LaForme Fiss, Alyssa C.; McCoy, Sarah Westcott; Chiarello, Lisa A.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents and therapists have similar perceptions of therapy services provided to young children with cerebral palsy (CP), reflecting collaboration and provision of family-centered care. Forty-six parents of young children with CP and 40 therapists providing services for those children participated.…
dela Cruz, Georgia G; Rozier, R Gary; Slade, Gary
tested the posed hypotheses, with provider, practice, and patient characteristics included as potential control variables. Nearly 78% of 169 primary care clinicians who participated in the survey reported that they were likely to refer children who had signs of early decay or high risk for future disease. Approximately half (54%) call a dental office sometimes or more frequently to make an appointment for a child whom they refer, but the most common method is to give the caregiver the name of a dentist without additional assistance (96%). Bivariate analysis revealed that providers who had high confidence in their ability to perform screenings and reported low overall referral difficulty were more likely to refer children. Bivariate analyses also found that providers who were not in group practices, were board certified, graduated 20 years ago or more, saw 80 or more patients per week, had >60% of their total patients who were infants and toddlers, and saw >3.5 patients per hour were significantly less likely to refer at-risk children for dental care. No patient characteristics were associated with referral. The regression model revealed that an increase in odds of referral was significantly associated with confidence in screening abilities (odds ratio [OR]: 5.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.7-15.1), low referral difficulty (OR: 6.0; 95% CI: 1.0-34.5), and group practice (OR: 4.2; 95% CI: 1.4-12.1). Having a patient population of >60% infants or toddlers was significantly associated with a decrease in odds of referral (OR: 0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.7). Oral health knowledge and opinions did not help to explain referral practices. Tooth decay remains a substantial problem in young children and is made worse by existing barriers that prevent them from obtaining dental care. Because most children are exposed to medical care but not dental care at an early age, primary care medical providers have the opportunity to play an important role in helping children and their families
Biezen, Ruby; Brijnath, Bianca; Grando, Danilla; Mazza, Danielle
Respiratory tract infections in young children are the most common cause of general practice visits in Australia. Despite the availability of clinical practice guidelines, the treatment and management of respiratory tract infections in young children is inconsistent. The aim of the study was to explore the management of respiratory tract infections in young children from a multi-disciplinary perspective using across-sectional qualitative research design based on the theoretical domains framework and the Capability, Opportunity and Motivation-B model. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 primary care providers to explore their knowledge, views and management of respiratory tract infections in young children. Interviews focused on symptomatic management, over-the-counter medications and antibiotic use, and data were thematically analysed. Our findings showed that factors such as primary care providers' time constraints, parental anxiety, general practitioners' perception of what parents want, perceived parental pressure, and fear of losing patients were some of the reasons why primary care providers did not always adhere to guideline recommendations. Primary care providers also provided conflicting advice to parents concerning over-the-counter medications and when children should resume normal activities. Overall, this study showed that complex interactions involving emotional and psychological factors influenced the decision making process of primary care providers' management of respiratory tract infections in young children. A team care approach with consistent advice, and improved communication between primary care providers and parents is vital to overcome some of these barriers and improve guideline adherence. The findings of this research will inform the development of interventions to better manage respiratory tract infections in young children. CLINICIANS SWAYED BY PARENTAL ANXIETY AND PRESSURE: The emotions and psychology of both parents and
"Exploration" is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as…
Steed, Elizabeth A.; Roach, Andrew T.
Findings are presented regarding childcare providers' use of evidence-based strategies to promote preschoolers' social-emotional competence in 38 urban childcare classrooms. Descriptive results from classroom observations and childcare teachers' interviews indicated that in the absence of training, childcare teaching staff implemented few of these…
... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...
Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…
Research concerning the effects of television violence on children--particularly young children under the age of six--has found that it tends to desensitize them to aggressive behavior and, in some children, promotes aggressive behavior in their play and other interactions with children and adults. This guide is designed to assist early childhood…
Vandeweghe, Laura; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra
The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children's eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14), family child care providers (n = 9), and daycare assistants (n = 10). The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy). Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the current study is to identify strategies to promote healthy eating in young children that can be applied by caregivers, based on their own perceptions of effectiveness and feasibility. Whereas previous research mainly focused on parental influences on children’s eating behavior, the growing role of other caregivers in the upbringing of children can no longer be denied. Methods Four focus groups were conducted with three types of caregivers of post-weaning children under 6 years old: parents (n = 14, family child care providers (n = 9, and daycare assistants (n = 10. The audiotaped focus group discussions were transcribed and imported into Nvivo 10.0 for thematic analysis. The behaviors put forward by the caregivers were categorized within three broad dimensions: global influences, general behaviors, and specific feeding practices. Results Perceived effective strategies to promote healthy eating behavior in children included rewards, verbal encouragement, a taste-rule, sensory sensations, involvement, variation, modeling, repeated exposure, and a peaceful atmosphere. Participants mainly disagreed on the perceived feasibility of each strategy, which largely depended on the characteristics of the caregiving setting (e.g. infrastructure, policy. Conclusions Based on former research and the current results, an intervention to promote healthy eating behaviors in young children should be adapted to the caregiving setting or focus on specific feeding practices, since these involve simple behaviors that are not hindered by the limitations of the caregiving setting. Due to various misconceptions regarding health-promoting strategies, clear instructions about when and how to use these strategies are necessary.
Koblinsky, Sally; And Others
Discusses guidelines (developed by the Oregon State University Early Childhood Sex Education Project) for developing teacher-parent cooperation in providing sex education to young children. The guidelines concern how to talk about body differences and body functions; how to deal with masturbation, sex play and obscene language; and how to involve…
Harmony and tonality are two of the most difficult elements for young children to perceive and manipulate and are seldom taught in the schools until the end of early childhood. Children's gradual harmonic and tonal development has been attributed to their cumulative exposure to Western tonal music and their increasing experiential knowledge of its rules and principles. Two questions that are relevant to this problem are: (1) Can focused and systematic teaching accelerate the learning of the harmonic/tonal principles that seem to occur in an implicit way throughout childhood? (2) Are there cognitive constraints that make it difficult for young children to perceive and/or manipulate certain harmonic and tonal principles? A series of studies specifically addressed the first question and suggested some possible answers to the second one. Results showed that harmonic instruction has limited effects on children's perception of harmony and indicated that the drastic improvement in the perception of implied harmony noted approximately at age 9 is due to development rather than instruction. I propose that young children's difficulty in perceiving implied harmony stems from their attention behaviors. Older children have less memory constraints and more strategies to direct their attention to the relevant cues of the stimulus. Younger children focus their attention on the melody, if present in the stimulus, and specifically on its concrete elements such as rhythm, pitch, and contour rather than its abstract elements such as harmony and key. The inference of the abstract harmonic organization of a melody required in the perception of implied harmony is thus an elusive task for the young child.
Many preschool children fail to achieve the National Association for Sport and Physical Education physical activity recommendations placing themselves at increased risk of overweight and its associated health consequences. The early learning and care system is well positioned to intervene. Yet few child obesity prevention efforts have focused on…
Muehe, Anne M; Theruvath, Ashok J; Lai, Lillian; Aghighi, Maryam; Quon, Andrew; Holdsworth, Samantha J; Wang, Jia; Luna-Fineman, Sandra; Marina, Neyssa; Advani, Ranjana; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Daldrup-Link, Heike E
To provide clinically useful gadolinium-free whole-body cancer staging of children and young adults with integrated positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging in less than 1 h. In this prospective clinical trial, 20 children and young adults (11-30 years old, 6 male, 14 female) with solid tumors underwent 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) PET/MR on a 3T PET/MR scanner after intravenous injection of ferumoxytol (5 mg Fe/kg) and [18F]FDG (2-3 MBq/kg). Time needed for patient preparation, PET/MR image acquisition, and data processing was compared before (n = 5) and after (n = 15) time-saving interventions, using a Wilcoxon test. The ferumoxytol-enhanced PET/MR images were compared with clinical standard staging tests regarding radiation exposure and tumor staging results, using Fisher's exact tests. Tailored workflows significantly reduced scan times from 36 to 24 min for head to mid thigh scans (p PET/MR scans were obtained with significantly reduced radiation exposure (mean 3.4 mSv) compared to PET/CT with diagnostic CT (mean 13.1 mSv; p = 0.003). Using the iron supplement ferumoxytol "off label" as an MR contrast agent avoided gadolinium chelate administration. The ferumoxytol-enhanced PET/MR scans provided equal or superior tumor staging results compared to clinical standard tests in 17 out of 20 patients. Compared to PET/CT, PET/MR had comparable detection rates for pulmonary nodules with diameters of equal or greater than 5 mm (94 vs. 100 %), yet detected significantly fewer nodules with diameters of less than 5 mm (20 vs 100 %) (p = 0.03). [18F]FDG-avid nodules were detected with slightly higher sensitivity on the PET of the PET/MR compared to the PET of the PET/CT (59 vs 49 %). Our streamlined ferumoxytol-enhanced PET/MR protocol provided cancer staging of children and young adults in less than 1 h with equivalent or superior clinical information compared to clinical standard staging tests. The detection of
Carter, Sid; Cook, James; Sutton-Boulton, Gary; Ward, Vicki; Clarke, Steve
The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report of a service evaluation survey. The value of providing support to those young siblings is however clear. An established method of support is within a group of peers who also have a sibling with an intellectual disability, though no specific method for running this type of group has yet been fully explored. This article reports the views of 39 children taking part in such a group, analysing their perspective through a proposed model for the operation of sibling groups: social pedagogy. It was found that the closer the group's activities were to social pedagogy, the more supported the children and young people felt. © The Author(s) 2015.
Silverman, Linda Kreger
Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…
Aldiss, Susie; Baggott, Christina; Gibson, Faith; Mobbs, Sarah; Taylor, Rachel M
Advances in technology have offered health professionals alternative mediums of providing support to patients with long-term conditions. This critical review evaluated and assessed the benefit of electronic media technologies in supporting children and young people with long-term conditions. Of 664 references identified, 40 met the inclusion criteria. Supportive technology tended to increase disease-related knowledge and improve aspects of psychosocial function. Supportive technology did not improve quality of life, reduce health service use or decrease school absences. The poor methodological quality of current evidence and lack of involvement of users in product development contribute to the uncertainty that supportive technology is beneficial. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frank, Mary, Ed.
The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…
Jay, Ollie; Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Chou, Shirley; Murto, Kimmo
The accurate measurement of core temperature is an essential aspect of intraoperative management in children. Invasive measurement sites are accurate but carry some health risks and cannot be used in certain patients. An accurate form of noninvasive thermometry is therefore needed. Our aim was to develop, and subsequently validate, separate models for estimating core temperature using different skin temperatures with an individualized correction factor. Forty-eight pediatric patients (0-36 months) undergoing elective surgery were separated into a modeling group (MG, n = 28) and validation group (VG, n = 20). Skin temperature was measured over the carotid artery (Tsk_carotid ), upper abdomen (Tsk_abd ), and axilla (Tsk_axilla ), while nasopharyngeal temperature (Tnaso ) was measured as a reference. In the MG, derived models for estimating Tnaso were: Tsk_carotid + 0.52; Tsk_abd + (0.076[body mass] + 0.02); and Tsk_axilla + (0.081[body mass]-0.66). After adjusting raw Tsk_carotid, Tsk_abd , and Tsk_axilla values in the independent VG using these models, the mean bias (Predicted Tnaso - Actual Tnaso [with 95% confidence intervals]) was +0.03[+0.53, -0.50]°C, -0.05[+1.02, -1.07]°C, and -0.06[+1.21, -1.28°C], respectively. The percentage of values within ±0.5°C of Tnaso was 93.2%, 75.4%, and 66.1% for Tsk_carotid, Tsk_abd , and Tsk_axilla , respectively. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting hypothermia (Tnaso Skin temperature over the carotid artery, with a simple correction factor of +0.52°C, provides a viable noninvasive estimate of Tnaso in young children during elective surgery with a general anesthetic. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Marly A Cardoso
Full Text Available Multiple micronutrients in powder (MNP are recommended by WHO to prevent anemia in young children. However, evidences for its effectiveness in different populations and improvements in other outcomes (e.g. linear growth and vitamin A deficiency are scarce.A multicentre pragmatic controlled trial was carried out in primary health centres. At study baseline, a control group (CG of children aged 10- to 14 months (n = 521 was recruited in the routine healthcare for assessing anemia, anthropometric and micronutrient status. At the same time, an intervention group (IG of infants aged 6- to 8 months (n = 462 was recruited to receive MNP daily in complementary feeding over a period of 60 days. Both study groups were compared when the IG infants reached the age of the CG children at enrolment.In CG, the prevalence of anemia [hemoglobin (Hb 8.3 mg/L, and vitamin A deficiency (VAD, serum retinol < 0.70μmol/L were 23.1%, 37.4%, and 17.4%, respectively. Four to six months after enrolment, when the IG participants had the same age of the controls at the time of testing, the prevalence of anemia, ID and VAD in IG were 14.3%, 30.1% and 7.9%, respectively. Adjusting for city, health centre, maternal education, and age, IG children had a lower likelihood of anemia and VAD [Prevalence Ratio (95% CI = 0.63 (0.45, 0.88 and 0.45 (0.29, 0.69, respectively] when compared with CG children. The adjusted mean distributions of Hb and length-for-age Z-scores improved by 2 SE in the IG compared to CG children.MNP effectively reduced anemia and improved growth and micronutrient status among young Brazilian children.Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos RBR-5ktv6b.
Cardoso, Marly A; Augusto, Rosangela A; Bortolini, Gisele A; Oliveira, Cristieli S M; Tietzman, Daniela C; Sequeira, Leopoldina A S; Hadler, Maria Claret C M; Peixoto, Maria do Rosario G; Muniz, Pascoal T; Vitolo, Márcia R; Lira, Pedro I C; Jaime, Patrícia C
Multiple micronutrients in powder (MNP) are recommended by WHO to prevent anemia in young children. However, evidences for its effectiveness in different populations and improvements in other outcomes (e.g. linear growth and vitamin A deficiency) are scarce. A multicentre pragmatic controlled trial was carried out in primary health centres. At study baseline, a control group (CG) of children aged 10- to 14 months (n = 521) was recruited in the routine healthcare for assessing anemia, anthropometric and micronutrient status. At the same time, an intervention group (IG) of infants aged 6- to 8 months (n = 462) was recruited to receive MNP daily in complementary feeding over a period of 60 days. Both study groups were compared when the IG infants reached the age of the CG children at enrolment. In CG, the prevalence of anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) 8.3 mg/L), and vitamin A deficiency (VAD, serum retinol micronutrient status among young Brazilian children. Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos RBR-5ktv6b.
Warner, Laverne; Weiss, Sara
This article explains the importance of alphabet books in early reading development. Alphabet books encourage literacy development in the following ways: (1) unlock the symbols of language; (2) connect knowledge to other sources; (3) provide book usage knowledge to young children; (4) complement children's enjoyment of books; and (5) aid early…
Bustamante, Mariona; Standl, Marie; Bassat, Quique
implicated in the susceptibility to infections, including Rotavirus and Norovirus Gene-set enrichment analysis suggested pathways related to the histo-blood group antigen production, and the regulation of ion transport and blood pressure. Among others, the gastrointestinal tract, and the immune and neuro......More than a million childhood diarrhoeal episodes occur worldwide each year, and in developed countries a considerable part of them are caused by viral infections. In this study, we aimed to search for genetic variants associated with diarrhoeal disease in young children by meta-analyzing genome......-wide association studies, and to elucidate plausible biological mechanisms. The study was conducted in the context of the Early Genetics and Lifecourse Epidemiology (EAGLE) consortium. Data about diarrhoeal disease in two time windows (around 1 year of age and around 2 years of age) was obtained via parental...
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Provides opportunities for children to develop visual images of the number situations they are exploring in order to develop powerful number sense. Illustrates two visual teaching aids to help young children develop number images. (ASK)
Killam, P E
Parents often seek orthopedic evaluation of their young children because of apparent abnormalities. However, many of these are simply developmental variations that are part of normal growth and development. Pes planus, or flat foot, is one of the earliest and most common concerns. Torsional variations are also often seen; the presenting complaint may be intoeing (metatarsus adductus, tibial torsion and increased femoral anteversion) or out-toeing (pes calcaneovalgus and external rotation contractures of the hips). Angular variations (genu varum and genu valgum) are also seen frequently in young children. In assessing each finding, consideration must be given to the age at which the finding may be considered within normal limits, methods of examination and documentation, the expected course, findings that may signify abnormality, and appropriate follow-up and referral. An understanding of these common developmental variations in the orthopedic assessment of young children will enable the health care provider to respond to parents' concerns with accurate information and counseling.
Fotini Venetsanou; Antonis Kambas
This study aimed to examine motor proficiency in young children, focusing on potential gender differences. For that purpose, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency–Long Form (BOTMP-LF) was administered to 540 children (272 boys), 4½ to 6 years old. First, the 2 (sex) × 4 (age groups) ANOVA computed on children’s total BOTMP-LF scores showed that age had a statistically significant effect, whereas gender did ...
This paper provides methodological reflections on an evolutionary and participatory software development process for designing interactive systems with children of very young age. The approach was put into practice for the design of a software environment for self-directed project management...
Williams, Cheri; Mayer, Connie
The authors conducted an integrative review of the research literature on the writing development, writing instruction, and writing assessment of young deaf children ages 3 to 8 years (or preschool through third grade) published between 1990 and 2012. A total of 17 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. The analysis examined research…
Brake, Kathryn J.
Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…
Pullon, Susan; McKinlay, Brodie; Yager, Jess; Duncan, Bruce; McHugh, Patrick; Dowell, Anthony
Children in many areas of New Zealand have poor health indices; statistics indicate health inequalities. Existing international indicators of child health currently take little account of local context. There are few composite indicators of how child health services are integrated at a community level. This study aimed to explore what local people consider would be useful indicators of better child health. Data for this qualitative study were collected via 24 individual interviews and two focus groups in a rural area of New Zealand. A total of 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with parents/families of small children. Participants were asked about wide-ranging aspects of child health. Also, 11 interviews and two focus groups were conducted with front line health professionals/stakeholders. Key themes from the content thematic analysis: include child health should be measured in multidimensional ways; essential interdependence of family-child health; universal access to culturally appropriate care, free primary care services and parenting education and support is needed; and there is a lack of integration and communication between health, education and social services. There is an important need to measure and monitor communication/integration across existing health, education and social services, provide better parenting support and health education and improve access to culturally appropriate primary care. © The Author(s) 2013.
The use of a porous high-density polyethylene ear implant, rather than a costal cartilage framework, allows ear reconstruction in young children before they enter school. The fact that the growth of the normal ear matures early allows for good symmetry. If the implant is covered completely with a large, well-vascularized superficial parietal fascia flap and appropriately color-matched skin, an ear with excellent projection and definition can be obtained with minimal complications and long-term viability. Ear reconstruction in young children is preferred by the author because the necessary fascial flap coverage is thinner, easier to harvest than in older patients, and can be done in a single outpatient procedure with minimal discomfort or psychological trauma. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Schneider, Katherine A
The defining difference between genetic and traditional medicine is that genetic findings have implications not just for the patient, but also for their relatives. Discussion of a test result between parent and child is both a transformative and a translational moment in the life of a family. Parents report wanting help in talking to their children. The challenge for genetic counselors and other providers is to be able to recognize which issues are at the core of parental distress and be able to offer recommendations to empower and support parents. The complexity of potential genetic findings, including variants of uncertain significance (VUS) and incidental findings have vastly increased, requiring considerable explanation and leaving less time for discussion of emotional issues. While the nature of the testing (single gene to multigene panel and genomic testing) is dramatically changing, the nature of parent concerns remains remarkably constant. Families differ in many respects, so no "recipe" suffices to answer parents' questions about how this important task should be approached in each family. Successful consultation to parents requires true counseling, matching parents' fears and questions with information, exploration and advice specific to their concerns, their circumstances and strengths.
Sasson, Noah J; Elison, Jed T
The rise of accessible commercial eye-tracking systems has fueled a rapid increase in their use in psychological and psychiatric research. By providing a direct, detailed and objective measure of gaze behavior, eye-tracking has become a valuable tool for examining abnormal perceptual strategies in clinical populations and has been used to identify disorder-specific characteristics, promote early identification, and inform treatment. In particular, investigators of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have benefited from integrating eye-tracking into their research paradigms. Eye-tracking has largely been used in these studies to reveal mechanisms underlying impaired task performance and abnormal brain functioning, particularly during the processing of social information. While older children and adults with ASD comprise the preponderance of research in this area, eye-tracking may be especially useful for studying young children with the disorder as it offers a non-invasive tool for assessing and quantifying early-emerging developmental abnormalities. Implementing eye-tracking with young children with ASD, however, is associated with a number of unique challenges, including issues with compliant behavior resulting from specific task demands and disorder-related psychosocial considerations. In this protocol, we detail methodological considerations for optimizing research design, data acquisition and psychometric analysis while eye-tracking young children with ASD. The provided recommendations are also designed to be more broadly applicable for eye-tracking children with other developmental disabilities. By offering guidelines for best practices in these areas based upon lessons derived from our own work, we hope to help other investigators make sound research design and analysis choices while avoiding common pitfalls that can compromise data acquisition while eye-tracking young children with ASD or other developmental difficulties.
Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane
The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…
Quisumbing, Lourdes R.
Highlights the importance of preparing young children to become peacemakers and peace builders. Addresses the steps of moving toward a culture of peace, preparing children for peace, peace education, and values education for peace. Advocates early childhood educators teaching peace to young children. (SD)
Blarney, Katrin L.; Beauchat, Katherine A.
Storybook reading offers an ideal context for teaching young children new words. Text Talk is one method designed for teaching elementary students new words after reading. However, using the Text Talk vocabulary procedures with young children, the authors observed several challenges both for teachers' implementation and children's learning.…
Plowman, Lydia; McPake, Joanna
Parents and educators tend to have many questions about young children's play with computers and other technologies at home. They can find it difficult to know what is best for children because these toys and products were not around when they were young. Some will say that children have an affinity for technology that will be valuable in their…
Fuentes-Afflick, Elena; Hessol, Nancy A.
Background Acculturation status is associated with overweight and obesity among Latino adults, but the relationship between maternal acculturation and overweight in Latino children is inconsistent and has not been adequately studied. Methods We analyzed 3-year follow-up data from 185 Latina mothers and children who were recruited at San Francisco General Hospital. Outcome measure was the child’s body mass index at age 3 years, adjusted for age and sex and categorized as healthy (<85%) or overweight (≥85%). Independent variables were maternal acculturation status, child health status, and child nutritional factors. Results At age 3 years, 43% of children were overweight. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, childhood overweight was associated with maternal acculturation status (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.07–3.69) and maternal obesity (OR 3.71, 95% CI 1.40–9.84). Childhood overweight was also more likely among children who were reported to eat well or very well (OR 3.33, 95% CI 1.46–7.58) and children whose weight was perceived as too high (OR 11.88, 95% CI 2.37–59.60), as compared to children who were reported to eat poorly/not well and children whose weight was perceived as normal, respectively. Conclusions Interventions to reduce the high rates of overweight among young Latino children should address the importance of maternal acculturation and obesity as well as maternal perceptions of children’s weight and eating habits. PMID:18514096
Matson, Johnny L; Goldin, Rachel L
The starting point for any research on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) involves the identification of people who evince the condition. From this point follows research on symptom presentation, genetics, epidemiology, animal models, treatment efficacy, and many other important topics. Major advances have been made in differential diagnosis, particularly with young children. This fact is particularly important since ASD is a life long condition. This review documents recent advances and the current state of research on this topic. Copyright © 2014 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zink, I; Schaerlaekens, A
This article deals with the new challenges put on language diagnosis, and the growing need for good diagnostic instruments for young children. Particularly for Dutch, the original English Reynell Developmental Language Scales were adapted not only to the Dutch idiom, but some general ameliorations and changes in the original scales resulted in a new instrument named the RTOS. The new instrument was standardized on a large population, and psychometrically evaluated. In communicating the experiences with such a language/cultural/psychometric adaptation, we hope that other language-minority groups will be encouraged to undertake similar adaptations.
Ellen Wartella, PhD, a leading scholar of the role of media in children's development, responds to questions about the role of media in the lives of very young children. She discusses how technology is having an impact on parents and children and provides some context for how parents and caregivers can make informed decisions about using media…
Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.
This research investigates frequency and type of contact young children have had with elderly persons. It also examines the relationship between this contact and children's frequency of contact with elderly persons and their ability to identify the elderly. (Author)
Full Text Available Planning and urban design professionals should ensure they engage children/young people in their work so planning systems and strategic policy can be more inclusive of the needs and aspirations of children/young people. Yet practitioners do not necessarily view children/young people as legitimate stakeholders, and professionals do not necessarily have the skills to be inclusive. To shift current policy and practice, planners and designers need to be better educated so they can facilitate children’s/young people’s contributions as well as advocate effectively for systemic change. The UN Convention on the Rights of the Child and the UNICEF Child Friendly Cities provide legitimacy and direction for current and future professionals about why engagement with children/young people should be a fundamental part of professional practice. However, it’s important that students and practitioners learn how to engage with children/young people ethically. A key starting point is the way in which education is constituted as ethical practice when conducting research and engagement activities with children/young people. Lansdown’s (2011 requirements for ethical engagement are applied to reflexively evaluate the design and implementation of a university subject, delivered in Victoria, Australia, that trains future planners about how to work with children and young people.
D'augostino, M; Chauliac, M; Masse-raimbault, A M
A participative educational approach, in which children are actively involved in improving their own health, can provide a basis for developing healthful behavior patterns. The International Children's Center has organized an international workshop on the integration of health and diet in the overall development of children 3-6 years of age. This document describes the methodology of programs developed by participants in these workshops and suggests activities for programs related to nutrition, growth, and water. The steps involved are: to make an inventory of local problems related to the health subject selected, to define the educational objectives of the program, to define the criteria for program evaluation, and to establish a varied program of children's activities. The proposed activities should stimulate children to analyze real-life situations and find solutions for themselves, to formulate and check hypotheses, and to plan their actions. The activities, all of which are based on play, make use of locally available materials rather than expensive technology. For example, an activity related to the themes of water and nutrition could be a restaurant day, in which preschool children serve food to other children. The teacher uses this as an opportunity to teach the children to recognize local foods and to serve clean water with meals. Also a part of this activity are mathematical exercises to calculate the amounts of food needed, creative activities to imitate the atmosphere of a restaurant, and code-learning exercises for the preparation of the menu and understanding of recipes.
Friedman, D E
The competing interests of employers, working parents, and very young children collide in decisions over work schedules, child care arrangements, promotions, children's sicknesses, and overtime hours. With the rising number of women in the labor force, more and more employers are concerned about how their workers balance work and family priorities. This article examines the supports that employers provide to help parents with young children juggle demands on their time and attention. It reviews the availability of traditional benefits, such as vacation and health insurance, and describes family-friendly initiatives. Exciting progress is being made in this arena by leading employers, but coverage remains uneven: Employers say they provide family-friendly policies and programs to improve staff recruitment and retention, reduce absenteeism, and increase job satisfaction and company loyalty. Evaluations demonstrate positive impacts on each of these valued outcomes. Employee benefits and work/family supports seldom reach all layers of the work force, and low-income workers who need assistance the most are the least likely to receive or take advantage of it. Understandably, employer policies seek to maximize productive work time. However, it is often in the best interests of children for a parent to be able to set work aside to address urgent family concerns. The author concludes that concrete work/family supports like on-site child care, paid leave, and flextime are important innovations. Ultimately, the most valuable aid to employees would be a family-friendly workplace culture, with supportive supervision and management practices.
Honig, Alice Sterling; Nealis, Arlene L.
Young children's dreams can be a way for teachers and caregivers to share with children and an opportunity for children to describe and even draw dreams. In two different preschool settings, in two different geographical locales, 94 children, aged 3-5 years, shared 266 dreams with a trusted, familiar teacher. Dreams were coded anonymously. The…
Leach, Debra; LaRocque, Michelle
Research and education law support the use of routines-based interventions for young children with disabilities in the children's natural environments. However, systematic training and practice can provide individuals with the strategies and skills that can enhance these interventions. This article provides guidance for implementing intervention…
Maria Rita Campello Rodrigues; Marcia Oliveira Moraes
This article investigates the imitation among young and blind children. The survey was conducted as a mosaic in the time since the field considerations were taken from two areas: a professional experience with early stimulation of blind babies and a workshop with blind and low vision young between 13-18 years. By statingthe situated trace of knowledge, theresearch indicates that imitation among blind young people can be one of the ways of creating a common world among young blind and sighted ...
Kirkorian, Heather L.; Wartella, Ellen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.
Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the…
LaCerva, Victor; Siegel, Daniel J.; Stephens, Karen; Zivkovic, Aleksandra Selak; Jacobson (Meyer), Tamar
Workshop examines resilience in young children. Papers are: (1) "Adverse Effects of Witnessing Violence" (Victor LaCerva); (2) "Relationships and the Developing Mind" (Daniel Siegel); (3) "Support Resilience by Connecting Children with Nature" (Karen Stephens); (4) "Stories of Children in Croatia: Resilience and…
Tadesse, Selamawit; Washington, Patsy
Research indicates that there are positive effects when young children read and explore books for pleasure, as such activities help build the skills and knowledge that are critical to schooling. Reading for pleasure is facilitated when children have access to books in their own homes. There are great variations in children's book ownership…
Jirout, Jamie J.; Newcombe, Nora S.
Games provide important informal learning activities for young children, and spatial game play (e.g., puzzles and blocks) has been found to relate to the development of spatial skills. This study investigates 4- and 5-year-old children's use of scaled and unscaled maps when solving mazes, asking whether an important aspect of spatial…
Christenberry, Mary Anne; And Others
This document contains materials for games which are intended to give teachers and parents of young children ideas for making learning games which will provide experiences appropriate to their interests and abilities. While the games may be used by children in small groups, they were designed primarily for the child to explore alone. The games are…
Platt, Laurence J.; Cabezas, Maritza C.
As part of a series of reports designed to support the implementation of Proposition 10: The California Children and Families Act and to provide comprehensive and authoritative information on critical issues concerning young children and families in California, this report describes the scope and severity of early childhood caries (ECC), a…
This small-scale study focuses on young children's reported information and communication technology (ICT) experiences in the home and the role of parents in providing technological opportunities, recognition and support. The children of the parents involved were all enrolled in nursery and reception classes (4-5 years of age) in two settings…
Lambert, V; Coad, J; Hicks, P; Glacken, M
In the last number of years heightened interest has been attributed to the impact of hospital environments on children's psychosocial well-being. With policy largely built around adult assumptions, knowledge about what constitutes a child-friendly hospital environment from young children's perspectives has been lacking. If hospital environments are to aspire to being child friendly then the views of younger aged children must be taken into account. The current study investigated young children's perspectives of hospital social spaces to inform the design of the built environment of a new children's hospital. An exploratory qualitative participatory design was employed. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews (one-to-one and group workshops) which incorporated art-based activities to actively engage young children. Fifty-five young children aged 5 to 8 years with various acute and chronic illnesses were recruited from inpatient, outpatient and emergency departments of three children's hospitals. Young children want a diversity of readily available, independently accessible, age, gender and developmentally appropriate leisure and entertainment facilities seamlessly integrated throughout the hospital environment. Such activities were invaluable for creating a positive hospital experience for children by combating boredom, enriching choice and control and reducing a sense of isolation through enhanced socialization. When in hospital, young children want to feel socially connected to the internal hospital community as well as to the outside world. Technology can assist to broaden the spectrum of children's social connectivity when in hospital - to home, school and the wider outside world. While technology offers many opportunities to support children's psychosocial well-being when in confined healthcare spaces, the implementation and operation of such services and systems require much further research in the areas of ethics, facilitation, organizational
Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.
Chen, Si; Zhou, Jing
The ways in which learning graphical representations can encourage the development of creativities in Chinese young children remain to be fully explored. Previous research on children's writing focused on children's symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding Chinese young children's symbolization and creative…
Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.
In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…
LaForme Fiss, A; Chiarello, L A; Bartlett, D; Palisano, R J; Jeffries, L; Almasri, N; Chang, H-J
Family ecology in early childhood may influence children's activity and participation in daily life. The aim of this study was to describe family functioning, family expectations of their children, family support to their children, and supports for families of young children with cerebral palsy (CP) based on children's gross motor function level. Participants were 398 children with CP (mean age = 44.9 months) and their parents residing in the USA and Canada. Parents completed four measures of family ecology, the Family Environment Scale (FES), Family Expectations of Child (FEC), Family Support to Child (FSC) and Family Support Scale (FSS). The median scores on the FES indicated average to high family functioning and the median score on the FSS indicated that families had helpful family supports. On average, parents reported high expectations of their children on the FEC and strong support to their children on the FSC. On the FES, higher levels of achievement orientation were reported by parents of children in Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level II than parents of children in level I, and higher levels of control were reported by parents of children in level I than parents of children in level IV. On the FEC, parents of children with limited gross motor function (level V) reported lower expectations than parents of children at all other levels. Family ecology, including family strengths, expectations, interests, supports and resources, should be discussed when providing interventions and supports for young children with CP and their families. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lin, Ling-Yi; Cherng, Rong-Ju; Chen, Yung-Jung; Chen, Yi-Jen; Yang, Hei-Mei
Literature addressing the effects of television exposure on developmental skills of young children less than 36 months of age is scarce. This study explored how much time young children spend viewing television and investigated its effects on cognitive, language, and motor developmental skills. Data were collected from the Pediatric Clinics at University Medical Center in Southern Taiwan. The participants comprised 75 children who were frequently exposed to television and 75 children who were not or infrequently exposed to television between 15 and 35 months old. The age and sex were matched in the two groups. The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-second edition and Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-second edition were used to identify developmental skills. Independent t-tests, χ(2) tests, and logistic regression models were conducted. Among 75 children who were frequently exposed to television, young children watched a daily average of 67.4 min of television before age 2, which was excessive according to the American Academy of Pediatrics. Viewing television increased the risk of delayed cognitive, language, and motor development in children who were frequently exposed to television. Cognitive, language, and motor delays in young children were significantly associated with how much time they spent viewing television. The type of care providers was critical in determining the television-viewing time of children. We recommend that pediatric practitioners explain the impacts of television exposure to parents and caregivers to ensure cognitive, language, and motor development in young children. Advocacy efforts must address the fact that allowing young children to spend excessive time viewing television can be developmentally detrimental. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McGee, Christy D.
Young gifted children can become passionately interested in social justice. It makes sense that children who are astutely aware their own differences could and would become interested in the well-being of others. It seems that preschool programs have been slow to recognize the value of service-learning to their students, but Freeman and King…
Taverna, Andrea Sabina; Peralta, Olga Alicia
From an integrative approach, this work focuses on the role of conceptual mechanisms, such as comparison and conceptual-based inference, and sociopragmatic support in young children's taxonomic categorization. "Experiment 1" assessed whether 3-, 4-, and 6-year-old children succeed in detecting taxonomic relations on their own. A…
Glenn-Applegate, Katherine; Breit-Smith, Allison; Justice, Laura M.; Piasta, Shayne B.
Research Findings: Artfulness is rarely considered as an indicator of quality in young children's spoken narratives. Although some studies have examined artfulness in the narratives of children 5 and older, no studies to date have focused on the artfulness of preschoolers' oral narratives. This study examined the artfulness of fictional spoken…
This commentary reviews previous articles that discuss major educational approaches for young children with autism, including applied behavior analysis, pivotal response training, and the developmental, individual-difference, relationship-based model. It emphasizes the need for research on which children do better with which particular…
Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...
Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael
Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult…
Notes that woodworking can be a valuable learning tool for young children because it has both creative and structured sides. Recommends materials for a classroom toolbox, noting the importance of real woodworking tools as opposed to those made just for children. Suggests that teachers work directly with students for safety and to help guide them…
Salmon, Angela K.; Lucas, Teresa
A growing body of evidence supports the importance of nurturing children's thinking. This article reports on an investigation of the influence of teachers' implementation of the Visible Thinking approach developed within the Harvard Graduate School of Education Project Zero on very young children's concepts of thinking, as measured by the…
Mathews, Judith R.; And Others
Four young children were taught contact lens wear using a shaping procedure, which involved praise and tangibles for compliance and time-outs or restraint for noncompliance. At followup, levels of compliance were high for three children, while a subject with Down's syndrome showed low compliance with need for physical restraint throughout.…
Heyman, Gail D.; Sritanyaratana, Lalida; Vanderbilt, Kimberly E.
The ability of 3- and 4-year-old children to disregard advice from an overtly misleading informant was investigated across five studies (total "n" =212). Previous studies have documented limitations in young children's ability to reject misleading advice. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that these limitations are primarily…
Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang
Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…
Robinson, Marla R; O'Connor, Annemarie; Wallace, Lindsay; Connell, Kristen; Tucker, Katherine; Strickland, Joseph; Taylor, Jennifer; Quinlan, Kyran P; Gottlieb, Lawrence J
Scald burn injuries are the leading cause of burn-related emergency room visits and hospitalizations for young children. A portion of these injuries occur when children are removing items from microwave ovens. This study assessed the ability of typically developing children aged 15 months to 5 years to operate, open, and remove the contents from a microwave oven. The Denver Developmental Screening Test II was administered to confirm typical development of the 40 subjects recruited. All children recruited and enrolled in this study showed no developmental delays in any domain in the Denver Developmental Screening Test II. Children were observed for the ability to open both a push and pull microwave oven door, to start the microwave oven, and to remove a cup from the microwave oven. All children aged 4 years were able to open the microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. Of the children aged 3 years, 87.5% were able to perform all study tasks. For children aged 2 years, 90% were able to open both microwaves, turn on the microwave, and remove the contents. In this study, children as young as 17 months could start a microwave oven, open the door, and remove the contents putting them at significant risk for scald burn injury. Prevention efforts to improve supervision and caregiver education have not lead to a significant reduction in scald injuries in young children. A redesign of microwave ovens might prevent young children from being able to open them thereby reducing risk of scald injury by this mechanism.
Gonca Karayagiz Muslu
Full Text Available Computers have occupied increasingly central roles in childrens world with the advance of technology. They have proved to be an ideal companion for children in developing and developed countries who spend most of their time at school or home with computers. As a measure of development and modernization, technology has made peoples lives easier and contributed positively to social well-being so far while it has also brought about some problems and threats stemming from irresponsible use of Internet. Unmonitored use of Internet may cause damages in childrens and young peoples physical, psychological, social and cognitive development. It seems imperative to assure that children and young people can benefit from computers and Internet resources effectively and productively while measures for appropriate and safe use of Internet are to be taken into serious consideration. Therefore, the government offices and institutions should lay stress upon the issue; education professionals and parents should be well-informed and regularly updated; and finally children and young people should be educated and monitored to achieve a better and efficient use of Internet. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage on physical, psychosocial and cognitive health of children and young people. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2009; 8(5.000: 445-450
Kirmani, Mubina Hassanali; Davis, Marcia H.; Kalyanpur, Maya
Computers have become an important part of young children's lives, both as a source of entertainment and education. The National Association for the Education of Young Children's (NAEYC) position statement on Technology and Young Children (2006) supports the need for equal access to technology for all children with attention to eliminating gender…
Li, Jing; Wang, Wen; Yu, Jing; Zhu, Liqi
Fairness is one of the most important foundations of morality and may have played a key role in the evolution of cooperation in humans beings. As an important type of fairness concern, inequity aversion is the preference for fairness and the resistance to inequitable outcomes. To examine the early development of fairness preference in young children, sixty 2- and 3-year-old children were recruited to examine young children's preferences for fairness using a forced choice paradigm. We tested how toddlers acted when they took charge of distributing resources (two candies) to themselves and others and when they were the recipients of both other-advantageous distribution and self-advantageous distribution. Different alternative options were paired with the same fair option in the two conditions. In the other-advantageous condition, children had fewer resources in the alternative options than others, whereas their resources in the alternative options were greater than others' in the self-advantageous condition. The results showed that more children displayed fairness preferences when they distributed resources between two friends than when they distributed resources between a friend and themselves. In both scenarios, 3-year-old children were more likely to demonstrate fairness preference than 2-year-old children. The findings suggest that inequity aversion develops in young children and increases with age over the course of early childhood. When they were recipients, there was a trend in young children's preference for fairness in the other-advantageous condition compared with the self-advantageous condition. This suggests that children might tend to be more likely to display inequity aversion when they are in a disadvantageous position.
McLaughlin, Tara W; Snyder, Patricia A; Algina, James
To explore the use of International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) based profiles of children's functional abilities in relation to their social competence. Subgroups based on shared profiles of functional ability were investigated as an alternative or complement to subgroups defined by disability categories. Secondary analysis of a nationally representative data set of young children identified for special education services in the United States was used for the present study. Using five subgroups of children with shared profiles of functional ability, derived from latent class analysis in previous work, regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between social competence and functional abilities profile subgroup membership. Differences among the subgroups were examined using standardized effect sizes. R2 values were used to examine explained variance in social competence in relation to subgroup membership, disability category, and these variables in combination. Functional ability profile subgroup membership was moderately related to children's social competence outcomes: social skills and problem behaviors. Effect sizes showed significant differences between subgroups. Subgroup membership accounted for more variance in social competence outcomes than disability category. The results provide empirical support for the importance of functional ability profiles when examining social competence within a population of young children with disabilities. Implications for Rehabilitation The extent to which children with disabilities experience difficulty with social competence varies by their functional characteristics. Functional ability profiles can provide practitioners and researchers working young children with disabilities important tools to examine social competence and to inform interventions.
Brooks, P J; Tomasello, M; Dodson, K; Lewis, L B
The present study examined English-speaking children's tendency to make argument structure overgeneralization errors (e.g., I disappeared it). Children were exposed to several English verbs of fixed transitivity (exclusively intransitive or exclusively transitive) and then asked questions that encouraged them to overgeneralize usage of the verbs. Seventy-two children (24 in each of three age groups: 3, 4/5, and 8 years of age) experienced four actions performed by puppets. Each action had two verbs of similar meaning associated with it in the context of the experimental action: one more familiar to young children and one less familiar. Children at all ages were more likely to overgeneralize usage of verbs that were less familiar to them, supporting the hypothesis that children's usage of verbs in particular construction types becomes entrenched over time. As children solidly learn the transitivity status of particular verbs, they become more reluctant to use those verbs in other argument structure constructions.
Bugge, Kari E; Darbyshire, Philip; Røkholt, Eline Grelland; Haugstvedt, Karen Therese Sulheim; Helseth, Solvi
The grief experiences of young children and the interactional dynamics between parents and children leading to healthy grieving remain comparatively under researched. This article reports a qualitative evaluation of a Norwegian Bereavement Support Program where 8 parents described their young child's grief reactions and coping and how these intersected with their own grief. Successful parental coping with their child's grief involves understanding the child's genuine concerns following the death and an intricately holistic balance between shielding and including, between informing and frightening, and between creating a new life while cherishing the old.
Rudy J Castellani; Joyce L deJong; Carl J Schmidt
The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of...
Beijen, J.W.; Snik, A.F.M.; Mylanus, E.A.M.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation in young children. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical trial comparing a group of bilaterally implanted children with a group of unilaterally implanted children. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Five bilaterally implanted children
Dombro, Amy Laura; O'Donnell, Nina Sazer; Galinsky, Ellen; Melchar, Sarah Gilkeson; Farber, Abby
Noting the increasing need for public officials, practitioners, business leaders, concerned citizens, and parents to work together to improve the quality of life for young children and families, this book for community organizations provides information needed to begin or enhance local or statewide community mobilization efforts. Included are…
Bisgaard, Hans; Nielsen, Kim G
Validated methods for lung function measurements in young children are lacking. Plethysmographic measurement of specific airway resistance (sRaw) provides such a method applicable from 2 years of age. sRaw gauges airway resistance from the measurements of the pressure changes driving the airflow...
Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore
Hearing loss can too easily be misdiagnosed or overlooked by providers serving young children. Parents and professionals may observe a language delay--an "invisible" condition--while failing to identify the underlying cause. Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) hearing screening technology, used extensively with newborns, is becoming an essential tool,…
Few men around the world work in daycare settings, nursery schools or kindergartens. Yet wherever they are found, men who are perceived to have crossed the gender boundary in their choice of profession are widely acclaimed as gifted educators and excellent caregivers. Policy makers who care about providing quality education for young children need…
Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa
The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…
Carter, Sid; Cook, James; Sutton-Boulton, Gary; Ward, Vicki; Clarke, Steve
The experiences of non-disabled children growing up with a sibling with an intellectual disability vary considerably, with reported impact ranging from increased mental health problems through evaluations of life enhancement. However, there is evidence that the net impact is neutral to positive, which was supported by the findings of this report…
Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Moshkovich, Olga; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E
Many underage drinkers obtain alcohol from legal-age family, friends, and acquaintances. This study aimed to understand the attitudes and behaviors of young adults related to providing alcohol to underage drinkers. Participants were 755 current or recent college students of legal drinking age (ages 22 to 26) who were approached by a minor to provide alcohol at least once since turning 21. Interviewers assessed frequency of providing alcohol, relationship to the recipients, and general attitudes about providing alcohol to minors. Separate questions asked about younger (under 18) and older (18 to 20) minors. Correlates and predictors of provision and frequency of provision were examined via logistic regression and Poisson regression, focusing on demographics, sensation-seeking, behavioral dysregulation, age at first drink, parental history of alcohol problems, fraternity/sorority involvement, attitudes about provision, violations, peer drinking norms, and alcohol use disorder (AUD) risk during and post-college. Most participants (84.6%) provided alcohol to minors at least once. Provision to older minors was more prevalent (82.8%) than to younger minors (20.7%); it was also more frequent. Few (2.4%) were ever caught providing alcohol. Recipients were more commonly friends or family members rather than acquaintances or strangers. Legal concerns about providing alcohol (82.5 and 53.7% for younger and older minors, respectively) were more prevalent than health concerns (55.7 and 9.5%). Legal concerns consistently predicted lower likelihood of provision, independent of demographics. Health concerns and lower post-college AUD risk scores also independently predicted lower likelihood of provision, but only to older minors. Fraternity/sorority involvement and higher peer drinking norms were associated with higher provision frequency, whereas legal concerns and college violations were associated with lower provision frequency. Young adults who have recently turned 21 could
Bogard, Kimber; Mellody, Maureen
"The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally is the summary of a workshop hosted by the Institute of Medicine Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally in April 2014 to focus on investments...
Knifong, J. D.
Data representing two styples of approach to the logical abilities of young children are analyzed. The result of this analysis is contrary to popular interpretations of Piaget's views concerning the logical abilities of young children. (ST)
Adams, Polly; Taylor, Michaell K.
Presents a developmental approach to young children's woodworking. Discusses seven developmental stages of children's woodworking and woodworking activities appropriate to each developmental stage. (BB)
Managing antisocial behavior is a critical issue facing those who work with young children, as the presence of early socialization problems is the single greatest predictor of adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. This booklet highlights the effectiveness of behavior management strategies that introduce and reinforce positive behaviors, rather…
In 2012, the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) revised its position statement regarding the appropriate use of technology in early childhood classrooms. The increased accessibility of touch screens on tablets and smart phones led to this revision, which moves the conversation from the question of "When shall we…
In this article, the author describes an open-ended drawing task that was used to discover young children's experiences with, and understandings of, the concept of mass. Mass is defined as the amount of matter in an object, and, like time, it cannot be seen (NSW Department of Education and Training Professional Support and Curriculum Directorate…
Davidson, Iain F. W. K.; Simmons, Joyce Nesker
This article addresses the unique assessment needs of young blind children and discourages dependence on standardized tests for this population. Principles of one assessment approach (involving observation; clinical examination of mobility, language, play, socioemotional development, and academic skills; and interviews with mother and social…
Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Wang, Chiao-Li; Chiu, Hsiu-Yueh
The ability to delay gratification (DG) in young children is vital to their later development. Such ability should be taught as early as possible. One hundred kindergartners (Mean age = 6.11), randomly assigned to three groups; (a) labeling: received the treatment of being labeled as "patient" kids; (b) story-telling: were read a story about the…
Selly, Patty Born
Nurture young children's innate tendencies toward exploration, sensory stimulation, and STEM learning when you connect outdoor learning with STEM curriculum. Discover the developmental benefits of outdoor learning and how the rich diversity of settings and materials in nature gives rise to questions and inquiry for deeper learning. Full of…
Lieberman, Debra A.; Bates, Cynthia H.; So, Jiyeon
This article reviews a selection of studies on digital media and learning for young children ages 3 to 6. The range of digital media for this age group is growing and includes computer-delivered and online activities; console video games; handheld media, occasionally with GPS or an accelerometer, in cell phones and other wireless mobile devices;…
Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.
This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…
Smith, Terry Fonda
The number of professional ensembles and organizations with dedicated outreach concerts has been steadily increasing over the past decade. More recently, educational concerts pairing chamber music with young children have been documented. The work presented in this article is a study in the efficacy and feasibility of this format. Various music…
Wakefield, Alice P.
Constructivist teachers are guided by three basic principles when teaching math to young children. They encourage students to think about their answers, conceptualize how they resolved the problem, and represent their thinking with words, pictures, or symbols. Demonstrating mathematical logic is more important than memorizing rules. (MLH)
Van der Heijden, P.; Hobbel, H. H. F.; Van der Laan, B. F. A. M.; Korsten-Meijer, A. G. W.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S. M.
Objective: Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. To decide whether a nasometer test result is normal or
Reyes, Iliana; Azuara, Patricia
This article explores the relationship between emergent biliteracy and growing up in a biliterate environment. The study focuses on two questions: (1) What knowledge of biliteracy do young bilingual preschool children develop in the early years? (2) How do context and specific language environments influence the development of biliteracy in young…
Jun 6, 2003 ... Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and pattern of psychiatric disorders among children and young persons appearing in .... by a computer using the Statistical Package for Social. Sciences (SPSS) Version 8.0 and a ..... for further psychiatric assessment and treatment as necessary. The Juvenile court ...
Honig, Alice Sterling
How to help babies and young children right from birth to become competent in talking as well as emergent literacy is illustrated by research findings as well as with specific clinical stories. Both kinds of knowledge can serve to galvanize parents and teachers to increase awareness of infant and preschool language development and the crucial role…
Harris, Paul L.; DeSteno, David; Dickens, Leah; Breazeal, Cynthia L.; Kory Westlund, Jacqueline Marie; Jeong, Sooyeon
Children ranging from 3 to 5 years were introduced to two anthropomorphic robots that provided them with information about unfamiliar animals. Children treated the robots as interlocutors. They supplied information to the robots and retained what the robots told them. Children also treated the robots as informants from whom they could seek information. Consistent with studies of children's early sensitivity to an interlocutor's non-verbal signals, children were especially attentive and recept...
Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic disease that is commonly suffered by children. Asthmatic children have a lower quality of life than other children. Physicians and pediatricians recommend that parents record the frequency of attacks and their symptoms to help manage their children’s asthma. However, the lack of a convenient device for monitoring the asthmatic condition leads to the difficulties in managing it, especially when it is suffered by young children. This work develops a wheeze detection system for use at home. A small and soft stethoscope was used to collect the respiratory sound. The wheeze detection algorithm was the Adaptive Respiratory Spectrum Correlation Coefficient (RSACC algorithm, which has the advantages of high sensitivity/specificity and a low computational requirement. Fifty-nine sound files from eight young children (one to seven years old were collected in the emergency room and analyzed. The results revealed that the system provided 88% sensitivity and 94% specificity in wheeze detection. In conclusion, this small soft stethoscope can be easily used on young children. A noisy environment does not affect the effectiveness of the system in detecting wheeze. Hence, the system can be used at home by parents who wish to evaluate and manage the asthmatic condition of their children.
Full Text Available Stroke is in second place on a mortality list in the world. Also, stroke is a leading cause of disability. Approximately 20% of all strokes occur in Children and young adults. The etiology of stroke in Children and young adults is different from that in older patients, and has an influence on diagnostic evaluation and treatment, so knowledge about older patients cannot always be applied to these patients. The list of stroke etiologies among young adults and children is extensive. Ischemic stroke are more frequent than hemorrhagic strokes in both groups. Stroke in young adults had been thought to be associated with risk factors, including arterial (such as dissection, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, inflammatory arteritis ,moyamoya ,migraine - induced stroke, genetic or inherted arteriopathy, premature atherosclerosis cardiac (such as patent foramen ovale, cardiomyopathy , congenital heart disease and hematologic (such as deficiencies of protein S,protein C,or antithrombin;factor V lieden mutation . Common risk factors for stroke in children include: Sickle-cell disease, diseases of the arteries, abnormal blood clotting, head or neck trauma. There are no specific recommendations or guidelines for primary or secondary stroke prevention in young adults. Primary prevention focused on identifying and managing known vascular risk factors, such as hypertension, disorders of lipid metabolism, and diabetes, and non-drug strategies and lifestyle changes, including smoking, reducing body weight, increasing regular aerobic physical activity, and adopting a healthy diet with more fruit and vegetables and less salt. For secondary stroke prevention, identification of the etiologic mechanism of the initial stroke and the presence of any additional risk factors is most important. It consists of optimal treatment of vascular risk factors administering antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, and if indicated, invasive surgical or
Bisgaard, H; Klug, B
The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint) and transcu......The aim of the study was to evaluate methods applicable in a clinical setting for monitoring of changes in lung function in awake young children. Impedance measurements by the impulse oscillation technique (ZIOS), respiratory resistance measurements by the interrupter technique (Rint......) and transcutaneous measurements of oxygen tension (Ptc,O2) were compared with concomitant measurements of specific airway resistance (sRaw) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) by whole body plethysmography and spirometry, respectively, during methacholine challenge in 21 young children aged 4-6 yrs...... function was ZIOS > sRaw > Ptc,O2 > FEV1 > Rint. ZIOS was significantly more sensitive than all subsequent methods, and Ptc,O2 was significantly more sensitive than FEV1. ZIOS, sRaw and Rint, but not Ptc,O2 and FEV1, detected the subclinical increase in bronchial muscle tone in the children during baseline...
To provide an update and overview of infectious disease issues in children of international adoption. International adoption by US families has decreased since 2004. Countries from where children are adopted have changed by 2011, with Ethiopia the second largest contributor of international adoptees after China. Since 2003, international adoptees are older, as fewer young children (adoption. Although children are declared healthy in their home countries, medical disorders are often missed or become apparent after adoption. Comprehensive evaluations by providers in the USA after adoption frequently identify unsuspected medical disorders, infections, as well as delayed or incomplete vaccination in these recently adopted children. Early identification of infections allows treatment of potential communicable diseases and updating of immunizations. All international adoptees on arrival in the USA should be evaluated by a health practitioner knowledgeable in adoption medicine to identify medical problems, especially infections.
Van der Heijden, P; Hobbel, H H F; Van der Laan, B F A M; Korsten-Meijer, A G W; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S M
Hypernasality is a common problem in cleft care. It should be treated before the age of six, because of the impact it can have on speech sound development in young children. An objective method of nasalance evaluation is nasometry. To decide whether a nasometer test result is normal or abnormal, normative data and cut off points are needed. Normative data for children are not available for every language and age. For Dutch children two sets of Dutch speech stimuli, the Van Zundert sentences or the Moolenaar-Bijl, sentences, are often used in the diagnostic process for hypernasality. Primary goal of this study is to determine normative data and cut off points for two sets of Dutch speech stimuli for Dutch children from four to six years of age. Secondary is to compare those two sets of oral sentences. Children without clefts were recruited from schools. According to their teachers their speech was normal. They were tested with the nasometer with the two sets of speech stimuli. The set from Van Zundert has oral and oronasal sentences, the Moolenaar-Bijl set only has oral sentences. 118 children were recruited. Out of these children, 55 produced recording samples which were suitable for analysis. There were no significant differences between age groups or gender. The two different sets of speech stimuli used were significantly different, but the confidence intervals overlapped. Normal nasalance scores of the tested sentences are between 3 and 19% for oral sentences and between 17 and 37% for oronasal sentences. The Moolenaar-Bijl speech sentences are preferred to evaluate hypernasality in young Dutch children, because of the shortness and intelligibility. Normative nasalance scores are applicable to the whole group of children from four to six years of age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poresky, Robert H.; And Others
An exploratory study examined the premise that pets provide developmental benefits for young children. Four hypotheses were derived from prior research: (1) children who have a bond with a dog or cat show more maturity in their cognitive, moral, and emotional development than children who do not have such pets; (2) children who have a more…
In this article, the author features the Children's Support Services (CSS) project in Lowell, Massachusetts, which is an interagency, multidisciplinary program that provides young children and their families a range of child development, mental health, and family support services. The CSS project, which was begun in September 2000, addresses the…
Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A
This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based, longitudinal study with cohorts of children first seen at birth, 3 years, and 6 years of age and followed over 6 years (N = 3,209; 37% Mexican American, 33% Black, 15% White, 9% Puerto Rican, 4% other Latino, and 2% other races/ethnicities; 44% immigrant). Results of multilevel models suggest that the immigrant status of children's families was a more consistent moderator of associations between neighborhood processes and children's development than the immigrant concentration of their neighborhoods, but the nature of these associations depended on the outcome and racial/ethnic group considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Escobar, Hugo; Carver, Terrence W
Pulmonary function testing (PFT) is of great importance in the evaluation and treatment of respiratory diseases. Spirometry is simple, noninvasive, and has been the most commonly used technique in cooperative children, obtaining reliable data in only a few minutes. The development of commercially available equipment as well as the simplification of previous techniques that now require minimal patient cooperation applied during tidal breathing have significantly stimulated the use of PFT in younger children. Tidal breathing techniques such as impulse oscillometry, gas dilution, and plethysmography have permitted previously unobtainable PFT in children 2 to 5 years of age. The purpose of this review is to help clinicians become familiar with available PFT techniques used in young children by discussing their general principles, clinical applications, and limitations.
Lee, Sung Hee
Previous studies revealed that young children learn novel word meanings by simply reading and listening to a printed book. In today's classroom, many children's e-books provide audio narration support so young readers can simply listen to the e-books. The focus of the present study is to examine the effect of e-book reading with audio narration…
Rakoczy, Hannes; Ehrling, Christoph; Harris, Paul L; Schultze, Thomas
A rational strategy to update and revise one's uncertain beliefs is to take advice by other agents who are better informed. Adults routinely engage in such advice taking in systematic and selective ways depending on relevant characteristics such as reliability of advisors. The current study merged research in social and developmental psychology to examine whether children also adjust their initial judgment to varying degrees depending on the characteristics of their advisors. Participants aged 3 to 6 years played a game in which they made initial judgments, received advice, and subsequently made final judgments. They systematically revised their judgments in light of the advice, and they did so selectively as a function of advisor expertise. They made greater adjustments to their initial judgment when advised by an apparently knowledgeable informant. This suggests that the pattern of advice taking studied in social psychology has its roots in early development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johansen, Stine Liv
a very early age, also becoming consumers in their own right. Through media, children are exposed to a wide range of consumer goods,not only through traditional spot commercials, but especially through different kinds of merchandise related to program content. This process, the paper argues, takes place......This paper presents some main results from the PhD-project ‘Toddlers watching TV'1. Young children, aged 1½ to three, are in this project understood and examined as active participants in the process of becoming regular viewers of both public service and commercial television, and thereby, from...
Kabali, Hilda K; Irigoyen, Matilde M; Nunez-Davis, Rosemary; Budacki, Jennifer G; Mohanty, Sweta H; Leister, Kristin P; Bonner, Robert L
Research on children's use of mobile media devices lags behind its adoption. The objective of this study was to examine young children's exposure to and use of mobile media devices. Cross-sectional study of 350 children aged 6 months to 4 years seen October to November 2014 at a pediatric clinic in an urban, low-income, minority community. The survey was adapted from Common Sense Media's 2013 nationwide survey. Most households had television (97%), tablets (83%), and smartphones (77%). At age 4, half the children had their own television and three-fourths their own mobile device. Almost all children (96.6%) used mobile devices, and most started using before age 1. Parents gave children devices when doing house chores (70%), to keep them calm (65%), and at bedtime (29%). At age 2, most children used a device daily and spent comparable screen time on television and mobile devices. Most 3- and 4-year-olds used devices without help, and one-third engaged in media multitasking. Content delivery applications such as YouTube and Netflix were popular. Child ownership of device, age at first use, and daily use were not associated with ethnicity or parent education. Young children in an urban, low-income, minority community had almost universal exposure to mobile devices, and most had their own device by age 4. The patterns of use suggest early adoption, frequent and independent use, and media multitasking. Studies are urgently needed to update recommendations for families and providers on the use of mobile media by young children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Rapp, Diotima J; Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael
The current study explored how freedom of choice affects preschoolers' prosocial motivation. Children (3- and 5-year-olds) participated in either a choice condition (where they could decide for themselves whether to help or not) or a no-choice condition (where they were instructed to help). Prosocial motivation was subsequently assessed by measuring the amount children helped an absent peer in the face of an attractive alternative game. The 5-year-olds provided with choice helped more than the children not provided with choice, and this effect was stronger for girls than for boys. There was no difference between conditions for the 3-year-olds. These results highlight the importance of choice in young children's prosocial development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van der Merwe, Liandré F; Eussen, Simone R
Iron deficiency (ID) is common in young children aged 6-36 mo. Although the hazards associated with iron deficiency anemia (IDA) are well known, concerns about risks associated with excess iron intake in young children are emerging. To characterize iron status in Europe, we describe the prevalence of ID, IDA, iron repletion, and excess stores with the use of published data from a systematic review on iron intake and deficiency rates, combined with other selected iron status data in young European children. Various definitions for ID and IDA were applied across studies. ID prevalence varied depending on socioeconomic status and type of milk fed (i.e., human or cow milk or formula). Without regard to these factors, ID was reported in 3-48% of children aged ≥12 mo across the countries. For 6- to 12-mo-old infants, based on studies that did not differentiate these factors, ID prevalence was 4-18%. IDA was Europe but was considerably higher in Eastern Europe (9-50%). According to current iron status data from a sample of healthy Western European children aged 12-36 mo, 69% were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for serum ferritin (SF) was 64.3 μg/L. In another sample, 79% of 24-mo-old children were iron replete, and the 97.5th percentile for SF was 57.3 μg/L. Average iron intake in most countries studied was close to or below the UK's Recommended Dietary Allowance. In conclusion, even in healthy European children aged 6-36 mo, ID is still common. In Western European populations for whom data were available, approximately three-quarters of children were found to be iron replete, and excess iron stores (SF >100 μg/L) did not appear to be a concern. Consensus on the definitions of iron repletion and excess stores, as well as on ID and IDA, is needed. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Williams, H G; Werner, P
To examine the development of movement schema in young school-age children, i.e., whether principles which govern fine eye-hand coordination skill learning as suggested by Schmidt's schema theory apply to the learning of gross motor skills Exp. 1 involved 48 right-handed first-grade children. On a modification of the Fitts Reciprocal Tapping task children moved a stylus (held in the hand or attached to a special shoe worn on the foot) between two metal targets separated by different distances. Children were randomly assigned to one of eight groups: two control or no-practice groups and six experimental or transfer groups. A one-way analysis of variance followed by appropriate Scheffé post hoc tests indicated that movements of the lower limbs were not organized into a movement schema, but a pattern of schema of movement for the upper limbs developed. That no movement schema developed for lower limb movements suggests development of movement schema is intricately linked to both the existing as well as the potential for developing precise movement in those limbs. Exp. 2 involved 40 first-grade children who were randomly assigned to perform a gross-motor agility task under one of three conditions: direct practice on the criterion task, constant practice on a modification of the criterion task, or variable practice on several different modifications of the criterion task. A groups X trials analysis of variance with appropriate post hoc tests indicated that there were no significant differences among direct, constant, or variable practice groups. Data suggest that the amount of practice may be as important as the type of practice in developing movement schema involved in gross motor skills in young children.
Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle
This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any activities, and ideally, to design activities from their perspectives and understandings. Specifically, this research focuses on 5- and 6-year old children's explanations of rainbows, and there are three main findings. First, our analysis demonstrates that opportunities to discuss their ideas revealed children's different perceptions of the phenomena of rainbows. Secondly, this research emphasizes that peer-to-peer interaction in the co-construction of science concepts provided support to the children to learn from, and with, each other. Third, children's initial explanations provided the teacher-researcher (second author) with a starting point to scaffold her teaching from. Although rainbows are quite an abstract topic to try to reproduce in the classroom, the children demonstrated their often sophisticated understandings of natural science phenomena, as well as their creative ideas as related to rainbows. In order to foster an appreciation of themes in natural science, it is crucial to build from what children already know and can do, and to use these emergent theories and considerations in designing curriculum. Thus, we draw implications for the importance of teaching science at the early childhood level and for using children's ideas as starting points in planning instruction.
Jung, Sunhwa; Sainato, Diane M.
Background: Play is critical for the development of young children and is an important part of their daily routine. However, children with autism often exhibit deficits in play skills and engage in stereotypic behaviour. We reviewed studies to identify effective instructional strategies for teaching play skills to young children with autism.…
Gross, Carol M.
Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…
Pizzolongo, Peter J.; Hunter, Amy
Every day, young children--around the world and in the United States--experience stress or trauma. Some children are exposed to crises such as natural disasters, community violence, abuse, neglect, and separation from or death of loved ones. These events can cause young children to feel vulnerable, worried, fearful, sad, frustrated, or lonely.…
Chiang, Chung-Hsin; Soong, Wei-Tsuen; Lin, Tzu-Ling; Rogers, Sally J.
Objective: The study was to examine nonverbal communication in young children with autism. Methods: The participants were 23 young children with autism (mean CA = 32.79 months), 23 CA and MA-matched children with developmental delay and 22 18-20-month-old, and 22 13-15-month-old typically developing toddlers and infants. The abbreviated Early…
Williams, Beth Therese
The main aim of this thesis was to evaluate the efficacy of an emotion training intervention for young children with autism. Further aims were to investigate the relationship between emotion recognition ability, autism symptom severity and social skills in young children with autism. The first chapter of this thesis provides a review of the literature on emotion recognition skills of children with autism. It has been suggested that difficulties in recognising and responding to emotions may un...
Cheryl A. Zecevic
Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.
Doan, Sylvia; Steele, Russell W
Young children are most likely to travel to developing countries with their parents to visit relatives. Preparation for such travel must include careful counseling and optimal use of preventive vaccines and chemoprophylaxis. For infants and very young children, data defining safety and efficacy of these agents are often limited. However, accumulated experience suggests that young travelers may be managed similarly to older children and adults.
Children of intermarriages have special needs. They often encounter prejudice from other family members such as grandparents, and, in general, society does not know how to regard them. A bicultural approach to childbearing is necessary; it is most important that a child learn about the culture of the parent of color. (KH)
Puff, Jayme; Renk, Kimberly
There appears to be a lack of construct clarity and a dearth of studies that have examined both mothers' temperament and personality in conjunction with parenting behaviors when predicting young children's functioning. As a result, this study examined these constructs jointly so that a further understanding of how mothers' temperament and personality may work together to predict young children's functioning could be gained. As part of this study, 214 diverse mothers with young children who ranged in age from 2- to 6-years rated their own temperament and personality, their parenting characteristics, and their young children's functioning (i.e., temperament and emotional and behavioral functioning). Based on the findings of hierarchical regression analyses completed in this study, both mothers' temperament and personality may be important individual predictors of young children's temperament but may be important joint predictors, along with parenting behaviors, of young children's behavior problems. Consequently, future research should examine the role that mothers' temperament and personality characteristics may play in conjunction with their parenting behaviors when trying to understand young children's functioning. These findings will be particularly helpful for professionals providing parenting interventions to families with young children who have difficult temperament styles and/or emotional and behavioral problems.
Smith, Adrew C
Full Text Available stream_source_info Smith_d6_2009.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6539 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Smith_d6_2009.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Simple Tangible Language Elements... for Young Children Andrew Cyrus Smith CSIR Meraka Institute PO Box 395 Pretoria, 0001, South Africa +27 12 8414626 email@example.com 3rd Author 3rd author's affiliation 1st line of address 2nd line of address Telephone number, incl. country code...
Wheldall, Robyn; Glenn, Katharine; Arakelian, Sarah; Madelaine, Alison; Reynolds, Meree; Wheldall, Kevin
This study aimed to provide evidence regarding the efficacy of an early literacy preparation program, "PreLit", designed to improve the skills of young Australian children. Participants comprised 240 children in eight schools attending their first year of schooling. Children in the four experimental group schools received instruction in…
Koller, Donna; San Juan, Valerie
Inclusive education provides learning opportunities for children with disabilities in regular settings with other children. Despite the prevalence of inclusive education, few qualitative studies have adequately explored young children's perspectives on inclusion. This paper reviews the findings of a preliminary qualitative study where play-based…
PACER Center, 2014
Parents of young children with disabilities are discovering that carefully selected computer software and mobile apps can provide many benefits such as improved self-esteem, a longer attention span, and inclusion among family and other children that help their children succeed at home and in school. PACER's Simon Technology Center (STC) can help…
Caiman, Cecilia; Lundegård, Iann
This research is concerned with how children's processes of imagination, situated in cultural and social practices, come into play when they invent, anticipate, and explore a problem that is important to them. To enhance our understanding of young children's learning and meaning-making related to science and sustainability, research that investigates children's use of imagination is valuable. The specific aim of this paper is to empirically scrutinize how children's imaginations emerge, develop, and impact their experiences in science. We approach imagination as a situated, open, and unscripted act that emerges within transactions. This empirical study was conducted in a Swedish pre-school, and the data was collected `in between' a science inquiry activity and lunchtime. We gathered specific video-sequences wherein the children, lived through the process of imagination, invented a problem together and produced something new. Our analysis showed that imagination has a great significance when children provide different solutions which may be useful in the future to sustainability-related problems. If the purpose of an educational experience in some way supports children's imaginative flow, then practicing an open, listening approach becomes vital. Thus, by encouraging children to explore their concerns and questions related to sustainability issues more thoroughly without incautious recommendations or suggestions from adults, the process of imagination might flourish.
Wijtzes, A.I.; Jansen, W.; Bouthoorn, S.H.; Pot, J.N.; Hofman, A.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Raat, H.
Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. Methods: We
Collins, Chimere C; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D; Zeldin, Leslie P; Divaris, Kimon
.... We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community...
A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); S.H. Bouthoorn (Selma); N. Pot (Niek); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); H. Raat (Hein)
textabstractResearch on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play.
Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.
Describes an approach designed to help explain war and the nuclear threat to young children, using a Dr. Seuss book as a springboard for discussion to help children expand their own concepts on the subject. (KS)
Goulart, Maria Inês Mafra; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In this study we investigate how 5-year-old children in Brazil and their teachers collectively design science curriculum. More specifically, we develop an agency|structure dialectic as a framework to describe this collective praxis in which science curriculum may emerge as the result of children-teacher transactions rather than as a result of being predetermined and controlled by the latter. We draw on a cultural-historical approach and on the theory of structure and agency to analyze the events showing the complexity of the activity inside a classroom of very young children by science education standards. Data were collected in the context of a science unit in an early-childhood education program in Belo Horizonte. Our study suggests that (a) throughout the movement of agency|passivity || schema|resources one can observe participative thinking, a form of collective consciousness that arises in and from lived experience; (b) learning is a process in which a group is invested in searching for solutions while they create schemas and rearrange resources to evolve a new structure; and (c) the emergent curriculum is a powerful form of praxis that develops children's participation from early childhood on.
Patten, Elena; Watson, Linda R
The ability to focus and sustain one's attention is critical for learning. Children with autism demonstrate unusual characteristics of attention from infancy. It is reasonable to assume that early anomalies in attention influence a child's developmental trajectories. Therapeutic interventions for autism often focus on core features of autism such as communication and socialization, while very few interventions specifically address attention. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians a description of attention characteristics in children with autism and discuss interventions thought to improve attention. Characteristics of attention in children with autism are presented. Intervention studies featuring measures of attention as an outcome variable for young children with autism are reviewed to present interventions that have empirical evidence for improvements in attention. Results are synthesized by strategy, specific feature of attention targeted, and results for both habilitative goals and accommodations for attention. Although research is not extensive, several strategies to support attention in young children with autism have been investigated. The empirical findings regarding these strategies can inform evidence-based practice.
Ruiz, Natasha M; Shapiro, Susan E
This article reviews the research report, Marijuana Exposure Among Children Younger Than Six Years in the United States (), and, using a case study approach, applies the findings to advanced practice registered nurses. B. extracted data from the National Poison Data System showing an increasing trend in marijuana exposure in children, especially in states where marijuana has been legalized for either medicinal use or recreational use. Advanced practice registered nurses need to be comfortable recognizing and managing marijuana intoxication in the pediatric population, as well as educating parents in providing safe environments for their children.
Wu, Bin-Zhang; Ma, Lian; Li, Yang; Chen, Shuo; Yi, Biao
Patients with severely hypoplastic mandibles usually require condylar reconstruction. This study aimed to describe costochondral graft (CCG) for condylar reconstruction and report subsequent outcomes of these grafts in young children with Pruzansky/Kaban type IIB and type III mandibular hypoplasia. This study included 4 young children with type IIB and type III hemifacial microsomia treated with CCG to reconstruct the condyle at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery in our hospital from March 2008 to March 2014. Radiographic measurements and clinical examinations were conducted. The mean age of patients at operation was 3.8 years, ranging from 2.8 to 5.3 years. The mean follow-up period was 43.5 months, ranging from 23 to 63 months. Functional improvement was observed in all patients. The ribs had grown in all patients to date. Three patients had clinically improved face appearance with no significant chin point deviation and canting of the occlusal plane. Although the other patient had partly improved face appearance compared with preoperative condition, he still showed clinically significant facial asymmetry and chin deviation. Our results showed that condylar reconstruction with CCG is a feasible method in the treatment of type IIB and type III hemifacial microsomia in young children. These results will provide early preliminary suggestions of growth and stability of CCG in patients <5 years.
Costley, Kevin C.
In his monumental research, although Piaget primarily relayed information about children's developmental stages of cognitive growth, Marian Marion goes on to discuss not only the developmental stages, yet focuses on how children think. In her textbook, "Guidance of Young Children", Marion conveys how teachers need to understand children and help…
Research is just beginning to describe the role of reading in the lives of families with deaf children. While the time that deaf children spend reading or being read to represents only a small part of their lives at home, research highlights its importance for young children--hearing as well as deaf. Children whose parents read to them at home…
Read, Marilyn A.; Upington, Deborah
This study focuses on children's color preferences in the interior environment. Previous studies highlight young children's preferences for the colors red and blue. The methods of this study used a rank ordering technique and a semi-structured interview process with 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. Findings reveal that children prefer the color…
An analysis of how mothers direct attention and play with their 18-month-old children found mothers of the four children with blindness were not more directive than mothers of the four sighted children, but they made some use of directives that were particular to the needs of young children with blindness. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)
Early childhood is a significant time when children begin to develop their place identity. As they discover their environment, young children claim special places in which to construct their own experiences. In exploring ways to connect children with place, particularly nature, caregivers need to consider children's place perspectives in the…
Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Zinsser, Katherine
Young children's emotional competence--regulation of emotional expressiveness and experience when necessary, and knowledge of their own and other's emotions--is crucial for social and academic (i.e., school) success. Thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms of how young children develop emotional competence. Both parents and teachers are…
The number of mothers with young children experiencing homelessness and seeking shelter has increased in the USA over the past decade. Shelters are often characterized as environments offering few opportunities for appropriate play experiences. This article delineates the important role of play for young children experiencing homelessness and…
This paper explores ways in which human rights become part of and affect young children's everyday practices in early childhood education and, more particularly, how very young children enact human rights in the preschool setting. The study is conducted in a Swedish preschool through observations of the everyday practices of a group of children…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Bullying in schools has been identified as a serious and complex worldwide problem associated with young children's victimization. Research studies indicate the frequency and effects of bullying among young children. The effects seem to be across-the-board for both bullies and victims, who are at risk of experiencing emotional, social, and…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Reuther, Erin T.
For young children, consistency, nurturance, protection, and support are required for both resilience and full recovery. This article reviews relevant literature, developmental issues affecting young children, and factors that influence resilience and recovery including both promotive and protective influences. Focus is also placed on disaster…
Hinton, Stephanie; Cassel, Darlinda
This study researched the experiences of homeless families with young children between the ages of four and eight. Many families experience homelessness every year; therefore, it is important for early childhood educators to have an understanding of how homelessness affects families with young children so that educators can effectively serve the…
van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle
We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…
Domoff, Sarah E; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara
Childhood obesity remains a major public health issue. One recent effort to improve the obesogenic environment is mandating that restaurants provide calorie and other nutritional content on menus. Little is known about whether maternal feeding for young children is influenced by calorie disclosure on menus. This study examined (1) whether maternal feeding goals associate with mothers' food selections for their young children and (2) whether mothers change entrée and side selections for their children when calories/fat grams are listed on menus. One-hundred seventy mothers of children ages of 3-6 years participated in an online survey. Most participants identified as white (76.5%), with a mean BMI of 25.68 (standard deviation=5.94). Mothers were presented two menus (one with and one without calorie/fat information). The goal of feeding for the child's familiarity with the food was significantly associated with mothers' selection of original side dish and entrées, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing high-calorie/-fat sides and entrées. Feeding for natural content was associated with mothers' selection of original entrée, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing low-calorie/-fat entrées. Significantly fewer mothers chose a higher-calorie entrée when there was menu labeling. Maternal feeding goals are associated with mothers' selection of entrée and side dishes on restaurant menus. Results from this study suggest that menu labeling of calories and fat grams may influence entrée choices by mothers. Targeting mothers' feeding goals and labeling restaurant menus may improve the diets of young children.
Bégin, France; Aguayo, Víctor M
Globally, only 52% of children aged 6-23 months meet the minimum meal frequency and a mere 29% meet the minimum dietary diversity, with large disparities across and within regions. With most of the stunting occurring during the first thousand days-from conception to age 2 years-improving complementary feeding in children 6-23 months old is an urgent priority. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF collaborated with the governments of India and Maharashtra to convene a global meeting in Mumbai, India, under the theme: First Foods: A Global Meeting to Accelerate Progress on Complementary Feeding in Young Children (November 17-18, 2015). The global meeting provided a platform that aimed to (a) synthesize the biological and implementation science on complementary feeding; (b) review the practice and experience in improving access to nutritious complementary foods and good complementary feeding practices; and (c) consolidate a strong evidence base that can inform the development of strategies and approaches to improve complementary feeding that are fit to context. This overview paper summarizes the rationale on why improving complementary foods and feeding for infants and young children matters and what it takes to improve them. It builds on the papers presented at the First Foods Global Meeting and those commissioned as a follow on to it. © 2017 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sullivan-Bolyai, Susan; Knafl, Kathleen; Deatrick, Janet; Grey, Margaret
To describe the process that mothers raising young (0-4 years old) children who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes move through to attain the necessary skills to care for their children. A mixed methods design was used, including qualitative interviews with 28 mothers of young children with type 1 diabetes. Principles of naturalistic inquiry were used to guide the data collection process, management, and analysis of the qualitative findings. The process paralleled two of three management approaches and associated behaviors previously described by Gallo and Knafl. Strict adherence behaviors included rigidly following the team recommendations and avoiding strange environments outside the home. Flexible adherence behaviors strove to bring spontaneity back into family life. Selective adherence was not used by this population. Nurses working with these mothers can provide information and support to help them transition from using strict adherence to the more user-friendly flexible adherence, while avoiding the pitfalls of the possibly harmful third approach of selective adherence. Nurses need to remember to praise the parents' efforts at managing their children's diabetes, for our acknowledgment of their work is empowering and affirming.
Wessel-Powell, Christy; Kargin, Tolga; Wohlwend, Karen E.
This article provides primary teachers with assessment tools and curricular examples to expand writers' workshop by adding a multimodal storytelling unit on drama and filmmaking, allowing students to create engaging off-the-page stories through films and play performances that enrich writing. Too often, children's literacy abilities are assessed…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide details on probiotic supplement use among young children in Taiwan.This study is based on the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study database. We used questionnaires to collect information on probiotic supplement use among young children from birth to 18 months of age, while also considering their demographic characteristics and other covariates. Low-birth-weight infants, preterm infants, those with birth defects, and those with caregivers who returned incomplete questionnaires were excluded. The final valid sample comprised 16,991 cases.Approximately half the children received probiotic supplements before the age of 18 months. Only 6.3% of the children received probiotic supplements during the two periods of birth to 6 months and 7 to 18 months. Firstborn children, native mothers, mothers with higher educational levels, higher family income, and parents who lead healthy lifestyles were positively related to probiotic supplement use among children. Young children who were breastfed, with eczema, or with gastrointestinal tract problems were significantly positively associated with probiotic supplement use.The findings show that probiotic supplement usage among young children is associated with a more socially advantaged circumstance and certain child health factors, such as eczema, diarrhea, and constipation. Parents might use probiotic supplements for prevention or treatment of child diseases. The findings of this research could serve as a baseline for future studies, and provide insight into probiotic supplement use behavior for health professionals caring for infants and young children.
Tichovolsky, Marianne H; Griffith, Shayl F; Rolon-Arroyo, Benjamin; Arnold, David H; Harvey, Elizabeth A
Considerable research has examined the effects of maternal depression on children, but few studies have focused on the relation between paternal and child depressive symptoms, particularly during early childhood. Even fewer studies have been longitudinal, leaving open questions about how paternal and child depression covary over time. The present study sought to address this gap by examining the relation between fathers' and children's depressive symptoms over a 3-year period. Participants were 153 preschool children with behavior problems and their parents. Three longitudinal analytic approaches were used to examine how father and child depression change together and predict one another over time. Additional analyses examined whether externalizing problems or maternal depression might account for the associations between fathers' and children's depressive symptoms. Changes in paternal depression significantly predicted changes in father-reported and mother-reported child depressive symptoms. These effects were evident both in year-to-year fluctuations and in linear trajectories across the 3-year period. Cross-lagged analyses suggested that these relations may have been driven by father-effects; paternal depression at one time point predicted child depression at the next time point, but child depression did not significantly predict later paternal depression. We found little evidence that externalizing problems or maternal depression accounted for the relations between fathers' and children's depressive symptoms. Results provide convergent evidence that fathers' depression may play an important role in the development of depressive symptoms in young children and underscore the importance of including fathers in studies of depression in families.
This article focuses on young children's use of Web 2.0 and social media. A background is provided about the use of Web 2.0 and social media among young children. Strengths and concerns are discussed as well as home and school use of Web 2.0 and social media. Exemplary websites are shared. The article concludes with potential changes in the…
Orlin, Margo N; Palisano, Robert J; Chiarello, Lisa A; Kang, Lin-Ju; Polansky, Marcia; Almasri, Nihad; Maggs, Jill
Participation in home, extracurricular, and community activities is a desired outcome of rehabilitation services for children and young people with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of age and gross motor function on participation among children and young people with CP. Five hundred participants (277 males, 223 females) were grouped by age and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level. There were 291 children aged 6 to 12 years and 209 young people aged 13 to 21 years. There were 128 participants in GMFCS level I, 220 in levels II/III, and 152 in levels IV/V. Participants completed the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment to measure number of activities (diversity) and how often they were performed (intensity) in the past 4 months. Children had higher overall participation diversity and intensity than young people (pactivities. Children (pactivities; diversity and intensity were generally low. The findings provide evidence of the effect of age and gross motor function on participation of children and young people with CP. Low participation in physical activities may have implications for fitness and health, especially for children and young people in GMFCS levels IV and V.
Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark
Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorders have impairment in reciprocal social interaction and impairment in communication skills. They also have repetitive behaviours and preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of behaviours. The most important therapy is early individualized intensive behavioural intervention. Intensive behavioural interventions should be provided to all young children at the onset of symptoms. If not, they will have lifelong difficulties in communication and social interaction. Parent mediated behavioural interventions are effective in the management of young children with autism spectrum disorders. Children with autistic symptoms who receive earlier referrals to specialists and obtain intensive behavioural intervention achieve optimal outcomes.
Hughes, Sheryl O; Patrick, Heather; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer O; Anderson, Cheryl B; Nicklas, Theresa A
In young children, the eating environment is an important social context within which eating behaviors develop. Among many low-income young children, the responsibility for feeding may have shifted from family members to child care providers because these children spend the majority of their day in child care settings. To examine the influence of feeding among low-income children in child care settings, feeding behaviors of child care providers in Head Start were observed and food consumption was assessed. Head Start, a comprehensive child development program that serves children from ages 3 to 5, was chosen because of the large percentage of minorities, the low-income status of the families, and the age of the children. Fifty child care providers (25 African-American; 25 Hispanic) randomly selected from Head Start centers in a large, urban southwestern city were observed on three mealtime occasions and self-reported feeding styles were assessed. Observed feeding behaviors were categorized into four feeding patterns based on their conceptual similarity to a general parenting typology (i.e., authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent, and uninvolved). Measures of food consumption were assessed on 549 children sitting with the child care providers during lunch at the Head Start centers. Indulgent feeding behaviors were positively related to children's consumption of vegetables, dairy, entrée, and starch; authoritative feeding behaviors were positively related to dairy consumption. This research highlights the important influence that child care providers have in the development of healthy and unhealthy eating behaviors in minority children. Implications for intervention training for child care providers to promote healthy eating among Head Start children are discussed.
Mitchell, Christina M.; Croy, Calvin; Spicer, Paul; Frankel, Karen; Emde, Robert N.
Children who begin kindergarten with stronger skills learn faster than do those who enter with lower skills. Minority children tend to enter kindergarten already at a disadvantage, and the gap widens across time. However, little is known about cognitive development among American Indian young children. In this study, 110 American Indian infants…
Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.
This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4–5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills (including numeracy skills) of these children at least up to age
Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.
Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our
This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…
Cheeseman, Jill; McDonough, Andrea
This paper reports the results of a pencil-and-paper test developed to assess young children's understanding of mass measurement. The innovative element of the test was its use of photographs. We found many children of the 295 6-8 year-old children tested could "read" the photographs and diagrams and recognise the images as…
Sakr, Mona; Connelly, Vince; Wild, Mary
Digital technologies have material and social properties that have the potential to create new opportunities for children's expressive arts practices. The presence and development of oral narratives in young children's visual art-making on paper has been noted in previous research, but little is known about the narratives children create when they…
El-Shaieb, Muna; Wurtele, Sandy K.
Two hundred and fourteen (214) parents of young children (M age = 6.75 years) were surveyed about their plans for sexuality discussions with their children. Parents were asked to indicate when they would first discuss sex education with their children for 15 specific topics, how effective they perceived themselves to be at discussing each topic,…
Meadan, Hedda; Jegatheesan, Brinda
Many young children have a natural attraction to and curiosity about animals. They like to observe, touch, talk to, and ask questions about them. Teachers and parents both can use this broad interest to facilitate children's development and learning in a variety of domains. Research shows that children across ages find emotional comfort in their…
Kalb, G.; van Ours, J.C.
Abstract: This paper investigates the importance of parents reading to their young children. Using Australian data we find that parental reading to children at age 4 to 5 has positive and significant effects on reading skills and cognitive skills of these children at least up to age 10 or 11. Our findings are robust to a wide range of sensitivity analyses.
Prevention of childhood obesity by encouraging physical activities and dietary control would prevent double diabetes. Conclusion: Double diabetes is increasing in children and young adults. A high index of suspicion is required in obese children with diabetes. Keywords: Double diabetes, Emerging problem, Children, ...
Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…
Osofsky, Joy D.; Cross Hansel, Tonya; Moore, Michelle B.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Hughes, Jennifer B.; Dickson, Amy B.
When expectant mothers are exposed to traumatic events such as natural disasters, their children are at increased risk for developmental and behavioral problems. Many people believe that young children will not be impacted by the traumatic experiences that occur during and following disasters. Therefore, planning for the youngest children at the…
Neumann, Michelle M.; Neumann, David L.
There is a need for more comprehensive assessments of young children's emerging print knowledge. Traditional letter and numeral identification assessments score children's responses as either correct or incorrect and this approach can underestimate what children know. The present study tested an assessment scale that scored three- and…
Kishon-Rabin, L; Haras, N; Bergman, M
The contribution of a two-channel vibrotactile aid (Trill VTA 2/3, AVR Communications LTD) to the audiovisual perception of speech was evaluated in four young children with profound hearing loss using words and speech pattern contrasts. An intensive, hierarchical, and systematic training program was provided. The results show that the addition of the tactile (T) modality to the auditory and visual (A+V) modalities enhanced speech perception performance significantly on all tests. Specifically, at the end of the training sessions, the tactile supplementation increased word recognition scores in a 44-word, closed-set task by 12 percentage points; detection of consonant in final position by 50 percentage points; detection of sibilant in final position by 30 percentage points; and detection of voicing in final position by 25 percentage points. Significant learning over time was evident for all test materials, in all modalities. As expected, fastest learning (i.e., smallest time constants) was found for the AVT condition. The results of this study provide further evidence that sensory information provided by the tactile modality can enhance speech perception in young children.
Lee, Hye Jung; Kim, Jihyun
The objective of this study is to examine the structural relationships among variables that predict the mathematical ability of young children, namely young children's mathematical attitude, exposure to private mathematical learning, mothers' view about their children's mathematical learning, and mothers' mathematical attitude. To this end, we…
Siry, Christina; Kremer, Isabelle
This study examines young children's ideas about natural science phenomena and explores possibilities in starting investigations in kindergarten from their ideas. Given the possibilities inherent in how young children make sense of their experiences, we believe it is critical to take children's perspectives into consideration when designing any…
Farrell, Ann; Danby, Susan
Homework is an increasing yet under-researched part of young children's everyday lives. Framed by the international agendas of starting strong and school accountability, homework in the lives of young children has been either overlooked or considered from the perspective of adults rather than from the perspective of children themselves. This paper…
Wee, Su-Jeong; Shin, Hwa-Sik; Kim, Myung-Hee
This article examines young children's role-play in an effort to develop methods with which teachers can enhance children's interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences. Examining how MI practice is applied in different cultural and social contexts is important because it can provide new insights on enriching and enhancing curricula and…
Schepers, S. A.; van Oers, H. A.; Maurice-Stam, H.; Huisman, J.; Verhaak, C. M.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Haverman, L.
The purpose of this study is to provide Dutch normative data and to assess internal consistency and known-groups validity for the TNO AZL Preschool Children Quality of Life (TAPQOL) and the acute version of the generic Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0) in Dutch young children aged 0-7
Jewett, Pamela; Johnson, Denise; Lowery, Ruth McKoy; Stiles, James W.
In this article, the authors provide a synopsis of the 2014 Children's Literature Assembly (CLA) Workshop. The Workshop explored how fiction and nonfiction children's and young adult's literature create opportunities for in-depth learning in the content areas. Participants had the opportunity to hear the stories of authors and illustrators of…
Feeney-Kettler, Kelly A.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Kettler, Ryan J.
Accurate identification of young children at risk for mental health problems is a key step in establishing early childhood preventive intervention programs. Without psychometrically valid identification procedures, children in need of early intervention may not be identified and may not receive appropriate care. This article provides a review of…
Kristensen, Nancy; Billman, Jean
Describes the Minnesota Early Childhood Family Education Program, which is designed to offer support and information for all parents and their children from birth to kindergarten-enrollment age, and to provide a good early childhood education experience for young children. (Author/PCB)
Honig, Alice Sterling
Interpersonal, familial, and situational risk factors that predict young children's aggression and non-compliance are explored. Here examples of specific techniques and provided to help teachers and parents effectively support children's early development of cooperative and prosocial behaviours as well as problem-solving skills in family and…
Adair, Jennifer Keys
This article explores how discrimination acts as a barrier to providing the highest quality education to young Latino children of immigrants. Preschool teachers' concerns emerged from focus group data with 40 teachers in four US cities, collected as part of the international Children Crossing Borders study of immigration and early childhood…
Dinehart, Laura H.; Catlett, Camille
For teachers, working with young children in the child welfare system can be challenging. A high-quality early learning environment has been linked to long-term positive developmental and academic success. But for children in the child welfare system who are facing significant early challenges, a high quality environment can provide the…
Brebner, Chris; Jovanovic, Jessie; Lawless, Angela; Young, Jessica
Young children need rich learning experiences to maximize their potential. Early childhood educators (ECEs) working in childcare have knowledge of individual children as well as skills and professional knowledge that afford opportunities to provide language-rich environments for learning. To successfully work in partnership with ECEs,…
Martin, Cortney V; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L
We examined the usability of common formats of pictorial toy assembly instructions for 6- and 9-year-old children. Interlocking building toys and models are increasingly prevalent and important for developing spatial abilities and fine motor skills among children. Little is known about how effectively the intended child users can interpret and carry out the instructions. Twenty-four children used five sets of manufacturer-supplied pictorial toy assembly instructions. We evaluated the impact of toy instruction set, age, gender, and previous experience on usability problems, assembly speed and accuracy, instruction gaze time, and subjective ratings. The children had difficulty with all but the simplest instructions and assemblies. As predicted, older participants assembled more quickly, with fewer errors and fewer instruction looks. However, the 6-year-old girls assembled the fewest parts correctly, and the 9-year-old girls reported having the least fun. Instruction look time and frequency revealed differences in instruction complexity and were correlated with subjective ratings of fun. Thirty-two usability problems were observed, and 10 are described in detail. Product age recommendations may not reflect developmentally appropriate instructions. Small design changes should contribute to improved instruction usability among young children. For instance, designers should avoid complex graphic syntax, depict colors accurately, select clear angles of view, and support natural tendencies to assemble top to bottom. This research provides pictorial assembly instruction guidelines to inform instruction designers and describes performance and look-time benchmarks for future usability studies.
Slusser, Wendelin; Lange, Linda
Making the case that breastfeeding provides essential and long-lasting benefits for children and should be one of California's first investments in the healthy development of every child, this report assists state and county commissions of Proposition 10 (Families and Children First Act) in the development of effective strategies and integrated…
Amso, Dima; Haas, Sara; Tenenbaum, Elena; Markant, Julie; Sheinkopf, Stephen J
We examined the impact of simultaneous bottom-up visual influences and meaningful social stimuli on attention orienting in young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Relative to typically-developing age and sex matched participants, children with ASDs were more influenced by bottom-up visual scene information regardless of whether social stimuli and bottom-up scene properties were congruent or competing. This initial reliance on bottom-up strategies correlated with severity of social impairment as well as receptive language impairments. These data provide support for the idea that there is enhanced reliance on bottom-up attention strategies in ASDs, and that this may have a negative impact on social and language development.
Barrueco, Sandra; Wall, Shavaun M.; Mayer, Lynn M.; Blinka, Marcela
Nationally, focus is increasing on the developmental experiences of young children (birth to age 8). Twenty four (arch)dioceses in large metropolitan areas participated in a survey identifying the extent and nature of services provided by Catholic schools and Catholic Charities programs to young children and their families. Six hundred and seventy…
Li, Yan; Coplan, Robert J.; Wang, Yuemin; Yin, Jingtong; Zhu, Jingjing; Gao, Zhuqing; Li, Linhui
The goal of this study was to provide a preliminary evaluation of a social skills and facilitated play early intervention programme to promote social interaction, prosocial behaviours and socio-communicative skills among young extremely shy children in China. Participants were a sample of n = 16 extremely shy young children attending kindergarten…
Meadan, Hedda; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Triplett, Brooke; Michna, Amanda; Fettig, Angel
The authors describe important characteristics of visual supports and considerations when designing visual supports for young children with ASD. Guidelines for developing the visual supports are included. (Contains 5 figures.)
Chen, Chih-Mei; Gehring, Ulrike; Wickman, Magnus; Hoek, Gerard; Giovannangelo, Mariella; Nordling, Emma; Wijga, Alet; de Jongste, Johan; Pershagen, Goeran; Almqvist, Catarina; Kerkhof, Marjan; Bellander, Tom; Wichmann, H. -Erich; Brunekreef, Bert; Heinrich, Joachim
Studies have presented conflicting associations between cat allergen exposure and sensitisation and atopic disease. We therefore investigated the association between the observed domestic cat allergen level and cat sensitisation in young children in four study populations from three European
Developmental delay of infants and young children with and without fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in the Northern Cape Province, South Africa. L Davies, M Dunn, M Chersich, M Urban, C Chetty, L Olivier, D Viljoen ...
Robinson, Thomas N; Borzekowski, Dina L G; Matheson, Donna M; Kraemer, Helena C
To examine the effects of cumulative, real-world marketing and brand exposures on young children by testing the influence of branding from a heavily marketed source on taste preferences. Experimental study. Children tasted 5 pairs of identical foods and beverages in packaging from McDonald's and matched but unbranded packaging and were asked to indicate if they tasted the same or if one tasted better. Preschools for low-income children. Sixty-three children (mean +/- SD age, 4.6 +/- 0.5 years; range, 3.5-5.4 years). Branding of fast foods. A summary total taste preference score (ranging from -1 for the unbranded samples to 0 for no preference and +1 for McDonald's branded samples) was used to test the null hypothesis that children would express no preference. The mean +/- SD total taste preference score across all food comparisons was 0.37 +/- 0.45 (median, 0.20; interquartile range, 0.00-0.80) and significantly greater than zero (Pbranding among children with more television sets in their homes and children who ate food from McDonald's more often. Branding of foods and beverages influences young children's taste perceptions. The findings are consistent with recommendations to regulate marketing to young children and also suggest that branding may be a useful strategy for improving young children's eating behaviors.
van Hoogdalem, A.-G.; Singer, E.; Eek, A.; Heesbeen, D.
We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children’s friendships. A behavioural sociometric method
Broekman, F.L.; Piotrowski, J.T.; Beentjes, H.W.J.; Valkenburg, P.M.
Touchscreen applications (apps) for young children have seen increasingly high rates of growth with more than a hundred thousand now available apps. As with other media, parents play a key role in young children’s app selection and use. However, to date, we know very little about how parents select
Rechou, Blanca-Ana Roig; Universidade de Santiago de Compostela
It is adresses the consideration of literary education and its objectives; the importance of knowing each own country’s Children and Young Adults’ Histories, the canonized works from Universal Literature, repertoire and sectorial studies which educate mediators in order to create the convenient canons to promote reading. They are offered the commentaries on two Galician Children and Young Adults’ Literature works aimed towards multicultural education. Se aborda la importancia de conocer la...
This paper calls for more direct, careful, sustained research on geographies of children, young people and popular culture. I present three sets of empirical and conceptual resources for researchers developing work in this area. Part 1 signposts classic work from cultural/media studies, marketing and sociology, which has been centrally concerned with meanings of popular culture designed for children and young people (e.g. via critiques of the gendered content of iconic popular cultural phenom...
Vo, Vy A; Li, Rosa; Kornell, Nate; Pouget, Alexandre; Cantlon, Jessica F
Metacognition, the ability to assess one's own knowledge, has been targeted as a critical learning mechanism in mathematics education. Yet the early childhood origins of metacognition have proven difficult to study. Using a novel nonverbal task and a comprehensive set of metacognitive measures, we provided the strongest evidence to date that young children are metacognitive. We showed that children as young as 5 years made metacognitive "bets" on their numerical discriminations in a wagering task. However, contrary to previous reports from adults, our results showed that children's metacognition is domain specific: Their metacognition in the numerical domain was unrelated to their metacognition in another domain (emotion discrimination). Moreover, children's metacognitive ability in only the numerical domain predicted their school-based mathematics knowledge. The data provide novel evidence that metacognition is a fundamental, domain-dependent cognitive ability in children. The findings have implications for theories of uncertainty and reveal new avenues for training metacognition in children. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sheskin, Mark; Bloom, Paul; Wynn, Karen
Young children dislike getting less than others, which might suggest a general preference for equal outcomes. However, young children are typically not averse to others receiving less than themselves. These results are consistent with two alternatives: young children might not have any preferences about others receiving less than themselves, or they might have preferences for others receiving less than themselves. We test these alternatives with 5- to 10-year-old children. We replicate previous findings that children will take a cost to avoid being at a relative disadvantage, but also find that 5- and 6-year-olds will spitefully take a cost to ensure that another's welfare falls below their own. This result suggests that the development of fairness includes overcoming an initial social comparison preference for others to get less relative to oneself. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Broekhof, Evelien; Ketelaar, Lizet; Stockmann, Lex; van Zijp, Annette; Bos, Marieke G. N.; Rieffe, Carolien
This study provides a comprehensive picture of three core elements (Intentions, Desires, Beliefs) of Theory of Mind (ToM) in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 63, "M"age = 55 months) and typically developing children (TD, n = 69, "M"age = 54 months). Outcomes showed that ASD and TD children understood…
Klein, Tovah P; Devoe, Ellen R; Miranda-Julian, Claudia; Linas, Keri
Although the knowledge base regarding very young children's responses to trauma has been expanding, descriptions of their responses to terrorism remain sparse. Yet, their vulnerability makes this an important group to study. Recent events in the United States (9/11, Hurricane Katrina) make this question highly relevant. This study aims to provide extensive descriptions of how children 5 years or younger on September 11th who were living in close proximity to Ground Zero responded that day and in the following months. Sixty-seven New York City parents (with 104 children) participated in focus groups between November 2001 and May 2002. Focus groups also provided a foundation for an in-depth study examining young children's adaptation following 9/11 and changes in parenting behaviors after the disaster. Findings on children's behavioral and emotional reactions on 9/11 and in the 8 months after as well as their need to return to normalcy are reported. Consistent with current understanding of trauma symptoms in young children, parents reported behaviors including chronic sleep disruptions, fearful reactions, development of new fears, and increased clinginess and separation anxiety following the disaster. On the actual day, children's responses were described as ranging from calm and cooperative to difficult and panicky. Implications for working with parents and young children affected by terrorism or community-level trauma and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2009 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.
Worah, Smita; McNaughton, David; Light, Janice; Benedek-Wood, Elizabeth
Young children with complex communication needs often experience difficulty in using currently available graphic symbol systems as a method of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Information on young children's performance with graphic representations based on this population's conceptualizations of these vocabulary items may assist in the development of more effective AAC systems. This study developed Developmentally Appropriate Symbols (DAS) for 10 early emerging vocabulary concepts using procedures designed to address both conceptual and appeal issues for graphic representations for young children. Using a post-test only, between-subjects comparison group design, 40 typically-developing 2.5-3.5-year-old children were randomly assigned to receive a brief training in either of two different types of graphic symbol sets: (a) DAS or (b) Picture Communication Symbols (PCS), a, commercially available graphic symbol system. Results of a two sample independent t-test provide evidence that children in the DAS condition correctly identified more symbols than children trained with the PCS symbols. There was no evidence of a preference between the symbol sets. The results provide support for careful consideration of children's use and understanding of language in developing AAC systems for young children.
Lara B Aknin
Full Text Available Evolutionary models of cooperation require proximate mechanisms that sustain prosociality despite inherent costs to individuals. The "warm glow" that often follows prosocial acts could provide one such mechanism; if so, these emotional benefits may be observable very early in development. Consistent with this hypothesis, the present study finds that before the age of two, toddlers exhibit greater happiness when giving treats to others than receiving treats themselves. Further, children are happier after engaging in costly giving--forfeiting their own resources--than when giving the same treat at no cost. By documenting the emotionally rewarding properties of costly prosocial behavior among toddlers, this research provides initial support for the claim that experiencing positive emotions when giving to others is a proximate mechanism for human cooperation.
Brasholt, Martin; Baty, Florent; Bisgaard, Hans
Physical activity is essential for young children to develop adequately and for quality of life. It can be lower in children with subclinical asthma, and therefore methods to reveal subclinical reduction in physical activity in young children are warranted....
Heberle, Amy E; Carter, Alice S
Economic disadvantage is a well-studied risk factor for poorer behavioral and academic functioning in young children. Although the mechanisms by which disadvantage impacts children have long been of interest to researchers, studies to date have predominantly focused on mechanisms that are external to the child (e.g., parental depression, marital conflict). Very few studies have examined the internal, cognitive aspects of the experience of economic disadvantage, and almost none have considered how the effects of disadvantage on children's functioning might be mediated through cognitive processes. This article provides a framework for research into cognitive and social-cognitive mediators of economic disadvantage operating in early-to-middle childhood. The initial section of the article briefly reviews and summarizes the extant literature on childhood poverty and its effects. The second section reviews the evidence that preschool-aged children have the requisite cognitive abilities to recognize social inequality in their environments, to be aware of stereotypes related to social class, and to connect these social concepts to their own experience. The third section reviews and evaluates the small literature on children's appraisals, attributions, stereotypes, and perceptions of or about poverty and inequality. The fourth section defines and evaluates the literature on 2 social-cognitive processes-stereotype threat and status anxiety-that are hypothesized to mediate the effects of economic disadvantage on children's functioning. The article concludes with a series of proposed questions and hypotheses for future research, and elaborates on the potential implications of the proposed area of research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Izugbara, Chimaraoke O; Egesa, Carolyne P; Kabiru, Caroline W; Sidze, Estelle M
Young women and girls in Kenya face challenges in access to abortion care services. Using in-depth and focus group interviews, we explored providers' constructions of these challenges. In general, providers considered abortion to be commonplace in Kenya; reported being regularly approached to offer abortion-related care and services; and articulated the structural, contextual, and personal challenges they faced in serving young post-abortion care (PAC) patients. They also considered induced abortion among young unmarried girls to be especially objectionable; stressed premarital fertility and out-of-union sexual activity among unmarried young girls as transgressive of respectable femininity and proper adolescence; blamed young women and girls for the challenges they reported in obtaining PAC services; and linked these challenges to young women's efforts to conceal their failures related to gender and adolescence, exemplified by pre-marital pregnancy and abortion. This study shows how providers' distinctive emphasis that young abortion care-seekers are to blame for their own difficulties in accessing PAC may add to the ongoing crisis of post-abortion care for young women and adolescent girls in Kenya. © 2017 The Authors. Studies in Family Planning published by The Population Council, Inc.
McConnell, Tracey; Porter, Sam
More attention is being paid to the wellbeing of staff working in stressful situations. However, little is known about staff experience of providing end-of-life care to children within a hospice setting. This study aims to explore the experiences of care team staff who provide end-of-life care within a children's hospice. Qualitative research incorporating interviews and a focus group. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Purposeful sampling led to a total of 15 care team staff recruited from a children's hospice offering palliative and specialist care to life-limited children and young people. The hospice setting provides a model of excellence in supporting staff and mitigating challenging aspects of their role, which includes peer/organisational support, and regular ongoing training in key aspects of children's palliative care. Key recommendations for improving their experience included advanced communication training and knowledge sharing with other children's palliative care specialists within the acute setting. Service and policy initiatives should encourage open, informal peer/organisational support among the wider children's palliative care sector. Further research should focus on paediatric palliative care education, particularly in relation to symptom management and communication at end-of-life, harnessing the expertise and breadth of knowledge that could be shared between children's hospices and hospital settings.
Thompson, Darcy A.; Sibinga, Erica M.S.; Jennings, Jacky M.; Bair-Merritt, Megan H.; Christakis, Dimitri A.
Objective To determine if hours of daily television viewed by varying age groups of young children with Latina mothers differs by maternal language preference (English/Spanish) and to compare these differences to young children with non-Latina white mothers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2000 from the National Survey of Early Childhood Health. Setting Nationally representative sample. Participants 1,347 mothers of children 4-35 months. Main Exposure Subgroups of self-reported maternal race/ethnicity (non-Latina white (white), Latina) and within Latinas, stratification by maternal language preference (English/Spanish). Outcome Measure Hours of daily television viewed by the child. Results Bivariate analyses showed children of English- versus Spanish-speaking Latinas watch more daily television (1.88 versus 1.31 hours,ptelevision. However, among children 12-23 and 24-35 months, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more television than children of Spanish-speaking Latinas (IRR=1.61,CI=1.17-2.22; IRR=1.66,CI=1.10-2.51, respectively). Compared to children of white mothers, children of both Latina subgroups watched similar amounts among the 4-11 month olds. However, among 12-23 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched more compared to children of white mothers (IRR=1.57,CI=1.18-2.11). Among 24-35 month olds, children of English-speaking Latinas watched similar amounts compared to children of white mothers, but children of Spanish-speaking Latinas watched less (IRR=0.69,CI=0.50-0.95). Conclusions Television viewing amounts among young children with Latina mothers vary by child age and maternal language preference supporting the need to explore sociocultural factors that influence viewing in Latino children. PMID:20124147
Estola, Eila; Farquhar, Sandy; Puroila, Anna-Maija
Whereas research on children's well-being in education has largely focused on adult perspectives rather than on children's understandings, recent scholarship argues for a stronger focus on children's experience and perceptions of their own well-being. Adopting a narrative approach, this article puts children's stories centre stage as we explore a…
Kwon, Young Re
interventions facilitated the children in developing scientific ideas about certain living things. Several of the children's ideas and concepts changed and corresponded to scientific viewpoints. However, others maintained their existing ideas, which were not scientifically based. The study revealed the complexity of teaching kindergarten children a scientific understanding of living things and that teaching the interconnectedness among objects was essential to elaborate concepts. The results of the research suggested improvements for the conceptual change teaching methodology used in the classroom. The study provided insight into the effects of teacher-children interactions and teaching interventions. The study also indicated that the interview and observation research methodology used in this study was a useful vehicle to explore the children's initial ideas and conceptual development in teaching and learning science. The findings of the study suggest that teacher education for teachers of young children should include a complex of instructions because teaching and learning concepts of living things and other related science concepts are complex processes.
This article explores the role of play in an art museum. Reflecting upon a kindergarten field trip to the Warhol Museum in which children's play was the centerpiece of the museum experience, the author examines what early childhood theorists have written about the value of play in young children's lives. She shows how the Warhol's program for…
Compton-Lilly, Catherine; Papoi, Kristin; Venegas, Patricia; Hamman, Laura; Schwabenbauer, Briana
We cast our lens on intersectional networks of identity negotiated by young children in immigrant families. Although some scholars discuss identity construction, we reference identity negotiation to capture the active, strategic, and agential work that we witnessed in our study. We begin by synthesizing relevant research on children's identity…
Renton, Zoe; Butcher, Joanne
This article outlines why sustainable development matters for children and young people, and explores the relevant policy context in England and the UK. It asks whether enough is being carried out by central government to secure a more sustainable future for, and with, today's children. More is needed at the national policy level to: embed…
This paper reports on the work in progress undertaken with young children, artists and early childhood education students in an innovative arts education partnership between Windmill Performing Arts, the national performing arts company for children and families, and the University of South Australia. The paper explains how the project was…
Zachor, Ditza A.; Itzchak, Esther Ben
The current study examined the relation between autism severity at baseline, type of intervention employed and outcomes in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventy-eight children with ASD, aged 15-35 months (M=25.4, SD=4.2), received either applied behavioral analysis (ABA) or integration of several intervention approaches…
Harari, Rachel R.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Bailey, Sean P.
This study explored the nature of mathematics anxiety in a sample of 106 ethnically and linguistically diverse first-grade students. Although much is known about mathematics anxiety in older children and adults, little is known about when mathematics anxiety first emerges or its characteristics in young children. Results from exploratory factor…
Keegstra, A.L.; Post, W.J.; Goorhuis-Brouwer, S.M.
Objective: Analysis of behavioural problems in young children with language problems. Materials and methods: From 38 children diagnosed with a language problem, the opinion of the parents about the behaviour of their child, scored by the Child Behaviour Checklist 1.5-5 was compared with the
Background: Colorectal carcinoma is thought to be rare among children and young adults among whom presentation is usually at a late stage with poor prognosis. Objective: To review the demography, clinical presentation, morphology, and pathological stage of cases of colorectal carcinomas diagnosed in the children and ...
Bisgaard, H; Pedersen, S; Nikander, K
The question addressed in this study was the ability of young children to use a dry-powder inhaler, Turbuhaler. One hundred and sixty five children suspected of asthma, equally distributed in one year age-groups from 6 months to 8 yrs, inhaled from a Pulmicort Turbuhaler, 200 micrograms budesonid...
The data featured in this article were gathered during a classroom-based research project with Grade 2 (six- and seven-year-old) children. The overall purposes of the study included exploration of how the development of young children's understanding of elements of visual art and design would affect their comprehension, interpretation, and…
Tait, M.; Nikolopoulos, T.P.; Raeve, L. De; Johnson, S.; Datta, G.; Karltorp, E.; Ostlund, E.; Johansson, U.; Knegsel, E. van; Mylanus, E.A.M.; Gulpen, P.M.H.; Beers, M. van; Frijns, J.H.
OBJECTIVES: To compare the preverbal communication skills of two groups of young implanted children: those with unilateral implantation and those with bilateral implantation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study assessed 69 children: 42 unilaterally and 27 bilaterally implanted with age at implantation
This study examined young children's deception in a conflict situation. A puppet show was prepared involving a protagonist who went into hiding, an enemy who wanted to catch the protagonist, and a friend who was looking for the protagonist. In the no-conflict condition, the enemy asked the children about the location of the protagonist. In the…
Xu, Tingting; Nerren, Jannah S.
Attitudes and biases toward body size perceived as fat and body size perceived as thin are present in young children (Cramer and Steinwert in "J Appl Dev Psychol" 19(3):429-451, 1998; Worobey and Worobey in "Body Image" 11:171-174, 2014). However, the information children have regarding body size and ways to modify body size…
Berkovits, Lauren; Eisenhower, Abbey; Blacher, Jan
There has been little research connecting underlying emotion processes (e.g., emotion regulation) to frequent behavior problems in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the stability of emotion regulation and its relationship with other aspects of child functioning. Participants included 108 children with ASD,…
Kalich, Karrie; Bauer, Dottie; McPartlin, Deirdre
Plant lifelong healthy eating concepts in young children and counteract the prevalence of childhood obesity with "Early Sprouts." A research-based early childhood curriculum, this "seed-to-table" approach gets children interested in and enjoying nutritious fruits and vegetables. The "Early Sprouts" model engages…
Huber, Linda K.
Addresses major issues in teachers' reluctance to use woodworking centers with young children: (1) too noisy; (2) too dangerous; (3) just for boys; and (4) too expensive. Explains why woodworking can be beneficial to children and how to begin creating and using a woodworking center. (EV)
Simmons, Betty Jo; Stalsworth, Kelly; Wentzel, Heather
Examines research on television violence and links violence to specific programs commonly watched by young children. Maintains that television violence is related to aggressive behavior, lessened sensitivity to the results of violence, and increased fear. Examines public reactions to children's educational television programs. (Author/KB)
Gadeyne, Els; Ghesquiere, Pol; Onghena, Patrick
The authors studied the predictive relations between reports of parenting behavior on the one hand and academic achievement and reported behavior problems of young children on the other hand. Data were gathered for 352 children and their parents from kindergarten to 2nd grade. The results indicated that in the academic domain, low supportive and…
Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Gatt, Suzanne; Agius, Catherine; Pizzuto, Sue Anne
Young Maltese children have experience and knowledge of animals. We explored the range of animal with which they are familiar and the origin of this knowledge. The children interviewed were in Pre School, aged 4 years, and in the first year of compulsory education, aged 5 years Verb l questions and photographs were used as the probe to access…
More, Cori M.
Social Stories are becoming a popular intervention used to improve the social skills of children with disabilities. This article examines the use of Social Stories with young children with disabilities. Social Stories are described, creation guidelines are recommended, and strategies for Social Story implementation in the classroom are discussed.…
Norton, Nadjwa E. L.
In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…
Pugnali, Alex; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi
Aim/Purpose: Over the past few years, new approaches to introducing young children to computational thinking have grown in popularity. This paper examines the role that user interfaces have on children's mastery of computational thinking concepts and positive interpersonal behaviors. Background: There is a growing pressure to begin teaching…
Beier, Jonathan S.; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda
From early in development, humans have strong prosocial tendencies. Much research has documented young children's propensity to help others achieve their unfulfilled goals toward physical objects. Yet many of our most common and important goals are social--directed toward other people. Here we demonstrate that children are also inclined, and able,…
Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.
The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview…
Lim, Eun Mee
When technology integration is accomplished successfully in early childhood education settings, children tend to interact more with one another and exchange information related to computer tasks as well as the overall classroom on-going curriculum themes. Therefore, to explore how young children are interacting in computer areas when using…
Webster-Stratton, Carolyn H.; Reid, M. Jamila; Beauchaine, Ted
The efficacy of the Incredible Years parent and child training programs is established in children diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder but not among young children whose primary diagnosis is attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted a randomized control trial evaluating the combined parent and child program…
Hypercholesterolaemia in children and young adults – current management. ... Journal of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes of South Africa ... All children and adolescents with high-risk lipid disorders such as familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), those with diabetes mellitus or other cardiovascular disease risk factors ...
Recording EEG In Young Children Without Sedation. ... African Journal of Neurological Sciences ... The aim of this work was to determine if it is possible to carry out EEG in children up to 4 years old without sedation and analyze the factors that could influence upon the possibility of performing EEG, in vigil or with sedation.
Malnutrition among young children in Cameroon starts during complementary feeding or the transition period. Last nutritional surveys indicated high prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, iron deficiency anemia and Vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6 to 59 months. No data on appropriate feeding and zinc content in ...
Purpose: To compare the awareness and treatment knowledge of malaria amongst caregivers of young children in urban and rural areas of Ado-Odo/Ota Local Government Area in Ogun State. Method: Structured questionnaires were administered to caregivers of children under the age of five years in 1472 households ...
Leeuw, R.N.H. de; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Scholte, R.H.J.
Objective To investigate whether parental smoking was associated with smoking-related play behaviour in young children. Design Children were asked to pretend that they were grown-ups having dinner. They were invited to act out this situation in a play corner with a toy kitchen and a child-sized
Kindermann, Angelika; Kneepkens, Corneille Marie Francois; Stok, Anita; van Dijk, Elisabeth Maria; Engels, Michelle; Douwes, Adriaan Cornelis
OBJECTIVES: Pathological food refusal (PFR) is not rare in young children with chronic conditions requiring prolonged tube feeding. We investigated whether these children could be weaned from tube feeding with a multidisciplinary hunger provocation program. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included
This article highlights the lack of human rights recognition for arguably one of the most vulnerable groups in our society, children and young people in the care of the state. Currently under New Zealand legislation and policy frameworks these children do not have their rights upheld, as per New Zealand's obligations under the United Nations…
Echols, Jean C.; Kopp, Jaine; Blinderman, Ellen
This book contains a series of playful activities in which young children actively learn about the African elephant's body structure, family life, and social behavior. Children make model elephants out of paper and cardboard, then devise elephant puppets with sock trunks as well as create models of elephant's ears, trunks, tusks, make elephant…
Brasholt, Martin; Baty, Florent; Bisgaard, Hans
Physical activity is essential for young children to develop adequately and for quality of life. It can be lower in children with subclinical asthma, and therefore methods to reveal subclinical reduction in physical activity in young children are warranted.......Physical activity is essential for young children to develop adequately and for quality of life. It can be lower in children with subclinical asthma, and therefore methods to reveal subclinical reduction in physical activity in young children are warranted....
... carefully researched health information to teenage boys and young men. All information is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your health care provider. ...
Brady, Nancy; Skinner, Debra; Roberts, Joanne; Hennon, Elizabeth
To provide descriptive and qualitative information about communication in young children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and about how families react to and accommodate communication differences in their children. In-depth interviews were conducted with 55 mothers of young children with FXS. Interviewers asked mothers to describe their children's communication, strategies they used to help promote their children's communication, communication-related frustrations, their expectations for their children, and the roles that they perceive for themselves. Over half the children were nonverbal and learning to communicate with augmentative and alternative communication. Mothers reported using strategies that were developmentally appropriate and recommended by early childhood experts, such as reading and talking to their children. Many mothers identified challenges faced in helping their child to communicate, and some cited difficulty obtaining speech-language services as a challenge. Mothers identified their roles as caregiver, teacher, therapist, and advocate. The perspectives offered by mothers are valuable because they indicate how children with FXS communicate in natural contexts. Information about mothers' expectations and roles may help clinicians to be sensitive to variables that will affect working with young children and their families.
Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.
In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…
Dagli, Ümmühan Yesil; Halat, Erdogan
This study explored 5-6 year-old children's conceptual understanding of one geometric shape, the triangle. It focused on whether children could draw a triangle from memory, and identify triangles of different types, sizes, and orientations. The data were collected from 82 children attending state preschool programs through a one-on-one interview,…
M.G.J. Basten (Maartje)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Child psychiatry continues to struggle how best to characterize children with severe psychopathology. It has long been recognized that a certain group of children has problems in multiple domains. These children show emotional problems, such as anxiety or
Allen, Melissa L; Nurmsoo, Erika; Freeman, Norman
Drawings can be ambiguous and represent more than one entity. In three experiments, we examine whether young children show representational flexibility by allowing one picture to be called by a second name. We also evaluate the hypothesis that children who are representationally flexible see the artist's intention as binding, rather than changeable. In Experiment 1, an artist declared what she intended to draw (e.g. a balloon) but then produced an ambiguous drawing. Children were asked whether the drawings could be interpreted differently (e.g. 'could this be a lollipop?') in the presence of a perceptually similar or dissimilar distractor (e.g., lollipop or snake). Six-year-olds accepted two labels for drawings in both conditions, but four-year-olds only did so in the dissimilar condition. Experiment 2 probed each possible interpretation more deeply by asking property questions (e.g., 'does it float?, does it taste good?'). Preschoolers who understood that the ambiguous drawing could be given two interpretations nevertheless mostly endorsed only properties associated with the prior intent. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence that 4-year-olds were representationally flexible using a paradigm that did not rely upon modal questioning. Taken together, our results indicate that even 4-year-olds understand that pictures may denote more than one referent, they still think of the symbol as consistent with the artist's original intention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pang, Jenny; Teeter, Larry D.; Katz, Dolly J.; Davidow, Amy L.; Miranda, Wilson; Wall, Kirsten; Ghosh, Smita; Stein-Hart, Trudy; Restrepo, Blanca I.; Reves, Randall; Graviss, Edward A.
OBJECTIVES To estimate tuberculosis (TB) rates among young children in the United States by children’s and parents’ birth origins and describe the epidemiology of TB among young children who are foreign-born or have at least 1 foreign-born parent. METHODS Study subjects were children TB in 20 US jurisdictions during 2005–2006. TB rates were calculated from jurisdictions’ TB case counts and American Community Survey population estimates. An observational study collected demographics, immigration and travel histories, and clinical and source case details from parental interviews and health department and TB surveillance records. RESULTS Compared with TB rates among US-born children with US-born parents, rates were 32 times higher in foreign-born children and 6 times higher in US-born children with foreign-born parents. Most TB cases (53%) were among the 29% of children who were US born with foreign-born parents. In the observational study, US-born children with foreign-born parents were more likely than foreign-born children to be infants (30% vs 7%), Hispanic (73% vs 37%), diagnosed through contact tracing (40% vs 7%), and have an identified source case (61% vs 19%); two-thirds of children were exposed in the United States. CONCLUSIONS Young children who are US born of foreign-born parents have relatively high rates of TB and account for most cases in this age group. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of adult source cases, effective contact investigations prioritizing young contacts, and targeted testing and treatment of latent TB infection are necessary to reduce TB morbidity in this population. PMID:24515517
Urbain-Gauthier, Nadine; Wendland, Jaqueline
Among the multiple risk factors, the emergence of conduct problems in young children may be linked to harsh parenting and child's temperamental difficulties, leading to a reciprocal early discordant relationship. Little is known about the characteristics of early parent-child interactions in young children with physical aggression. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the characteristics of mother-child interactions in dyads referred for excessive physical aggression in young children under 5 years of age compared to mother-child interactions in typically developing young children. Mother-child interactions were assessed during a free-play session in both a clinical sample ( N = 70, child mean age = 3.5 years) and a nonclinical sample ( N = 80, child mean age = 3.5 years) by using the Rating Scale of Interaction Style (Clark and Seifer, adapted by Molitor and Mayes). Significant differences were found between several interactive features in clinical and nonclinical dyads. In clinical dyads, mothers' behaviors were often characterized by intrusiveness and criticism toward children, and poor facilitative positioning. Children with excessive aggressive behavior often displayed poor communication, initiation of bids, and poor responsiveness toward the mother. They displayed fewer sustained bouts of play than typically developing children did. In clinical dyads, strong positive correlations were found between child responsiveness and maternal interest in engagement ( r = .41, p children with excessive aggressive behavior develop disrupted mother-infant interactions from a very young age. Several negative interactive features and correlations between child behavior and maternal behavior were found in clinical samples. The effects of these features add up and probably strengthen each other, thus leading to interactive difficulties from a very young age. More attention should be paid to early parent-child interactions in case of
Full Text Available Touch screen devices such as smartphones and tablets are now ubiquitous in the lives of American children. These devices permit very young children to engage interactively in an intuitive fashion with actions as simple as touching, swiping and pinching. Yet, we know little about the role these devices play in very young children’s lives or their impact on early learning and development. Here we focus on two areas in which existing research sheds some light on these issues with children under three years of age. The first measures transfer of learning, or how well children use information learned from screens to reason about events off-screen, using object retrieval and word learning tasks. The second measures the impact of interactive screens on parent-child interactions and story comprehension during reading time. More research is required to clarify the pedagogical potential and pitfalls of touch screens for infants and very young children, especially research focused on capabilities unique to touch screens and on the social and cultural contexts in which young children use them.
Kersey, Margaret; Geppert, Joni; Cutts, Diana B
To measure rates of hunger and food insecurity among young US-born Latino children with Mexican immigrant parents (Latinos) compared with a non-immigrant non-Latino population (non-Latinos) in a low-income clinic population. A repeated cross-sectional survey of 4278 caregivers of children parent born in Mexico. They were compared with a reference group comprised of non-Latino US-born participants (n = 1805). Child hunger and household food insecurity were determined with the US Household Food Security Scale. Young Latino children had much higher rates of child hunger than non-Latinos, 6.8 versus 0.5%. Latino families also had higher rates of household food insecurity than non-Latinos, 53.1 versus 15.6%. Latino children remained much more likely to be hungry (odds ratio (OR) = 13.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.9-28.7, P education level, single-headed household status, family size, young maternal age ( participation, TANF (Temporary Assistance to Needy Families, or 'welfare') programme participation and WIC (Women, Infants, and Children) usage, and reason for clinic visit (sick visit versus well-child). Young children in Mexican immigrant families are at especially high risk for hunger and household food insecurity compared with non-immigrant, non-Latino patients in a low-income paediatric clinic.
Azarnoff, Pat, Ed.
Ten authors' viewpoints about preparing healthy children for possible hospitalization are presented. Selected topics include (1) the fallacy of "preparing" young healthy children for possible hospitalization, (2) parents as the best preparers of young children, (3) preparing young children for unplanned hospital admissions, (4) anxiety…
Carey, Lynn K; Nicholson, Bonnie C; Fox, Robert A
The purpose of this study was to compare the early child-rearing practices between mothers of young children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and mothers of healthy children. In addition, maternal stress, parental developmental expectations, and the early behavioral and emotional development of their children were explored. Maccoby's (1992) socialization theory emphasizing the reciprocal nature of mother-child interactions provided the framework for this study. Findings from quantitative self-report measures and videotaped parent-child interactions showed a remarkable similarity between mothers of children with CHD and mothers of healthy children. In contrast, qualitative data revealed important differences with mothers of CHD children reporting high levels of vigilance with their children. The important role of promoting the principle of normalization among mothers of children with CHD and ensuring a sufficient support system is discussed. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to compare the cognitive skills of young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD to same-aged peers referred for possible developmental delays or behavioral concerns using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Third Edition. Method. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 147 children ages 16 to 38 months who were referred to a diagnostic clinic for developmental evaluation. Children with ASD were compared to those without ASD with respect to cognition and language outcomes, both overall and by age. Results. While language skills in children with ASD were more significantly delayed than language skills in children without ASD, there was less discrepancy in the cognitive skills of children with and without ASD. Conclusion. Formal cognitive assessment of children with ASD can provide guidance for developmental expectations and educational programming. Cognitive skills of children with ASD may be underappreciated.
Dirani, Mohamed; Chan, Yiong-Huak; Gazzard, Gus; Hornbeak, Dana Marie; Leo, Seo-Wei; Selvaraj, Prabakaran; Zhou, Brendan; Young, Terri L.; Mitchell, Paul; Varma, Rohit; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei
Using population-based data, the authors report, for the first time, the prevalence of refractive error in Singaporean Chinese children aged 6 to 72 months. In selected regions of Singapore, myopia has been shown to affect more than 80% of adults; therefore, this paper provides insights into the development of refractive error at a very young age.
Carter, Bernie; Thomas, Megan
For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to "being a key worker" and "having a key worker". The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop). Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders). All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals, and other stakeholders to
Full Text Available For families with a disabled child, the usual challenges of family life can be further complicated by the need to access a wide range of services provided by a plethora of professionals and agencies. Key working aims to support children and their families in navigating these complexities ensuring easy access to relevant, high quality, and coordinated care. The aim of this paper is to explore the key worker role in relation to “being a key worker” and “having a key worker”. The data within this paper draw on a larger evaluation study of the Blackpool Early Support Pilot Programme. The qualitative study used an appreciative and narrative approach and utilised mixed methods (interviews, surveys and a nominal group workshop. Data were collected from 43 participants (parents, key workers, and other stakeholders. All stakeholders who had been involved with the service were invited to participate. In the paper we present and discuss the ways in which key working made a difference to the lives of children and their families. We also consider how key working transformed the perspectives of the key workers creating a deeper and richer understanding of family lives and the ways in which other disciplines and agencies worked. Key working contributed to the shift to a much more family-centred approach, and enhanced communication and information sharing between professionals and agencies improved. This resulted in families feeling more informed. Key workers acted in an entrepreneurial fashion, forging new relationships with families and between families and other stakeholders. Parents of young disabled children and their service providers benefited from key working. Much of the benefit accrued came from strong, relational, and social-professional networking which facilitated the embedding of new ways of working into everyday practice. Using an appreciative inquiry approach provided an effective and relevant way of engaging with parents, professionals
Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Pot, Niek; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Raat, Hein
Research on social inequalities in sports participation and unstructured physical activity among young children is scarce. This study aimed to assess the associations of family socioeconomic position (SEP) and ethnic background with children's sports participation and outdoor play. We analyzed data from 4726 ethnically diverse 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R Study. Variables were assessed by parent-reported questionnaires when the child was 6 years old. Low level of outdoor play was defined as outdoor play p p p p p research, including qualitative studies, is needed to explore more in detail the pathways relating family SEP and ethnic background to children's sports participation and outdoor play.
Hertsberg, Naomi; Zebrowski, Patricia M
The goals of this study were to determine whether young children who stutter (CWS) perceive their own competence and social acceptance differently than young children who do not stutter (CWNS), and to identify the predictors of perceived competence and social acceptance in young speakers. We administered the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) to 13 CWS and 14 CWNS and examined group differences. We also collected information on the children's genders, temperaments, stuttering frequencies, language abilities, and phonological skills to identify which of these factors predicted PSPCSA scores. CWS, as a group, did not differ from CWNS in their perceived general competence or social acceptance. Gender predicted scores of perceived general competence, and stuttering frequency predicted perceived social acceptance. Temperament, language abilities, and phonological skills were not significant predictors of perceived competence or social acceptance in our sample. While CWS did not significantly differ from CWNS in terms of perceived competence and social acceptance, when both talker groups were considered together, girls self-reported greater perceived competence than boys. Further, lower stuttering frequency was associated with greater perceived social acceptance. These preliminary findings provide motivation for further empirical study of the psychosocial components of childhood stuttering. Readers will be able to describe the constructs of perceived competence and social acceptance in young children, and whether early stuttering plays a role in the development of these constructs. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment
Milk drinks for young children, i.e. toddlers, available on the market are referred to as toddler milk or children’s milk. The manufacturers of these products often advertise these to be – in contrast to cow milk – adjusted to serve the specific nutritional needs of young children. These products thus often contain less protein than cow milk, allegedly in order to counteract obesity later in life. Instead they contain more vitamins and minerals, which is then said to be necessary for the adeq...
Dencker, M; Wollmer, P; Karlsson, M
Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base.......Aerobic capacity, defined as peak oxygen uptake (VO2PEAK), is generally considered to be the best single marker for aerobic fitness. We assessed if VO2PEAK is related to different cardiac dimensions in healthy young children on a population base....
Rickwood, Debra J; Telford, Nic R; Mazzer, Kelly R; Parker, Alexandra G; Tanti, Chris J; McGorry, Patrick D
To describe the services provided to young people aged 12-25 years who attend headspace centres across Australia, and how these services are being delivered. A census of headspace clients commencing an episode of care between 1 April 2013 and 31 March 2014. All young people first attending one of the 55 fully established headspace centres during the data collection period (33,038 young people). Main reason for presentation, wait time, service type, service provider type, funding stream. Most young people presented for mental health problems and situational problems (such as bullying or relationship problems); most of those who presented for other problems also received mental health care services as needed. Wait time for the first appointment was 2 weeks or less for 80.1% of clients; only 5.3% waited for more than 4 weeks. The main services provided were a mixture of intake and assessment and mental health care, provided mainly by psychologists, intake workers and allied mental health workers. These were generally funded by the headspace grant and the Medicare Benefits Schedule. headspace centres are providing direct and indirect access to mental health care for young people.
Rudy J Castellani
Full Text Available The past 50 years has seen a heightened awareness of abusive injury patterns and increased concern for the plight of children victimized by their caregivers. Murder of the young, however, has been embedded in society since the beginning of recorded time. Indeed, nature provides abundant examples of infanticide in lower animals, raising the question of whether exploitation, apathy, and violence toward children are on some level evolutionarily conserved. In human antiquity, selective killing of females, the illegitimate, and the malformed, killing by ritualistic sacrifice or to conserve resources was carried out with impunity. The middle ages and later saw a decline in these practices albeit limited. One hundred years into the industrial revolution, with harsh child labor in public view, legal remedies were sought to protect children but with little effect. The domestic abuse of children was not addressed until a pivotal 19th-century case, in which the rights of animals were invoked to intervene on behalf of a child. In the 20th century, physicians began to look closely at anatomical findings; patterns due to trauma, especially inflicted trauma, began to emerge. “Battered child syndrome” was followed by “shaken baby syndrome,” the latter prompted by the recurrent findings of subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhages, and brain injury with the absence of impact injuries and no plausible accidental or natural disease explanation. In the 21st century, high-quality studies and an emphasis on evidenced-based medicine substantiated the existence of injury patterns resulting from homicidal violence. However, progress has been uneven. A case of child abuse that reached the US Supreme Court resulted in an ill-cited dissent that seems to have amplified an already toxic medicolegal environment, perhaps unjustifiably. The difficulties in balancing the welfare of society with that of caregivers in the aftermath of homicidal abuse will no doubt continue.
Shure, Myrna B.
There are lots of ways to handle behavior problems in the classroom. Some teachers send difficult children to time out, others tell them what and what not to do, and many explain why. But these techniques have one thing in common: they all do the thinking for the child. In this article, the author discusses how to help children handle conflicts…
In this paper I consider the adult focus of current mainstream gender theory. I relate this to how the concept of the heterosexual matrix originates in a social contract which excludes children from civil society. I argue that this exclusion is problematic both for theoretical reasons and from the perspective of children themselves. I start by…
The paper is a qualitative study that reports the perception of eight school children on the effect of a strike by their teachers on their education. Convenience sampling technique was used to select the participants. Interviews with the children were carried out using a semi-structured face-to-face interview. Thematic analysis ...
Neary, Erin M.; Eyberg, Sheila M.
This article discusses the prevalence and stability of disruptive behavior in preschool-age children and the use of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) to treat such children and their parents. PCIT focuses on changing ineffective parent-child interaction patterns by first focusing on child-directed interaction and then on parent-directed…
Oakley, Thomas James; Dey, Indranil; Discombe, Sandra; Fitzpatrick, Lynn; Paul, Siba Prosad
Eating disorders form a group of mental health conditions characterised by abnormal eating habits and are associated with high mortality rates. This article provides nurses working in various settings with evidence-based strategies to identify, manage and refer children and young people with eating disorders. It explores what eating disorders are, and their association with physical and psychiatric co-morbidities. Eating disorders have a significant effect on children and young people's health and development, and nurses have a vital role in managing them. This article presents a case study that illustrates some of the challenges nurses may experience when managing children and young people with eating disorders. ©2012 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Jansen, Rianne; Ceulemans, Eva; Grauwels, Jolien; Maljaars, Jarymke; Zink, Inge; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse
A dimensional approach was used to create bottom-up constructed subgroups that captured the behavioral heterogeneity in 36 Dutch-speaking children with language difficulties. Four subgroups were delineated based upon differences in cognitive ability, symbol understanding, joint attention and autism spectrum disorder related characteristics. Children with a different developmental disorder were found within a single cluster. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that bottom-up constructed subgroups might capture the heterogeneous behavioral profiles of young children with developmental difficulties in a more meaningful way. Furthermore, joint attention and symbol understanding seem important skills to assess in young children presenting with language difficulties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plötner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
Much research in social psychology has shown that otherwise helpful people often fail to help when bystanders are present. Research in developmental psychology has shown that even very young children help and that the presence of others can actually increase helping in some cases. In the current study, in contrast, 5-year-old children helped an experimenter at very high levels when they were alone but helped significantly less often in the presence of bystanders who were potentially available to help. In another condition designed to elucidate the mechanism underlying the effect, children's helping was not reduced when bystanders were present but confined behind a barrier and thus unable to help (a condition that has not been run in previous studies with adults). Young children thus show the bystander effect, and it is due not to social referencing or shyness to act in front of others but, rather, to a sense of a diffusion of responsibility. © The Author(s) 2015.
Stahl, Aimee E; Feigenson, Lisa
Children, including infants, have expectations about the world around them, and produce reliable responses when these expectations are violated. However, little is known about how such expectancy violations affect subsequent cognition. Here we tested the hypothesis that violations of expectation enhance children's learning. In four experiments we compared 3- to 6-year-old children's ability to learn novel words in situations that defied versus accorded with their core knowledge of object behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2 we taught children novel words following one of two types of events. One event violated expectations about the spatiotemporal or featural properties of objects (e.g., an object appeared to magically change locations). The other event was almost identical, but did not violate expectations (e.g., an object was visibly moved from one location to another). In both experiments we found that children robustly learned when taught after the surprising event, but not following the expected event. In Experiment 3 we ruled out two alternative explanations for our results. Finally, in Experiment 4, we asked whether surprise affects children's learning in a targeted or a diffuse way. We found that surprise only enhanced children's learning about the entity that had behaved surprisingly, and not about unrelated objects. Together, these experiments show that core knowledge - and violations of expectations generated by core knowledge - shapes new learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Prieto, Linda; Cervantes, Marco
The authors share how to develop active, stimulating learning environments with a focus on culturally relevant music for young Latin@ children. They provide a backdrop for this article by sharing the role of música (music) in their own lives as children, educators, and for one of them as an artist and the other as a parent of a now five-year-old.…
Children with autism spectrum disorders have impairment in reciprocal social interaction and impairment in communication skills. They also have repetitive behaviours and preoccupation with stereotyped patterns of behaviours. The most important therapy is early individualized intensive behavioural intervention. Intensive behavioural interventions should be provided to all young children at the onset of symptoms. If not, they will have lifelong difficulties in communication and social interacti...
Ploetner, Maria; Over, Harriet; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael
The authors thank the ESRC for supporting Harriet Over (grant number ES/K006702/1). Much research in social psychology has shown that otherwise helpful people often fail to help when bystanders are present. Research in developmental psychology has shown that even very young children help, and that others’ presence can actually increase helping in some cases. In the current study, in contrast, 5-year-old children helped an experimenter at very high levels when they were alone, but significa...
GERRARD-MORRIS, AIMEE; Taylor, H. Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Stancin, Terry; Minich, Nori; Wade, Shari L.
The primary aims of this study were to examine post-injury cognitive development in young children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to investigate the role of the proximal family environment in predicting cognitive outcomes. Age at injury was 3–6 years, and TBI was classified as severe (n = 23), moderate (n = 21), and complicated mild (n = 43). A comparison group of children who sustained orthopedic injuries (OI, n = 117) was also recruited. Child cognitive assessments were administered ...
Van Nes, Fenna
The Mathematics Education and Neurosciences project is an interdisciplinary research program that bridges mathematics education research with neuroscientific research. The bidirectional collaboration will provide greater insight into young children's (aged four to six years) mathematical abilities. Specifically, by combining qualitative "design…
Rosman, Elisa A.; Knitzer, June
A framework is provided for thinking about how welfare reform affects young children with disabilities and their families and strategies are presented for addressing their unique needs. The article documents the relationship between disability and poverty, reviews major changes in the law, and highlights challenges. (Contains references.)…
Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.
Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…
Kool, M.; Elshout, G.; Moll, H.A.; Koes, B.W.; van der Wouden, J.C.; Berger, M.Y.
Purpose: It is important to advise parents when to consult a doctor when their child has fever. To provide evidence-based, safety-net advice for young febrile children, we studied the risk of complications, the occurrence of alarm symptoms, the duration of fever. Methods: In a 7-day prospective
M. Kool (Marijke); G. Elshout (Gijs); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte); B.W. Koes (Bart); J.C. van der Wouden (Hans); M.Y. Berger (Marjolein)
textabstractPurpose: It is important to advise parents when to consult a doctor when their child has fever. To provide evidence-based, safety-net advice for young febrile children, we studied the risk of complications, the occurrence of alarm symptoms, the duration of fever. Methods: In a 7-day
Wind, Anne E.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.
The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional
Douglas, Sarah N.; Light, Janice C.; McNaughton, David B.
Paraeducators are frequent communication partners for young children with complex communication needs (CCN) in early childhood settings. This study examined the impact of instruction to paraeducators in two communication interaction strategies (IPLAN [Identify activities for communication, Provide means for communication, Locate and provide…
Mantzicopoulos, Panayota; Patrick, Helen
The authors draw from the research literature and from their work with the Scientific Literacy Project (SLP) in kindergarten classrooms to address the inclusion of science picture books in the curriculum. They describe features and functions of informational texts, discuss teachers' common concerns about providing young children with experiences…
Study investigated the effect of the stimulus variables of value, chroma, and hue in relation to sex, intelligence, and dimensional attention of kindergarten children using two reward conditions. (Author)
In February 2014 the Belgian parliament voted to extend the existing euthanasia law to cover children under the age of 18. The law sanctions euthanasia for children with terminal or incurable conditions who are near death, suffering 'constant and unbearable pain', and whose parents and health professionals agree with the decision. The child also has to be interviewed by a psychologist or psychiatrist to ascertain and certify their 'capacity of discernment'.
Beil, Heather A; Rozier, R Gary
In this study we estimated factors associated with children being advised to see the dentist by a doctor or other health provider; tested for an association between the advisement on the likelihood that the child would visit the dentist; and estimated the effect of the advisement on dental costs. We identified a sample of 5268 children aged 2 to 11 years in the 2004 Medical Expenditures Panel Survey. A cross-sectional analysis with logistic regression models was conducted to estimate the likelihood of the child receiving a recommendation for a dental checkup, and to determine its effect on the likelihood of having a dental visit. Differences in cost for children who received a recommendation were assessed by using a linear regression model. All analyses were conducted separately on children aged 2 to 5 (n = 2031) and aged 6 to 11 (n = 3237) years. Forty-seven percent of 2- to 5-year-olds and 37% of 6- to 11-year-olds had been advised to see the dentist. Children aged 2 to 5 who received a recommendation were more likely to have a dental visit (odds ratio: 2.89 [95% confidence interval: 2.16-3.87]), but no difference was observed among older children. Advice had no effect on dental costs in either age group. Health providers' recommendation that pediatric patients visit the dentist was associated with an increase in dental visits among young children. Providers have the potential to play an important role in establishing a dental home for children at an early age. Future research should examine potential interventions to increase effective dental referrals by health providers.
Dunst, Carl J; Bruder, Mary Beth
155 university faculty teaching students in physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech and language pathology, early childhood special education, or multidisciplinary studies programs were surveyed to assess how the students were taught how to use everyday family and community activities as natural learning opportunities for young children. Analysis showed that the faculty provided very little training in using community activity settings as contexts for children's learning and that physical therapy faculty provided less training in using natural environments as sources of children's learning opportunities than faculty in the other disciplines.
Hushman, GLenn; Morrison, Jaime; Mally, Kristi; McCall, Renee; Corso, Marjorie; Kamla, Jim; Magnotta, John; Chase, Melissa A.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Lorenzi, David G.; Barnd, Sue
This article presents the opinions of several professionals who were asked: "How important is activity in young children (preschool) to a lifetime of physical activity?" These professionals point out the importance of physical activity to young children.
There are many forms of interventions used to increase homework completion. However, there is far less research to assess homework accuracy for young children with special needs, and even less for young children diagnosed with Autism...
Higginbottom, G M A; Mathers, N; Marsh, P; Kirkham, M; Owen, J M; Serrant-Green, L
The paper explores the phenomenon of early parenthood in minority ethnic communities in England. The data were collected using focus group interviews, in-depth semi-structured interviews and a telephone survey. The sample consisted of 139 participants (41 service providers, 10 grandmothers, 88 young parents). The findings map out the complexity and diversity of experience of early parenthood amongst young people of minority ethnic origin, not least the multiple attachments many experience in relation to their social groups, religious affiliations and the traditional patterns of parenting within their immediate and extended family. Both the young parents and professionals in this study constructed early parenthood in more positive terms than is currently portrayed in the contemporary policy. The findings are analysed and discussed in relation to ethnic identity, social inclusion and exclusion. We explore participants' attempts to counter negative 'deficit' models of early parenthood with reference to perspectives on youth, parenthood and contemporary strategic policy. In conclusion, we suggest an unambiguous focus on the reduction of pregnancy is not a credible message when teenage pregnancy is a social norm for a particular ethnic or cultural group. For young parents of Muslim faith in particular, teenage parenting within marriage is not necessarily considered a 'problem' or seen as a distinctive event. Most participants did not view early parenthood as a barrier to re-establishing career and educational aspirations. A wide diversity of experience amongst young parents is evidenced in the communities studied; this needs to be reflected more comprehensively both in UK policy and in support services.
Rees, Lesley; Azocar, Marta; Borzych, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Büscher, Anja; Edefonti, Alberto; Bilge, Ilmay; Askenazi, David; Leozappa, Giovanna; Gonzales, Claudia; van Hoeck, Koen; Secker, Donna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Rönnholm, Kai; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Stewart, Heather; Ariceta, Gema; Ranchin, Bruno; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz; Sojo, E.; Coccia, P. A.; Suarez, A.; Valles, P. G.; Salim, R.; van Hoeck, K.; Koch, V.; Feber, J.; Geary, D. A.; White, C.; Valenzuela, M.; Villagra, J.; Cano, F.; Contreras, M. A.; Vogel, A.; Zambrano, P.; Berrocal, P.; Chiu, M. C.; Xu, H.; Vondrak, K.; Rönnholm, K.; Ranchin, B.; Ulinski, T.; Fischbach, M.; Büscher, R.; Kemper, M.; Pape, L.; Schaefer, F.; Borzych, D.; Misselwitz, J.; Klaus, G.; Haffner, D.; Papachristou, F.; Bagga, A.; Kanitkar, M.; Verrina, E.; Edefonti, A.; Leozappa, G.; Landau, D.; Ha, I. S.; Paik, K. H.; Sahpazova, E.; Groothoff, J. W.; Silva, Y.; Zurowska, A. M.; Drozdz, D.; Lipka, M.; Sczepanska, M.; Brumariu, O.; Yap, H. K.; Ariceta, G.; Bakkaloglu, A. S.; Bakkaloglu, S.; Bilge, I.; Serdaroglu, E.; Bal, A.; Mir, S.; Rees, L.; Watson, A. R.; Grünberg, J.; Greenbaum, L.; Neu, A.; Askenazi, D.; Gipson, D.; Patel, H.; Pottoore, S.; Dharnidharka, V.; Bunchman, T.; Chua, A.; Warady, B. A.; Zaritsky, J.
Very young children with chronic kidney disease often have difficulty maintaining adequate nutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of short stature in this population. Characteristics of the dialysis prescription and supplemental feeding via a nasogastric (NG) tube or gastrostomy may
This book challenges the assumption that creativity is culture-free. Fostering creativity in the young has gained unprecedented attention in China, one of the most vigorous world economies today. This book examines Chinese kindergarten teachers' interpretations of creativity in relation to their ideas of children's learning and cognition, using…
Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.
This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…
Hooven, Jennifer; Runkle, Katherine; Strouse, Laurie; Woods, Misty; Frankenberg, Erica
Four early childhood educators, along with a university researcher, describe their efforts to implement an antiracist, antibias curriculum in a daycare and preschool setting. Even very young children can learn important lessons about race, diversity, and equity, they argue, and teachers should not shy away from addressing these issues at staff…
After reviewing articles that discuss educational approaches for young children with autism, this article concludes that engagement is a critical feature, it is not clear that one approach is more effective than another, applied behavior analysis is a common foundation, and approaches may benefit from a more complete consideration of the family…
Speer, Sandra Kelly; And Others
Patterns of Verbal and Performance Intelligence Quotients (IQ) and subtest scores of young gifted children (N=306) were identified on the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI). Most students had higher verbal than performance IQs, and the verbal IQ mean was significantly higher than the performance IQ mean. (Author/CB)
Pott, JWR; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J
Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in
In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…
As they are naturally curious about the world around them, young children ask lots and lots of questions. In classrooms today, however, there seems to be little space for these student-generated questions as teachers are more likely to pose the questions. Research indicates that question generation is an effective strategy to motivate young…
Lee, Kang; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Doucette, Joanne; Talwar, Victoria
Five experiments examined whether young children believe a lie tellers' implausible statement about a misdeed when the statement violates their developing knowledge of the reality- fantasy distinction. Findings suggested that 5- and 6-year-olds tended to report that the individual making the implausible statement actually committed the misdeed; 3-…
This article examines how very young children in a day care center make use of their peers' gaze shifts to differentially locate and prepare for the possibility of a caregiver intervention during situations of their biting, hitting, pushing, and the like. At issue is how the visible character of a gaze shift--that is, the manner in which it is…
... this! Home » Health Tips » Child Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s ... a child — killed by a piece of a furniture, appliance or a television falling on them. “It ...
This summary of the reports and papers presented at a seminar organized by the ABU in collaboration with the Prix Jeunesse Foundation and with the assistance of UNESCO includes reports on television programming for very young children in Europe, Japan, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore,…
attended the Safe and Healthy Kids Fair and the National Employment Disability Awareness event. Recruitment Strategies for Phase 1 Recruitment... psychosocial needs of OEF/OIF families with very young children throughout the deployment lifecycle during the pre-deployment and deployment phases. Aim
Panico, James; Daniels, Derek E.; Claflin, M. Susan
Young children develop the skills necessary for communication in infancy. Interactions with family members and other caregivers nurture and support those skills. Spoken (expressive) language progresses rapidly after a child's first word. A typical 2-year-old has an expressive vocabulary of approximately 150-300 words. Around this time, as they…
Objective: To determine the breastfeeding practices (prevalence, initiation and exclusivity) of mothers of young children in Lagos. Methods: This was a communitybased, cross-sectional study carried out in 2010 in two Local Government Areas of Lagos State. Structured, intervieweradministered questionnaires were ...
Primus, Michael A.; Thompson, Gary
An operant conditioning discrimination paradigm was evaluated of relationships between response behavior of young children and two stimulus components of the paradigm, the discriminative stimulus and the reinforcing stimulus. Findings revealed the effects of schedules of reinforcement, novel reinforcement, and age. (Author/CL)
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert; Kim, Jaeyil
The National Research Council emphasizes using tools of representation as an essential element of spatial thinking. However, it is debatable at what age the use of spatial representation for spatial thinking skills should begin. This study investigated whether young Korean children possess the potential to understand map-like representation using…
Ackers, Melanie Jane
The topic of cyberbullying is raising international debate and concern. Through the development and dissemination of a questionnaire 12 student researchers were supported in surveying 325 UK students across Years 7, 8 and 9 to gain further knowledge of this area, in relation to children and young people. Results were analysed and comparisons made…
This paper questions the assumption that young children need exposure to natural environments for healthy psychological development. Preliminary investigation of the environmental perceptions of 4-year-olds suggests that the distinction between natural and man-made milieux is insignificant to preschoolers, and that they find both kinds of environments similarly...
Marshall, Jennifer; Coulter, Martha L.; Gorski, Peter A.; Ewing, Aldenise
This mixed-methods study examined influences, factors, and processes associated with parental recognition and appraisal of developmental concerns among 23 English- and Spanish-speaking parents of young children with signs of developmental or behavioral problems. Participants shared their experiences through in-depth interviews or focus groups and…
Adalbjornsson, Carola F.; Fischman, Mark G.; Rudisill, Mary E.
The end-state comfort effect has been observed in recent studies of grip selection in adults. The present study investigated whether young children also exhibit sensitivity to end-state comfort. The task was to pick up an overturned cup from a table, turn the cup right side up, and pour water into it. Two age groups (N = 20 per group) were…
In this article, the author presents his survey on contemporary idol worship (idolatry) which is a new turn in mankind's phenomenon of social idol worship and an important manifestation of the cultural reconfiguration of contemporary times. The principal group of persons presently engaged in idol worship consists of children and young people.…
Rullo, Giuseppina; Musatti, Tullia
This study focuses on mothers' and young children's everyday social experience by analyzing their social relationships, social support in child care, mother-child interaction, and mothers' evaluations of all these aspects. Three hundred and eighty-four mothers with a child aged between 1 and 3 years, living in a city in Central Italy, were…
textabstractInhalation therapy is the customary method to deliver medication to patients with lung disease. It is very difficult to deliver aerosolized drugs to the lungs efficiently and in a reproducible manner, especially in young children. Chapter 1 of this thesis deals with the background of
Professor and Head, Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, Johannesburg Hospital ... (FH), those with diabetes mellitus or other cardiovascular disease risk factors or with a family history of premature coronary artery disease ... Table II: Guidelines for improving nutrition in young children3.
DuPaul, George J.; Kern, Lee
The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often begin early in life. In fact, many young children enter school with behavioral and cognitive symptoms that put them at a significant disadvantage compared with their typically-developing peers. Over the past several decades, researchers, psychologists and educators have devoted…
Froiland, John Mark; Davison, Mark L.
Factors related to parent ratings of young children's (mean age = 3.72, range = 3-6) fidgeting and reports of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were examined in a nationally representative sample of US families via the National Household Education Surveys. In structural equation models, the number of television hours viewed daily was…
This paper reports on how one of the major outcomes from a long term mathematics education professional development project involving educators from preschools and the early years of school in South Australia is being used by these educators to notice young children's mathematics. The educators use "Reflective Continua" to guide their…
Dr Patrick O Erah
Available online at http://www.tjpr.freehosting.net. Research Article. Knowledge of malaria amongst caregivers of young children in rural and urban communities in ..... context of drug use. Interventions to encourage responsible and effective treatments should aim at increasing the knowledge base of the population at large.
Harji, Madhubala Bava; Balakrishnan, Kavitha; Letchumanan, Krishnanveni
Realising the clear dichotomy between schools and homes, the Malaysia government has now turned its attention to stakeholders and called for an increase involvement of parents, who are critical in transforming the education system. However, a clear line of demarcation continues to exist between the two prime educators of young children. Schools…
Melançon, Andréane; Shi, Rushen
A fundamental question in language acquisition research is whether young children have abstract grammatical representations. We tested this question experimentally. French-learning 30-month-olds were first taught novel word-object pairs in the context of a gender-marked determiner (e.g., un[subscript MASC]ravole "a ravole"). Test trials…
Campbell, Claire; Bond, Trevor
The Goodenough-Harris Drawing Test (GHDT) is a non-verbal assessment designed to infer young children's levels of intellectual development and understanding via the collection of three human figure drawings (HFDs)--one each of a man, a woman and a self-portrait. This paper presents findings from a research project that applied the Rasch model for…
Crockett, Lisa J.; And Others
Examined impact of biological father on young children's (n=1,688) cognitive and behavior adjustment. Used data from 1986 Child Supplement of National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to assess relationship between father's coresidence in household over child's first three years and adjustment. Findings suggest that father-effects operated through…
Casby, Michael W.
The first of two articles on play reviews the development of play in typically developing infants, toddlers, and young children, including Piaget's observations on the development of play; developmental play research following Piaget (research by Lunzer, Sinclair, Lezine, Lowe, Rosenblatt, Uzgiris and Hunt, Fenson and others, Watson and Fischer,…
Parette, Howard P.; Meadan, Hedda; Doubet, Sharon; Hess, Jackie
Research has frequently focused on needs, preferences, and practices of families of young children with disabilities. Surprisingly, relatively little seems to be known about how families use technology to gain information about and support their needs, even though Web-based and other information and communication technology applications have…
Harinder R. Singh, MD, CCDS
Full Text Available The population of children and young adults requiring a cardiac pacing device has been consistently increasing. The current generation of devices are small with a longer battery life, programming capabilities that can cater to the demands of the young patients and ability to treat brady and tachyarrhythmias as well as heart failure. This has increased the scope and clinical indications of using these devices. As patients with congenital heart disease (CHD comprise majority of these patients requiring devices, the knowledge of indications, pacing leads and devices, anatomical variations and the technical skills required are different than that required in the adult population. In this review we attempt to discuss these specific points in detail to improve the understanding of cardiac pacing in children and young adults.
Sarah J. Clark MPH
Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the perspectives of general dentists regarding oral health care for children ≤3 years. Methods. Mailed survey of 444 general dentists in Michigan. Results. Although most dentists were aware of recommendations for early dental visits, only 36% recommended their own patients begin dental visits by 1 year of age. Only 37% dentists felt that screening for oral health problems can be done by medical providers, whereas 34% agreed administration of fluoride varnish by medical providers would be effective in preventing dental problems in young children. Conclusions. Dentists’ failure to recommend 1-year dental visits is due neither to lack of awareness nor to capacity problems. The limited enthusiasm for involving children’s medical providers in oral health promotion signals attitudinal barriers that must be overcome to improve children’s oral health. Primary care providers should identify and refer to dentists in their community who are willing to see young children.
Windsor, Jennifer; Benigno, Joann P.; Wing, Christine A.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Koga, Sebastian F.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.
This report examines 174 young children's language outcomes in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, the first randomized trial of foster placement after institutional care. Age of foster placement was highly correlated with language outcomes. Placement by 15 months led to similar expressive and receptive language test scores as typical age peers at 30 and 42 months. Placement from 15 to 24 months also led to dramatic language improvement. In contrast, children placed after 24 months had the same severe language delays as children in institutional care. Language samples at 42 months confirmed that placement after 24 months led to lower expressive skill. PMID:21679171
Young children with CF are often asymptomatic and non-productive, yet CF lung disease occurs early in life. Cough swabs are used routinely to sample bacteria from the CF respiratory tract in non-productive healthy children; bronchoscopy is used to definitively sample the lower airway, but is an invasive procedure. Induced sputum is a non-invasive approach to sampling the lower airway. The article concentrates on how well it is tolerated in children, how successful it is in identifying respiratory pathogens, and how it may be important in routine surveillance if 16S technology is to be used in the clinical forum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder is associated with an altered early brain development. However, the specific cortical structure abnormalities underlying this disorder remain largely unknown. Nonetheless, atypical cortical folding provides lingering evidence of early disruptions in neurodevelopmental processes and identifying changes in the geometry of cortical sulci is of primary interest for characterizing these structural abnormalities in autism and their evolution over the first stages of brain development. Here, we applied state-of-the-art sulcus-based morphometry methods to a large highly-selective cohort of 73 young male children of age spanning from 18 to 108 months. Moreover, such large cohort was selected through extensive behavioral assessments and stringent inclusion criteria for the group of 59 children with autism. After manual labeling of 59 different sulci in each hemisphere, we computed multiple shape descriptors for each single sulcus element, hereby separating the folding measurement into distinct factors such as the length and depth of the sulcus. We demonstrated that the central, intraparietal and frontal medial sulci showed a significant and consistent pattern of abnormalities across our different geometrical indices. We also found that autistic and control children exhibited strikingly different relationships between age and structural changes in brain morphology. Lastly, the different measures of sulcus shapes were correlated with the CARS and ADOS scores that are specific to the autistic pathology and indices of symptom severity. Inherently, these structural abnormalities are confined to regions that are functionally relevant with respect to cognitive disorders in ASD. In contrast to those previously reported in adults, it is very unlikely that these abnormalities originate from general compensatory mechanisms unrelated to the primary pathology. Rather, they most probably reflect an early disruption on developmental trajectory
Narayana, Shalini; Rezaie, Roozbeh; McAfee, Samuel S; Choudhri, Asim F; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Fulton, Stephen; Boop, Frederick A; Wheless, James W; Papanicolaou, Andrew C
Accurate noninvasive assessment of motor function using functional MRI (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) is a challenge in patients who are very young or who are developmentally delayed. In such cases, passive mapping of the sensorimotor cortex is performed under sedation. We examined the feasibility of using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) as a motor mapping tool in awake children younger than 3 years of age. Six children underwent motor mapping with TMS while awake as well as passive sensorimotor mapping under conscious sedation with MEG during tactile stimulation (n = 5) and fMRI during passive hand movements (n = 4). Stimulation of the motor cortex via TMS successfully elicited evoked responses in contralateral hand muscles in 5 patients. The location of primary motor cortex in the precentral gyrus identified by TMS corresponded with the postcentral location of the primary sensory cortex identified by MEG in 2 patients and to the sensorimotor cortex identified by fMRI in 3 children. In this cohort, we demonstrate that TMS can illuminate abnormalities in motor physiology including motor reorganization. We also demonstrate the feasibility of using TMS-derived contralateral silent periods to approximate the location of motor cortex in the absence of an evoked response. When compared to chronological age, performance functioning level appears to be better in predicting successful mapping outcome with TMS. Our findings indicate that awake TMS is a safe alternative to MEG and fMRI performed under sedation to localize the motor cortex and provides additional insight into the underlying pathophysiology and motor plasticity in toddlers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
As young children's perspectives are increasingly "taken seriously" across disciplines, the pursuit of authentic and ethical research with young children has become the subject of recent discussion. Much of this relates to listening "authentically" to (or understanding) young children, focusing on research design, ethics,…
McGowan, Richard S.; Nittrouer, Susan; Manning, Carol J.
Beginning at the age of about 14 months, eight children who lived in a rhotic dialect region of the United States were recorded approximately every 2 months interacting with their parents. All were recorded until at least the age of 26 months, and some until the age of 31 months. Acoustic analyses of speech samples indicated that these young children acquired [ɹ] production ability at different ages for [ɹ]'s in different syllable positions. The children, as a group, had started to produce postvocalic and syllabic [ɹ] in an adult-like manner by the end of the recording sessions, but were not yet showing evidence of having acquired prevocalic [ɹ]. Articulatory limitations of young children are posited as a cause for the difference in development of [ɹ] according to syllable position. Specifically, it is speculated that adult-like prevocalic [ɹ] production requires two lingual constrictions: one in the mouth, and the other in the pharynx, while postvocalic and syllabic [ɹ] requires only one oral constriction. Two lingual constrictions could be difficult for young children to produce. PMID:15000198
Bugge, Annechen Bahr
Despite the fact that no studies have been carried out to map the amount of unhealthy food advertising aimed at Norwegian children and adolescents, it is still widely held belief that this type of advertising is disproportionately common. As a consequence, one of the issues high on the agenda in Norway in the 2000s was the possibility of imposing restrictions on advertising for unhealthy foods to children. The purpose of this study is to contribute with a research-based foundation for implementing this health initiative by mapping food marketing in media channels widely used by children and adolescents. In sum, the study shows that the food industry spends a lot of resources to influence young consumers' eating and drinking habits. Compared with studies from USA, UK and Australia, however, there are, strong indications that there is significantly less unhealthy food advertising in Scandinavian countries. Similar to a previous Swedish study, this study shows that Norwegian children and young people were exposed to little advertising for unhealthy food products through media channels such as TV, the Internet, magazines, comics and cinemas. The study also supports critical remarks from some researchers that the extensive use of the international discourse as a political argument and recommendation for Norwegian conditions is not accurate. For the future it may be beneficial to look more closely at the relationship between advertising and health policy, and how this relationship can be further developed to improve children and young people's diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Hanne Værum
This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done, but there is a ......This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done...... uncomfortable in the situation? How does the researcher know if a child wants to withdraw from the research? The permission has to be negotiated in relation to the specific child and in the specific situation. Examples from a study of children's physical activities in sprots preschool are applied to illustrate...
The 12 chapters in this Australian text on early childhood education of children with special needs are organized into two parts, the foundations of early years education and programming for atypical developmental needs. The 12 chapters are: (1) "Fundamentals of Early Education" (Louise Porter); (2) "Collaborating with Parents"…
Yelland, Nicola J.
Notes that Logo, a computer programming language developed for children by Seymour Papert, constitutes a valuable learning environment for promoting higher order thinking skills and promotes development of flexible and creative thinkers. Introduces the concept of Logo microworlds. Stresses cooperative learning and the use of Logo to support…
Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H.
Describes the design principles behind a set of research-based software microworlds included in the "Building Blocks" program, a pre-kindergarten to grade 2 software-based mathematics curriculum. Discusses how to help children extend and mathematize their everyday activities and presents the nine-step design process model used.…
Jewett, Jan; Peterson, Karen
Traditionally, stress has been defined in terms of its sourceinternal, such as hunger, pain, sensitivity to noise; and externalseparation from family, change in family composition, exposure to conflict or violence. Although the research literature tends to focus on the impact of single-variable stressors on children's development, in real-life…
Lawhon, Tommie; Lawhon, David C.
Asserts that social relationships may be enhanced through a youngster's efforts and those of caring adults, especially teachers, parents, and other caregivers. Presents two checklists, one to assist when observing and recording children's behaviors and another to aid adults with the self-assessments of their child guidance techniques. (Author/SD)
Rapaczynski, Wanda; And Others
Describes the adaptation and testing of a curriculum designed to mediate the effects of television. Curriculum included lessons on special effects, violence, commercials, audio and video aspects. Results of the testing indicate that children in kindergarten through second grade made significant gains in their knowledge of how television works. (PD)
Kenney, Susan Hobson
This article discusses the creative, educational, and musical growth that comes from manipulating pieces of a music game. The importance of child-centered play is discussed, with a focus on children using icons to change the melodic and word order of a song. They then "read" the icons to sing their new creation. The music manipulatives are the…
Children enter the crucial transition to school with sociodemographic disparities firmly established. Domain-specific research (e.g., on poverty and family structure) has shed light on these disparities, but we need broader operationalizations of children's environments to explain them. Building on existing theory, this study articulates the concept of developmental ecology-those interrelated features of a child's proximal environment that shape development and health. Developmental ecology links structural and demographic factors with interactional, psychological, and genetic factors. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), this study conducts latent class analyses to identify how 41 factors from three domains-namely, household resources, health risks, and ecological changes-cluster within children as four overarching developmental ecologies. Because it documents how numerous factors co-occur within children, this method allows an approximation of their lived environments. Findings illuminate powerful relationships between race/ethnicity, parental age, socioeconomic background, and nativity and a child's developmental ecology, as well as associations between developmental ecology and kindergarten cognition, behavior, and health. Developmental ecology represents a major pathway through which demographic characteristics shape school readiness. Because specific factors have different implications depending on the ecologies in which they are embedded, findings support the usefulness of a broad ecological approach.
Kjaer, Majken; Fabricius, Katrine; Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup
The early postnatal development of neuron and glia numbers is poorly documented in human brain. Therefore we estimated using design-based stereological methods the regional volumes of neocortex and the numbers of neocortical neurons and glial cells for 10 children (4 girls and 6 boys), ranging from...
Collins, Chimere C; Villa-Torres, Laura; Sams, Lattice D; Zeldin, Leslie P; Divaris, Kimon
Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community. This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software. Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources. Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are pervasive, but parents
Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn P
Young children's (n = 96) perceptions and appraisals of their parents' marital conflict were evaluated at age 5 and again at age 6. Concurrent reports of marital conflict by each parent and teachers' reports of children's classroom adjustment served as criteria against which to evaluate the validity of young children's perceptions. Children's perceptions of their parents' marital relationship were significantly correlated with spouses' reports at ages 5 and 6, as well as correlated with teacher reports of internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent with the cognitive-contextual theory, children's tendency to blame themselves for their parents' conflict partially mediated the link between marital conflict and children's internalizing symptoms. In contrast, children's reports that they become involved in their parents' conflict partially mediated the effect of marital conflict on externalizing problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).
Elliott, Charlene D; Carruthers Den Hoed, Rebecca; Conlon, Martin J
This study examines the effects of branding and packaging on young children's taste preferences. Preschool children aged 3 to 5 (n=65) tasted five pairs of identical foods in packaging from McDonald's and in matched packaging that was either plain, Starbucks-branded, or colourful (but unbranded). Children were asked if the foods tasted the same or if one tasted better. Children preferred the taste of foods wrapped in decorative wrappings, relying more on aesthetics than on familiar branding when making their choices. The findings suggest the need to explore questions beyond commercial advertising (and brand promotion) on television and other media platforms. More attention should be directed at the important role of packaging in directing children's food preferences.
Thomas, Rachel; Barker, Lucy; Rubin, Gary; Dahlmann-Noor, Annegret
optical character recognition (OCR). We intended to compare the use of ATs with standard optical aids, which include distance refractive correction (with appropriate near addition for aphakic (no lens)/pseudophakic (with lens implant) patients) and monocular/binoculars for distance and brightfield magnifiers for near. We also planned to include studies that compare different types of ATs with each other, without or in addition to conventional optical aids, and those that compare ATs given with or without instructions for use. Independently, two review authors reviewed titles and abstracts for eligibility. They divided studies into categories to 'definitely include', 'definitely exclude' and 'possibly include', and the same two authors made final judgements about inclusion/exclusion by obtaining full-text copies of the studies in the 'possibly include' category. We did not identify any randomised controlled trials in this subject area. High-quality evidence about the usefulness of electronic AT for children and young people with visual impairment is needed to inform the choice healthcare and education providers and family have to make when selecting a technology. Randomised controlled trials are needed to assess the impact of AT. Research protocols should carefully select outcomes relevant not only to the scientific community, but more importantly to families and teachers. Functional outcomes such as reading accuracy, comprehension and speed should be recorded, as well as the impact of AT on independent learning and quality of life.
Full Text Available The authors in the presented paper are dealing with a view of young adults from children's homes and families on parenting. These views point out the main factors that have a direct impact on their understanding of parenting. These factors are: the attachment bond, the socialisation of a child in a children's home and the reason for placing a child in a children's home. This paper provides the results of a survey that investigates the ideas of young adults from children's homes and families about parenting through the means of a quantitative method, with an emphasis on a comparison of these ideas.
Crall, James J; Illum, Jackie; Martinez, Ana; Pourat, Nadereh
Despite the high rate of untreated tooth decay, many young children in California under six years of age have never been to a dentist. Numerous and complex barriers to access to oral health care for young children exist, and a multifaceted approach is required to improve receipt of preventive and treatment services that could improve the oral health of this population. This policy brief describes the UCLA-First 5 LA 21st Century Dental Homes Project, which was designed to improve oral health care for young children in 12 Federally Qualified Health Center (FQHC) clinic sites with co-located dental and primary care services and its accessibility in their service areas throughout Los Angeles County. The project funded infrastructure and staffing, provided technical assistance to improve operations, trained clinical personnel to provide oral health care to young children, implemented a quality improvement learning collaborative, trained parents and child care providers in oral hygiene and healthy habits, and disseminated information to promote effective policies. Early data on the project indicated twofold increases in delivery of both diagnostics and treatment visits for young children, and a threefold increase in preventive services for young children during the program.
Njoroge, Wanjiku F M; Elenbaas, Laura M; Garrison, Michelle M; Myaing, Mon; Christakis, Dimitri A
Research has shown that preschool-aged children spend considerable time with media, and risks and benefits for cognitive and behavioral outcomes exist depending on what is watched and how it is watched. To examine the associations among child race/ethnicity, parental beliefs/attitudes about television (TV) and child development, and TV viewing habits of young children, and to assess reasons for existing racial/ethnic disparities in children's media use. Parents completed demographic questionnaires, reported on attitudes regarding media's risks and benefits to their children, and completed 1-week media diaries where they recorded all of the programs their children watched. Enrollment was from March 13, 2009, to April 12, 2010. The study was conducted at 2 metropolitan Seattle pediatric clinics and an academic practice network, each serving a diverse population of patients, and involved a community-based sample of 596 parents of children aged 3 to 5 years. Parental beliefs/attitudes regarding screen time and TV viewing habits of young children. Overall, children watched an average (SD) of 462.0 (315.5) minutes of TV per week. African American children watched more TV per week than non-Hispanic white children (mean [SD], 638.0 [450.9] vs 431.0 [282.6] minutes; P positive effects of TV viewing, even when parental education and family income were taken into account. Differences in parental beliefs/attitudes regarding the effects of media on early childhood development may help explain growing racial/ethnic disparities in child media viewing/habits, but more research is needed to understand the cultural nuances of the observed differences.
Akkermans, M.D.; Eussen, Simone; Horst, van der Judith; Elburg, Van Ruurd M.; Goudoever, van Johannes B.; Brus, F.
Background: Iron deficiency (ID) and vitamin D deficiency (VDD) are common among young European children because of low dietary intakes and low compliance to vitamin D supplementation policies. Milk is a common drink for young European children. Studies evaluating the effect of milk fortification on
Flanagan, Sarah M; Greenfield, Sheila; Coad, Jane; Neilson, Susan
The impact of cancer upon children, teenagers and young people can be profound. Research has been undertaken to explore the impacts upon children, teenagers and young people with cancer, but little is known about how researchers can 'best' engage with this group to explore their experiences. This review paper provides an overview of the utility of data collection methods employed when undertaking research with children, teenagers and young people. A systematic review of relevant databases was undertaken utilising the search terms 'young people', 'young adult', 'adolescent' and 'data collection methods'. The full-text of the papers that were deemed eligible from the title and abstract were accessed and following discussion within the research team, thirty papers were included. Due to the heterogeneity in terms of the scope of the papers identified the following data collections methods were included in the results section. Three of the papers identified provided an overview of data collection methods utilised with this population and the remaining twenty seven papers covered the following data collection methods: Digital technologies; art based research; comparing the use of 'paper and pencil' research with web-based technologies, the use of games; the use of a specific communication tool; questionnaires and interviews; focus groups and telephone interviews/questionnaires. The strengths and limitations of the range of data collection methods included are discussed drawing upon such issues as of the appropriateness of particular methods for particular age groups, or the most appropriate method to employ when exploring a particularly sensitive topic area. There are a number of data collection methods utilised to undertaken research with children, teenagers and young adults. This review provides a summary of the current available evidence and an overview of the strengths and limitations of data collection methods employed.
Coburn, S S; Eakin, M N; Roter, D; Pruette, C; Brady, T; Mendley, S; Tuchman, S; Fivush, B; Riekert, K A
To compare the relative quantity of talk between providers, caregivers, and adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and how communication differs by age. During nephrology clinic visits, conversations between AYAs with CKD (N=99, ages 11-20, median=15), their caregivers, and providers (N=19) were audiotaped and coded using the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Linear mixed models tested AYA age differences in talk frequency by AYAs, caregivers, and providers. Post-hoc analyses tested differences in talk using AYA age groups. During clinic visits, providers spoke the most (63.7%), and caregivers spoke more (22.6%) than AYAs (13.7%). Overall talk differed by AYA age in AYAs (p<0.001) and caregivers (p<0.05), but not providers. Higher AYA age was associated with more AYA talk (biomedical information-giving, partnering, rapport-oriented) and less caregiver biomedical information-giving (ps<0.001-0.05). In post-hoc analyses, young adults talked more than adolescents; caregiver talk decreased in the middle-adolescent group. Increases in AYA talk occur primarily in young adulthood, whereas caregiver talk decreases in middle adolescence. This may indicate an appropriate developmental shift but raises concerns about conversational gaps during middle-adolescence. During transition-oriented treatment planning, providers should engage both AYAs and caregivers to avoid potential gaps in communication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Salokorpi, Niina; Suo-Palosaari, Maria; Pesälä, Juha; Serlo, Willy
Although the majority of trampoline injuries in children are minor, severe injuries occur as well. We have analyzed the risk factors, treatment and outcome of severe trampoline injuries treated in the Oulu University Hospital in children and the young between April and November 2105. There was a total of eight severe injuries. Five injuries involved a danger of death. Almost all severe trampoline injuries resulted from an unsuccessful trick. A safety net was in use in half of the cases. All cervical spine injuries would have been avoided provided that the children would have refrained from doing a somersault on the trampoline.
Johnston, Karen; Harvey, Caroline; Matich, Paula; Page, Priscilla; Jukka, Clare; Hollins, Jane; Larkins, Sarah
This study aims to describe the views of sexual health service providers on access issues for young people and consider them together with the views of young people themselves. A cross-sectional mixed-methods study design involving semi-structured interviews with health service providers and an electronic survey with young people. Four towns in rural and regional Queensland, Australia. A total of 32 service providers: 9 sexual health nurses, 8 general practitioners, 6 school-based youth health nurses, 5 sexual health educators, 2 Australian Aboriginal health workers and 2 youth workers. There were 391 young people who participated in the Young People's Survey. Themes generated from interviews with service providers and quantitative data from young people addressing access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for rural and regional young people. Service providers frequently identified structural barriers, confidentiality and lack of awareness of SRH services as barriers for young people seeking SRH care. Young people also reported that structural factors such as transport, cost and service operating hours were important; however, they placed greater value on personal attributes of service providers, particularly welcoming and non-judgemental attitudes. Health service policy and training focused on attitudinal qualities of individual service providers may improve access to SRH services for young people. Selective staff recruitment and professional development are important to increase sensitivity to youth issues. Promotion of non-judgemental and confidential care may also improve access for youth. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Venville, Grady J.; Louisell, Robert D.; Wilhelm, Jennifer A.
The purpose of this research was to use a multidimensional theoretical framework to examine young children's knowledge about the Moon. The research was conducted in the interpretive paradigm and the design was a multiple case study of ten children between the ages of three and eight from the USA and Australia. A detailed, semi-structured interview was conducted with each child. In addition, each child's parents were interviewed to determine possible social and cultural influences on the child's knowledge. We sought evidence about how the social and cultural experiences of the children might have influenced the development of their ideas. From a cognitive perspective we were interested in whether the children's ideas were constructed in a theory like form or whether the knowledge was the result of gradual accumulation of fragments of isolated cultural information. Findings reflected the strong and complex relationship between individual children, their social and cultural milieu, and the way they construct ideas about the Moon and astronomy. Findings are presented around four themes including ontology, creatures and artefacts, animism, and permanence. The findings support a complex dynamic system view of students' knowledge that integrates the framework theory perspective and the knowledge in fragments perspective. An initial model of a complex dynamic system of young children's knowledge about the Moon is presented.
Moussu, Lise; Saint-Pierre, Philippe; Panayotopoulos, Virginie; Couderc, Rémy; Amat, Flore; Just, Jocelyne
In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR) is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema) were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens) and environmental parameters were also collected. Forty one of the children (18.1%) had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002); food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026); mold exposure (OR = 3.81 pfood allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.
Noting that most children living in Australia have access to a television, video games, and computers and are influenced by the content of their viewing and interactive games, this report examines the impact of media violence on young children. Topics discussed include the recognition of violence on television and video/computer games, reasons for…
Children's theatre in the UK is thriving. Debates about why children should watch theatre and what educational, emotional and expressive benefits it can provide inform cultural policy on education. Children aged 4-11 are increasingly taken to watch tailored theatre performances, yet there has been virtually no reflective research on what theatre…
Full Text Available Introduction: Measuring parental satisfaction is of major importance for pediatric hospitals and the key component of evaluating the quality of services provided to health services. Aim: To assess the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized children.Methodology: A descriptive study conducted using a convenience sample of parents of hospitalized children in two public pediatric hospitals in Athens. Data collection was completed in a period of 3 months. 352 questionnaires were collected (response rate 88%. The Pyramid Questionnaire for parents of hospitalized children was used which estimates the degree of parental satisfaction from the care provided to their hospitalized child.Results: More parents were satisfied with health care professionals’ behavior (81,9%, the supplied care (78,2% and the information provision to parents regarding the hospitalized child’s disease (71,9%. In contrast, less parents were satisfied with their hospitalized child’s involvement in care (52,3% and the accessibility to the hospital (39,5%. The overall parental satisfaction ranged in very good level (76,8% and it was higher on hospital A (78,8%, among married parents (77,4% and those not al all concerned or concerned less for child’s illness (83,1%. Logistic regression model showed that hospitalization in hospital B and the great concern for child’s illness and its complications decreased ovewrall satisfaction by 24% and 17% respectively. Conclusions: The assessment of the degree of parental satisfaction is the most important indicator of hospitals’ proper functioning. From our study certain areas need improvement, such as: the parental involvement in child’s care, information provision, the accessibility to the hospital, the communication and the interpersonal health care in order greater satisfaction to be achieved.
Svensson, Agneta Simeonsdotter; Samuelsson, Ingrid Pramling; Hellström, Anna-Lena; Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
The purpose of this paper is to provide knowledge about communication using SKYPE with young children with chronic illness; advantages and barriers are investigated related to education and data issues collection. A qualitative exploratory research method was applied to interviews and notes via SKYPE between children and their web teachers. The…
Rosen, Laura J; Noach, Michal Ben; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Hovell, Mel F
Young children can be protected from much of the harm from tobacco smoke exposure if their parents quit smoking. Some researchers encourage parents to quit for their children's benefit, but the evidence for effectiveness of such approaches is mixed. To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the effects of interventions that encourage parental cessation. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Controlled trials published before April 2011 that targeted smoking parents of infants or young children, encouraged parents to quit smoking for their children's benefit, and measured parental quit rates were included. Study quality was assessed. Relative risks and risk differences were calculated by using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model. Eighteen trials were included. Interventions took place in hospitals, pediatric clinical settings, well-baby clinics, and family homes. Quit rates averaged 23.1% in the intervention group and 18.4% in the control group. The interventions successfully increased the parental quit rate. Subgroups with significant intervention benefits were children aged 4 to 17 years, interventions whose primary goal was cessation, interventions that offered medications, and interventions with high follow-up rates (>80%). Interventions to achieve cessation among parents, for the sake of the children, provide a worthwhile addition to the arsenal of cessation approaches, and can help protect vulnerable children from harm due to tobacco smoke exposure. However, most parents do not quit, and additional strategies to protect children are needed.
Cerruti, Minyoung S; Shepley, Mardelle M
To examine the impact of spatial enclosures on social interaction between older adults with early stage dementia and young children. Intergenerational interaction through meaningful activities can promote positive affects and behaviors of children and older adults. The development of social interaction is closely related to the physical environment in association with personal competence of older adults with dementia and young children. However, minimal attention has been given to the role of physical environment in influencing intergenerational interaction. A quasi-experiment examined the functional relationship between the amount of spatial enclosure and the types of social behaviors of older adults with dementia and young children. Semi-structured interviews, aided by a photographic simulation, were developed to explore the participants' perceptions of and experiences with the different degrees of spatial enclosure. Findings showed that the semienclosed spatial plan impacted both prosocial and antisocial behaviors of older adults with dementia in their interactions with young children. This apparent discrepancy was associated with two conflicting perceptions: a sense of openness and the lack of control due to distraction created by the loose visual boundary. There was no correlation between the elder-child neutral behaviors and the degrees of spatial enclosure. This study suggests that spaces with moderate openness without visual and acoustic distraction are the most desirable to promote prosocial behaviors of older adults with dementia and young children. Additionally, elder-child prosocial behaviors were likely facilitated by specific design features such as adequate personal space, the perception of openness, and possible spaces that provide both prospect and refuge in relation to spatial enclosure. © The Author(s) 2016.
Krul, Marjolein; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Kruithof, Emma J; van Suijlekom-Smit, Lisette Wa; Koes, Bart W
first attempt than the supination method for manipulating pulled elbow in young children. For other outcomes, no conclusions could be drawn either because of very low-quality evidence or the outcomes not being reported. We suggest that a high-quality randomised clinical trial comparing hyperpronation and supination-flexion is required to provide definitive evidence. We recommend that this is preceded by a survey among clinicians to establish the extent of clinical equipoise and to optimise the study design and recruitment.
Many young refugees face significant difficulties in securing support from social services providers. This study invited 21 young refugees aged 16 to 21 to take part in focus groups and follow-up interviews about their experiences of accessing this support. The findings reveal that young refugees may deliberately conform to expectations about…
Stanek, Anja Hvidtfeldt; Røn Larsen, Maja
conditions in the social practice of day-care. These compound processes include the professional's complex efforts to support the many children's personal conduct of everyday life in and across their different life arenas, involving ongoing situated and sensitive exploration of children's perspectives...... of problems in day-care. Through a discussion of this apparent contradiction and the conditions for developing a more situated approach, the article aims to contribute to the current professional and political discussions about day-care practice for the youngest children.......The article presents findings from a practice research project dealing with the everyday life of 0–2 year olds across family and different day-care settings. From a critical psychological perspective, it explores three related issues: Young children's conduct of everyday life in and across...
Novotny, W; Faden, H; Mosovich, L
Eight cases of invasive group A streptococcal disease in young children were reported over a three-month period, February to April 1990. The spectrum of clinical disease included: pneumonia with bacteremia (two patients), osteomyelitis/septic arthritis (three patients), epiglottitis/supraglottitis (two patients), and sepsis without a focus (one patient). Three cases followed chicken pox. Three children were in shock at the time of presentation, including one child who had a toxic shock-like appearance. Only four children had pharyngitis. Bacteremia was confirmed in three children and presumed in another three. All the subjects survived. Four isolates of group A streptococci were tested for exotoxin A, B, and C (A-0, B-4, C-1) production. These data confirm the reappearance of a highly invasive strain of group A streptococci capable of producing a variety of clinical diseases, including bacteremia and shock, in a significant proportion of victims.
White, Rachel E; Prager, Emily O; Schaefer, Catherine; Kross, Ethan; Duckworth, Angela L; Carlson, Stephanie M
This study investigated the benefits of self-distancing (i.e., taking an outsider's view of one's own situation) on young children's perseverance. Four- and 6-year-old children (N = 180) were asked to complete a repetitive task for 10 min while having the option to take breaks by playing an extremely attractive video game. Six-year-olds persevered longer than 4-year-olds. Nonetheless, across both ages, children who impersonated an exemplar other-in this case a character, such as Batman-spent the most time working, followed by children who took a third-person perspective on the self, or finally, a first-person perspective. Alternative explanations, implications, and future research directions are discussed. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Sørensen, Hanne Værum
This chapter discusses what considerations a researcher must do in the research of young children's play in preschool when she is using video. In using video technology, several researchers have described how their activities are technically, analytically, and interpretively done......, but there is a lack of understanding methodological reflections and knowledge of guidelines in research of the topic. Researchers can get permission from parents and pedagogues to film children, but how can a researcher get an informed permission from the children? And how can a researcher detect if a child feel...... uncomfortable in the situation? How does the researcher know if a child wants to withdraw from the research? The permission has to be negotiated in relation to the specific child and in the specific situation. Examples from a study of children's physical activities in sprots preschool are applied to illustrate...
This report identifies key issues for providing early childhood special education services to young children who are visually impaired and for working with families of culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. First, it discusses the incidence of visual impairment and associated disabilities among young children, the process of early…
Hertsberg, Naomi; Zebrowski, Patricia M.
Purpose The goals of this study were to determine whether young children who stutter (CWS) perceive their own competence and social acceptance differently than young children who do not stutter (CWNS), and to identify the predictors of perceived competence and social acceptance in young speakers. Method We administered the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Young Children (PSPCSA; Harter & Pike, 1984) to 13 CWS and 14 CWNS and examined group differences. We also collected information on the children's genders, temperaments, stuttering frequencies, language abilities, and phonological skills to identify which of these factors predicted PSPCSA scores. Results CWS, as a group, did not differ from CWNS in their perceived general competence or social acceptance. Gender predicted scores of perceived general competence, and stuttering frequency predicted perceived social acceptance. Temperament, language abilities, and phonological skills were not significant predictors of perceived competence or social acceptance in our sample. Conclusions While CWS did not significantly differ from CWNS in terms of perceived competence and social acceptance, when both talker groups were considered together, girls self-reported greater perceived competence than boys. Further, lower stuttering frequency was associated with greater perceived social acceptance. These preliminary findings provide motivation for further empirical study of the psychosocial components of childhood stuttering. PMID:27614314
Salloum, Alison; Scheeringa, Michael S.; Cohen, Judith A.; Storch, Eric A.
Young children who are exposed to traumatic events are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While effective psychosocial treatments for childhood PTSD exist, novel interventions that are more accessible, efficient, and cost-effective are needed to improve access to evidence-based treatment. Stepped care models currently being developed for mental health conditions are based on a service delivery model designed to address barriers to treatment. This treatment development article describes how trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), a well-established evidence-based practice, was developed into a stepped care model for young children exposed to trauma. Considerations for developing the stepped care model for young children exposed to trauma, such as the type and number of steps, training of providers, entry point, inclusion of parents, treatment components, noncompliance, and a self-correcting monitoring system, are discussed. This model of stepped care for young children exposed to trauma, called Stepped Care TF-CBT, may serve as a model for developing and testing stepped care approaches to treating other types of childhood psychiatric disorders. Future research needed on Stepped Care TF-CBT is discussed. PMID:25411544
Full Text Available This article poses questions regarding learning and representation in relation to young children's popular culture. Focusing on gender, the article builds on multimodal, social semiotic analyses of two different media texts related to a specific brand and shows how gender and gender differences are represented multimodally in separate media contexts and in the interplay between different media. The results show that most of the semiotic resources employed in the different texts contribute in congruent ways to the representation of girls as either different from or inferior to boys. At the same time, however, excerpts from an encounter with a young girl who engages with characters from the brand in her role play are used as an example of how children actively make meaning and find strategies that subvert the repressive ideologies manifested in their everyday popular culture.
Ödman, Carolina J.
Universe Awareness (UNAWE) has over three years of experience enthusing young children with the scale and beauty of the Universe. UNAWE is an outreach programme with a strong social vision aiming at broadening children's minds, awakening their curiosity in science and stimulating global citizenship. UNAWE uses the inspirational aspects of astronomy to instil a culture of peace and tolerance. We present the main principles of the programme, describe how it functions as a community-driven organisation and share some of the UNAWE experience. We describe projects and opportunities for IYA2009 and the future of the global programme.
Jones, Emily A; Feeley, Kathleen M; Takacs, Jennifer
Using a multiple probe design across responses, we demonstrated the effectiveness of intensive intervention in establishing spontaneous verbal responses to 2 3-year-old children with autism with generalization to novel settings involving novel persons. Intervention involved discrete-trial instruction (i.e., repeated instructional opportunities presented in close proximity to high rates of reinforcement), specific prompts, and error correction. Spontaneous responses were defined as specific verbal utterances (e.g., the child says "bless you") following discriminative stimuli that did not involve explicit vocal directives (e.g., adult sneeze). The development of effective interventions to address the social-communicative needs of very young children with autism is discussed.
Sattler, Kierra M P; Font, Sarah A
Child maltreatment increases the risk of poor developmental outcomes. However, some children display resilience, meaning they are high-functioning despite their adverse experiences. To date, few research studies have examined protective factors among very young maltreated children. Yet, domains of resilience, and the protective factors that promote resilience among maltreated children, are likely to differ by developmental stage. Drawing on ecological systems theory and life course theory, we examined how protective factors at multiple ecological levels across early childhood were related to social and cognitive resilience among very young children involved with child protective services. The results demonstrated that the buffering effects of protective factors varied by social or cognitive resilience and the cumulative effects of protective factors were more consistently related to later resilience than protective factors at specific time points. In addition, the influence of specific protective factors on resilience slightly varied by initial in-home or out-of-home placement. These findings have important policy and research implications for promoting optimal development among children involved in child protective services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zar Heather J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.
This paper focuses attention on the education of gifted and talented children with one form of disability or the other. It discusses the major problems facing the education of gifted children with disability in Nigeria. It also points to the need for a way forward in assisting this category of children to measure up with other children ...
Hirakata, Pam E; Daniluk, Judith C
... needs of women faculty who are raising young children. RÉSUMÉ Une méthodologie de phénoménologie qualitative a été utilisée pour explorer les expériences de 10 femmes de diverses disciplines, ayant une permanence ou non, qui poursuivent une carrière universitaire tout en élevant des pré-adolescents. Une analyse des données des entrevues en prof...
Kidney donation by young children and the mentally retarded has been supported by court decisions, arguments based on obligations inherent in family relationships, an array of contextual factors, and the principle of beneficence. These justifications for taking organs from people who cannot protect themselves are problematic and must be weighed against our obligation to protect the vulnerable. A compromise solution is presented that strongly protects young children and the mentally retarded but does not abdicate all responsibility to relieve suffering. Guidelines are proposed that prohibit the retrieval of kidneys from young children and the mentally retarded but permit one exception. They would allow retrieval of a kidney when the consequence to a first order relative with whom the donor has a meaningful and valuable relationship is otherwise imminent death. This would be done in accordance with additional guidelines that minimize harm to the donor. Since most patients with end stage renal disease can be maintained on dialysis the need for a kidney to prevent death should be an uncommon occurrence. This compromise is proposed as a solution to a dilemma that exists because two ethical principles are in conflict and one cannot be honored without violating the other.
Monaghan, Maureen; Clary, Lauren; Stern, Alexa; Hilliard, Marisa E; Streisand, Randi
To characterize protective factors in young children with type 1 diabetes, and evaluate associations among child protective factors and indicators of diabetes resilience, including better child and parent psychosocial functioning and glycemic control. Parents of 78 young children with type 1 diabetes reported on child protective factors, child quality of life, parent depressive symptoms, and disease-specific parenting stress. A1c values were collected from medical records. Young children with type 1 diabetes were rated as having similar levels of protective factors as normative samples. Greater child protective factors were associated with indicators of diabetes resilience, including higher child quality of life and lower parent depressive symptoms and parenting stress. Regression analyses demonstrated that child protective factors were associated with 16% of the variance in parent-reported depressive symptoms. Attention to child protective factors can enhance understanding of adjustment to type 1 diabetes and may have implications for intervention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Jones, Margaret Holden
Definite diagnosis of cerebral palsy is usually possible during the first six months of life in the hemiplegic child, but in the paraplegic or quadriplegic it may not be clear until the second half of the first year or later. Diagnosis should include not only type, degree and extent of motor handicap, but also intelligence, personality factors, sensory deficits, seizures and other physical problems. Diagnosis depends on detecting deviations from normal growth and development, of being aware of a multitude of progressive and other lesions which may simulate, at least early, the “static” group of conditions characterized by motor deficit due to central nervous system disease. Management involves early positioning, use of special equipment (mainly improvised), sensory stimulation and experience, as well as motor training, evaluation of intelligence and special learning situations to assist in discrimination learning and lengthening of attention span. Nursery schools for mentally capable children from 18 months to 3 years of age assist in developing independence, maturity and growth of personality. Except for patients with very severe mental or physical involvement, competitive employment in adult life is not related so much to the physical handicap as to personality characteristics, traits which are formed in early years. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:13790560
Ringoot, Ank P; Jansen, Pauline W; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Measelle, Jeffrey R; van der Ende, Jan; Raat, Hein; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; Tiemeier, Henning
Adult observers are typically the only informants on emotional and behavioral problems in young children. Although additional information can be provided by child self-report, few validated, structured instruments are available to obtain self-report from young children. The Berkeley Puppet Interview (BPI) has been developed to obtain structured self-reports on multiple domains of mental health and social well-being. This study was the 1st to evaluate the psychometric properties of the BPI in a large sample. We studied 8 a priori scales of the interview in a Dutch community sample of 6,375 children ages 5-7 years. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we demonstrated adequate fit (Tucker-Lewis index = .90; comparative fit index = .90; root-mean-square error of approximation = .03) of a multidimensional model with 50 items loading on 8 latent factors (Depression, Separation Anxiety, Overanxious, Oppositional Defiant, Overt Hostility, Conduct Problems, Bullied by Peers, and Peer Acceptance/Rejection). This model was invariant across gender. Children reported anxiety-related problems more frequently than depressive problems, behavioral problems, or difficulties in peer relations. Reliability analyses showed that 3 broadband scales designated as Internalizing, Externalizing, and Peer Relations were homogeneous constructs (αs = .68-.79). Higher scores on most BPI scales were associated with lower maternal education, lower family income, and non-Western ethnicity. Boys reported more behavioral and peer relation problems, whereas girls reported more emotional problems. The findings indicate that young children from socioeconomically and demographically diverse backgrounds are capable of providing valid, multidimensional information on their emotional, behavioral, and peer relation problems using the BPI. Young children's self-report is a promising addition to existing assessment tools. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Full Text Available J Michael Hoopes1, Veena R Kumar21Medical Information, 2Medical and Scientific Affairs, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, USAAbstract: Respiratory tract illnesses associated with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV were first reported more than 160 years ago and gained acceptance as a major respiratory pathogen in the late 1950s. Annual epidemics show a seasonal pattern typically beginning in the late fall and ending in early spring, averaging 5 months in length, and varying in time of onset, offset, and duration depending on geographic location. Manifestations of RSV illness primarily involve the upper respiratory tract but can spread to the lower airways and lead to bronchiolitis and/or pneumonia. Initial infection occurs in approximately two-thirds of children during the first year of life; nearly all children are infected at least once by 2 years of age. Reinfection is common throughout life, but initial illness during infancy generally presents with the most severe symptoms. Medical risk conditions that consistently predispose young children to serious lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI include congenital heart disease, chronic lung disease, and premature birth. Serious LRTI due to RSV is the leading cause of hospitalization in infants and young children worldwide and annual mean hospital expenses have been estimated to exceed 1 billion dollars in the United States. Young children incur more inpatient and outpatient visits for RSV LRTI than for influenza. RSV has a greater impact than influenza on hospitalization in infants with respect to length of stay, severity/course of disease, and resultant needs for ancillary treatments. Unlike many other childhood illnesses, a vaccine is not currently available for preventing RSV disease.Keywords: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, infants, hospitalization, prematurity, respiratory syncytial virus
Thompson, Rachel M; Gourineni, Prasad
Arthroscopic lavage is a well-established, minimally invasive treatment for septic arthritis (SA) in adults, but the use of arthroscopy in the pediatric population is typically restricted to sports injuries and deformity. Previous research on arthroscopic lavage of septic joints in the pediatric population has been limited to case reports and small case series of older children. As such, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of arthroscopic treatment of SA in various joints in very young children. Between 2011 and 2015, 24 children (aged 3 wk to 6 y) were treated for SA with arthroscopic lavage. A single portal was adequate for both inflow and outflow in most cases. A second portal was used in all knees and in other joints for synovectomy, when indicated. Drains were placed through the portal site and remained in place for 2 to 3 days. Antibiotics were managed by the infectious disease service. Nine hips, 9 knees, 4 ankles, and 2 shoulders were included. Portal placement, visualization, and adequate lavage were straight forward in all joints. There was 1 transient femoral nerve palsy and no other arthroscopy-associated complications (iatrogenic damage, difficult drain placement, or conversion to open). Two patients required repeat arthroscopic lavage for disease eradication, one of which required a second admission. A third patient underwent open irrigation following arthroscopic lavage with a resultant 1.125 average procedures per subject. At final follow-up (2 to 49 mo, average 16 mo), no recurrence of infection or decreased range of motion was noted. Arthroscopic lavage appears to be a safe, quick, and effective alternative to open arthrotomy for the treatment of SA in very young children. It is feasible in any large joint even in the infantile population, allowing for improved visualization and irrigation with little soft-tissue dissection and morbidity. Our relatively simple technique and positive results should encourage regular use of arthroscopic
Deckers, Stijn R J M; Van Zaalen, Yvonne; Van Balkom, Hans; Verhoeven, Ludo
The aim of this study was to develop a core vocabulary list for young children with intellectual disabilities between 2 and 7 years of age because data from this population are lacking in core vocabulary literature. Children with Down syndrome are considered one of the most valid reference groups for researching developmental patterns in children with intellectual disabilities; therefore, spontaneous language samples of 30 Dutch children with Down syndrome were collected during three different activities with multiple communication partners (free play with parents, lunch- or snack-time at home or at school, and speech therapy sessions). Of these children, 19 used multimodal communication, primarily manual signs and speech. Functional word use in both modalities was transcribed. The 50 most frequently used core words accounted for 67.2% of total word use; 16 words comprised core vocabulary, based on commonality. These data are consistent with similar studies related to the core vocabularies of preschoolers and toddlers with typical development, although the number of nouns present on the core vocabulary list was higher for the children in the present study. This finding can be explained by manual sign use of the children with Down syndrome and is reflective of their expressive vocabulary ages.
Rudzeviciene, O; Narkeviciute, I; Eidukevicius, R
To determine the prevalence of lactose malabsorption in young Lithuanian atopic dermatitis children; to evaluate the relationship between lactose malabsorption and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and the relationship between lactose malabsorption and cow's milk intolerance in parents and grandparents. 144 children with atopic dermatitis aged 1.5-24 mo (study group) and 32 children without symptoms of allergic diseases aged 1.5-23 mo (control group) were investigated. Lactose and glucose-galactose absorption tests based on serial blood glucose determination, culture of stool, latex agglutination test for rotavirus and microscopic examination of stool for parasites were performed. Lactose malabsorption was determined in 59 (40.9%) and glucose-galactose malabsorption in 17 (11.8%) children with atopic dermatitis. The risk of developing lactose malabsorption was higher in children fed exclusively on breast milk up to 1 mo of age than in children fed exclusively on breast milk for 4 to 6 mo (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.02-6.75). Lactose malabsorption was significantly more frequent in patients whose mothers did not tolerate cow's milk (20/30; 66.7%) than in patients whose mothers were tolerant to it (39/95; 41.1%) (p = 0.02). Lactose malabsorption was determined in 40.9% of Lithuanian atopic dermatitis children aged under 2 y. Lactose malabsorption appeared to be associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding up to only 1 mo and mothers' milk intolerance.
Narkeviciute, Irena; Tamusauskaite, Indre
To investigate the features of norovirus infection in hospitalised children under the age of 3 and to compare the results with those of rotavirus infection. Case notes were randomly selected and retrospectively analysed for 70 norovirus- and 70 rotavirus-infected children. All of the children were treated in Vilnius University Children's Hospital in 2005. The norovirus antigen was assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the rotavirus using immunochromatography diagnostic assay. In young children, norovirus infection manifested as vomiting (94% of all cases), diarrhoea (81%), and fever (66%). It presented as gastroenteritis with fever (47%) or without fever (30%). However, 19% of cases were without diarrhoea. During rotavirus infection, fever was present in 97% of cases and 81% of them were >38 degrees C. However, in norovirus infection, the percentages were 66% and 48%, respectively (P or =7 times/day) more frequently appeared in children with rotavirus infection than with norovirus (P or =4 times/day) has been more common for children with norovirus infection. As opposed to norovirus infection, which has 2 main syndromes (gastroenteritis with fever and without fever), rotavirus infection is dominated by just 1 clinical syndrome-gastroenteritis with fever (P fever. Norovirus and rotavirus infections had statistically significant differences in the presence and the degree of fever, and the intensity of diarrhoea and vomiting, as well as frequency of different syndromes.
Ginn, Nicole C; Clionsky, Leah N; Eyberg, Sheila M; Warner-Metzger, Christina; Abner, John-Paul
This study examined the efficacy of the Child-Directed Interaction Training (CDIT) phase of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Thirty mother-child dyads with children ages 3-7 years with a diagnosis of ASD participated in this randomized controlled study. Following manualized CDIT, statistically significant and meaningful improvements in child disruptive behavior and social awareness as well as maternal distress associated with child disruptive behavior occurred. Across 8 sessions, mothers learned to provide positive attention to their children's appropriate social and play behaviors. Both child and parent changes were maintained at 6-week follow-up. A relatively brief, time-limited, and accessible intervention may be efficacious for improving child and parent behaviors in families of young children with ASD. By decreasing child disruptive behaviors, CDIT may also help to prepare children to benefit further from future interventions.
Van Gaal, J Carlijn; De Bont, Eveline S J M; Kaal, Suzanne E J; Versleijen-Jonkers, Yvonne; van der Graaf, Winette T A
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a rare type of soft tissue sarcoma that mainly affects children, but also occurs in adolescents and (young) adults (AYA). Despite dramatic survival improvements reported by international study groups in children over the past decades, the awareness of a dismal outcome for older patients with RMS has grown. In contrast to the world-wide organization of care for children with RMS, standard care in adults lags behind. A step forward in RMS management for patients of all ages is urgently needed. Both paediatric oncologists and medical oncologists are essential players in development of a concept of RMS care, but bringing two worlds together seems not so easy. This review provides an overview which highlights the similarities and differences in children and adults with RMS. Furthermore, it comes up with a novel concept to overcome the virtual gap between the treatment approach of children and AYA with RMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Flohr, John W.
Provides information about current brain research. Explains that some of the basic tenets that have guided research are outlined in R. Shore's "Rethinking the Brain: New Insights into Early Development." Offers five hypotheses: (1) nature/nurture; (2) effects of nurture; (3) optimal music learning; (4) minimal disadvantages; and (5) early music…
Birken, Catherine S; Lichtblau, Bradley; Lenton-Brym, Talia; Tucker, Patricia; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Mahant, Sanjay
Despite their wide usage, it has recently been suggested that stroller use may reduce physical activity levels of young children. However, there have been no studies on stroller use as it relates to physical activity outcomes. The objectives of this study were to understand the context of stroller use for young children and parents' perceptions of the relationship between stroller use and their children's physical activity. Parents of children 1 to 5 years of age were recruited through two sites of TARGet Kids!, a primary-care, practice-based research network in Toronto, Canada. Fourteen semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and two independent reviewers conducted thematic analysis. A number of strategies were employed to ensure the trustworthiness of the data. Parents discussed reasons for stroller use (i.e., transportation; storage; leisure; supervision/confinement; parent physical activity; and sleep), factors that influence the decision to use a stroller (i.e., caregiver choice; convenience, timing, distance; family lifestyle; and child preference), and perceived impact of stroller use on physical activity (i.e., most parents did not recognize a connection between stroller use and physical activity). This study provides a context for researchers and policy makers to consider when developing stroller related physical activity guidelines for young children.
Lin, Chu-Sui; Chang, Shu-Hui; Liou, Wen-Ying; Tsai, Yu-Show
This study aimed to provide early childhood special education professionals with a standardized and comprehensive language assessment tool for the early identification of language learning characteristics (e.g., hyperlexia) of young children with autism. In this study, we used computer technology to develop a multi-media online language assessment tool that presents auditory or visual stimuli. This online comprehensive language assessment consists of six subtests: decoding, homographs, auditory vocabulary comprehension, visual vocabulary comprehension, auditory sentence comprehension, and visual sentence comprehension. Three hundred typically developing children and 35 children with autism from Tao-Yuan County in Taiwan aged 4-6 participated in this study. The Cronbach α values of the six subtests ranged from .64 to .97. The variance explained by the six subtests ranged from 14% to 56%, the current validity of each subtest with the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised ranged from .21 to .45, and the predictive validity of each subtest with WISC-III ranged from .47 to .75. This assessment tool was also found to be able to accurately differentiate children with autism up to 92%. These results indicate that this assessment tool has both adequate reliability and validity. Additionally, 35 children with autism have completed the entire assessment in this study without exhibiting any extremely troubling behaviors. However, future research is needed to increase the sample size of both typically developing children and young children with autism and to overcome the technical challenges associated with internet issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Foust, Terry; Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore; Geroso, Amy
Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology, used widely in newborn hearing screening programs and validated by professional organizations as a reliable and objective tool, is beginning to be recognized as superior to subjective methods when screening young children in a variety of settings. This study examines the efficacy of integrating OAE hearing screening into services routinely provided in health care settings. Three federally funded clinics serving low-income and uninsured people in a metropolitan area participated in the 10-month study. Subjects included 846 children (842 in the target population children did not pass the initial screening. Audiological evaluation was sought for children not passing a subsequent OAE screening. Of the 846 children screened, 814 (96%) ultimately passed the screening or audiological assessment and 29 (3%) exited the study. Three children (1 was 5) were identified with permanent hearing loss. The rate of identification of permanent hearing loss in this study is similar to findings from a study of OAE screening in early childhood educational settings. OAE screening holds the potential for being an effective method for helping to identify young children with permanent hearing loss in primary care settings.
Murray, Jane M.
Children's research abilities have become increasingly recognised by adults, yet children remain excluded from the academy. This restricts children's freedom to make choices in matters affecting them, underestimates their capabilities and denies children particular rights. The present paper reports on young children's problem-solving as part of a…
Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R.; Bryant, Fred B.
Anxiety and depression tend to co-occur in children. Studies indicate that higher levels of anxiety are associated with subsequent higher levels of depression, while depression may inhibit subsequent anxiety. It is important to increase our understanding of the temporal sequencing of these disorders and, particularly, to determine if suppression effects account for the inhibitory association. In addition, further information about these relationships in young children is needed. Participants were a diverse (20.4 % Hispanic, 16.7 % African American; 49.1 % boys) community sample of 796 children with data available at ages 4, 5, and 6–7 years. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory and symptom count measures from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Scale-Young Child version. The results indicated: (a) anxiety and depression were relatively stable over time; (b) anxiety at age 4 and 5 was a significant positive predictor of subsequent depression; (c) while an inhibitory effect of depression on subsequent anxiety was found, that inhibitory effect was due to negative suppression, and higher levels of depression were actually associated with subsequent anxiety; (e) consistent with a significant suppression effect, when depression was included as a predictor, the association between anxiety at ages 4 and 5 and anxiety one year later increases in magnitude. Both anxiety and depression are associated with higher levels of one another in the subsequent year. Implications for prevention are discussed. PMID:24934567
Coleman, Mary Ruth
Hands-on science is the ideal platform for observing young children's ability to solve problems, think deeply, and use their creative ingenuity to explore the world around them. Science is naturally interesting and offers authentic reasons to read for information and use math skills to collect, compile, and analyze data. This chapter will share one approach to nurturing and recognizing young children with high-potential: U-STARS∼PLUS (Using Science, Talents, and Abilities to Recognize Students∼Promoting Learning for Underrepresented Students). Each of the five components (high-end learning environments; teacher's observations of potential; engaging science activities; partnerships with parents; and capacity building for system change) will be explained. Concrete examples will be given for each area showing how it works and why it is important. Special attention will be paid to the needs of educationally vulnerable gifted children who remain underserved: racially, ethnically, and linguistically different; economically disadvantaged, and children who are twice exceptional (2e). © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.
Lavigne, John V; Hopkins, Joyce; Gouze, Karen R; Bryant, Fred B
Anxiety and depression tend to co-occur in children. Studies indicate that higher levels of anxiety are associated with subsequent higher levels of depression, while depression may inhibit subsequent anxiety. It is important to increase our understanding of the temporal sequencing of these disorders and, particularly, to determine if suppression effects account for the inhibitory association. In addition, further information about these relationships in young children is needed. Participants were a diverse (20.4 % Hispanic, 16.7 % African American; 49.1 % boys) community sample of 796 children with data available at ages 4, 5, and 6-7 years. Anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed using the Child Symptom Inventory and symptom count measures from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Parent Scale -Young Child version. The results indicated: (a) anxiety and depression were relatively stable over time; (b) anxiety at age 4 and 5 was a significant positive predictor of subsequent depression; (c) while an inhibitory effect of depression on subsequent anxiety was found, that inhibitory effect was due to negative suppression, and higher levels of depression were actually associated with subsequent anxiety; (e) consistent with a significant suppression effect, when depression was included as a predictor, the association between anxiety at ages 4 and 5 and anxiety one year later increases in magnitude. Both anxiety and depression are associated with higher levels of one another in the subsequent year. Implications for prevention are discussed.
Johnson, Ben; Serban, Nicoleta; Griffin, Paul M; Tomar, Scott L
We evaluated the impact of loan repayment programmes, revising Medicaid fee-for-service rates, and changing dental hygienist supervision requirements on access to preventive dental care for children in Georgia. We estimated cost savings from the three interventions of preventive care for young children after netting out the intervention cost. We used a regression model to evaluate the impact of changing the Medicaid reimbursement rates. The impact of supervision was evaluated by comparing general and direct supervision in school-based dental sealant programmes. Federal loan repayments to dentists and school-based sealant programmes (SBSPs) had lower intervention costs (with higher potential cost savings) than raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate. General supervision had costs 56% lower than direct supervision of dental hygienists for implementing a SBSP. Raising the Medicaid reimbursement rate by 10 percentage points would improve utilization by Loan repayment could serve almost 13 000 children for a cost of $400 000 and a potential cost saving of $176 000. The three interventions all improved met need for preventive dental care. Raising the reimbursement rate alone would marginally affect utilization of Medicaid services but would not substantially increase acceptance of Medicaid by providers. Both loan repayment programmes and amending supervision requirements are potentially cost-saving interventions. Loan repayment programmes provide complete care to targeted areas, while amending supervision requirements of dental hygienists could provide preventive care across the state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy) in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1) to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2) to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3) to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children's social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.
Lim, Sok Hwan; Kim, Myung-Joon
Purpose To evaluate the effect of animated cartoons with children's songs to increase compliance with ultrasonography (US) examination in young children. Materials and Methods Animated cartoons with children's songs viewed on a cell phone were played just before the start of US examination when pediatric patients were agitated or irritable. The effect of this method was evaluated for initial responses and sustained responses (grade 0, no response; 1, partial response; and 2, good response). Site of US examination, scan duration, and the helpfulness of this method (0, useless; 1, partially helpful; and 2, very helpful) were also recorded. Results Among 464 pediatric patients who underwent US during the study period, 88 children (19%) needed to be calmed (67 abdominal and 21 other parts of the body). All subjects were less than five years of age (mean 1.5 years), except for four patients with mental retardation. Scan duration was less than 5 minutes in almost all examinations. Five children refused to watch the cartoon. Initial responses were good in 75 and partial in eight children. Sustained responses were good in 70 and partial in 12 children. The cartoons were very helpful in 73 (83%) and partially helpful in nine (10%) children. The effect of watching the cartoon did not change with sex, age (less or more than one year), or site of examination. Conclusion Animated cartoons with children's songs viewed on a cell phone were helpful (93%) in increasing compliance with US examination in young children of both the abdomen and other parts. PMID:24142662
Chimere C Collins
Full Text Available Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community.This qualitative study employed Photovoice among 10 English-speaking parents of infants and toddlers who were clients of an urban WIC clinic in North Carolina. The primary research question was: "What do you consider as important behaviors, as well as family and community resources to prevent cavities among young children?" Five group sessions were conducted and they were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative research methodology. Inductive analyses were based on analytical summaries, double-coding, and summary matrices and were done using Atlas.ti.7.5.9 software.Good oral health was associated with avoidance of problems or restorations for the participants. Financial constraints affected healthy food and beverage choices, as well as access to oral health care. Time constraints and occasional frustration related to children's oral hygiene emerged as additional barriers. Establishment of rules/routines and commitment to them was a successful strategy to promote their children's oral health, as well as modeling of older siblings, cooperation among caregivers and peer support. Community programs and organizations, social hubs including playgrounds, grocery stores and social media emerged as promising avenues for gaining support and sharing resources.Low-income parents of young children are faced with daily life struggles that interfere with oral health and care. Financial constraints are
Oakes, Ashley; Ma, Monica; McDuffie, Andrea; Machalicek, Wendy; Abbeduto, Leonard
Although fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the leading inherited cause of intellectual disability, there are no published intervention studies focused on improving communication and language outcomes for affected children. The current study utilized a collaborative coaching approach incorporating strategies from speech-language pathology and applied behavior analysis to examine the efficacy of a naturalistic parent-implemented language intervention for a young boy with FXS. The mother was taught the language and behavioral support strategies and submitted weekly video recordings of a caregiving routine. Written feedback was provided. Results indicated moderate increases in maternal use of targeted language support strategies and variable performance in maternal use of behavior support strategies. Child use of appropriate requests increased while challenging behaviors decreased. This collaborative approach model should be used to guide future larger scale replications and develop new intervention models.
To assess the incidence of injuries to young children sustained by contact with a domestic vacuum cleaner and to highlight the potential for significant injury. An increase in public awareness of these risks might result in a reduction in morbidity. Over a period of one year, all children attending with an injury sustained because of contact with a domestic vacuum cleaner had review of their case notes by the author. Four children were identified as having sustained friction burns to a hand after contact with a vacuum cleaner. All required treatment and several review appointments before satisfactory resolution was achieved. Although the number of cases seen was small, the potential for significant injury must be emphasised and public awareness increased in an attempt to reduce morbidity.
McIntosh, Caroline; Stephens, Christine; Lyons, Antonia
The present study examines four-year-old children's everyday understandings of illness causality. Research into young children's conceptualisation of illness has led to different expectations of children's comprehension and ongoing debate regarding the nature of children's knowledge. Awareness of preschoolers' spontaneous views of illness causality, rather than explanations restricted by predetermined response categories, is likely to assist practitioners to provide more appropriate interventions for young children. Adopting a socio-constructivist perspective of children's learning and development, and using a narrative methodology, we interviewed five preschoolers regarding their views of illness causality. As part of the interview process children were invited to construct their own storybooks about illness using photographs of children experiencing illness and a variety of art materials. Analysis of young children's narrative accounts revealed two major threads regarding children's illness causality constructions: (1) "behaviour-based explanations for illness", and (2) "illness prevention messages and behavioural rules". Findings suggest that four-year-olds' understanding may be more sophisticated than traditionally maintained, and that the illness prevention messages and behavioural rules within sociocultural contexts may significantly influence children's conceptualisation of illness causality.
Dye, Bruce A; Hsu, Kuei-Ling C; Afful, Joseph
Dental caries in preschool children was historically considered to have a unique and more intense pattern of decay and was known by a variety of terms. In 1999, the term early childhood caries (ECC), along with a classification system, was proposed to facilitate epidemiologic research of dental caries in young children. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of those early childhood caries recommendations on the prevalence and measurement of caries in preschool children. A systematic search of the MEDLINE database was performed. Key search words included: ECC, dental decay, dental caries, carious dentin, baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, maxillary anterior caries, and labial caries. English language studies and studies on more than 100 children younger than six years old were eligible for selection. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2011 to 2012 were used to assess ECC prevalence using different operational definitions. There were 87 articles selected for this review. The term ECC was used in 55 percent of the selected articles as the primary outcome measure. The majority of studies used a cross-section study design, but diagnostic criteria varied greatly. Caries experience in young children may be shifting away from majority of untreated surfaces to a majority of restored surfaces. Little difference was observed by dental surface type in the distribution of decayed and filled surfaces in primary teeth. Although the term early childhood caries is widely used, varied use of diagnostic criteria and operational definitions continue to limit comparability across studies. Emerging changes in the proportion of decayed and filled surfaces in the United States also raises questions regarding the ECC case definition limiting our ability to understand the epidemiology of dental caries in preschool children.
Aim. To determine the prevalence of iron deficiency in healthy young children and whether there is an association between food habits and dietary iron intake and iron status. Methods. 53 children aged 9-24 months were recruited into the study over a 12 month period from a general practice and Plunket child health clinics. Children with intercurrent infections were excluded. Iron status was determined from a full blood count and iron studies. Nutrient intake was assessed by a 24 hour food recall and dietary history questionnaire with nutrient analysis using the New Zealand Food Composition database from the New Zealand Institute of Crop and Food Research Ltd. Results. 10 children (20%) were anaemic (haemoglobin bakery goods, dairy products, breakfast cereals and fruit. In this group only one child consumed formula and three children consumed baby foods. Conclusion. A high prevalence of anaemia and of iron deficiency was found amongst the otherwise healthy children in the sample, without their being a relationship between dietary iron intake and either haemoglobin or serum iron indices, except for ferritin.
Beiersmann, Claudia; Bermejo Lorenzo, Justo; Bountogo, Mamadou; Tiendrébeogo, Justin; Gabrysch, Sabine; Yé, Maurice; Jahn, Albrecht; Müller, Olaf
Childhood malnutrition remains a major challenge to public health in poor countries. Data on malnutrition determinants in African children are scarce. A cross-sectional survey was performed in eight villages of Burkina Faso in June 2009, including 460 children aged 6-31 months. Demographic, socioeconomic, parasitological, clinical and anthropometric characteristics were collected. The main outcome variable was weight-for-length (WFL) z-score (i.e. wasting). A multiple regression model identified village, age group, religion and the presence of younger siblings as significantly associated with wasting. Villages differed in their mean WFL z-score by up to one unit. Compared with younger children, the mean WFL z-score of children aged 24-35 months was 0.63 units higher than the WFL z-score in younger children. This study confirms the still unacceptable high level of malnutrition in young children of rural West Africa and supports the fact that childhood malnutrition is a complex phenomenon highly influenced by contextual variables.
R. V. Bocharov
Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the laboratory and clinical effects of combined intravenous laser therapy in young children with thermalinjuries in the acute period of burn disease.Subjects and methods. Forty children whose mean age was 2.67±0.35 years were examined; thermal injuries accounted for 25.05±1.01% of the total body surface area; of them degrees IIIaIIIb was 19.04±0.85%. A comparison group (n=15 received conventional therapy without taking into account and correcting baseline and current hemostasiological disorders. On day 1, a study group (n=25 had programmed anticoagulant therapy and intravenous laser therapy at different radiation frequencies with a Mustang 20002+ laser therapy apparatus (patent for invention No. 2482894 in addition to the conventional therapy. The laser therapy cycle was 6 to 16 sessions. The investigators estimated and compared the following examined parameters: white blood cell count; leukocytic index of intoxication; plasma average mass molecules at a wavelength of 254 nm; toxogenic granularity of neutrophils; wound exudate discharge time; surgical plasty area; and hospitalization time.Results. The positive laboratory and clinical effects of the performed combined intravenous laser therapy in the combined therapy of burn disease in young children were comparatively shown in the study group patients. The significant decrease in the level of an inflammatory response and endogenous intoxication led to a rapider burn wound cleansing, active epithelization, and reduced surgical plasty volumes.Conclusion. Combined intravenous laser therapy signif icantly exerts antiinflammatory and detoxifying effects in young children with 40% thermal injuries in the acute period of burn disease. Abolishing a systemic inflammatory response by combined intravenous laser therapy initiated early regenerative processes in the burn wound and caused reductions in surgical plasty volumes and hospitalization time, which optimizes ther
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the preschool period, allergic rhinitis (AR is infrequent and thus under-diagnosed. However, recent works have highlighted the occurrence of AR in toddlers although the causes of AR in this young population remain unknown. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of AR in young children with asthma. METHODS: We carried out a case-control study of 227 children with active asthma and enrolled in the Trousseau Asthma Program. AR and other allergic diseases (asthma, food allergy and eczema were diagnosed by medical doctors using standardized questionnaires. Parental history of AR and asthma, biological markers of atopy (total IgE, blood eosinophilia, allergic sensitization towards food and aeroallergens and environmental parameters were also collected. RESULTS: Forty one of the children (18.1% had AR. By univariate logistic regression analysis, AR was mainly associated with peanut sensitization (OR = 6.75; p = 0.002; food allergy (OR = 4.31; p = 0.026; mold exposure (OR = 3.81 p<0.01 and parental history of AR (OR = 1.42; p = 0.046. Due to the strong link between food allergy and peanut sensitization three models of multivariate logistic regression were performed and confirmed that AR is associated with peanut sensitization but also food allergy and mold exposure. A random forest analysis was also performed to explain AR. The results reinforced the logistic analysis that peanut sensitization and mold exposure were the principal determinants of AR. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These results stress the importance of investigating AR in young children with asthma to potentially diagnose a particularly severe allergic asthmatic phenotype. Moreover, these data evoke the hypothesis that peanut could be an aeroallergen.
Durkin, Kevin; Conti-Ramsden, Gina
New media are commonplace in children's lives. Speech and language therapists (SLTs), educational psychologists and teachers are sometimes called upon by caregivers to provide advice on whether or how children and young people with language impairments should be encouraged to use these media. This article aims to illuminate some of the key…
Johnson, Heather M; Warner, Ryan C; Bartels, Christie M; LaMantia, Jamie N
Young adults (18-39 year-olds) have the lowest hypertension control rates among adults with hypertension in the United States. Unique barriers to hypertension management in young adults with primary care access compared to older adults have not been evaluated. Understanding these differences will inform the development of hypertension interventions tailored to young adults. The goals of this multicenter study were to explore primary care providers' perspectives on barriers to diagnosing, treating, and controlling hypertension among young adults with regular primary care. Primary care providers (physicians and advanced practice providers) actively managing young adults with uncontrolled hypertension were recruited by the Wisconsin Research & Education Network (WREN), a statewide practice-based research network. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted in three diverse Midwestern clinical practices (academic, rural, and urban clinics) using a semi-structured interview guide, and content analysis was performed. Primary care providers identified unique barriers across standard hypertension healthcare delivery practices for young adults. Altered self-identity, greater blood pressure variability, and unintended consequences of medication initiation were critical hypertension control barriers among young adults. Gender differences among young adults were also noted as barriers to hypertension follow-up and antihypertensive medication initiation. Tailored interventions addressing the unique barriers of young adults are needed to improve population hypertension control. Augmenting traditional clinic structure to support the "health identity" of young adults and self-management skills are promising next steps to improve hypertension healthcare delivery.
Aleksandra Anatol’evna Shabunova
Full Text Available The present-day world’s development is becoming more and more uneven and new global challenges are emerging. Russia should respond to them by enhancing its economic competitiveness, preserving and increasing its population and human potential, first of all, that of children and young people. The paper points out that for the Russian Federation with its vast territory and substantial reserves of natural resources the most important geopolitical challenges consist in the preservation and increase of population and human potential. The authors prove that the formation of the population of Russia is under double “pressure” of high mortality and low fertility; therefore, natural movement (decline is not completed by mechanical movement. In addition, the article determines that the share of young people in the total population is decreasing. For the first time in the history of Russia the share of children has become lower than the proportion of the elderly. In 2013 in 56 Russian regions, the proportion of children and adolescents accounted for less than 20% of the population (in the early 2000s, there were 41 such regions, and in 1990 – three. In addition to the reduction in the number of the population, child health potential is also deteriorating: about 35% of children in Russia are born ill or become ill in the near future (the figure is 30% in the Vologda Oblast. The number of adolescents aged 15–17 who are accounted for severe mental disorders is continuously increasing. The greatest socio-economic damage to the society comes from suicides that are widely spread among young people (the younger generation (persons up to 24 years old accounts for one third of all the potential years of life lost from suicides. At the same time, young people consider health more valuable than does the population as a whole (4.5 points vs 4.4 points on a five-point scale. But young people underestimate the importance of self-preservation behavior. World
N. Kh. Tkhakushinova
Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections (AII are still one of the main challenges in pediatrics because of their high prevalence, polyetiology, high rate of severe and complicated forms, especially in young children. The perfect feeding for infants is breast milk. The child feeding with artificial formulas must be supplied with appropriate balanced feeding, assisting not only in physical and mental development, but also in recovery. The article provides information on dietary correction in treatment of AII with formulas containing probiotics.
Yang, D; Pelphrey, K A; Sukhodolsky, D G; Crowley, M J; Dayan, E; Dvornek, N C; Venkataraman, A; Duncan, J; Staib, L; Ventola, P
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are common yet complex neurodevelopmental disorders, characterized by social, communication and behavioral deficits. Behavioral interventions have shown favorable results?however, the promise of precision medicine in ASD is hampered by a lack of sensitive, objective neurobiological markers (neurobiomarkers) to identify subgroups of young children likely to respond to specific treatments. Such neurobiomarkers are essential because early childhood provides a sen...
Hall, Cristin M.; Bierman, Karen L
Technology can potentially expand the reach and cut the costs of providing effective, evidence-based interventions. This paper reviews existing publications that describe the application and evaluation of technology-assisted interventions for parents of young children. A broad review of the early childhood literature revealed 48 studies describing technology-assisted parent education and interventions. Across these studies, multiple forms of technology were used, including web-based platforms...
Richards, Deborah; Caldwell, Patrina H Y; Go, Henry
This paper reviews the literature on the impact of social media on the health of children and young people. Relevant papers were identified from Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases. The studies identified that the health impact of social media on children and young people was greatest on mental health and specifically in the areas of self-esteem and well-being, with related issues around cyberbullying and 'Facebook Depression', with an association between the use of social media and self-esteem and body image. However, it is difficult to determine the cause and effect, which is likely to be related to the nature of the young person. There is little work on the impact of social media on younger children. More research is needed to identify those most at risk of harm from social media and risk mitigation strategies to assist health-care professionals to provide essential education for parents and young people. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
National Center for Homeless Education at SERVE, 2013
Given the number of young children experiencing homelessness and its devastating impacts on development, preschool programs play a critical role in meeting these children's need for quality early care and education; yet, most young homeless children do not receive early childhood services. Many barriers limit access to early childhood programs for…
Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer
The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…
Mayne, Fiona; Howitt, Christine; Rennie, Léonie
Ideas about ethical research with young children are evolving at a rapid rate. Not only can young children participate in the informed consent process, but researchers now also recognize that the process must be meaningful for them. As part of a larger study, this article reviews children's rights and informed consent literature as the foundation…
Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller
Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA…
The academy has tended to marginalise young children as researchers (YCAR), even in matters affecting them, which denies young children agency and amounts to social injustice. Drawing on the YCAR study, which adopted a qualitative "jigsaw" methodology to co-research with children aged four to eight years (n = 138), their parents,…
Yu, Jacqueline Lye Wai; Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra; Wright, Susan Kay
This study investigates young children's responses to viewing artworks in a preschool setting. Based on the responses of 15 children aged five to six years during five art viewing sessions in a preschool in Singapore, the study examines features of what young children see, think and feel when they view artworks. These sessions were facilitated by…
Millar, Susanna; Ittyerah, Miriam
Two experiments examined the question of whether blindfolded young children and congenitally blind children show mental practice effects for blind movements that cross the body midline. Results suggested that young children with sight can show mental practice effects in the absence of visual cues. (GLR)
Archer, Lynda A.; Szatmari, Peter
The Revised Children's Eating Behaviour Inventory, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Krug Autism Behavior Checklist were used to assess eating/mealtime problems and related variables in 33 young high functioning autistic children (mean age 5 years, 3 months), 295 normally developing children (mean age 5 years, 8 months) and 11 young boys (mean…
Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Sahimi, Nurul Nadiah
Television viewing among young children has been an on going issue as it is found to effect their development in various areas. This problem is getting more worrisome as the percentage and amount of hours of television exposure among young children is increasing, especially with the growing production of children television programs. Studies have…
Ruiter, S.A.J.; Nakken, H.; Van der Meulen, B.F.; Lunenborg, C.B.
Most of the developmental instruments that measure cognitive development in children rely heavily on fine motor skills, especially for young children whose language skills are not yet well developed. This is problematic when evaluating the cognitive development of young children with motor
Argues that effective road safety education for young children needs to incorporate constructivist and socio-cultural perspectives on learning. Excerpts interviews with young children highlighting the variety of influences affecting children's road safety knowledge and examination of a road safety curriculum to illustrate the value of a dual…
Oppermann, Elisa; Brunner, Martin; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Anders, Yvonne
Young children, ages 5-6 years, develop first beliefs about science and themselves as science learners, and these beliefs are considered important precursors of children's future motivation to pursue science. Yet, due to a lack of adequate measures, little is known about young children's motivational beliefs about learning science. The present…
Warash, Bobbie Gibson; Smith, Keri; Root, Amy
Young children's capabilities continue to be revealed through brain and other scientific research. These advances in knowledge have led to the implementation of more progressive learning experiences in preschool programs. More in-depth explorations accommodate young children's intellect and they help children develop life skills as competent…
Carter, Alice S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Davis, Naomi Ornstein
In this paper we have tried to document some of the recent advances in the conceptualization and assessment of early-emerging social-emotional and behavior problems, competencies, and psychopathology. Considerable evidence documents that young children evidence significant psychopathology (cf., Del Carmen & Carter, in press; Emde, 1999; Zeanah, 2001; Zeanah et al., 1997). Given the range of new assessment measures that have become available over the past 10 years, the field of young child mental health is poised for dramatic gains in knowledge. It is critical to conduct large-scale, longitudinal, epidemiological studies to inform our understanding of the course of psychopathological conditions within the context of a normative developmental framework. Multi-method, multi-informant assessment approaches are more essential in early childhood due to young children's inability to provide self-reports and the embedded nature of children's development in their caregiving contexts. Screening large representative samples affords the opportunity to ascertain unbiased clinically informative sub-samples for methodologically intensive sub-studies. These sub-studies can address the child's cognitive and linguistic developmental capacities as well as utilize observational methods to examine the relational context. This approach provides an opportunity to merge dimensional and diagnostic assessments and will yield critical information for disentangling continuities and discontinuities in normative and atypical development. The assessment methodology currently exists to routinely screen very young children for social-emotional and behavior problems as well as delays in the acquisition of competencies in pediatric settings as well as in early intervention programs. Yet, despite the likely long-term benefits and cost-saving potential of early identification and intervention services, short-term cost and knowledge barriers currently limit widespread implementation. Discussions with
Birken, Catherine S; Lichtblau, Bradley; Lenton-Brym, Talia; Tucker, Patricia; Maguire, Jonathon L.; Parkin, Patricia C; Mahant, Sanjay
Background Despite their wide usage, it has recently been suggested that stroller use may reduce physical activity levels of young children. However, there have been no studies on stroller use as it relates to physical activity outcomes. The objectives of this study were to understand the context of stroller use for young children and parents? perceptions of the relationship between stroller use and their children?s physical activity. Methods Parents of children 1 to 5?years of age were recru...
Rosales, Allen C.
Based on years of research with early childhood teachers, author Allen Rosales provides an approach to create an emergent math curriculum that integrates children's interests with math concepts. The mathematizing approach is different from traditional math curriculums, as it immerses children in a process that is designed to develop their…
West, Sherrie; Cox, Amy
Based on the view that creative play and hands-on experiences are essential to the development of well-balanced children and that their teachers have the responsibility to create an environment that can stimulate children's senses and curiosity, this book provides activities incorporating the use of sand and water tables into the classroom on a…
Minkovitz, C; Strobino, D; Hughart, N; Scharfstein, D; Guyer, B
The Healthy Steps for Young Children Program (HS) incorporates early child development specialists and enhanced developmental services into routine pediatric care. An evaluation of HS is being conducted at 6 randomization and 9 quasi-experimental sites. Services received, satisfaction with services, and parent practices were assessed when infants were aged 2 to 4 months. Telephone interviews with mothers were conducted for 2631 intervention (response rate, 89%) and 2265 control (response rate, 87%) families. Analyses were conducted separately for randomization and quasi-experimental sites and adjusted for baseline differences between intervention and control groups. Hierarchical linear models assessed overall adjusted effects, while accounting for within-site correlation of outcomes. Intervention families were considerably more likely than controls to report receiving 4 or more developmental services and home visits and discussing 5 infant development topics. They also were more likely to be satisfied and less likely to be dissatisfied with care from their pediatric provider and were less likely to place babies in the prone sleep position or feed them water. The program did not affect breastfeeding continuation. Differences in the percentage of parents who showed picture books to their infants, fed them cereal, followed routines, and played with them daily were found only at the quasi-experimental sites and may reflect factors unrelated to HS. Intervention families received more developmental services during the first 2 to 4 months of their child's life and were happier with care received than were control families. Future surveys and medical record reviews will address whether these findings persist and translate into improved language development, better utilization of well-child care, and an effect on costs.
Juberg, D R; Alfano, K; Coughlin, R J; Thompson, K M
Mouthing behavior in infants and young children type and duration of each item mouthed. Phase I (pilot) consisted of 30 children each observed for 1 day, divided equally between the ages of 0 to 18 months (n = 15) and 19 to 36 months (n = 15), whereas Phase II included more participants (n = 92 aged 0-18 months; n = 95 aged 19-36 months). Phase III included observations for 5 nonconsecutive days over a 2-month period on 168 children between the ages of 3 to 18 months (at study initiation), and focused on total mouthing time of objects, exclusive of pacifiers. The data collected during the first 2 phases were pooled and analyzed together. For all participants between the ages of 0 and 18 months (n = 107), the average daily duration of mouthing objects included: pacifiers (108 minutes), plastic toys (17 minutes), teethers (6 minutes), and other objects (9 minutes). The results for children 19 to 36 months old (n = 110) included: pacifiers (126 minutes), plastic toys (2 minutes), teethers (0 minutes), and other objects (2 minutes). Although no significant difference existed between the 2 age ranges for pacifier mouthing duration, a statistically significant difference was observed for nonpacifier objects. For Phase III, the average daily mouthing time for all objects (excluding pacifiers), based on 5 nonconsecutive days of observation for 168 children, was 36 minutes (n = 793 valid child observation days). Results of this study indicate that mouthing behavior is dependent on age and the types of items that are mouthed. Duration of mouthing varies among children, with some consistently not mouthing any objects and with a very small number mouthing objects for >2 hours a day. The study also revealed wide variability in the types of objects mouthed, including many nontoy objects. Children mouth pacifiers significantly longer than other objects, regardless of age. Significantly increased mouthing time of all nonpacifier objects is reported for children in the 0- to 18
McCullough, Sara J; O'Donoghue, Lisa; Saunders, Kathryn J
To determine six-year spherical refractive error change among white children and young adults in the UK and evaluate differences in refractive profiles between contemporary Australian children and historical UK data...
Borzekowski, Dina L G; Cohen, Joanna E
Prosmoking messages, delivered through marketing and the media, can reach very young children and influence attitudes and behaviors around smoking. This study examined the reach of tobacco marketing to 5 and 6 year olds in 6 low- and middle-income countries. Researchers worked one-on-one with 5 and 6 year olds in Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Russia (N = 2423). The children were asked to match logos with pictures of products, including 8 logos for cigarette brands. Analyses examined, overall and by country, whether gender, age, location, household use of tobacco, and knowledge of media characters were associated with awareness of cigarette brand logos. Additional analyses considered the relationship between cigarette brand logo awareness and intentions to smoke. Overall, 68% of 5 and 6 year olds could identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo, ranging from 50% in Russia to 86% in China. Across countries, being slightly older and having someone in the household who used tobacco, were significantly associated with greater odds of being able to identify at least 1 cigarette brand logo. The majority of young children from low- and middle-income countries are familiar with cigarette brands. This study's findings suggest that more effective measures are needed to restrict the reach of tobacco marketing.
McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A; Lederman, Howard M; Aherrera, Angela D; Lefton-Greif, Maureen A; Crawford, Thomas O; Ryan, Timothy; Wright, Jennifer; Collaco, Joseph M
Pulmonary disease contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in people with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). To determine the association between age and lung function in children and young adults with A-T and to identify factors associated with decreased lung function, pulmonary function tests were performed in 100 consecutive people with A-T. Children and adults ranging from 6 to 29 years of age and with the diagnosis of A-T were recruited, and underwent pulmonary function tests. The mean forced vital capacity % predicted (FVC %) in the population was 56.6 ± 20.0. Males and females between 6 and 10 years of age had similar pulmonary function. Older females were found to have significantly lower FVCs % than both older males (P pulmonary function testing on two or more occasions over an average of 2 years. In children and young adults with A-T, older females and people who required supplemental gamma globulin had significantly lower lung function by cross-sectional analysis. Stable lung function is possible over a 2-year period. Recognition of groups who are at higher risk for lower pulmonary function may help direct care and improve clinical outcomes in people with A-T. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sugimoto, T.; Woo, M.; Okazaki, H.; Nishida, N.; Hara, T.; Yasuhara, A.; Kasahara, M.; Kobayashi, Y.
Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained from eight infants and young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. In two cases the initial scan showed diffuse edematous changes as a mass effect without laterality. Unilateral localized low attenuation in the initial scan was evident 4 days after the onset in one patient, and high attenuation in the initial scan appeared on the 6th day in another patient, but in general, it was not possible to establish an early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis from CT scan. In the longitudinal study the calcification with ventriculomegaly appeared in 3 of 5 survivors, and gyriform calcification in 2 of 3 patients, respectively. The appearance of multicystic encephalomalacia was evident in one patient 6 months after the onset of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. It is shown that the CT findings of neonates and young children with herpes simplex encephalitis are different from those of older children and adults, and the importance of longitudinal CT studies was stressed in clarifying the pathophysiology of the central nervous system involvement in survivors.
Sugimoto, T; Woo, M; Okazaki, H; Nishida, N; Hara, T; Yasuhara, A; Kasahara, M; Kobayashi, Y
Computed tomographic (CT) scans were obtained from eight infants and young children with herpes simplex virus encephalitis. In two cases the initial scan showed diffuse edematous changes as a mass effect without laterality. Unilateral localized low attenuation in the initial scan was evident 4 days after the onset in one patient, and high attenuation in the initial scan appeared on the 6th day in another patient, but in general, it was not possible to establish an early diagnosis of herpes simplex virus encephalitis from CT scan. In the longitudinal study the calcification with ventriculomegaly appeared in 3 of 5 survivors, and gyriform calcification in 2 of 3 patients, respectively. The appearance of multicystic encephalomalacia was evident in one patient 6 months after the onset of neonatal herpes simplex encephalitis. It is shown that the CT findings of neonates and young children with herpes simplex encephalitis are different from those of older children and adults, and the importance of longitudinal CT studies was stressed in clarifying the pathophysiology of the central nervous system involvement in survivors.
Hoare, Alexandria; Virgo-Milton, Monica; Boak, Rachel; Gold, Lisa; Waters, Elizabeth; Gussy, Mark; Calache, Hanny; Smith, Michael; de Silva, Andrea M
The consumption of sweetened beverages is a known common risk factor for the development of obesity and dental caries in children and children consume sweet drinks frequently and in large volumes from an early age. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence mothers when choosing drinks for their children. Semi-structured interviews (n = 32) were conducted with a purposive sample of mothers of young children from Victoria's Barwon South Western Region (selected from a larger cohort study to include families consuming different types of water, and different socioeconomic status and size). Inductive thematic analysis was conducted on transcribed interviews. Several themes emerged as influencing child drink choice. Child age: Water was the main beverage for the youngest child however it was seen as more acceptable to give older children sweetened beverages. Child preference and temperament: influencing when and if sweet drinks were given; Family influences such as grandparents increased children's consumption of sweet drinks, often providing children drinks such as fruit juice and soft drinks regardless of maternal disapproval. The Setting: children were more likely to be offered sweetened drinks either as a reward or treat for good behaviour or when out shopping, out for dinner or at parties. Limiting intake of sweet drinks is considered an important step for child general and oral health. However, the choice of drinks for children has influences from social, environmental and behavioural domains, indicating that a multi-strategy approach is required to bring about this change.
Falter, Rebecca A.; Pignotti-Dumas, Karla; Popish, Sarah J.; Petrelli, Heather M.W.; Best, Mark A.; Wilkinson, Julie J.
Objective. To implement a service learning program in nutrition and assess its impact on pharmacy students' communication skills and professionalism and elementary school children's knowledge of nutrition concepts.
Falter, Rebecca A; Pignotti-Dumas, Karla; Popish, Sarah J; Petrelli, Heather M W; Best, Mark A; Wilkinson, Julie J
To implement a service learning program in nutrition and assess its impact on pharmacy students' communication skills and professionalism and elementary school children's knowledge of nutrition concepts...
Ingunn eHagen; Usha Sidana Nayar
Abstract This article discusses yoga as a potential tool for children to deal with stress and regulate themselves. Yoga provides training of mind and body to bring emotional balance. We argue that children and young people need such tools to listen inward to their bodies, feelings, and ideas. Yoga may assist them in developing in sound ways, to strengthen themselves, and be contributing social beings.First, we address how children and young people in today’s world face numerous expectations a...
Hagen, Ingunn; Nayar, Usha S.
This article discusses yoga as a potential tool for children to deal with stress and regulate themselves. Yoga provides training of mind and body to bring emotional balance. We argue that children and young people need such tools to listen inward to their bodies, feelings, and ideas. Yoga may assist them in developing in sound ways, to strengthen themselves, and be contributing social beings. First, we address how children and young people in today’s world face numerous expectations and const...
Ireland, Penelope Jane; Johnson, Sarah; Donaghey, Samantha; Johnston, Leanne; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron
Achondroplasia, the most common form of chondrodysplasia (inherited skeletal dysplasia), is characterized by a significant delay in the development of communication and motor skills, particularly during the first 2 years. Although some information regarding timing of development for children with achondroplasia is available, no study has evaluated simultaneously the pattern of skill development across multiple key developmental areas. This study used a retrospective questionnaire to quantify developmental data on milestone achievement. Twenty families of children with achondroplasia throughout Australia and New Zealand were asked to document age of acquisition for 41 gross motor, fine motor, and communication and feeding milestones. More than one half of the items assessed were milestones identified in the Australian State Government Personal Health Record Books. The results are compared with previously available information regarding development of motor skills by a cohort of American children with achondroplasia. Although the results support previously reported delays in gross motor and communication skill development, fine motor development does not seem to be as delayed as previously suggested. Information on development of self-feeding skills is presented for the first time and occurs later in this group than the typically developing population. We describe 2 distinctive and previously unreported methods of transitioning between static positions commonly used by children with achondroplasia. Delays were reported across gross motor and communication and feeding skills but were not observed during development of fine motor skills. Additional information is also offered regarding a variety of unusual movement strategies demonstrated by young children with achondroplasia.
McAuliffe, Katherine; Jordan, Jillian J; Warneken, Felix
Human adults engage in costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior, but the developmental origins of this behavior are unknown. Here we investigate costly third-party punishment in 5- and 6-year-old children. Participants were asked to accept (enact) or reject (punish) proposed allocations of resources between a pair of absent, anonymous children. In addition, we manipulated whether subjects had to pay a cost to punish proposed allocations. Experiment 1 showed that 6-year-olds (but not 5-year-olds) punished unfair proposals more than fair proposals. However, children punished less when doing so was personally costly. Thus, while sensitive to cost, they were willing to sacrifice resources to intervene against unfairness. Experiment 2 showed that 6-year-olds were less sensitive to unequal allocations when they resulted from selfishness than generosity. These findings show that costly third-party punishment of unfair behavior is present in young children, suggesting that from early in development children show a sophisticated capacity to promote fair behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bisgaard, Hans; Szefler, Stanley
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, impact, and treatment of asthma-like symptoms in preschool children in USA and Europe. STUDY DESIGN: 7251 households in USA and Europe with at least one child aged 1-5 years were interviewed by telephone for recurrent days troubled by cough, wheeze or breat......OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, impact, and treatment of asthma-like symptoms in preschool children in USA and Europe. STUDY DESIGN: 7251 households in USA and Europe with at least one child aged 1-5 years were interviewed by telephone for recurrent days troubled by cough, wheeze...... or breathlessness during the recent 6 winter months. RESULTS: 9490 young children were identified, 32% of whom were reported to suffer from recurrent days with troublesome cough, wheeze or breathlessness. Detailed interview with the 2700 mothers of the symptomatic children showed that 24% of this interview...... > inhaled corticosteroid > oral anti-histamines > oral corticosteroids. The reported symptom burden was higher in Southern Europe and there were pronounced regional differences in treatment and diagnostic terms. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent days with cough, wheeze or breathlessness in preschool children...
Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Dawson, Anna M; Haszard, Jillian J; Brown, Deirdre A
To determine what factors are associated with parental motivation to change body weight in overweight children. Cross-sectional study. Dunedin, New Zealand. Two hundred and seventy-one children aged 4-8 years, recruited in primary and secondary care, were identified as overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile) after screening. Parents completed questionnaires on demographics; motivation to improve diet, physical activity and weight; perception and concern about weight; parenting; and social desirability, prior to being informed that their child was overweight. Additional measures of physical activity (accelerometry), dietary intake and child behaviour (questionnaire) were obtained after feedback. Although all children were overweight, only 42% of parents perceived their child to be so, with 36% indicating any concern. Very few parents (n 25, 8%) were actively trying to change the child's weight. Greater motivation to change weight was observed for girls compared with boys (P = 0.001), despite no sex difference in BMI Z-score (P = 0.374). Motivation was not associated with most demographic variables, social desirability, dietary intake, parenting or child behaviour. Increased motivation to change the child's weight was observed for heavier children (P motivation to change overweight in young children highlight the urgent need to determine how best to improve motivation to initiate change.
Reichow, Brian; Wolery, Mark
A 3-part comprehensive synthesis of the early intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) for young children with autism based on the University of California at Los Angeles Young Autism Project method (Lovaas in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 3-9, 1987) is presented. The three components of the synthesis were: (a) descriptive…
Altintzoglou, T.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Einarsdottir, G.; Schelvis, R.; Luten, J.B.
This article describes the results of a study that tested the responses to 14 seafood concepts among young adults and families with young children in Denmark, Norway, and Iceland. This study was aimed at gaining insight into the evaluation of new seafood product concepts by individuals with low
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0527 TITLE: Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder ...AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Precursors to the Development of Anxiety Disorders in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder 5b. GRANT...focused on early detection and prevention of anxiety disorders in young children with ASD. II. Keywords Autism, Anxiety, Sensory Over-Responsivity
This paper provides an overview of the impact of television on young children, with a special emphasis on the relationship among TV, childhood, and violence, and on developmentally appropriate television. Further, the paper provides strategies for parents and early childhood educators to use in taking control of the television. The paper is…
Kazmerski, Traci M; Borrero, Sonya; Sawicki, Gregory S; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Tuchman, Lisa K; Weiner, Daniel J; Pilewski, Joseph M; Orenstein, David M; Miller, Elizabeth
To investigate the attitudes and practices of cystic fibrosis (CF) providers toward sexual and reproductive health (SRH) care in young women with CF. Adult and pediatric US CF providers were sent an online survey exploring their attitudes toward SRH importance, SRH care practices, and barriers/facilitators to SRH care in adolescent and/or young adult women. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to analyze results. Attitudes toward the importance of SRH care in patients with CF and self-report of practice patterns of SRH discussion. Respondents (n = 196) were 57% pediatric (111/196) and 24% adult physicians (48/196) and 19% nurse practitioners (NPs)/physician assistants (PAs) (37/196). Ninety-four percent of respondents believed SRH was important for female patients with CF (184/196). More than 75% believed SRH care should be standardized within the CF care model (147/196) and 41% believed the CF team should have the primary role in SRH discussion and care (80/196). For many CF-specific SRH topics, discrepancies emerged between how important respondents believed these were to address and how often they reported discussing these topics in practice. Significant differences in SRH attitudes and practices were present between adult and pediatric physicians. The most significant barriers to SRH care identified were lack of time (70%, 137/196) and the presence of family in clinic room (54%, 106/196). Potential facilitators included training materials for providers (68%, 133/196) and written (71%, 139/196) or online (76%, 149/196) educational resources for patients. CF providers perceive SRH topics as important to discuss, but identify barriers to routine discussion in current practice. Providers endorsed provider training and patient educational resources as means to improve SRH delivery. Copyright © 2017 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Principi, Nicola; Zampiero, Alberto; Gambino, Monia; Scala, Alessia; Senatore, Laura; Lelii, Mara; Ascolese, Beatrice; Pelucchi, Claudio; Esposito, Susanna
Although the incidence of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection is highest in young, no study has yet been published concerning the types of HRV circulating in this population, the incidence of symptomatic infections due to the different types, or duration of shedding This prospective study evaluated the circulation of HRV species and types, and established the incidence of asymptomatic and symptomatic infections in young children. The study enrolled 93 healthy children aged <2 years, 88 of whom completed the follow-up of weekly household visits from November 2013 to February 2014. At each visit, a record was made of any signs and symptoms of acute infection, and a nasopharyngeal (NP) swab was taken in order to identify the HRVs by means of RT-polymerase chain reaction and to construct the phylogenetic tree of the HRV-positive cases. A total of 1408 NP samples were obtained and 326 HRV infections were diagnosed (23.1%), leading to a mean number of 3.7 ± 2.3 infections per child: HRV-A in 72 cases (22.1%), HRV-B in 29 (8.9%), HRV-C in 122 (37.4%), and non-typeable HRV in 103 (31.6%). Shedding was significantly longer for HRV-A (14 days) and HRV-B (14 days) than HRV-C (7 days; p = 0.002 and p = 0.012). Most of the HRV infections (209/326, 64.1%) remained asymptomatic and, when symptomatic, were of marginal clinical relevance. In healthy young children, HRV infection is extremely frequent, generally asymptomatic or with a mild clinical presentation, and viral shedding is limited in time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lee, Sang Ah; Spelke, Elizabeth S
Disoriented animals from ants to humans reorient in accord with the shape of the surrounding surface layout: a behavioral pattern long taken as evidence for sensitivity to layout geometry. Recent computational models suggest, however, that the reorientation process may not depend on geometrical analyses but instead on the matching of brightness contours in 2D images of the environment. Here we test this suggestion by investigating young children's reorientation in enclosed environments. Children reoriented by extremely subtle geometric properties of the 3D layout: bumps and ridges that protruded only slightly off the floor, producing edges with low contrast. Moreover, children failed to reorient by prominent brightness contours in continuous layouts with no distinctive 3D structure. The findings provide evidence that geometric layout representations support children's reorientation.
Neff, John M.
The arrival of summer signals a season of endless days of swimming, fishing, summer camps, and other outdoor activities. For children with chronic or terminal illnesses, it can be difficult to participate in many of these activities as well as challenging for parents to find summer camps that not only engage their children, but also offer the…
Flanagan, Kelly S.; Vanden Hoek, Kristin K.; Shelton, Andrew; Kelly, Sarah L.; Morrison, Chelsey M.; Young, Amy M.
Bibliotherapy is a therapeutic tool for helping children deal with stressful events. Bullying and peer victimization is commonly experienced by children and has been associated with psychosocial maladjustment. However, research suggests that particular coping strategies may be more or less effective. As stories are one avenue through which…
Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Tardif, Twila; Mai, Xiaoqin; Xu, Lin; Li, Mingyan; Kaciroti, Niko; Kileny, Paul R; Shao, Jie; Lozoff, Betsy
Auditory processing capabilities at the subcortical level have been hypothesized to impact an individual's development of both language and reading abilities. The present study examined whether auditory processing capabilities relate to language development in healthy 9-month-old infants. Participants were 71 infants (31 boys and 40 girls) with both Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) and language assessments. At 6 weeks and/or 9 months of age, the infants underwent ABR testing using both a standard hearing screening protocol with 30 dB clicks and a second protocol using click pairs separated by 8, 16, and 64-ms intervals presented at 80 dB. We evaluated the effects of interval duration on ABR latency and amplitude elicited by the second click. At 9 months, language development was assessed via parent report on the Chinese Communicative Development Inventory - Putonghua version (CCDI-P). Wave V latency z-scores of the 64-ms condition at 6 weeks showed strong direct relationships with Wave V latency in the same condition at 9 months. More importantly, shorter Wave V latencies at 9 months showed strong relationships with the CCDI-P composite consisting of phrases understood, gestures, and words produced. Likewise, infants who had greater decreases in Wave V latencies from 6 weeks to 9 months had higher CCDI-P composite scores. Females had higher language development scores and shorter Wave V latencies at both ages than males. Interestingly, when the ABR Wave V latencies at both ages were taken into account, the direct effects of gender on language disappeared. In conclusion, these results support the importance of low-level auditory processing capabilities for early language acquisition in a population of typically developing young infants. Moreover, the auditory brainstem response in this paradigm shows promise as an electrophysiological marker to predict individual differences in language development in young children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Zhang, Kunkun; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane
"Bookaboo" is a television programme aiming to promote literacy and reading among young children. In each episode, a celebrity reads a book to Bookaboo, a dog who plays the drums in a rock band, in order to help him overcome stage fright. Using the episode featuring the picture book (Cowell and Layton in "That Rabbit Belongs to…
This article presents the key findings and discussion from a research project and subsequent report: "Involving young children in decision making: An exploration of practitioners' views". This research explored early childhood practitioners'--childcare workers, kindergarten, pre-primary and grade 1-2 teachers--views on decision making…
Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity) on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity) in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity) - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years). Design/Methods This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year). Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 ± 1 months and 60 ± 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary) and their impact on the growth, body composition and nutritional status of young
Bell, Kristie L; Boyd, Roslyn N; Tweedy, Sean M; Weir, Kelly A; Stevenson, Richard D; Davies, Peter S W
Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity) on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity) in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity) - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years). This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year). Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 +/- 1 months and 60 +/- 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary) and their impact on the growth, body composition and nutritional status of young children with cerebral palsy across
Weir Kelly A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood, occurring in one in 500 children. It is caused by a static brain lesion in the neonatal period leading to a range of activity limitations. Oral motor and swallowing dysfunction, poor nutritional status and poor growth are reported frequently in young children with cerebral palsy and may impact detrimentally on physical and cognitive development, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in later childhood. The impact of modifiable factors (dietary intake and physical activity on growth, nutritional status, and body composition (taking into account motor severity in this population is poorly understood. This study aims to investigate the relationship between a range of factors - linear growth, body composition, oral motor and feeding dysfunction, dietary intake, and time spent sedentary (adjusting for motor severity - and health outcomes, health care utilisation, participation and quality of life in young children with cerebral palsy (from corrected age of 18 months to 5 years. Design/Methods This prospective, longitudinal, population-based study aims to recruit a total of 240 young children with cerebral palsy born in Queensland, Australia between 1st September 2006 and 31st December 2009 (80 from each birth year. Data collection will occur at three time points for each child: 17 - 25 months corrected age, 36 ± 1 months and 60 ± 1 months. Outcomes to be assessed include linear growth, body weight, body composition, dietary intake, oral motor function and feeding ability, time spent sedentary, participation, medical resource use and quality of life. Discussion This protocol describes a study that will provide the first longitudinal description of the relationship between functional attainment and modifiable lifestyle factors (dietary intake and habitual time spent sedentary and their impact on the growth, body composition and
Cameron, E Leslie; Doty, Richard L
Olfaction is important for nutrition, safety, and quality of life. Detecting smell loss in young children can be difficult, since many children with olfactory deficits do not recognize their problem and may even pretend to smell. The short attention span of some young children precludes testing with longer standardized olfactory tests. Currently there is a dearth of pediatric smell tests. In this study we evaluated the performance of 152 children and young adults on a game-like rotating "Smell Wheel" odor identification test. This forced-choice test, which can be self-administered, was designed to capture the child's imagination and to provide a standardized test measure with odors known to young children using a minimum number of trials. Thirty 4-5-year olds (10 female), 62 6-7-year olds (17 female), 30 10-11-year olds (18 female) and 30 18-19-year olds (15 female) were tested. Analysis of variance was used to assess the influences of sex and age on the test scores. All participants completed the simple and rapid test protocol. Test performance and age-related changes analogous to those obtained using longer tests were observed. Test scores of participants who self-administered the test were equivalent to those for whom the test was administered by the experimenter. Good compliance and olfactory test findings congruent with literature results were obtained using the Smell Wheel, suggesting that this test may be useful in assessing olfactory function in pediatric settings where attentional demands are compromised and test time is limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fuller, Anne; Maguire, Jonathon L; Carsley, Sarah; Chen, Yang; Lebovic, Gerald; Omand, Jessica; Parkin, Patricia; Birken, Catherine S
To determine whether parent report of difficulty buying food was associated with child body mass index (BMI) z-score or with eating habits in young children. This was a cross-sectional study in primary care offices in Toronto, Ontario. Subjects were children aged 1-5 years and their caregivers, recruited through the TARGet Kids! Research Network from July 2008 to August 2011. Regression models were developed to test the association between parent report of difficulty buying food because of cost and the following outcomes: child BMI z-score, parent's report of child's intake of fruit and vegetables, fruit juice and sweetened beverages, and fast food. Confounders included child's age, sex, birth weight, maternal BMI, education, ethnicity, immigration status, and neighbourhood income. The study sample consisted of 3333 children. Data on difficulty buying food were available for 3099 children, and 431 of these (13.9%) were from households reporting difficulty buying food. There was no association with child BMI z-score (p = 0.86). Children from households reporting difficulty buying food (compared with never having difficulty buying food) had increased odds of consuming three or fewer servings of fruits and vegetables per day (odds ratio [OR]: 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-1.69), more than one serving of fruit juice/sweetened beverage per day (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), and, among children 1-2 years old, one or more servings of fast food per week (OR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.67-5.08). Parental report of difficulty buying food is associated with less optimal eating habits in children but not with BMI z-score.
Full Text Available Background: Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS is a rare genetic disorder resulting in obesity. The diets for young children with PWS must balance the importance of preventing development of obesity with the need to supply sufficient energy and essential nutrients. Objective: To investigate the nutritional intake for children with PWS 2, 3, and 4 years of age and compare it with Nordic Nutritional Recommendations (NNR and intake of healthy controls. Design: Assessments of food intake for six children 2–4 years of age were performed twice a year. At the age of 2 and 3 years data was obtained by using food recall interviews and at 4 year of age a pre-coded food-diary was used. Results: The energy intake for the 2-year-old children was 3.25 MJ/day (SD 0.85 and for the 3- and 4-year olds 3.62 MJ/day (SD 0.73 and 4.07 MJ/day (SD 0.39 MJ, respectively. These intakes are 61%, 68%, and 77% of the estimated energy requirements in NNR for healthy 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children, respectively, and 60% and 66% of the energy intakes of 2- and 4-year-old children in reference populations. The children's BMI-for-age score and length growth was within the normal range during the study period. The intake of fat was about 25 E% in all age groups and reduced when compared with reference populations. In 25% of the assessments the fat intake was 20 E% or below. The intake of iron was below recommendations in all age groups both with and without supplementation. The mean intake of vitamin D and tocopherol was below recommendations when intakes were determined excluding dietary supplementations. Conclusions: More large-scale investigations on nutritional intake are needed to further investigate dietary challenges for this patient group.
Full Text Available The efficacy of traditional training programs (e.g., neurodevelopmental therapy in promoting independent mobility and early child development across all three International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health levels lacks rigorous research support. Therefore, early power mobility training needs to be considered as a feasible intervention for very young children who are unlikely to achieve independent mobility. This perspective article has three aims: (1 to provide empirical evidence of differences in early independent mobility, motivation, daily life activities, and social participation between young children with typical development and motor disabilities; (2 to discuss the contemporary concepts of and approaches to early power mobility training for young children with motor disabilities and the current need for changes to such training; and (3 to provide recommendations for early power mobility training in pediatric rehabilitation. Independent mobility is critical for social participation; therefore, power mobility can be accessible and implemented as early as possible, specifically for infants who are at risk for mobility or developmental delay. To maximize the positive effects of independent mobility on children’s social participation, early power mobility training must consider their levels of functioning, the amount of exploration and contextual factors, including individual and environmental factors.
Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E
The potential for the injury or death of a child resulting from the tip-over of a piece of household furniture or a domestic appliance has not been previously well recognized. We reviewed nine accidental deaths of young children that resulted from avoidable residential hazards and/or lapses in supervision of the children by their caregivers. The offending household items included televisions, bedroom dressers, a kitchen stove, and a lounge chair. The causes of death were mechanical asphyxia, blunt trauma, and combined blunt head trauma and asphyxia. All of the deaths could have been prevented by appropriate anchoring of the piece of furniture and/or closer supervision of the child. A thorough multidisciplinary investigation is essential in establishing the cause and manner of death in such cases and in identifying risk factors that may aid in the prevention of future childhood deaths. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Chawes, B L K; Kreiner-Møller, E; Bisgaard, H
BACKGROUND: Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are common childhood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To study nasal eosinophilia and nasal airway patency in young children with allergic and nonallergic rhinitis to assess the pathology behind such diagnoses. METHODS: We investigated 255 children at six years...... in a multivariate graphical model corrected for gender, height and nasal steroid usage. RESULTS: Allergic rhinitis was significantly and directly associated with irreversible nasal airway obstruction (reduced decongested nasal airway patency) (P = 0.004), whereas nonallergic rhinitis was not. Both allergic rhinitis...... (P = 0.000) and nonallergic rhinitis (P = 0.014) were directly and significantly associated with nasal eosinophilia, but this association was stronger for allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSION: Allergic rhinitis and nonallergic rhinitis are of different pathologies as suggested from their different...
Ergazaki, Marida; Valanidou, Eftychia; Kasimati, Maria-Christina; Kalantzi, Mara
This paper reports on a mixed-model case study of designing and implementing a constructivist teaching intervention about reproduction and physical family resemblance for young children. The objective of the study was to explore whether the ways that preschoolers reason about the resemblance between offspring and parents can be improved with a teaching intervention that introduces a rudimentary idea of genes through reproduction. The participants were 60 preschoolers (age 5-5.5 years) from public kindergartens of Patras. The qualitative analysis of their pre- and post semi-structured interviews showed a remarkable improvement in their reasoning, which was found to be statistically significant as well. After the three-part teaching intervention, children appeared to recognize the biological contribution of both parents to a child's creation. Moreover, most of them appeared able to attribute a child's species and body traits to the parental genes passed to the child through reproduction and not to the parents' or child's intention.
Lawson, Luan; March, Juan
For patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD), the time interval to defibrillation is the main determinant of survival. As such, the American Heart Association has attempted to promote public-access defibrillation (PAD). Previous studies have shown that automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be used successfully by untrained adults. To determine whether very young, untrained children could use AEDs. Third-grade students from an elementary school participated in this study representing a convenience sample of volunteers. They were given no formal training, but were shown how to peel off the backing from the electrode pads, like a sticker. Students were then given a mock code situation using a training manikin. The time to delivery of first shock was recorded. Students were then trained during a 2-minute review of the process, one on one with an instructor, and the study was then repeated. Data were analyzed using a paired Student's t-test comparing pre- and post-training. Thirty-one children participated in the study, with a median age of 9 years. For untrained children, the mean time for delivery of the first shock was 59.3 +/- 13.6 seconds, 95% CI = 54.3 to 64.3. Following training, the mean time for delivery of the first shock was 35.2 +/- 6.0 seconds, 95% CI = 33.0 to 37.4, p = 0.001. Although this study suggests that even very young, untrained children can successfully perform automated external defibrillation, training does significantly decrease the time to delivery of first shock.
Lou, Chao-hua; Zhao, Quan; Gao, Er-Sheng; Shah, Iqbal H
To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of sex education conducted through the Internet. Two high schools and four colleges of a university in Shanghai were selected as the research sites. Half of these were assigned to the intervention group and the other half to the control group. The interventions consisted of offering sexual and reproductive health knowledge, service information, counseling and discussion to all grade one students in the intervention group. The intervention phase lasted for 10 months and was implemented through a special website, with web pages, online videos, Bulletin Board System (BBS) and expert mailbox. In total, 624 students from the intervention, and 713 from the control schools and colleges participated in the baseline survey, and about 97% of them were followed up in postintervention survey to assess changes that can be attributed to the sex education interventions provided through the Internet. The median scores of the overall knowledge and of each specific aspect of reproductive health such as reproduction, contraception, condom, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) were significantly higher in the intervention group as compared with those in the control group at postintervention (p .05). Group by time interaction effects in ordinal logistic regression analysis were found on knowledge score (p people. Providing sex education to students in Shanghai through the Internet was found feasible and effective. The Internet-based sex education program increased students' reproductive health knowledge effectively and changed their attitudes toward sex-related issues in terms of being less liberal toward sex and more favorable to providing services to unmarried young people. The Internet thus offers an important and hitherto untapped potential for providing sex education to students and young people in China.
Hatfield, Bridget E; Williford, Amanda P
Supportive and close relationships that young children have with teachers have lasting effects on children's behavior and academic success, and this is particularly true for children with challenging behaviors. These relationships are also important for children's developing stress response system, and children in child care may be more likely to display atypical cortisol patterns at child care. However, warm, supportive relationships with teachers may buffer these negative effects of child care. While many relationship-focused early childhood interventions demonstrate changes in child behavior, associations with children's stress response system are unknown. This study assessed children's activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via salivary cortisol as a function of their participation in a dyadic intervention intended to improve a teacher's interaction quality with a particular child. Seventy teachers and 113 preschool children participated who were part of a larger study of teachers and children were randomly assigned at the classroom level across three intervention conditions: Banking Time, Time-Control Comparison (Child Time), and Business-as-Usual. At the end of the school year, children in the Banking Time condition displayed a significantly greater decline in cortisol across the morning during preschool compared to children in Business-as-Usual condition. These pilot results are among the first to provide preliminary evidence that school-based interventions that promote sensitive and responsive interactions may improve young children's activity in the stress response system within the child care/early education context.
Martin, J M; O'Halloran, K A; Butcher, J A; Hopcraft, M S; Arnold-Smith, T S; Calache, H
There are significant levels of dental caries in Australian school-aged children, with children aged five years having a mean dmft of 1.3. It has also been identified that, in general, oral health clinicians lack confidence to treat very young children and this study aimed to increase capacity of public sector oral health clinicians to treat preschool children. An educational program was developed, implemented and evaluated for its capability to increase the confidence and knowledge of oral health clinicians and dental assistants in providing oral care for children aged 12 months to 5 years. In 2011 and 2012, the course was delivered to 36 clinicians (22 dentists, 12 dental therapists, and two oral health therapists) and showed increases in their confidence and knowledge for participants when providing dental procedures to preschool children. The educational program that was developed and implemented has met its objective of increasing the knowledge and confidence of practicing oral health clinicians and dental assistants in the management of preschool children. Strategies to further enhance the outcomes of this educational program have been proposed.
... A New Medical Specialty Helping Young Cancer Patients Have Children Past Issues / Fall 2014 Table of Contents ... idea of having children after cancer would not have been thought of at all. Today, due to ...
Berman, Phyllis W.
In an investigation of young children's use of context cues in reproducing drawings and geometric shapes, 36 preschool children drew a series of horizontal, vertical, and oblique lines from immediate memory on square backgrounds. (BRT)
Shulamit N Ritblatt; Audrey Hokoda; Charles VanLiew
...) graduate level certificate program was created to strengthen early care and education providers with the knowledge and practice of how to support emotion and behavior regulation in young children in their groups...
Treiman, Rebecca; Decker, Kristina; Kessler, Brett; Pollo, Tatiana Cury
A number of investigators have suggested that young children, even those who do not yet represent the phonological forms of words in their spellings, tend to use different strings of letters for different words. However, empirical evidence that children possess a concept of between-word variation has been weak. In a study by Pollo, Kessler, and Treiman (2009), in fact, prephonological spellers were more likely to write different words in the same way than would be expected on the basis of chance, not less likely. In the current study, preschool-age prephonological and phonological spellers showed a tendency to repeat spellings and parts of spellings that they had recently used. However, even prephonological spellers (mean age∼4 years 8 months) showed more repetition when spelling the same word twice in succession than when spelling different words. The results suggest that children who have not yet learned to use writing to represent the sounds of speech show some knowledge that writing represents words and, thus, should vary to show differences between them. The results further suggest that in spelling, as in other domains, children have a tendency to repeat recent behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Treiman, Rebecca; Mulqueeny, Kevin; Kessler, Brett
Children who are knowledgeable about the basic properties of writing when formal literacy instruction begins are better prepared to benefit from that instruction than children who know less about this topic. In the present study, we examined U.S. preschoolers' knowledge about one aspect of writing: its spatial arrangement. Our participants, who had a mean age of 4 years, 2 months and who could not read any words in a list of simple words, were significantly above the level of chance at determining that horizontally arranged strings of letters are more like the writing in books than are letters with vertical, diagonal, or scattered arrangements. Contrary to the theory that children learn about the characteristics of writing that hold true in all writing systems before they learn about the characteristics that are specific to their own writing system, young children did not show a priority for vertical arrangements. The results are more consistent with the hypothesis that preschoolers apply their statistical learning skills to the spatial layout of writing.
Harris, Paul L.; Bartz, Deborah T.; Rowe, Meredith L.
Children acquire information, especially about the culture in which they are being raised, by listening to other people. Recent evidence has shown that young children are selective learners who preferentially accept information, especially from informants who are likely to be representative of the surrounding culture. However, the extent to which children understand this process of information transmission and actively exploit it to fill gaps in their knowledge has not been systematically investigated. We review evidence that toddlers exhibit various expressive behaviors when faced with knowledge gaps. They look toward an available adult, convey ignorance via nonverbal gestures (flips/shrugs), and increasingly produce verbal acknowledgments of ignorance (“I don’t know”). They also produce comments and questions about what their interlocutors might know and adopt an interrogative stance toward them. Thus, in the second and third years, children actively seek information from interlocutors via nonverbal gestures or verbal questions and display a heightened tendency to encode and retain such sought-after information. PMID:28739959