confirmed the process of population consultation on their needs and expectation that can be implemented both at national and local levels. This is also the strategy to improve the accountability of policy makers for health impacts at all levels of policy making. The challenges of local health statute include the mechanism to maintain and ensure the engagement and

  11. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Hydrologic provinces of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheaume, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Geological Survey Division, to describe the statewide hydrologic variations in Michigan's water resources. Twelve hydrologic provinces, which are based on similarities in aquifer lithology, yield, recharge, and ground-water- and surface-water-quality data, are described. The definition of statewide hydrologic characteristics and the delineation of hydrologic provinces improves the understanding of Michigan's water resources and provides a firm basis for realistic water-manangement decisions. The 12 provinces identified areas where bedrock aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (five provinces), where glacial-deposit aquifers provide most of the potable ground water (three provinces), and where problems with water quantity and (or) quality have limited the use of ground water as a water supply (four provinces). Subprovinces are defined on the basis of regional surface-water flow directions toward each of the Great Lakes.

  13. Impact of a Food Safety Campaign onStreptococcus suisInfection in Humans in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Dan; Kerdsin, Anusak; Akeda, Yukihiro; Chiranairadul, Piphat; Loetthong, Phacharaphan; Tanburawong, Nutchada; Areeratana, Prasanee; Puangmali, Panarat; Khamisara, Kasean; Pinyo, Wirasinee; Anukul, Rapeepun; Samerchea, Sutit; Lekhalula, Punpong; Nakayama, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Kouji; Hirose, Masayo; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Dejsirilert, Surang; Oishi, Kazunori

    2017-06-01

    Abstract Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen in swine and humans that causes sepsis and meningitis. Our previous study in Thailand showed that the prevalence of S. suis infection in humans, especially in northern areas of Thailand, and the transmission of the pathogen occurred mainly through the consumption of traditional raw pork products. Considering the high incidence proportion and mortality rate of the disease as an important public health problem, we implemented a food safety campaign in the Phayao Province in northern Thailand in 2011. We evaluated the effects of a food safety campaign by comparing the sociodemographic, clinical, and bacteriological characteristics of cases before and after the campaign. The follow-up study showed a marked decrease of the incidence proportion in the first 2 years, indicating the effectiveness of the campaign. In the third year, however, the incidence proportion slightly increased again, indicating the existence of deep-rooted cultural behaviors and the necessity of continuous public health intervention. Furthermore, epidemiological analysis of the cases made it possible to estimate the infectivity of the pathogen via the oral route of infection. In the present study, we showed the effectiveness of the food safety campaign for controlling the S. suis infection, and we present a role model public health intervention for prevalent areas affected by S. suis infection in humans.

  14. Cryptosporidium and Giardia detection in environmental waters of southwest coastal areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuphanunt, Mayuna; Karanis, Panagiotis; Charoenca, Naowarut; Boonkhao, Narongsak; Ongerth, Jerry E

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate water samples collected in coastal areas of Southern Thailand in the years of 2005 and 2008 for their contamination by the protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium and Giardia. One hundred eighteen water samples of different origin were collected from six Tsunami affected southern provinces of Thailand in early 2005, and they have been analyzed using standardized methodology. Fifteen out of 118 samples (12.7%) were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. and nine (7.6%) positive for Giardia spp. Additional 42 samples from two same areas were examined 3 years later, in the early 2008. Five out of 42 (11.9%) samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp., and three out of 42 (7.1%) were positive for Giardia spp.. Both protozoans were found in reservoir, river/canal, and pond waters. It appears no significant differences (p < 0.05) between Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts levels during the two monitoring periods; however, the number of the investigated areas and samples in the second period was significantly less than in the first period. This is the first description on Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in water sources of Thailand, and it suggests the need for water quality control in the interest of public health safety.

  15. Riparian Ficus tree communities: the distribution and abundance of riparian fig trees in northern Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornwiwan Pothasin

    Full Text Available Fig trees (Ficus are often ecologically significant keystone species because they sustain populations of the many seed-dispersing animals that feed on their fruits. They are prominent components of riparian zones where they may also contribute to bank stability as well as supporting associated animals. The diversity and distributions of riparian fig trees in deciduous and evergreen forests in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand were investigated in 2010-2012. To record the diversity and abundance of riparian fig trees, we (1 calculated stem density, species richness, and diversity indices in 20×50 m randomly selected quadrats along four streams and (2 measured the distances of individual trees from four streams to determine if species exhibit distinct distribution patterns within riparian zones. A total of 1169 individuals (from c. 4 ha were recorded in the quadrats, representing 33 Ficus species (13 monoecious and 20 dioecious from six sub-genera and about 70% of all the species recorded from northern Thailand. All 33 species had at least some stems in close proximity to the streams, but they varied in their typical proximity, with F. squamosa Roxb. and F. ischnopoda Miq the most strictly stream-side species. The riparian forests in Northern Thailand support a rich diversity and high density of Ficus species and our results emphasise the importance of fig tree within the broader priorities of riparian area conservation. Plans to maintain or restore properly functioning riparian forests need to take into account their significance.

  16. Estimation of Black Carbon Emissions from Dry Dipterocarp Forest Fires in Thailand

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    Ubonwan Chaiyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the estimation of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires in Thailand. Field experiments were set up at the natural forest, Mae Nam Phachi wildlife sanctuary, Ratchaburi Province, Thailand. The dead leaves were the main component consumed of the surface biomass with coverage higher than 90% in volume and mass. The dead leaves load was 342 ± 190 g∙m−2 and followed by a little mass load of twig, 100 g∙m−2. The chemical analysis of the dead leaves showed that the carbon content in the experimental biomass fuel was 45.81 ± 0.04%. From the field experiments, it was found that 88.38 ± 2.02% of the carbon input was converted to carbon released to the atmosphere, while less than 10% were left in the form of residues, and returned to soil. The quantity of dead leaves consumed to produce each gram of carbon released was 2.40 ± 0.02 gdry biomass burned. From the study, the emissions factor of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM2.5 and black carbon amounted 1329, 90, 26.19 and 2.83 g∙kg−1dry biomass burned, respectively. In Thailand, the amount of black carbon emissions from dry dipterocarp forest fires amounted 17.43 tonnes∙y−1.

  17. Childhood TB epidemiology and treatment outcomes in Thailand: a TB active surveillance network, 2004 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charusuntonsri Pricha

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Of the 9.2 million new TB cases occurring each year, about 10% are in children. Because childhood TB is usually non-infectious and non-fatal, national programs do not prioritize childhood TB diagnosis and treatment. We reviewed data from a demonstration project to learn more about the epidemiology of childhood TB in Thailand. Methods In four Thai provinces and one national hospital, we contacted healthcare facilities monthly to record data about persons diagnosed with TB, assist with patient care, provide HIV counseling and testing, and obtain sputum for culture and susceptibility testing. We analyzed clinical and treatment outcome data for patients age Results Only 279 (2% of 14,487 total cases occurred in children. The median age of children was 8 years (range: 4 months, 14 years. Of 197 children with pulmonary TB, 63 (32% were bacteriologically-confirmed: 56 (28% were smear-positive and 7 (4% were smear-negative, but culture-positive. One was diagnosed with multi-drug resistant TB. HIV infection was documented in 75 (27%. Thirteen (17% of 75 HIV-infected children died during TB treatment compared with 4 (2% of 204 not known to be HIV-infected (p Conclusion Childhood TB is infrequently diagnosed in Thailand. Understanding whether this is due to absence of disease or diagnostic effort requires further research. HIV contributes substantially to the childhood TB burden in Thailand and is associated with high mortality.

  18. A study on attitude towards blood donation among people in a rural district, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, V

    2000-09-01

    Blood and blood components are important in many situations. At present, there is only a donation system for blood banks to get blood in Thailand. Although the blood bank process has been founded in Thailand for many years, there is still an insufficient amount of blood for use. There are misguided attitudes on blood donation among the people in the rural areas. This study has been designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study to study attitude towards blood donation among the people in Bang Sapan District, Prachuab Kiri Khan Province, Thailand. Data from self-administered questionnaires were collected and statistical analysis was performed. We found that people in that area had a rather good attitude but this was still found in less than 50%. We found the attitude of the subjects only significantly correlated with the level of education. We concluded that improving the people's attitude on blood donation is important. We suggest that every blood bank should design a program for providing knowledge in order to improve the attitude of the people in that area. We also suggest that knowledge on blood donation should be repeatedly taught at any education level including the school system. This study can provided preliminary results for other studies.

  19. Yu Duan practices as embodying tradition, modernity and social change in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liamputtong, Pranee

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I examine the traditional postpartum beliefs and practices which still exist in northern Thailand today. The paper is based on qualitative research involving in-depth interviews with 30 women in Chiang Mai province. Beliefs and practices remain an essential part for postpartum care for women and have important consequences for women's health and wellbeing in northern Thailand. Many Thai women see their reproductive health problems as the consequence of inadequate postpartum practices. Thai women also believe that the effects of postpartum taboos would continue for the rest of their lives. Although the traditional postpartum beliefs and practices abound, the level of adherence differs according to the social structure of the women and their families. Poor rural women seem to hold on to their traditions more strongly than their urban counterparts. Urban middle class women in particular embody modernity in their thinking and behaviours concerning postpartum practices. But modernization has brought with it medical dominance. Due to their medical knowledge, doctors retain authority over both knowledge and status. The consequence of this dominance is the attempt to dismiss local traditional knowledge and practices. Although the pattern of traditional postpartum beliefs and practices is changing, it is still observed in northern Thailand. I contend that postpartum care for women incorporates local traditions so that women's health can be optimized at the time when they are in the most vulnerable stage of their lives.

  20. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  1. How Thailand took on the transnational tobacco titans | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-04

    , anti-tobacco forces in Thailand and internationally had been re-energized, and Thailand ... The English-language publication of both books was aided by a grant from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

  2. Effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on dengue epidemics in Thailand, 1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinchan Suratsawadee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive vector control efforts, dengue epidemics continue to occur throughout Southeast Asia in multi-annual cycles. Weather is considered an important factor in these cycles, but the extent to which the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a driving force behind dengue epidemics remains unclear. Methods We examined the temporal relationship between El Niño and the occurrence of dengue epidemics, and constructed Poisson autoregressive models for incidences of dengue cases. Global ENSO records, dengue surveillance data, and local meteorological data in two geographically diverse regions in Thailand (the tropical southern coastal region and the northern inland mountainous region were analyzed. Results The strength of El Niño was consistently a predictor for the occurrence of dengue epidemics throughout time lags from 1 to 11 months in the two selected regions of Thailand. Up to 22% (in 8 northern inland mountainous provinces and 15% (in 5 southern tropical coastal provinces of the variation in the monthly incidence of dengue cases were attributable to global ENSO cycles. Province-level predictive models were fitted using 1996-2004 data and validated with out-of-fit data from 2005. The multivariate ENSO index was an independent predictor in 10 of the 13 studied provinces. Conclusion El Niño is one of the important driving forces for dengue epidemics across the geographically diverse regions of Thailand; however, spatial heterogeneity in the effect exists. The effects of El Niño should be taken into account in future epidemic forecasting for public health preparedness.

  3. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Replacing the measles ten-dose vaccine presentation with the single-dose presentation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Connor, Diana L; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T; Welling, Joel S; Norman, Bryan A; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Wiringa, Ann E; Wateska, Angela R; Jana, Anirban; Van Panhuis, Willem G; Burke, Donald S

    2011-05-12

    Introduced to minimize open vial wastage, single-dose vaccine vials require more storage space and therefore may affect vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps and processes involved in distributing vaccines from manufacturers to patients). We developed a computational model of Thailand's Trang province vaccine supply chain to analyze the effects of switching from a ten-dose measles vaccine presentation to each of the following: a single-dose measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (which Thailand is currently considering) or a single-dose measles vaccine. While the Trang province vaccine supply chain would generally have enough storage and transport capacity to accommodate the switches, the added volume could push some locations' storage and transport space utilization close to their limits. Single-dose vaccines would allow for more precise ordering and decrease open vial waste, but decrease reserves for unanticipated demand. Moreover, the added disposal and administration costs could far outweigh the costs saved from preventing open vial wastage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The burden of hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in rural Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia M Fry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe the epidemiology of hospitalized RSV infections for all age groups from population-based surveillance in two rural provinces in Thailand. METHODS: From September 1, 2003 through December 31, 2007, we enrolled hospitalized patients with acute lower respiratory tract illness, who had a chest radiograph ordered by the physician, from all hospitals in SaKaeo and Nakhom Phanom Provinces. We tested nasopharyngeal specimens for RSV with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assays and paired-sera from a subset of patients with IgG enzyme immunoassay. Rates were adjusted for enrollment. RESULTS: Among 11,097 enrolled patients, 987 (8.9% had RSV infection. Rates of hospitalized RSV infection overall (and radiographically-confirmed pneumonia were highest among children aged<1 year: 1,067/100,000 (534/100,000 radiographically-confirmed pneumonia and 1-4 year: 403/100,000 (222/100,000, but low among enrolled adults aged≥65 years: 42/100,000. Age<1 year (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=13.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.7, 22.5 and 1-4 year (aOR=8.3, 95% CI 5.0, 13.9 were independent predictors of hospitalized RSV infection. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of hospitalized RSV lower respiratory tract illness among children<5 years was high in rural Thailand. Efforts to prevent RSV infection could substantially reduce the pneumonia burden in children aged<5 years.

  6. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice ver...

  7. Population-Based Study of Prevalence of Cleft Lip/Palate in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Chicharoen, Vichai; Chakranon, Manunya; Sriplung, Hutcha; Limpitikul, Wannee; Dissaneevate, Pathikan; Intharasangkanawin, Nitthakarn; Tantichantakarun, Pongsak; Sattapanyo, Atchara

    2016-05-01

    Oral cleft is a common craniofacial birth defect that leads to long-lasting adverse outcomes. In Thailand, there have been two studies of the prevalence of oral clefts using data from university hospitals during 1969 through 1978 and 1988 through 1999, which found prevalence rates of 1.23 and 1.22 per 1000 live births, respectively. The primary outcome was to assess the prevalence of oral clefts from the birth defects registry during 2009 through 2013 in three provinces in southern Thailand. The secondary outcomes were to correlate the risk of oral cleft and maternal age. Population-based study. Four hundred sixty-seven hospitals in three provinces in southern Thailand. Oral cleft cases and maternal data-including live births, stillbirths, and termination of pregnancy following a prenatal diagnosis-were collected from the birth defects registry. Of the total 186,393 births, there were 269 oral cleft cases, giving an average prevalence of 1.44 per 1000 births (95% CI, 1.22-1.63). The most common cleft type was cleft lip and palate (45.0%), followed by cleft palate (29.0%), with 15.6% syndromic cleft. The mean maternal age was 28.0 ± 6.4 years. There were no differences in prevalence of oral clefts among the different maternal age groups. However, advanced maternal age 35+ years was associated with syndromic cleft children. The prevalence of oral clefts was 1.44 per 1000 live births, with 15% of cases having an associated congenital anomaly or a recognized syndrome. Increased maternal age was associated with a higher prevalence of syndromic cleft.

  8. Practices for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rice Production in Northeast Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noppol Arunrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land management practices for rice productivity and carbon storage have been a key focus of research leading to opportunities for substantial greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation. The effects of land management practices on global warming potential (GWP and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI from rice production within the farm gate were investigated. For the 13 study sites, soil samples were collected by the Land Development Department in 2004. In 2014, at these same sites, soil samples were collected again to estimate the soil organic carbon sequestration rate (SOCSR from 2004 to 2014. Surveys were conducted at each sampling site to record the rice yield and management practices. The carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions, Net GWP, and GHGI associated with the management practices were calculated. Mean rice yield and SOCSR were 3307 kg·ha−1·year−1 and 1173 kg·C·ha−1·year−1, respectively. The net GWP varied across sites, from 819 to 5170 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1, with an average value of 3090 kg·CO2eq·ha−1·year−1. GHGI ranged from 0.31 to 1.68 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield, with an average value of 0.97 kg·CO2eq·kg−1 yield. Our findings revealed that the amount of potassium (potash, K2O fertilizer application rate is the most significant factor explaining rice yield and SOCSR. The burning of rice residues in the field was the main factor determining GHGI in this area. An effective way to reduce GHG emissions and contribute to sustainable rice production for food security with low GHGI and high productivity is avoiding the burning of rice residues.

  9. The Marketing of Gathered Food as an Economic Strategy of Women in Northeast Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno-Black, G.; Price, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the effects of the sale of gathered food items used for home consumption on women's time allocation patterns and household nutrition. Marketing opportunities; Gathering habits; Significance of the contribution to family income; Expenditures using money from gathered food; effects on

  10. Proximate compositions and bioactive compounds of edible wild and cultivated mushrooms from Northeast Thailand

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    Amporn Srikram

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mushrooms are known as an excellent source of nutrients including macronutrients and bioactive compounds. Nutritional values were investigated involving proximate analysis, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, total phenol content (TPC and total flavonoid content (TFC of 10 edible wild mushroom species—Amanita calyptroderma Ark. et al., Amanita princeps Corner et Bas, A., Astraeus odoratus, Heimiella retispora (Pat. et. Bak. Boedijn., Mycoamaranthus cambodgensis (Pat. Trappe, Russula alboareolata Hongo, Russula cyanoxantha Schaeff.ex.Fr., Russula emetic (Schaeff. ex Fr. S.F.Gray., Russula virescens (Schaeff. fr., Termitomyces clypeatus Heim—and five cultivated mushroom species—Auricularia auricula-judae, Lentinus polychrous Lev., Lentinus squarrosulus Mont., Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr. Sing, Volvariella vovacea (Bull. Ex.Fr. Sing. From the proximate analysis, the moisture contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms ranged from 84.15% fresh weight (FW to 90.21% FW. The ash, crude protein, fat, crude fiber and carbohydrate contents of both wild and cultivated mushrooms were in the dry weight ranges 2.56–13.96%, 11.16–50.29%, 1.43–21.94%, 2.11–38.11% and 9.56–59.73%, respectively, and the contents of macronutrients in the mushrooms varied by variety. Wild mushrooms had a high fiber content compared to cultivated mushrooms. The contents of biologically active compounds of both wild and cultivated mushrooms also varied depending on the variety. Values for the TAC, TPC and TFC of wild mushrooms were higher than those of cultivated mushrooms. In conclusion, the proximate analysis for both wild and cultivated mushrooms was variety dependent and wild mushrooms contained a higher fiber content and more biologically active compounds than cultivated mushrooms.

  11. Developing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers in Thailand: formative findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate barriers to and supports for implementing a diabetes prevention education programme for community health-care workers (CHCWs) in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The study also aimed to get preliminary input into the design of a tailored diabetes prevention education programme for CHCWs. Thailand has faced under-nutrition and yet, paradoxically, the prevalence of diseases of over-nutrition, such as obesity and diabetes, has escalated. As access to diabetes prevention programme is limited in Thailand, especially in rural and semi-urban areas, it becomes critical to develop a health information delivery system that is relevant, cost-effective, and sustainable. Health-care professionals (n = 12) selected from health centres within one district participated in in-depth interviews. In addition, screened people at risk for diabetes participated in interviews (n = 8) and focus groups (n = 4 groups, 23 participants). Coded transcripts from audio-taped interviews or focus groups were analysed by hand and using NVivo software. Concept mapping illustrated the findings. Health-care professionals identified potential barriers to programme success as a motivation for regular participation, and lack of health policy support for programme sustainability. Health-care professionals identified opportunities to integrate health promotion and disease prevention into CHCWs' duties. Health-care professionals recommended small-group workshops, hands-on learning activities, case studies, and video presentations that bring knowledge to practice within their cultural context. CHCWs should receive a credit for continuing study. People at risk for diabetes lacked knowledge of nutrition, diabetes risk factors, and resources to access health information. They desired two-way communication with CHCWs. Formative research supports the need for an effective, sustainable programme to support knowledge translation to CHCWs and at-risk populations in the

  12. Cost of diabetes and its complications in Thailand: a complete picture of economic burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch; Riewpaiboon, Wachara; Boupaijit, Kuanoon; Panpuwong, Niphaphat; Archavanuntagul, Vorachai

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder with increasing burden in Thailand. The chronic nature along with associated complications makes the disease very costly. In Thailand, there exist some studies on cost of diabetes; however, those studies estimated the cost either from provider or from patient perspective. In order to capture the complete picture of economic burden caused by diabetes, using prevalence-based approach; the present study estimated the cost of illness of diabetes from societal perspective, the broadest viewpoint covering all costs irrespective of who incur them. Data were collected from 475 randomly selected diabetic patients who received treatment from Waritchaphum hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province of Thailand during 2007-2008 with a response rate of 98%. A micro-costing approach was used to calculate the cost. The direct medical cost was calculated by multiplying the quantity of medical services consumed by their unit costs while indirect cost was calculated by using human capital approach. The total cost of illness of diabetes for 475 study participants was estimated as USD 418,696 for the financial year 2008 (1 USD = 32 THB). Of this, 23% was direct medical cost, 40% was direct non-medical cost and 37% was indirect cost. The average cost of illness per diabetic patient was USD 881.47 in 2008 which was 21% of per capita gross domestic product of Thailand. Existence of complications increased the cost substantially. Cost of informal care contributed 28% of total cost of illness of diabetes. Therefore, the disease not only affected the individual but also the family members, friends and neighbours. The economic and social burden of the disease therefore emphasises the need for initiatives to prevent the disease prevalence and counselling to the diabetic patients to prevent the progression of the disease and its devastating complications. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Princess of Thailand returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 17 November 2015, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand visited CERN. Princess Sirindhorn was visiting the Laboratory for the fifth time, following her last visit in 2010.   Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (center) witnesses the signing of the collaboration agreement between CERN and SLRI, represented by Rolf Heuer (right) and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn (left) respectively. The Princess was accompanied by a delegation that included the Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Thailand, Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, and a large group of Thailand’s Diplomatic Representatives in Switzerland. Upon her arrival, Princess Sirindhorn was welcomed by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Director-General Designate, Fabiola Gianotti. At CERN, the Princess was given a brief update on the Laboratory’s activities since her last visit, in April 2010. Later on, she witnessed the signature of the f...

  14. Health Burden of Extreme Weather in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraphan Plongmak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and evaluated the variation of the health burden in response to extreme weather events that occurred in Thailand from 2006 to 2010. The health burden was assessed using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost and deaths from injuries as its indicators. Thailand has a DALYs lost of over 16,274 from extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include floods, flash floods, and severe storms, and most of the DALYs in Thailand were lost from floods (approximately 12,872 DALYs. The second most impactful weather event was severe storms, with losses of approximately 2,019 DALYs, followed by flash floods, which caused losses of about 1,383 DALYs. Climate change is a cause of extreme weather events, and a relationship betweenclimate and health has been found worldwide. Improved long-term, high-quality data sets are needed to better analyze and improve accuracy of the health burden.

  15. Palliative care nursing interventions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Eaton, Linda H; Rue, Tessa; Hong, Elizabeth; Coenen, Amy

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the nursing interventions that nurses in Thailand identify as most important in promoting dignified dying. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. A total of 247 Thai nurses completed a paper-and-pencil survey written in Thai. The survey included both demographic questions and palliative care interventions, listed with summative rating scales, from the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The five most important nursing interventions to promote dignified dying, ranked by average importance rating, were (a) maintain dignity and privacy, (b) establish trust, (c) manage pain, (d) establish rapport, and (e) manage dyspnea. This research identified the palliative care nursing interventions considered most important by nurses in Thailand to promote dignified dying. The ICNP catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying can be used for planning and managing palliative nursing care in Thailand.

  16. The spatial dynamics of dengue virus in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand.

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    Piraya Bhoomiboonchoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is endemic to the rural province of Kamphaeng Phet, Northern Thailand. A decade of prospective cohort studies has provided important insights into the dengue viruses and their generated disease. However, as elsewhere, spatial dynamics of the pathogen remain poorly understood. In particular, the spatial scale of transmission and the scale of clustering are poorly characterized. This information is critical for effective deployment of spatially targeted interventions and for understanding the mechanisms that drive the dispersal of the virus.We geocoded the home locations of 4,768 confirmed dengue cases admitted to the main hospital in Kamphaeng Phet province between 1994 and 2008. We used the phi clustering statistic to characterize short-term spatial dependence between cases. Further, to see if clustering of cases led to similar temporal patterns of disease across villages, we calculated the correlation in the long-term epidemic curves between communities. We found that cases were 2.9 times (95% confidence interval 2.7-3.2 more likely to live in the same village and be infected within the same month than expected given the underlying spatial and temporal distribution of cases. This fell to 1.4 times (1.2-1.7 for individuals living in villages 1 km apart. Significant clustering was observed up to 5 km. We found a steadily decreasing trend in the correlation in epidemics curves by distance: communities separated by up to 5 km had a mean correlation of 0.28 falling to 0.16 for communities separated between 20 km and 25 km. A potential explanation for these patterns is a role for human movement in spreading the pathogen between communities. Gravity style models, which attempt to capture population movement, outperformed competing models in describing the observed correlations.There exists significant short-term clustering of cases within individual villages. Effective spatially and temporally targeted interventions deployed within villages may

  17. Tectonics and metallogenic provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guild, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Various theories have been advanced to explain the well-known uneven distribution of metals and ore-deposit types in space and time. Primordial differences in the mantle, preferential concentration of elements in the crust, the prevalence of ore-forming processes at certain times and (or) places, and combinations of one or several of these factors have all been called upon to account for the "metallogenic provinces," which can be defined loosely as regions containing similar deposits of one or a group of metals or minerals. Because many, perhaps most, provinces have complex, multistage origins, the relative importance of inheritance vs. process is still controversial. In recent years the geographic relationship of many geologically young provinces to present-day plate-tectonic positions (accreting or consuming margins, intraplate structures, etc.) has been widely recognized, and the presumption is strong that older provinces had similar relationships to former plates. As most ore deposits resulted from a favorable conjunction of geological processes that are no longer operative, elucidation of their genesis requires reconstruction of the geologic history of the province, with particular emphasis on events coeval with mineralization. Tectonic analysis is an important aspect of this reconstruction; data from orbiting satellites have contributed greatly to this analysis, as the voluminous literature of the past decade testifies. Both the synoptic view of large areas and the ability to emphasize faint contrasts have revealed linear, curvilinear, and circular features not previously recognized from field studies. Some of these undoubtedly reflect basement structures that have contributed to the development, or limit the extent, of metallogenic provinces. Their recognition and delineation will be increasingly valuable to the assessment of resources available and as guides to exploration for the ores needed by future generations. ?? 1983.

  18. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  19. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

  20. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  1. A criterion-based obstetric morbidity audit in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Promvijit, Thadpong; Pattanapisalsak, Chaiwat; Silalai, Sorawasa; Ampawa, Theeradet

    2008-11-01

    To evaluate the incidences of severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, obstructed labor, and postpartum hemorrhage in the 5 southernmost provinces of Thailand, and the quality of care for these conditions, using a modified version of a criterion-based clinical audit. We reviewed the medical records of the 3669 women admitted in the obstetric wards of 7 referral hospitals from January through March 2005. Of 515 severely morbid conditions recorded for 486 women (13.2%), there were 113 cases of pre-eclampsia, 320 of obstructed labor, and 82 of postpartum hemorrhage. Documentation for the diagnosis of obstructed labor was often incomplete. Condition severity and standard of care varied among hospitals. The most common indicators of substandard care were a lack of record of respiratory rate and tendon reflex for women with severe pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (35%); of antibiotic prophylaxis for those with obstructed labor (28%); and of record of urine output for those with postpartum hemorrhage (32%). Incomplete diagnosis documentation and evidence of substandard care were common, which warrants auditing for such problems and providing feedback to physicians.

  2. Tomato necrotic ringspot virus, a new tospovirus isolated in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seepiban, Channarong; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Attathom, Tipvadee; Attathom, Supat

    2011-02-01

    A new tospovirus isolated from naturally infected tomato plants grown in Nakhon Pathom province (Thailand) was characterized. Infected plants showed symptoms consisting of necrotic spots, necrotic ringspots and stem necrosis. This virus was detected using general antibodies that could recognize watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV). However, it did not react with specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to WSMoV and CaCV or a specific MAb to MYSV. The complete nucleotide sequences of S and M RNAs of the virus were determined. They were 3,023 and 4,716 nucleotides in length, respectively, and contained two ORFs in an ambisense arrangement. Sequence analysis indicated that amino acid sequence of the N protein shared 58.2%, 56.0% and 51.8% identity with those of CaCV, WSMoV and MYSV, respectively. The virus was experimentally transmitted by Thrips palmi and Ceratothripoides claratris. Based on our results, we conclude that this tospovirus isolate should be considered a member of a new species. The name tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV) is proposed for this tospovirus.

  3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Symptoms among Dental Health Workers, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe the socioeconomic situation of dental health work and work characteristics and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among dental health workers. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 124 dental health workers and 124 persons in the reference group, matched to dental health workers by gender, were recruited from the workers who worked at the same 17 community hospitals in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, Thailand. Information was collected by using questionnaire. Data analysis comprised descriptive and analytical components. Results and Discussion. 75.8% were female and 24.2% were male dental health workers. 91.9% of subjects had worked >5 years. Most subjects worked for >8 hours per day and worked >6 days per week, at 63.7% and 53.2%, respectively. 100% of subjects worked in public institutions, and 68% also worked in both public and private institutions. Most subjects (52.4% did not exercise. Daily activity, gender, duration of work, hours worked per day, days worked per week, and physical activity were significantly associated with musculoskeletal symptoms at <0.001. Conclusion. The prevention and reduction of MSDs among dentists should include improving their education in dental ergonomics.

  4. Exploring Islamic School Leadership in a Challenging Southern Thailand Context

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    Raihani Raihani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores leadership practices in different Islamic schools in Southern Thailand, an area where already for decades an ethno-political conflict has been ongoing between Malay Muslims and the Thai Buddhist government. Using a multiple-case study approach, this research selected three Islamic schools one each in the provinces of Pattani, Narathiwat and Yala selecting their principals, teachers, and students as informants. The findings suggest that the principals, in their planning activities, tend to think strategically for the benefit of their schools, their students, and the community at large, that they are willing to compromise with the government so long as not contradicting their religious beliefs and principles, and that they have a strong vision for the school improvement. Under difficult conditions, they always consider the need to establish immediate and more extensive cooperation with various stakeholders to help further improve the school conditions and their output.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v24i2.4608

  5. Asymptomatic malaria infections among foreign migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsiriwuthinan, Kanyanan; Ngrenngarmlert, Warunee

    2011-07-01

    To determine the prevalence of malaria infections among foreign migrant workers in Thailand. Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films were prepared from blood samples of 294 foreign migrant workers recruited in the study. Microscopic examination of these blood films was performed for malaria detection. Blood film examination revealed 1.36% malaria infections in these 294 subjects. All positive cases were male Myanmar workers in which their blood films only ring stage of Plasmodium spp. was found at low parasite density (mean= 144 parasites/μ L of blood). The prevalence of malaria infections was not significantly different among foreign migrant workers classified by age, gender, and resident province (P>0.05). Thin blood films of these workers also showed 78.91% hypochromic erythrocytes and 61.9% relative Eosinophilia. These findings indicate a high risk of malaria transmission. Therefore active malaria surveillance by using molecular methods with more sensitive and specific than microscopy should be considered for malaria control in foreign migrant workers. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ecosystem Services Tradeoffs: A Case Study of Chiang Khong, Thailand

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    Apisom Intralawan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent transformation of land in the Mekong River Basin has been dramatic. The changes have contributed to an increased standard of living resulting from economic and agricultural expansion, increasing urbanization and modernization. However, the changes have also resulted in major degradation of ecosystems and the services which ecosystems provide. Despite acknowledgement of the loss of the ecosystem benefits, the integration of ecosystem services tradeoffs into land use decisions is still limited. Land managers and policy makers are facing challenges in balancing the positive effects of economic development and the long term negative impacts on the environment. This paper is based on a case study of one of the fastest growing towns along the Mekong River, namely Chiang Khong, Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. Data on the change of land use and land cover for different biomes over the past 40 years have been obtained from satellite image classification. The valuation of ecosystem services of different biomes has been quantified in monetary terms. During the last four decades, the estimated change in the value of ecosystem services in Chiang Khong shows a net decline of roughly US$ 440 million - from US$ 1,896 million/year in 1976 to US$ 1,455 million/year in 2015. There is a risk that this decline in ecosystem services will further increase if ecosystem services valuations are not included in decision making processes related to the planned economic development (infrastructure expansion, new industrial park development in Chiang Khong.

  7. Seismotectonics of the 2014 Chiang Rai, Thailand, earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pananont, P.; Herman, M. W.; Pornsopin, P.; Furlong, K. P.; Habangkaem, S.; Waldhauser, F.; Wongwai, W.; Limpisawad, S.; Warnitchai, P.; Kosuwan, S.; Wechbunthung, B.

    2017-08-01

    On 5 May 2014, a Mw 6.2 strike-slip earthquake occurred in the Mae Lao region of Chiang Rai province in Thailand. This earthquake took place in a region of known faults and caused substantial damage and injuries, although the region had been previously identified as having a relatively low earthquake hazard. Detailed field reconnaissance and deployment of a dense, temporary, network of broadband seismometers allowed details of the damage and its relationship to seismicity to be analyzed. The aftershock sequence associated with this main shock occurs on two well-defined trends, reflecting the two potential fault planes in earthquake mechanisms for the main shock and the majority of the aftershocks. The damage area was relatively large for an event of this magnitude, but building damage was largely limited to the primary rupture region, while liquefaction and other ground failure are spatially associated with the rupture area and along regional rivers. Stress modeling, combined with the time series and pattern of aftershock activity, leads us to propose that slip near the northern termination of the main shock rupture continued slightly onto a conjugate fault, helping to trigger the distinct pattern of two discrete, conjugate trends of aftershock activity that mirror the kinematics of the main shock fault mechanism.

  8. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

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    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  9. Impact of tropical forage seed development in villages in Thailand and Laos: Research to village farmer production to seed export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage varieties, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria, Cayman hybrid brachiaria, Mombasa guinea, Tanzania guinea, Ubon stylo and Ubon paspalum, are currently being produced by more than 1000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported overseas (95% and the remainder is sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of the Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs the seed producing and seed research group, Ubon Forage Seeds, to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper discusses in detail how the development in villages of a smallholder farmer seed production program has had positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed growers and enabled farmers in other countries to receive high quality forage seeds. The strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination, has had a large impact on tropical pastures in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America.

  10. Phylogeography of the Asian rice gall midge Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janique, Solene; Sriratanasak, Wantana; Ketsuwan, Kulchana; Jairin, Jirapong; Jeratthitikul, Ekgachai

    2017-02-01

    The Asian rice gall midge (RGM) Orseolia oryzae (Wood Mason) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) is a major pest of rice, leading to yield losses in Thailand and many Asian countries. Despite an increasing number of reported midge outbreaks and the presence of many susceptible rice varieties, only a few studies have focused on the genetic variation of the midges. Therefore, we analyzed the phylogeography among Thai RGM populations covering north, northeast and central Thailand. Two mitochondrial DNA genes, cytochrome C oxidase I (COI) and 12S, and a non-coding repeat region (RR) situated just before COI were amplified. Overall, the haplotype diversity for COI and 12S genes of the Thai population was high, but the nucleotide diversity was quite low. Altogether, the phylogenetic tree and pairwise F st values indicated that Thai RGM populations recently expanded and were homogeneously distributed throughout the country, except for some populations in the north, which most likely became recently isolated from the main population. Two non-coding repeat motifs, that were recently observed in the mitogenome of RGM in India, were absent in Thai populations and replaced by an 89 bp non-coding sequence. Tandem nucleotide repeats of the sequence TA were also observed. The repeat copy number varied from 2 to 11 and was not correlated with geographical repartition of the midge. Finally, COI barcoding divergence between Indian and Thai populations was high (6.3% in average), giving insights into the potential existence of an RGM species complex in Asia.

  11. Quality of life after stroke rehabilitation among urban vs. rural patients in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimmanakorn, Nuttaset; Vichiansiri, Ratana; Nuntharuksa, Chompilai; Permsirivanich, Wutichai; Kuptniratsaikul, Vilai

    2008-03-01

    Stroke patients who live in different areas might have different adjustments for their impairment and disability after stroke attack. These factors should be evaluated in Thai patients. To compare functional outcome, psychological outcome and quality of life of stroke patients who live in urban vs. rural areas, before and after an in-patient rehabilitation program. A multi-center, prospective, analytical study. Urban and rural stroke patients admitted to the rehabilitation ward received a rehabilitation program. Pre- and post-rehabilitation, patients were measured using the Barthel index, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) and the WHO BREF QOL questionnaire. The data were collected from nine rehabilitation centers in Thailand. Significant improvement in functional outcome, psychological condition and quality of life score was achieved via the rehabilitation program in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between urban vs. rural patients. Previous living areas (urban vs. rural) before admission had no effect on functional outcome, psychological outcome and quality of life among stroke patients after an in-patient rehabilitation program conducted in Northeast Thailand.

  12. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a…

  13. Approaches to Lao Minors Working in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have observed in Thailand a growing number of working Lao minors. By law, these may be regarded as victims of human trafficking. This paper observes, however, that some older teenagers who are still under 18 may be seeking and finding legitimate working positions. The

  14. Urban asylum seekers and refugees in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera den Otter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties faced by urban refugees are often different from those faced by refugees in camps but are no less serious. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS in Bangkok is struggling to support growing numbers of urban refugees in Thailand.

  15. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  16. Children's Attitudes toward the Elderly in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Carol; Keawkungwal, Sri-Reun

    1986-01-01

    Examined attitudes of 300 children toward the elderly in Thailand. Indicated no differences between rural and urban children's attitudes toward the elderly in terms of contact, knowledge, and feelings. Urban children, however, responded more positively about their own aging than did rural children. Concludes that Thai children view young people…

  17. Twee Nederlandse reizigers uit Thailand met cholera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A. A.; Kuijper, E. J.; Schultz, M. J.; Wieling, W.; Speelman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Cholera is a disease rarely imported in the Netherlands. Recently a 34-year-old woman who had returned from a trip through Thailand was admitted to our hospital with complaints of vomiting, watery stools and moderate dehydration. Vibrio cholerae OI serotype Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the

  18. The Teaching Practicum in Thailand: Three Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairee, Chatpong; Sanitchon, Nalinee; Suphanangthong, Irada; Graham, Steve; Prompruang, Jidapa; de Groot, Freek Olaf; Hopkins, Dave

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the teaching practicum in Thailand as it occurs in three settings: "Rajabhats"--four-year universities which offer an additional period of teaching practice, and where the vast majority of EFL teachers are educated; regular universities; and a TESOL short course certificate program for non-Thais preparing to teach…

  19. Implementing Results Based Management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Thailand has been pursuing the implementation of results based management techniques in the public sector for over a decade. Leading this task is the Office of the Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) which has been supporting various agencies and departments in undertaking a wide variety of results based management reforms, including key performance indicators, balanced scorecards,...

  20. Lake states management differs from northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman

    1992-01-01

    There are "northern hardwoods" in the Lake States and "northern hardwoods" in the Northeast. The term is the same but the forest cover types, stand, and site conditions can be very different. The silvicultural treatments that work in the Northeast may not work at all in the Lake States. And what works in the Lake States will work - but not the best...

  1. Spatiotemporal Correlations between Water Footprint and Agricultural Inputs: A Case Study of Maize Production in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili Duan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To effectively manage water resources in agricultural production, it is necessary to understand the spatiotemporal variation of the water footprint (WF and the influences of agricultural inputs. Employing spatial autocorrelation analysis and a geographically weighted regression (GWR model, we explored the spatial variations of the WF and their relationships with agricultural inputs from 1998 to 2012 in Northeast China. The results indicated that: (1 the spatial distribution of WFs for the 36 major maize production prefectures was heterogeneous in Northeast China; (2 a cluster of high WFs was found in southeast Liaoning Province, while a cluster of low WFs was found in central Jilin Province, and (3 spatial and temporal differentiation in the correlations between the WF of maize production and agricultural inputs existed according to the GWR model. These correlations increased over time. Our results suggested that localized strategies for reducing the WF should be formulated based on specific relationships between the WF and agricultural inputs.

  2. A new species of Parategastes Sars, 1904 from the Thale Noi Lake, southern Thailand (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Tegastidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanida Saetang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Parategastes pholpunthini sp. n. is described and illustrated based on material collected in the Thale Noi Lake, Phatthalung province, southern Thailand. This species can be distinguished from its congeners by the number segments of female antennule, the lengths of rami and basis of P1, the shape of middle inner seta of P4 exp-3, shape of P5, and relative lengths of spine at apically of baseoendopod of P5. The differences among Parategastes species are pointed out and they are compared with the new species. An identification key to species of the genus Parategastes are proposed.

  3. Time of highest tuberculosis death risk and associated factors: an observation of 12 years in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyud Moolphate

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Saiyud Moolphate1,2, Myo Nyein Aung1,3, Oranuch Nampaisan1, Supalert Nedsuwan4, Pacharee Kantipong5, Narin Suriyon6, Chamnarn Hansudewechakul6, Hideki Yanai7, Norio Yamada2, Nobukatsu Ishikawa21TB/HIV Research Foundation, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 2Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (RIT-JATA, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Pharmacology, University of Medicine, Mandalay, Myanmar; 4Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 5Department of Health Service System Development, Chiang Rai Regional Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 6Provincial Health Office, Chiang Rai, Thailand; 7Department of Clinical Laboratory, Fukujuji Hospital, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: Northern Thailand is a tuberculosis (TB endemic area with a high TB death rate. We aimed to establish the time of highest death risk during TB treatment, and to identify the risk factors taking place during that period of high risk.Patients and methods: We explored the TB surveillance data of the Chiang Rai province, Northern Thailand, retrospectively for 12 years. A total of 19,174 TB patients (including 5,009 deaths were investigated from 1997 to 2008, and the proportion of deaths in each month of TB treatment was compared. Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the characteristics of patients who died in the first month of TB treatment. A total of 5,626 TB patients from 2005 to 2008 were included in this regression analysis.Result: The numbers of deaths in the first month of TB treatment were 38%, 39%, and 46% in the years 1997–2000, 2001–2004, and 2005–2008, respectively. The first month of TB treatment is the time of the maximum number of deaths. Moreover, advancing age, HIV infection, and being a Thai citizen were significant factors contributing to these earlier deaths in the course of TB treatment.Conclusion: Our findings have pointed to the specific time period and

  4. Measuring and decomposing inequity in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko Alexandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, interest in the study of inequalities in health has not stopped at quantifying their magnitude; explaining the sources of inequalities has also become of great importance. This paper measures socioeconomic inequalities in self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand, and the contributions of different population subgroups to those inequalities. Methods The Health and Welfare Survey 2003 conducted by the Thai National Statistical Office with 37,202 adult respondents is used for the analysis. The health outcomes of interest derive from three self-reported morbidity and two self-assessed health questions. Socioeconomic status is measured by adult-equivalent monthly income per household member. The concentration index (CI of ill health is used as a measure of socioeconomic health inequalities, and is subsequently decomposed into contributing factors. Results The CIs reveal inequality gradients disadvantageous to the poor for both self-reported morbidity and self-assessed health in Thailand. The magnitudes of these inequalities were higher for the self-assessed health outcomes than for the self-reported morbidity outcomes. Age and sex played significant roles in accounting for the inequality in reported chronic illness (33.7 percent of the total inequality observed, hospital admission (27.8 percent, and self-assessed deterioration of health compared to a year ago (31.9 percent. The effect of being female and aged 60 years or older was by far the strongest demographic determinant of inequality across all five types of health outcome. Having a low socioeconomic status as measured by income quintile, education and work status were the main contributors disadvantaging the poor in self-rated health compared to a year ago (47.1 percent and self-assessed health compared to peers (47.4 percent. Residence in the rural Northeast and rural North were the main regional contributors to inequality in self

  5. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand.......A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  6. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmo......Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance.......023), region (northern Thailand; p factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection compared to other nontyphoid Salmonella. Of the Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin, 84% exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes...... association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal...

  7. Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Vientiane province and municipality, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey A. Kotov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first faunistic report on the Laotian Cladocera from diverse habitats in Vientiane province, Central Laos. We counted a total of 70 species, belonging to 37 genera, which is realistically close to an estimated 77 species. The five most common species were Diaphanosoma excisum, Ephemeroporus cf. barroisi, Anthalona harti, Macrothrix spinosa and Chydorus cf. eurynotus. The fauna is typically Oriental/Southeast (SE Asian, showing a strong similarity with neighbouring countries and especially Thailand. We discussed the current taxonomical status of the species and provided illustrations of the main taxa for future comparison. There are no surprising faunistic elements, except for a few new records for SE Asia (Matralona freyi, Ilyocryptus thailandensis. Our data is preliminary, as the fauna of Laos remains insufficiently studied. As for SE Asia as a whole, a significant number of taxa is in need of taxonomical revision.

  8. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompon Wanwimolruk

    2016-09-01

    in a few central provinces of Thailand and did not reflect for the whole country as sample sizes were small. Risk assessment due to consuming these pesticide contaminated vegetables, still remains to be evaluated. However, remarkably high incidence rates of detected pesticides give warning to the Thai authorities to implement proper regulations on pesticide monitoring program. Similar incidence of pesticide contamination found in the vegetables bought from local markets and supermarkets raises question regarding the quality of organic vegetables domestically sold in Thailand. This conclusion excludes Thai export quality vegetables and fruits routinely monitored for pesticide contamination before exporting.

  9. Food safety in Thailand 4: comparison of pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables purchased from local markets and supermarkets in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Boonpangrak, Somchai; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-01-01

    The wide use of pesticides raises concerns on the health risks associated with pesticide exposure. For developing countries, like Thailand, pesticide monitoring program (in vegetables and fruits) and also the maximum residue limits (MRL) regulation have not been entirely implemented. The MRL is a product limit, not a safety limit. The MRL is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue (expressed as mg/kg) recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission to be legally permitted in or on food commodities and animal feeds (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2015; European Commission, 2015). MRLs are based on supervised residue trial data where the pesticide has been applied in accordance with GAP (Good Agricultural Practice). This study aims at providing comparison data on pesticide residues found in three commonly consumed vegetables (Chinese kale, pakchoi and morning glory) purchased from some local markets and supermarkets in Thailand. These vegetables were randomly bought from local markets and supermarkets. Then they were analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides by using GC-MS/MS. Types of pesticides detected in the samples either from local markets or supermarkets were similar. The incidence of detected pesticides was 100% (local markets) and 99% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 98% (local markets) and 100% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi; and 99% (local markets) and 97% (supermarkets) for the morning glory samples. The pesticides were detected exceeding their MRL at a rate of 48% (local markets) and 35% (supermarkets) for the Chinese kale; 71% (local markets) and 55% (supermarkets) for the pakchoi, and 42% (local markets) and 49% (supermarkets) for the morning glory. These rates are much higher than those seen in developed countries. It should be noted that these findings were assessed on basis of using criteria (such as MRL) obtained from developed countries. Our findings were also confined to these vegetables sold in a few central provinces of Thailand

  10. Thailand through travel writings in English: An evaluation and representation

    OpenAIRE

    Soranat Tailanga; Thongrob Ruenbanthoeng; Kulapa Kuldilok; Natthanai Prasannam

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the impact and influence of travel writings on tourist decision making regarding traveling to Thailand, tourist conceptualizations of Thailand before traveling and their satisfaction after traveling. The research comprised two projects involving quantitative research and analytical research. The former studied the impact and influence of travel writings and the differences between the tourists' attitudes before and after traveling to Thailand and found that, among the top-f...

  11. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; PANTO, SITTHIPHON

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  12. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... from Thailand: Notice of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act and...., Ltd Dextrans Worldwide (Thailand) Ltd Dragon International Furniture Co., Ltd Earth Food Manufacturing...

  13. Complementarity in Northeast Asian Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yirl Nam

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the degree of competition and complementarity among three Northeast Asian countries ? China, Japan and Korea. An attempt is made to identify sectors or commodities that are expected to potentially increase trade between Korea and China or Japan. For the analysis, bilateral, as well as total trade at a somewhat disaggregated commodity level, are considered. We try to analyze the extent of the structural similarities (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa, therefore, comlementarity in international trade between the Northeast Asian countries with the index of trade conformity (ITC. The ITC analysis yielded the following implications. Korea's imports from Japan are much more likely to increase than those from China, in a potential sense. Potentially speaking, Korea's exports to the two other countries will increase relatively, somewhat more for Korea's exports to Japan than to China. Looking at it another way, in terms of potential, Korea's exports to China are much more likely to increase than are China's exports to Korea. The overall aggregate trade structures (between one's exports and the other's imports and vice versa of Japan and Korea are quite similar, therefore complementary, and Japan's exports to Korea are potentially a little more likely to increase than are Korea's exports to Japan. We also try to identify some commodities which are expected to increase bilateral trade between Korea and China or Japan. For example, Korea's exports to Japan have the potential to increase in apparel, bags, and textile articles; fish and meat; arts for office machines; miscellaneous manufactured goods; aluminum, copper; miscellaneous chemical products; and watches and clocks. It was possible to identify even more complementary relationships between the countries as the product classification was disaggregated further.

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) may be imported into the United States from Thailand only under the following conditions: (a...

  15. Utilization of trauma guidelines by ER nurses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Krongdai Unhasuta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Clinical nursing practice guidelines (CNPG have been developed in Thailand for resuscitation care of emergency room (ER trauma patients. However, many nurses do not use guidelines effectively.

  16. Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales new to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Thawthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae is a medicinal mushroom originally described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum. It has been widely used as traditional medicine in Asia since it has potential nutritional and therapeutic values. We collected 8 specimens of Ganoderma species from Thailand and show that they represent the first record of G. sichuanenese for Thailand. In this paper, we describe our specimens of Ganoderma sichuanense based on fresh basidiomes, and provide line drawings and photographs. The data from macro- and microscopic features are consistent with the characteristics of the species. Analysis of ITS sequence data indicates that the Thai collections cluster in same species clade as the epitype of G. sichuanense.

  17. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai; Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet). Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainl...

  18. Credit Card Usage and Knowledge in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sangsutisearee, Wanna

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the characteristics of credit card holders and the extent of credit card usage, the level of credit card knowledge, and the consumer's choice perspectives. The characteristics of credit card holders studied were (a) gender, (b) age, (c) marital status, (d) education, (e) income, and (f) occupation. Data for this study were collected in Bangkok, Thailand by telephone interviews during July- August 1993. The sample consisted of 1...

  19. Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) described from NE Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biström, Olof; Bergsten, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini) from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae). It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, Hydrovatus diversipunctatussp. n. and Hydrovatus globosussp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality "Khon Kaen" (a city and province). Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

  20. Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae described from NE Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Bistrom

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae. It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, H. diversipunctatus sp. n. and H. globosus sp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality “Khon Kaen” (a city and province. Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

  1. Palliative Care Nursing Interventions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Eaton, Linda H.; Rue, Tessa; Hong, Elizabeth; Coenen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to describe the nursing interventions that nurses in Thailand identify as most important in promoting dignified dying. Design This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Method A total of 247 Thai nurses completed a paper-and-pencil survey written in Thai. The survey included both demographic questions and palliative care interventions, listed with summative rating scales, from the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings The five most important nursing interventions to promote dignified dying, ranked by average importance rating, were (a) maintain dignity and privacy, (b) establish trust, (c) manage pain, (d) establish rapport, and (e) manage dyspnea. Conclusions This research identified the palliative care nursing interventions considered most important by nurses in Thailand to promote dignified dying. Implications for Practice The ICNP catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying can be used for planning and managing palliative nursing care in Thailand. PMID:24014487

  2. The effects of medical tourism: Thailand's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaRanong, Anchana; NaRanong, Viroj

    2011-05-01

    To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, appendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders' motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand's gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The "brain drain" may also undermine medical training in future. Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors.

  3. An implementation plan for using biological indicators to improve assessment of water quality in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsoong, Boonsatien; Sangpradub, Narumon; Barbour, Michael T; Simachaya, Wijarn

    2010-06-01

    Most national standards for assessment of water quality include physical and chemical indicators relevant to specific pollutants and stressors. However, biological communities reflect not only current conditions of aquatic resources but also change in conditions over time and impacts from multiple stressors. Assessing the health of the aquatic community (that is, bioassessments) has proven to be critical in protecting and maintaining healthy surface waters under the mandates of regulatory frameworks, such as the Clean Water Act in the USA and the Water Framework Directive of the European Union. Whereas, in Thailand water standards, bioassessment is lacking in favor of chemical criteria, only coliform bacteria measurement can be considered a surrogate biological parameter. Our paper argues that incorporating bioassessment will improve water resource condition evaluations and recommends the use of the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage as a bioassessment framework in Thailand. We discuss the implementation of a bioassessment program that consists of two major components, (a) a scientifically valid technical approach and (b) consideration of technical resources for a cost-effective program. The technical design comprises (1) classification of streams into similar groupings, (2) design of a biological survey, (3) a well-documented sampling protocol, (4) calibration of biological metrics for data analysis, (5) development of criteria for determination of ecological condition, and (6) communication of the results to citizens and policymakers. A cost-effective way to develop a bioassessment program that will improve Thailand's ability to measure water quality and to make good decisions to attain healthy quality status is to establish partnerships by coordinating efforts and sharing data and technology with adjacent regional environmental offices or provinces. This collaboration would be fostered through a long-term national water resources management strategy and clear

  4. Morphology and developmental rate of blowflies Chrysomya megacephala and Chrysomya rufifacies in Thailand: application in forensic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukontason, Kom; Piangjai, Somsak; Siriwattanarungsee, Sirisuda; Sukontason, Kabkaew L

    2008-05-01

    The larval morphology and developmental rate of Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), the two most forensically important blowfly species in Thailand, are presented. Morphological comparison of the third instar of both species revealed different characteristics (e.g., body appearance, cephalopharyngeal skeleton, dorsal cuticular spines between the prothorax and mesothorax, and feature of the posterior spiracle), thereby, allowing correct identification. A data analysis was conducted in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand during 2000-2001 on the developmental rate of both flies under natural ambient temperature and a natural light-dark photoperiod. The results indicated that larvae of C. megacephala developed more rapidly in April, pupariation initiated at 84 h at temperatures averaging 31.4 degrees C, and the larvae grew slower in the rainy season and winter. Similarly, rapid development of C. rufifacies larvae appeared in the summer, with a pupariation period as short as 96 h in June (average temperature 27.4 degrees C). Analysis of the median body length of C. megacephala and C. rufifacies larvae in different seasons of the years 2000-2001 in Thailand revealed that both species developed rapidly in the summer; pupariation of C. rufifacies initiated at 144 h, while C. megacephala initiated pupariation at 156 h. This information is potentially useful for estimating the postmortem interval of a corpse in forensic investigations, where the corpse becomes infesting with these fly species.

  5. Attitudes of adolescents and parents towards premarital sex in rural Thailand: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Crozier, Kenda; Pfeil, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to explore attitudes of Thai parents and adolescents towards premarital sex. Data were collected from 11 focus groups with 30 Thai parents and 36 adolescents aged 15-19 years old in rural areas of Udon Thani province, Thailand and examined using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified from the data: the social judgement of girls; boys have nothing to lose; considering risks and parents as problem solvers. All themes relate to the continuing existence of double standards concerning the social norm for premarital sex as applied to young women on one side and young men on the other. The influence of traditional values is still very strong in rural north-eastern Thailand. The findings highlight teenagers' need for more support from their parents. The promotion of open, honest communication between parents and teens is important to overcome difficulties of social judgements and align thinking between old and new social values. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Poultry Farm Vulnerability and Risk of Avian Influenza Re-Emergence in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI remains of concern as a major potential global threat. This article evaluates and discusses the level of vulnerability of medium and small-scale commercial poultry production systems in Thailand related to avian influenza virus re-emergence. We developed a survey on 173 farms in Nakhon Pathom province to identify the global level of vulnerability of farms, and to determine which type of farms appears to be more vulnerable. We used official regulations (the Good Agricultural Practices and Livestock Farm Standards regulations as a reference to check whether these regulations are respected. The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease. Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms. Farms producing eggs (especially duck eggs are more vulnerable than farms producing meat. Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004–2008 outbreaks in Thailand.

  7. Predatory thrips species composition, their prey and host plant association in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaporn Saengyot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey of predatory thrips, their prey and associated host plants was carried out from February 2013 to February 2014 in Chiang Rai, Phayao, Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Lampang provinces in Northern Thailand. The survey revealed 10 species of predatory thrips in 5 genera in the Family Phlaeothripidae. They were: Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin, Androthrips flavipes Schmutz, Androthrips ramachandrai Karny, Karnyothrips flavipes (Jones, two indeterminate Karnyothrips sp.1 and sp.2, Leptothrips sp., Podothrips lucasseni (Krüger, and two indeterminate Podothrips sp. 1, and sp. 2. Eleven species of insect and mite pests serving as prey were found associated with 16 species of host plants in 13 families. They were: scale insects, Coccus viridis (Green and two Coccus spp.; spiraling whitefly, Aleurodicus dispersus Russell; unidentified gall-making Hemiptera; coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari; unidentified crambid lepidopterous larvae; Kanzawa spider mite, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida; santol gall mite, Eriophyes sandorici Nelepa; litchi rust mite, Aceria litchii (Keifer; and bamboo green mite, Aponychus corpuzae Rimando. The findings from this investigation could provide basic information necessary for further investigation in the use of some of these predatory thrips as biological control agents of insect and mite pests of economic importance in Thailand.

  8. Improving health consciousness and life skills in young people through peer-leadership in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerachote, C; Kessomboon, P; Rattanasiri, A; Koju, R

    2013-01-01

    Peer leadership is widely recognized as an effective approach to health promotion and empowerment among people of similar ages, especially the youth. Such programs build peer leaders who in turn help empower the youths in their groups to improve their health and life skills related to health. Most previous studies have focused on the effectiveness of such activities in target groups but have neglected to effectively address and explore the transformations in peer leaders themselves. This descriptive study aimed to investigate the level of social change and health consciousness among student peer leaders in three Youth health promotion programs in Thailand: Friend's Corner, Smart Consumer and Volunteer Minded Young Dentists, and to compare them with the general students. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on Tyree's Social Change Model of leadership, Gould's concept and Dutta-Bergman's concept. The study population comprised of 11th grade students (N=660) from Kalasin Province in Thailand, 320 of whom were peer leaders. The findings revealed that the peer leaders scored higher than non peer leaders in all domains. Among the peer leaders, it was found that Volunteer Minded Young Dentists group had the highest scores in "controversy with civility", "social change agent" characteristics, "holistic health perceptions" and "responsibility for one's own health" regarding health consciousness. The results of this study confirmed that the peer leadership approach can help young people to develop life skills through social transformation and increase health consciousness for better status of health in the community.

  9. Solid waste management in Thailand: an overview and case study (Tha Khon Yang sub-district).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley Dawn; Ross, Kirstin Elizabeth

    2017-09-26

    Due to rapid urbanization, solid waste management (SWM) has become a significant issue in several developing countries including Thailand. Policies implemented by the Central Thai Government to manage SWM issues have had only limited success. This article reviews current municipal waste management plans in Thailand and examines municipal waste management at the local level, with focus on the Tha Khon Yang sub-district surrounding Mahasarakham University in Mahasarakham Province. Within two decades this area has been converted from a rural to an urban landscape featuring accommodation for over 45,000 university students and a range of business facilities. This development and influx of people has outpaced the government's ability to manage municipal solid waste (MSW). There are significant opportunities to improve local infrastructure and operational capacity; but there are few mechanisms to provide and distribute information to improve community participation in waste management. Many community-based waste management projects, such as waste recycling banks, the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), and waste-to-biogas projects have been abandoned. Additionally, waste from Tha Kon Yang and its surrounding areas has been transferred to unsanitary landfills; there is also haphazard dumping and uncontrolled burning of waste, which exacerbate current pollution issues.

  10. Process and outcome evaluation of a diabetes prevention education program for community healthcare workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M; Sirichakwal, Prapaisri P; Chittchang, Uraiporn

    2009-12-01

    To describe the development, process and outcome evaluation of a culturally tailored diabetes prevention education program for community healthcare workers (CHCWs) in Thailand. A tailored diabetes prevention education program was designed based on formative research and implemented with 35 CHCWs in semi-urban areas in Chiang Mai province, Thailand. Modules were delivered over eight group classes and eight self-directed E-learning sessions (www.FitThai.org). The program incorporated problem-based learning, discussion, reflection, community-based application, self-evaluation and on-line support. The frequency that students accessed on-line materials, including videotaped lectures, readings, monthly newsletters and community resources, was documented. Participant satisfaction was assessed through three questionnaires. Knowledge was assessed through pre-post testing. Three-quarters of participants attended all eight classes and no participant attended fewer than six. On-line support and materials were accessed 3 to 38 times (median 13). Participants reported that program information and activities were fun, useful, culturally-relevant and applicable to diabetes prevention in their specific communities. Participants also appreciated the innovative technology support for their work. Comfort with E-learning varied among participants. Scores on pre-post knowledge test increased from a mean (sd) of 56.5% (6.26) to 75.5% (6.01) (p E-learning were generally well-received and supported better knowledge scores. Ongoing access to web-based materials and expert support may help sustain learning.

  11. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java.

  12. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928

  13. New earthworm species of the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 from Thailand (Clitellata, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantaowong, Ueangfa; Chanabun, Ratmanee; Tongkerd, Piyoros; Sutcharit, Chirasak; James, Samuel W.; Panha, Somsak

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of terrestrial earthworms from the zebrus-group in the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867, are described from Nan province, north Thailand: Amynthas phatubensis sp. n., from Tham Pha Tub Arboretum, Amynthas tontong sp. n., from Tontong Waterfall, Amynthas borealis sp. n., from Chaloemprakiat district, and Amynthas srinan sp. n., from Srinan National Park.After comparing with the two closely related Laos species Amynthas chandyi Hong, 2008 and Amynthas namphouinensis Hong, 2008, the four new species show clear morphological differences, and also it is confirmed that there are no previous records of the species described here. Amynthas phatubensis sp. n. is the largest (longest) sized of these earthworms and is the only species that lives in limestone habitats. The genital characters are different among them and also from the two Laotian species. Molecular systematics would be a good method for further analysis of the diversity and species boundaries in SE Asian Amynthas. PMID:21594106

  14. A new tree frog in the genus Polypedates (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujirawan, Attapol; Stuart, Bryan L; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new species of Southeast Asian rhacophorid frog belonging to the Polypedates leucomystax species complex from Songkhla Province, southern Thailand. Polypedates discantus sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of having the skin of the head not co-ossified with the skull; absent or indistinct white dots on the back of the thigh; paired-vocal sac openings; and a round tubercle on the tibiotarsal articulation. The new species is also distinguished from P. leucomystax and P. megacephalus in univariate and multivariate analyses of quantitative morphometric characters, and has uncorrected pairwise distances of 6.61-7.16% from its closest relative, P. leucomystax, in the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. The new species has four distinct male advertisement call types, consisting of one-note, two-note, three-note and staccato calls. The new species occurs syntopically with P leucomystax at the type locality.

  15. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  16. Northeast Marine Recreational Fishing Expenditure Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A series of expenditure surveys have been done both regionally and nationally. This data pertains to the Northeast U.S. states that was collected in 1998....

  17. Northeast Pacific Regional Climatology (NCEI Accession 0163799)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Northeast Pacific (NEP) new regional climatology is derived from the NCEI World Ocean Database archive of temperature and salinity and covers a time period from...

  18. Northeast Economic Add-On Data 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  19. Northeast Economic Add-On Data 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  20. Northeast Economic add-on 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. This data is for the Northeast...

  1. Northeast Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, Tom [Pace Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-09-30

    From October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2013 (“contract period”), the Northeast Clean Energy Application Center (“NE-CEAC”) worked in New York and New England (Connecticut, Rhode Island, Vermont, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, and Maine) to create a more robust market for the deployment of clean energy technologies (CETs) including combined heat and power (CHP), district energy systems (DES), and waste heat recovery (WHR) systems through the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers. CHP, DES, and WHR can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, reduce electrical and thermal energy costs, and provide more reliable energy for users throughout the United States. The NE-CEAC’s efforts in the provision of technical assistance, education and outreach, and strategic market analysis and support for decision-makers helped advance the market for CETs in the Northeast thereby helping the region move towards the following outcomes: Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and criteria pollutants; Improvements in energy efficiency resulting in lower costs of doing business; Productivity gains in industry and efficiency gains in buildings; Lower regional energy costs; Strengthened energy security; Enhanced consumer choice; Reduced price risks for end-users; and Economic development effects keeping more jobs and more income in our regional economy Over the contract period, NE-CEAC provided technical assistance to approximately 56 different potential end-users that were interested in CHP and other CETs for their facility or facilities. Of these 56 potential end-users, five new CHP projects totaling over 60 MW of install capacity became operational during the contract period. The NE-CEAC helped host numerous target market workshops, trainings, and webinars; and NE-CEAC staff delivered presentations at many other workshops and conferences. In total, over 60 different workshops, conferences

  2. Northeast Migrants in Delhi : Race, Refuge and Retail

    OpenAIRE

    McDuie-Ra, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Northeast Migrants in Delhi: Race, Refuge and Retail is an ethnographic study of migrants from India's north-east border region living and working in Delhi, the nation's capital. Northeast India borders China, the Himalayas, and Southeast Asia. Despite burgeoning interest in the region, little attention is given to the thousands of migrants leaving the region for Indian cities for refuge, work, and study. The stories of Northeast migrants reveal an everyday Northeast India rarely captured els...

  3. Serosurveillance for pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in domestic elephants, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paungpin, Weena; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Chaichoun, Kridsada; Tiyanun, Ekasit; Sangkachai, Nareerat; Changsom, Don; Poltep, Kanaporn; Ratanakorn, Parntep; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2017-01-01

    The present study conducted serosurveillance for the presence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus (H1N1pdm virus) in archival serum samples collected between 2009 and 2013 from 317 domestic elephants living in 19 provinces situated in various parts of Thailand. To obtain the most accurate data, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay was employed as the screening test; and sera with HI antibody titers ≥20 were further confirmed by other methods, including cytopathic effect/hemagglutination based-microneutralization (microNT) and Western blot (WB) assays using H1N1pdm matrix 1 (M1) or hemagglutinin (HA) recombinant protein as the test antigen. Conclusively, the appropriate assays using HI in conjunction with WB assays for HA antibody revealed an overall seropositive rate of 8.5% (27 of 317). The prevalence of antibody to H1N1pdm virus was 2% (4/172) in 2009, 32% (17/53) in 2010, 9% (2/22) in 2011, 12% (1/8) in 2012, and 5% (3/62) in 2013. Notably, these positive serum samples were collected from elephants living in 7 tourist provinces of Thailand. The highest seropositive rate was obtained from elephants in Phuket, a popular tourist beach city. Young elephants had higher seropositive rate than older elephants. The source of H1N1pdm viral infection in these elephants was not explored, but most likely came from close contact with the infected mahouts or from the infected tourists who engaged in activities such as elephant riding and feeding. Nevertheless, it could not be excluded that elephant-to-elephant transmission did occur.

  4. Serosurveillance for pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus infection in domestic elephants, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Paungpin

    Full Text Available The present study conducted serosurveillance for the presence of antibody to pandemic influenza A (H1N1 2009 virus (H1N1pdm virus in archival serum samples collected between 2009 and 2013 from 317 domestic elephants living in 19 provinces situated in various parts of Thailand. To obtain the most accurate data, hemagglutination-inhibition (HI assay was employed as the screening test; and sera with HI antibody titers ≥20 were further confirmed by other methods, including cytopathic effect/hemagglutination based-microneutralization (microNT and Western blot (WB assays using H1N1pdm matrix 1 (M1 or hemagglutinin (HA recombinant protein as the test antigen. Conclusively, the appropriate assays using HI in conjunction with WB assays for HA antibody revealed an overall seropositive rate of 8.5% (27 of 317. The prevalence of antibody to H1N1pdm virus was 2% (4/172 in 2009, 32% (17/53 in 2010, 9% (2/22 in 2011, 12% (1/8 in 2012, and 5% (3/62 in 2013. Notably, these positive serum samples were collected from elephants living in 7 tourist provinces of Thailand. The highest seropositive rate was obtained from elephants in Phuket, a popular tourist beach city. Young elephants had higher seropositive rate than older elephants. The source of H1N1pdm viral infection in these elephants was not explored, but most likely came from close contact with the infected mahouts or from the infected tourists who engaged in activities such as elephant riding and feeding. Nevertheless, it could not be excluded that elephant-to-elephant transmission did occur.

  5. Inter-regional mating compatibility among Bactrocera dorsalis populations in Thailand (Diptera,Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Srikachar, Sunyanee; Kumjing, Phatchara; Weera Kimjong; Sukamnouyporn, Weerawan; Polchaimat, Nongon

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mating compatibility among recently colonized (wildish) populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) from different geographic origins in Thailand was assessed through inter-regional mating tests. Outdoor octagonal nylon screen field cages containing single potted mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) were used. Sexual compatibility was determined using the index of sexual isolation (ISI), the male relative performance index (MRPI), and the female relative performance index (FRPI). The ISI values indicated that the northern population of Bactrocera dorsalis from Chiang Mai province was sexually compatible with the southern population of Bactrocera dorsalis (previously Bactrocera papayae) from Nakhon Si Thammarat province. The MRPI values showed that the northern males had a slightly higher tendency to mate than southern males, while the FRPI data reflected that females of both origins participated equally in matings. In all combinations there were no differences between homotypic and heterotypic couples in mating latency. Southern males tended to mate first with southern females, followed by northern males mating with northern females, while the latest matings involved heterotypic couples, in particular northern males mating with southern females. Overall, more couples were collected from higher parts of the field cage and the upper tree canopy, while there were no differences between the origins of flies in terms of elevation of couples within the cage. Laboratory assessments of fecundity showed no differences in the average number of eggs resulting from inter-regional crosses. Development of immature stages was also equal in the two hybrid crosses, with no differences found in the number of pupae produced, percentage pupal recovery, and percent adult emergence. The practical implication of this study is that colony of Bactrocera dorsalis derived from any northern or southern region of Thailand can potentially be used in sterile insect technique programs

  6. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. I. Can malaria cases be contained in mobile migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delacollette Charles

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliable information on mobility patterns of migrants is a crucial part of the strategy to contain the spread of artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites in South-East Asia, and may also be helpful to efforts to address other public health problems for migrants and members of host communities. In order to limit the spread of malarial drug resistance, the malaria prevention and control programme will need to devise strategies to reach cross-border and mobile migrant populations. Methodology The Respondent-driven sampling (RDS method was used to survey migrant workers from Cambodia and Myanmar, both registered and undocumented, in three Thai provinces on the Thailand-Cambodia border in close proximity to areas with documented artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. 1,719 participants (828 Cambodian and 891 Myanmar migrants were recruited. Subpopulations of migrant workers were analysed using the Thailand Ministry of Health classification based on length of residence in Thailand of greater than six months (long-term, or M1 or less than six months (short-term, or M2. Key information collected on the structured questionnaire included patterns of mobility and migration, demographic characteristics, treatment-seeking behaviours, and knowledge, perceptions, and practices about malaria. Results Workers from Cambodia came from provinces across Cambodia, and 22% of Cambodian M1 and 72% of Cambodian M2 migrants had been in Cambodia in the last three months. Less than 6% returned with a frequency of greater than once per month. Of migrants from Cambodia, 32% of M1 and 68% of M2 were planning to return, and named provinces across Cambodia as their likely next destinations. Most workers from Myanmar came from Mon state (86%, had never returned to Myanmar (85%, and only 4% stated plans to return. Conclusion Information on migratory patterns of migrants from Myanmar and Cambodia along the malaria endemic Thailand-Cambodian border within the

  7. EFFECTS OF THE DECEMBER 2004 TSUNAMI AND DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN SOUTHERN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanchai Thanawood

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A quake-triggered tsunami lashed the Andaman coast of southern Thailand on December 26, 2004 at around 9.30 am local time. It was the first to strike the shorelines of southern Thailand in living memory. Coastal provinces along the Andaman coast suffered a total of 5,395 deaths – more than half of whom were foreign tourists, with another 2,822 reported missing. Of the 6 affected coastal provinces, Phang Nga was the worst-hit province with some 4,224 lives lost and 7,003 ha of land area devastated. Takua Pa District, which was a prime tourist area with numerous beach resorts, was the most severely affected area in Phang Nga Province.Through the use of the aerial photographs and Ikonos images, it was found that 4,738 ha of Takua Pa District’s coastal area were affected by the tsunami. The tsunami run-up heights of 7-8, 5-7 and 10-12 metres, were observed at, respectively, Ban Namkhem, Pakarang Cape and Ban Bangnieng in Takua Pa District. The tsunami caused heavy damage to houses, tourist resorts, fishing boats and gear, culture ponds and crops, and consequently affected the livelihood of large numbers of the coastal communities. The destructive wave impacted not only soil and water resources, but also damaged healthy coral reefs, sea grass beds and beach forests. The surviving victims faced psychosocial stresses resulting from the loss of their loved ones, being rendered homeless and fears of another tsunami. The tsunami effects on human settlements, livelihoods, coastal resources, natural environment together with the psychosocial well being of the coastal communities have contributed to the degradation of the coastal ecosystems.Following the 2004 event, it has become apparent that the country’s disaster management strategies need to be strengthened through the implementation of mitigation and preparedness options to enhance the community’s resilience to natural events such as tsunami. The improved strategies are discussed in this paper.

  8. Antimalarial plants of northeast India: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for an alternative drug for malaria initiated intensive efforts for developing new antimalarials from indigenous plants. The information from different tribal communities of northeast India along with research papers, including books, journals and documents of different universities and institutes of northeast India was collected for information on botanical therapies and plant species used for malaria. Sixty-eight plant species belonging to 33 families are used by the people of northeast India for the treatment of malaria. Six plant species, namely, Alstonia scholaris, Coptis teeta, Crotolaria occulta, Ocimum sanctum, Polygala persicariaefolia, Vitex peduncularis, have been reported by more than one worker from different parts of northeast India. The species reported to be used for the treatment of malaria were either found around the vicinity of their habitation or in the forest area of northeast India. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (33%, roots (31%, and bark and whole plant (12%. The present study has compiled and enlisted the antimalarial plants of northeast India, which would help future workers to find out the suitable antimalarial plants by thorough study.

  9. Literature based species occurrence data of birds of northeast India

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    Sujit Narwade

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The northeast region of India is one of the world’s most significant biodiversity hotspots. One of the richest bird areas in India, it is an important route for migratory birds and home to many endemic bird species. This paper describes a literature-based dataset of species occurrences of birds of northeast India. The occurrence records documented in the dataset are distributed across eleven provinces of India, viz.: Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. The geospatial scope of the dataset represents 24 to 29 degree North latitude and 78 to 94 degree East longitude, and it comprises over 2400 occurrence records. These records have been collated from scholarly literature published between1915 and 2008, especially from the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (JBNHS. The temporal scale of the dataset represents bird observations recorded between 1909 and 2007. The dataset has been developed by employing MS Excel. The key elements in the database are scientific name, taxonomic classification, temporal and geospatial details including geo-coordinate precision, data collector, basis of record and primary source of the data record. The temporal and geospatial quality of more than 50% of the data records has been enhanced retrospectively. Where possible, data records are annotated with geospatial coordinate precision to the nearest minute. This dataset is being constantly updated with the addition of new data records, and quality enhancement of documented occurrences. The dataset can be used in species distribution and niche modeling studies. It is planned to expand the scope of the dataset to collate bird species occurrences across the Indian peninsula.

  10. The enhancement of adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Nongnut; Suntayakorn, Chanjar; Sangkaewsri, Roongsri; Longchupol, Chaowanee; Lohitpintu, Itsareat; Kumsri, Tongbai

    2010-03-01

    To explore the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation and to examine the effectiveness of the potential enhancement program for adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide in Lublae district Uttaradit Province, Thailand. 3 step of research and development; the needs of potential enhancement for adaptation among victims of flooding and landslide were analyzed by focus group discussion, the potential enhancement program (PEP) was designed by brainstorming of three groups of stakeholder; victims, health volunteers and health personnel and the effectiveness of PEP was tested by the difference of adaptation and psychological well-being perception among victims of flooding and landslide between before and after intervention. Thumbun Maepou, Lublae district, Uttaradit Province, Thailand. The needs of potential enhancement among victims of flooding and landslide were set up warning network along the risk canal and mountain, first aid training for health volunteer, and program of psychological health promotion. The PEP composed of community flooding and landslide rehearsal training, health education and dissemination and knowledge management. Total adaptation and psychological wellbeing of samples after intervention were significantly higher than that of before intervention at 0.05 and 0.001, respectively. The restoration of adaptation and psychological well-being among victims of flooding and landslide were essential to maintained holistic health.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  12. Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumjui, Chowalit; Choomkasien, Pravit; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chalamaat, Mutita

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health studied 28 patients from a village in northern Thailand. All had myalgia, edema, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms; most had eaten wild boar. A muscle biopsy specimen from a patient showed nonencapsulated larvae with a cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence of Trichinella papuae. PMID:19046519

  13. Dietary Behaviour among Male Out-patients in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Behaviour among Male Out-patients in Thailand. Apa Puckpinyo Youngpradith, Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer, Kawinarat Suthisukhon. Abstract. The aim of the study was to estimate associations between dietary behaviour, chronic conditions and health variables among male out-patients in central Thailand. As part of ...

  14. Decentralisation And School-Based Management In Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; Sooksomchitra, Pacharapimon

    2004-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) in Thailand began in 1997 in the course of a reform aimed at overcoming a profound crisis in the education system. The present contribution reports on the introduction and institutionalisation of decentralisation and SBM with community participation in Thailand. The data reported here are based on an empirical survey…

  15. Determination of Mercury Exposure among Dental Health Workers in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand

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    Somsiri Decharat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the mercury exposure levels in dental health workers that work in dental clinics. The study evaluated the airborne and urinary mercury levels, the type of work done in the clinic, and the effect of mercury exposure on health of dental health workers. Material and Methods. A case-control study was conducted with 124 exposed and 124 matched nonexposed subjects. Personal and area samplings were conducted to quantify mercury concentrations by solid sorbent tube. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. Results and Discussion. 17.6% (n=32/182 of the air samples were higher than the occupational exposure limit (OEL. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary mercury levels included dietary consumption (fish or seafood, duration of work (yrs, work position, personal protection equipment used (PPE, and personal hygiene behaviors. Significant correlations were observed between mercury levels in urine and mercury in storage areas (r=0.499, P<0.05 and between mercury levels in urine and airborne mercury in personal samplings (r=0.878, P<0.001. Conclusion. Improvements in working conditions, occupational health training, and PPE use are recommended to reduce mercury exposure.

  16. Impact of marine tourism on the recreational water quality of Muk Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

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    Suwat Tanyaros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the water consisting of several parameters in the surrounding area of Muk Island were examined. Reference surface water was also concurrently sampled at stations located outside the recreational area stations. Relative modifications (RM in the recreational area stations water quality were assessed as the difference between the magnitude of a specific parameter recorded at the recreational area stations and the concurrently recorded value of the parameter at the reference station, relative to the mean value at the reference station. In this study, the specific parameters of dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, total suspended solids (TSS, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN = NO-2 + NO-23 + NH+3 and orthophosphate(PO-34 were shown to be significantly modified in December and April, but non-significantly modified inSeptember. The total coliform bacteria (TC and fecal coliform (FC in seawater at the recreational area stations were found to be higher than the coastal water quality standard. With a water quality criteria based coastal water quality standard fortourism, a significant but not dangerous level of pollution was observed in this area. TC and FC were the most significant pollutants in the recreational area stations.

  17. Flow routing in mangrove forests; a field study in Trang province, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horstman, Erik; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Flow routing in mangrove forests has great implications for the transport and distribution of sediments and nutrients and hence for mangroves' development and persistence. Whereas previous studies were limited to the creeks, supposedly feeding the surrounding mangroves, this study demonstrates the

  18. The Significant of Model School in Pluralistic Society of the Three Southern Border Provinces of Thailand

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    Haji-Awang Faisol

    2016-01-01

    The result of the study show that, a significant traits of the model schools in the multi-cultural society are not merely performed well in administrative procedure, teaching and learning process, but these schools also able to reveal the real social norm and religious believe into communities’ practical life as a truly “Malay-Muslim” society. It is means that, the school able to run the integrated programs under the shade of philosophy of Islamic education paralleled the National Education aims to ensure that the productivities of the programs able to serve both sides, national education on the one hand and the Malay Muslim communities’ satisfaction on the other hand.

  19. Mental health status among Burmese adolescent students living in boarding houses in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Takeshi; Win, Thar; Maung, Cynthia; Ray, Paw; Sakisaka, Kayako; Tanabe, Aya; Kobayashi, Jun; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-04-12

    In Tak province of Thailand, a number of adolescent students who migrated from Burma have resided in the boarding houses of migrant schools. This study investigated mental health status and its relationship with perceived social support among such students. This cross-sectional study surveyed 428 students, aged 12-18 years, who lived in boarding houses. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL)-37 A, Stressful Life Events (SLE) and Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaires were used to assess participants' mental health status and experience of traumatic events. The Medical Outcome Study (MOS) Social Support Survey Scale was used to measure their perceived level of social support. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine the distribution of sociodemographic characteristics, trauma experiences, and mental health status. Further, multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the association between such characteristics and participants' mental health status. In total, 771 students were invited to participate in the study and 428 students chose to take part. Of these students, 304 completed the questionnaire. A large proportion (62.8%) indicated that both of their parents lived in Myanmar, while only 11.8% answered that both of their parents lived in Thailand. The mean total number of traumatic events experienced was 5.7 (standard deviation [SD] 2.9), mean total score on the HSCL-37A was 63.1 (SD 11.4), and mean total score on the RATS was 41.4 (SD 9.9). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that higher number of traumatic events was associated with more mental health problems. Many students residing in boarding houses suffered from poor mental health in Thailand's Tak province. The number of traumatic experiences reported was higher than expected. Furthermore, these traumatic experiences were associated with poorer mental health status. Rather than making a generalized assumption on the mental health status of

  20. Treating the invisible: Gaps and opportunities for enhanced TB control along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschirhart, Naomi; Thi, Sein Sein; Swe, Lei Lei; Nosten, Francois; Foster, Angel M

    2017-01-13

    In Thailand's northwestern Tak province, contextual conditions along the border with Myanmar pose difficulties for TB control among migrant populations. Incomplete surveillance data, migrant patient mobility, and loss to follow-up make it difficult to estimate the TB burden and implement effective TB control measures. This multi-methods study examined tuberculosis, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus co-infection, and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment accessibility for migrants and refugees in Tak province, health system response, and public health surveillance. In this study we conducted 13 interviews with key informants working in public health or TB treatment provision to elicit information on TB treatment availability and TB surveillance practices. In addition we organized 15 focus group discussions with refugee and migrant TB, TB/HIV, and MDR-TB patients and non-patients to discuss treatment access. We analyzed the data using thematic analysis and created treatment availability maps with Google maps. The study identified surveillance, treatment, and funding gaps. Migrant TB cases are underreported in the provincial statistics due to jurisdictional interpretations and resource barriers. Our results suggest that TB/HIV and MDR-TB treatment options are limited for migrants and a heavy reliance on donor funding may lead to potential funding gaps for migrant TB services. We identified several opportunities that positively contribute to TB control in Tak province: improved diagnostics, comprehensive care, and collaboration through data sharing, planning, and patient referrals. The various organizations providing TB treatment to migrant and refugee populations along the border and the Tak Provincial Public Health Office are highly collaborative which offers a strong foundation for future TB control initiatives. Our findings suggest the need to enhance the surveillance system to include all migrant TB patients who seek treatment in Tak province and

  1. Organophosphate pesticide exposure in school-aged children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Tunsaringkarn, Tanasorn; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G; Fiedler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural sectors in Thailand. Previous studies have documented that children residing in agricultural areas have higher exposure to OPs than children living in other residential areas. The objective of this study was to quantify urinary biomarkers of OP exposure and determine the environmental conditions and activities that predict their levels among children living in Central Thailand farming regions. In October 2011, 53 6-8-year-old participants were recruited from Pathum Thani Province, Thailand. Twenty-four lived in rice farming communities at Khlong Luang District where OPs are the pesticides used frequently. Twenty-nine participants, living in aquacultural farming communities at Lum Luk Ka District where OPs are not used, were recruited to serve as controls for pathways of exposure (e.g., residential, dietary) other than occupational/paraoccupational exposures encountered in rice farming. Household environments and participants' activities were assessed using a parental structured interview. Urine samples (first morning voids) were collected from participants for OP urinary metabolite (i.e., dialkylphosphates [DAPs] and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy]) measurements. The levels of most urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in participants who lived in a rice farming community than those who lived in an aquacultural farming community (P farms (∑DAP: P = .001; TCPy: P = .001) and living in a rice farming community (∑DAP: P = .009; TCPy: P farm (P = .03), being with parent while working on a farm (P = .02), playing on a farm (P = .03), and the presence of observable dirt accumulated on the child's body (P = .02). In conclusion, OP metabolite levels among children who live in rice farming communities were strongly influenced by farming activity, household environments, and child behaviors, suggesting that these are the primary pathways in which children living in these agricultural

  2. Plasmodium vivax rhomboid-like protease 1 gene diversity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataradchakul, Touchchapol; Uthaipibull, Chairat; Nosten, Francois; Vega-Rodriguez, Joel; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Lek-Uthai, Usa

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax infection remains a major public health problem, especially along the Thailand border regions. We examined the genetic diversity of this parasite by analyzing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the P. vivax rhomboid-like protease 1 gene (Pvrom1) in parasites collected from western (Tak province, Thai-Myanmar border) and eastern (Chanthaburi province, Thai-Cambodia border) regions. Data were collected by a cross-sectional survey, consisting of 47 and 45 P. vivax-infected filter paper-spotted blood samples from the western and eastern regions of Thailand, respectively during September 2013 to May 2014. Extracted DNA was examined for presence of P. vivax using Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR. Pvrom1 gene was PCR amplified, sequenced and the SNP diversity was analyzed using F-STAT, DnaSP, MEGA and LIAN programs. Comparison of sequences of the 92 Pvrom1 831-base open reading frames with that of a reference sequence (GenBank acc. no. XM001615211) revealed 17 samples with a total of 8 polymorphic sites, consisting of singleton (exon 3, nt 645) and parsimony informative (exon 1, nt 22 and 39; exon 3, nt 336, 537 and 656; and exon 4, nt 719 and 748) sites, which resulted in six different deduced Pvrom1 variants. Non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions ratio estimated by the DnaSP program was 1.65 indicating positive selection, but the Z-tests of selection showed no significant deviations from neutrality for Pvrom1 samples from western region of Thailand. In addition McDonald Kreitman test (MK) showed not significant, and Fst values are not different between the two regions and the regions combined. Interestingly, only Pvrom1 exon 2 was the most conserved sequences among the four exons. The relatively high degree of Pvrom1 polymorphism suggests that the protein is important for parasite survival in face of changes in both insect vector and human populations. These polymorphisms could serve as a sensitive marker for studying plasmodial

  3. Microbial communities in the reef water at Kham Island, lower Gulf of Thailand

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    Naraporn Somboonna

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse habitats on Earth, but knowledge of their associated marinemicrobiome remains limited. To increase the understanding of the coral reef ecosystem in the lower Gulf of Thailand, this study utilized 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiota present in the reef water at Kham Island, Trat province, Thailand (N6.97 E100.86. The obtained result was then compared with the published microbiota from different coral reef water and marine sites. The coral reefs at Kham Island are of the fringe type. The reefs remain preserved and abundant. The community similarity indices (i.e., Lennon similarity index, Yue & Clayton similarity index indicated that the prokaryotic composition of Kham was closely related to that of Kra, another fringing reef site in the lower Gulf of Thailand, followed by coral reef water microbiota at GS048b (Cooks Bay, Fr. Polynesia, Palmyra (Northern Line Islands, United States and GS108b (Coccos Keeling, Australia, respectively. Additionally, the microbial eukaryotic populations at Kham was analyzed and compared with the available database at Kra. Both eukaryotic microbiota, in summer and winter seasons, were correlated. An abundance of Dinophysis acuminata was noted in the summer season, in accordance with its reported cause of diarrhoeatic shellfish outbreak in the summer season elsewhere. The slightly lower biodiversity in Kham than at Kra might reflect the partly habitat difference due to coastal anthropogenic activities and minor water circulation, as Kham locates close to the mainland and is surrounded by islands (e.g., Chang and Kut islands. The global marine microbiota comparison suggested relatively similar microbial structures among coral sites irrespective of geographical location, supporting the importance of coral-associated marine microbiomes, and Spearman’s correlation analysis between community membership and factors of

  4. Microbial communities in the reef water at Kham Island, lower Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Monanunsap, Somchai; Chavanich, Suchana; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are among the most biodiverse habitats on Earth, but knowledge of their associated marinemicrobiome remains limited. To increase the understanding of the coral reef ecosystem in the lower Gulf of Thailand, this study utilized 16S and 18S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing to identify the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbiota present in the reef water at Kham Island, Trat province, Thailand (N6.97 E100.86). The obtained result was then compared with the published microbiota from different coral reef water and marine sites. The coral reefs at Kham Island are of the fringe type. The reefs remain preserved and abundant. The community similarity indices (i.e., Lennon similarity index, Yue & Clayton similarity index) indicated that the prokaryotic composition of Kham was closely related to that of Kra, another fringing reef site in the lower Gulf of Thailand, followed by coral reef water microbiota at GS048b (Cooks Bay, Fr. Polynesia), Palmyra (Northern Line Islands, United States) and GS108b (Coccos Keeling, Australia), respectively. Additionally, the microbial eukaryotic populations at Kham was analyzed and compared with the available database at Kra. Both eukaryotic microbiota, in summer and winter seasons, were correlated. An abundance of Dinophysis acuminata was noted in the summer season, in accordance with its reported cause of diarrhoeatic shellfish outbreak in the summer season elsewhere. The slightly lower biodiversity in Kham than at Kra might reflect the partly habitat difference due to coastal anthropogenic activities and minor water circulation, as Kham locates close to the mainland and is surrounded by islands (e.g., Chang and Kut islands). The global marine microbiota comparison suggested relatively similar microbial structures among coral sites irrespective of geographical location, supporting the importance of coral-associated marine microbiomes, and Spearman's correlation analysis between community membership and factors of shore distance and

  5. A new order in northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, G.

    1991-09-01

    The fate of northeast Asia is central to the global balance of power. But just as the Cold War took a different course in northeast Asia than it did in its central battleground in Europe, so the post-Cold War world in northeast Asia is taking on a different shape. In Europe, formal arms control was a feature of the political landscape both before and after sweeping changes began altering the face of the continent in 1989. In contrast, northeast Asia saw only informal arms control measures before 1989. But in the post-Cold War world, the opportunity for more formal accords seems to be growing as the changing political environment makes them possible. In the rapidly developing virtuous circle of detente in northeast Asia, the prospects for arms control progress are better than ever, although considerable obstacles remain in the way. One of the unique features of northeast Asia is the convergence of interests of four of the world's most powerful nations - the US, the Soviet Union, Japan, and China. But unlike Europe, where the interests of the Soviet Union and the US have intermingled with those of the diverse members of the European Community (EC) and resulted in far-reaching arms reduction and confidence-building accords, northeast Asia has known only limited regional efforts at reducing tension and enhancing regional security. Nevertheless, unilateral moves and bilateral discussions among the four powers have produced a Sino-Soviet detente, reductions in US and Soviet forces in the Pacific region, the beginning of a Soviet-Japanese dialogue aimed at normalizing relations, and an overall trend toward closer diplomatic and economic relations throughout the region.

  6. Cutaneous Gnathostomiasis: A Case Report from Thailand

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    Sakunee Niranvichaiya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gnathostomiasis is transmitted to humans via ingestion of third-stage larva of genus Gnathostoma. Thailand is considered an endemic area for the disease. We reported a 65-year-old Thai male patient with clinical presentation of a small number of nodular migratory swellings on the face and neck. The histopathology of skin biopsy revealed parasitic material surrounded by eosinophil infiltration and fibrosis in deep dermis. Therefore, we were able to confirm diagnosis of cutaneous gnathostomiasis. After treatment with ivermectin followed by albendazole, the lesions still persisted; thus, surgical excision of lesions may be the necessary curative treatment.

  7. The nutrition and health transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosulwat, Vongsvat

    2002-02-01

    To explore and describe the nutrition and health transition in Thailand in relation to social and economic changes, shifts in food consumption patterns and nutritional problems, as well as morbidity and mortality trends. This report reviews the nutrition and health situation and other related issues by compiling information from various reports and publications from several sources. Yearly statistics and reports from the National Statistical Office were used as well as data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and national surveys on the nutrition and health situation of the Thai population. Thailand has undergone social and economic transitions during the past three decades and is approaching the post-demographic transitional period. These are evidenced by an increase in life expectancy at birth of the population, and declines in the total fertility and infant mortality rates. The economic structure has also moved from agricultural to industrial. Industrial growth has surpassed that of the agricultural sector as indicated by a steady rise in the share of the industrial sector in the gross domestic product, which is greater than that of other sectors. At the same time, results from several nation-wide surveys indicate that the food consumption pattern of the population has changed considerably; Thai staples and side dishes are being replaced by diets containing a higher proportion of fats and animal meat. A shift in the proportion of expenditure on food prepared at home and that expended on purchased, ready-to-eat food, in both rural and urban settings, gives another reflection of the change in food consumption of the Thai population. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased dramatically during the past 20 years and is more pronounced in children from private schools and urban communities than in those from public schools or rural areas. Among adults, results from two national surveys in 1991 and 1996

  8. A study of radioactive elements of various rocks in Pattani Province with gamma ray spectrometer

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    Kaewtubtim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity of the three elements, potassium, uranium and thorium, in rocks of various types in Pattani Province was investigated by using a gamma ray spectrometer. It was found that potassium contents in igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were 6.29 %, 2.21% and 1.54 % respectively. Uranium equivalent contents in igneous rock, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were found to be 22.51 ppm, 11.25 ppm and 14.13 ppm, while thorium contents in these rocks were 21.78 ppm, 18.88 ppm and 18.15 ppm respectively. The results obtained were similar to those reported by Pungtip Ranglek (1995 for igneous rock at Liwong Pluton site in Thepha, Na Thawi, Chana and Saba Yoi Districts, Songkhla Province, and were about six times higher than those reported by Kittichai Wattananikorn (1994 for igneous rock in the northern part of Thailand.

  9. The discovery of Kerivoula krauensis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae in southern peninsular Thailand provides new information on the distribution and conservation status of this data deficient species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bounsavane Douangboubpha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In August 2013, an adult male Kerivoula krauensis was captured in a harp trap set in forest understorey in Bala Forest, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Narathiwat Province, Thailand. This is only the second locality recorded for the species, the first outside Malaysia, and represents a range extension of 254 km, northwards from Krau Wildlife Reserve, Malaysia. This discovery has important conservation implications suggesting that the species is more widespread than previously thought but also confirms previous findings that it appears to live in very low population densities as compared to other Kerivoula found in the same habitat. Information on its taxonomy, echolocation call, distribution and ecology is included. In addition, the new material from Thailand is briefly compared to other known species from the country

  10. Geology and Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, Timothy R.; Moore, T.E.; Gautier, D.L.

    2017-11-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently assessed the potential for undiscovered petroleum resources of the East Barents Basins Province and the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province as part of its Circum-Arctic Resource Appraisal. These two provinces are situated northeast of Scandinavia and the northwestern Russian Federation, on the Barents Sea Shelf between Novaya Zemlya to the east and the Barents Platform to the west. Three assessment units (AUs) were defined in the East Barents Basins Province for this study: the Kolguyev Terrace AU, the South Barents and Ludlov Saddle AU, and the North Barents Basin AU. A fourth AU, defined as the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch AU, coincides with the Novaya Zemlya Basins and Admiralty Arch Province. These four AUs, all lying north of the Arctic Circle, were assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable resources, resulting in total estimated mean volumes of ~7.4 billion barrels of crude oil, 318 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of natural gas, and 1.4 billion barrels of natural-gas liquids.

  11. Declining Trend of Hepatitis A Seroepidemiology in Association with Improved Public Health and Economic Status of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa-nguanmoo, Pattaratida; Posuwan, Nawarat; Vichaiwattana, Preeyaporn; Vuthitanachot, Viboonsak; Saelao, Siriporn; Foonoi, Monthana; Fakthongyoo, Apinya; Makaroon, Jamorn; Srisingh, Klaita; Asawarachun, Duangporn; Owatanapanich, Somchai; Wutthiratkowit, Norra; Tohtubtiang, Kraisorn; Vongpunsawad, Sompong; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Poovorawan, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is transmitted via the fecal-oral route from contaminated food or water. As part of the most recent survey of viral hepatitis burden in Thailand, we analyzed the current seroprevalence of HAV in the country and compared with data dating back to 1971. From March to October, 2014, a total of 4,260 individuals between one month and 71 years of age from different geographical regions (North = 961; Central = 1,125; Northeast = 1,109; South = 1,065) were screened for anti-HAV IgG antibody using an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Overall, 34.53% (1,471/4,260) possessed anti-HAV IgG antibody, and the age-standardized seroprevalence was 48.6%. Seroprevalence rates were 27.3% (North), 30.8% (Central), 33.8% (Northeast) and 45.8% (South) and were markedly lower than in the past studies especially among younger age groups. The overall trend showed an increase in the age by which 50% of the population were anti-HAV IgG antibody: 4.48 years (1971–1972), 6 (1976), 12.49 (1990), 36.02 (2004) and 42.03 (2014).This suggests that Thailand is transitioning from low to very low HAV endemicity. Lower prevalence of HAV correlated with improved healthcare system as measured by decreased infant mortality rate and improved national economy based on increased GDP per capita. The aging HAV immuno-naïve population may be rendered susceptible to potential HAV outbreaks similar to those in industrialized countries and may benefit from targeted vaccination of high-risk groups. PMID:27008531

  12. Declining Trend of Hepatitis A Seroepidemiology in Association with Improved Public Health and Economic Status of Thailand.

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    Pattaratida Sa-nguanmoo

    Full Text Available Hepatitis A virus (HAV is transmitted via the fecal-oral route from contaminated food or water. As part of the most recent survey of viral hepatitis burden in Thailand, we analyzed the current seroprevalence of HAV in the country and compared with data dating back to 1971. From March to October, 2014, a total of 4,260 individuals between one month and 71 years of age from different geographical regions (North = 961; Central = 1,125; Northeast = 1,109; South = 1,065 were screened for anti-HAV IgG antibody using an automated chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Overall, 34.53% (1,471/4,260 possessed anti-HAV IgG antibody, and the age-standardized seroprevalence was 48.6%. Seroprevalence rates were 27.3% (North, 30.8% (Central, 33.8% (Northeast and 45.8% (South and were markedly lower than in the past studies especially among younger age groups. The overall trend showed an increase in the age by which 50% of the population were anti-HAV IgG antibody: 4.48 years (1971-1972, 6 (1976, 12.49 (1990, 36.02 (2004 and 42.03 (2014.This suggests that Thailand is transitioning from low to very low HAV endemicity. Lower prevalence of HAV correlated with improved healthcare system as measured by decreased infant mortality rate and improved national economy based on increased GDP per capita. The aging HAV immuno-naïve population may be rendered susceptible to potential HAV outbreaks similar to those in industrialized countries and may benefit from targeted vaccination of high-risk groups.

  13. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (Pcaries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (Pdental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure of blue-crested lizard, Calotes mystaceus Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Squamata: Agamidae) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijuntha, Weerachai; Khumkratok, Sutthira; Wongpakam, Komgrit; Thanonkeo, Sudarat; Senakhun, Chadaporn; Appamaraka, Sombat; Yodsiri, Surapon; Thongnetr, Weera; Pilap, Warayutt; Kongbuntad, Watee; Tawong, Wittaya; Agatsuma, Takeshi; Petney, Trevor N; Tantrawatpan, Chairat

    2017-06-01

    The blue-crested lizard, Calotes mystaceus Duméril & Bibron, 1837, is listed as a protected wild animal in Thailand. Its population is likely to be dramatically reduced due to massive hunting in several areas in this country. Basic information on its population genetics is therefore needed to facilitate its conservation. Thus, in this study we investigated the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) sequence variation of 238 individualC.mystaceus from 42 different geographical localities of the north, west, central, east and northeast regions of Thailand. High genetic diversity and genetic differentiation at the intrapopulation and interpopulation levels was observed.We detected 63 unique haplotypes and 12 common/shared haplotypes. The phylogenetic analysis reveals two major lineages, I and II. These two lineages are separated by mountain ranges, which play an important role as natural barriers blocking gene flow. Our finding reveal at least two cryptic lineages represented in C. mystaceus populations in Thailand. However, a comprehensive investigation of the morphology, biology, ecology and genetic diversity of C. mystaceus in other regions within its area of distribution is needed.

  15. Ergonomics studies in Thailand: a future prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaranont, K

    1997-12-01

    Ergonomics studies in Thailand began in 1967 after Professor Kovit Satavuthi graduated from the University of Birmingham, where he worked with Professor Nigel Corlett. Ergonomics was offered as an elective in the IE curriculum at Chulalongkorn University. Professor Satavuthi was later invited to teach manufacturing process and system at the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, School of Public Health, Mahidol University. He then added the ergonomics concept to the class as part of his lectures. The first international conference was organized by the Central Coordinating Board of SEAMEO-TROPMED Project, and it was held in Bangkok from 19-23 June 1972, thus bringing ergonomics into public attention. Most participants came from medical science and public health fields, however. Ergonomics popularity has begun to gain momentum in the past 4-5 years. This could be the result of more universities paying serious consideration to provide ergonomics knowledge to their students. It is also well-accepted that ergonomics is a multidisciplined subject. It requires knowledge from medical sciences, sociology, psychology, public health, and engineering. The results of ergonomics studies will have greater chances of success if they are concluded from all disciplines of knowledge. This paper reports some previous studies in Thailand and discuss how to build up an ergonomics team and to produce reasonable results with a sound application plan.

  16. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Suphanchaimaj, Weraphan; Settasatien, Anuchar; Jinwong, Thanapong

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Thailand. The number of mortalities, morbidities and disabilities are huge, greatly affecting the individual victims, the families, society and the nation as a whole. To study the current situation regarding traffic injuries in Thailand. Retrospective study from multiple national data sources For over ten years, the annual death toll due to road accidents has been more than ten thousand Thais. The situation remains critical with a higher mortality and morbidity than many other low or middle income countries. Two-thirds of the victims were males: 80% were under 40 years of age. Most (80%) of the injured and dead were motorcyclists. The large number of traffic crashes, injuries, disabilities and deaths resulted in more than 168 thousand million Baht in economic losses in 2002. These losses are trending to increase. Traffic injuries are a persistent major public health concern primarily because of a lack of adherence to the use of safety restraints and obedience of traffic laws. The nation must not hesitate to increase efforts to address these problems, as they are costing life and limb of Thais every hour of every day, as well as adding a huge economic burden.

  17. Climatology and Spatio-Temporal Variability of Wintertime Total and Extreme Rainfall in Thailand during 1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining wintertime (December-January-February; DJF climatology and spatio-temporal variability of Thailand’s total and extreme rainfall during 1970-2012. Analysis showed that the area along the Gulf of Thailand’s eastern coast not only received much amount of rainfall but also underwent great extremes and variances during the northeast monsoon (NEM winters. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis similarly revealed that the leading mode of each DJF total or extreme rainfall index was marked by maximum loadings concentrated at the stations located at the exposed area of the NEM flow. Correlation analysis indicated that the leading EOF mode of DJF total and extreme indices in Thailand tended to be higher (lower than normal during strong (weak East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM. On longer timescales, the recent decadal change observed in the leading EOF mode of all rainfall indices has been coincident with re-amplification of the EAWM taken place since the early/mid 2000. The leading EOF mode of DJF total and extreme rainfall indices in Thailand also exhibited strong correlations with the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean surface temperatures. It was characterized as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO/El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO-related boomerang-shaped spatial patterns, resembling the typical mature phases of the La Niña event and the PDO cool epoch. Based on our analysis, it is reasonable to believe that the anomalies of the NEM and other key EAWM-related circulations are likely to be the possible causes of DJF total and extreme rainfall variations in Thailand. In addition, the ENSO and PDO as the primary global atmospheric external forcing are likely to exert their influence on wintertime Thailand’s climate via modulating the EAWM/NEM-related circulations anomalies.

  18. Microbial ecology of Thailand tsunami and non-tsunami affected terrestrials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somboonna, Naraporn; Wilantho, Alisa; Jankaew, Kruawun; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Sangsrakru, Duangjai; Tangphatsornruang, Sithichoke; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-01-01

    The effects of tsunamis on microbial ecologies have been ill-defined, especially in Phang Nga province, Thailand. This ecosystem was catastrophically impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as well as the 600 year-old tsunami in Phra Thong island, Phang Nga province. No study has been conducted to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. This study represents the first to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. We utilized metagenomics with 16S and 18S rDNA-barcoded pyrosequencing to obtain prokaryotic and eukaryotic profiles for this terrestrial site, tsunami affected (S1), as well as a parallel unaffected terrestrial site, non-tsunami affected (S2). S1 demonstrated unique microbial community patterns than S2. The dendrogram constructed using the prokaryotic profiles supported the unique S1 microbial communities. S1 contained more proportions of archaea and bacteria domains, specifically species belonging to Bacteroidetes became more frequent, in replacing of the other typical floras like Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Basidiomycota. Pathogenic microbes, including Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Flavobacterium spp. and Photobacterium spp., were also found frequently in S1. Furthermore, different metabolic potentials highlighted this microbial community change could impact the functional ecology of the site. Moreover, the habitat prediction based on percent of species indicators for marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial niches pointed the S1 to largely comprise marine habitat indicating-species.

  19. Microbial ecology of Thailand tsunami and non-tsunami affected terrestrials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraporn Somboonna

    Full Text Available The effects of tsunamis on microbial ecologies have been ill-defined, especially in Phang Nga province, Thailand. This ecosystem was catastrophically impacted by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami as well as the 600 year-old tsunami in Phra Thong island, Phang Nga province. No study has been conducted to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. This study represents the first to elucidate their effects on microbial ecology. We utilized metagenomics with 16S and 18S rDNA-barcoded pyrosequencing to obtain prokaryotic and eukaryotic profiles for this terrestrial site, tsunami affected (S1, as well as a parallel unaffected terrestrial site, non-tsunami affected (S2. S1 demonstrated unique microbial community patterns than S2. The dendrogram constructed using the prokaryotic profiles supported the unique S1 microbial communities. S1 contained more proportions of archaea and bacteria domains, specifically species belonging to Bacteroidetes became more frequent, in replacing of the other typical floras like Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Basidiomycota. Pathogenic microbes, including Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Flavobacterium spp. and Photobacterium spp., were also found frequently in S1. Furthermore, different metabolic potentials highlighted this microbial community change could impact the functional ecology of the site. Moreover, the habitat prediction based on percent of species indicators for marine, brackish, freshwater and terrestrial niches pointed the S1 to largely comprise marine habitat indicating-species.

  20. Land Use and Natural Resources Planning for Sustainable Ecotourism Using GIS in Surat Thani, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Murayama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the land use and natural resources for future sustainable ecotourism site planning using GIS as a tool. The study is based on 2007 land use land cover data and ecotourism suitability data which are then integrated with other GIS datasets to evaluate the land use and natural resources at a district level in Surat Thani province. The final step of this study was the prioritization of the area that is best suited for ecotourism in assessing ecotourism sustainability in Surat Thani province. The result is useful for tourism facilities development and ecotourism resource utilization where ecotourism could be more developed. Additionally, the results can be used for managers and planners working in local and central governments and other non-governmental organizations. These integrated approaches cover complex and universal issues such as sustainable development of ecotourism, biodiversity conservation and protected area management in a tropical and developing country such as Thailand. Moreover, it is believed that this study can be used as a basis for evaluating the suitability of other areas for ecotourism. In addition, it may also serve as a starting point for more complex studies in the future.

  1. Distribution of hepatitis delta virus genotypes in mashhad, northeast iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghian, Hamid; Varasteh, Naiemeh; Esmaeelzadeh, Abbas; Nomani, Hosein; Alimardani, Maliheh; Davoodnejad, Mahdieh; Meshkat, Mojtaba; Ahadi, Mitra; Sepahi, Samaneh; Rostami, Sina; Meshkat, Zahra

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is dependent on the hepatitis B virus for transmission and propagation. Based on isolated HDV sequences from different parts of the world, at least three major different genotypes with different geographic distributions are suggested. Studies have shown that genotype 1 is the predominant genotype of HDV in different parts of Iran; however, the genotype distribution of this virus has not been identified in Mashhad, northeast Iran. This current study determines the frequency of HDV major genotypes in Mashhad, Iran. Twenty-five participants were enrolled in this study. All samples were positive for HBsAg (determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)) and anti-HDV. RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis was performed. Then, PCR was performed and HDV genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Of 25 patients, 12 (48%) were positive for HDV RNA. Genotype analysis of HDV RNA revealed that the prevalence of HDV genotypes I and II was 83.3% (n = 10) and 16.7% (n = 2), respectively. This study showed that the most prevalent genotype of HDV in Mashhad was genotype I. It was of interest that in contrast to other provinces of Iran, HDV genotype 2 was observed in Mashhad. Similar studies with larger sample sizes could provide valuable information regarding the molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution. It may also help control and prevent the spread of hepatitis D virus infections. In addition, the genotyping of HDV may predict the severity of the disease.

  2. Phenetic structure of two Bactrocera tau cryptic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) infesting Momordica cochinchinensis (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jean-Pierre; Kitthawee, Sangvorn

    2013-04-01

    Morphometric variation with respect to wing venation patterns was explored for 777 specimens of the Bactrocera tau complex collected in Thailand (nine provinces) and Laos (one locality). Cryptic species B. tau A and C were identified based on their wing shape similarity to published reference images. In Thailand, the B. tau A species was identified in four provinces and the B. tau C species in seven provinces, and both species in one locality of Laos. The objective of the study was to explain the geographic variation of size and shape in two cryptic species collected from the same host (Momordica cochinchinensis). Although collected from the same host, the two species did not show the same morphological variance: it was higher in the B. tau A species, which currently infests a wide range of different fruit species, than in the B. tau C species, which is specific to only one fruit (M. cochinchinensis). Moreover, the two species showed a different population structure. An isolation by distance model was apparent in both sexes of species C, while it was not detected in species A. Thus, the metric differences were in apparent accordance with the known behavior of these species, either as a generalist (species A) or as a specialist (species C), and for each species our data suggested different sources of shape diversity: genetic drift for species C, variety of host plants (and probably also pest-host-relationship) for species A. In addition to these distinctions, the larger species, B. tau C, showed less sexual size and shape dimorphism. The data presented here confirm the previously established wing shape differences between the two cryptic species. Character displacement has been discussed as a possible origin of this interspecific variation. The addition of previously published data on species A from other hosts allowed the testing of the character displacement hypothesis. The hypothesis was rejected for interspecific shape differences, but was maintained for size

  3. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  4. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model.

  5. First evidence of dengue infection in domestic dogs living in different ecological settings in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Thongyuan

    Full Text Available Dengue is a vector-borne disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is considered an important public health problem in many countries worldwide. However, only a few studies have been conducted on primates and domestic animals that could potentially be a reservoir of dengue viruses. Since domestic dogs share both habitats and vectors with humans, this study aimed to investigate whether domestic dogs living in different ecological settings in dengue endemic areas in Thailand could be naturally infected with dengue viruses.Serum samples were collected from domestic dogs in three different ecological settings of Thailand: urban dengue endemic areas of Nakhon Sawan Province; rubber plantation areas of Rayong Province; and Koh Chang, an island tourist spot of Trat Province. These samples were screened for dengue viral genome by using semi-nested RT-PCR. Positive samples were then inoculated in mosquito and dog cell lines for virus isolation. Supernatant collected from cell culture was tested for the presence of dengue viral genome by semi-nested RT-PCR, then double-strand DNA products were double-pass custom-sequenced. Partial nucleotide sequences were aligned with the sequences already recorded in GenBank, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. In the urban setting, 632 domestic dog serum samples were screened for dengue virus genome by RT-PCR, and six samples (0.95% tested positive for dengue virus. Four out of six dengue viruses from positive samples were successfully isolated. Dengue virus serotype 2 and serotype 3 were found to have circulated in domestic dog populations. One of 153 samples (0.65% collected from the rubber plantation area showed a PCR-positive result, and dengue serotype 3 was successfully isolated. Partial gene phylogeny revealed that the isolated dengue viruses were closely related to those strains circulating in human populations. None of the 71 samples collected from the island tourist spot showed a positive result

  6. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  7. Reservoir quality of intrabasalt volcaniclastic units onshore Faroe Islands, North Atlantic Igneous Province, northeast Atlantic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólavsdóttir, Jana; Andersen, Morten Sparre; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    . Onshore samples are used as Faroese offshore volcaniclastic intervals are represented by a few confidential samples where the stratigraphic level is uncertain. The onshore samples have been taken from 29 geotechnical (made related to tunnel building, etc.) and 2 scientific (made related to research of the geology...

  8. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisut Sittichaya; Roger Beaver; Lan-Yu Liu; Aran Ngampongsai

    2009-01-01

    An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe), and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  9. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe, and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  10. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. An Overview of Insurgency and Counterinsurgency in Thailand through 1973 - A Background Survey for Perspective and a Guide to the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    PROVINCES of ’THAILAND off .3 . , SCSORXnT I N 2A NORTH 2016 / , 3 i-A- " X5 To NI 8 HC . 1 8 3098T" f ."A"C t 4 PH-,-T 66 "."CII I ANC \\..44. PRACIIIN...communism. Cultural conflicts with the Thai have been emphasized in the recruiting efforts. Oppression by RTG officials, taxation , lack of police...base since the early days of the Malaysian Emergency (1958-60). Although the stated CPM main objective is Malaysia, there is no evidence that the CTO

  11. Improving pain relief for children in Thailand | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia. Thailand has the highest rates of the deadly liver cancer, cholangiocarinoma, in the world. View moreEcohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

  12. Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) Field Evaluation in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doheny, Robert C; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand...

  13. Reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged approach—combining treatment, ecosystem monitoring, and community mobilization—can effectively tackle the transmission of liver flukes.

  14. Moving Thailand's mountain of alcohol-related harm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apiradee Treerutkuarkul

    2017-01-01

    ... especially among young people. Today Thailand is one of the few developing countries with laws and policies aimed at preventing alcohol-related problems, such as liver disease, cancers and alcohol dependence as well as road...

  15. Invisible in Thailand: documenting the need for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Green

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Rescue Committee (IRC has conducted asurvey to document the experiences of Burmese people livingin border areas of Thailand and assess the degree to whichthey merit international protection as refugees.

  16. Intellectual Property Creation of Japanese Companies in China and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayasuki Kondo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization, Japanese companies are globalizing their operations. They have recently been increasing the number of overseas R&D centers in Asia, especially in China and Thailand. Using the United States patent and industrial design data, the paper finds the following points quantitatively. Japanese companies are increasing the number of patents and industrial designs created in the two countries. They used local talents from the beginning in China for both patents and industrial designs. In Thailand, they used local talents for industrial designs from the beginning, while Japanese expertise in Thailand was used for patents in the beginning. In any case, the role of Japanese in Japan is important. Compared with multi-national companies (MNCs from other countries, the IP creation activities of Japanese companies are weak compared to their amount of foreign direct investment to China and Thailand.

  17. Additions to the Bopyrid Isopod Fauna Of Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markham, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Previously, scattered accounts recorded 13 species of bopyrid isopods infesting decapod crustaceans in Thailand. Recent collections, mainly at Phuket, on the west coast, have turned up 18 more species in Thai waters. Asymmetrione asymmetrica (Shiino) infests Clibanarius spec. Bopyrissa liberorum

  18. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance in Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soebiyanto, Radina

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of malaria transmission in Thailand and Indonesia to assist in the understanding and reducing the incidence of the deadly disease. Satellite observations are being integrated into this work, and this is described herein.

  19. The economics of catfish farming in central Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panayotou, T; Wattanutchariya, S; Isvilanonda, S; Tokrisna, R

    1982-01-01

    A recall survey of 41 catfish farms in the central plain of Thailand during 1979 was undertaken to ascertain why production has been falling since 1974, despite high and rising market prices for catfish...

  20. Flood control surveys in the northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur Bevan

    1947-01-01

    Floods are a grave danger to our Nation's resources. It is estimated that floods cost the United States at least $100 million every year. The recent Mississippi floods, which dramatically brought the seriousness of the situation to public attention, cost half a billion dollars in direct-damages. The Northeast carries a heavy burden of flood losses. In 1936, floods...

  1. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1976-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Cross-boundary shipments were traced by exchanging information with neighboring experiment stations that conduct similar canvasses. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing...

  2. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1971

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1973-01-01

    An annual report based upon canvasses of pulpwood production in the Northeast, containing data about pulpwood production from roundwood in the 14 Northeastern States by counties and species groups, and pulpwood chip production from plant residues. Comparisons are made with the previous year's production data. Trends in pulpwood production for the past 9 years are...

  3. Pulpwood production in the Northeast - 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Bones; David R. Dickson

    1976-01-01

    This annual report is based on a canvass of all pulpmills in the Northeast that use wood-either roundwood or plant residues-as a basic raw material for a variety of products. Cross-boundary shipments are traced by exchanging information with neighboring experiment stations that conduct similar canvasses. Mills that use pulpwood as a raw material in producing insulation...

  4. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-02-17

    Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Pho sub-district of Phitsanulok, a province in Thailand. The standard questionnaire from the British Medical Research Council was used to collect data on chronic respiratory symptoms, including cough, phlegm, dyspnea, severe dyspnea, stuffy nose in the participating workers. Data on their health symptoms experienced in the past 30 days was also asked. A constructed questionnaire was used to collect exposure data, including type of job, time in the kitchen, the frequency of frying food, tears while cooking (TWC), the type of restaurant, fuel used for cooking, the size and location of the kitchen, and the exhaust system and ventilation. The prevalence of the symptoms was compared with those obtained from 395 controls, who were neighbors of the participants who do not work in a restaurant. In comparison to the control group, the restaurant workers had twice or more the prevalence on most of the chronic health symptoms. Men had a higher risk for "dyspnea", "stuffy nose" and "wheeze" while women had higher risk of "cough". A Rate Ratio (RR) of susceptibility was established, which ranged from 1.4 up to 9.9. The minimum RR was for women with "severe dyspnea" (RR of 1.4, 95%CI 0.8, 2.5) while the men showed the maximum RR of 9.9 (95%CI 4.5-22.0) for "wheeze". Possible risk factors identified were job description, job period, size of restaurant, kitchen location, type of cooking oil, hours of stay in the kitchen area, number of fry dishes prepared, frequency of occurrence of TWC, and additional cooking at

  5. Development Trajectory, Emission Profile, and Policy Actions : Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Qwanruedee; Chotichanathawewong; Natapol Thongplew

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and ...

  6. Development trajectory, emission profile, and policy actions: Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chotichanathawewong, Qwanruedee; Thongplew, Natapol

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and effici...

  7. Thailand, A beauty hub for everyone? : Internationalizing Thai Aesthetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...

  8. Sustainable Solutions for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2009-01-01

    General as well as the MSW management in Thailand is reviewed in this paper. Topics include the MSW generation, sources, composition, and trends. The review, then, moves to sustainable solutions for MSW management, sustainable alternative approaches with an emphasis on an integrated MSW management. Information of waste in Thailand is also given at the beginning of this paper for better understanding of later contents. It is clear that no one single method of MSW disposal can deal with all mat...

  9. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, C. [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-03-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  10. Controlling Dengue with Vaccines in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L.; Halstead, Scott B.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes), stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period. Conclusions/Significance Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels. PMID:23145197

  11. Controlling dengue with vaccines in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis L Chao

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes.We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes, stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period.Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels.

  12. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

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    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  13. Four new species of the spider genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980 from Laos, Thailand and Myanmar and the first description of the male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 with a proposed new diagnostic character for the family Nesticidae Simon, 1894 (Arachnida, Araneae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall, Elena; Jäger, Peter

    2016-03-02

    During various expeditions to Laos between 2003 and 2012 and one expedition to Myanmar in 2014, spiders of the family Nesticidae were collected inside and outside of caves. This was the first time this family was encountered in Laos. All specimens belong to the genus Nesticella Lehtinen & Saaristo, 1980. Four species have been recognized as being new to science, which are described in this paper: Nesticella beccus n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province, Luang Prabang Province, Huaphan Province, Khammouan Province, THAILAND: Mae Hong Son Province), Nesticella laotica n. sp. (male, female; LAOS: Vientiane Province, Huaphan Province, Luang Prabang Province, Bolikhamsay Province), Nesticella foelixi n. sp. (male; LAOS: Bolikhamsay Province) and Nesticella michaliki n. sp. (male, female; MYANMAR: Chin State). The male of Nesticella yui Wunderlich & Song, 1995 is described for the first time and it is the first record for Laos. Results from a first micro-computed tomography analysis of a female copulatory organ for this genus are provided. This analysis proves that female Nesticella exhibit a complex functional receptaculum, which is highly complex within the genus. The presence of a special type of leg setae (pipette setae) in males is proposed as diagnostic for the family Nesticidae.

  14. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

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    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  15. HIV infection among injecting drug users in north-east Malaysia, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Crofts, N

    1993-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has spread widely among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries to the north and west of the 'Golden Triangle' region of South-East Asia; it is likely to have spread southwards to Malaysia as well. In order to assess HIV seroprevalence among IDUs in north-east Malaysia and describe risk factors for HIV infection in this population, we performed a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study among 210 IDUs recruited at the detoxification ward of the General Hospital in the capital city of the north-eastern Malaysian state, Kelantan. Subjects were sequential entrants to the detoxification ward, interviewed about HIV risk behaviour, and tested for antibody to HIV and to syphilis. Nearly a third (62/210, 30%) of these IDUs were HIV seropositive. Three-quarters (159/210) had travelled to Thailand in the preceding 5 years, of whom 32% (51/159) were HIV seropositive; this was associated with injecting in Thailand, but not with sexual contact there. Of those who had not left Malaysia in the preceding 5 years, 26% (11/43) were HIV seropositive, a rate not significantly different from those who had travelled. Travel within Malaysia was common (144/210, 69%) among IDUs interviewed, as was unsafe injecting and unsafe sexual behaviour (20% had shared injecting equipment and 21% had had unprotected intercourse) in other states. In every locale, rates of unsafe injecting behaviour were high (55% sharing in last month), even among those who knew they were HIV infected, and rates of condom usage were low (93% of 160 sexually active IDUs had never used a condom). Syphilis was not associated with HIV infection, but with contact with Thai prostitutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. A comparative performance analysis of three standardized climatic drought indices in the Chi River basin, Thailand

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    Tipaporn Homdee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought indices are generally used as a tool for monitoring changes in drought conditions. This paper evaluated the performance of three climatic drought indices to characterize drought trends in the Chi River basin in Northeast Thailand. Initially, the drought assessment was conducted using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, a precipitation-based index, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI, an index taking into account the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET. Then, this study simply applied an index called the Standardized Precipitation Actual Evapotranspiration Index (SPAEI, similar to the commonly used SPEI, with the difference being in the use of actual evapotranspiration (AET instead of PET. Time series of the three indices were compared with observed droughts. The results indicated that various indicators of different indices can have diverse effects on drought conditions. The simple SPI, considering only precipitation, can be used to identify characteristics of droughts with certain restrictions. Being multivariate indices, the SPEI and the SPAEI were able to clearly detect the temporal variability of droughts to a greater extent than the SPI index. Moreover, the different results derived from using P-AET instead of P-PET made a substantial difference to temporal drought severity. Thus, climatic water demand had important aspects in determining the drought conditions for this area.

  17. Wood anatomy and properties of three species in the genus Spondias lakonensis (Anacardiaceae found in Thailand

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    Renupha Phongkrathung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy and properties of woods in the genus Spondias (Anacardiaceae were investigated. Wood samples were collected from North and Northeast Thailand. Permanent slides of wood sections and tissue maceration were made. The specimens were observed under a light microscope and using scanning electron microscopy. The wood density, specific gravity and hardness were also investigated. It was found that the wood of all three species had indistinct growth rings and fine textured and straight grain. Kribs heterogeneous rays type I were found in Spondias lakonensis while Kribs heterogeneous rays type III were found in Spondias pinnata and Spondias cytherea. Radial canals were present in rays of all studied species. Prismatic crystals were found in the rays of S. lakonensis and S. cytherea but not in S. pinnata. Starch grains were also observed in S. pinnata and S. cytherea. The wood specific gravity of S. pinnata, S. lakonensis and S. cytherea was 0.45, 0.33 and 0.30; the wood density was 0.44, 0.33 and 0.27 g/cm3 and the wood hardness was 2795.85, 1329.26 and 1059 N, respectively. The results from this study suggest that Spondias woods can be used for agricultural utensils but they are not suitable for heavy construction.

  18. Outcomes of State- vs. Community-Based Mangrove Management in Southern Thailand

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    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, mangrove forests are claimed for state management, although it is widely recognized that coastal communities access and manage those forests. Skepticism persists within Thai government circles about whether coastal villages can sustainably manage and protect mangroves. This research presents evidence of successful mangrove conservation and management by two coastal villages in Trang province, southern Thailand. Using interdisciplinary methods including interviews, discussions, quantitative forest surveys, and institutional analysis, we describe the history of how these two communities gained rights to manage the mangrove forests, and the subsequent positive biological outcomes associated with their management. Local villages have crafted and maintained well-defined governance management institutions over the forest, and as a result, stand structure was superior in community-managed mangrove forests than in the open-access state forest. We argue that the basis for the communities' success in managing these forests was that the resource was necessary to local livelihoods and was becoming scarce; the communities enjoyed autonomous decision making and had a high degree of social capital; the forest and user groups were well defined and monitored; effective leadership was present in the villages to apply sanctions and resolve conflicts; and there was substantial assistance from an external non-governmental organization, which served as a bridge between the villages and the government. For conservation, simply knowing whether communities can conserve mangroves is not sufficient. We must know why the communities are or are not successful. Conservation research must, therefore, consider not only the biological outcomes of community management, but the underlying reasons for those outcomes. This paper can serve as a guideline for future studies on the community-mangrove interface.

  19. Diabetes prevention education program for community health care workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sranacharoenpong, Kitti; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of a 4-month training program on the knowledge of CHCWs. CHCWs from 69 communities in Chiang Mai province in Thailand were assigned to the intervention group (IG, n=35) or control group (CG, n=34). All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline and at 4-months. The intervention group received a training program of 16 sessions of 2.5 h each within a 4-month period. A mix of classroom and E-learning approaches was used. All CHCWs were assessed for knowledge at baseline, 4-month, and follow-up at 8-month. Assessment was based on a pretested examination addressing understanding of nutritional terms and recommendations, knowledge of food sources related to diabetes prevention and diet-disease associations. Overall, the knowledge at baseline of both groups was not significantly different and all CHCWs scored lower than the 70% (mean (SD), 56.5% (6.26) for IG and 54.9% (6.98) for CG). After 4-month, CHCWs in the IG demonstrated improvement in total scores from baseline to 75.5% (6.01), P< .001 and relative to the CG 57.4% (5.59), P< .001. The follow up phase at 8-month, IG were higher in total scores than CG (71.3% (7.36) and 62.4% (6.81), P< .001). The diabetes prevention education program was effective in improving CHCWs' health knowledge relevant to diabetes prevention. The innovative learning model has potential to expand chronic disease prevention training of CHCWs to other parts of Thailand.

  20. Assessing the Challenges in Successful Implementation and Adoption of Crop Insurance in Thailand

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    Shweta Sinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to assess the gaps in the adoption of crop insurance in Thailand and suggest possible solutions relating to policy support and framework, implementation mechanisms, technology adoption, and awareness amongst farmers. The methodology includes a literature review, interaction with officials, rice experts and insurance experts, and discussion with farmers. A study was undertaken at province level to assess the impact of using rainfall index as a threshold. Additionally, focused group discussions (FGD were conducted with rice farmers at the village level. Key issues targeted in the FGD were to understand the behavior and practices during droughts, impact of drought on crop yield, methods already in use to reduce the impact, such as plantation of drought-resistant rice, and the adoption of crop insurance. Data availability is a challenge and has led to withdrawal of Weather Index Insurance (WII in 2015. WII have threshold levels based on historical rainfall. Adoption of coping mechanisms, such as drought-resistant rice and irrigation increases the chances of adverse selection. In absence of ground based weather data, a combination of satellite agriculture drought information can be used to make crop insurance more attractive as it would help in reducing basis risk and improving insurers and farmers’ confidence in the product. Discussion with farmers, insurance companies, and the Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC in Thailand suggested low awareness among farmers about the potential benefits of weather index insurance products. Relatively low compensation is also an obstacle. Proper marketing and awareness raising campaigns should also accompany the introduction of index-based insurance products.

  1. Cost analysis for efficient management: diabetes treatment at a public district hospital in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Chatterjee, Susmita; Piyauthakit, Piyanuch

    2011-10-01

    OBJECTIVE  The study estimated cost of illness from the provider's perspective for diabetic patients who received treatment during the fiscal year 2008 at Waritchaphum Hospital, a 30-bed public district hospital in Sakhon Nakhon province in northeastern Thailand. METHODS  This retrospective, prevalence-based cost-of-illness study looked at 475 randomly selected diabetic patients, identified by the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes E10-E14. Data were collected from the hospital financial records and medical records of each participant and were analysed with a stepwise multiple regression. KEY FINDINGS  The study found that the average public treatment cost per patient per year was US$94.71 at 2008 prices. Drug cost was the highest cost component (25% of total cost), followed by inpatient cost (24%) and outpatient visit cost (17%). A cost forecasting model showed that length of stay, hospitalization, visits to the provincial hospital, duration of disease and presence of diabetic complications (e.g. diabetic foot complications and nephropathy) were the significant predictor variables (adjusted R(2) = 0.689). CONCLUSIONS  According to the fitted model, avoiding nephropathy and foot complications would save US$19 386 and US$39 134 respectively per year. However, these savings are missed savings for the study year and the study hospital only and not projected savings, as that would depend on the number of diabetic patients managed in the year, the ratio of complicated to non-complicated cases and effectiveness of the prevention programmes. Nonetheless, given the high avoidable cost associated with complications of diabetes, healthcare providers in Thailand should focus on initiatives that delay the progression of complications in diabetic patients. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Social stigma and knowledge of tuberculosis and HIV among patients with both diseases in Thailand.

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    Sirinapha X Jittimanee

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Disease-related stigma and knowledge are believed to be associated with patients' willingness to seek treatment and adherence to treatment. HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB presents unique challenges, because TB and HIV are both medically complex and stigmatizing diseases. In Thailand, we assessed knowledge and beliefs about these diseases among HIV-infected TB patients. METHODS: We prospectively interviewed and examined HIV-infected TB patients from three provinces and one national referral hospital in Thailand from 2005-2006. At the beginning of TB treatment, we asked patients standardized questions about TB stigma, TB knowledge, and HIV knowledge. Responses were grouped into scores; scores equal to or greater than the median score of study population were considered high. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with scores. RESULTS: Of 769 patients enrolled, 500 (65% reported high TB stigma, 177 (23% low TB knowledge, and 379 (49% low HIV knowledge. Patients reporting high TB stigma were more likely to have taken antibiotics before TB treatment, to have first visited a traditional healer or private provider, to not know that monogamy can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV infection, and to have been hospitalized at enrollment. Patients with low TB knowledge were more likely to have severe TB disease, to be hospitalized at enrollment, to be treated at the national infectious diseases referral hospital, and to have low HIV knowledge. Patients with low HIV knowledge were more likely to know a TB patient and to have low TB knowledge. DISCUSSION: We found that stigma and low disease-specific knowledge were common among HIV-infected TB patients and associated with similar factors. Further research is needed to determine whether reducing stigma and increasing TB and HIV knowledge among the general community and patients reduces diagnostic delay and improves patient outcomes.

  3. Isolation, identification and toxigenic potential of ochratoxin A-producing Aspergillus species from coffee beans grown in two regions of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2008-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi...... with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from...... the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from...

  4. Consuming iodine enriched eggs to solve the iodine deficiency endemic for remote areas in Thailand

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    Teeyapant Punthip

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence showed that the occurrence of iodine deficiency endemic areas has been found in every provinces of Thailand. Thus, a new pilot programme for elimination of iodine deficiency endemic areas at the community level was designed in 2008 by integrating the concept of Sufficient Economic life style with the iodine biofortification of nutrients for community consumption. Methods A model of community hen egg farm was selected at an iodine deficiency endemic area in North Eastern part of Thailand. The process for the preparation of high content iodine enriched hen food was demonstrated to the farm owner with technical transfer in order to ensure the sustainability in the long term for the community. The iodine content of the produced iodine enriched hen eggs were determined and the iodine status of volunteers who consumed the iodine enriched hen eggs were monitored by using urine iodine excretion before and after the implement of iodine enrichment in the model farm. Results The content of iodine in eggs from the model farm were 93.57 μg per egg for the weight of 55 - 60 g egg and 97.76 μg for the weight of 60 - 65 g egg. The biological active iodo-organic compounds in eggs were tested by determination of the base-line urine iodine of the volunteer villagers before and after consuming a hard boiled iodine enriched egg per volunteer at breakfast for five days continuous period in 59 volunteers of Ban Kew village, and 65 volunteers of Ban Nong Nok Kean village. The median base-line urine iodine level of the volunteers in these two villages before consuming eggs were 7.00 and 7.04 μg/dL respectively. After consuming iodine enriched eggs, the median urine iodine were raised to the optimal level at 20.76 μg/dL for Ban Kew and 13.95 μg/dL for Ban Nong Nok Kean. Conclusions The strategic programme for iodine enrichment in the food chain with biological iodo-organic compound from animal origins can be an alternative method to

  5. Comparative accuracy of Pap smear and HPV screening in Ubon Ratchathani in Thailand

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    Suleeporn Sangrajrang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the potential for using high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV testing-based screening for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in routine health services in Thailand; its accuracy in comparison to that of conventional cytology (CC; and the utility of HPV16/18 positive results and liquid-based cytology (LBC triage for HPV-positive women in the detection of high-grade CIN. Women aged 30–60 years in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand were screened with CC and hr-HPV testing and those abnormal on either tests were referred for colposcopy and/or directed biopsies. The final diagnosis using COBAS was based on histology or colposcopy when histology was not available. Estimation of test accuracy parameters was done using latent class analysis using Bayesian models. Of the 5004 women were enrolled, 20 (0.4% had abnormal CC and 174 (3.5% women were HPV-positive. Among 185 women abnormal on CC or HPV-positive, 176 (95.1% underwent colposcopy, of whom 101 (57.4% had abnormal colposcopy findings. Ninety-seven women with abnormal and 69 with normal colposcopy had biopsies performed. All 21 women with histological CIN2 or worse had hr-HPV and none were abnormal on CC. The estimated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were respectively 71.8%, 97.0% and 13.0% of HPV testing; 53%, 98.7% and 20.3% for triage of HPV-positive women with LBC; and 70.4%, 98.2% and 16.9% when test positivity was taken as HPV16/18 irrespective of LBC result or positive for hr-HPV non 16/18 types and LBC triage. Our study findings indicate poor performance of cytology screening and demonstrate the potential and utility of using HPV testing in public health services in Thailand as well as the utility of primary HPV testing and LBC triage in screening for cervical neoplasia. Keywords: Cervix cancer, Early detection, HPV screening, Cytology screening, Accuracy

  6. Comparative accuracy of Pap smear and HPV screening in Ubon Ratchathani in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Laowahutanont, Piyawat; Wongsena, Metee; Muwonge, Richard; Karalak, Anant; Imsamran, Weerawut; Senkomago, Virginia; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy

    2017-06-01

    We evaluate the potential for using high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) testing-based screening for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in routine health services in Thailand; its accuracy in comparison to that of conventional cytology (CC); and the utility of HPV16/18 positive results and liquid-based cytology (LBC) triage for HPV-positive women in the detection of high-grade CIN. Women aged 30-60 years in Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand were screened with CC and hr-HPV testing and those abnormal on either tests were referred for colposcopy and/or directed biopsies. The final diagnosis using COBAS was based on histology or colposcopy when histology was not available. Estimation of test accuracy parameters was done using latent class analysis using Bayesian models. Of the 5004 women were enrolled, 20 (0.4%) had abnormal CC and 174 (3.5%) women were HPV-positive. Among 185 women abnormal on CC or HPV-positive, 176 (95.1%) underwent colposcopy, of whom 101 (57.4%) had abnormal colposcopy findings. Ninety-seven women with abnormal and 69 with normal colposcopy had biopsies performed. All 21 women with histological CIN2 or worse had hr-HPV and none were abnormal on CC. The estimated sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were respectively 71.8%, 97.0% and 13.0% of HPV testing; 53%, 98.7% and 20.3% for triage of HPV-positive women with LBC; and 70.4%, 98.2% and 16.9% when test positivity was taken as HPV16/18 irrespective of LBC result or positive for hr-HPV non 16/18 types and LBC triage. Our study findings indicate poor performance of cytology screening and demonstrate the potential and utility of using HPV testing in public health services in Thailand as well as the utility of primary HPV testing and LBC triage in screening for cervical neoplasia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Ethnomedicinal plants used for digestive system disorders by the Karen of northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangjitman, Kornkanok; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Kamwong, Kaweesin; Sukkho, Treetip; Trisonthi, Chusie

    2015-04-09

    Digestive system disorders have a substantial effect on worldwide morbidity and mortality rates, including in Thailand, where the majority of the rural areas have a lack of proper sanitation and awareness about disease prevention. This has led to the prevalence of different types of digestive diseases. Karen people in Thailand still use medicinal plants as first aid remedies in treating these diseases. Therefore, this study aimed at documenting the plants used to cure and prevent different types of digestive system disorders by Karen people of Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Ethnomedicinal data were collected from six key informants and 172 non-specialist informants regarding their traditional knowledge of medicinal plants. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Use Value (UV), Informant Consensus Factor (ICF) and Fidelity Level (FL) values. The study revealed that 36 medicinal plant species belonging to 31 genera and 24 families were used to treat digestive system disorders. The most prevalent plant families were Zingiberaceae (6 species), Euphorbiaceae (4 species) and Fabaceae (4 species). Leaves were the most commonly used plant part accounting for 32.6% of the plants, followed by the bark (18.6%). About 60% of the administrations were given orally by potion (60%) and consumption as food was also indicated (14%). The highest ICF values were recorded for carminative disorders, stomachaches, geographic tongue, constipation, appetite stimulants and food poisoning (1.00 each) indicating the best agreement among the informants knowledge of medicinal plants that were used to treat aliments in these categories. The highest fidelity level values were recorded for Punica granatum (100.00), Psidium guajava (95.45), and Gymnopetalum integrifolium (90.91) showing conformity of knowledge on species with the best healing potential. Medicinal plants still play an important role among Karen culture. The present information on these medicinal plants, which have

  8. Using Respondent Driven Sampling to Identify Malaria Risks and Occupational Networks among Migrant Workers in Ranong, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaporn Wangroongsarb

    Full Text Available Ranong Province in southern Thailand is one of the primary entry points for migrants entering Thailand from Myanmar, and borders Kawthaung Township in Myanmar where artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites has been detected. Areas of high population movement could increase the risk of spread of artemisinin resistance in this region and beyond.A respondent-driven sampling (RDS methodology was used to compare migrant populations coming from Myanmar in urban (Site 1 vs. rural (Site 2 settings in Ranong, Thailand. The RDS methodology collected information on knowledge, attitudes, and practices for malaria, travel and occupational histories, as well as social network size and structure. Individuals enrolled were screened for malaria by microscopy, Real Time-PCR, and serology.A total of 619 participants were recruited in Ranong City and 623 participants in Kraburi, a rural sub-district. By PCR, a total of 14 (1.1% samples were positive (2 P. falciparum in Site 1; 10 P. vivax, 1 Pf, and 1 P. malariae in Site 2. PCR analysis demonstrated an overall weighted prevalence of 0.5% (95% CI, 0-1.3% in the urban site and 1.0% (95% CI, 0.5-1.7% in the rural site for all parasite species. PCR positivity did not correlate with serological positivity; however, as expected there was a strong association between antibody prevalence and both age and exposure. Access to long-lasting insecticidal treated nets remains low despite relatively high reported traditional net use among these populations.The low malaria prevalence, relatively smaller networks among migrants in rural settings, and limited frequency of travel to and from other areas of malaria transmission in Myanmar, suggest that the risk for the spread of artemisinin resistance from this area may be limited in these networks currently but may have implications for regional malaria elimination efforts.

  9. Food safety in Thailand 2: Pesticide residues found in Chinese kale (Brassica oleracea), a commonly consumed vegetable in Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon, E-mail: sompon-999@hotmail.com [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Kanchanamayoon, Onnicha [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Phopin, Kamonrat [Center for Innovation Development and Technology Transfer, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Prachayasittikul, Virapong [Department of Clinical Microbiology and Applied Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing public concern over human health risks associated with extensive use of pesticides in agriculture. Regulation of pesticide maximum residue limits (MRLs) in food commodities is established in many developed countries. For Thailand, this regulation exists in law but is not fully enforced. Therefore, pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits have not been well monitored. This study investigated the pesticide residues in Chinese kale, a commonly eaten vegetable among Asians. The Chinese kale samples (N = 117) were purchased from markets in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, and analyzed for the content of 28 pesticides. Analysis was performed by the multiresidual extraction followed by GC–MS/MS. Of pesticides investigated, 12 pesticides were detected in 85% of the Chinese kale samples. Although carbaryl, deltamethrin, diazinon, fenvalerate and malathion were found in some samples, their levels were lower than their MRLs. However, in 34 samples tested, either carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, dimethoate, metalaxyl or profenofos was detected exceeding their MRLs. This represents a 29% rate of pesticide detection above the MRL; a rate much higher than in developed countries. Washing vegetables under running water significantly reduced (p < 0.05) profenofos residues by 55%. The running water method did not significantly decrease cypermethrin residues in the samples but washing with vinegar did. Our research suggests that routine monitoring of pesticide residues is necessary to reduce the public health risks associated with eating contaminated vegetables. Washing vegetables before consumption is advisable as this helps to reduce the level of pesticide residues in our daily intake. - Highlights: • Significant pesticide residues were detected in Chinese kale sold in Thailand. • MRL exceedance was found and this was higher than that seen in developed countries. • Washing vegetables under running water can remove pesticide

  10. Insecticide resistance in bedbugs in Thailand and laboratory evaluation of insecticides for the control of Cimex hemipterus and Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawatsin, Apiwat; Thavara, Usavadee; Chompoosri, Jakkrawarn; Phusup, Yutthana; Jonjang, Nisarat; Khumsawads, Chayada; Bhakdeenuan, Payu; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom; Asavadachanukorn, Preecha; Mulla, Mir S; Siriyasatien, Padet; Debboun, Mustapha

    2011-09-01

    Bedbugs are found in many countries around the world, and in some regions they are resistant to numerous insecticides. This study surveyed bedbugs in Thailand and determined their resistance to insecticides. The surveys were carried out in six provinces that attract large numbers of foreign tourists: Bangkok, Chonburi, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani, Phuket, and Krabi. Bedbugs were collected from hotels and colonized in the laboratory to evaluate their resistance to insecticides. Cimex hemipterus (F.) was found in some hotels in Bangkok, Chonburi, Phuket, and Krabi, whereas Cimex lectularius L. was found only in hotels in Chiang Mai. No bedbugs were found in Ubon Ratchathani. The colonized bedbugs showed resistance to groups of insecticides, including organochlorines (dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane, dieldrin), carbamates (bendiocarb, propoxur), organophosphates (malathion, fenitrothion), and pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, etofenprox) in tests using World Health Organization insecticide-impregnated papers. The new insecticides imidacloprid (neonicotinoid group), chlorfenapyr (pyrrole group), and fipronil (phenylpyrazole group) were effective against the bedbugs; however, organophosphate (diazinon), carbamates (fenobucarb, propoxur), and pyrethroids (bifenthrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, etofenprox) were ineffective. Aerosols containing various pyrethroid insecticides with two to four different active ingredients were effective against the bedbugs. The results obtained from this study suggested that both species of bedbugs in Thailand have developed marked resistance to various groups of insecticides, especially those in the pyrethroid group, which are the most common insecticides used for pest control. Therefore, an integrated pest management should be implemented for managing bedbugs in Thailand.

  11. Effects of Thailand and Sri Lanka agronomic practices on mungbean (Vigna radiata (L. Wilczek production in rice-based cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran Peiris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of agronomic practices were evaluated on mungbean production, using a randomized complete block design conducted at the Farming Research Development Center, Phaniat sub-district, Khok Sumrong district, Lop Buri province, Thailand during February to July 2015. Five agronomic practices (each with four replications were tested—Thai farmer practice (TFP as the control; Thailand recommendation (TR; Sri Lankan farmer practice (SLFP; Sri Lankan new recommendation (SLNR; and Thailand recommendation with paddy straw mulch (TRM—each practice was composed of different tillage methods, seeding rates, mulching and seed inoculation (with Rhizobium. At the maturity stage, the lowest height (38.04 cm was found in TFP compared to 78.8%, 56.6%, 31.5% and 20.8% height increases reported in TRM, SLNR, SLFP, and TR, respectively. Furthermore, TFP had the lowest leaves per plant at maturity (8.73, whereas the percentage of leaves per plant at maturity in TR, SLFP, SLNR and TRM was 20.9%, 27.4%, 33.1% and 60.1%, respectively, higher than in TFP. TFP produced the lowest yield (0.657 t/ha while TRM, TR, SLFP and SLNR which produced increased yields by 109.13%, 41.4%, 46.1% and 86.8%, respectively, compared to the control. Overall, the results showed that the method of tillage, mulching and inoculum collectively determined the growth and seed yield of mungbean in a rice-mungbean cropping system.

  12. Distribution of tannin-'tolerant yeasts isolated from Miang, a traditional fermented tea leaf (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanpiengjai, Apinun; Chui-Chai, Naradorn; Chaikaew, Siriporn; Khanongnuch, Chartchai

    2016-12-05

    Miang is a fermented food product prepared from the tea leaves of Camellia sinensis var. assamica, and is traditionally produced in mountainous areas of northern Thailand. Although Miang has a long history and reveals deep-rooted cultural involvement with local people in northern Thailand, little is known regarding its microbial diversity. Yeasts were isolated from 47 Miang samples collected from 28 sampling sites, including eight provinces in upper northern Thailand. A hundred and seven yeast isolates were recovered and identified within 14 species based on the comparison of the D1/D2 sequence of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene. Candida ethanolica was determined to be the dominant species that was frequently found in Miang together with minor resident yeast species. All yeast isolates demonstrated their tannin-tolerant capability when cultivated on yeast malt agar (YMA) containing 50g/l tannin, but nine isolates displayed clear zones forming around their colonies, e.g., Debaryomyces hansenii, Cyberlindnera rhodanensis, and Sporidiobolus ruineniae. The results obtained from a visual reading method of tannase revealed that all yeast isolates were positive for methyl gallate, indicating that they possess tannase activity. It is assumed that a tannin-tolerant ability is one of the most important factors for developing a yeast community in Miang. This research study is the first report to describe tannin-tolerant yeasts and yeast communities in traditionally fermented tea leaves. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Intermediate and definitive hosts of Schistosoma mansoni in Corrientes province, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    C Edgardo Borda; María JF Rea

    2006-01-01

    Corrientes province is located in the humid subtropical region of Argentina northeast on the left riverbank of Paraná River in the border with the South of Brazil. This is a region without schistosomiasis but planorbid and rodents that would serve as host of the life cycle of Schistosoma mansoni inhabit here. The objective of this work is to know the role of rodent as definitive host of schistosomiasis. Biomphalaria tenagophila (4 to 8 mm Ø) from Maloyas, exposed each to 10 miracidia of SJ2 s...

  14. An Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis Caused by Genotype IB Hepatitis A Viruses Contaminating the Water Supply in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchusatsawat, Kriangsak; Wongpiyabovorn, Jongkonnee; Kawidam, Chonthicha; Thiemsing, Laddawan; Sangkitporn, Somchai; Yoshizaki, Sayaka; Tatsumi, Masashi; Takeda, Naokazu; Ishii, Koji

    2016-01-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of acute hepatitis A was reported in a province adjacent to Bangkok, Thailand. To investigate the cause of the 2000 hepatitis A outbreaks in Thailand using molecular epidemiological analysis. Serum and stool specimens were collected from patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute viral hepatitis. Water samples from drinking water and deep-drilled wells were also collected. These specimens were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing of the VP1/2A region of the hepatitis A virus (HAV) genome. The entire genome sequence of one of the fecal specimens was determined and phylogenetically analyzed with those of known HAV sequences. Eleven of 24 fecal specimens collected from acute viral hepatitis patients were positive as determined by semi- nested reverse transcription PCR targeting the VP1/2A region of HAV. The nucleotide sequence of these samples had an identical genotype IB sequence, suggesting that the same causative agent was present. The complete nucleotide sequence derived from one of the samples indicated that the Thai genotype IB strain should be classified in a unique phylogenetic cluster. The analysis using an adjusted odds ratio showed that the consumption of groundwater was the most likely risk factor associated with the disease. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. TBT-pollution in the Gulf of Thailand: a re-inspection of imposex incidence after 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swennen, Cornelis; Sampantarak, Uraiwan; Ruttanadakul, Nukul

    2009-04-01

    Imposex in neogastropods was used to determine the relative TBT distribution in the Gulf of Thailand in 2006. To identify the imposex prevalence, 8757 specimens, belonging to 22 species from five families of neogastropods, were collected at 56 sites in 13 sample areas. These areas were located between the Bight of Bangkok in the north and the Malaysian border in the south. A contamination model was developed to compensate for differences in TBT sensitivity among species and to make comparisons among areas. At every area imposex was found in neogastropods. The highest incidence was in the east side of the Bight of Bangkok off Si Racha and Pattaya and in the southern part around Pattani. The same areas showed the highest frequency of imposex in 1996. While the frequency of imposex appeared to have slightly decreased in these areas, increases were found elsewhere. In Pattani Province this could be related to dumping of highly polluted harbour sediments in the shallow coastal area. The overall frequency of imposex in the Gulf of Thailand significantly increased from 1996 to 2006.

  16. Flood monitoring and damage assessment in Thailand using multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B and MODIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. L.; Zhang, W. C.

    2017-02-01

    Flood is one of the most serious natural disasters in South Asia. How to monitor floods and assess damage caused is the most urgent problem for the government and disaster experts. With the advances of remote sensing, images acquired before the beginning of disaster to the very end or after the disaster from Earth-observing satellites benefit the decision making for reduction and protection of disaster dramatically. By using multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B and MODIS remote sensing data, applicability of different algorithms for flood monitoring and damage assessing was investigated in 2011 Thailand floods. Three different algorithms were adopted to monitor flood disaster events with water indices. Comparisons on the flood disaster monitoring and damage assessing by means of HJ-1A/1B and MODIS images suggested that multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B is much useful for the purpose, which demonstrated with the analysis of the thresholds estimated and problems in data post-processing. The variations of the inundated areas in the process of 2011 Thailand floods revealed were presented in this paper, and the damage caused by flooding was evaluated in three aspects, the population in the inundated region, the inundated information of different provinces and land use areas. Compared with MODIS, HJ-1A/1B images can provide more rapid and accurate flood extent and damage assessment for the disaster prevention, damage mitigation and disaster relief.

  17. Transmission-blocking activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid against naturally circulating strains of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsa, Narong; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Eikarat, Nantana; Coleman, Russell E

    2003-11-01

    The sporontocidal activity of tafenoquine (WR-238605) and artelinic acid was determined against naturally circulating isolates of Plasmodium vivax in western Thailand. Primaquine was used as a negative control and a dihydroacridine-dione (WR-250547) was used as a positive control. Laboratory-reared Anopheles dirus mosquitoes were infected with P. vivax by allowing mosquitoes to feed on blood (placed in an artificial-membrane feeding apparatus) collected from gametocytemic volunteers reporting to local malaria clinics in Tak province, Thailand. Four days post-infection, mosquitoes were refed on uninfected mice treated 90 minutes earlier with a given drug. Drug activity was determined by assessing oocyst and sporozoite development. Neither primaquine nor artelinic acid affected oocyst or sporozoite development at a dose of 100 mg of base drug/kg of mouse body weight. In contrast, tafenoquine and WR-250547 affected sporogonic development at doses as low as 25.0 and 0.39 mg/kg, respectively. The potential role of these compounds in the prevention of malaria transmission is discussed, as are alternative strategies for the use of transmission-blocking antimalarial drugs.

  18. Diversity of leaf litter ant communities in Ton Nga Chang Wildlife Sanctuary and nearby rubber plantations, Songkhla, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias O. Bickel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of Southern Thailand's former natural rainforest have been replaced by rubber plantations. Despite the fact that rubber plantations dominate the landscape, little is known about its capacity to sustain forest dwelling species. We used leaf litter ants as a bioindicator from two natural forests, a rubber plantation forest and a completely cleared ruderal area in Southern Thailand, Songkla Province. There was a substantial decline in ant diversity from the undisturbed forest towards the ruderal area along a gradient of environmental disturbance. Additionally, there was a turnover in species composition between the different habitats and an increase in arboreal species "enhancing" the sparse ground foraging ant community in the plantation habitat. Also, alien tramp species replaced native species in the plantation and ruderal habitats. This study shows that despite their forest like appearance rubber plantations are a poor habitat for native leaf litter-inhabiting ants and unsuitable to sustain biodiversity in general. The changes in community structure in the secondary forest showed the importance of primary forest habitat to maintain regional biodiversity.

  19. Prospective study of the feasibility and effectiveness of a second-trimester quadruple test for Down syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewsuksai, Peeranan; Jitsurong, Siroj

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of a quadruple test for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy in clinical settings in Thailand. From October 2015 to September 2016, a prospective study was undertaken in 19 hospitals in Songkhla province, Thailand. Women with a singleton pregnancy of 14-18 weeks were enrolled and underwent the quadruple test. The risk cutoff value was set at 1:250. All women with a positive test (risk ≥1:250) were offered amniocentesis. Women were followed up until delivery. Among 2375 women, 206 (8.7%) had a positive quadruple test; 98 (47.6%) of these women voluntarily underwent amniocentesis. Overall, seven pregnancies were complicated with chromosomal abnormalities (2.9 cases in 1000), including four cases of Down syndrome (1.7 in 1000) and three of other abnormalities. The detection, false-positive, and accuracy rates of the quadruple test for Down syndrome were 75.0%, 8.6%, and 91.4%, respectively. The quadruple test was found to be a feasible and efficient method for screening for Down syndrome in the second trimester of pregnancy in a Thai clinical setting. The test should be performed for pregnant women before an invasive test for Down syndrome. © 2017 Internationa