WorldWideScience

Sample records for providing transparent access

  1. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information....... But with the ubiquity of digital technology and data, transparency efforts have more elaborate and complex effects. To conceptualize these, this article discusses the technological and mediated foundations of transparency and the dynamics of visibility practices resulting from efforts to make people, objects......, and processes knowable and governable. This implies that we shift our attention away from the provision of information and consider the wider social processes and dynamics at work in transparency efforts. Using empirical illustrations from organizations with an explicit commitment to transparency, this article...

  2. Promoting transparency, accountability, and access through a multi-stakeholder initiative: lessons from the medicines transparency alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Taryn; Kohler, Jillian C; Forte, Gilles; Dimancesco, Deirdre

    2017-01-01

    Barriers to expanding access to medicines include weak pharmaceutical sector governance, lack of transparency and accountability, inadequate attention to social services on the political agenda, and financing challenges. Multi-stakeholder initiatives such as the Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA) may help overcome these barriers. Between 2008 and 2015, MeTA engaged stakeholders in the pharmaceutical sectors of seven countries (Ghana, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Peru, Philippines, Uganda, and Zambia) to promote access goals through greater transparency. We reviewed archival data to document MeTA activities and results related to transparency and accountability in the seven countries where it was implemented. We identified common themes and content areas, noting specific activities used to make information transparent and accessible, how data were used to inform discussions, and the purpose and timing of meetings and advocacy activities to help set priorities and influence governance decisions. The cross-case analysis looked for pathways which might link the MeTA strategies to results such as better policies or program improvements. Countries used evidence gathering, open meetings, and proactive information dissemination to increase transparency. MeTA fostered policy dialogue to bring together the many government, civil society and private company stakeholders concerned with access issues, and provided them with information to understand barriers to access at policy, organizational, and community levels. We found strong evidence that transparency was enhanced. Some evidence suggests that MeTA efforts contributed to new policies and civil society capacity strengthening although the impact on government accountability is not clear. MeTA appears to have achieved its goal of creating a multi-stakeholder shared policy space in which government, civil society, and private sector players can come together and have a voice in the national pharmaceutical policy making process

  3. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    This article challenges the view of transparency as a matter of providing openness, insight, and clarity by conceptualizing it as a form of visibility management. We tend to think of transparency as a process of ensuring accountability through the timely and public disclosure of information....... But with the ubiquity of digital technology and data, transparency efforts have more elaborate and complex effects. To conceptualize these, this article discusses the technological and mediated foundations of transparency and the dynamics of visibility practices resulting from efforts to make people, objects...... articulates the complexities and dynamics of visibility management and highlights a set of critical questions about the politics, technologies, and power effects of contemporary transparency regimes....

  4. Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Albu, Oana Brindusa

    2017-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent research topic in many scholarly disciplines and offers valuable insights for organizational communication. This entry provides an overview of the historical background and identifies some themes that presently inform the transparency literature. The entry...... then outlines the most important dimensions of the concept of transparency by highlighting two paradigmatic positions underpinning contemporary research in this area: namely, informational approaches that focus on the sharing of information and the perceived quality of that information and social process...... orientations that explore the dynamics of transparency in organizational settings. The entry highlights emergent methodological and conceptual insights concerning transparency as a dynamic and paradoxical social process with performative characteristics – an approach that remains underexplored....

  5. Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, A.

    2012-01-01

    Transparency is commonly understood as openness and the “opposite of secrecy” (Florini 1998), to be secured through greater availability and increased flows of information. In our globalizing era, transparency seems to be implicated in every controversy of the moment, from the 2010 WikiLeaks

  6. Accessibility of MOOCs: Understanding the Provider Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesto, Francisco; McAndrew, Patrick; Minocha, Shailey; Coughlan, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) have become an accepted way to make learning opportunities available at large scale and with low cost to the learner. However, only if these are made accessible will they be able to offer flexibility of learning and benefits to all, irrespective of disability. Experience in providing accessible online learning…

  7. Price transparency for MRIs increased use of less costly providers and triggered provider competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sze-jung; Sylwestrzak, Gosia; Shah, Christiane; DeVries, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    To encourage patients to select high-value providers, an insurer-initiated price transparency program that focused on elective advanced imaging procedures was implemented. Patients having at least one outpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan in 2010 or 2012 were divided according to their membership in commercial health plans participating in the program (the intervention group) or in nonparticipating commercial health plans (the reference group) in similar US geographic regions. Patients in the intervention group were informed of price differences among available MRI facilities and given the option of selecting different providers. For those patients, the program resulted in a $220 cost reduction (18.7 percent) per test and a decrease in use of hospital-based facilities from 53 percent in 2010 to 45 percent in 2012. Price variation between hospital and nonhospital facilities for the intervention group was reduced by 30 percent after implementation. Nonparticipating members residing in intervention areas also observed price reductions, which indicates increased price competition among providers. The program significantly reduced imaging costs. This suggests that patients select lower-price facilities when informed about available alternatives. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. From Access to Documents to Consumption of Information: The European Commission Transparency Policy for the TTIP Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Coremans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To increase transparency of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP negotiations, the European Commission has reformed existing information sharing systems for trade policy. The Commission has moved from a strategy of providing transparency in the form of access to documents to one of access to information, geared specifically towards enhancing consumption of the available information. In both public and institutional transparency policy, the width of the target audience and the depth of the information have increased, and the manner of provision has shifted from reactive to proactive provision of information. As a result, the TTIP is now being coined as the most transparent trade negotiation ever in the EU’s history and a pilot project for transparency policy in future trade negotiations. The article adopts a supply-centred perspective to explain a transparency policy that goes beyond the legal minimum imposed by formal requirements. It relies on interview data of the changes brought about in inter-institutional relations since 2014, basic quantitative and qualitative analysis of document material, and a five-month participatory observation by the author in the secretariat of the European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade.

  9. Access to forest inventory data: towards transparency in public administration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghetti M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparency in public administration is an important issue in a modern democracy. Thus, we are glad to know the National Forest Service of Italy (Corpo Forestale dello Stato will make soon available on the web the forest inventory data collected in the ongoing National Inventory of Forests and Carbon stocks. We expect all public administrations “storing” important environmental data sets follow this way.

  10. A Framework for Transparently Accessing Deep Web Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragut, Eduard Constantin

    2010-01-01

    An increasing number of Web sites expose their content via query interfaces, many of them offering the same type of products/services (e.g., flight tickets, car rental/purchasing). They constitute the so-called "Deep Web". Accessing the content on the Deep Web has been a long-standing challenge for the database community. For a user interested in…

  11. #DDOD Use Case: Access to Medicare Part D Drug Event File (PDE) for cost transparency

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case to request access to Medicare Part D Drug Event File (PDE) for cost transparency to pharmacies and patients. WHAT IS A USE CASE? A “Use Case”...

  12. Providing Data Access for Interdisciplinary Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Couch, A.

    2012-12-01

    Developing an interdisciplinary understanding of human and environmental interactions with water requires access to a variety of data kinds collected by various organizations. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a standards-based, services-oriented architecture designed for time-series data. Such data represents an important type of data in water studies. Through the efforts of HIS, a standard transmission language, WaterML2, has been adopted by the Open Geospatial Consortium and is under consideration by the World Meteorologic Organization as an international standards. Web services have also been developed to retrieve data and metadata. HIS is completed with a metadata catalog, hosted by San Diego Supercomputing Center, which indexes more than 20 million time series provided from over 90 different services. This catalog is supported through a hierarchically organized controlled vocabulary that is open for community input and mediation. Data publishers include federal agencies, universities, state agencies, and non-profit organizations such as watershed associations. Accessing data from such a broad spectrum of sources through a uniform service standard promises to truly transform the way in which hydrologic research is done. CUAHSI HIS is a large-scale prototype at this time, but a proposal is under consideration by the National Science Foundation to operationalize HIS through a data facility, tentatively called the CUAHSI Water Data Center. Establishing HIS is an important step to enable research into human-environment interactions with water, but it is only one step. Other data structures will need to be made accessible and interoperable to support this research. Some data—such as two-dimensional GIS coverages—already have widely used standards for transmission and sharing. The US Federal government has long operated a clearinghouse for federal geographic data that is now being augmented with other services such as ArcGIS OnLine. Other data

  13. Strategy for a transparent, accessible, and sustainable national claims database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelburd, Robin

    2015-03-01

    The article outlines the strategy employed by FAIR Health, Inc, an independent nonprofit, to maintain a national database of over 18 billion private health insurance claims to support consumer education, payer and provider operations, policy makers, and researchers with standard and customized data sets on an economically self-sufficient basis. It explains how FAIR Health conducts all operations in-house, including data collection, security, validation, information organization, product creation, and transmission, with a commitment to objectivity and reliability in data and data products. It also describes the data elements available to researchers and the diverse studies that FAIR Health data facilitate.

  14. Regulatory transparency: social, technical, and ethical aspects of clinical trial data access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Varley Dias; Silveira, Dâmaris

    2015-06-01

    In the field of health regulation, enabling public access to data from clinical trials is a process currently undergoing consolidation by the principal regulators worldwide. This paper discusses recent developments in public policy regarding regulatory transparency, and the risks and benefits of a regulatory impact-analysis on clinical trial reports, from the perspective of the key stakeholders (i.e., patients, prescribers, government, society, industry, and regulators). Additionally, the social, technical, and ethical aspects of the datasharing process are highlighted, including access limits, commercially-confidential data and patent rights, privacy of research subjects, arrangements and publicity tools, and clinical trials registration. Furthermore, perspectives on improvement and expansion of regulatory transparency policies are presented, contextualizing North American, Latin American, and European experiences, and highlighting in-teragency cooperation and collaboration initiatives that aim to harmonize health programs and regulatory convergence.

  15. Transparent mediation-based access to multiple yeast data sources using an ontology driven interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briache, Abdelaali; Marrakchi, Kamar; Kerzazi, Amine; Navas-Delgado, Ismael; Rossi Hassani, Badr D; Lairini, Khalid; Aldana-Montes, José F

    2012-01-25

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is recognized as a model system representing a simple eukaryote whose genome can be easily manipulated. Information solicited by scientists on its biological entities (Proteins, Genes, RNAs...) is scattered within several data sources like SGD, Yeastract, CYGD-MIPS, BioGrid, PhosphoGrid, etc. Because of the heterogeneity of these sources, querying them separately and then manually combining the returned results is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists most of whom are not bioinformatics expert. It also reduces and limits the use that can be made on the available data. To provide transparent and simultaneous access to yeast sources, we have developed YeastMed: an XML and mediator-based system. In this paper, we present our approach in developing this system which takes advantage of SB-KOM to perform the query transformation needed and a set of Data Services to reach the integrated data sources. The system is composed of a set of modules that depend heavily on XML and Semantic Web technologies. User queries are expressed in terms of a domain ontology through a simple form-based web interface. YeastMed is the first mediation-based system specific for integrating yeast data sources. It was conceived mainly to help biologists to find simultaneously relevant data from multiple data sources. It has a biologist-friendly interface easy to use. The system is available at http://www.khaos.uma.es/yeastmed/.

  16. JSTOR: Providing New Access to Old Research

    OpenAIRE

    K.M. Guthrie

    1998-01-01

    Much has transpired in a short period of time. The JSTOR database now includes well over two million pages from 47 core journals in 11 academic disciplines. Additional journal content is being digitized at a rate of approximately 100,000 pages per month. More than 250 libraries in the United States and Canada have become participating institutions, providing support for the creation, maintenance and growth of this database. Outside of North America, we have recently announced the establishmen...

  17. Transparency of Mandatory Information Disclosure and Concerns of Health Services Providers and Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hua Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study analyzed differences between transparency of information disclosure and related demands from the health service consumer’s perspective. It also compared how health service providers and consumers are associated by different levels of mandatory information disclosure. Methods: We obtained our research data using a questionnaire survey (health services providers, n = 201; health service consumers, n = 384. Results: Health service consumers do not have major concerns regarding mandatory information disclosure. However, they are concerned about complaint channels and settlement results, results of patient satisfaction surveys, and disclosure of hospital financial statements (p < 0.001. We identified significant differences in health service providers’ and consumers’ awareness regarding the transparency of information disclosure (p < 0.001. Conclusions: It may not be possible for outsiders to properly interpret the information provided by hospitals. Thus, when a hospital discloses information, it is necessary for the government to consider the information’s applicability. Toward improving medical expertise and information asymmetry, the government has to reduce the burden among health service consumers in dealing with this information, and it has to use the information effectively.

  18. Demonstrate provider accessibility with desktop and online services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    It's available on personal computers with a CD or through Internet access. Assess instantly the accessibility of your provider network or the most promising areas to establish a health service with new GIS tools.

  19. Does small equal predatory? Analysis of publication charges and transparency of editorial policies in Croatian open access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovski, Jadranka; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    We approach the problem of "predatory" journals and publishers from the perspective of small scientific communities and small journals that may sometimes be perceived as "predatory". Among other characteristics of "predatory" journals two most relevant are their business model and the quality of the editorial work. We analysed 444 Croatian open access (OA) journals in the Hrčak (portal of Croatian scientific journals) digital journal repository for the presence of article processing charges as a business model and the transparency of editorial policies. The majority of journals do not charge authors or require submission or article processing charges, which clearly distinguishes them from "predatory" journals. Almost all Hrčak OA journals have publicly available information on editorial boards, including full names and affiliations, and detailed contact information for the editorial office at the Hrčak website. The journal names are unique and cannot be easily confused with another journal or intend to mislead about the journal's origin. While most journals provide information on peer review process, many do not provide guidelines for reviewers or other editorial and publication ethics standards. In order to clearly differentiate themselves from predatory journals, it is not enough for journals from small research communities to operate on non-commercial bases, but also to have transparent editorial policies.

  20. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Methods and Findings Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals’ websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors’ ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal’s impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. Conclusions The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic

  1. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherts, Jelte M

    2016-01-01

    Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process. Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals' websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors' ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal's impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA) journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ). Results show high reliability across items (α = .91) and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar. The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic quality in new journals.

  2. Peer Review Quality and Transparency of the Peer-Review Process in Open Access and Subscription Journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelte M Wicherts

    Full Text Available Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA and traditional (subscription journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the peer-review process may be seen as an indicator of the quality of peer-review, and develop and validate a tool enabling different stakeholders to assess transparency of the peer-review process.Based on editorial guidelines and best practices, I developed a 14-item tool to rate transparency of the peer-review process on the basis of journals' websites. In Study 1, a random sample of 231 authors of papers in 92 subscription journals in different fields rated transparency of the journals that published their work. Authors' ratings of the transparency were positively associated with quality of the peer-review process but unrelated to journal's impact factors. In Study 2, 20 experts on OA publishing assessed the transparency of established (non-OA journals, OA journals categorized as being published by potential predatory publishers, and journals from the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ. Results show high reliability across items (α = .91 and sufficient reliability across raters. Ratings differentiated the three types of journals well. In Study 3, academic librarians rated a random sample of 140 DOAJ journals and another 54 journals that had received a hoax paper written by Bohannon to test peer-review quality. Journals with higher transparency ratings were less likely to accept the flawed paper and showed higher impact as measured by the h5 index from Google Scholar.The tool to assess transparency of the peer-review process at academic journals shows promising reliability and validity. The transparency of the peer-review process can be seen as an indicator of peer-review quality allowing the tool to be used to predict academic quality in new journals.

  3. Providing Access to Electronic Information Resources in Further Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Linda; Ray, Kathryn; Coulson, Graham; Urquhart, Christine; Lonsdale, Ray; Armstrong, Chris; Thomas, Rhian; Spink, Sin; Yeoman, Alison; Fenton, Roger; Rowley, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    This article aims to provide a baseline for future studies on the provision and support for the use of digital or electronic information services (EIS) in further education. The analysis presented is based on a multi-level model of access, which encompasses access to and availability of information and communication technology (ICT) resources,…

  4. Peer review quality and transparency of the peer-review process in open access and subscription journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent controversies highlighting substandard peer review in Open Access (OA) and traditional (subscription) journals have increased the need for authors, funders, publishers, and institutions to assure quality of peer-review in academic journals. I propose that transparency of the

  5. A novel resource management method of providing operating system as a service for mobile transparent computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yonghua; Huang, Suzhen; Wu, Min; Zhang, Yaoxue; She, Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for mobile transparent computing. It extends the PC transparent computing to mobile terminals. Since resources contain different kinds of operating systems and user data that are stored in a remote server, how to manage the network resources is essential. In this paper, we apply the technologies of quick emulator (QEMU) virtualization and mobile agent for mobile transparent computing (MTC) to devise a method of managing shared resources and services management (SRSM). It has three layers: a user layer, a manage layer, and a resource layer. A mobile virtual terminal in the user layer and virtual resource management in the manage layer cooperate to maintain the SRSM function accurately according to the user's requirements. An example of SRSM is used to validate this method. Experiment results show that the strategy is effective and stable.

  6. A Novel Resource Management Method of Providing Operating System as a Service for Mobile Transparent Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Xiong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework for mobile transparent computing. It extends the PC transparent computing to mobile terminals. Since resources contain different kinds of operating systems and user data that are stored in a remote server, how to manage the network resources is essential. In this paper, we apply the technologies of quick emulator (QEMU virtualization and mobile agent for mobile transparent computing (MTC to devise a method of managing shared resources and services management (SRSM. It has three layers: a user layer, a manage layer, and a resource layer. A mobile virtual terminal in the user layer and virtual resource management in the manage layer cooperate to maintain the SRSM function accurately according to the user’s requirements. An example of SRSM is used to validate this method. Experiment results show that the strategy is effective and stable.

  7. Sci-Hub provides access to nearly all scholarly literature

    OpenAIRE

    Himmelstein, Daniel S.; Romero, Ariel R.; McLaughlin, Stephen R.; Tzovaras, Bastian Greshake; Greene, Casey S.

    2017-01-01

    The website Sci-Hub provides access to scholarly literature via full text PDF downloads. The site enables users to access articles that would otherwise be paywalled. Since its creation in 2011, Sci-Hub has grown rapidly in popularity. However, until now, the extent of Sci-Hub’s coverage was unclear. As of March 2017, we find that Sci-Hub’s database contains 68.9% of all 81.6 million scholarly articles, which rises to 85.2% for those published in toll access journals. Coverage varies by discip...

  8. Access to finance from different finance provider types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wulandari, Eliana; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Karmana, Maman H.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers’ access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance

  9. Metadata and Providing Access to e-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasileiou, Magdalini; Rowley, Jennifer; Hartley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In the very near future, students are likely to expect their universities to provide seamless access to e-books through online library catalogues and virtual learning environments. A paradigm change in terms of the format of books, and especially textbooks, which could have far-reaching impact, is on the horizon. Based on interviews with a number…

  10. Bring Your Own Device - Providing Reliable Model of Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stąpór Paweł

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD as a model network, which provides the user reliable access to network resources. BYOD is a model dynamically developing, which can be applied in many areas. Research network has been launched in order to carry out the test, in which as a service of BYOD model Work Folders service was used. This service allows the user to synchronize files between the device and the server. An access to the network is completed through the wireless communication by the 802.11n standard. Obtained results are shown and analyzed in this article.

  11. Internet access and investment incentives for broadband service providers

    OpenAIRE

    Baranes, Edmond; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies a model of the Internet broadband market as a platform in order to show how di¤erent pricing schemes from the so-called "net neutrality " can increase economic e¢ ciency by allowing more investment of access providers and enhancing consumers surplus and social welfare. We show that departing from the "net neutrality", where at rates are used, introducing termination fees can increase incentives to invest for the ISP and enhance social surplus. Keywords : Network neutrality,...

  12. Transparency and public accessibility of clinical trial information in Croatia: how it affects patient participation in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šolić, Ivana; Stipčić, Ana; Pavličević, Ivančica; Marušić, Ana

    2017-06-15

    Despite increased visibility of clinical trials through international trial registries, patients often remain uninformed of their existence, especially if they do not have access to adequate information about clinical research, including the language of the information. The aim of this study was to describe the context for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia in relation to countries in Central and Eastern Europe, and to assess how informed Croatian patients are about clinical trials and their accessibility. We assessed the transparency of clinical trials from the data available in the public domain. We also conducted an anonymous survey on a convenience sample of 257 patients visiting two family medicine offices or an oncology department in south Croatia, and members of national patients' associations. Despite legal provisions for transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, they are still not sufficiently visible in the public domain. Among countries from Central and Eastern Europe, Croatia has the fewest number of registered trials in the EU Clinical Trials Registry. 66% of the patients in the survey were aware of the existence of clinical trials but only 15% were informed about possibilities of participating in a trial. Although 58% of the respondents were willing to try new treatments, only 6% actually participated in a clinical trial. Only 2% of the respondents were aware of publicly available trial registries. Our study demonstrates that there is low transparency of clinical trials in Croatia, and that Croatian patients are not fully aware of clinical trials and the possibilities of participating in them, despite reported availability of Internet resources and good communication with their physicians. There is a need for active policy measures to increase the awareness of and access to clinical trials to patients in Croatia, particularly in their own language.

  13. Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    2018-01-01

    Transparency is an increasingly prominent area of research that offers valuable insights for organizational studies. However, conceptualizations of transparency are rarely subject to critical scrutiny and thus their relevance remains unclear. In most accounts, transparency is associated...... with the sharing of information and the perceived quality of the information shared. This narrow focus on information and quality, however, overlooks the dynamics of organizational transparency. To provide a more structured conceptualization of organizational transparency, this article unpacks the assumptions...... that shape the extant literature, with a focus on three dimensions: conceptualizations, conditions, and consequences. The contribution of the study is twofold: (a) On a conceptual level, we provide a framework that articulates two paradigmatic positions underpinning discussions of transparency, verifiability...

  14. The access of political representatives to information and the new laws on transparency and access to public information. In particular, their capacity to file claims with the transparency authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Guichot Reina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The new public independent authorities in charge of access to information’s claims have adopted conflicting positions on the rules applicable to requests for information made by political representatives and on their own competence to hear complaints they may raise. The right of access to the information of the political representatives cannot have a smaller scope in its substantive, procedural and guarantees content than the one that the new regulation on transparency and access to the information recognizes to any person. The case law of the Supreme Court has consistently affirmed this. It would contribute to legal certainty if this criterion was followed by every new public independent authorities and it was expressly established by a future legislative reform.

  15. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Mars Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMars server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Mars images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of Mars. The OnMars server is an implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server. Unlike other Mars Internet map servers that provide Martian data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMars WMS server supports encoding of data in Mars-specific coordinate systems. The OnMars server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Martian image and elevation data, including an 8-meter-per-pixel uncontrolled mosaic of most of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera Narrow Angle (MOCNA) image collection, which is not available elsewhere. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF), Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. The OnMars server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  16. Providing Internet Access to High-Resolution Lunar Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesea, Lucian

    2008-01-01

    The OnMoon server is a computer program that provides Internet access to high-resolution Lunar images, maps, and elevation data, all suitable for use in geographical information system (GIS) software for generating images, maps, and computational models of the Moon. The OnMoon server implements the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Map Service (WMS) server protocol and supports Moon-specific extensions. Unlike other Internet map servers that provide Lunar data using an Earth coordinate system, the OnMoon server supports encoding of data in Moon-specific coordinate systems. The OnMoon server offers access to most of the available high-resolution Lunar image and elevation data. This server can generate image and map files in the tagged image file format (TIFF) or the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), 8- or 16-bit Portable Network Graphics (PNG), or Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. Image control is provided by use of the OGC Style Layer Descriptor (SLD) protocol. Full-precision spectral arithmetic processing is also available, by use of a custom SLD extension. This server can dynamically add shaded relief based on the Lunar elevation to any image layer. This server also implements tiled WMS protocol and super-overlay KML for high-performance client application programs.

  17. Provider barriers to family planning access in urban Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumlinson, Katherine; Okigbo, Chinelo C; Speizer, Ilene S

    2015-08-01

    A better understanding of the prevalence of service provider-imposed barriers to family planning can inform programs intended to increase contraceptive use. This study, based on data from urban Kenya, describes the frequency of provider self-reported restrictions related to clients' age, parity, marital status, and third-party consent, and considers the impact of facility type and training on restrictive practices. Trained data collectors interviewed 676 service providers at 273 health care facilities in five Kenyan cities. Service providers were asked questions about their background and training and were also asked about age, marital, parity, or consent requirements for providing family planning services. More than half of providers (58%) reported imposing minimum age restrictions on one or more methods. These restrictions were commonly imposed on clients seeking injectables, a popular method in urban Kenya, with large numbers refusing to offer injectables to women younger than 20 years. Forty-one percent of providers reported that they would not offer one or more methods to nulliparous women and more than one in four providers reported that they would not offer the injectable to women without at least one child. Providers at private facilities were significantly more likely to impose barriers, across all method types, and those without in-service training on family planning provision had a significantly higher prevalence of imposing parity, marital, and consent barriers across most methods. Programs need to address provider-imposed barriers that reduce access to contraceptive methods particularly among young, lower parity, and single women. Promising strategies include targeting private facility providers and increasing the prevalence of in-service training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The SOOS Data Portal, providing access to Southern Oceans data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Roger; Finney, Kim; Blain, Peter; Taylor, Fiona; Newman, Louise; Meredith, Mike; Schofield, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) is an international initiative to enhance, coordinate and expand the strategic observations of the Southern Oceans that are required to address key scientific and societal challenges. A key component of SOOS will be the creation and maintenance of a Southern Ocean Data Portal to provide improved access to historical and ongoing data (Schofield et al., 2012, Eos, Vol. 93, No. 26, pp 241-243). The scale of this effort will require strong leveraging of existing data centres, new cyberinfrastructure development efforts, and defined data collection, quality control, and archiving procedures across the international community. The task of assembling the SOOS data portal is assigned to the SOOS Data Management Sub-Committee. The information infrastructure chosen for the SOOS data portal is based on the Australian Ocean Data Network (AODN, http://portal.aodn.org.au). The AODN infrastructure is built on open-source tools and the use of international standards ensures efficiency of data exchange and interoperability between contributing systems. OGC standard web services protocols are used for serving of data via the internet. These include Web Map Service (WMS) for visualisation, Web Feature Service (WFS) for data download, and Catalogue Service for Web (CSW) for catalogue exchange. The portal offers a number of tools to access and visualize data: - a Search link to the metadata catalogue enables search and discovery by simple text search, by geographic area, temporal extent, keyword, parameter, organisation, or by any combination of these, allowing users to gain access to further information and/or the data for download. Also, searches can be restricted to items which have either data to download, or attached map layers, or both - a Map interface for discovery and display of data, with the ability to change the style and opacity of layers, add additional data layers via OGC Web Map Services, view animated timeseries datastreams

  19. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tony E.; Bakker, Alexander M. R.; Ruckert, Kelsey; Applegate, Patrick; Slangen, Aimée B. A.; Keller, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components), and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge) v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  20. A report card on provider report cards: current status of the health care transparency movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, Jon B; Volmar, Karen M; Alexander, Jeffrey; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2010-11-01

    Public reporting of provider performance can assist consumers in their choice of providers and stimulate providers to improve quality. Reporting of quality measures is supported by advocates of health care reform across the political spectrum. To assess the availability, credibility and applicability of existing public reports of hospital and physician quality, with comparisons across geographic areas. Information pertaining to 263 public reports in 21 geographic areas was collected through reviews of websites and telephone and in-person interviews, and used to construct indicators of public reporting status. Interview data collected in 14 of these areas were used to assess recent changes in reporting and their implications. Interviewees included staff of state and local associations, health plan representatives and leaders of local health care alliances. There were more reports of hospital performance (161) than of physician performance (103) in the study areas. More reports included measures derived from claims data (mean, 7.2 hospital reports and 3.3 physician reports per area) than from medical records data. Typically, reports on physician performance contained measures of chronic illness treatment constructed at the medical group level, with diabetes measures the most common (mean number per non-health plan report, 2.3). Patient experience measures were available in more hospital reports (mean number of reports, 1.2) than physician reports (mean, 0.7). Despite the availability of national hospital reports and reports sponsored by national health plans, from a consumer standpoint the status of public reporting depended greatly on where one lived and health plan membership. Current public reports, and especially reports of physician quality of care, have significant limitations from both consumer and provider perspectives. The present approach to reporting is being challenged by the development of new information sources for consumers, and consumer and provider

  1. Do the media provide transparent health information? A cross-cultural comparison of public information about the HPV vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemer, Nicolai; Müller, Stephanie M; Okan, Yasmina; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Neumeyer-Gromen, Angela

    2012-05-28

    The media is a powerful tool for informing the public about health treatments. In particular, the Internet has gained importance as a widely valued source for health information for parents and adolescents. Nonetheless, traditional sources, such as newspapers, continue to report on health innovations. But do websites and newspaper reports provide balanced information? We performed a systematic media analysis to evaluate and compare media coverage of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine on websites and in newspapers in Germany and Spain. We assessed to what extent the media provide complete (pros and cons), transparent (absolute instead of relative numbers), and correct information about the epidemiology and etiology of cervical cancer as well as the effectiveness and costs of the HPV vaccine. As a basis for comparison, a facts box containing current scientific evidence about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine was developed. The media analysis included 61 websites and 141 newspaper articles in Germany, and 41 websites and 293 newspaper articles in Spain. Results show that 57% of German websites and 43% of German newspaper reports communicated correct estimates of epidemiological data, whereas in Spain 39% of the websites and 20% of the newspaper did so. While two thirds of Spanish websites explicitly mentioned causes of cervical cancer as well as spontaneous recovery, German websites communicated etiological information less frequently. Findings reveal that correct estimates about the vaccine's effectiveness were mentioned in 10% of German websites and 6% of German newspaper reports; none of the Spanish newspaper reports and 2% of Spanish websites reported effectiveness correctly. Only German websites (13%) explicitly referred to scientific uncertainty regarding the vaccine's evaluation. We conclude that the media lack balanced reporting on the dimensions completeness, transparency, and correctness. We propose standards for more balanced reporting on websites and

  2. What Type of Knowledge Provides Valid Housing Standards Addressing Accessibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse; Iwarsson, Susanne

    Objective The overarching aim was to contribute to the advancement of the validity of the housing standards addressing accessibility. The specific aim was to explore the use of an activity-based approach to examine the validity of a set of housing standards. State of the art Housing standards...... with functional limitations and dependence on mobility devices to have access to housing design features as a means to be able to interact with the environment to perform a range of everyday activities in the dwelling. However, in a comprehensive literature review in search of scientific publications...... with a potential to inform housing standards addressing accessibility that accommodate adult people with physical functional limitations using/not using mobility devices (Helle et al., 2011), it was found that the existing knowledge: • Derived from the field of anthropometry and ergonomics • Focused on isolated...

  3. A soft, transparent, freely accessible cranial window for chronic imaging and electrophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Chaejeong; Park, Hyejin; Kim, Yong-Tae; Baeg, Eunha; Kim, Yong Ho; Kim, Seong-Gi; Suh, Minah

    2016-01-01

    Chronic in vivo imaging and electrophysiology are important for better understanding of neural functions and circuits. We introduce the new cranial window using soft, penetrable, elastic, and transparent, silicone-based polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as a substitute for the skull and dura in both rats and mice. The PDMS can be readily tailored to any size and shape to cover large brain area. Clear and healthy cortical vasculatures were observed up to 15 weeks post-implantation. Real-time hemodynamic responses were successfully monitored during sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the PDMS window allowed for easy insertion of microelectrodes and micropipettes into the cortical tissue for electrophysiological recording and chemical injection at any location without causing any fluid leakage. Longitudinal two-photon microscopic imaging of Cx3Cr1+/− GFP transgenic mice was comparable with imaging via a conventional glass-type cranial window, even immediately following direct intracortical injection. This cranial window will facilitate direct probing and mapping for long-term brain studies. PMID:27283875

  4. 77 FR 5027 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Exploratory Program To Increase Access to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... data more accessible and user-friendly. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel W. Sigelman, Office of... INFORMATION: FDA is announcing the availability of a report entitled ``Food and Drug Administration...

  5. 48 CFR 552.238-70 - Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. 552.238-70 Section 552.238-70... Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped. As prescribed in 538.273(a)(1), insert the following clause: Identification of Electronic Office Equipment Providing Accessibility for the Handicapped (SEP...

  6. Could Transparency Bring Economic Diversity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2007-01-01

    The Spellings Commission report calls for greater access to higher education for low- and moderate-income students, greater transparency in the way higher education works and greater accountability for producing results. These recommendations are all significant in their own right, but the three concepts also converge to provide powerful support…

  7. Increasing Access to Health Care Providers with Nurse Practitioner Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Del Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    Emergency department visits increased from 102.8 million to 136.1 million in 2009, resulting in crowding and increased wait times, affecting U.S. hospitals' ability to provide safe, timely patient care resulting in dangerous delays and serious health problems shown by research. The purpose of this project was to determine if competencies developed…

  8. Acoustic Metadata Management and Transparent Access to Networked Oceanographic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. FINAL REPORT Acoustic Metadata Management and...derived from these recordings ( metadata of the recordings) becomes crucial in order to combine data across disparate studies to provide information...productivity of various animal stocks. Of particular importance for bioacoustic metadata is the specification of the how the metadata were generated

  9. Impairments Computation for Routing Purposes in a Transparent-Access Optical Network Based on Optical CDMA and WDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    Optical access networks are becoming more widespread and the use of multiple services might require a transparent optical network (TON). Multiplexing and privacy could benefit from the combination of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and optical coding (OC) and wavelength conversion in optical switches. The routing process needs to be cognizant of different resource types and characteristics such as fiber types, fiber linear impairments such as attenuation, dispersion, etc. as well as fiber nonlinear impairments such as four-wave mixing, cross-phase modulation, etc. Other types of impairments, generated by optical nodes or photonic switches, also affect the signal quality (Q) or the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR), which is related to the bit error rate (BER). Therefore, both link and switch impairments must be addressed and somehow incorporated into the routing algorithm. However, it is not practical to fully integrate all photonic-specific attributes in the routing process. In this study, new routing parameters and constraints are defined that reflect the distinct characteristics of photonic networking. These constraints are applied to the design phase of TON and expressed as a cost or metric form that will be used in the network routing algorithm.

  10. Accessibility, searchability, transparency and engagement of soil carbon data: The International Soil Carbon Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jennifer W.; Hugelius, Gustaf; Koven, Charlie; Sulman, Ben; O'Donnell, Jon; He, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Soils are capacitors for carbon and water entering and exiting through land-atmosphere exchange. Capturing the spatiotemporal variations in soil C exchange through monitoring and modeling is difficult in part because data are reported unevenly across spatial, temporal, and management scales and in part because the unit of measure generally involves destructive harvest or non-recurrent measurements. In order to improve our fundamental basis for understanding soil C exchange, a multi-user, open source, searchable database and network of scientists has been formed. The International Soil Carbon Network (ISCN) is a self-chartered, member-based and member-owned network of scientists dedicated to soil carbon science. Attributes of the ISCN include 1) Targeted ISCN Action Groups which represent teams of motivated researchers that propose and pursue specific soil C research questions with the aim of synthesizing seminal articles regarding soil C fate. 2) Datasets to date contributed by institutions and individuals to a comprehensive, searchable open-access database that currently includes over 70,000 geolocated profiles for which soil C and other soil properties. 3) Derivative products resulting from the database, including depth attenuation attributes for C concentration and storage; C storage maps; and model-based assessments of emission/sequestration for future climate scenarios. Several examples illustrate the power of such a database and its engagement with the science community. First, a simplified, data-constrained global ecosystem model estimated a global sensitivity of permafrost soil carbon to climate change (g sensitivity) of -14 to -19 Pg C °C-1 of warming on a 100 years time scale. Second, using mathematical characterizations of depth profiles for organic carbon storage, C at the soil surface reflects Net Primary Production (NPP) and its allotment as moss or litter, while e-folding depths are correlated to rooting depth. Third, storage of deep C is highly

  11. Ontological Model-Based Transparent Access To Information In A Medical Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia GÎZĂ-BELCIUG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting the full electronic medical record of a patient is an important step in providing a quality medical service. But the degree of heterogeneity of data from health unit informational systems is very high, because each unit can have a different model for storing patients’ medical data. In order to achieve the interoperability and integration of data from various medical units that store partial patient medical information, this paper proposes a multi-agent systems and ontology based approach. Therefore, we present an ontological model for describing the particular structure of the data integration process. The system is to be used for centralizing the information from a patient’s partial medical records. The main advantage of the proposed model is the low ratio between the complexity of the model and the amount of information that can be retrieved in order to generate the complete medical history of a patient.

  12. Price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Lola

    2014-06-01

    Payers and patients want to know up front the cost of the care they're paying for, and to be able to compare providers on value. Hospitals are using a variety of strategies to be more transparent on cost and quality.

  13. Up for transparent pre-clinical research - a platform to the training to 3R animal experimentation information, and quality and open access pre-clinical publications

    OpenAIRE

    Vullioud, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Transparency and validity of pre-clinical research maybe improved by the practice of 7Rs: Refinement, Reduction, Replacement of animal experimentation and Retrieval, Reviewing, Reporting and Reproducibilty of pre-clinical information. Therefore, a training platform was designed to sensitize researchers to new and controversed publication trends: open access, open protocols, post-reviewing, systematic reviews, open data, reproducibility initiatives, and open-reviewing.

  14. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustwor......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid...... and trustworthy knowledge about contemporary organizations, the transparency discourse has significant democratic potential. Yet, its most common operationalization – as information availability – reinstalls a “purified” notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy and misrepresentation. In this paper......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  15. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    2015-01-01

    The current emphasis on organizational transparency signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, accountability, and participation. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustworthy knowledge about organizations, the transparency pursuit has great potential for enhanced...... organizational effectiveness and widened democratic practice. Yet, with its most common operationalization, as information, transparency reinstalls a 'purified' notion of communication devoid of mystery, inaccuracy, and (mis)representation. We apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model...... of communication and critiquing its obliviousness to the representative nature of transparency-related messages and the attendant complexities of motivation. This critique interrogates the ambiguities and ambivalence of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how the goals of organizational transparency...

  16. Providing the Public with Online Access to Large Bibliographic Data Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firschein, Oscar; Summit, Roger K.

    DIALOG, an interactive, computer-based information retrieval language, consists of a series of computer programs designed to make use of direct access memory devices in order to provide the user with a rapid means of identifying records within a specific memory bank. Using the system, a library user can be provided access to sixteen distinct and…

  17. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, C. H.

    2017-03-14

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 1011 to 1015 cm-2. These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  18. Providing Social Enterprises with Better Access to Public Procurement : The Development of Supportive Legal Frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Argyrou, A.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of social enterprises gaining access to public procurement processes and contracts at the EU and national level. It primarily examines the opportunities for social enterprises to access public procurement contracts provided for in the Public Procurement Directive

  19. Peering into Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cheney, George

    The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid and trustwor......The current emphasis on organizational and institutional transparency – driven by NGOs, inquisitive media, critical investors and other engaged stakeholders – signifies a growing demand for insight, clarity, participation and democracy. Holding the promise of improved access to valid......, we apply transparency to itself by unpacking its implicit model of communication and critiquing its ignorance towards the representative nature of current transparency practices. The critique unfolds the ambiguous nature of the transparency pursuit and demonstrates how its desire for insight, clarity...

  20. Building transparent data access for ocean observatories: Coordination of U.S. IOOS DMAC with NSF's OOI Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrott, M.; Alexander, Corrine; Graybeal, J.; Mueller, C.; Signell, R.; de La Beaujardière, J.; Taylor, A.; Wilkin, J.; Powell, B.; Orcutt, J.

    2011-01-01

    The NOAA-led U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and the National Science Foundation's Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) have been collaborating since 2007 on advanced tools and technologies that ensure open access to ocean observations and models. Initial collaboration focused on serving ocean data via cloud computing-a key component of the OOI cyberinfrastructure (CI) architecture. As the OOI transitioned from planning to execution in the Fall of 2009, an OOI/IOOS team developed a customer-based "use case" to align more closely with the emerging objectives of OOI-CI team's first software release scheduled for Summer 2011 and provide a quantitative capacity for stress-testing these tools and protocols. A requirements process was initiated with coastal modelers, focusing on improved workflows to deliver ocean observation data. Accomplishments to date include the documentation and assessment of scientific workflows for two "early adopter" modeling teams from IOOS Regional partners (Rutgers-the State University of New Jersey and University of Hawaii's School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology) to enable full understanding of data sources and needs; generation of all-inclusive lists of the data sets required and those obtainable through IOOS; a more complete understanding of areas where IOOS can expand data access capabilities to better serve the needs of the modeling community; and development of "data set agents" (software) to facilitate data acquisition from numerous data providers and conversions of the data format to the OOI-CI canonical form. ?? 2011 MTS.

  1. Association of mandated language access programming and quality of care provided by mental health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Sean R; Snowden, Lonnie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between language access programming and quality of psychiatric care received by persons with limited English proficiency (LEP). In 1999, the California Department of Mental Health required county Medicaid agencies to implement a "threshold language access policy" to meet the state's Title VI obligations. This policy required Medi-Cal agencies to provide language access programming, including access to interpreters and translated written material, to speakers of languages other than English if the language was spoken by at least 3,000, or 5%, of the county's Medicaid population. Using a longitudinal study design with a nonequivalent control group, this study examined the quality of care provided to Spanish speakers with LEP and a severe mental illness before and after implementation of mandatory language access programming. Quality was measured by receipt of at least two follow-up medication visits within 90 days or three visits within 180 days of an initial medication visit over a period of 38 quarter-years. On average, only 40% of Spanish-speaking clients received at least three medication follow-up visits within 180 days. In multivariate analyses, language access programming was not associated with receipt of at least two medication follow-up visits within 90 days or at least three visits within 180 days. This study found no evidence that language access programming led to increased rates of follow-up medication visits for clients with LEP.

  2. BRICK v0.2, a simple, accessible, and transparent model framework for climate and regional sea-level projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Wong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Simple models can play pivotal roles in the quantification and framing of uncertainties surrounding climate change and sea-level rise. They are computationally efficient, transparent, and easy to reproduce. These qualities also make simple models useful for the characterization of risk. Simple model codes are increasingly distributed as open source, as well as actively shared and guided. Alas, computer codes used in the geosciences can often be hard to access, run, modify (e.g., with regards to assumptions and model components, and review. Here, we describe the simple model framework BRICK (Building blocks for Relevant Ice and Climate Knowledge v0.2 and its underlying design principles. The paper adds detail to an earlier published model setup and discusses the inclusion of a land water storage component. The framework largely builds on existing models and allows for projections of global mean temperature as well as regional sea levels and coastal flood risk. BRICK is written in R and Fortran. BRICK gives special attention to the model values of transparency, accessibility, and flexibility in order to mitigate the above-mentioned issues while maintaining a high degree of computational efficiency. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework through simple model intercomparison experiments. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BRICK is suitable for risk assessment applications by using a didactic example in local flood risk management.

  3. Statistical controversies in clinical research: data access and sharing-can we be more transparent about clinical research? Let's do what's right for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhold, F W

    2017-08-01

    Calls for greater transparency and 'open data access' in clinical research are widespread, from sources including the Executive Office of the President, which in 2013 called for increased access to the results of federally funded research. In 2015, The Institute of Medicine issued a report advocating for a multi-stakeholder effort to foster responsible data sharing, and there are many others. Open science is good for researchers, good for innovation, and good for patients. The question at the center of the open-science efforts for clinical trials should not be whether data should be shared, but rather how we can usher in responsible methods for doing so. Unfortunately, there remain numerous perceived barriers to complete transparency around clinical trial data. This paper reviews the current status of data disclosure, the barriers to achieving it and a suggestion for the future. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Spatial Access to Primary Care Providers in Appalachia: Evaluating Current Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohoe, Joseph; Marshall, Vince; Tan, Xi; Camacho, Fabian T; Anderson, Roger T; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research was to examine spatial access to primary care physicians in Appalachia using both traditional access measures and the 2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) method. Spatial access to care was compared between urban and rural regions of Appalachia. The study region included Appalachia counties of Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and North Carolina. Primary care physicians during 2008 and total census block group populations were geocoded into GIS software. Ratios of county physicians to population, driving time to nearest primary care physician, and various 2SFCA approaches were compared. Urban areas of the study region had shorter travel times to their closest primary care physician. Provider to population ratios produced results that varied widely from one county to another because of strict geographic boundaries. The 2SFCA method produced varied results depending on the distance decay weight and variable catchment size techniques chose. 2SFCA scores showed greater access to care in urban areas of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and North Carolina. The different parameters of the 2SFCA method-distance decay weights and variable catchment sizes-have a large impact on the resulting spatial access to primary care scores. The findings of this study suggest that using a relative 2SFCA approach, the spatial access ratio method, when detailed patient travel data are unavailable. The 2SFCA method shows promise for measuring access to care in Appalachia, but more research on patient travel preferences is needed to inform implementation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Transparency in Organizing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa

    This dissertation provides a critical analysis of transparency in the context of organizing. The empirical material is based on qualitative studies of international cooperative organizations. The dissertation seeks to contribute to transparency and organizing scholarship by adopting a communication...... to being a solution for efficiency and democratic organizing, is a communicatively contested process which may lead to unintended consequences. The dissertation shows that transparency is performative: it can impact authority by de/legitimating action, shape the processes of organizational identity co...

  6. Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride based transparent resistive random access memory devices fabricated by radio frequency sputtering method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hee-Dong, E-mail: khd0708@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Min Ju [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Heon [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 163-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sungho, E-mail: sungho85.kim@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Sejong University, Neungdong-ro 209, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-05

    In this work, we present a feasibility of bipolar resistive switching (RS) characteristics for Oxygen-doped zirconium nitride (O-doped ZrN{sub x}) films, produced by sputtering method, which shows a high optical transmittance of approximately 78% in the visible region as well as near ultra-violet region. In addition, in a RS test, the device has a large current ratio of 5 × 10{sup 3} in positive bias region and 5 × 10{sup 5} in negative bias region. Then, to evaluate an ability of data storage for the proposed memory devices, we measured a retention time for 10{sup 4} s at room temperature (RT) and 85 °C as well. As a result, the set and reset states were stably maintained with a current ratio of ∼10{sup 2} at 85 °C to ∼10{sup 3} at RT. This result means that the transparent memory by controlling the working pressure during sputtering process to deposit the ZrN{sub x} films could be a milestone for future see-through electronic devices. - Highlights: • The resistive switching characteristics of the transparent O-doped ZrN{sub x}-based RRAM cells have investigated. • Oxygen doping concentration within ZrN{sub x} is optimized using working pressure of sputter. • Long retention time were observed.

  7. Informing Education Policy in Afghanistan: Using Design of Experiments and Data Envelopment Analysis to Provide Transparency in Complex Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event…

  8. Informing education policy in Afghanistan: Using design of experiments and data envelopment analysis to provide transparency in complex simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Benjamin

    Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event simulation in which individual students and teachers flow through the system across a variable time horizon. This simulation is then used with advancements in design of experiments, multivariate statistical analysis, and data envelopment analysis, to provide a methodology designed to assist the international education planning community. We propose that this methodology will provide the education planner with insights into the complexity of the education system, the effects of both endogenous and exogenous factors upon the system, and the implications of policies as they pertain to potential futures of the system. We do this recognizing that there are multiple actors and stochastic events in play, which although cannot be accurately forecasted, must be accounted for within the education model. To both test the implementation and usefulness of such a model and to prove its relevance, we chose the Afghan education system as the focal point of this research. The Afghan education system is a complex, real world system with competing actors, dynamic requirements, and ambiguous states. At the time of this writing, Afghanistan is at a pivotal point as a nation, and has been the recipient of a tremendous amount of international support and attention. Finally, Afghanistan is a fragile state, and the proliferation of the current disparity in education across gender, districts, and ethnicity could provide the catalyst to drive the country into hostility. In order to prevent the failure of the current government, it is essential that the education system is able to meet the demands of the Afghan people. This work provides insights into

  9. Providing Access and Visualization to Global Cloud Properties from GEO Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, T.; Nguyen, L.; Minnis, P.; Spangenberg, D.; Palikonda, R.; Ayers, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    Providing public access to cloud macro and microphysical properties is a key concern for the NASA Langley Research Center Cloud and Radiation Group. This work describes a tool and method that allows end users to easily browse and access cloud information that is otherwise difficult to acquire and manipulate. The core of the tool is an application-programming interface that is made available to the public. One goal of the tool is to provide a demonstration to end users so that they can use the dynamically generated imagery as an input into their own work flows for both image generation and cloud product requisition. This project builds upon NASA Langley Cloud and Radiation Group's experience with making real-time and historical satellite cloud product imagery accessible and easily searchable. As we see the increasing use of virtual supply chains that provide additional value at each link there is value in making satellite derived cloud product information available through a simple access method as well as allowing users to browse and view that imagery as they need rather than in a manner most convenient for the data provider. Using the Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Processing Service as our access method, we describe a system that uses a hybrid local and cloud based parallel processing system that can return both satellite imagery and cloud product imagery as well as the binary data used to generate them in multiple formats. The images and cloud products are sourced from multiple satellites and also "merged" datasets created by temporally and spatially matching satellite sensors. Finally, the tool and API allow users to access information that spans the time ranges that our group has information available. In the case of satellite imagery, the temporal range can span the entire lifetime of the sensor.

  10. Hand Society and Matching Program Web Sites Provide Poor Access to Information Regarding Hand Surgery Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Richard M; Klifto, Christopher S; Naik, Amish A; Sapienza, Anthony; Capo, John T

    2016-08-01

    The Internet is a common resource for applicants of hand surgery fellowships, however, the quality and accessibility of fellowship online information is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the accessibility of hand surgery fellowship Web sites and to assess the quality of information provided via program Web sites. Hand fellowship Web site accessibility was evaluated by reviewing the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH) on November 16, 2014 and the National Resident Matching Program (NRMP) fellowship directories on February 12, 2015, and performing an independent Google search on November 25, 2014. Accessible Web sites were then assessed for quality of the presented information. A total of 81 programs were identified with the ASSH directory featuring direct links to 32% of program Web sites and the NRMP directory directly linking to 0%. A Google search yielded direct links to 86% of program Web sites. The quality of presented information varied greatly among the 72 accessible Web sites. Program description (100%), fellowship application requirements (97%), program contact email address (85%), and research requirements (75%) were the most commonly presented components of fellowship information. Hand fellowship program Web sites can be accessed from the ASSH directory and, to a lesser extent, the NRMP directory. However, a Google search is the most reliable method to access online fellowship information. Of assessable programs, all featured a program description though the quality of the remaining information was variable. Hand surgery fellowship applicants may face some difficulties when attempting to gather program information online. Future efforts should focus on improving the accessibility and content quality on hand surgery fellowship program Web sites.

  11. Providing Access to Unique Information Sources: A Reusable Platform for Publishing Bibliographic Databases on the Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantz, Ronald C.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of digital library projects at Rutgers University focuses on publishing bibliographic databases on the Web to provide access to information sources not likely to be published elsewhere. Describes the reusable technology platform concept, bibliographic platform architecture, metadata approach, data entry, and managing the process.…

  12. Another Look at "SourceOECD": Providing Access to Online Publications through the Library Catalog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragains, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    "SourceOECD," the online/print subscription service of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, is examined. Solutions for providing access in library online catalogs are described, as are recent technical improvements to the online subscription service.

  13. Beyond the Repository: A Mixed Method Approach to Providing Access to Collections Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Brian Wade

    2013-01-01

    After providing access to over 100 video interviews conducted by a professor with notable entertainers and personalities from film through an institutional repository, an experiment was conducted to discover whether a larger audience could be gained by adding a subset of 32 of these videos to YouTube. The results, over 400,000 views, indicate that…

  14. The Changing Role of Community Networks in Providing Citizen Access to the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Thomas P.; Trotter, David Mitchell

    1999-01-01

    Examines the changing role of community network associations or freenets in providing Internet access by examining the case of the Calgary Community Network Association (CCNA) in Alberta, Canada. Discusses the withdrawal of states from the telecommunications field, priorities of the Canadian government, and the role of the private sector.…

  15. Does the edge effect impact on the measure of spatial accessibility to healthcare providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Kihal, Wahida; Le Meur, Nolwenn; Souris, Marc; Deguen, Séverine

    2017-12-11

    Spatial accessibility indices are increasingly applied when investigating inequalities in health. Although most studies are making mentions of potential errors caused by the edge effect, many acknowledge having neglected to consider this concern by establishing spatial analyses within a finite region, settling for hypothesizing that accessibility to facilities will be under-reported. Our study seeks to assess the effect of edge on the accuracy of defining healthcare provider access by comparing healthcare provider accessibility accounting or not for the edge effect, in a real-world application. This study was carried out in the department of Nord, France. The statistical unit we use is the French census block known as 'IRIS' (Ilot Regroupé pour l'Information Statistique), defined by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. The geographical accessibility indicator used is the "Index of Spatial Accessibility" (ISA), based on the E2SFCA algorithm. We calculated ISA for the pregnant women population by selecting three types of healthcare providers: general practitioners, gynecologists and midwives. We compared ISA variation when accounting or not edge effect in urban and rural zones. The GIS method was then employed to determine global and local autocorrelation. Lastly, we compared the relationship between socioeconomic distress index and ISA, when accounting or not for the edge effect, to fully evaluate its impact. The results revealed that on average ISA when offer and demand beyond the boundary were included is slightly below ISA when not accounting for the edge effect, and we found that the IRIS value was more likely to deteriorate than improve. Moreover, edge effect impact can vary widely by health provider type. There is greater variability within the rural IRIS group than within the urban IRIS group. We found a positive correlation between socioeconomic distress variables and composite ISA. Spatial analysis results (such as Moran's spatial

  16. FRAMES-2.0 Software System: Providing Password Protection and Limited Access to Models and Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, Gene; Pelton, Mitch A.

    2007-08-09

    One of the most important concerns for regulatory agencies is the concept of reproducibility (i.e., reproducibility means credibility) of an assessment. One aspect of reproducibility deals with tampering of the assessment. In other words, when multiple groups are engaged in an assessment, it is important to lock down the problem that is to be solved and/or to restrict the models that are to be used to solve the problem. The objective of this effort is to provide the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with a means to limit user access to models and to provide a mechanism to constrain the conceptual site models (CSMs) when appropriate. The purpose is to provide the user (i.e., NRC) with the ability to “lock down” the CSM (i.e., picture containing linked icons), restrict access to certain models, or both.

  17. TRANSPARENT CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sharma*, Dr. O.P. Reddy

    2017-01-01

    Transparent concrete is the new type of concrete introduced in todays world which carries special property of light transmitting due to presence of light Optical fibres. Which is also known as translucent concrete or light transmitting concrete, it is achieved by replacing coarse aggregates with transparent alternate materials (Optical fibres). The binding material in transparent concrete may be able to transmit light by using clear resins the concrete mix. The concrete used in industry in pr...

  18. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Wulandari

    Full Text Available Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types.

  19. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwissen, Miranda P. M.; Karmana, Maman H.; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers’ access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types. PMID:28877174

  20. Access to finance from different finance provider types: Farmer knowledge of the requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulandari, Eliana; Meuwissen, Miranda P M; Karmana, Maman H; Oude Lansink, Alfons G J M

    2017-01-01

    Analysing farmer knowledge of the requirements of finance providers can provide valuable insights to policy makers about ways to improve farmers' access to finance. This study compares farmer knowledge of the requirements to obtain finance with the actual requirements set by different finance provider types, and investigates the relation between demographic and socioeconomic factors and farmer knowledge of finance requirements. We use a structured questionnaire to collect data from a sample of finance providers and farmers in Java Island, Indonesia. We find that the most important requirements to acquire finance vary among different finance provider types. We also find that farmers generally have little knowledge of the requirements, which are important to each type of finance provider. Awareness campaigns are needed to increase farmer knowledge of the diversity of requirements among the finance provider types.

  1. Subcutaneous placement of lap band port without fascial fixation provides safe and durable access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkary, Ehab; Olgers, Forrest

    2014-11-01

    Laparoscopic adjustable gastric band access port has been routinely sutured to the anterior fascia of the abdominal wall using nonabsorbable sutures. We present our technique demonstrating that nonfascial fixation with using a mesh allows for a safe and durable placement of the port in the superficial subcutaneous tissue. Retrospective chart review included 102 consecutive patients who had Lap band surgery performed by single surgeon (EA) from June 2011 until April 2013. The port was sutured to a piece of polypropylene mesh and tunneled in the subcutaneous tissue away from the incision. Patients' demographics were analyzed as well as the following parameters: OR time for port placement, follow-up, port complications requiring revision, difficult access facilitated by fluoroscopy imaging, port infection, and skin erosion. The study included 102 consecutive patients (23 males and 79 females), mean age was 49 years old, mean weight was 284.7 lb, mean height was 66.2 in., and mean body mass index (BMI) was 46.3 kg/m(2). The average operative time for port placement was 4 min, mean follow-up was 12 months, port complications occurred in 2 % of the patients while fluoroscopy for difficult port access was required in 3 %. No cases of port infections or skin erosions occurred. Superficial subcutaneous placement of Lap Band Port using mesh fixation without anchoring the port to the fascia provides safe and durable access. Deep incisions to secure the port directly to the fascia might not be necessary.

  2. Contraceptive service provider imposed restrictions to contraceptive access in Urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M; Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan

    2017-04-17

    Health service providers can restrict access to contraceptives through their own imposed biases about method appropriateness. In this study, provider biases toward contraceptive service provision among urban Nigerian providers was assessed. Health providers working in health facilities, as well as pharmacists and patent medical vendors (PMV), in Abuja, Benin City, Ibadan, Ilorin, Kaduna, and Zaria, were surveyed in 2011 concerning their self-reported biases in service provision based on age, parity, and marital status. Minimum age bias was the most common bias while minimum parity was the least common bias reported by providers. Condoms were consistently provided with the least amount of bias, followed by provision of emergency contraception (EC), pills, injectables, and IUDs. Experience of in-service training for health facility providers was associated with decreased prevalence of marital status bias for the pill, injectable, and IUD; however, training experience did not, or had the opposite effect on, pharmacists and PMV operator's reports of service provision bias. Provider imposed eligibility barriers in urban study sites in Nigeria were pervasive - the most prevalent restriction across method and provider type was minimum age. Given the large and growing adolescent population - interventions aimed at increasing supportive provision of contraceptives to youth in this context are urgently needed. The results show that the effect of in-service training on provider biases was limited. Future efforts to address provider biases in contraceptive service provision, among all provider types, must find creative ways to address this critical barrier to increased contraceptive use.

  3. Online Professional Development for Child Care Providers: Do They Have Appropriate Access to and Comfort with the Internet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay E. Wright

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of online trainings today, Extension professionals have an opportunity to reach child care providers in more convenient ways. However, having convenient, reliable Internet access can be a barrier to online training for some child care providers, especially those with limited financial resources. This study investigated child care providers’ ability to access online training through convenient, reliable Internet access by asking 494 child care providers in Georgia about their access to and comfort with the Internet. Participants completed a brief 12-question survey that included questions about their Internet access and use for both personal and professional purposes (i.e., whether or not they have Internet access, where they have access, how often they use it, and how comfortable they feel using it. The majority of child care providers reported having Internet access (89.68% and feeling comfortable using the Internet (68.62%, and therefore, have the technological resources to participate in online professional development.

  4. Accessing maternal and child health services in Melbourne, Australia: Reflections from refugee families and service providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs Elisha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Often new arrivals from refugee backgrounds have experienced poor health and limited access to healthcare services. The maternal and child health (MCH service in Victoria, Australia, is a joint local and state government operated, cost-free service available to all mothers of children aged 0–6 years. Although well-child healthcare visits are useful in identifying health issues early, there has been limited investigation in the use of these services for families from refugee backgrounds. This study aims to explore experiences of using MCH services, from the perspective of families from refugee backgrounds and service providers. Methods We used a qualitative study design informed by the socioecological model of health and a cultural competence approach. Two geographical areas of Melbourne were selected to invite participants. Seven focus groups were conducted with 87 mothers from Karen, Iraqi, Assyrian Chaldean, Lebanese, South Sudanese and Bhutanese backgrounds, who had lived an average of 4.7 years in Australia (range one month-18 years. Participants had a total of 249 children, of these 150 were born in Australia. Four focus groups and five interviews were conducted with MCH nurses, other healthcare providers and bicultural workers. Results Four themes were identified: facilitating access to MCH services; promoting continued engagement with the MCH service; language challenges; and what is working well and could be done better. Several processes were identified that facilitated initial access to the MCH service but there were implications for continued use of the service. The MCH service was not formally notified of new parents arriving with young children. Pre-arranged group appointments by MCH nurses for parents who attended playgroups worked well to increase ongoing service engagement. Barriers for parents in using MCH services included access to transportation, lack of confidence in speaking English and making

  5. POPcorn: An Online Resource Providing Access to Distributed and Diverse Maize Project Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Ethalinda K S; Birkett, Scott M; Braun, Bremen L; Kodavali, Sateesh; Jennewein, Douglas M; Yilmaz, Alper; Antonescu, Valentin; Antonescu, Corina; Harper, Lisa C; Gardiner, Jack M; Schaeffer, Mary L; Campbell, Darwin A; Andorf, Carson M; Andorf, Destri; Lisch, Damon; Koch, Karen E; McCarty, Donald R; Quackenbush, John; Grotewold, Erich; Lushbough, Carol M; Sen, Taner Z; Lawrence, Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the online resource presented here, POPcorn (Project Portal for corn), is to enhance accessibility of maize genetic and genomic resources for plant biologists. Currently, many online locations are difficult to find, some are best searched independently, and individual project websites often degrade over time-sometimes disappearing entirely. The POPcorn site makes available (1) a centralized, web-accessible resource to search and browse descriptions of ongoing maize genomics projects, (2) a single, stand-alone tool that uses web Services and minimal data warehousing to search for sequence matches in online resources of diverse offsite projects, and (3) a set of tools that enables researchers to migrate their data to the long-term model organism database for maize genetic and genomic information: MaizeGDB. Examples demonstrating POPcorn's utility are provided herein.

  6. 41 CFR 102-79.95 - Who is responsible for the costs associated with providing access to antenna sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... providing access to antenna sites? The telecommunications service provider is responsible for any reasonable... support of constructing new and improving existing telecommunication infrastructures provided that such installation does not negatively impact on the Government. ...

  7. Perceptual transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Caterina; Westland, Stephen

    2002-06-01

    We suggest that color constancy and perceptual transparency might be explained by the same underlying mechanism. For color constancy, Foster and Nascimento (1994) found that cone-excitation ratios between surfaces seen under one illuminant and cone-excitation ratios between the same surfaces seen under a different illuminant were almost constant. In the case of perceptual transparency we also found that cone-excitation ratios between surfaces illuminated directly and cone-excitation ratios between the same surfaces seen through a transparent filter were almost invariant (Westland and Ripamonti, 2000). We compare the ability of the cone-excitation-ratio invariance model to predict perceptual transparency with an alternative model based on convergence in color space (D'Zmura et al., 1997). Psychophysical data are reported from experiments where by subjects were asked to select which of two stimuli represented a Mondrian image partially covered by a homogeneous transparent filter. One of the stimuli was generated from the convergence model and the other was a modified version of the first stimulus such that the cone- excitation ratios were perfectly invariant. Subjects consistently selected the invariant stimulus confirming our hypothesis that perception of transparency is predicted by the degree of deviation frm an invariant ratio for the cone excitations.

  8. The IRIS Data Management Center: Providing Efficient Access to GSN data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, T. K.; Benson, R. B.

    2004-05-01

    The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) in Seattle, Washington is the host of the largest seismological database of its kind in the world. The Global Seismic Network (GSN) lies at the center of the DMC holdings. The DMC relies heavily upon a petabyte mass storage system for waveform storage and Oracle for its relational data base infrastructure. During the past several years, emphasis has been placed upon the development and implementation of robust and effective technologies that allow access to the information at the IRIS DMC in a variety of ways. This talk will highlight the general structure of the IRIS DMC and the method we use to manage the gigabytes of information in Oracle as well more than 100 terabytes of time series data we have in our mass storage systems. An overview will be given of the methods through which users can access the information in our relational database systems as well as the mass storage systems in order to conduct their research using GSN and other data. A discussion of three distinctly different approaches will be presented. These include an email-based method, a web-based method as well as a multi-tier distributed computing environment we call the Data Handling Interface (DHI). The DHI is based upon Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) and provides direct connections between client applications, normally provided by IRIS, and data center servers established at several data centers within the United States. The DHI presently supports the distribution of information about seismic events, information about the seismic stations that record the time series and finally the time series (seismograms) themselves. The system is capable of transmitting seismic waveform data in real time. Waveform data and all associated metadata are available through this interface allowing direct access to information at the DMC within client applications running on a users workstation.

  9. A modified transmission tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) setup provides access to opaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Richter, Marc; Knebel, Detlef; Jähnke, Torsten; Jankowski, Tilo; Stock, Erik; Deckert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy enables chemical characterization of surfaces at highest spatial resolution. This so-called tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) can be employed for a variety of samples where a label-free characterization or identification of constituents on the nanometer scale is pursued. Present TERS setup geometries are always a compromise for specific dedicated applications and show different advantages and disadvantages: Transmission back-reflection setups, when using immersion objectives with a high numerical aperture, intrinsically provide the highest collection efficiency but cannot be applied for opaque samples. Those samples demand upright setups, at the cost of lower collection efficiency, even though very efficient systems using a parabolic mirror for illumination and collection have been demonstrated. In this contribution it is demonstrated that the incorporation of a dichroic mirror to a transmission TERS setup provides easy access to opaque samples without further modification of the setup.

  10. [Dentistry and healthcare legislation 7. The duty to provide care: availability and accessibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, W G; van der Ven, J M; Eijkman, M A J

    2013-12-01

    Dentists have a duty to provide care. This duty, which interestingly enough has a limited legal basis, is for the most part given form by jurisprudence. In that process, the disciplinary judge and the grievance committees pay attention especially to 2 rules of conduct and 1 regulation governing practice. In practice, it appears to be the case that rules of conduct and regulations do not always provide an unambiguous guide. The domain within which dentists operate is striking. The availability and the accessibility of dentists are not always harmonious with the personal perception of a patient. It is sometimes difficult to find a proper balance between what is a dentist is able to manage and what a patient wants.

  11. Transparent Memory For Harsh Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C H; Retamal, J R Durán; Yang, P K; Lee, C P; Tsai, M L; Kang, C F; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-03-14

    As a new class of non-volatile memory, resistive random access memory (RRAM) offers not only superior electronic characteristics, but also advanced functionalities, such as transparency and radiation hardness. However, the environmental tolerance of RRAM is material-dependent, and therefore the materials used must be chosen carefully in order to avoid instabilities and performance degradation caused by the detrimental effects arising from environmental gases and ionizing radiation. In this work, we demonstrate that AlN-based RRAM displays excellent performance and environmental stability, with no significant degradation to the resistance ratio over a 100-cycle endurance test. Moreover, transparent RRAM (TRRAM) based on AlN also performs reliably under four different harsh environmental conditions and 2 MeV proton irradiation fluences, ranging from 10 11 to 10 15  cm -2 . These findings not only provide a guideline for TRRAM design, but also demonstrate the promising applicability of AlN TRRAM for future transparent harsh electronics.

  12. Providing Access to Census-based Interaction Data in the UK: That's WICID!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stillwell

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The Census Interaction Data Service (CIDS is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council in the UK to provide access for social science researchers and students to the detailed migration and journey-to-work statistics that are collected by the national statistical agencies. These interaction data sets are known collectively as the Special Migration Statistics (SMS and the Special Workplace Statistics (SWS. This paper outlines how problems of user access to these data have been tackled through the development of a web-based system known as WICID (Web-based Interface to Census Interaction Data. The paper illustrates various interface features including some of the query building facilities that enable users to extract counts of flows of particular groups of individuals between selected origin and destination areas. New tools are outlined for assisting area selection using digital maps of census geographies, for planning output and for adding value to the data through analysis. Mapping of flows of migrants between London boroughs and the rest of the UK demonstrates the value of the data. The paper begins with a summary of the data sets that are contained within the system and an outline of the system architecture.

  13. Evolution of Network Access Points (NAPs and agreements among Internet Service Providers (ISPs in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Beltrán

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los aspectos principales del desarrollo histórico y de asuntos actuales en el mercado suramericano de acceso a Internet: los acuerdos de interconexión para el intercambio de tráfico local y regional en Suramérica, los incentivos que tienen los proveedores de acceso a Internet para mantener o modificar la naturaleza de los acuerdos y los métodos de recuperación de costos en los puntos de intercambio de tráfico. El artículo también identifica algunas amenazas a la estabilidad de los puntos de intercambio de tráfico y las ilustra con dos casos. / This paper presents the main aspects of the historical development and the current issues at stake in the South American Internet access market: the interconnection schemes for the exchange of local and regional traffic in the South American region, the incentives Internet access providers have for keeping or modifying the nature of the agreements, and the cost recovery methods at the traffic exchange points. Some threats to the stability of the scheme for domestic traffic exchange adopted throughout the region are also identified and subsequently illustrated with country-cases.

  14. Biological approaches for addressing the grand challenge of providing access to clean drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. National Academy of Engineering (NAE) recently published a document presenting "Grand Challenges for Engineering". This list was proposed by leading engineers and scientists from around the world at the request of the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Fourteen topics were selected for these grand challenges, and at least seven can be addressed using the tools and methods of biological engineering. Here we describe how biological engineers can address the challenge of providing access to clean drinking water. This issue must be addressed in part by removing or inactivating microbial and chemical contaminants in order to properly deliver water safe for human consumption. Despite many advances in technologies this challenge is expanding due to increased pressure on fresh water supplies and to new opportunities for growth of potentially pathogenic organisms. PMID:21453515

  15. Primary Health Care Providers' Perspectives: Facilitating Older Patients' Access to Community Support Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, Jenny; Denton, Margaret; Hutchison, Brian; McAiney, Carrie; Moore, Ainsley; Brazil, Kevin; Tindale, Joseph; Wu, Amina; Lam, Annie

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the study examined in this article was to understand how non-physician health care professionals working in Canadian primary health care settings facilitate older persons' access to community support services (CSSs). The use of CSSs has positive impacts for clients, yet they are underused from lack of awareness. Using a qualitative description approach, we interviewed 20 health care professionals from various disciplines and primary health care models about the processes they use to link older patients to CSSs. Participants collaborated extensively with interprofessional colleagues within and outside their organizations to find relevant CSSs. They actively engaged patients and families in making these linkages and ensured follow-up. It was troubling to find that they relied on out-of-date resources and inefficient search strategies to find CSSs. Our findings can be used to develop resources and approaches to better support primary health care providers in linking older adults to relevant CSSs.

  16. Implementation the NASA Planetary Data System PDS4 Providing Access to LADEE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Reta F.; Huber , Lyle; Neakrase, Lynn; Reese, Shannon; Crichton, Daniel; Hardman, Sean; Delory, Gregory; Neese, Carol

    2014-11-01

    The NASA Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for archiving all planetary data acquired by robotic missions, and observational campaigns with ground/space-based observatories. PDS has moved to version 4 of its archive system. PDS4 uses XML to enhance search and retrieval capabilities. Although the efforts are system wide, the Atmospheres Node has acted as the lead node and is presenting a preliminary users interface for retrieval of LADEE data. LADEE provides the first opportunity to test out the end-to-end process of archiving data from an active mission into the new PDS4 architecture. The limited number of instruments, with simple data structures, is an ideal test of PDS4. XML uses schema (analogous to blueprints) to control the structure of the corresponding XML labels. In the case of PDS4, these schemas allow management of the labels and their content by forcing validation dictated by the underlying Information Model (IM). The use of a central IM is a vast improvement over PDS3 because of the uniformity it provides across all nodes. PDS4 has implemented a product-centric approach for archiving data and supplemental documentation. Another major change involves the Central Registry, where all products are registered and accessible to search engines. Under PDS4, documents, data, and other ancillary data are all products that are registered in the system. Together with the XML implementation, the Registry allows the search routines to be more complex and inclusive than they have been in the past. For LADEE, the PDS nodes and LADEE instrument teams worked together to identify data products that LADEE would produce. Documentation describing instruments and data products were produced by the teams and peer reviewed by PDS. XML label templates were developed by the PDS and provided to the instrument teams to integrate into their pipelines. Data from the primary mission (100 days) have been certified and harvested into the registry and are accessible through the

  17. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minichiello, Victor; Rahman, Saifur; Dune, Tinashe; Scott, John; Dowsett, Gary

    2013-08-30

    E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance) as a guiding principle to discuss potentials of E-health in providing and accessing sexual health services. There are important issues in relation to utilising and providing online sexual health services. For healthcare providers, e-health can act as an opportunity to enhance their clients' sexual health care by facilitating communication with full privacy and confidentiality, reducing administrative costs and improving efficiency and flexibility as well as market sexual health services and products. Sexual health is one of the common health topics which both younger and older people explore on the internet and they increasingly prefer sexual health education to be interactive, non-discriminate and anonymous. This commentary presents and discusses the benefits of e-sexual health and provides recommendations towards addressing some of the emerging challenges. The provision of sexual health services can be enhanced through E-health technology. Doing this can empower consumers to engage with information technology to enhance their sexual health knowledge and quality of life and address some of the stigma associated with diversity in sexualities and sexual health experiences. In addition, e-sexual health may better support and enhance the relationship between consumers and their health care providers across different locations. However, a systematic and focused approach to research and the application of findings in policy and practice is required to ensure that

  18. The climate4impact platform: Providing, tailoring and facilitating climate model data access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, Christian; Pagani, Andrea; Plieger, Maarten; Som de Cerff, Wim; Mihajlovski, Andrej; de Vreede, Ernst; Spinuso, Alessandro; Hutjes, Ronald; de Jong, Fokke; Bärring, Lars; Vega, Manuel; Cofiño, Antonio; d'Anca, Alessandro; Fiore, Sandro; Kolax, Michael

    2017-04-01

    One of the main objectives of climate4impact is to provide standardized web services and tools that are reusable in other portals. These services include web processing services, web coverage services and web mapping services (WPS, WCS and WMS). Tailored portals can be targeted to specific communities and/or countries/regions while making use of those services. Easier access to climate data is very important for the climate change impact communities. To fulfill this objective, the climate4impact (http://climate4impact.eu/) web portal and services has been developed, targeting climate change impact modellers, impact and adaptation consultants, as well as other experts using climate change data. It provides to users harmonized access to climate model data through tailored services. It features static and dynamic documentation, Use Cases and best practice examples, an advanced search interface, an integrated authentication and authorization system with the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF), a visualization interface with ADAGUC web mapping tools. In the latest version, statistical downscaling services, provided by the Santander Meteorology Group Downscaling Portal, were integrated. An innovative interface to integrate statistical downscaling services will be released in the upcoming version. The latter will be a big step in bridging the gap between climate scientists and the climate change impact communities. The climate4impact portal builds on the infrastructure of an international distributed database that has been set to disseminate the results from the global climate model results of the Coupled Model Intercomparison project Phase 5 (CMIP5). This database, the ESGF, is an international collaboration that develops, deploys and maintains software infrastructure for the management, dissemination, and analysis of climate model data. The European FP7 project IS-ENES, Infrastructure for the European Network for Earth System modelling, supports the European

  19. Process measures or patient reported experience measures (PREMs) for comparing performance across providers? A study of measures related to access and continuity in Swedish primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenngård, Anna H; Anell, Anders

    2017-09-15

    Aim To study (a) the covariation between patient reported experience measures (PREMs) and registered process measures of access and continuity when ranking providers in a primary care setting, and (b) whether registered process measures or PREMs provided more or less information about potential linkages between levels of access and continuity and explaining variables. Access and continuity are important objectives in primary care. They can be measured through registered process measures or PREMs. These measures do not necessarily converge in terms of outcomes. Patient views are affected by factors not necessarily reflecting quality of services. Results from surveys are often uncertain due to low response rates, particularly in vulnerable groups. The quality of process measures, on the other hand, may be influenced by registration practices and are often more easy to manipulate. With increased transparency and use of quality measures for management and governance purposes, knowledge about the pros and cons of using different measures to assess the performance across providers are important. Four regression models were developed with registered process measures and PREMs of access and continuity as dependent variables. Independent variables were characteristics of providers as well as geographical location and degree of competition facing providers. Data were taken from two large Swedish county councils. Findings Although ranking of providers is sensitive to the measure used, the results suggest that providers performing well with respect to one measure also tended to perform well with respect to the other. As process measures are easier and quicker to collect they may be looked upon as the preferred option. PREMs were better than process measures when exploring factors that contributed to variation in performance across providers in our study; however, if the purpose of comparison is continuous learning and development of services, a combination of PREMs and

  20. Robotics and telecommunication systems to provide better access to ultrasound expertise in the OR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, L; Papaspyropoulos, V

    2000-01-01

    Surgery has begun to evolve as a result of the intense use of technological innovations. The result of this is better services for patients and enormous opportunities for the producers of biomedical instruments. The surgeon and the technologist are fast becoming allies in applying the latest developments of robotics, image treatment, simulation, sensors and telecommunications to surgery, in particular to the emerging field of minimally-invasive surgery. Ultrasonography is at present utilised both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various fields. Intraoperative US examination can be of primary importance, especially when dealing with space-occupying lesions. The widening use of minimally-invasive surgery has furthered the development of US for use during this type of surgery. The success of a US examination requires not only a correct execution of the procedure, but also a correct interpretation of the images. We describe two projects that combine robotics and telecommunication systems to provide better access to US expertise in the operating room. The Midstep project has as its object the realisation of two robotic arms, one for the distant control of the US probe during laparoscopic surgery and the second to perform tele-interventional US. The second project, part of the Strategic CNR Project-'Robotics in Surgery', involves the realisation of a common platform for tracking and targeting surgical instruments in video-assisted surgery.

  1. Providing Open-Access Know How for Directors of Quantitative and Mathematics Support Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schuckers

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this editorial is to introduce the quantitative literacy community to the newly published A Handbook for Directors of Quantitative and Mathematics Centers. QMaSCs (pronounced “Q-masks” can be broadly defined as centers that have supporting students in quantitative fields of study as part of their mission. Some focus only on calculus or mathematics; others concentrate on numeracy or quantitative literacy, and some do all of that. A QMaSC may be embedded in a mathematics department, or part of a learning commons, or a stand-alone center. There are hundreds of these centers in the U.S. The new handbook, which is the outgrowth of a 2013 NSF-sponsored, national workshop attended by 23 QMaSC directors from all quarters of the U.S., is available open access on the USF Scholar Commons and in hard copy from Amazon.com. This editorial by the handbook’s editors provides background and overview of the 20 detailed chapters on center leadership and management; community interactions; staffing, hiring and training; center assessment; and starting a center; and then a collection of ten case studies from research universities, four-year state colleges, liberal arts colleges, and a community college. The editorial ends by pointing out the need and potential benefits of a professional organization for QMaSC directors.

  2. Ocean color and transparency data received from Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research collected in the years 1889-99, 2001, 2002 and 2013 (NODC Accession 0114317)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean color and transparency data received from Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research collected in the years 1889-99, 2001, 2002 and 2013.

  3. Free Access to Point of Care Resource Results in Increased Use and Satisfaction by Rural Healthcare Providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Alcock

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Eldredge, J. D., Hall, L. J., McElfresh, K. R., Warner, T. D., Stromberg, T. L., Trost, J. T., & Jelinek, D. A. (2016. Rural providers’ access to online resources: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Medical Library Association, 104(1, 33-41. http://dx.doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.104.1.005 Objective – To determine whether free access to the point of care (PoC resource Dynamed or the electronic book collection AccessMedicine was more useful to rural health care providers in answering clinical questions in terms of usage and satisfaction. Design – Randomized controlled trial. Setting – Rural New Mexico. Subjects – Twenty-eight health care providers (physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and pharmacists with no reported access to PoC resources, (specifically Dynamed and AccessMedicine or electronic textbook collections prior to enrollment.

  4. CHORUS – providing a scalable solution for public access to scholarly research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Ratner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available CHORUS (Clearinghouse for the Open Research of the United States offers an open technology platform in response to the public access requirements of US federal funding agencies, researchers, institutions and the public. It is focused on five principal sets of functions: 'identification', 'preservation', 'discovery', 'access', and 'compliance' . CHORUS facilitates public access to peer-reviewed publications, after a determined embargo period (where applicable, for each discipline and agency. By leveraging existing tools such as CrossRef, FundRef and ORCID, CHORUS allows a greater proportion of funding to remain focused on research. CHORUS identifies articles that report on federally funded research and enables a reader to access the ‘best available version’ free of charge, via the publisher. It is a scalable solution that offers maximum efficiency for all parties by automating as much of the process as is possible. CHORUS launched in pilot phase in September 2013, and the production phase will begin in early 2014.

  5. Impact of the 'Providing Access to Continued Education' Programme on Repeat Teenage Pregnancy in the Bahamas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakharkar, V P; Frankson, M A; Sakharkar, P R

    2015-05-15

    To determine the relationship of determinants such as age, ethnicity, education and sexual behaviour with repeat teenage pregnancy and to determine the impact of 'Providing Access to Continued Education' (PACE) programme in reducing repeat teenage pregnancy amongst its participants in The Bahamas. This retrospective cohort study included 397 attendees of the Adolescent Health Centre (AHC). Eighty-eight out of 139 registered participants completed the PACE programme. Data on age, ethnicity, education, sexual behaviour and repeat pregnancy in two years were analysed for descriptive statistics, and association of demographic characteristics and participation in the PACE programme with repeat pregnancy using the Chi-squared test. Mean age of participants was 16.4 ± 1.1 years; median school grade and mean grade point average (GPA) was 11 and 1.97 ± 0.7, respectively. The mean age at the first sexual activity was 14.9 ± 1.2 years. The mean age and number of sexual partners were 21 ± 4.3 years and 2 ± 1, respectively. Overall, repeat pregnancy rate was 39%: 37.4% amongst PACE registered and 31.8% amongst PACE completed mothers. No significant difference was observed in repeat pregnancy between registered and non-registered as well as those who completed the programme and those who did not. The odds ratio of 0.525 suggested that completion of the PACE programme had a moderate protective effect on reducing repeat pregnancy. Age, ethnicity, education and sexual behaviour showed no association with repeat pregnancy. The PACE programme did not reduce repeat pregnancy rate significantly. However, completion of the programme offered a moderate protection.

  6. Geographic Disparities in Access to Agencies Providing Income-Related Social Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W

    2015-10-01

    Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.

  7. Economic Insights into Providing Access to Improved Groundwater Sources in Remote, Low-Resource Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, A.; Lazarovitch, N.; Adar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater is often the most or only feasible drinking water source in remote, low-resource areas. Yet the economics of its development have not been systematically outlined. We applied CBARWI (Cost-Benefit Analysis for Remote Water Improvements), a recently developed Decision Support System, to investigate the economic, physical and management factors related to the costs and benefits of non-networked groundwater supply in remote areas. Synthetic profiles of community water services (n = 17,962), defined across 14 parameters' values and ranges relevant to remote areas, were imputed into the decision framework, and the parameter effects on economic outcomes were investigated through regression analysis (Table 1). Several approaches were included for financing the improvements, after Abramson et al, 2011: willingness-to -pay (WTP), -borrow (WTB) and -work (WTW) in community irrigation (';water-for-work'). We found that low-cost groundwater development approaches are almost 7 times more cost-effective than conventional boreholes fitted with handpumps. The costs of electric, submersible borehole pumps are comparable only when providing expanded water supplies, and off-grid communities pay significantly more for such expansions. In our model, new source construction is less cost-effective than improvement of existing wells, but necessary for expanding access to isolated households. The financing approach significantly impacts the feasibility of demand-driven cost recovery; in our investigation, benefit exceeds cost in 16, 32 and 48% of water service configurations financed by WTP, WTB and WTW, respectively. Regressions of total cost (R2 = 0.723) and net benefit under WTW (R2 = 0.829) along with analysis of output distributions indicate that parameters determining the profitability of irrigation are different from those determining costs and other measures of net benefit. These findings suggest that the cost-benefit outcomes associated with groundwater-based water

  8. College Access and Success for Students Experiencing Homelessness: A Toolkit for Educators and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukes, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This toolkit serves as a comprehensive resource on the issue of higher education access and success for homeless students, including information on understanding homeless students, assisting homeless students in choosing a school, helping homeless students pay for application-related expenses, assisting homeless students in finding financial aid…

  9. Barriers to accessing ATLS provider course for junior doctors at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-two percent (65/105) of all respondents had completed their mandatory rotation in surgery. ... The primary barriers for JDs to attending ATLS training is difficulty in accessing the course due to oversubscription, financial reasons, followed by difficulty in obtaining professional development leave due to staff shortage.

  10. Challenges in Providing End-of-Life Care for People with Intellectual Disability: Health Services Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wark, Stuart; Hussain, Rafat; Müller, Arne; Ryan, Peta; Parmenter, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    Background: Increasing life expectancy for people with intellectual disability is resulting in greater need for end-of-life care services. However, limited knowledge is available regarding what barriers to accessing end-of-life care support are evident, particularly comparatively across rural and metropolitan locations. Methods: Focus group…

  11. It's the Law! A Review of the Laws that Provide Americans with Access for All

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The United States is more accessible to deaf and hard of hearing individuals and people with disabilities today than it was 50, 20, or even 10 years ago. A variety of laws ensures equality in the treatment of deaf and hard of hearing people. Communication barriers have been addressed, and wider opportunities are available in education, employment,…

  12. New advanced technologies to provide decentralised and secure access to medical records: case studies in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantin, Catherine; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Allaert, François André; Fassa, Maniane; Bourquard, Karima; Boire, Jean-Yves; de Vlieger, Paul; Maigne, Lydia; Breton, Vincent

    2009-08-07

    The main problem for health professionals and patients in accessing information is that this information is very often distributed over many medical records and locations. This problem is particularly acute in cancerology because patients may be treated for many years and undergo a variety of examinations. Recent advances in technology make it feasible to gain access to medical records anywhere and anytime, allowing the physician or the patient to gather information from an "ephemeral electronic patient record". However, this easy access to data is accompanied by the requirement for improved security (confidentiality, traceability, integrity, ...) and this issue needs to be addressed. In this paper we propose and discuss a decentralised approach based on recent advances in information sharing and protection: Grid technologies and watermarking methodologies. The potential impact of these technologies for oncology is illustrated by the examples of two experimental cases: a cancer surveillance network and a radiotherapy treatment plan. It is expected that the proposed approach will constitute the basis of a future secure "google-like" access to medical records.

  13. Migrant beer promoters' experiences accessing reproductive health care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: lessons for planners and providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2015-03-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. Assessing Government Transparency : An Interpretive Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.J.; t Hart, P.; Worthy, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    How can we evaluate government transparency arrangements? While the complexity and contextuality of the values at stake defy straightforward measurement, this article provides an interpretative framework to guide and structure assessments of government transparency. In this framework, we discern

  15. Comparison of adherence to chlamydia screening guidelines among Title X providers and non-Title X providers in the California Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Joan M; de Bocanegra, Heike Thiel; Hulett, Denis; Park, Hye-Youn; Darney, Philip

    2012-08-01

    Annual chlamydia screening is recommended for adolescent and young adult females and targeted screening is recommended for women ≥26 years based on risk. Although screening levels have increased over time, adherence to these guidelines varies, with high levels of adherence among Title X family planning providers. However, previous studies of provider variation in screening rates have not adjusted for differences in clinic and client population characteristics. Administrative claims from the California Family Planning, Access, Care, and Treatment (Family PACT) program were used to (1) examine clinic and client sociodemographic characteristics by provider group-Title X-funded public sector, non-Title X public sector, and private sector providers, and (2) estimate age-specific screening and differences in rates by provider group during 2009. Among 833 providers, Title X providers were more likely than non-Title X public sector providers and private sector providers to serve a higher client volume, a higher proportion of clients aged ≤25 years, and a higher proportion of African American clients. Non-Title X public providers were more likely to be located in rural areas, compared with Title X grantees and private sector providers. Title X providers had the largest absolute difference in screening rates for young females vs. older females (10.9%). Unadjusted screening rates for young clients were lower among non-Title X public sector providers (54%) compared with private sector and Title X providers (64% each). After controlling for provider group, urban location, client volume, and percent African American, private sector providers had higher screening rates than Title X and non-Title X public providers. Screening rates for females were higher among private providers compared with Title X and non-Title X public providers. However, only Title X providers were more likely to adhere to screening guidelines through high screening rates for young females and low

  16. Physical Science Informatics: Providing Open Science Access to Microheater Array Boiling Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Green, Robert D.; Henrie, Ben; Miller, Teresa; Chiaramonte, Fran

    2014-01-01

    The Physical Science Informatics (PSI) system is the next step in this an effort to make NASA sponsored flight data available to the scientific and engineering community, along with the general public. The experimental data, from six overall disciplines, Combustion Science, Fluid Physics, Complex Fluids, Fundamental Physics, and Materials Science, will present some unique challenges. Besides data in textual or numerical format, large portions of both the raw and analyzed data for many of these experiments are digital images and video, requiring large data storage requirements. In addition, the accessible data will include experiment design and engineering data (including applicable drawings), any analytical or numerical models, publications, reports, and patents, and any commercial products developed as a result of the research. This objective of paper includes the following: Present the preliminary layout (Figure 2) of MABE data within the PSI database. Obtain feedback on the layout. Present the procedure to obtain access to this database.

  17. Laws requiring health plans to provide direct access to obstetricians and gynecologists, and use of cancer screening by women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Laurence C; Chan, Jia

    2007-06-01

    Many states have passed legislation mandating that health plans provide direct access to obstetricians/gynecologists (hereinafter "ob/gyns") for women, limiting the ability of plans to require referrals or otherwise restrict access. One benefit of these laws may be improved preventive screening rates, but no literature has examined the relationship between ob/gyn direct access laws and use of breast cancer and cervical cancer screening. We use repeated cross-sections of privately insured women age 18-64 (Pap test) and 40-64 (mammography) from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 1996-2000, linked to data on the presence of ob/gyn direct access laws by state. Outcome measures are receipt of mammography and receipt of a Pap test within the past 2 years. Regression analyses are used to assess the relationship between the presence of ob/gyn direct access laws and screening, adjusting for a range of individual characteristics, fixed state characteristics, and time trends. We find no statistically significant relationships between the presence of an ob/gyn direct access law and receipt of either mammography or Pap test screening. We explore a range of alternate specifications and find none that yield clear evidence of a relationship. Laws requiring direct access to ob/gyns are not associated with large or consistent measurable impacts on use of cancer screening.

  18. An Evaluation of the Quality of Nursing Care Provided for Vascular Access in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Chamanzari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Care for vascular access of patients undergoing hemodialysis is a critical issue. Inflammation and subsequent infection are the major factors which threaten patients' health and diminish effectiveness of hemodialysis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the severity and incidence of inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 patients undergoing hemodialysis in Emam Reza and Montazerie Hospitals in Mashhad, June, 2014. Evaluation of inflammation severity over the course of one month (12 hemodialysis sessions was performed by means of an inflammation tool designed by the Board of Nursing. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16, and performing descriptive and Chi-square tests.  Results:The mean and standard deviation of incidence of inflammation in the first session of hemodialysis was 3.2±1.3 cases. The mean and standard deviation of the intensity of inflammation was 12.5±4.7. Conclusion: Since inflammation of vascular access in hemodialysis patients impairs their safety and health improvement, necessary measures to reduce this complication must be taken.

  19. Giving rheumatology patients online home access to their electronic medical record (EMR): advantages, drawbacks and preconditions according to care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Vaart, Rosalie; Drossaert, Constance H C; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2013-09-01

    Technology enables patients home access to their electronic medical record (EMR), via a patient portal. This study aims to analyse (dis)advantages, preconditions and suitable content for this service, according to rheumatology health professionals. A two-phase policy Delphi study was conducted. First, interviews were performed with nurses/nurse practitioners (n = 9) and rheumatologists (n = 13). Subsequently, collected responses were quantified, using a questionnaire among the interviewees. The following advantages of patient home access to the EMR were reported: (1) enhancement of patient participation in treatment, (2) increased knowledge and self-management, (3) improved patient-provider interaction, (4) increased patient safety, and (5) better communication with others. Foreseen disadvantages of the service included: (1) problems with interpretation of data, (2) extra workload, (3) a change in consultation content, and (4) disturbing the patient-provider interaction. Also, the following preconditions emerged from the data: (1) optimal security, (2) no extra record, but a patient-accessible section, (3) no access to clinical notes, and (4) a lag time on the release of lab data. Most respondents reported that data on diagnosis, medication, treatment plan and consultations could be released to patients. On releasing more complex data, such as bodily examinations, lab results and radiological images the opinions differed considerably. Providing patients home access to their medical record might be a valuable next step into patient empowerment and in service towards the patient, provided that security is optimal and content and presentation of data are carefully considered.

  20. Use of a geographic information system to assess accessibility to health facilities providing emergency obstetric and newborn care in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Mahbub E; Biswas, Taposh K; Rahman, Monjur; Pasha, Kamal; Hossain, Mollah A

    2017-08-01

    To use a geographic information system (GIS) to determine accessibility to health facilities for emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) and compare coverage with that stipulated by UN guidelines (5 EmONC facilities per 500 000 individuals, ≥1 comprehensive). A cross-sectional study was undertaken of all public facilities providing EmONC in 24 districts of Bangladesh from March to October 2012. Accessibility to each facility was assessed by applying GIS to estimate the proportion of catchment population (comprehensive 500 000; basic 100 000) able to reach the nearest facility within 2 hours and 1 hour of travel time, respectively, by existing road networks. The minimum number of public facilities providing comprehensive and basic EmONC services (1 and 5 per 500 000 individuals, respectively) was reached in 16 and 3 districts, respectively. However, after applying GIS, in no district did 100% of the catchment population have access to these services. A minimum of 75% and 50% of the population had accessibility to comprehensive services in 11 and 5 districts, respectively. For basic services, accessibility was much lower. Assessing only the number of EmONC facilities does not ensure universal coverage; accessibility should be assessed when planning health systems. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  1. Geographic Accessibility - Providing government servies in an spatially equitable manner: Perspectives for Fire Station location

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Green1_2012.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 6780 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Green1_2012.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Geographic Accessibility... - Rural 8 878 7 820 28533 Cato Ridge E - Special 45 140 6698 Craigieburn A - High 1 411 160 6698 Craigieburn B - Moderate 177 20 6698 Craigieburn C - Low 28 262 2 460 6698 Craigieburn D - Rural 25 875 10 660 6698 Craigieburn E - Special 2 203 180...

  2. Conversion of tunneled hemodialysis catheter into HeRO device can provide immediate access for hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Julio C; DeLaRosa, Jacob; Rahim, Fahim; Rahim, Naeem

    2010-11-01

    Patients with central venous occlusion who are ''tunneled catheter dependent'' are a challenge for hemodialysis access. A relatively new option for them is the hemodialysis reliable outflow (HeRO) device that can be totally implanted subcutaneously. However, patients still require a tunneled hemodialysis catheter that is used until the HeRO device is mature, 4 to 6 weeks later. Here, we describe a conversion of an existing tunneled hemodialysis catheter into a HeRO device, which was combined with a ''self-sealing'' Flixene graft. This allowed almost immediate use of the HeRO device without the need for placement of a catheter.

  3. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.

  4. Patients' views on price shopping and price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semigran, Hannah L; Gourevitch, Rebecca; Sinaiko, Anna D; Cowling, David; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the growth of high deductibles and price transparency initiatives, patients are being encouraged to search for prices before seeking care, yet few do so. To understand why this is the case, we interviewed individuals who were offered access to a widely used price transparency website through their employer. Qualitative interviews. We interviewed individuals enrolled in a preferred provider organization product through their health plan about their experience using the price transparency tool (if they had done so), their past medical experiences, and their opinions on shopping for care. All interviews were transcribed and manually coded using a thematic coding guide. In general, respondents expressed frustration with healthcare costs and had a positive opinion of the idea of price shopping in theory, but 2 sets of barriers limited their ability to do so in reality. The first was the salience of searching for price information. For example, respondents recognized that due to their health plan benefits design, they would not save money by switching to a lower-cost provider. Second, other factors were more important than price for respondents when choosing a provider, including quality and loyalty to current providers. We found a disconnect between respondents' enthusiasm for price shopping and their reported use of a price transparency tool to shop for care. However, many did find the tool useful for other purposes, including checking their claims history. Addressing the barriers to price shopping identified by respondents can help inform ongoing and future price transparency initiatives.

  5. Providers of Free MOOC's Now Charge Employers for Access to Student Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    The author describes how providers of free online courses are officially in the headhunting business, bringing in revenue by selling to employers information about high-performing students who might be a good fit for open jobs. Coursera, which works with high-profile colleges to provide massive open online courses, or MOOC's, announced its…

  6. Transparency | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Transparency means openness. It allows Canadians to hold the government accountable through the proactive release of information on government activities, programs, policies, and services in formats that are easy to find, access, and use. Transparency is the key element in the Government of Canada's Commitment to ...

  7. transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fumin; Chen, Chong; Tan, Furui; Li, Chunxi; Yue, Gentian; Shen, Liang; Zhang, Weifeng

    2014-10-01

    We report a new semitransparent inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) with a structure of glass/FTO/nc-TiO2/P3HT:PCBM/MoO3/Ag/MoO3. Because high-temperature annealing which decreased the conductivity of indium tin oxide (ITO) must be handled in the process of preparation of nanocrystalline titanium oxide (nc-TiO2), we replace glass/ITO with a glass/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate to improve the device performance. The experimental results show that the replacing FTO substrate enhances light transmittance between 400 and 600 nm and does not change sheet resistance after annealing treatment. The dependence of device performances on resistivity, light transmittance, and thickness of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 film was investigated. High power conversion efficiency (PCE) was achieved for FTO substrate inverted PSCs, which showed about 75% increase compared to our previously reported ITO substrate device at different thicknesses of the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 transparent electrode films illuminated from the FTO side (bottom side) and about 150% increase illuminated from the MoO3/Ag/MoO3 side (top side).

  8. Should Consumers Request Cost Transparency? Cost Transparency in Consumer Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide a viewpoint about the role of cost transparency in\\ud consumer markets and whether or not consumers should request cost transparency from sellers, in light\\ud of the article by Antonis et al. (2015).\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Research in the area of cost transparency, pricing and related\\ud theoretical domains is analysed to understand the potential role for buyers and sellers in consumer\\ud markets.\\ud \\ud Findings – Although there...

  9. Women's access and provider practices for the case management of malaria during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hill

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: WHO recommends prompt diagnosis and quinine plus clindamycin for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in the first trimester and artemisinin-based combination therapies in subsequent trimesters. We undertook a systematic review of women's access to and healthcare provider adherence to WHO case management policy for malaria in pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, the Global Health Database, and the International Network for the Rational Use of Drugs Bibliography from 1 January 2006 to 3 April 2014, without language restriction. Data were appraised for quality and content. Frequencies of women's and healthcare providers' practices were explored using narrative synthesis and random effect meta-analysis. Barriers to women's access and providers' adherence to policy were explored by content analysis using NVivo. Determinants of women's access and providers' case management practices were extracted and compared across studies. We did not perform a meta-ethnography. Thirty-seven studies were included, conducted in Africa (30, Asia (4, Yemen (1, and Brazil (2. One- to three-quarters of women reported malaria episodes during pregnancy, of whom treatment was sought by >85%. Barriers to access among women included poor knowledge of drug safety, prohibitive costs, and self-treatment practices, used by 5%-40% of women. Determinants of women's treatment-seeking behaviour were education and previous experience of miscarriage and antenatal care. Healthcare provider reliance on clinical diagnosis and poor adherence to treatment policy, especially in first versus other trimesters (28%, 95% CI 14%-47%, versus 72%, 95% CI 39%-91%, p = 0.02, was consistently reported. Prescribing practices were driven by concerns over side effects and drug safety, patient preference, drug availability, and cost. Determinants of provider practices were access to training and facility type (public versus private. Findings were

  10. Discordant indigenous and provider frames explain challenges in improving access to arthritis care: a qualitative study using constructivist grounded theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Wilfreda E; Coupal, Stephanie; Jones, C Allyson; Crowshoe, Lynden F J; Marshall, Deborah A; Homik, Joanne; Barnabe, Cheryl

    2014-06-11

    Access to health services is a determinant of population health and is known to be reduced for a variety of specialist services for Indigenous populations in Canada. With arthritis being the most common chronic condition experienced by Indigenous populations and causing high levels of disability, it is critical to resolve access disparities through an understanding of barriers and facilitators to care. The objective of this study was to inform future health services reform by investigating health care access from the perspective of Aboriginal people with arthritis and health professionals. Using constructivist grounded theory methodology we investigated Indigenous peoples' experiences in accessing arthritis care through the reports of 16 patients and 15 healthcare providers in Alberta, Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between July 2012 and February 2013 and transcribed verbatim. The patient and provider data were first analyzed separately by two team members then brought together to form a framework. The framework was refined through further analysis following the multidisciplinary research team's discussions. Once the framework was developed, reports on the patient and provider data were shared with each participant group independently and participants were interviewed to assess validity of the summary. In the resulting theoretical framework Indigenous participants framed their experience with arthritis as 'toughing it out' and spoke of racism encountered in the healthcare setting as a deterrent to pursuing care. Healthcare providers were frustrated by high disease severity and missed appointments, and framed Indigenous patients as lacking 'buy-in'. Constraints imposed by complex healthcare systems contributed to tensions between Indigenous peoples and providers. Low specialist care utilization rates among Indigenous people cannot be attributed to cultural and social preferences. Further, the assumptions made by providers lead to stereotyping and

  11. 48 CFR 1837.203-70 - Providing contractors access to sensitive information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... submit with its proposal a preliminary analysis of possible organizational conflicts of interest that... the NASA organizational element or activity that requires specified services to be provided. (3) As... organizational conflicts of interest avoidance plan. (d) This comprehensive plan shall incorporate any previous...

  12. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, P.C.J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    1. In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to

  13. Providing Interactive Access to Cave Geology for All Students, Regardless of Physical Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, C. `; Stredney, D.; Hittle, B.; Irving, K.; Toomey, R. S., III; Lemon, N. N.; Price, A.; Kerwin, T.

    2013-12-01

    Based on an identified need to accommodate students with mobility impairments in field-based instructional experiences, this presentation will discuss current efforts to promote participation, broaden diversity, and impart a historical perspective in the geosciences through the use of an interactive virtual environment. Developed through the integration of emerging simulation technologies, this prototypical virtual environment is created from LIDAR data of the Historic Tour route of Mammoth Cave National Park. The educational objectives of the simulation focus on four primary locations within the tour route that provide evidence of the hydrologic impact on the cave and karst formation. The overall objective is to provide a rich experience of a geological field-based learning for all students, regardless of their physical abilities. Employing a virtual environment that interchangeably uses two and three-dimensional representation of geoscience content, this synthetic field-based cave and karst module will provide an opportunity to assess the effectiveness in engaging the student community, and its efficacy in the curriculum when used as an alternative representation of a traditional field experience. The expected outcome is that based on the level of interactivity, the simulated environment will provide adequate pedagogical representation for content transfer without the need for physical experience in the uncontrolled field environment. Additionally, creating such an environment will impact all able-bodied students by providing supplemental resources that can both precede a traditional field experience and allow for students to re-examine a field site long after a the field experience, in both current formal and informal educational settings.

  14. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Law 109-282, the Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act of 2006 as amended (FFATA), requires disclosure of all entities and organizations receiving Federal funds through a single publicly accessible website.

  15. E-health: potential benefits and challenges in providing and accessing sexual health services

    OpenAIRE

    Minichiello, Victor; Rahman, Saifur; Dune, Tinashe; Scott, John; Dowsett, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Background E-health has become a burgeoning field in which health professionals and health consumers create and seek information. E-health refers to internet-based health care and information delivery and seeks to improve health service locally, regionally and worldwide. E-sexual health presents new opportunities to provide online sexual health services irrespective of gender, age, sexual orientation and location. Discussion The paper used the dimensions of the RE-AIM model (reach, efficacy, ...

  16. AGRIS: providing access to agricultural research data exploiting open data on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celli, Fabrizio; Malapela, Thembani; Wegner, Karna; Subirats, Imma; Kokoliou, Elena; Keizer, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    AGRIS is the International System for Agricultural Science and Technology. It is supported by a large community of data providers, partners and users. AGRIS is a database that aggregates bibliographic data, and through this core data, related content across online information systems is retrieved by taking advantage of Semantic Web capabilities. AGRIS is a global public good and its vision is to be a responsive service to its user needs by facilitating contributions and feedback regarding the AGRIS core knowledgebase, AGRIS's future and its continuous development. Periodic AGRIS e-consultations, partner meetings and user feedback are assimilated to the development of the AGRIS application and content coverage. This paper outlines the current AGRIS technical set-up, its network of partners, data providers and users as well as how AGRIS's responsiveness to clients' needs inspires the continuous technical development of the application. The paper concludes by providing a use case of how the AGRIS stakeholder input and the subsequent AGRIS e-consultation results influence the development of the AGRIS application, knowledgebase and service delivery.

  17. Access to high-volume surgeons and the opportunity cost of performing radical prostatectomy by low-volume providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzi, Afsaneh; Klein, Eric A; Daneshmand, Siamak; Gill, Inderbir; Quinn, David I; Sadeghi, Sarmad

    2017-07-01

    Evidence suggests that redirecting surgeries to high-volume providers may be associated with better outcomes and significant societal savings. Whether such referrals are feasible remains unanswered. Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Data, SEER 18, and US Incidence data were used to determine the geographic distribution and radical prostatectomy volume for providers. Access was defined as availability of a high-volume provider within driving distance of 100 miles. The opportunity cost was defined as the value of benefits achievable by performing the surgery by a high-volume provider that was forgone by not making a referral. The savings per referral were derived from a published Markov model for radical prostatectomy. A total of 14% of providers performed>27% of the radical prostatectomies with>30 cases per year and were designated high-volume providers. Providers with below-median volume (≤16 prostatectomies per year) performed>32% of radical prostatectomies. At least 47% of these were within a 100-mile driving distance (median = 22 miles), and therefore had access to a high-volume provider (>30 prostatectomies per year). This translated into a discounted savings of more than $24 million per year, representing the opportunity cost of not making a referral. The average volume for high- and low-volume providers was 55 and 13, respectively, resulting in an annual experience gap of 43 and a cumulative gap of 125 surgeries over 3 years. In 2014, the number of surgeons performing radical prostatectomy decreased by 5% while the number of high- and low-volume providers decreased by 25% and 11% showing a faster decline in the number of high-volume providers compared with low-volume surgeons. About half of prostatectomies performed by surgeons with below-median annual volume were within a 100-mile driving distance (median of 22 miles) of a high-volume surgeon. Such a referral may result in minimal additional costs and substantially improved outcomes. Copyright

  18. Kharia: a transparent language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leufkens, S.

    2011-01-01

    The transparency of the South-Munda language Kharia is measured by checking whether it exhibits the non-transparent properties listed in the introduction of this issue. It turns out that Kharia is transparent to a high degree. The most important non-transparent properties that are attested are

  19. Providing access to risk prediction tools via the HL7 XML-formatted risk web service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Jonathan; Drohan, Brian; Blackford, Amanda; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Hughes, Kevin; Bosinoff, Phil

    2013-07-01

    Cancer risk prediction tools provide valuable information to clinicians but remain computationally challenging. Many clinics find that CaGene or HughesRiskApps fit their needs for easy- and ready-to-use software to obtain cancer risks; however, these resources may not fit all clinics' needs. The HughesRiskApps Group and BayesMendel Lab therefore developed a web service, called "Risk Service", which may be integrated into any client software to quickly obtain standardized and up-to-date risk predictions for BayesMendel tools (BRCAPRO, MMRpro, PancPRO, and MelaPRO), the Tyrer-Cuzick IBIS Breast Cancer Risk Evaluation Tool, and the Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool. Software clients that can convert their local structured data into the HL7 XML-formatted family and clinical patient history (Pedigree model) may integrate with the Risk Service. The Risk Service uses Apache Tomcat and Apache Axis2 technologies to provide an all Java web service. The software client sends HL7 XML information containing anonymized family and clinical history to a Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) server, where it is parsed, interpreted, and processed by multiple risk tools. The Risk Service then formats the results into an HL7 style message and returns the risk predictions to the originating software client. Upon consent, users may allow DFCI to maintain the data for future research. The Risk Service implementation is exemplified through HughesRiskApps. The Risk Service broadens the availability of valuable, up-to-date cancer risk tools and allows clinics and researchers to integrate risk prediction tools into their own software interface designed for their needs. Each software package can collect risk data using its own interface, and display the results using its own interface, while using a central, up-to-date risk calculator. This allows users to choose from multiple interfaces while always getting the latest risk calculations. Consenting users contribute their data for future

  20. Power Watch: Increasing Transparency and Accessibility of Data in the Global Power Sector to Accelerate the Transition to a Lower Carbon Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, R. J.; Friedrich, J.; Malaguzzi Valeri, L.; McCormick, C.; Lebling, K.; Kressig, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Power Watch project will offer open data on the global electricity sector starting with power plants and their impacts on climate and water systems; it will also offer visualizations and decision making tools. Power Watch will create the first comprehensive, open database of power plants globally by compiling data from national governments, public and private utilities, transmission grid operators, and other data providers to create a core dataset that has information on over 80% of global installed capacity for electrical generation. Power plant data will at a minimum include latitude and longitude, capacity, fuel type, emissions, water usage, ownership, and annual generation. By providing data that is both comprehensive, as well as making it publically available, this project will support decision making and analysis by actors across the economy and in the research community. The Power Watch research effort focuses on creating a global standard for power plant information, gathering and standardizing data from multiple sources, matching information from multiple sources on a plant level, testing cross-validation approaches (regional statistics, crowdsourcing, satellite data, and others) and developing estimation methodologies for generation, emissions, and water usage. When not available from official reports, emissions, annual generation, and water usage will be estimated. Water use estimates of power plants will be based on capacity, fuel type and satellite imagery to identify cooling types. This analysis is being piloted in several states in India and will then be scaled up to a global level. Other planned applications of of the Power Watch data include improving understanding of energy access, air pollution, emissions estimation, stranded asset analysis, life cycle analysis, tracking of proposed plants and curtailment analysis.

  1. Enhancing Scientific Collaboration, Transparency, and Public Access: Utilizing the Second Life Platform to Convene a Scientific Conference in 3-D Virtual Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies reveal a general mistrust of science as well as a distorted perception of the scientific method by the public at-large. Concurrently, the number of science undergraduate and graduate students is in decline. By taking advantage of emergent technologies not only for direct public outreach but also to enhance public accessibility to the science process, it may be possible to both begin a reversal of popular scientific misconceptions and to engage a new generation of scientists. The Second Life platform is a 3-D virtual world produced and operated by Linden Research, Inc., a privately owned company instituted to develop new forms of immersive entertainment. Free and downloadable to the public, Second Life offers an imbedded physics engine, streaming audio and video capability, and unlike other "multiplayer" software, the objects and inhabitants of Second Life are entirely designed and created by its users, providing an open-ended experience without the structure of a traditional video game. Already, educational institutions, virtual museums, and real-world businesses are utilizing Second Life for teleconferencing, pre-visualization, and distance education, as well as to conduct traditional business. However, the untapped potential of Second Life lies in its versatility, where the limitations of traditional scientific meeting venues do not exist, and attendees need not be restricted by prohibitive travel costs. It will be shown that the Second Life system enables scientific authors and presenters at a "virtual conference" to display figures and images at full resolution, employ audio-visual content typically not available to conference organizers, and to perform demonstrations or premier three-dimensional renderings of objects, processes, or information. An enhanced presentation like those possible with Second Life would be more engaging to non- scientists, and such an event would be accessible to the general users of Second Life, who could have an

  2. Partnering with community agencies to provide nursing students with cultural awareness experiences and refugee health promotion access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Catherine H

    2009-09-01

    Refugees' cultural beliefs, communication barriers, and low health literacy may lead to health disparities within the Western health care system. This article describes a teaching-learning strategy emphasizing the community partnership between a baccalaureate school of nursing, an immigrant-refugee program, and a community literacy program in a rural state. Senior community health nursing students partnered with an immigrant-refugee program and a community literacy program to provide health promotion and prevention services to recently immigrated Hmong and Russian refugees. Priority health needs were identified and culturally appropriate health promotion and prevention education modules were designed and implemented by students. Students collaborated with community agencies and businesses to increase access to health resources for these vulnerable populations. Outcomes were the provision of cultural awareness experiences for nursing students and access to health care with increased knowledge of Western health care practices and beliefs for refugees.

  3. Towards energy transparent factories

    CERN Document Server

    Posselt, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    This monograph provides a methodological approach for establishing demand-oriented levels of energy transparency of factories. The author presents a systematic indication of energy drivers and cost factors, taking into account the interdependencies between facility and production domains. Particular attention is given to energy flow metering and monitoring. Readers will also be provided with an in-depth description of a planning tool which allows for systematically deriving suitable metering points in complex factory environments. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of factory planning, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.

  4. Semi-transparent solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J.; Jasieniak, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    Semi-transparent solar cells are a type of technology that combines the benefits of visible light transparency and light-to-electricity conversion. One of the biggest opportunities for such technologies is in their integration as windows and skylights within energy-sustainable buildings. Currently, such building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) are dominated by crystalline silicon based modules; however, the opaque nature of silicon creates a unique opportunity for the adoption of emerging photovoltaic candidates that can be made truly semi-transparent. These include: amorphous silicon-, kesterite-, chalcopyrite-, CdTe-, dye-sensitized-, organic- and perovskite- based systems. For the most part, amorphous silicon has been the workhorse in the semi-transparent solar cell field owing to its established, low-temperature fabrication processes. Excitement around alternative classes, particularly perovskites and the inorganic candidates, has recently arisen because of the major efficiency gains exhibited by these technologies. Importantly, each of these presents unique opportunities and challenges within the context of BIPV. This topic review provides an overview into the broader benefits of semi-transparent solar cells as building-integrated features, as well as providing the current development status into all of the major types of semi-transparent solar cells technologies.

  5. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zamzam, Ahmed S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Market transparency refers to the degree of customer awareness of product options and fair market prices for a given good. In The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets, we use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the value of transparency in distributed solar PV markets. We find that improved market transparency results in lower installation offer prices. Further, the results of this study suggest that PV customers benefit from gaining access to more PV quotes.

  6. Perspectives on providing good access to dental services for elderly people: patient selection, dentists' responsibility and budget management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytten, Jostein; Holst, Dorthe

    2013-06-01

    To suggest a model for organizing and financing dental services for elderly people so that they have good access to services. There are few studies on how dental services for elderly people should be organized and financed. This is surprising if we take into consideration the fact that the proportion of elderly people is growing faster than any other group in the population, and that elderly people have more dental diseases and poorer access to dental services than the rest of the adult population. In several countries, dental services are characterized by private providers who often operate in a market with competition and free price-setting. Private dentists have no community responsibility, and they are free to choose which patients they treat. Literature review and critical reasoning. In order to avoid patient selection, a patient list system for elderly people is recommended, with per capita remuneration for the patients that the dentist is given responsibility for. The patient list system means that the dentist assumes responsibility for a well-defined list of elderly people. Our model will lead to greater security in the dentist/patient relationship, and patients with great treatment needs will be ensured access to dental services. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Highly efficient fully transparent inverted OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, J.; Winkler, T.; Hamwi, S.; Schmale, S.; Kröger, M.; Görrn, P.; Johannes, H.-H.; Riedl, T.; Lang, E.; Becker, D.; Dobbertin, T.; Kowalsky, W.

    2007-09-01

    One of the unique selling propositions of OLEDs is their potential to realize highly transparent devices over the visible spectrum. This is because organic semiconductors provide a large Stokes-Shift and low intrinsic absorption losses. Hence, new areas of applications for displays and ambient lighting become accessible, for instance, the integration of OLEDs into the windshield or the ceiling of automobiles. The main challenge in the realization of fully transparent devices is the deposition of the top electrode. ITO is commonly used as transparent bottom anode in a conventional OLED. To obtain uniform light emission over the entire viewing angle and a low series resistance, a TCO such as ITO is desirable as top contact as well. However, sputter deposition of ITO on top of organic layers causes damage induced by high energetic particles and UV radiation. We have found an efficient process to protect the organic layers against the ITO rf magnetron deposition process of ITO for an inverted OLED (IOLED). The inverted structure allows the integration of OLEDs in more powerful n-channel transistors used in active matrix backplanes. Employing the green electrophosphorescent material Ir(ppy) 3 lead to IOLED with a current efficiency of 50 cd/A and power efficiency of 24 lm/W at 100 cd/m2. The average transmittance exceeds 80 % in the visible region. The on-set voltage for light emission is lower than 3 V. In addition, by vertical stacking we achieved a very high current efficiency of more than 70 cd/A for transparent IOLED.

  8. Price transparency: building community trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    With the push from policymakers, payers, and consumers for hospitals to make their prices public, healthcare executives need to recognize two central issues related to price transparency: 1) meaningful price transparency involves helping patients and consumers understand their financial obligation for an episode of care, and 2) price transparency is key to the most critical success strategy for healthcare providers: building trust. This article reviews the history of pricing and billing practices and explores why price transparency is not easily achieved in today's environment. Pricing is a mystery even to those of us who work in the field, yet despite its complexity, the call for price transparency is not going to go away. For transparency, the goal should be to establish a rational pricing system that is easily explainable and justified to all stakeholders. Healthcare executives must make pricing a priority, understand cost, develop a pricing philosophy, understand the overall revenue requirements, examine market conditions and prices, and set up systems for review. A rational process of price setting should enhance community trust. In this matter there is nothing less at stake than the hearts of our community members.

  9. Transparency and product variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2009-01-01

    We study long run effects of transparency on the consumer side in a differentiated market. Only some consumers know prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and firm entry. This improves welfare and, in most cases, average consumer utility....

  10. Transparency and translation of science in a modern world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Ozonoff, David

    2013-01-01

    The co-Editors-in-Chief of Environmental Health respond to an unusual initiative taken by editors of 14 toxicology journals to influence pending decisions by the European Commission to establish a framework for regulating chemicals that pose a hazard to normal function of the endocrine system...... the safety of particular industrial products. The transparency provided by Environmental Health includes open access and open peer review, with reader access to reviews, including the identity of reviewers and their statements on possible conflicts of interest. However, the editors of the 14 toxicology...

  11. Fostering Good Governance at School Level in Honduras: The Role of Transparency Bulletin Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Frédéric; Caprio, Temby

    2014-01-01

    Corruption is at the core of weak governance. In the education sector, corruption is a threat to the quality of and access to education. Although the diagnosis is straightforward, effective reforms are more difficult to implement. The principles of good governance (transparency, participation, accountability, and integrity) provide us guidance,…

  12. Transparency, Imaginary Worlds and ICER Value Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. Langley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Institute for Clinical and Economic Review (ICER is seen as offering a credible platform for evaluating the pricing policies for pharmaceutical products and devices. Over the past few years ICER has presented a stream of reports, many of which have recommended substantial price discounts where the results of a lifetime cost-per-QALY modeling suggests they are out of line with notional willingness to pay thresholds and arbitrary budget constraints. At the same time, there have been growing concerns over the lack of transparency in the ICER value assessment process, focusing in particular on the refusal by ICER to allow access to its value assessment modeling framework. The purpose of this brief commentary is to point out that the position taken by ICER over model access is not defensible; the arguments given are specious. This ongoing refusal undercuts the ICER claim to be independent and the credibility of ICER recommendations for price discounting. The solution is for ICER to commit to a transparent process of value assessment, allowing in particular access to its models and for the ICER model to be subject to an independent assessment. At the same time, manufacturers and other stakeholders should have access to the model with the opportunity to challenge the model through developing model frameworks which they feel better represent product value. This advocacy, it should be noted, does not reflect acceptance of the ICER lifetime cost-per-QALY value assessment framework. Health care decision makers would be better served by a value assessment framework that provided short-term credible, evaluable and replicable claims, facilitating meaningful feedback to decision makers, and not on the construction of simulated imaginary worlds. Conflict of Interest: None   Type: Commentary

  13. Optimal Central Bank Transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; Hoogduin, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    Should central banks increase their degree of transparency any further? We show that there is likely to be an optimal intermediate degree of central bank transparency. Up to this optimum more transparency is desirable: it improves the quality of private sector inflation forecasts. But beyond the

  14. Transparency and Product Variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    We study the long run e¤ects of transparency in a circular town model of a differentiated market. The market is not fully transparent on the consumer side: A fraction of consumers are uninformed about prices. Increasing transparency reduces the equilibrium price, profit and entry of firms. This i...

  15. Reasons military patients with primary care access leave an emergency department waiting room before seeing a provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varney, Shawn M; Vargas, Toni E; Pitotti, Rebecca L; Bebarta, Vikhyat S

    2012-10-01

    Our objective was to assess patients' understanding of emergency department (ED) wait times and why patients may leave the waiting room before seeing a provider. Survey of patients in the ED waiting room of an urban tertiary care military hospital where civilian and military patients are treated. A total of 508/517 surveys (98%) were completed. Age ranges were 18 to 35 years (49%), 36 to 60 (31%), or older than 60 (20%). Education levels were high school (20%), some college (37%), or college graduate (39%). Of 503 respondents, 125 (25%) had left an ED waiting room before seeing a provider. The reasons included excessive wait times (91%) and family responsibilities (5%). Five hundred eight reported the factors that would motivate them to wait to see the physician (not leave without being seen [LWOBS]) were the severity of illness (64%), and if they received an update of wait times (26%); 82% (391/480) understood that severely ill patients were seen first. Patients attributed long wait times to doctors and nurses caring for other patients (292/583, 50%) and insufficient physician and nurse staffing (245, 42%). Of 802 responses for ideas to improve the wait, 34% said regular updates on estimated wait times, 21% said television shows or movies to view, 20% said books and magazines to read, and 11% said computers to access. Long wait times were the primary reason that patients left before seeing a provider, despite having ready access to care. Respondents attributed long wait times to patient volume and inadequate staffing. Regular updates on wait times and material for entertainment may improve the waiting experience and reduce LWOBS.

  16. Transparent metals for ultrabroadband electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ren-Hao; Peng, Ru-Wen; Huang, Xian-Rong; Li, Jia; Liu, Yongmin; Hu, Qing; Wang, Mu; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-04-17

    Making metals transparent, which could lead to fascinating applications, has long been pursued. Here we demonstrate that with narrow slit arrays metallic plates become transparent for extremely broad bandwidths; the high transmission efficiency is insensitive to the metal thickness. This work provides a guideline to develop novel devices, including transparent conducting panels, broadband metamaterials, and antireflective solar cells. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The development of a virtual database to provide on-line access to a large archive of clinical data.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, L. E.; Huff, S.M.; Haug, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The archival database of the HELP Hospital Information System at LDS Hospital is too large to be stored on line. The archival data are important for clinical and research applications. Demountable disk packs have been used to store the archival database. This method of storage has four significant disadvantages. A virtual database was developed to overcome the limitations of this data-management scheme. This virtual database enables the transparent use of appropriate low-cost network-based st...

  18. The health care value transparency movement and its implications for radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Daniel J; Narayan, Anand K; Rybicki, Frank J; Burleson, Judy; Nagy, Paul; McGinty, Geraldine; Duszak, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The US health care system is in the midst of disruptive changes intended to expand access, improve outcomes, and lower costs. As part of this movement, a growing number of stakeholders have advocated dramatically increasing consumer transparency into the quality and price of health care services. The authors review the general movement toward American health care value transparency within the public, private, and nonprofit sectors, with an emphasis on those initiatives most relevant to radiology. They conclude that radiology, along with other "ancillary services," has been a major focus of early efforts to enhance consumer price transparency. By contrast, radiology as a field remains in the "middle of the pack" with regard to quality transparency. There is thus the danger that radiology value transparency in its current form will stimulate primarily price-based competition, erode provider profit margins, and disincentivize quality. The authors conclude with suggested actions radiologists can take to ensure that a more optimal balance is struck between quality transparency and price transparency, one that will enable true value-based competition among radiologists rather than commoditization. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transparency and public participation - the need for a new paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Kjell [Karinta-Konsult, Taeby (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing openness, public participation and transparency are considered important for decision-making in public issues. Transparency serves two purposes; for the awareness of decision-makers and for public insight and influence. However, the increasing complexity of today's society, the complexity of decision processes and the complexity of the underlying factual basis are all factors that work against transparency and participation. Furthermore, the decision-making context in controversial issues is not only set up by the factual basis provided by the experts, but also by stakeholder pressure groups, lobbyists and extensive media coverage. The seemingly unlimited availability of information on the Internet and the continuous information flow in TV channels does not make it easier for the layman to get insight and clarity. This paper starts with a discussion about the expert role, a definition of transparency and three rationales for public participation. The two areas of nuclear waste disposal and biotechnology are then used to illustrate problems with transparency, but also initiatives for improving the situation. Frameworks for the evaluation of participative processes are described, as well as the role of media in making complex issues transparent. A central theme in the paper is the need for a shift from the 'experts-agenda paradigm' to the 'values-first paradigm'. We end up with suggestions for how transparency and public participation can be enhanced for the sake of democratic development: 1. We must have a multi-perspective starting point. Participants in participative processes should represent a broad spectrum of views. People must hear each other out to achieve common understanding that there are a variety of legitimate perspectives to consider. 2. The RISCOM model has been shown both innovative and workable in the nuclear waste area. We should extend its application to other areas, biotechnology being one primary candidate. 3

  20. The art of transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayim, Bilge; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Artists throughout the ages have discovered a number of techniques to depict transparency. With only a few exceptions, these techniques follow closely the properties of physical transparency. The two best known properties are X-junctions and the luminance relations described by Metelli. X-junctions are seen where the contours of a transparent material cross contours of the surface behind; Metelli's constraints on the luminance relations between the direct and filtered portions of the surface specify a range of luminance values that are consistent with transparency. These principles have been used by artists since the time of ancient Egypt. However, artists also discovered that stimuli can be seen as transparent even when these physical constraints are not met. Ancient Greek artists, for example, were able to depict transparent materials in simple black-and-white line drawings. Artists also learned how to represent transparency in cases where neither X-junctions nor Metelli's constraints could apply: for example, where no portions of the objects behind the transparent material extend beyond it. Many painters convincingly portrayed transparency in these cases by depicting the effects the transparent medium would have on material or object properties. Here, we show how artists employed these and other techniques revealing their anticipation of current formalizations of perceived transparency, and we suggest new, as-yet-untested principles.

  1. The internet of products an approach to establishing total transparency in electronic markets

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Robert

    2012-01-01

    ?This study approaches the difficult problem of providing Internet users with a completely transparent view on electronic markets from a product information accessibility point of view. Robert Neumann analyzes economic, ecological, and societal gains of openly accessible product information in the form of theoretical models. Though many aspects of very different research disciplines have to be investigated to gain a holistic view on the Internet of Products, this thesis reduces the range of involved research topics to product information discoverability related questions.

  2. Optically transparent semiconducting polymer nanonetwork for flexible and transparent electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kilho; Park, Byoungwook; Kim, Geunjin; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Park, Sungjun; Kim, Jehan; Jung, Suhyun; Jeong, Soyeong; Kwon, Sooncheol; Kang, Hongkyu; Kim, Junghwan; Yoon, Myung-Han; Lee, Kwanghee

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneously achieving high optical transparency and excellent charge mobility in semiconducting polymers has presented a challenge for the application of these materials in future “flexible” and “transparent” electronics (FTEs). Here, by blending only a small amount (∼15 wt %) of a diketopyrrolopyrrole-based semiconducting polymer (DPP2T) into an inert polystyrene (PS) matrix, we introduce a polymer blend system that demonstrates both high field-effect transistor (FET) mobility and excellent optical transparency that approaches 100%. We discover that in a PS matrix, DPP2T forms a web-like, continuously connected nanonetwork that spreads throughout the thin film and provides highly efficient 2D charge pathways through extended intrachain conjugation. The remarkable physical properties achieved using our approach enable us to develop prototype high-performance FTE devices, including colorless all-polymer FET arrays and fully transparent FET-integrated polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27911774

  3. Corneal structure and transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Keith M.; Knupp, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The corneal stroma plays several pivotal roles within the eye. Optically, it is the main refracting lens and thus has to combine almost perfect transmission of visible light with precise shape, in order to focus incoming light. Furthermore, mechanically it has to be extremely tough to protect the inner contents of the eye. These functions are governed by its structure at all hierarchical levels. The basic principles of corneal structure and transparency have been known for some time, but in recent years X-ray scattering and other methods have revealed that the details of this structure are far more complex than previously thought and that the intricacy of the arrangement of the collagenous lamellae provides the shape and the mechanical properties of the tissue. At the molecular level, modern technologies and theoretical modelling have started to explain exactly how the collagen fibrils are arranged within the stromal lamellae and how proteoglycans maintain this ultrastructure. In this review we describe the current state of knowledge about the three-dimensional stromal architecture at the microscopic level, and about the control mechanisms at the nanoscopic level that lead to optical transparency. PMID:26145225

  4. LIGHTWEIGHT AND TRANSPARENT DOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izis Salvador Pinto

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Domes have existed for centuries, from ancient domed structures such as Igloos to contemporary domes such as the Eden Project. However, over the years there has been a gradual shift in construction of long-span domes, from the use of opaque and heavy materials, to the use of transparent and lightweight structures. The development in material technology provides the opportunity to reduce the weight of materials and structures to be lightweight and highstrength, saving energy, fuel, and contributing to the low carbon agenda. The progress in materials science and the evolution in the technology of construction and manufacturing in architecture make the utopian ideas of the past into a reality. Domes with Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE cushions as cladding system are lightweight and transparent structures. ETFE is a cost-effective, environmentally friendly material. The advantages of ETFE, compared to glass, is that ETFE is one per cent of the weight of glass, transmits more light and costs far less to instal. Furthermore, this material does not degrade under ultraviolet light and is unaffected by atmospheric pollutants. This paper presents an overview of contemporary long-span domes constructed with lightweight materials, from the domes in buildings, to the possibility of achieving large city-dome enclosures.

  5. Transparent stereoscopic display and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Nicola; Seifert, Hagen; Gross, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Augmented reality has become important to our society as it can enrich the actual world with virtual information. Transparent screens offer one possibility to overlay rendered scenes with the environment, acting both as display and window. In this work, we review existing transparent back-projection screens for the use with active and passive stereo. Advantages and limitations are described and, based on these insights, a passive stereoscopic system using an anisotropic back-projection foil is proposed. To increase realism, we adapt rendered content to the viewer's position using a Kinect tracking system, which adds motion parallax to the binocular cues. A technique well known in control engineering is used to decrease latency and increase frequency of the tracker. Our transparent stereoscopic display prototype provides immersive viewing experience and is suitable for many augmented reality applications.

  6. Organizational Transparency & Sense Making: The case of Northern Rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Wehmeier, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Organizational transparency is associated with mutual understanding and consensus between the organization and its constituents, but is typically defined as information disclosure. Such definitions pose the risk of simplification and provide incomplete understandings of the transparency phenomenon...

  7. The NIH genetic testing registry: a new, centralized database of genetic tests to enable access to comprehensive information and improve transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Maglott, Donna R.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Kattman, Brandi L.; Malheiro, Adriana J.; Ovetsky, Michael; Hem, Vichet; Gorelenkov, Viatcheslav; Song, Guangfeng; Wallin, Craig; Husain, Nora; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Katz, Kenneth S.; Hoffman, Douglas; Jang, Wonhee; Johnson, Mark; Karmanov, Fedor; Ukrainchik, Alexander; Denisenko, Mikhail; Fomous, Cathy; Hudson, Kathy; Ostell, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health Genetic Testing Registry (GTR; available online at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gtr/) maintains comprehensive information about testing offered worldwide for disorders with a genetic basis. Information is voluntarily submitted by test providers. The database provides details of each test (e.g. its purpose, target populations, methods, what it measures, analytical validity, clinical validity, clinical utility, ordering information) and laboratory (e.g. location, contact information, certifications and licenses). Each test is assigned a stable identifier of the format GTR000000000, which is versioned when the submitter updates information. Data submitted by test providers are integrated with basic information maintained in National Center for Biotechnology Information’s databases and presented on the web and through FTP (ftp.ncbi.nih.gov/pub/GTR/_README.html). PMID:23193275

  8. Assessing internet access and use in a medically underserved population: implications for providing enhanced health information services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Lisl; Dalrymple, Prudence W; Rogers, Michelle L; Williver-Farr, Heather

    2012-03-01

    The relationship between health information seeking, patient engagement and health literacy is not well understood. This is especially true in medically underserved populations, which are often viewed as having limited access to health information. To improve communication between an urban health centre and the community it serves, a team of library and information science researchers undertook an assessment of patients' level and methods of access to and use of the Internet. Data were collected in 53 face-to-face anonymous interviews with patients at the centre. Interviews were tape-recorded for referential accuracy, and data were analysed to identify patterns of access and use. Seventy-two percentage of study participants reported having access to the Internet through either computers or cell phones. Barriers to Internet access were predominantly lack of equipment or training rather than lack of interest. Only 21% of those with Internet access reported using the Internet to look for health information. The findings suggest that lack of access to the Internet in itself is not the primary barrier to seeking health information in this population and that the digital divide exists not at the level of information access but rather at the level of information use. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  9. Access to new medications for the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis: Patient, provider and community perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Lessem

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB is on the rise, and is difficult to treat. The approval of two new drugs, bedaquiline and delamanid, and growing evidence for the use of linezolid, offer renewed hope for addressing MDR-TB. However, access to these medicines remains a significant challenge. These drugs have not been registered for TB in most settings; barriers to preapproval access persist; and high pricing and intellectual property restrictions limit access. Many unanswered research questions about optimal use of these drugs also limit access, particularly for vulnerable populations. This review outlines challenges in accessing drugs encountered from the perspective of clinicians, patients and affected communities, and offers potential solutions.

  10. Cultural transmission of tool use by Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.) provides access to a novel foraging niche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krützen, Michael; Kreicker, Sina; MacLeod, Colin D; Learmonth, Jennifer; Kopps, Anna M; Walsham, Pamela; Allen, Simon J

    2014-06-07

    Culturally transmitted tool use has important ecological and evolutionary consequences and has been proposed as a significant driver of human evolution. Such evidence is still scarce in other animals. In cetaceans, tool use has been inferred using indirect evidence in one population of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops sp.), where particular dolphins ('spongers') use marine sponges during foraging. To date, evidence of whether this foraging tactic actually provides access to novel food items is lacking. We used fatty acid (FA) signature analysis to identify dietary differences between spongers and non-spongers, analysing data from 11 spongers and 27 non-spongers from two different study sites. Both univariate and multivariate analyses revealed significant differences in FA profiles between spongers and non-spongers between and within study sites. Moreover, FA profiles differed significantly between spongers and non-spongers foraging within the same deep channel habitat, whereas the profiles of non-spongers from deep channel and shallow habitats at this site could not be distinguished. Our results indicate that sponge use by bottlenose dolphins is linked to significant differences in diet. It appears that cultural transmission of tool use in dolphins, as in humans, allows the exploitation of an otherwise unused niche.

  11. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. PMID:25862425

  12. Price-Transparency and Cost Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hilsenrath PhD

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers.

  13. Conditions for perceptual transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westland, Stephen; da Pos, Osvaldo; Ripamonti, Caterina

    2002-06-01

    We review the conditions that are necessary for the perception of transparency and describe the spatiochromatic constraints for achromatic and chromatic transparent displays. These constraints can be represented by the convergence model and are supported by psychophysical data. We present an alternative representation of the constraints necessary for transparency perception that is based on an analogy with a model of colour constancy and the invariance of cone-excitation ratios. Recent psychophysical experiments are described that suggest that displays where the cone-excitation ratios are invariant produce a stronger impression of transparency than displays where the cone excitations are convergent. We argue that the spatial relations in an image are preserved when a Mondrian-like surface is partially covered by a transparent filter and therefore show an intriguing link between transparency perception and colour constancy. Finally, we describe experiments to relate the strength of the transparency percept with the number of unique patches in the image display. We find that the greater the number of surfaces in the display that are partially covered by a transparent filter the stronger the impression of transparency.

  14. The IRIS Education and Outreach Program: Providing access to data and equipment for educational and public use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Toigo, M.; Bravo, T. K.; Hubenthal, M.; McQuillan, P. J.; Welti, R.

    2009-12-01

    The IRIS Education and Outreach Program has been an integral part of IRIS for the past 10 years and during that time has worked to advance awareness and understanding of seismology and earth science while inspiring careers in geophysics. The focus on seismology and the use of seismic data has allowed the IRIS E&O program to develop and disseminate a unique suite of products and services for a wide range of audiences. One result of that effort has been increased access to the IRIS Data Management System by non-specialist audiences and simplified use of location and waveform data. The Seismic Monitor was one of the first Web-based tools for observing near-real-time seismicity. It continues to be the most popular IRIS web page, and thus it presents aspects of seismology to a very wide audience. For individuals interested in more detailed ground motion information, waveforms can be easily viewed using the Rapid Earthquake Viewer, developed by the University of South Carolina in collaboration with IRIS E&O. The Seismographs in Schools program gives schools the opportunity to apply for a low-cost educational seismograph and to receive training for its use in the classroom. To provide better service to the community, a new Seismographs in Schools website was developed in the past year with enhanced functions to help teachers improve their teaching of seismology. The site encourages schools to make use of seismic data and communicate with other educational seismology users throughout the world. Users can view near-real-time displays of other participating schools, upload and download data, and use the “find a teacher” tool to contact nearby schools that also may be operating seismographs. In order to promote and maintain program participation and communication, the site features a discussion forum to encourage and support the growing global community of educational seismograph users. Any data that is submitted to the Seismographs in Schools Website is also accessible

  15. The Economic and Social Benefits and the Barriers of Providing People with Disabilities Accessible Clean Water and Sanitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Wolbring

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Resolution A/HRC/RES/16/2 adopted by the UN Human Rights Council on 8 April 2011 declared access to safe drinking water and sanitation a human right. However many people around the globe including people with disabilities do not have access to safe drinking water, hygiene or sanitation facilities. Inaccessibility of clean water sources, hygiene and sanitation facilities negatively impacts among others health, education, the ability to work, and the ability to partake in social activities. This paper looks at the benefits of, and access barriers to, clean water and sanitation for people with disabilities.

  16. At the threshold of american personalism: providing the personal access to God’s Word in Elizabethan Bible translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl O. Patsan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at defining the ways to the exposure of theistic basis of personhood which were paved by the personalist philosophy founded in the USA in the late nineteenth – early twentieth centuries. Having become an initiator of historical-philosophical reconstructing the genesis of American personalism in Ukraine, the author actualizes the problem of perceiving the Scripture text by the personalistic trend sprung from the Protestant soil in North America. The article substantiates the approach to reflecting this process based upon the meta-ontology of personality expounded by patristic trinitology at the turn of Antiquity and the Middle Ages and disclosed for rational consciousness of the modern era by the personalistic mode of thinking appealed to Orthodox theology. Prepared by the previous results of the author’s elaboration of the actualized problematics (represented in his publications in Ukrainian and foreign periodical scientific editions the article focuses on the theological foundations of the personalist philosophy of the USA connecting its unsteadiness with the departure of Protestantism from Christian dogmata affirming personal principle of being, Absolute Personality of God and godlikeness of the human person uncovered by the Revelation. Correlating horizons of personalistic perception of God Breathed Book with reconstructions of the Bible topology of personhood which were performed in the Scripture translations providing the personal access to God’s Word, the author analyzes the transmission of Biblical concepts of personal being in English Scripture versions appeared during the reign of Elizabeth I (the Geneva Bible, the Bishops’ Bible, initially accepted by the Protestant denominations of North America and formed the Biblical background of personalistic thinking in the New World. The study reveals the premises of reducing the spiritual source of personality to personalized ratio in the doctrine of the classical

  17. The 3 A's of the access process to long-term care for elderly: providers experiences in a multiple case study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Lisette; Luijkx, Katrien; Meijboom, Bert; Schols, Jos

    2015-01-01

    The access process is an important step in the care provision to independently living elderly. Still, little attention has been given to the process of access to long-term care for older clients. Access can be described by three dimensions: availability, affordability and acceptability (three A's). In this paper we address the following question: How do care providers take the three dimensions of access into account for the access process to their care and related service provision to independently living elderly? To answer this question we performed a qualitative study. We used data gathered in a multiple case study in the Netherlands. This study provides insight in the way long-term care organizations organize their access process. Not all dimensions were equally present or acknowledged by the case organizations. The dimension acceptability seems an important dimension in the access process, as shown by the efforts done in building a relationship with their clients, mainly through a strong personal relationship between client and care advisor. In that respect it is remarkable that the case organizations do not structurally evaluate their access process. Availability is compromised by practical issues and organizational choices. Affordability hardly seems an issue. Further research can reveal the underlying factors that influence the three A dimensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transparency of Banking Supervisors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liedorp, Franka; Mosch, Robert; van der Cruijsen, Carin; de Haan, Jakob

    Following Eijffinger and Geraats (2006), this paper constructs an index of transparency of banking supervisors that takes political, economic, procedural, policy, and operational transparency into account. Based on a survey, the index is constructed for 24 banking supervisors. The average score is

  19. Privacy transparency patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siljee B.I.J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two privacy patterns for creating privacy transparency: the Personal Data Table pattern and the Privacy Policy Icons pattern, as well as a full overview of privacy transparency patterns. It is a first step in creating a full set of privacy design patterns, which will aid

  20. The transparency of creoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leufkens, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this article I propose that creoles are relatively transparent compared to their source languages. This means that they display more one-to-one relations between meaning and form. Transparency should be distinguished from the concepts of simplicity, ease of acquisition, and regularity.

  1. EU Transparency Register

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mańko, R.; Thiel, M.; Bauer, E.

    2014-01-01

    Widespread lobbying in the EU institutions has led to criticism regarding the transparency and accountability of the EU's decision-making process. In response to these concerns, the Parliament set up its transparency register in 1995, followed by the Commission in 2008. The two institutions merged

  2. Transparent Conducting Oxides for Photovoltaics: Manipulation of Fermi Level, Work Function and Energy Band Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana E. Proffit

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Doping limits, band gaps, work functions and energy band alignments of undoped and donor-doped transparent conducting oxides Zn0, In2O3, and SnO2 as accessed by X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/UPS are summarized and compared. The presented collection provides an extensive data set of technologically relevant electronic properties of photovoltaic transparent electrode materials and illustrates how these relate to the underlying defect chemistry, the dependence of surface dipoles on crystallographic orientation and/or surface termination, and Fermi level pinning.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness of Access Expansion to Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus Infection Through Primary Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattay, Thilo; Dumont, Ian P; Heinzow, Hauke S; Hutton, David W

    2017-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major burden on individuals and health care systems. The Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (Project ECHO) enables primary care providers to deliver best-practice care for complex conditions to underserved populations. The US Congress passed the ECHO Act in late 2016, requiring the Department of Health and Human Services to investigate the model. We performed a cost-effectiveness analysis to assess diagnosis and treatment of HCV infection in a primary care patient panel with and without the implementation of Project ECHO. We used Markov models to simulate disease progression, quality of life, and life expectancy among individuals with HCV infection and for the general population. Data from the University of New Mexico's ECHO operation for HCV show an increase in treatment rates. Corresponding increases in survival, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), costs, and resulting budget impact between ECHO and non-ECHO patients with HCV were then compared. Project ECHO increased costs and QALYs. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of ECHO was $10,351 per QALY compared with the status quo; >99.9% of iterations fell below the willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. We were unable to confirm whether the increase in rates of treatment associated with Project ECHO were due to increased or more targeted screening, higher adherence, or access to treatment. Our sensitivity analyses show that the results are largely independent of the cause. Budget impact analysis shows payers would have to invest an additional $339.54 million over a 5-year period to increase treatment by 4446 patients, per 1 million covered lives. Using a simulated primary care patient panel, we showed that Project ECHO is a cost-effective way to find and treat patients with HCV infection at scale using existing primary care providers. This approach could substantially reduce the burden of chronic HCV infection in the United States, but high

  4. Theoretical limits for visibly transparent photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Richard R.

    2012-07-01

    Transparent photovoltaics (PVs) provide a potentially facile route to building-integrated PVs and seamless energy-harvesting within non-window surfaces such as electronic displays, autonomously powered electronic-glazings, and mobile-electronic accessories. Such devices have been enabled by manipulation of excitons in organic and molecular semiconductors that allow for selective ultraviolet and near-infrared solar conversion. Here, the theoretical efficiency limits of transparent photovoltaics are determined as a function of transparency. Power-production from ultraviolet and near-infrared photons alone leads to a theoretical single-junction efficiency of 21% in transparent structures, compared to 33% for opaque-junctions. Reducing thermal losses via transparent multi-junction stacking these limits increase to 37%.

  5. Melinda - A custom search engine that provides access to locally-developed content using the HL7 Infobutton standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yik-Ki J; Staes, Catherine J

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare organizations use care pathways to standardize care, but once developed, adoption rates often remain low. One challenge for usage concerns clinicians' difficulty in accessing guidance when it is most needed. Although the HL7 'Infobutton Standard' allows clinicians easier access to external references, access to locally-developed resources often requires clinicians to deviate from their normal electronic health record (EHR) workflow to use another application. To address this gap between internal and external resources, we reviewed the literature and existing practices at the University of Utah Health Care. We identify the requirements to meet the needs of a healthcare enterprise and clinicians, describe the design and development of a prototype to aggregate both internal and external resources from within or outside the EHR, and evaluated strengths and limitations of the prototype. The system is functional but not implemented in a live EHR environment. We suggest next steps and enhancements.

  6. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  7. Dominant investors and strategic transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.C.; von Thadden, E.-L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies product market competition under a strategic transparency decision. Dominant investors can influence information collection in the financial market, and thereby corporate transparency, by affecting market liquidity or the cost of information collection. More transparency on a

  8. In-vitro corneal transparency measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liliane; da Costa Vieira, Marcelo A.; Isaac, Flavio; Chiaradia, Caio; Faria de Sousa, Sidney J.

    2001-06-01

    A system for measuring the average corneal transparency of preserved corneas has been developed in order to provide a more accurate and standard report of the corneal tissue. The donated cornea transparency is one of the features to be analyzed previously to its indication for the transplant. The small portable system consists of two main parts: the optical and the electronic parts. The optical system consists of a white light, lenses and pin-holes that collimate white light beams that illuminates the cornea in its preservative medium. The light that passes through the cornea is detected by a resistive detector and the average corneal transparency is shown in a display. In order to obtain just the tissue transparency, the electronic circuit was built in a way that there is a baseline input of the preservative medium, previous to the measurement of the corneal transparency. Manipulating the system consists of three steps: (1) Adjusting the zero percentage in the absence of light (at this time the detectors in the dark); (2) Placing the preservative medium in the system and adjusting the 100% value (this is the baseline input); (3) Preserving the cornea and placing it in the system. The system provides the tissue transparency. The system is connected to an endothelium evaluation system for Slit Lamp, that we have developed, and statistics about the relationship of the corneal transparency and density of the endothelial cells will be provided in the next years. The system is being used in a public Eye Bank in Brasil.

  9. Working toward Transparency in Library Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding, Marshall

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author argues the need for transparency with regard to the automation systems used in libraries. As librarians make decisions regarding automation software and services, they should have convenient access to information about the organizations it will potentially acquire technology from and about the collective experiences of…

  10. Giving rheumatology patients online home access to their electronic medical record (EMR): advantages, drawbacks and preconditions according to care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, R.; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2013-01-01

    Technology enables patients home access to their electronic medical record (EMR), via a patient portal. This study aims to analyse (dis)advantages, preconditions and suitable content for this service, according to rheumatology health professionals. A two-phase policy Delphi study was conducted.

  11. Providing access to research data, publications and current research information at Data Archiving and Networked Services - DANS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, E.M.S.; Doorn, P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Data Archiving and Networked Services (DANS) promotes sustained access to digital research data in the Netherlands. Researchers can deposit their data through the online archiving system EASY. Via the portal NARCIS the research data are shown in context, namely in relation to publications, and other

  12. Resources and Capabilities of the Department of Veterans Affairs to Provide Timely and Accessible Care to Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Peter S; Ringel, Jeanne S; Ahluwalia, Sangeeta; Price, Rebecca Anhang; Buttorff, Christine; Concannon, Thomas W; Lovejoy, Susan L; Martsolf, Grant R; Rudin, Robert S; Schultz, Dana; Sloss, Elizabeth M; Watkins, Katherine E; Waxman, Daniel; Bauman, Melissa; Briscombe, Brian; Broyles, James R; Burns, Rachel M; Chen, Emily K; DeSantis, Amy Soo Jin; Ecola, Liisa; Fischer, Shira H; Friedberg, Mark W; Gidengil, Courtney A; Ginsburg, Paul B; Gulden, Timothy; Gutierrez, Carlos Ignacio; Hirshman, Samuel; Huang, Christina Y; Kandrack, Ryan; Kress, Amii; Leuschner, Kristin J; MacCarthy, Sarah; Maksabedian, Ervant J; Mann, Sean; Matthews, Luke Joseph; May, Linnea Warren; Mishra, Nishtha; Miyashiro, Lisa; Muchow, Ashley N; Nelson, Jason; Naranjo, Diana; O'Hanlon, Claire E; Pillemer, Francesca; Predmore, Zachary; Ross, Rachel; Ruder, Teague; Rutter, Carolyn M; Uscher-Pines, Lori; Vaiana, Mary E; Vesely, Joseph V; Hosek, Susan D; Farmer, Carrie M

    2016-05-09

    The Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 addressed the need for access to timely, high-quality health care for veterans. Section 201 of the legislation called for an independent assessment of various aspects of veterans' health care. The RAND Corporation was tasked with an assessment of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) current and projected health care capabilities and resources. An examination of data from a variety of sources, along with a survey of VA medical facility leaders, revealed the breadth and depth of VA resources and capabilities: fiscal resources, workforce and human resources, physical infrastructure, interorganizational relationships, and information resources. The assessment identified barriers to the effective use of these resources and capabilities. Analysis of data on access to VA care and the quality of that care showed that almost all veterans live within 40 miles of a VA health facility, but fewer have access to VA specialty care. Veterans usually receive care within 14 days of their desired appointment date, but wait times vary considerably across VA facilities. VA has long played a national leadership role in measuring the quality of health care. The assessment showed that VA health care quality was as good or better on most measures compared with other health systems, but quality performance lagged at some VA facilities. VA will require more resources and capabilities to meet a projected increase in veterans' demand for VA care over the next five years. Options for increasing capacity include accelerated hiring, full nurse practice authority, and expanded use of telehealth.

  13. New National Cryo-EM Facility Provides Access to Cutting-Edge Technology for Cancer Research Community | FNLCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer researchers nationwide now have access to the latest technology in the field of cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)—the study of protein structures at atomic resolution—at the Frederick National Lab for Cancer Research. The emerging technol

  14. Evaluation of the role of access providers. Discussion of Dutch Pirate Bay case law and introducing principles on directness, effectiveness, costs, relevance, and time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.; van der Meulen, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Internet service providers (ISPs) play a pivotal role in contemporary society because they provide access to the Internet. The primary task of ISPs – to blindly transfer information across the network – has recently come under pressure, as has their status as neutral third parties. Both the public

  15. Enhancing Transparency in Multidisciplinary Expert Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hukki, Kristiina; Pulkkinen, Urho [VTT Industrial Systems (Finland)

    2003-10-01

    enhancing mutual understanding the models help in the integration of the knowledge produced by different disciplines and in the reconciliation of the requirements of different parties. They also improve the interaction between the domain experts and the experts of safety assessment. Better awareness of the knowledge-related dependencies enhance the unity of the experts' safety conceptions and contributes to more unified communicating practices in the organization. On the basis of its holistic and integrating character, the safety assessment seems to provide a common perspective to the modelling of the work processes. Using it as a tool for understanding the significance of the safety-critical aspects of work will probably make it more accessible for the domain experts. The safety assessment aims at results, which are expected to be transdisciplinary by nature. It can be assumed, that the common conceptualization and modelling with the help of it facilitate the development from multidisciplinarity to true transdisciplinarity in the expert work.

  16. Access and utilisation of primary health care services comparing urban and rural areas of Riyadh Providence, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaqeeh, Ghadah; Cook, Erica J; Randhawa, Gurch; Ali, Nasreen

    2017-02-02

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has seen an increase in chronic diseases. International evidence suggests that early intervention is the best approach to reduce the burden of chronic disease. However, the limited research available suggests that health care access remains unequal, with rural populations having the poorest access to and utilisation of primary health care centres and, consequently, the poorest health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the factors influencing the access to and utilisation of primary health care centres in urban and rural areas of Riyadh province of the KSA. A questionnaire survey was carried out to identify the barriers and enablers to accessing PHCS in rural (n = 5) and urban (n = 5) areas of Riyadh province, selected on the classification of the population density of the governorates. An adapted version of the NHS National Survey Programme was administered that included 50 questions over 11 sections that assessed a wide range of factors related to respondent's access and experience of the PHCS. A total of 935 responses were obtained with 52.9% (n = 495) from urban areas and the remaining 47.1% (n = 440) from rural areas of Riyadh province. This study highlights that there are high levels of satisfaction among patients among all PHCS. In relation to differences between urban and rural respondents, the findings indicated that there were significant variations in relation to: education level, monthly income, medical investigations, receiving blood tests on time, extra opening hours, distance, cleanliness and health prevention. Core barriers for rural patients related to the distance to reach PHCS, cleanliness of the PHCS, receiving health prevention and promotion services, which should serve to improve health outcomes. This study highlighted important differences in access to and utilisation of PHCS between urban and rural populations in Riyadh province in the KSA. These findings have implications for policy and

  17. Public Funding and Budgetary Challenges To Providing Universal Access To Primary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwami, Edith Mukudi; Keller, Edmond J.

    2010-02-01

    Budgetary capacity that would allow for the public funding of the provision of universal access to primary education is lacking in many sub-Saharan economies. National revenues significantly lag behind the overall economic productivity measure of GDP. Analysis of data derived from UNESCO and UNDP for 2004 shows that governments in the region spend far less in US dollars per unit cost on primary education than do developed countries. Increasing the unit cost of education in order to enable a government to guarantee universal primary education would take away resources from other tiers of the education system in many countries in the region. The alternative is to universalise access, despite existing budget allocation constraints, and thereby further compound the problems of poor infrastructure and limited human resource capacity that continue to compromise education quality in sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Increasing access to sexual health care for rural and regional young people: Similarities and differences in the views of young people and service providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karen; Harvey, Caroline; Matich, Paula; Page, Priscilla; Jukka, Clare; Hollins, Jane; Larkins, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to describe the views of sexual health service providers on access issues for young people and consider them together with the views of young people themselves. A cross-sectional mixed-methods study design involving semi-structured interviews with health service providers and an electronic survey with young people. Four towns in rural and regional Queensland, Australia. A total of 32 service providers: 9 sexual health nurses, 8 general practitioners, 6 school-based youth health nurses, 5 sexual health educators, 2 Australian Aboriginal health workers and 2 youth workers. There were 391 young people who participated in the Young People's Survey. Themes generated from interviews with service providers and quantitative data from young people addressing access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services for rural and regional young people. Service providers frequently identified structural barriers, confidentiality and lack of awareness of SRH services as barriers for young people seeking SRH care. Young people also reported that structural factors such as transport, cost and service operating hours were important; however, they placed greater value on personal attributes of service providers, particularly welcoming and non-judgemental attitudes. Health service policy and training focused on attitudinal qualities of individual service providers may improve access to SRH services for young people. Selective staff recruitment and professional development are important to increase sensitivity to youth issues. Promotion of non-judgemental and confidential care may also improve access for youth. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  19. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  20. Subscribing to Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Yinghua; Nielsson, Ulf; Guo, Hong

    The paper empirically explores how more trade transparency affects market liquidity. The analysis takes advantage of a unique setting in which the Shanghai Stock Exchange offered more trade transparency to market participants subscribing to a new software package. First, the results show...... that the additional data disclosure increased trading activity, but also increased transactions costs through wider bid-ask spreads. Thus, in contrast to popular policy belief, the paper finds that more transparency need not improve market liquidity. Second, the paper finds a particularly strong immediate liquidity...... impact accompanied by altered trading behavior, which suggests a significant impact on institutional traders subscribing relatively early. Lastly, since the effective level of market transparency is bound to depend on how many traders are subscribing to the data, the study can empirically establish...

  1. Barriers to accessing ATLS provider course for junior doctors at a major university hospital in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, J J; Kong, V Y; Liu, T; Sartorius, B; Oosthuizen, G V; Clarke, D L

    2017-11-01

    Advanced trauma life support (ATLS) is the international standard of care and forms the basis of trauma training in South Africa. Previous local studies demonstrated a low completion rate among junior doctors (JD). This study was designed to determine the reasons and identify possible barriers of JDs to accessing the ATLS course at a major university hospital. This was a prospective study utilising a structured survey that included all JDs who were undertaking their internship training. A total of 105 JDs completed the survey. Sixty-two percent were female (65/105) and the mean age was 25 years. Forty-eight percent (50/105) of all JDs were post graduate year 1 (PGY 1) and the remaining 52% were post graduate year 2 (PGY 2) JDs. Sixty-two percent (65/105) of all respondents had completed their mandatory rotation in surgery. The reasons for non-attendance of ATLS were: unable to secure a place on course (52%), unable to afford course fee (18%), permission for attendance not granted (14%), unable to obtain study leave (10%) and lack of interest (5%). Subgroup analysis comparing the reasons for PGY1s vs PGY2s demonstrated that not being able to secure a place on course was more common among PGY2s [19% vs 33%, p ATLS training is difficulty in accessing the course due to oversubscription, financial reasons, followed by difficulty in obtaining professional development leave due to staff shortage. There is an urgent need to improve access to the ATLS training course for JDs in our environment.

  2. Time to market and patient access to new oncology products in Italy: a multistep pathway from European context to regional health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, P; Mennini, F S; Siviero, P D; Rasi, G

    2010-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to identify each sequential phase followed by an oncology product, from European assessment until to patient access in each Italian region (IR). A panel of oncology products approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) in the period 2006-2008 was considered. The explored sequential phases included the times to market for: the EMA; pharmaceutical companies; the Italian Medicines Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA); and IRs as final providers of health care. The IR's time to market was also analyzed by a Cox regression model. The overall mean time required before patients access was 2.3 years. EMA accounted for the greater proportion of time (31.8%), followed by AIFA (28.2%). However, the duration for both pharmaceutical companies and IRs was associated with the highest variability. An oncology product authorized with a risk-sharing agreement showed an early access in the IRs. On the contrary, the introduction in IRs having a compulsory formulary was delayed. Both a high forecast of economic impact and a high oncology product price can also delay the patient access. The process before patient access to an oncology product is time and cost consuming. This study identifies the main predictors that affect the missing overlap between market and patient access in Italy.

  3. Transparency in nursing leadership: a chosen ethic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Constance L

    2009-01-01

    The concept of transparency has been viewed as an essential leadership attribute or element in healthcare organizational structures and processes. While viewed as something that is desired and valued, there is a lack of nursing disciplinary literature that defines the concept and its possible meanings. This column provides a beginning definition of transparency from the humanbecoming nursing theoretical perspective and launches a discussion with potential ethical implications for leadership in nursing practice and education.

  4. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  5. 20 CFR 652.207 - How does a State meet the requirement for universal access to services provided under the Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does a State meet the requirement for universal access to services provided under the Act? 652.207 Section 652.207 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... Act, on a Statewide basis through: (i) Self-service; (ii) Facilitated self-help service; and (iii...

  6. Unifying Water Data Sources: How the CUAHSI Water Data Center is Enabling and Improving Access to a Growing Catalog of over 100 Data Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, J.; Berry, K.; Couch, A.; Arrigo, J.; Hooper, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    Scientific data about water are collected and distributed by numerous sources which can differ tremendously in scale. As competition for water resources increases, increasing access to and understanding of information about water will be critical. The mission of the new CUAHSI Water Data Center (WDC) is to provide those researchers who collect data a medium to publish their datasets and give those wanting to discover data the proper tools to efficiently find the data that they seek. These tools include standards-based data publication, data discovery tools based upon faceted and telescoping search, and a data analysis tool HydroDesktop that downloads and unifies data in standardized formats. The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is a community developed and open source system for sharing water data. As a federated, web service oriented system it enables data publication for a diverse user population including scientific investigators (Research Coordination Networks, Critical Zone Observatories), government agencies (USGS, NASA, EPA), and citizen scientists (watershed associations). HydroDesktop is an end user application for data consumption in this system that the WDC supports. This application can be used for finding, downloading, and analyzing data from the HIS. It provides a GIS interface that allows users to incorporate spatial data that are not accessible via HIS, simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization, tools to export data to common file types, and provides an extensible architecture that developers can build upon. HydroDesktop, however, is just one example of a data access client for HIS. The web service oriented architecture enables data access by an unlimited number of clients provided they can consume the web services used in HIS. One such example developed at the WDC is the 'Faceted Search Client', which capitalizes upon exploratory search concepts to improve accuracy and precision during search. We highlight such

  7. EU Institutional Politics of Secrecy and Transparency in Foreign Affairs (Editorial)

    OpenAIRE

    Abazi, Vigjilenca; Adriaensen, Johan

    2017-01-01

    This thematic issue shows how the interplays of secrecy and transparency have been a salient driver of institutional politics in EU foreign affairs. It offers a critical reading of the most recent developments in EU’s international negotiations, an analysis of case law and empirical insights on public and institutional access to information. The Issue provides an interdisciplinary understanding of how information flows affect and are affect by the EU’s institutional balance through synergisin...

  8. Zinc oxyfluoride transparent conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Roy G.

    1991-02-05

    Transparent, electrically conductive and infrared-reflective films of zinc oxyfluoride are produced by chemical vapor deposition from vapor mixtures of zinc, oxygen and fluorine-containing compounds. The substitution of fluorine for some of the oxygen in zinc oxide results in dramatic increases in the electrical conductivity. For example, diethyl zinc, ethyl alcohol and hexafluoropropene vapors are reacted over a glass surface at 400.degree. C. to form a visibly transparent, electrically conductive, infrared reflective and ultraviolet absorptive film of zinc oxyfluoride. Such films are useful in liquid crystal display devices, solar cells, electrochromic absorbers and reflectors, energy-conserving heat mirrors, and antistatic coatings.

  9. Crime and Punishment in the Cloud : Accountability, Transparency, and Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Berthold, Stefan; Fischer-Hübner, Simone; Martucci, Leonardo; Pulls, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to reason on the complexity of the relationship between three non-functional requirements in cloud comput-ing; privacy, accountability, and transparency. We provide insights on the complexity of this relationship from the perspectives of end-users, cloud service providers, and third parties, such as auditors. We shed light onthe real and perceived conflicts between privacy, transparency, and accountability, using a formal definition of transparency and an analysis on ...

  10. Increasing Access to Preschool: Recommendations for Reducing Barriers to Providing Full-day, Full-year Programs. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kate

    2008-01-01

    More than ever before, Californians recognize that preschool provides young children with a strong start in school and life. Research confirms that effective preschool not only prepares children for kindergarten, but benefits them in the long-term. Despite the benefits, only 48% of 3- and 4-year-old children attend preschool in California. While…

  11. Supporting Transparency between Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    The paper presents the results of a case study that explores the potentials of weblogs and social bookmarking to support transparency in a university course. In the course, groups of students used weblogs and social bookmarking in their work. The objective of the case was to empower students...

  12. Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Policy Changes and Fiscal Year 2018 Rates; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers; Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Program Requirements for Eligible Hospitals, Critical Access Hospitals, and Eligible Professionals; Provider-Based Status of Indian Health Service and Tribal Facilities and Organizations; Costs Reporting and Provider Requirements; Agreement Termination Notices. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-14

    We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2018. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, the 21st Century Cures Act, and other legislation. We also are making changes relating to the provider-based status of Indian Health Service (IHS) and Tribal facilities and organizations and to the low-volume hospital payment adjustment for hospitals operated by the IHS or a Tribe. In addition, we are providing the market basket update that will apply to the rate-of-increase limits for certain hospitals excluded from the IPPS that are paid on a reasonable cost basis subject to these limits for FY 2018. We are updating the payment policies and the annual payment rates for the Medicare prospective payment system (PPS) for inpatient hospital services provided by long-term care hospitals (LTCHs) for FY 2018. In addition, we are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for quality reporting by specific Medicare providers (acute care hospitals, PPS-exempt cancer hospitals, LTCHs, and inpatient psychiatric facilities). We also are establishing new requirements or revising existing requirements for eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) participating in the Medicare and Medicaid Electronic Health Record (EHR) Incentive Programs. We are updating policies relating to the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, and the Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program. We also are making changes relating to transparency of accrediting organization survey

  13. A model to identify mathematics topics in MXit lingo to provide tutors quick access to supporting documentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurie Butgereit

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dr MathTM is a mobile, online tutoring system where learners can use MXitTM on their mobile phones to receive help with their mathematics homework from volunteer tutors. These conversations between learners and Dr Math are held in MXit lingo. MXit lingo is a heavily abbreviated, English-like language that is evolving between users of mobile phones that communicate using MXit. The Dr Math project has been running since January 2007 and uses volunteer tutors who are mostly university students who readily understand and use MXit lingo. However, due to the large number of simultaneous conversations that the tutors are often involved in and the diversity of topics discussed, it would often be beneficial to provide assistance regarding the mathematics topic to the tutors. This article explains how the μ model identifies the mathematics topic in the conversation. The model identifies appropriate mathematics topics in just over 75% of conversations in a corpus of conversations identified to be about mathematics topics in the school curriculum.

  14. Transparency in the Council of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    of the most powerful political forums in Europe, transparency in the Council has its limits. This study explores institutional factors which hinder Council press officers from being as transparent as journalists would like them to be. In-depth, semi-structured interviews with Council press officers......The Council of the European Union is often described as the least transparent of the three big EU institutions although steps have been taken to improve the transparency of its activities during the last couple of decades. This article focuses on the Council’s press officers who provide journalists...... with information and thereby act as day-to-day facilitators of transparency of the Council’s activities. Although these communicators see themselves as contributing substantially to the transparency of the Council’s work and thereby as enabling the media to provide EU citizens with information about one...

  15. Transparent data mining for big and small data

    CERN Document Server

    Quercia, Daniele; Pasquale, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on new and emerging data mining solutions that offer a greater level of transparency than existing solutions. Transparent data mining solutions with desirable properties (e.g. effective, fully automatic, scalable) are covered in the book. Experimental findings of transparent solutions are tailored to different domain experts, and experimental metrics for evaluating algorithmic transparency are presented. The book also discusses societal effects of black box vs. transparent approaches to data mining, as well as real-world use cases for these approaches. As algorithms increasingly support different aspects of modern life, a greater level of transparency is sorely needed, not least because discrimination and biases have to be avoided. With contributions from domain experts, this book provides an overview of an emerging area of data mining that has profound societal consequences, and provides the technical background to for readers to contribute to the field or to put existing approaches to prac...

  16. How transparent are central banks?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C.W. Eijffinger (Sylvester); P.M. Geraats (Petra)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractCentral bank transparency has become the topic of a lively public and academic debate on monetary policy. However, this has been complicated by the fact that transparency is a qualitative concept that is hard to measure. This paper proposes an index for the transparency of monetary

  17. Impact of Patient-Centered Care Innovations on Access to Providers, Ambulatory Care Utilization, and Patient Clinical Indicators in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Lisa; Sohn, Min-Woong; Jordan, Neil; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Gampetro, Pamela; LaVela, Sherri L

    2016-01-01

    The Veterans Health Administration piloted patient-centered care (PCC) innovations beginning in 2010 to improve patient and provider experience and environment in ambulatory care. We use secondary data to look at longitudinal trends, evaluate system redesign, and identify areas for further quality improvement. This was a retrospective, observational study using existing secondary data from multiple US Department of Veteran Affairs sources to evaluate changes in veteran and facility outcomes associated with PCC innovations at 2 innovation and matched comparison sites between FY 2008-2010 (pre-PCC innovations) and FY 2011-2012 (post-PCC innovations). Outcomes included access to primary care providers (PCPs); primary, specialty, and emergency care use; and clinical indicators for chronic disease. Longitudinal trends revealed a different story at each site. One site demonstrated better PCP access, decrease in emergency and primary care use, increase in specialty care use, and improvement in diabetic glucose control. The other site demonstrated a decrease in PCP access and primary care use, no change in specialty care use, and an increase in diastolic blood pressure in relation to the comparison site. Secondary data analysis can reveal longitudinal trends associated with system changes, thereby informing program evaluation and identifying opportunities for quality improvement.

  18. Vascular access placement in patients with chronic kidney disease Stages 4 and 5 attending an inner city nephrology clinic: a cohort study and survey of providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Narender; Kwon, Caroline; Zachariah, Teena P; Broker, Michael; Folkert, Vaughn W; Bauer, Carolyn; Melamed, Michal L

    2017-01-17

    The majority of incident hemodialysis (HD) patients initiate dialysis via catheters. We sought to identify factors associated with initiating hemodialysis with a functioning arterio-venous (AV) access. We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients, age >18 years seeing a nephrologist with a diagnosis of CKD stage 4 or 5 during the study period between 06/01/2011 and 08/31/2013 to evaluate the placement of an AV access, initiation of dialysis and we conducted a survey of providers about the process. The 221 patients (56% female) in the study had median age of 66 years (interquartile range (IQR), 57-75) and were followed for a median of 1.26 years (IQR 0.6-1.68). At study entry, 81%had CKD stage 4 and 19% had CKD stage 5. By the end of study, 48 patients had initiated dialysis. Thirty-four of the patients started dialysis with a catheter (1 failed and 10 maturing AVFs), 9 with an AVF and 5 with an AVG. During the study period, 61 total AV accesses were placed (54 AVF and 7 AVG). A higher urinary protein/ creatinine ratio and a lower eGFR were associated with AV access placement and dialysis initiation. A greater number of nephrology visits were associated with AV access creation but not dialysis initiation. Hospitalizations and hospitalizations with an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) were strongly associated with dialysis initiation (odds ratio (OR) 13.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3 to 73.3, p-value = 0.004) and OR 6.6 (95% CI 1.9 to 22.8, p-value = 0.003)). More frequent nephrology clinic visits for patients with a recent hospitalization may improve rates of placement of an AV access. A hospitalization with AKI is strongly associated with the need for dialysis initiation. Nephrologists may not be referring the correct patients to get an AV access surgery.

  19. Between Transparency and Censorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; Krause Hansen, Hans

    -à-vis stakeholders and wider publics (Fleming and Zyglidopoulus, 2011). On closer inspection, however, this is a two-way street. In response, companies have tried to protect and repair their reputation. This paper examines two of the ways in which companies respond: (1) their participation in voluntary initiatives...... and sponsorships, typically under the heading of transparency, sustainability and corporate social responsibility (Livesey, 2001; Palazzo and Scherer, 2006) and (2) their attempts to contain activists’ attempts to unveil discrepancies between companies’ CSR discourses and practices. In doing so, it focuses...... on the extractive industries and draws on the case of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) and examples of oil companies’ surveillance of individual activists’ online communication. We draw on media theory, on theories of hidden organizing and theories of post-political regulation to discuss...

  20. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer; Rose, Shanna

    We use unique panel data on the evolution of transparent budget procedures in the American states over the past three decades to explore the political and economic determinants of fiscal transparency. Our case studies and quantitative analysis suggest that both politics and fiscal policy outcomes...... influence the level of transparency. More equal political competition and power sharing are associated with both greater levels of fiscal transparency and increases in fiscal transparency during the sample period. Political polarization and past fiscal conditions, in particular state government debt...

  1. Reproducible Research Practices and Transparency across the Biomedical Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shareen A Iqbal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing movement to encourage reproducibility and transparency practices in the scientific community, including public access to raw data and protocols, the conduct of replication studies, systematic integration of evidence in systematic reviews, and the documentation of funding and potential conflicts of interest. In this survey, we assessed the current status of reproducibility and transparency addressing these indicators in a random sample of 441 biomedical journal articles published in 2000-2014. Only one study provided a full protocol and none made all raw data directly available. Replication studies were rare (n = 4, and only 16 studies had their data included in a subsequent systematic review or meta-analysis. The majority of studies did not mention anything about funding or conflicts of interest. The percentage of articles with no statement of conflict decreased substantially between 2000 and 2014 (94.4% in 2000 to 34.6% in 2014; the percentage of articles reporting statements of conflicts (0% in 2000, 15.4% in 2014 or no conflicts (5.6% in 2000, 50.0% in 2014 increased. Articles published in journals in the clinical medicine category versus other fields were almost twice as likely to not include any information on funding and to have private funding. This study provides baseline data to compare future progress in improving these indicators in the scientific literature.

  2. Transparency and dialogue: the keys of radioactive material transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neau, H.J.; Hartenstein, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    Today, public opinion, local actors, organizations and associations are expecting a transparent information on nuclear activities. The fact is, a great number already has daily instant access to information and is able to share it very quickly, thanks to new technologies. Public opinion's sensitiveness is a key element, as risk remains at the center of public concerns. The discrepancy between objectively assessed risks and perceived risks is a permanent challenge for acceptance of nuclear energy. The opponents are also using it, to build their misleading strategy. When anti-nuclear groups claim for an increasing involvement in the decision-making processes, they also get there the most efficient means to hamper our activities, namely operational information on the nuclear transport activities. In order to tackle this challenging issue, COGEMA and its parent company AREVA are engaged in improving their information policy. It has been extended to international and national transports commissioned by COGEMA LOGISTICS. Regarding the most recent transport operations, specific information policy has been implemented at the national and local level through media, information committees, trade unions. But, on the one hand, this policy is facing limits: transparency and openness stop where sensitivity and confidentiality start. On the other hand, opponents are building a challenging process, which is ''more and more''. Whatever the industry efforts are, opponents will remain unsatisfied as they cannot afford otherwise.Consequently, we need to assume a proactive policy in the field of the information on safety of radioactive material transportation. But above all, this policy must be dedicated to the public opinion. It must not be a way to answer to opponent's attacks. The industry's transparency and information must support public opinion's understanding of the important issues which are on progress: global access to the energy

  3. Fabrication of transparent ceramics using nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepy, Nerine J; Tillotson, Thomas M; Kuntz, Joshua D; Payne, Stephen A

    2012-09-18

    A method of fabrication of a transparent ceramic using nanoparticles synthesized via organic acid complexation-combustion includes providing metal salts, dissolving said metal salts to produce an aqueous salt solution, adding an organic chelating agent to produce a complexed-metal sol, heating said complexed-metal sol to produce a gel, drying said gel to produce a powder, combusting said powder to produce nano-particles, calcining said nano-particles to produce oxide nano-particles, forming said oxide nano-particles into a green body, and sintering said green body to produce the transparent ceramic.

  4. Perceptual transparency from image deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin’ya

    2015-01-01

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid’s surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of “invisible” transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation. PMID:26240313

  5. Transparent Ceramic Scintillator Fabrication, Properties and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherepy, N J; Kuntz, J D; Roberts, J J; Hurst, T A; Drury, O B; Sanner, R D; Tillotson, T M; Payne, S A

    2008-08-24

    Transparent ceramics offer an alternative to single crystals for scintillator applications such as gamma ray spectroscopy and radiography. We have developed a versatile, scaleable fabrication method, using Flame Spray Pyrolysis (FSP) to produce feedstock which is readily converted into phase-pure transparent ceramics. We measure integral light yields in excess of 80,000 Ph/MeV with Cerium-doped Garnets, and excellent optical quality. Avalanche photodiode readout of Garnets provides resolution near 6%. For radiography applications, Lutetium Oxide offers a high performance metric and is formable by ceramics processing. Scatter in transparent ceramics due to secondary phases is the principal limitation to optical quality, and afterglow issues that affect the scintillation performance are presently being addressed.

  6. Transparent Persistence with Java Data Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Hrivnác, J

    2003-01-01

    Flexible and performant Persistency Service is a necessary component of any HEP Software Framework. The building of a modular, non-intrusive and performant persistency component have been shown to be very difficult task. In the past, it was very often necessary to sacrifice modularity to achieve acceptable performance. This resulted in the strong dependency of the overall Frameworks on their Persistency subsystems. Recent development in software technology has made possible to build a Persistency Service which can be transparently used from other Frameworks. Such Service doesn't force a strong architectural constraints on the overall Framework Architecture, while satisfying high performance requirements. Java Data Object standard (JDO) has been already implemented for almost all major databases. It provides truly transparent persistency for any Java object (both internal and external). Objects in other languages can be handled via transparent proxies. Being only a thin layer on top of a used database, JDO doe...

  7. [Transparency in public health decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Altés, Anna; Argimon, Josep M

    2016-11-01

    Improving the quality and transparency of governmental healthcare decision-making has an impact on the health of the population through policies, organisational management and clinical practice. Moreover, the comparison between healthcare centres and the transparent feedback of results to professionals and to the wider public contribute directly to improved results. The "Results Centre" of the Catalan healthcare system measures and disseminates the results achieved by the different healthcare centres in order to facilitate a shared decision-making process, thereby enhancing the quality of healthcare provided to the population of Catalonia (Spain). This is a pioneering initiative in Spain and is aligned with the most advanced countries in terms of policies of transparency and accountability. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Transparent ultraviolet photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Shan, Chong-Xin; Lu, Ying-Jie; Xie, Xiu-Hua; Li, Bing-Hui; Wang, Shuang-Peng; Jiang, Ming-Ming; Shen, De-Zhen

    2016-02-15

    Photovoltaic cells have been fabricated from p-GaN/MgO/n-ZnO structures. The photovoltaic cells are transparent to visible light and can transform ultraviolet irradiation into electrical signals. The efficiency of the photovoltaic cells is 0.025% under simulated AM 1.5 illumination conditions, while it can reach 0.46% under UV illumination. By connecting several such photovoltaic cells in a series, light-emitting devices can be lighting. The photovoltaic cells reported in this Letter may promise the applications in glass of buildings to prevent UV irradiation and produce power for household appliances in the future.

  9. Transparency-by-design as a foundation for open government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Matheus, R.; Longo, Justin; Weerakkody, Vishanth

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Many governments are working toward a vision of government-wide transformation that strives to achieve an open, transparent and accountable government while providing responsive services. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the concept of transparency-by-design to advance open

  10. The Economic Impact of Central Bank Transparency : A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.

    2007-01-01

    We provide an up-to-date overview of the literature on the desirabil- ity of central bank transparency from an economic viewpoint. Since the move towards more transparency, a lot of research on its e¤ects has been carried out. First, we show how the theoretical literature has evolved, by looking

  11. Transparency and Opacity: Levinasian Reflections on Accountability in Australian Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellar, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on the philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas to consider, from an ethical perspective, the current transparency and accountability agenda in Australian schooling. It focuses on the case of the "My School" website and the argument that transparent publication of comparative performance data via the website provides a basis for…

  12. LigoDV-web: Providing easy, secure and universal access to a large distributed scientific data store for the LIGO scientific collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areeda, J. S.; Smith, J. R.; Lundgren, A. P.; Maros, E.; Macleod, D. M.; Zweizig, J.

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational-wave observatories around the world, including the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), record a large volume of gravitational-wave output data and auxiliary data about the instruments and their environments. These data are stored at the observatory sites and distributed to computing clusters for data analysis. LigoDV-web is a web-based data viewer that provides access to data recorded at the LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston and GEO600 observatories, and the 40 m prototype interferometer at Caltech. The challenge addressed by this project is to provide meaningful visualizations of small data sets to anyone in the collaboration in a fast, secure and reliable manner with minimal software, hardware and training required of the end users. LigoDV-web is implemented as a Java Enterprise Application, with Shibboleth Single Sign On for authentication and authorization, and a proprietary network protocol used for data access on the back end. Collaboration members with proper credentials can request data be displayed in any of several general formats from any Internet appliance that supports a modern browser with Javascript and minimal HTML5 support, including personal computers, smartphones, and tablets. Since its inception in 2012, 634 unique users have visited the LigoDV-web website in a total of 33 , 861 sessions and generated a total of 139 , 875 plots. This infrastructure has been helpful in many analyses within the collaboration including follow-up of the data surrounding the first gravitational-wave events observed by LIGO in 2015.

  13. Enhancing medicine price transparency through price information mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Michael; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah

    2014-05-08

    Medicine price information mechanisms provide an essential tool to countries that seek a better understanding of product availability, market prices and price compositions of individual medicines. To be effective and contribute to cost savings, these mechanisms need to consider prices in their particular contexts when comparing between countries. This article discusses in what ways medicine price information mechanisms can contribute to increased price transparency and how this may affect access to medicines for developing countries. We used data collected during the course of a WHO project focusing on the development of a vaccine price and procurement information mechanism. The project collected information from six medicine price information mechanisms and interviewed data managers and technical experts on key aspects as well as observed market effects of these mechanisms.The reviewed mechanisms were broken down into categories including objective and target audience, as well as the sources, types and volumes of data included. Information provided by the mechanisms was reviewed according to data available on medicine prices, product characteristics, and procurement modalities. We found indications of positive effects on access to medicines resulting from the utilization of the reviewed mechanisms. These include the uptake of higher quality medicines, more favorable results from contract negotiations, changes in national pricing policies, and the decrease of prices in certain segments for countries participating in or deriving data from the various mechanisms. The reviewed mechanisms avoid the methodological challenges observed for medicine price comparisons that only use national price databases. They work with high quality data and display prices in the appropriate context of procurement modalities as well as the peculiarities of purchasing countries. Medicine price information mechanisms respond to the need for increased medicine price transparency and have the

  14. Next generation sequencing provides rapid access to the genome of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, the causal agent of wheat stripe rust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cantu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The wheat stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, PST is responsible for significant yield losses in wheat production worldwide. In spite of its economic importance, the PST genomic sequence is not currently available. Fortunately Next Generation Sequencing (NGS has radically improved sequencing speed and efficiency with a great reduction in costs compared to traditional sequencing technologies. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly access the genomic sequence of the highly virulent PST race 130 (PST-130. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained nearly 80 million high quality paired-end reads (>50x coverage that were assembled into 29,178 contigs (64.8 Mb, which provide an estimated coverage of at least 88% of the PST genes and are available through GenBank. Extensive micro-synteny with the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (PGTG genome and high sequence similarity with annotated PGTG genes support the quality of the PST-130 contigs. We characterized the transposable elements present in the PST-130 contigs and using an ab initio gene prediction program we identified and tentatively annotated 22,815 putative coding sequences. We provide examples on the use of comparative approaches to improve gene annotation for both PST and PGTG and to identify candidate effectors. Finally, the assembled contigs provided an inventory of PST repetitive elements, which were annotated and deposited in Repbase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assembly of the PST-130 genome and the predicted proteins provide useful resources to rapidly identify and clone PST genes and their regulatory regions. Although the automatic gene prediction has limitations, we show that a comparative genomics approach using multiple rust species can greatly improve the quality of gene annotation in these species. The PST-130 sequence will also be useful for comparative studies within PST as more races are sequenced. This study illustrates the power of NGS for

  15. Cosmic transparency and acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Pereira, S. H.; Jain, Deepak

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, by considering an absorption probability independent of photon wavelength, we show that current type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and gamma-ray burst (GRB) observations plus high-redshift measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation temperature support cosmic acceleration regardless of the transparent-universe assumption. Two flat scenarios are considered in our analyses: the Λ CDM model and a kinematic model. We consider τ (z )=2 ln (1 +z )ɛ, where τ (z ) denotes the opacity between an observer at z =0 and a source at z . This choice is equivalent to deforming the cosmic distance duality relation as DLDA-1=(1 +z )2+ɛ and, if the absorption probability is independent of photon wavelength, the CMB temperature evolution law is TCMB(z )=T0(1 +z )1+2 ɛ /3. By marginalizing on the ɛ parameter, our analyses rule out a decelerating universe at 99.99% C.L. for all scenarios considered. Interestingly, by considering only SNe Ia and GRBs observations, we obtain that a decelerated universe—indicated by ΩΛ≤0.33 and q0>0 —is ruled out around 1.5 σ C.L. and 2 σ C.L., respectively, regardless of the transparent-universe assumption.

  16. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  17. The Transparency-Power Nexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel; Christensen, Lars Thøger; Krause Hansen, Hans

    Transparency has emerged as a mainstay in the quest for more accountable and sustainable forms of organization and governance. This paper problematizes widespread assumptions about the virtues and downsides of transparency, including simplified notions of insight, control and surveillance. We argue...... that practices and ideals of organizational transparency are essentially ambiguous and work not merely as extensions of control or solutions to problems of power, but must be understood as sources of power and control in and off themselves. The paper offers an analytics of what we call “the transparency......-power nexus” and illustrates how and with which power effects transparency has emerged a key concern in and around contemporary organizations. The main contribution of the paper is to unpack the relationship between transparency and power both along the lines of more conventional concerns with observational...

  18. Atomically Bonded Transparent Superhydrophobic Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytug, Tolga [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    Maintaining clarity and avoiding the accumulation of water and dirt on optically transparent surfaces such as US military vehicle windshields, viewports, periscope optical head windows, and electronic equipment cover glasses are critical to providing a high level of visibility, improved survivability, and much-needed safety for warfighters in the field. Through a combination of physical vapor deposition techniques and the exploitation of metastable phase separation in low-alkali borosilicate, a novel technology was developed for the fabrication of optically transparent, porous nanostructured silica thin film coatings that are strongly bonded to glass platforms. The nanotextured films, initially structurally superhydrophilic, exhibit superior superhydrophobicity, hence antisoiling ability, following a simple but robust modification in surface chemistry. The surfaces yield water droplet contact angles as high as 172°. Moreover, the nanostructured nature of these coatings provides increased light scattering in the UV regime and reduced reflectivity (i.e., enhanced transmission) over a broad range of the visible spectrum. In addition to these functionalities, the coatings exhibit superior mechanical resistance to abrasion and are thermally stable to temperatures approaching 500°C. The overall process technology relies on industry standard equipment and inherently scalable manufacturing processes and demands only nontoxic, naturally abundant, and inexpensive base materials. Such coatings, applied to the optical components of current and future combat equipment and military vehicles will provide a significant strategic advantage for warfighters. The inherent self-cleaning properties of such superhydrophobic coatings will also mitigate biofouling of optical windows exposed to high-humidity conditions and can help decrease repair/replacement costs, reduce maintenance, and increase readiness by limiting equipment downtime.

  19. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  20. How hospitals approach price transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Scott; Cleverley, James O

    2014-09-01

    A survey of finance leaders found that hospitals with lower charges were more likely than other hospitals to emphasize making prices defensible rather than simply transparent. Finance leaders of hospitals with higher charges were more likely to express concern that price transparency would cause a reduction in hospital revenue by forcing them to lower charges. Those respondents said commercial payers likely will have to agree to renegotiate contracts for price transparency to be a financially viable proposition.

  1. Countervailing Power and Price Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Møllgaard, Peter; Hviid, Morten

    2000-01-01

    We investigate whether increased transparency about prices may increase the countervailing power exercised by buyers of an intermediate good and whether this will lead to a decrease of intermediate goods prices. We show that, even in a non-cooperative, one-shot model, the most likely outcome of improved transparency is a price increase: Improved transparency will lead sellers to take tougher bargaining stands since more is at stake. The results are related to the experience of the Danish Comp...

  2. Physics observables for color transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Pire, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    The physics observables dedicated to the study of color transparency are diverse. After a brief pedagogical introduction, we emphasize the complementarity of the nuclear filtering and color transparency concepts. The importance of quantum interferences leads to suspect pictures based on the preparation of a squeezed state of small transverse size leading to a rapid transverse expansion. The different roles of heavy and light nuclei are emphasized. The possibility of color transparency tests i...

  3. Budget transparency in local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Giménez Perona, Paloma

    2014-01-01

    Treball Final de Grau en Finances i Comptabilitat. Codi: FC1049. Curs acadèmic 2013-2014 This work will study the socio-demographic determinants, political, budgetary and economic, that affect the transparency of local entities. To perform the study, we have chosen the transparency index data for the 110 largest municipalities of Spain, in 2012 has been chosen from the information offered by the website of the organization Transparency International Spain. The results indica...

  4. Access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015: a geocoded inventory and spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Paul O; Maina, Joseph; Thuranira, Pamela N; Macharia, Peter M; Alegana, Victor A; English, Mike; Okiro, Emelda A; Snow, Robert W

    2018-01-25

    %) women of child bearing age are located more than 2-h travel time from the nearest hospital. Marked differences were observed within and between countries, ranging from less than 25% of the population within 2-h travel time of a public hospital in South Sudan to more than 90% in Nigeria, Kenya, Cape Verde, Swaziland, South Africa, Burundi, Comoros, São Tomé and Príncipe, and Zanzibar. Only 16 countries reached the international benchmark of more than 80% of their populations living within a 2-h travel time of the nearest hospital. Physical access to emergency hospital care provided by the public sector in Africa remains poor and varies substantially within and between countries. Innovative targeting of emergency care services is necessary to reduce these inequities. This study provides the first spatial census of public hospital services in Africa. Wellcome Trust and the UK Department for International Development. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Patients' perspectives of accessibility and digital delivery of factual content provided by official medical and surgical specialty society websites: a qualitative assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ow, Darren; Wetherell, David; Papa, Nathan; Bolton, Damien; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2015-03-27

    Health care websites provide a valuable resource of health information to online consumers, especially patients. Official surgical and medical society websites should be a reliable first point of contact. The primary aim of this study was to quantitatively assess medical and surgical society websites for content and highlight the essential features required for a high-quality, user-friendly society website. Twenty specialty association websites from each of the regions, Australia, UK, Canada, Europe, and the USA were selected for a total of 100 websites. Medical and surgical specialities were consistent across each region. Each website was systematically and critically analysed for content and usability. The average points scored per website was 3.2 out of 10. Of the total (N=100) websites, 12 scored at least 7 out of 10 points and 2 scored 9 out of 10. As well, 35% (35.0/100) of the websites had an information tab for patients on their respective homepages while 38% (38.0/100) had download access to patient information. A minority of the websites included different forms of multimedia such as pictures and diagrams (24.0/100, 24%) and videos (18.0/100, 18%). We found that most society websites did not meet an adequate standard for delivery of information. Half of the websites were not patient accessible, with the primary focus being for health professionals. As well, most required logins for information access. Specialty health care societies should create patient-friendly websites that would be beneficial to all online consumers.

  6. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Y.

    2011-07-25

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.

  7. Transparent lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jeong, Sangmoo; Hu, Liangbing; Wu, Hui; Lee, Seok Woo; Cui, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries. PMID:21788483

  8. Aircraft Lighting and Transparency Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Lighting and Transparencies with Night Combat Lab performs radiometric and photometric measurements of cockpit lighting and displays. Evaluates the day,...

  9. Counseling on Access to Lethal Means (CALM): An Evaluation of a Suicide Prevention Means Restriction Training Program for Mental Health Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Elizabeth; Hendricks, Michelle; Weil, Virginia; Miller, Collin; Perkins, Scott; McCudden, Suzanne

    2017-11-28

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness of the Counseling on Access to Lethal Means (CALM) suicide prevention program. CALM trains mental health providers how to counsel suicidal individuals and those who support them on mean restriction during times of crisis. Pre/post/3-month follow-up assessments measured knowledge of lethal means, confidence and comfort in discussing means restriction (self-efficacy), and future intentions to counsel clients on means restriction. Change in the number of clients receiving lethal means counseling was also assessed. All constructs increased significantly at posttest. Confidence and counseling intentions were sustained at follow-up and significantly more clients received means counseling in the 3 months following the CALM training. Knowledge and comfort levels decreased at follow-up but not to pre-training levels. CALM is effective at increasing mental health professionals' comfort, knowledge, and frequency of talking about means restriction with clients. an effective means restriction training program. A template to assess clients for suicidality and lethal means access and booster sessions are recommended to further sustain effects.

  10. Legislation should support optimal breastfeeding practices and access to low-cost, high-quality complementary foods: Indonesia provides a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soekarjo, Damayanti; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2011-10-01

    It is important to support women to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and continue breastfeeding for 24 months and beyond. It is also necessary to provide the poor with access to affordable ways to improve the quality of complementary foods. Currently, many countries do not have the legal and policy environment necessary to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Legislative and policy changes are also necessary for introducing complementary food supplements, allowing them to be marketed to those who need them, and ensuring that marketing remains appropriate and in full compliance with the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes. This paper aims to illustrate the above with examples from Indonesia and to identify legislative requirements for supporting breastfeeding and enabling appropriate access to high-quality complementary food supplements for children 6-24 months of age. Requirements include improved information, training, monitoring and enforcement systems for the International Code of Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes; implementation and monitoring of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative; establishment of a registration category for complementary food supplements to enhance availability of high-quality, low-cost fortified products to help improve young child feeding; clear identification and marketing of these products as complementary food supplements for 6-24-month-olds so as to promote proper use and not interfere with breastfeeding. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. RACBVHs: random-accessible compressed bounding volume hierarchies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Joon; Moon, Bochang; Kim, Duksu; Yoon, Sung-Eui

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel compressed bounding volume hierarchy (BVH) representation, random-accessible compressed bounding volume hierarchies (RACBVHs), for various applications requiring random access on BVHs of massive models. Our RACBVH representation is compact and transparently supports random access on the compressed BVHs without decompressing the whole BVH. To support random access on our compressed BVHs, we decompose a BVH into a set of clusters. Each cluster contains consecutive bounding volume (BV) nodes in the original layout of the BVH. Also, each cluster is compressed separately from other clusters and serves as an access point to the RACBVH representation. We provide the general BVH access API to transparently access our RACBVH representation. At runtime, our decompression framework is guaranteed to provide correct BV nodes without decompressing the whole BVH. Also, our method is extended to support parallel random access that can utilize the multicore CPU architecture. Our method can achieve up to a 12:1 compression ratio, and more importantly, can decompress 4.2 M BV nodes ({=}135 {\\rm MB}) per second by using a single CPU-core. To highlight the benefits of our approach, we apply our method to two different applications: ray tracing and collision detection. We can improve the runtime performance by more than a factor of 4 as compared to using the uncompressed original data. This improvement is a result of the fast decompression performance and reduced data access time by selectively fetching and decompressing small regions of the compressed BVHs requested by applications.

  12. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  13. Transparency and value chain sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The rise of transparency on the public and political agendas is not an accident or fad, soon to be replaced by another timely topic in sustainability politics and governance. Transparency will remain a key topic in global value chains and will further develop as it piggy-backs on wider social

  14. Google Scholar Retrieves Twice as Many Relevant Citations as PubMed and Provides Greater Full-Text Access for Quick, Clinical Nephrology Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana K. Wakimoto

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare recall and precision of results retrieved by searches in PubMed and Google Scholar for clinical nephrology literature. Design – Survey questionnaire, comparative. Setting – Canada. Subjects – Practicing nephrologists with average age of 48 years and who have practiced nephrology for an average of 15 years. Methods – The researchers identified 100 systematic reviews in renal therapy published between 2001 and 2009. The primary studies cited in the systematic reviews served as the reference standard for relevant articles; 1,574 unique citations were identified and used to measure recall and precision. The researchers created a unique clinical question from each of the objective statements of systematic reviews and sent one question to a random sample of practicing nephrologists to determine the search strings they would use to search for clinical literature; the researchers collected 100 usable responses. Using the search string in both Google Scholar and PubMed, the researchers analyzed the first 40 retrieved results in each for recall of relevant literature and precision. The researchers also analyzed the availability of full-text articles in each database. A pilot study to test the methodology preceded the main study. Results – Google Scholar’s recall for the first 40 records was 21.9% and PubMed was 10.9%. Each database contained 78% of the relevant literature/reference standard set from the systematic reviews. However, 15% of the articles were in neither database. Precision results were similar (7.6% for Google Scholar and 5.6% for PubMed. Google Scholar had more full-text available at 15% of articles versus 5% for PubMed. Google Scholar and PubMed had similar numbers of relevant articles when all retrieved records were analyzed, but Google Scholar still provided more access to free full-text articles. Conclusion – Google Scholar provides better recall and provides more access to full-text than Pub

  15. Measuring the impact of Hurricane Katrina on access to a personal healthcare provider: the use of the National Survey of Children's Health for an external comparison group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehling-Ariza, Tasha; Park, Yoon Soo; Sury, Jonathan J; Abramson, David

    2012-04-01

    This paper examined the effect of Hurricane Katrina on children's access to personal healthcare providers and evaluated the use of propensity score methods to compare a nationally representative sample of children, as a proxy for an unexposed group, with a smaller exposed sample. 2007 data from the Gulf Coast Child and Family Health (G-CAFH) Study, a longitudinal cohort of households displaced or greatly impacted by Hurricane Katrina, were matched with 2007 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) data using propensity score techniques. Propensity scores were created using poverty level, household educational attainment, and race/ethnicity, with and without the addition of child age and gender. The outcome was defined as having a personal healthcare provider. Additional confounders (household structure, neighborhood safety, health and insurance status) were also examined. All covariates except gender differed significantly between the exposed (G-CAFH) and unexposed (NSCH) samples. Fewer G-CAFH children had a personal healthcare provider (65 %) compared to those from NSCH (90 %). Adjusting for all covariates, the propensity score analysis showed exposed children were 20 % less likely to have a personal healthcare provider compared to unexposed children in the US (OR = 0.80, 95 % CI 0.76, 0.84), whereas the logistic regression analysis estimated a stronger effect (OR = 0.28, 95 % CI 0.21, 0.39). Two years after Hurricane Katrina, children exposed to the storm had significantly lower odds of having a personal health care provider compared to unexposed children. Propensity score matching techniques may be useful for combining separate data samples when no clear unexposed group exists.

  16. Transparência: Bacen versus BoE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Carvalho Andrade

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Transparency: Bacen versus BoE. The aim of this paper is to compare the degree of transparency of the Brazilian Central Bank (Bacen with the one verified in the Bank of England (BoE. In order to accomplish this objective, an indicator of transparency is built based on the information that each central bank provides to the public about its monetary policy, its expectation about the future of the economy, its intervention in the financial market, and if there are clear limits and restrictions to the release of information to the general public. The analysis suggests that the Bacen is less transparent and has a less individualistic Monetary Policy Committee in comparison with the BoE. Moreover, it indicates some procedures that could be adopted by the Bacen in order to make its monetary policy more transparent.

  17. Transparency and surveillance as sociotechnical accountability a house of mirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Deborah G

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance and transparency are both significant and increasingly pervasive activities in neoliberal societies. Surveillance is taken up as a means to achieving security and efficiency; transparency is seen as a mechanism for ensuring compliance or promoting informed consumerism and informed citizenship. Indeed, transparency is often seen as the antidote to the threats and fears of surveillance. This book adopts a novel approach in examining surveillance practices and transparency practices together as parallel systems of accountability. It presents the house of mirrors as a new framework for understanding surveillance and transparency practices instrumented with information technology. The volume centers around five case studies: Campaign Finance Disclosure, Secure Flight, American Red Cross, Google, and Facebook. A series of themed chapters draw on the material and provide cross-case analysis. The volume ends with a chapter on policy implications.

  18. Methodological aspects transparency financial statements of construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Rozhnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, in terms of general information and integration of the economies, information is one of the main market products. There is becoming urgent task of improving financial statement transparency for enterprises in this situation. One of the most challenging in improving transparency can be considered the construction industry, because of the pursuit of privacy and a high degree of corruption. The paper analyzes the possible reasons for reducing the level of transparency in the construction industry companies. The paper highlighted the general and particular causes that affect the transparency of financial reporting of construction enterprises. Common causes are relevant for companies in any industry, and private causes show features characteristic of the construction itself. In addition, the paper analyzes the various methods of increasing the transparency used by companies all over the world. The analysis highlighted the internal and external methods for improving the transparency of financial statements and transparency of construction companies. Leadership and employees at the enterprise level providing transparency of financial reporting, and non-financial information about the company, having interest to stakeholders, carry out internal methods. External methods are applied at the macro level as the joint forces of the enterprises of the construction industry to form associations and the state. The analysis also considered the possibility of using these methods by the Russian construction companies and advantages and disadvantages of their application.

  19. Copper Nanowires as Fully Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huizhang; Lin, Na; Chen, Yuanzhi; Wang, Zhenwei; Xie, Qingshui; Zheng, Tongchang; Gao, Na; Li, Shuping; Kang, Junyong; Cai, Duanjun; Peng, Dong-Liang

    2013-01-01

    In pondering of new promising transparent conductors to replace the cost rising tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), metal nanowires have been widely concerned. Herein, we demonstrate an approach for successful synthesis of long and fine Cu nanowires (NWs) through a novel catalytic scheme involving nickel ions. Such Cu NWs in high aspect ratio (diameter of 16.2 ± 2 nm and length up to 40 μm) provide long distance for electron transport and, meanwhile, large space for light transmission. Transparent electrodes fabricated using the Cu NW ink achieve a low sheet resistance of 1.4 Ohm/sq at 14% transmittance and a high transparency of 93.1% at 51.5 Ohm/sq. The flexibility and stability were tested with 100-timebending by 180°and no resistance change occurred. Ohmic contact was achieved to the p- and n-GaN on blue light emitting diode chip and bright electroluminescence from the front face confirmed the excellent transparency. PMID:23900572

  20. "Where Ignorance is Bliss, 'tis Folly to be Wise": Transparency in Contests

    OpenAIRE

    Denter, Philipp; Morgan, John; Sisak, Dana

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly, lobbying groups are subject to transparency requirements, obliging them to provide detailed information about their business. We study the effect this transparency policy has on the nature of lobbying competition. Under mild conditions, mandated transparency leads to an increase in wastefulness of lobbying competition and a decline in expected allocative efficiency. Hence we identify a negative side-effect of transparency policy, which also has implications for various other fie...

  1. 76 FR 61366 - Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment to Increase Transparency By Promoting Greater Access to the Agency's Compliance and Enforcement Data; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice of...

  2. Corruption, transparency and a role for libraries | Sturges | Innovation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corruption is an all-pervasive phenomenon, whether as the predator corruption of powerful business and political elites, or the petty corruption that acts as a kind of extra tax on the poor. Transparency in various forms offers potential for the combating of corruption through access to knowledge of regulations and laws, ...

  3. Report sheds light on demands for accountability, transparency for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... In Africa, large-scale land deals can bring benefits such as jobs, market access, and infrastructure, but they can also dispossess people of land and other resources and spark conflict over economic benefits. Part of the problem is that land deals are rarely transparent, with limited accountability on the part of ...

  4. Radiation-transparent windows, method for imaging fluid transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming [Darien, IL; Wang, Jin [Burr Ridge, IL

    2011-07-26

    A thin, x-ray-transparent window system for environmental chambers involving pneumatic pressures above 40 bar is presented. The window allows for x-ray access to such phenomena as fuel sprays injected into a pressurized chamber that mimics realistic internal combustion engine cylinder operating conditions.

  5. Transparent platinum counter electrode for efficient semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iefanova, Anastasiia; Nepal, Jeevan; Poudel, Prashant; Davoux, Daren; Gautam, Umesh [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Mallam, Venkataiah [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Qiao, Qiquan [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Logue, Brian [Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States); Baroughi, Mahdi Farrokh, E-mail: m.farrokhbaroughi@sdstate.edu [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57006 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A method for fabrication of highly transparent platinum counter electrodes (CEs) has been developed based on spray coating of Pt nanoparticles (NPs) on hot substrates. This method leads to 86% reduction in Pt consumption reducing the Pt cost per peak watt of counter electrode from $0.79/Wp down to $0.11/Wp compared to the conventional Pt counter electrodes made by sputter deposition. The simplicity and low cost of this method provide a basis for an up-scalable fabrication process. The Pt NP layer is over 88% transparent, leading to overall transparency of 80% when incorporated with indium tin oxide/glass substrates for functional counter electrodes. This counter electrode exhibits a large surface area and high catalytic activity, comparable to that of the conventional opaque CEs. Semi-transparent dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated based on this counter electrode showed 6.17% power conversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Counter electrode (CE) prepared by spraying nanoparticle (NP) Pt on hot substrate. • Low cost and scalable fabrication process of CE. • The spray deposited CE uses 10 times less Pt compared to the sputtering method. • The CE is 80% transparent and exhibits a large surface and high catalytic activity. • A semitransparent dye-sensitized solar cell with Pt NP CE was 6.17% efficient.

  6. Fostering EMA's transparency policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banzi, Rita; Bertele', Vittorio; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    promote and develop standard practices for data sharing. The release of the EMA draft policy on publication and access to clinical trial data in 2013 has fueled a lively debate among academia, industry, and the public in general that is still ongoing. As clinical researchers and producers and users...

  7. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  8. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  9. Transparency in Economic and Political Decision-Making: The Identification of Sunshine Rules for Transparent Lobbying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laboutková Šárka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lobbying transparency seems to have been a challenging topic for nearly a decade. For the purposes of the article, the authors focus on a contextual analysis of rules and measures that offers both a broad as well as comprehensive view of the required transparency of lobbying activities and the environment in which decisions are made. In this regard, focusing on the sunshine principles/sunshine rules (not purely limited to laws provides a grasp of the whole issue in a broader context. From a methodological point of view, the exploratory approach was chosen and the coding procedure is mostly dichotomous. As a result, seven key areas with 70 indicators have been identified in terms of transparency of lobbying and decision-making.

  10. Clinical trials transparency and the Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logvinov, Ilana

    2014-03-01

    Clinical trial research is the cornerstone for successful advancement of medicine that provides hope for millions of people in the future. Full transparency in clinical trials may allow independent investigators to evaluate study designs, perform additional analysis of data, and potentially eliminate duplicate studies. Current regulatory system and publishers rely on investigators and pharmaceutical industries for complete and accurate reporting of results from completed clinical trials. Legislation seems to be the only way to enforce mandatory disclosure of results. The Trial and Experimental Studies Transparency (TEST) Act of 2012 was introduced to the legislators in the United States to promote greater transparency in research industry. Public safety and advancement of science are the driving forces for the proposed policy change. The TEST Act may benefit the society and researchers; however, there are major concerns with participants' privacy and intellectual property protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of decentralized systems in providing universal electricity access in Sub-Saharan Africa – A model-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagnachew, Anteneh G.; Lucas, Paul L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/272607444; Hof, Andries F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/240412397; Gernaat, David E.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/372664636; de Boer, Harmen Sytze; van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X

    2017-01-01

    Poverty and lack of access to electricity are highly correlated. In Sub-Saharan Africa, one of the poorest regions in the world, two in every three people have no access to electricity. This paper describes a purpose designed model to explore and project the development in the Sub-Saharan African

  12. TRANSPARENCY IN ELECTRONIC BUSINESS NEGOTIATIONS – EVIDENCE BASED ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslav Delina

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In current economy, where ICT plays a crucial role for being competitive and effective, businesses are facing higher pressures of flexibility and efficiency than ever before. Transparency is often considered as a suitable mechanism for better market prices and more efficient market environment. Electronic business environment provides the possibility to set up more transparent environment and bring higher competitiveness and efficiency on the market. The paper analyse the impact of transparency on prices in e-procurement.Methodology: Reverse auctions are considered as transparent tool simulating in partial level real competition. Together, it allows to examine several levels of transparency set up in auction negotiation process. The impact of transparency on final prices was analysed on real data using relation based analysis were different situations of transparency set up is compared against achieved final price.Findings: Research results based on real data shows, that generally, the transparency in electronic reverse auction can lead to more negative prices agreed by purchasers as current scientific and commercial promotions.Research limitation: Significance of research results is limited due to still low readiness and skills of e-procurers. The validation of results is needed to realized within longer period of time and from environments with different level of e-readiness. Together, it reveal that transparency is more complex issue where the significance of transparency can reveal its sense in some specific situations on the market and negotiation.Value of paper: Evidenced based research reveal some controversy results which support new scientific efforts in microeconomics and socio-economic impact of ICT fields. Together, it affects real practitioners in way how to use and perceive claimed impact of reverse auction solutions.

  13. Role of Human Health Care Providers and Medical Treatment Facilities in Military Working Dog Care and Accessibility Difficulties with Military Working Dog Blood Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles Iii, James T

    2016-01-01

    The use of military working dogs (MWDs) in support of military operations has increased dramatically over recent years, as they have proven to be our most reliable deterrent to improvised explosive devices. Healthcare delivery for MWDs in combat presents unique challenges and requires extensive collaboration between veterinarians and human health care providers (HCPs). A successful example is the incorporation of MWD emergency care for nonveterinary HCPs into the Joint Trauma System Clinical Practice Guidelines, which has proven to be a helpful product. Additional challenges that need further solutions include MWDs as patients in human medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and the procurement of appropriate canine blood components in an operational environment. It is often necessary for MWDs to be treated as patients in human MTFs, however, there is no Department of Defense guidance to support this activity. Access to MWD blood products is limited to collection of fresh whole blood in the operational setting. Similar to humans, specific blood component therapy, such as fresh frozen plasma, is often indicated for sick or injured MWDs. Currently there is no formal system in place to deliver any blood products for MWDs or to facilitate collection in theater.

  14. Infrared transparent conductive oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Linda F.; Moran, Mark B.

    2001-09-01

    A novel class of complex metal oxides that have potential as transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) for the electromagnetic-interference (EMI) shielding on IR-seeker windows and missile domes has been identified. These complex metal oxides exhibit the rhombohedral (R3m) crystalline structure of naturally occurring delafossite, CuFeO2. The general chemical formula is ABO2 where A is a monovalent metal (Me+1 such as Cu, Ag, Au, Pt or Pd, and B is a trivalent metal (Me3+) such as Al,Ti,Cr,Co,Fe,Ni,Cs,Rh,Ga,Sn,In,Y,La,Pr,Nd,Sm or Eu. By adjusting the oxygen content, the conductivity can be varied over a wide range so that the delafossites behave as insulators, semiconductors or metals. This paper presents results for films of p-type CuxAlyOz and n-type CuxCryOz deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering from high-purity-metal targets. Films have been deposited using conventional RF- and DC-power supplies, and a new asymmetric-bipolar-pulsed- DC-power supply. Similar to the high-temperature-copper- oxide superconductors, the presence of Cu-O bonds is critical for the unique properties. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) are used to understand the relationship between the optoelectornic properties and the molecular structure of the films. For example, FTIR absorption bands at 1470 and 1395cm-1 are present only in CuxAlyOz films that exhibit enhanced electrical conductivity. When these bands are absent, the CuxAlyOz films have high values of resistivity. In addition to the 1470 and 1395cm-1 bands observed in CuxAlyOz films, another pair of bands at 1040 and 970cm-1 is present in CuxCryOz films.

  15. Transparent Ferroelectric Capacitors on Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Sette

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We deposited transparent ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate thin films on fused silica and contacted them via Al-doped zinc oxide (AZO transparent electrodes with an interdigitated electrode (IDE design. These layers, together with a TiO2 buffer layer on the fused silica substrate, are highly transparent (>60% in the visible optical range. Fully crystallized Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT films are dielectrically functional and exhibit a typical ferroelectric polarization loop with a remanent polarization of 15 μC/cm2. The permittivity value of 650, obtained with IDE AZO electrodes is equivalent to the one measured with Pt electrodes patterned with the same design, which proves the high quality of the developed transparent structures.

  16. Lattice Induced Transparency in Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Lattice modes are intrinsic to the periodic structures and their occurrence can be easily tuned and controlled by changing the lattice constant of the structural array. Previous studies have revealed excitation of sharp absorption resonances due to lattice mode coupling with the plasmonic resonances. Here, we report the first experimental observation of a lattice induced transparency (LIT) by coupling the first order lattice mode (FOLM) to the structural resonance of a metamaterial resonator at terahertz frequencies. The observed sharp transparency is a result of the destructive interference between the bright mode and the FOLM mediated dark mode. As the FOLM is swept across the metamaterial resonance, the transparency band undergoes large change in its bandwidth and resonance position. Besides controlling the transparency behaviour, LIT also shows a huge enhancement in the Q-factor and record high group delay of 28 ps, which could be pivotal in ultrasensitive sensing and slow light device applications.

  17. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education......The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...

  18. Transparent, Conductive Carbon Nanotube Films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhuangchun Wu; Zhihong Chen; Xu Du; Jonathan M. Logan; Jennifer Sippel; Maria Nikolou; Katalin Kamaras; John R. Reynolds; David B. Tanner; Arthur F. Hebard; Andrew G. Rinzler

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple process for the fabrication of ultrathin, transparent, optically homogeneous, electrically conducting films of pure single-walled carbon nanotubes and the transfer of those films...

  19. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Dalsgaard; Morten Flate Paulsen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optima...

  20. Lines that induce phenomenal transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, Alba; Roncato, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Three neighbouring opaque surfaces may appear split into two layers, one transparent and one opaque beneath, if an outline contour is drawn that encompasses two of them. The phenomenon was originally observed by Kanizsa [1955 Rivista di Psicologia 69 3-19; 1979 Organization in Vision: Essays on Gestalt Psychology (New York: Praeger)], for the case where an outline contour is drawn to encompass one of the two parts of a bicoloured figure and a portion of a background of lightest (or darkest) luminance. Preliminary observations revealed that the outline contour yields different effects: in addition to the stratification into layers described by Kanizsa, a second split, opposite in depth order, may occur when the outline contour is close in luminance to one of the three surfaces. An initial experiment was designed to investigate what conditions give rise to the two phenomenal transparencies: this led to the conclusion that an outline contour superimposed on an opaque surface causes this surface to emerge as a transparent layer when the luminances of the contour and the surface differ, in absolute value, by no more than 13.2 cd m(-2). We have named this phenomenon 'transparency of the intercepted surface', to distinguish it from the phenomenal transparency arising when the contour and surface are very different in luminance. When such a difference exists, the contour acts as a factor of surface definition and grouping: the portion of the homogeneous surface it bounds emerges as a fourth surface and groups with a nearby surface if there is one close in luminance. The transparency phenomena ('transparency of the contoured surface') perceived in this context conform to the constraints of Metelli's model, as demonstrated by a second experiment, designed to gather 'opacity' ratings of stimuli. The observer judgments conformed to the values predicted by Metelli's formula for perceived degree of transparency, alpha. The role of the outline contour in conveying figural and

  1. Fabrication of Transparent Multilayer Circuits by Inkjet Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jieke; Bao, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Sun, Jiazhen; Zhang, Cong; Li, Yang; Li, Fengyu; Yao, Xi; Song, Yanlin

    2016-02-17

    Conductive microcables embedded in a transparent film are fabricated by inkjet printing silver-nanoparticle ink into a liquid poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precursor substrate. By controlling the spreading of the ink droplet and the rheological properties of the liquid substrate, transparent multilayer circuits composed of high-resolution embedded cables are achieved using a commercial inkjet printer. This facile strategy provides a new avenue for inkjet printing of highly integrated and transparent electronics. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Lignin‐Retaining Transparent Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiliang; Rojas, Ramiro; Yan, Min; Lawoko, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Optically transparent wood, combining optical and mechanical performance, is an emerging new material for light‐transmitting structures in buildings with the aim of reducing energy consumption. One of the main obstacles for transparent wood fabrication is delignification, where around 30 wt % of wood tissue is removed to reduce light absorption and refractive index mismatch. This step is time consuming and not environmentally benign. Moreover, lignin removal weakens the wood structure, limiting the fabrication of large structures. A green and industrially feasible method has now been developed to prepare transparent wood. Up to 80 wt % of lignin is preserved, leading to a stronger wood template compared to the delignified alternative. After polymer infiltration, a high‐lignin‐content transparent wood with transmittance of 83 %, haze of 75 %, thermal conductivity of 0.23 W mK−1, and work‐tofracture of 1.2 MJ m−3 (a magnitude higher than glass) was obtained. This transparent wood preparation method is efficient and applicable to various wood species. The transparent wood obtained shows potential for application in energy‐saving buildings. PMID:28719095

  3. [The transparency commission: evaluation and re-evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, J F

    The purpose of the French Transparency Commission is to provide scientific advice concerning the usefulness, interest and good use of drugs. The work of the Transparency Commission lies at the interface between the French or European marketing approval procedures and the health and economic prerequisites of the French community. The opinion of the French Transparency Commission is used to assess the medical service provided by a new drug and the improvement of this medical service subsequent to its use. This opinion is taken into consideration for establishing the reimbursement rate applied by the social security organizations and the selling price set by the administration. The expert opinions and recommendations established by the Transparency Commission participate in implementing good use of drugs.

  4. Medical regulation, spectacular transparency and the blame business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Gerry; Fischer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore general practitioners' (GPs') and psychiatrists' views and experiences of transparent forms of medical regulation in practice, as well as those of medical regulators and those representing patients and professionals. The research included interviews with GPs, psychiatrists and others involved in medical regulation, representing patients and professionals. A qualitative narrative analysis of the interviews was then conducted. Narratives suggest rising levels of complaints, legalisation and blame within the National Health Service (NHS). Three key themes emerge. First, doctors feel "guilty until proven innocent" within increasingly legalised regulatory systems and are consequently practising more defensively. Second, regulation is described as providing "spectacular transparency", driven by political responses to high profile scandals rather than its effects in practice, which can be seen as a social defence. Finally, it is suggested that a "blame business" is driving this form of transparency, in which self-interested regulators, the media, lawyers, and even some patient organisations are fuelling transparency in a wider culture of blame. A relatively small number of people were interviewed, so further research testing the findings would be useful. Transparency has some perverse effects on doctors' practice. Rising levels of blame has perverse consequences for patient care, as doctors are practicing more defensively as a result, as well as significant financial implications for NHS funding. Transparent forms of regulation are assumed to be beneficial and yet little research has examined its effects in practice. In this paper we highlight a number of perverse effects of transparency in practice.

  5. THE UNBEARABLE LIGHTNESS OF GLASS: TRANSPARENT ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya ELMALI ŞEN

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The heaviness or lightness effect of a building that left to the user changes according to some different features such as its form, relation to topography, structure, fullness-emptiness rate of mass,organization and etc. The organization which gives the best lightness effect is transparency that is provided both with fullness-emptiness and material. The most valid material of transparency thatprovides lightness effect on the perception of façade is glass. Glass which made progress parallel to the development of technology in modern period turns into the skin of building now. In this studyfirstly, the development process of building façades on the basis of material from past to present –from heavy to light- is discussed. Then, the glass buildings that built in both new and historicalenvironments are evaluated in terms of the heavy-light effect.

  6. A Transparent Runtime Data Distribution Engine for OpenMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios S. Nikolopoulos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes two important contributions. First, the paper investigates the performance implications of data placement in OpenMP programs running on modern NUMA multiprocessors. Data locality and minimization of the rate of remote memory accesses are critical for sustaining high performance on these systems. We show that due to the low remote-to-local memory access latency ratio of contemporary NUMA architectures, reasonably balanced page placement schemes, such as round-robin or random distribution, incur modest performance losses. Second, the paper presents a transparent, user-level page migration engine with an ability to gain back any performance loss that stems from suboptimal placement of pages in iterative OpenMP programs. The main body of the paper describes how our OpenMP runtime environment uses page migration for implementing implicit data distribution and redistribution schemes without programmer intervention. Our experimental results verify the effectiveness of the proposed framework and provide a proof of concept that it is not necessary to introduce data distribution directives in OpenMP and warrant the simplicity or the portability of the programming model.

  7. Interaction between social influence and payoff transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xie, Wenwen; Ye, Maolin

    2014-02-01

    Social influence and payoff transparency interact with each other to influence decision making. Social influence masks payoff transparency, and lacking transparency drives people to seek social influence. Moreover, our survey supports our claim by showing that social influence and payoff transparency correlate with each other (r(53) = -.71). Bentley et al.'s model can be revised to accommodate the covariance.

  8. 78 FR 14149 - 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    ... Fiscal Transparency Report AGENCY: Department of State. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of State... Transparency Report. This report describes the minimum standards of fiscal transparency developed by the... countries made progress toward meeting the standard. FY 2012 Fiscal Transparency Report The Department of...

  9. Categories and Dimensions of Organizational Transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Flyverbom, Mikkel

    , an approach which remains underexplored. Finally, we discuss some avenues for future studies of the organizing properties of transparency: the secrecy-transparency interplay, the power-transparency nexus and the transparency ‘family tree’ (i.e., intersections between multiple forms of disclosure)....

  10. Price Transparency in the Online Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jonathan L; Mills, Parker H

    2016-05-01

    Plastic surgeons are sometimes hesitant to provide their pricing information online, due to several concerns. However, if implemented right, price transparency can be used as a lead generation tool that provides consumers with the pricing information they want and gives the physician the consumer's contact information for follow-up. This study took place during the author's first year in private practice in a new city. An interactive price transparency platform (ie, cost estimator) was integrated into his website, allowing consumers to submit a "wishlist" of procedures to check pricing on these procedures of interest. However, the consumer must submit their contact information to receive the desired breakdown of costs that are tailored based on the author's medical fees. During that first year, without any advertising expenditure, the author's website received 412 wishlists from 208 unique consumers. Consumers (17.8%) that submitted a wishlist came in for a consultation and 62% of those booked a procedure. The average value of a booked procedure was over US $4000 and cumulatively, all of the leads from this one lead source in that first year generated over US $92,000 in revenue. When compared with non-price-aware patients, price-aware patients were 41% more likely to book a procedure. Price transparency led to greater efficiency and reduced consultations that ended in "sticker shock." When prudently integrated into a medical practice, price transparency can be a great lead generation source for patients that are (1) paying out of pocket for medically necessary services due to a high-deductible health plan or (2) paying for services not typically covered by insurance, such as cosmetic services.

  11. Slip casting nano-particle powders for making transparent ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Joshua D [Livermore, CA; Soules, Thomas F [Livermore, CA; Landingham, Richard Lee [Livermore, CA; Hollingsworth, Joel P [Oakland, CA

    2011-04-12

    A method of making a transparent ceramic including the steps of providing nano-ceramic powders in a processed or unprocessed form, mixing the powders with de-ionized water, the step of mixing the powders with de-ionized water producing a slurry, sonifing the slurry to completely wet the powder and suspend the powder in the de-ionized water, separating very fine particles from the slurry, molding the slurry, and curing the slurry to produce the transparent ceramic.

  12. A transparência ativa nos municípios de Santa Catarina: avaliação do índice de atendimento à lei de acesso à informação e suas determinantes = The active transparency in Santa Catarina municipalities: evaluation of the rate of compliance to access to information law and its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Comin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar a relação existente entre o índice de atendimento à Lei de Acesso à Informação dos municípios catarinenses e os seus indicadores socioeconômicos (população total, receita arrecadada, PIB e IDH-M. Trata-se de uma pesquisa descritiva, com abordagem quantitativa, cujo procedimento de coleta de dados é documental. Para a construção do índice de atendimento à Lei de Acesso à Informação, foi realizada busca e avaliação nos sítios eletrônicos dos 121 municípios de Santa Catarina que possuem população superior a dez mil habitantes, mediante a aplicação de um Check-list formulado com base nos artigos 5°, 8°, 9º, e 45 da lei. O nível de atendimento foi identificado como um conjunto de 19 indicadores. Para cada indicador atribuiu-se o valor de um ponto quando atendido, meio ponto quando atendido de forma parcial e nenhum ponto quando não atendido. Posteriormente ao cálculo dos percentuais de atendimento, observou-se que, até então, nenhum dos municípios atende a todas as exigências da Lei de Acesso à Informação, ficando a média geral de conformidade em 69,43%. Verificou-se também a existência de relação positiva do índice de atendimento apenas com a variável IDH-M. Demonstram os demais fatores socioeconômicos que os municípios menores têm divulgado maior número de informações voluntariamente. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship between the rate of compliance to the Access to Information Law of the municipalities of Santa Catarina and its socio-economic indicators (total population, revenue, GDP and HDI. It is a descriptive research with a quantitative approach, whose data collection procedure is documentary. In order to create the the rating level according to the requirements of the Information Access Law, it was necessary to search and evaluate the websites of 121 municipalities of Santa Catarina which a population of ten thousand

  13. Quality open access publishing and registration to Directory of Open Access Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Bi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available With the fast development of open access publishing worldwide, Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ as a community-curated online directory that indexes and provides access to high quality, open access, peer-reviewed journals, has been recognized for its high criteria in facilitating high quality open access scholarly publishing and used as the portal for accessing quality open access journals. While the numbers of journal application to be inclusion in DOAJ in Asia are kept increasing dramatically, many editors of these journals are not very clear about the idea or concept of the open access which have been embedded in the application form containing 58 questions falling into several different criteria categories. The very commonly seen misunderstanding of the required item, inaccurate or vague or incomplete and even missing information, poorly organized website, non-transparent process of publishing, especially no open access statement and copyright statement, or conflicts between the policy statements would cause much more communication between the reviewer and the editor and delay the completion of the review. This article gives an in depth introduction to DOAJ criteria and detailed introduction to the general process on how to register to DOAJ, suggestions based on application review also is given for journal editors to better prepare for this application. And it is the most important for editors to keep in mind that to be indexed by DOAJ is not just about filling a form, it is about truly change and adapt to best practices in open access publishing.

  14. The Value of Transparency in Distributed Solar PV Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) markets are relatively non-transparent: PV price and product information is not readily available, searching for this information is costly (in terms of time and effort), and customers are mostly unfamiliar with the new technology. Quote aggregation, where third-party companies collect PV quotes on behalf of customers, may be one way to increase PV market transparency. In this paper, quote aggregation data are analyzed to study the value of transparency for distributed solar PV markets. The results suggest that easier access to more quotes results in lower prices. We find that installers tend to offer lower prices in more competitive market environments. We supplement the empirical analysis with key findings from interviews of residential PV installers.

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency in optical microcavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong-Chun

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT is a quantum interference effect arising from different transition pathways of optical fields. Within the transparency window, both absorption and dispersion properties strongly change, which results in extensive applications such as slow light and optical storage. Due to the ultrahigh quality factors, massive production on a chip and convenient all-optical control, optical microcavities provide an ideal platform for realizing EIT. Here we review the principle and recent development of EIT in optical microcavities. We focus on the following three situations. First, for a coupled-cavity system, all-optical EIT appears when the optical modes in different cavities couple to each other. Second, in a single microcavity, all-optical EIT is created when interference happens between two optical modes. Moreover, the mechanical oscillation of the microcavity leads to optomechanically induced transparency. Then the applications of EIT effect in microcavity systems are discussed, including light delay and storage, sensing, and field enhancement. A summary is then given in the final part of the paper.

  16. Critical analysis of India's National Mission on Medicinal Plants (NMMP in providing access to quality botanical drugs to improve public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahi Jain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drugs play an important role in improving health of the population. Medicinal plants help in addressing the health issues of a large section of the population – especially the low and middle-income people. However, there are some concerns about the supply, efficacy and safety in using them. This study reviews India's major initiative toward medicinal plants namely, the National Mission on Medicinal Plants to meet medicinal plants challenges. The study analyzed the mission's probable shortcomings due to its design and operational details. This study used “content analysis” approach for analysis of mission's publicly available documents, viz. “Operational guidelines” and its two amendments. The study identified prevalent 28 shortcomings in the original document related to clarity of the document; accountability, transparency and stakeholders' representation. These challenges were partially addressed in two amendments, which indicate persistence of shortcomings in design and operational details. The mission can help in improving and strengthening the Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy program by addressing those shortcomings.

  17. AN ASSESSMENT OF THE TRANSPARENCY LEVEL IN ROMANIAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei-Razvan CRISAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transparency in the public sector is of paramount importance for the general sentiment of trust in the system itself, as public servants are publicly accountable for the use of and effects on public resources. In this respect, ensuring an increase in transparency would allow these public servants to discharge accountability accordingly and would provide the necessary frame for assessment of public resource use from stakeholders. This paper aims to determine whether transparency levels are adequate in the case of Romanian public universities, using a refined assessment tool which consists of multiple criteria based on principles and required elements for the reduction of information asymmetry. Our findings show that overall, in the case of Romanian public universities, the transparency level is high and there is a prerequisite to ensure the fair judgement from stakeholders.

  18. Standard Practice for Inspection of Transparent Parts by Prism

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 Aerospace transparencies undergo high stresses induced by flight, environmental, or other factors. The transparency attachment points are especially subject to fatigue. These areas of fatigue are often obstructed or hidden from normal inspection. An inspector, following the techniques described in this practice, shall use a prism to view damage located near transparency bolt holes, voids, and delamination that are hidden by edge strips or frames. 1.2 The purpose of this practice is to provide acceptable methods for performing prism inspections of transparent materials with specific emphasis on aircraft windscreens and canopies. Caveats and lessons learned from experience are included to assist authors in writing tailored inspection instructions for specific applications. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicab...

  19. Public hearings as a transparency measure: The Valproate case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllebæk, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In line with increasing calls of transparency initiatives across European institutions, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will on September 26th 2017 host its first public hearing on the regulatory of a drug, namely Valproate. According to the EMA website, the public hearing is intended...... to “increase transparency by opening up the scientific evaluation process” and “[give citizens] a voice in the evaluation of medicines.” This conference paper will present the preliminary results from a rhetorical analysis of the public hearing as a transparency measure. What kind transparency does a public...... hearing provide? How are citizens’ accounts positioned vis-à-vis expert testimonies? Does the public hearing achieve sufficient “hybridity” of its heterogeneous stakeholder group?...

  20. Towards Flexible Transparent Electrodes Based on Carbon and Metallic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghui Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible transparent electrodes (FTEs with high stability and scalability are in high demand for the extremely widespread applications in flexible optoelectronic devices. Traditionally, thin films of indium thin oxide (ITO served the role of FTEs, but film brittleness and scarcity of materials limit its further application. This review provides a summary of recent advances in emerging transparent electrodes and related flexible devices (e.g., touch panels, organic light-emitting diodes, sensors, supercapacitors, and solar cells. Mainly focusing on the FTEs based on carbon nanomaterials (e.g., carbon nanotubes and graphene and metal materials (e.g., metal grid and metal nanowires, we discuss the fabrication techniques, the performance improvement, and the representative applications of these highly transparent and flexible electrodes. Finally, the challenges and prospects of flexible transparent electrodes will be summarized.

  1. A study on enhancing policy transparency in the nuclear field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, S. W. [Korea Institute for National Unification, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Enhancing transparency in the nuclear field is a pending issue for the South Korea's nuclear community. International suspicions and mistrust of ROK's nuclear activities have been obstacles to the developments of South Korea's nuclear industry. South Korea's efforts have not been sufficient enough to ensure international community that its nuclear program will be used solely for peaceful purposes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to conduct a positive and creative research on the issue of transparency and provide policy options that are conducive to developing of South Korea's nuclear industry. Based on an in-depth study on transparency of national policies, this study presents a package of detail policy measures that can contribute to enhancing transparency in the nuclear filed. 75 refs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  2. An Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Online Catalog in Providing Bibliographic Access to Children in a Public Library Setting. Research Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Leslie; And Others

    This study evaluated the use of an online catalog by 33 children in the fourth, sixth, and eighth grades. As a basis of comparison, the children's ability to use the card catalog was also evaluated. Touch screen terminals were used to access a CLSI catalog. A specific set of tests was developed to determine if children have the necessary…

  3. An innovative transparent cranial window based on skull optical clearing An innovative transparent cranial window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, T. H.; Luo, Q. M.; Zhu, D.

    2012-06-01

    Noninvasive optical methods for viewing the structural and functional organization of cortex have been playing important roles in brain research, which usually suffer from turbid skull. Various cranial window models based on surgical operation have been proposed, but have respective limitations. Here, an innovative transparent cranial window of mouse was established by topically treatment with a skull optical clearing solution (SOCS), rather than by craniotomy. Based on the experiment of optical clearing efficacy of skull in vitro, we found that the turbid skull became transparent within 25 min after application of SOCS. The USAF target is visible through the treated skull, and the calculated resolution can achieve 8.4 μm. After the in vivo skull was topically treated with SOCS, the cortical micro-vessels can be visible clearly. The quantitative analysis indicated that the minimum resolution diameter of micro-vessels in 14.4±0.8 μm through the transparent cranial window closed to that in 12.8±0.9 μm of the exposed cortical micro-vessels. Further, preliminary results from Laser Speckle Imaging demonstrated that there was no influence on cortical blood flow distribution of mouse after topically treatment with SOCS on skull. This transparent cranial window will provide a convenient model for cortex imaging in vivo, which is very significant for neuroscience research.

  4. Joint DOE-PNC research on the use of transparency in support of nuclear nonproliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochiji, Toshiro; Keeney, R.; Tazaki, Makiko [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. (Japan). Office of Nuclear Nonproliferation; Nakhleh, C.; Puckett, J.; Stanbro, W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Safeguards System Group

    1999-01-01

    PNC and LANL collaborated in research on the concept of transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The research was based on the Action Sheet No. 21, which was signed in February 1996, ``The Joint Research on Transparency in Nuclear Nonproliferation`` under the ``Agreement between the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation of Japan (PNC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) for Cooperation in Research and Development Concerning Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Measures for Safeguards and Nonproliferation``. The purpose of Action Sheet 21 is to provide a fundamental study on Transparency to clarify the means to improve worldwide acceptability for the nuclear energy from the nuclear nonproliferation point of view. This project consists of independent research and then joint discussion at workshops that address a series of topics and issues in transparency. The activities covered in Action Sheet 21 took place over a period of 18 months. Three workshops were held; the first and the third hosted by PNC in Tokyo, Japan and the second hosted by LANL in Los Alamos, New Mexico, US. The following is a summary of the three workshops. The first workshop addressed the policy environment of transparency. Each side presented its perspective on the following issues: (1) a definition of transparency, (2) reasons for transparency, (3) detailed goals of transparency and (4) obstacles to transparency. The topic of the second workshop was ``Development of Transparency Options.`` The activities accomplished were (1) identify type of facilities where transparency might be applied, (2) define criteria for applying transparency, and (3) delineate applicable transparency options. The goal of the third workshop, ``Technical Options for Transparency,`` was to (1) identify conceptual options for transparency system design; (2) identify instrumentation, measurement, data collection and data processing options; (3) identify data display options; and (4) identify technical

  5. Novel Humanitarian Aid Program: The Glivec International Patient Assistance Program-Lessons Learned From Providing Access to Breakthrough Targeted Oncology Treatment in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Pat; Boultbee, Paula; Epstein, David

    2015-10-01

    Imatinib was the first targeted therapy approved for the treatment of cancer. With its approval, it was immediately clear to Novartis that this breakthrough therapy would require an innovative approach to worldwide access, with special consideration of low- and middle-income countries. Lack of government reimbursement, universal health care, or health insurance coverage, few trained specialty physicians or diagnostic services, and poor health care infrastructure were, and continue to be, contributing barriers to access to treatment in low- and middle-income countries. The Glivec International Patient Assistance Program (GIPAP) is an international drug donation program established by Novartis Pharma AG and implemented in partnership with The Max Foundation, a nonprofit, nongovernmental organization. GIPAP was established in 2001, essentially in parallel with the first approval of imatinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. Since 2001, GIPAP has made imatinib accessible to all medically and financially eligible patients within 80 countries on an ongoing basis as long as their physicians prescribe it and no other means of access exists. To date, more than 49,000 patients have benefited from GIPAP, and 2.3 million monthly doses of imatinib have been approved through the program. GIPAP represents an innovative drug donation model that has set the standard for access programs for other targeted or innovative therapies. The purpose of this article is to describe the structure of GIPAP, as well as important lessons that have contributed to the success of the program. This article may assist other companies with the development of successful and far-reaching patient assistance programs in the future.

  6. Does doxastic transparency support evidentialism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2008-01-01

    Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate.......Nishi Shah has recently argued that transparency in doxastic deliberation supports a strict version of evidentialism about epistemic reasons. I argue that Shah’s argument relies on a principle that is incompatible the strict version of evidentialism Shah wishes to advocate....

  7. Transparent Emotions? A critical analysis of Moran's transparency claim

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterboer, N.J.G.

    2015-01-01

    I critically analyze Richard Moran's account of knowing one's own emotions, which depends on the Transparency Claim (TC) for self-knowledge. Applied to knowing one's own beliefs, TC states that when one is asked "Do you believe P?", one can answer by referencing reasons for believing P. TC works for

  8. A FRAMEWORK FOR TRANSPARENCY IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Turnes, Paloma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to cover the gap in literature about transparency in the context of international trade facilitation. It focuses on the importance of transparency in achieving growth in international trade and the differences between non-transparent practices and corruption in global trade. Managing the disclosure of information about rules, regulations and laws is not the only trade policy instrument where transparency becomes important. To build a framework on levels of transparency we developed a matrix classifying the transparency of each country based on ease of doing business and levels of bribery. Four different strategies are explained based on the different scenarios of transparency in international trade. The main conclusions reflect that disclosure of information is not enough to guarantee transparency and monitoring of transparency must be improved.

  9. The law and financial transparency in churches: reconsidering the form 990 exemption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Montague

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo - già apparso su Cardozo Law Review, vol. 35, october 2013, n. 1, pp. 213-265 - è ora pubblicato per la cortesia dell’EditoreTABLE OF CONTENTS: Introduction - I. Legislative History A. Early Legislative History of the Information Return Requirement - The Revenue Act of 1943 - 2. The Imposition of the Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1950 - 3. Expanding the Information Return and Unrelated Business Income Tax in 1969 - B. Televangelist Scandals During the 1980s - C. Recent Legislative History of the Information Return - 1. The William Aramony Scandal and Aftermath - 2. Recent Revisions to Form -II. Increased public access to and use of FORM 990 Information Returns - III. Churches should not be exempt from filing form - A. Churches Are Especially Susceptible to Financial Abuses /- 1. Many Churches Lack Basic Forms of Oversight and Accountability, Revealing Too Much Trust in the Honesty of Religious People - 2. Churches Where Power is Concentrated in the Hands of One Leader Provide the Ideal Structure for Financial Abuse - 3. Even at Churches with More Independent Boards, Leaders Still Maintain Undue Influence - 4. The Nature of Spiritual Leadership Gives Church Pastors Extraordinary Power - 5. Hierarchical Churches also Lack Proper Financial Oversight, and Lay Members Have Little Say in Accountability - B. Churches Themselves Would Benefit from Increased Transparency and Accountability - 1. Greater Transparency May Increase Donations - 2. Requiring Transparency Would Mitigate the Inevitable Fall in Donations from Scandals at Similar Institutions -3. Financial and Other Scandals, Caused or Exacerbated by Lack of Transparency, Have the Potential to Damage the Spiritual Lives of Churchgoers - C. Many Churchgoers Would Likely Welcome More Financial Transparency - D. Financial Transparency is Consistent with the Teachings of Many Churches - E. Self-Regulation Is Insufficient to Prevent Financial Abuse

  10. Access to healthcare, HIV/STI testing, and preferred pre-exposure prophylaxis providers among men who have sex with men and men who engage in street-based sex work in the US.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Underhill

    Full Text Available Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP is a promising strategy for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM and men who engage in sex work. But access will require routine HIV testing and contacts with healthcare providers. This study investigated men's healthcare and HIV testing experiences to inform PrEP implementation.We conducted 8 focus groups (n = 38 in 2012 and 56 in-depth qualitative interviews in 2013-14 with male sex workers (MSWs (n = 31 and other MSM (n = 25 in Providence, RI. MSWs primarily met clients in street-based sex work venues. Facilitators asked participants about access to healthcare and HIV/STI testing, healthcare needs, and preferred PrEP providers.MSWs primarily accessed care in emergency rooms (ERs, substance use clinics, correctional institutions, and walk-in clinics. Rates of HIV testing were high, but MSWs reported low access to other STI testing, low insurance coverage, and unmet healthcare needs including primary care, substance use treatment, and mental health services. MSM not engaging in sex work were more likely to report access to primary and specialist care. Rates of HIV testing among these MSM were slightly lower, but they reported more STI testing, more insurance coverage, and fewer unmet needs. Preferred PrEP providers for both groups included primary care physicians, infectious disease specialists, and psychiatrists. MSWs were also willing to access PrEP in substance use treatment and ER settings.PrEP outreach efforts for MSWs and other MSM should engage diverse providers in many settings, including mental health and substance use treatment, ERs, needle exchanges, correctional institutions, and HIV testing centers. Access to PrEP will require financial assistance, but can build on existing healthcare contacts for both populations.

  11. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    OpenAIRE

    Smajo Sulejmanovic; Suad Kunosic; Ema Hankic

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to r...

  12. Enabling and Encouraging Transparency in Earth Science Data for Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    Our ability to understand, respond, and make decisions about our changing planet hinges on timely scientific information and situational awareness. Information and understanding will continue to be the foundations of decision support in the face of uncertainty. Over the last 40 years, investments in Earth observations have brought remarkable achievements in weather prediction, disaster prediction and response, land management, and our broad base of Earth science knowledge. The only way to know what is happening to our planet and to manage our resources wisely is to measure it, This means tracking changes decade after decade and reanalyzing the record in light of new insights, technologies, and methodologies. In order to understand and respond to climate change and other global challenges, there is a need for a high degree of transparency in the publication, management, traceability, and citability of science data, and particularly for Earth science data. In addition, it is becoming increasingly important that free, open, and authoritative sources of quality data are available for peer review. One important focus is on applications and opportunities for enhancing data exchange standards for use with Earth science data. By increasing the transparency of scientific work and providing incentives for researchers and institutions to openly share data, we will more effectively leverage the scientific capacity of our Nation to address climate change and to meet future challenges. It is an enormous challenge to collect, organize, and communicate the vast stores of data maintained across the government. The Administration is committed to moving past these barriers in providing the American public with unprecedented access to useful government data, including an open architecture and making data available in multiple formats. The goal is to enable better decision-making, drive transparency, and to help power innovation for a stronger America. Whether for a research project

  13. The role of non-dental health professionals in providing access to dental care for low-income and minority patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Leonard A

    2009-07-01

    The disadvantaged suffer disproportionately from dental problems. These persons are more likely to have untreated oral health problems and associated pain, and also are more likely to forego dental treatment even when in pain. There has been increased emphasis on the potential role of physicians in alleviating oral health disparities, especially among children. In addition, many adults lacking access to traditional dental services seek care and consultation from hospital emergency departments, physicians, and pharmacists. The delivery of oral health care services by non-dental health professionals may assume increasing importance as the population continues to age and becomes more diverse. This is because, in general, the elderly and ethnic and racial minorities face significant economic barriers to accessing private dental services.

  14. atmospheric transparency under harmattan conditions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-05-20

    May 20, 2006 ... air, the transparency of the atmosphere is also strongly dependent on the elevation angle of the sun. Hence, to contrast the atmospheric transmission characteristics in the two harmattan conditions, measurements made at the same solar elevation (42. °) and optical air mass (m, = 1.5) have been used.

  15. The molecular basis of corneal transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassell, John R; Birk, David E

    2010-09-01

    The cornea consists primarily of three layers: an outer layer containing an epithelium, a middle stromal layer consisting of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) interspersed with keratocytes and an inner layer of endothelial cells. The stroma consists of dense, regularly packed collagen fibrils arranged as orthogonal layers or lamellae. The corneal stroma is unique in having a homogeneous distribution of small diameter 25-30 nm fibrils that are regularly packed within lamellae and this arrangement minimizes light scattering permitting transparency. The ECM of the corneal stroma consists primarily of collagen type I with lesser amounts of collagen type V and four proteoglycans: three with keratan sulfate chains; lumican, keratocan, osteoglycin and one with a chondroitin sulfate chain; decorin. It is the core proteins of these proteoglycans and collagen type V that regulate the growth of collagen fibrils. The overall size of the proteoglycans are small enough to fit in the spaces between the collagen fibrils and regulate their spacing. The stroma is formed during development by neural crest cells that migrate into the space between the corneal epithelium and corneal endothelium and become keratoblasts. The keratoblasts proliferate and synthesize high levels of hyaluronan to form an embryonic corneal stroma ECM. The keratoblasts differentiate into keratocytes which synthesize high levels of collagens and keratan sulfate proteoglycans that replace the hyaluronan/water-rich ECM with the densely packed collagen fibril-type ECM seen in transparent adult corneas. When an incisional wound through the epithelium into stroma occurs the keratocytes become hypercellular myofibroblasts. These can later become wound fibroblasts, which provides continued transparency or become myofibroblasts that produce a disorganized ECM resulting in corneal opacity. The growth factors IGF-I/II are likely responsible for the formation of the well organized ECM associated with transparency

  16. Obstacles to transparency over pharmacovigilance data within the EMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    In July and August 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) organised two public consultations concerning European pharmacovigilance. These two consultations reveal a number of EMA proposals that are counterproductive to the objective of improving transparency over pharmacovigilance data. The EMA's proposals offer pharmaceutical companies an opportunity to participate in public hearings held by the European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), in order to defend their drug. They also provide for the possibility of holding non-public hearings to discuss public data. There is a great risk that the drug industry might use these provisions to influence the debate. The strings attached to the access that the EMA proposes to grant researchers to data contained in the centralised European pharmacovigilance database would allow the EMA to censor the publication of their findings. The EMA seems to regard pharmacovigilance data as commercially confidential information. Responding to these consultations provided an opportunity to remind the EMA that data about adverse effects are a public good, in the common interest, and that it is unacceptable to keep this information confidential.

  17. A reinterpretation of transparency perception in terms of gamut relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladusich, Tony

    2013-03-01

    Classical approaches to transparency perception assume that transparency constitutes a perceptual dimension corresponding to the physical dimension of transmittance. Here I present an alternative theory, termed gamut relativity, that naturally explains key aspects of transparency perception. Rather than being computed as values along a perceptual dimension corresponding to transmittance, gamut relativity postulates that transparency is built directly into the fabric of the visual system's representation of surface color. The theory, originally developed to explain properties of brightness and lightness perception, proposes how the relativity of the achromatic color gamut in a perceptual blackness-whiteness space underlies the representation of foreground and background surface layers. Whereas brightness and lightness perception were previously reanalyzed in terms of the relativity of the achromatic color gamut with respect to illumination level, transparency perception is here reinterpreted in terms of relativity with respect to physical transmittance. The relativity of the achromatic color gamut thus emerges as a fundamental computational principle underlying surface perception. A duality theorem relates the definition of transparency provided in gamut relativity with the classical definition underlying the physical blending models of computer graphics.

  18. Integrated social facility location planning for decision support: Accessibility studies provide support to facility location and integration of social service provision

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Green, Cheri A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available in facility provision ?Identification of suitable location(s) for selected new facilities and assisting in the development of a integrated facility provision location plans ?Evaluation of the impact of planned project or budget requests on facility backlog... the people?s access to transport ? Road network ? the road network is used to simulate the way in which people traverse across spaces. Different types of roads also have different speeds at which traffic or a person can move on it or impedances. Using...

  19. Improvements in access to malaria treatment in Tanzania after switch to artemisinin combination therapy and the introduction of accredited drug dispensing outlets - a provider perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillip Angel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve access to treatment in the private retail sector a new class of outlets known as accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDO was created in Tanzania. Tanzania changed its first-line treatment for malaria from sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP to artemether-lumefantrine (ALu in 2007. Subsidized ALu was made available in both health facilities and ADDOs. The effect of these interventions on access to malaria treatment was studied in rural Tanzania. Methods The study was carried out in the villages of Kilombero and Ulanga Demographic Surveillance System (DSS and in Ifakara town. Data collection consisted of: 1 yearly censuses of shops selling drugs; 2 collection of monthly data on availability of anti-malarials in public health facilities; and 3 retail audits to measure anti-malarial sales volumes in all public, mission and private outlets. The data were complemented with DSS population data. Results Between 2004 and 2008 access to malaria treatment greatly improved and the number of anti-malarial treatment doses dispensed increased by 78%. Particular improvements were observed in the availability (from 0.24 shops per 1,000 people in 2004 to 0.39 in 2008 and accessibility (from 71% of households within 5 km of a shop in 2004 to 87% in 2008 of drug shops. Despite no improvements in affordability this resulted in an increase of the market share from 49% of anti-malarial sales 2005 to 59% in 2008. The change of treatment policy from SP to ALu led to severe stock-outs of SP in health facilities in the months leading up to the introduction of ALu (only 40% months in stock, but these were compensated by the wide availability of SP in shops. After the introduction of ALu stock levels of the drug were relatively high in public health facilities (over 80% months in stock, but the drug could only be found in 30% of drug shops and in no general shops. This resulted in a low overall utilization of the drug (19% of all anti

  20. At first glance, transparency enhances assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A.R.; Weert, C.M.M. de; Lier, R.J. van

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of transparency, perceptual grouping, and presentation time on perceived lightness. Both transparency and perceptual grouping have been found to result in assimilation effects, but only for ambiguous stimulus displays and with specific attentional instructions. By varying

  1. The uncertain relationship between transparency and accountability

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The concepts of transparency and accountability are closely linked: transparency is supposed to generate accountability. This article questions this widely held assumption. Transparency mobilises the power of shame, yet the shameless may not be vulnerable to public exposure. Truth often fails to lead to justice. After exploring different definitions and dimensions of the two ideas, the more relevant question turns out tobe: what kinds of transparency lead to what kinds of accountability, and ...

  2. Acesso à Informaçâo do Estado: Os Arquivos, a Transparêncìa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acesso à Informaçâo do Estado: Os Arquivos, a Transparêncìa Administrativa e o Direito à Informaçâo (Access to Information of the State: The Archives, Administrative Transparency and the Right to Information)

  3. Does Central Bank Transparancy Reduce Interest Rates?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geraats, P.; Eijffinger, S.C.W.; van der Cruijsen, C.A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Central banks have become increasingly transparent during the last decade. One of the main bene ts of transparency predicted by theoreticalmodels is that it enhances the credibility, reputation, and exibility of monetary policy, which suggests that increased transparency should result in lower

  4. The principle of transparency in EU law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijze, A.W.G.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315029188

    2013-01-01

    ‘The principle of transparency in EU law’ explores a variety of transparency obligations in European law, and offers a comprehensive framework to classify and understand those obligations. The principle of transparency is ubiquitous and multifaceted. The obligations derived from it range from a duty

  5. Designing and Evaluation Transparency in Open Government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheus, R.

    One of the objectives of opening data is the creation of transparency. However, transparency is an ill-defined concept. My PhD thesis aims to help designers, architects and policy-makers develop portals and applications to enable transparency for the diverse society. Literature will be reviewed to

  6. Playing the numbers game: Dealing with transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachidi, S.; Huysman, M.H.; Berends, Hans; van de Weerd, G.C.

    2015-01-01

    Our research focus is on unpacking the performativity of transparency in order to explain how digital technologies, formerly perceived as enablers of surveillance and control, afford opaqueness as much as transparency. We develop a sociomaterial perspective on transparency and investigate how

  7. Providing researchers with online access to NHLBI biospecimen collections: The results of the first six years of the NHLBI BioLINCC program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffen, Carol A; Wagner, Elizabeth L; Adams, John T; Hitchcock, Denise M; Welniak, Lisbeth A; Brennan, Sean P; Carroll, Leslie E

    2017-01-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), within the United States' National Institutes of Health (NIH), established the Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center (BioLINCC) in 2008 to develop the infrastructure needed to link the contents of the NHLBI Biorepository and the NHLBI Data Repository, and to promote the utilization of these scientific resources by the broader research community. Program utilization metrics were developed to measure the impact of BioLINCC on Biorepository access by researchers, including visibility, program efficiency, user characteristics, scientific impact, and research types. Input data elements were defined and are continually populated as requests move through the process of initiation through fulfillment and publication. This paper reviews the elements of the tracking metrics which were developed for BioLINCC and reports the results for the first six on-line years of the program.

  8. Transparent terabit photonic imaging networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Albert L.; Cruz, Rene L.; Fainman, Yeshaiahu; Fellman, Ronald D.; Mazurenko, Yuri T.; Milstein, Laurence B.; Rao, Ramesh R.; Sun, Pang Chen; Yu, Paul K. L.

    1996-05-01

    The next generation of distributed imaging and visualization environments for diagnostic radiography and C4I will require the delivery of a guaranteed quality-of-service by a ultra-high bit rate network. Two aspects of the quality-of-service, the link bit rate and the round-trip packet latency, can be met through the use of transparent third-generation photonic networks. These networks can be implemented using ultra-short optical pulses in conjunction with spectral-domain processing to construct links. These links are combined with transparent photonic packet switches to form the network switching fabric. The quality-of-service is guaranteed by using virtual circuit-switching.

  9. Graphene, a promising transparent conductor

    OpenAIRE

    Wassei, Jonathan K.; Kaner, Richard B.

    2010-01-01

    New electronic devices such as touch screens, flexible displays, printable electronics, solid-state lighting and thin film photovoltaics have led to a rapidly growing market for flexible transparent conductors. Standard indium tin oxide films are unlikely to satisfy future needs due to losses in conductivity on bending and the escalating cost of indium which is in limited supply. Recent advances in the synthesis and characterization of graphene indicate that it may be suitable for many electr...

  10. Pediatric Price Transparency: Still Opaque With Opportunities for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, Laura J; Wong, Charlene A; Feingold, Jordyn; Li, Joan; Town, Robert; Fieldston, Evan; Werner, Rachel M

    2017-10-01

    Price transparency is gaining importance as families' portion of health care costs rise. We describe (1) online price transparency data for pediatric care on children's hospital Web sites and state-based price transparency Web sites, and (2) the consumer experience of obtaining an out-of-pocket estimate from children's hospitals for a common procedure. From 2015 to 2016, we audited 45 children's hospital Web sites and 38 state-based price transparency Web sites, describing availability and characteristics of health care prices and personalized cost estimate tools. Using secret shopper methodology, we called children's hospitals and submitted online estimate requests posing as a self-paying family requesting an out-of-pocket estimate for a tonsillectomy-adenoidectomy. Eight children's hospital Web sites (18%) listed prices. Twelve (27%) provided personalized cost estimate tool (online form n = 5 and/or phone number n = 9). All 9 hospitals with a phone number for estimates provided the estimated patient liability for a tonsillectomy-adenoidectomy (mean $6008, range $2622-$9840). Of the remaining 36 hospitals without a dedicated price estimate phone number, 21 (58%) provided estimates (mean $7144, range $1200-$15 360). Two of 4 hospitals with online forms provided estimates. Fifteen (39%) state-based Web sites distinguished between prices for pediatric and adult care. One had a personalized cost estimate tool. Meaningful prices for pediatric care were not widely available online through children's hospital or state-based price transparency Web sites. A phone line or online form for price estimates were effective strategies for hospitals to provide out-of-pocket price information. Opportunities exist to improve pediatric price transparency. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Highly conductive interwoven carbon nanotube and silver nanowire transparent electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Stapleton, Rakesh A Afre, Amanda V Ellis, Joe G Shapter, Gunther G Andersson, Jamie S Quinton and David A Lewis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrodes fabricated using commercially available silver nanowires (AgNWs and single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs produced sheet resistances in the range 4–24 Ω squ−1 with specular transparencies up to 82 %. Increasing the aqueous dispersibility of SWCNTs decreased the bundle size present in the film resulting in improved SWCNT surface dispersion in the films without compromising transparency or sheet resistance. In addition to providing conduction pathways between the AgNW network, the SWCNTs also provide structural support, creating stable self-supporting films. Entanglement of the AgNWs and SWCNTs was demonstrated to occur in solution prior to deposition by monitoring the transverse plasmon resonance mode of the AgNWs during processing. The interwoven AgNW/SWCNT structures show potential for use in optoelectronic applications as transparent electrodes and as an ITO replacement.

  12. Fishing Access Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Vermont Fish & Wildlife Department maintains developed fishing access areas. These sites provide public access to waters in Vermont for shore fishing...

  13. An iron-catalysed C-C bond-forming spirocyclization cascade providing sustainable access to new 3D heterocyclic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kirsty; Ball, Anthony K.; Birkett, James; Brown, Lee; Chappell, Ben; Gill, Duncan M.; Lo, P. K. Tony; Patmore, Nathan J.; Rice, Craig. R.; Ryan, James; Raubo, Piotr; Sweeney, Joseph B.

    2017-04-01

    Heterocyclic architectures offer powerful creative possibilities to a range of chemistry end-users. This is particularly true of heterocycles containing a high proportion of sp3-carbon atoms, which confer precise spatial definition upon chemical probes, drug substances, chiral monomers and the like. Nonetheless, simple catalytic routes to new heterocyclic cores are infrequently reported, and methods making use of biomass-accessible starting materials are also rare. Here, we demonstrate a new method allowing rapid entry to spirocyclic bis-heterocycles, in which inexpensive iron(III) catalysts mediate a highly stereoselective C-C bond-forming cyclization cascade reaction using (2-halo)aryl ethers and amines constructed using feedstock chemicals readily available from plant sources. Fe(acac)3 mediates the deiodinative cyclization of (2-halo)aryloxy furfuranyl ethers, followed by capture of the intermediate metal species by Grignard reagents, to deliver spirocycles containing two asymmetric centres. The reactions offer potential entry to key structural motifs present in bioactive natural products.

  14. An iron-catalysed C-C bond-forming spirocyclization cascade providing sustainable access to new 3D heterocyclic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kirsty; Ball, Anthony K; Birkett, James; Brown, Lee; Chappell, Ben; Gill, Duncan M; Lo, P K Tony; Patmore, Nathan J; Rice, Craig R; Ryan, James; Raubo, Piotr; Sweeney, Joseph B

    2017-04-01

    Heterocyclic architectures offer powerful creative possibilities to a range of chemistry end-users. This is particularly true of heterocycles containing a high proportion of sp 3 -carbon atoms, which confer precise spatial definition upon chemical probes, drug substances, chiral monomers and the like. Nonetheless, simple catalytic routes to new heterocyclic cores are infrequently reported, and methods making use of biomass-accessible starting materials are also rare. Here, we demonstrate a new method allowing rapid entry to spirocyclic bis-heterocycles, in which inexpensive iron(III) catalysts mediate a highly stereoselective C-C bond-forming cyclization cascade reaction using (2-halo)aryl ethers and amines constructed using feedstock chemicals readily available from plant sources. Fe(acac) 3 mediates the deiodinative cyclization of (2-halo)aryloxy furfuranyl ethers, followed by capture of the intermediate metal species by Grignard reagents, to deliver spirocycles containing two asymmetric centres. The reactions offer potential entry to key structural motifs present in bioactive natural products.

  15. Cognitive-behavioral therapy: How medical providers can increase patient and family openness and access to evidence-based multimodal therapy for pediatric migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Michelle M.; O’Brien, Hope; Powers, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    While evidence supports the recommendation for cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for pediatric migraine, few children actually receive this evidence-based intervention. In this article we briefly review the most recent empirical evidence supporting CBT. We then identify both provider/system-related barriers as well as patient-related barriers. Finally, we provide practical solutions to addressing these barriers in the service of facilitating children receiving optimal comprehensive management of their headaches. PMID:26198185

  16. Introducing modern technology to promote transparency in health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Shafiqul

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative indicators show that Bangladeshi maternal and child healthcare is progressing satisfactorily. However, healthcare quality is still inadequate. It is hypothesised that modern technology enhances healthcare quality. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how modern technology such as electronic record keeping and the internet can contribute to enhancing Bangladeshi healthcare quality. This study also explores how socio-economic and political factors affect the healthcare quality. This paper is based on a qualitative case study involving 68 in-depth interviews with healthcare professionals, elected representatives, local informants and five focus group discussions with healthcare service users to understand technology's effect on health service quality. The study has been conducted in one rural and one urban service organisations to understand how various factors contribute differently to healthcare quality. The findings show that modern technology, such as the internet and electronic devices for record keeping, contribute significantly to enhancing health service transparency, which in turn leads to quality health and family planning services. The findings also show that information and communication technology (ICT) is an effective mechanism for reducing corruption and promoting transparency. However, resource constraints impact adversely on the introduction of technology, which leads to less transparent healthcare. Progress in education and general socio-economic conditions makes it suitable to enhance ICT usage, which could lead to healthcare transparency, but political and bureaucratic factors pose a major challenge to ensure transparency. This paper can be a useful guide for promoting governance and healthcare quality in developing countries including Bangladesh. It analyses the ICT challenges that healthcare staff face when promoting transparent healthcare. This paper provides a deeper understanding of transparency and healthcare

  17. Reconciling Intelligence Effectiveness and Transparency: The Case of Romania (Strategic Insights, Volume 6, Issue 3, May 2007)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matei, Florina C

    2007-01-01

    ...) and transparency (access to intelligence information). In general, intelligence involves secrecy, which is vital for its effectiveness, while democracy calls for openness and accountability of the intelligence system, namely working in the context...

  18. Theoretical and Practical Limits for Transparent Photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Richard

    2013-03-01

    Transparent photovoltaics (TPVs) offer a new paradigm for solar energy harvesting, integration, and deployment. These devices have recently been shown to be enabled by exploiting the excitonic nature of molecular and organic semiconductors.[1] Here, we present the theoretical and practical efficiency limits of these novel electronic architectures as a function of bandgap, transparency and aesthetic quality for both single and multi-junction cells. For example, power-production from ultraviolet and near-infrared photons alone leads to a theoretical single-junction efficiency of 21% in completely transparent structures, compared to 33% for opaque-junctions. This approach for transparent photovoltaics will be contrasted with other semi-transparent approaches, where TPVs with selective absorption offer the highest possible potential for combined transparency and efficiency. The impact of transparent PVs will be discussed for a range of applications from electronic displays to window integration.

  19. Practice Variation in Big-4 Transparency Reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Girdhar, Sakshi; Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the transparency reports published by the Big-4 public accounting firms in the UK, Germany and Denmark to understand the determinants of their content within the networks of big accounting firms. Design/methodology/approach: The study draws...... on a qualitative research approach, in which the content of transparency reports is analyzed and semi-structured interviews are conducted with key people from the Big-4 firms who are responsible for developing the transparency reports. Findings: The findings show that the content of transparency reports...... is inconsistent and the transparency reporting practice is not uniform within the Big-4 networks. Differences were found in the way in which the transparency reporting practices are coordinated globally by the respective central governing bodies of the Big-4. The content of the transparency reports...

  20. Friend or foe: exploiting sensor failures for transparent object localization and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seib, Viktor; Barthen, Andreas; Marohn, Philipp; Paulus, Dietrich

    2017-02-01

    In this work we address the problem of detecting and recognizing transparent objects using depth images from an RGB-D camera. Using this type of sensor usually prohibits the localization of transparent objects since the structured light pattern of these cameras is not reflected by transparent surfaces. Instead, transparent surfaces often appear as undefined values in the resulting images. However, these erroneous sensor readings form characteristic patterns that we exploit in the presented approach. The sensor data is fed into a deep convolutional neural network that is trained to classify and localize drinking glasses. We evaluate our approach with four different types of transparent objects. To our best knowledge, no datasets offering depth images of transparent objects exist so far. With this work we aim at closing this gap by providing our data to the public.

  1. Systematic review and evaluation of web-accessible tools for management of diabetes and related cardiovascular risk factors by patients and healthcare providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Catherine H; Bahniwal, Robinder; Laupacis, Andreas; Leung, Eman; Orr, Michael S; Straus, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    To identify and evaluate the effectiveness, clinical usefulness, sustainability, and usability of web-compatible diabetes-related tools. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, world wide web. Studies were included if they described an electronic audiovisual tool used as a means to educate patients, care givers, or clinicians about diabetes management and assessed a psychological, behavioral, or clinical outcome. Study abstraction and evaluation for clinical usefulness, sustainability, and usability were performed by two independent reviewers. Of 12,616 citations and 1541 full-text articles reviewed, 57 studies met inclusion criteria. Forty studies used experimental designs (25 randomized controlled trials, one controlled clinical trial, 14 before-after studies), and 17 used observational designs. Methodological quality and ratings for clinical usefulness and sustainability were variable, and there was a high prevalence of usability errors. Tools showed moderate but inconsistent effects on a variety of psychological and clinical outcomes including HbA1c and weight. Meta-regression of adequately reported studies (12 studies, 2731 participants) demonstrated that, although the interventions studied resulted in positive outcomes, this was not moderated by clinical usefulness nor usability. This review is limited by the number of accessible tools, exclusion of tools for mobile devices, study quality, and the use of non-validated scales. Few tools were identified that met our criteria for effectiveness, usefulness, sustainability, and usability. Priority areas include identifying strategies to minimize website attrition and enabling patients and clinicians to make informed decisions about website choice by encouraging reporting of website quality indicators.

  2. Deep mRNA sequencing of the Tritonia diomedea brain transcriptome provides access to gene homologues for neuronal excitability, synaptic transmission and peptidergic signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Senatore

    Full Text Available The sea slug Tritonia diomedea (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, has a simple and highly accessible nervous system, making it useful for studying neuronal and synaptic mechanisms underlying behavior. Although many important contributions have been made using Tritonia, until now, a lack of genetic information has impeded exploration at the molecular level.We performed Illumina sequencing of central nervous system mRNAs from Tritonia, generating 133.1 million 100 base pair, paired-end reads. De novo reconstruction of the RNA-Seq data yielded a total of 185,546 contigs, which partitioned into 123,154 non-redundant gene clusters (unigenes. BLAST comparison with RefSeq and Swiss-Prot protein databases, as well as mRNA data from other invertebrates (gastropod molluscs: Aplysia californica, Lymnaea stagnalis and Biomphalaria glabrata; cnidarian: Nematostella vectensis revealed that up to 76,292 unigenes in the Tritonia transcriptome have putative homologues in other databases, 18,246 of which are below a more stringent E-value cut-off of 1x10-6. In silico prediction of secreted proteins from the Tritonia transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA produced a database of 579 unique sequences of secreted proteins, which also exhibited markedly higher expression levels compared to other genes in the TSA.Our efforts greatly expand the availability of gene sequences available for Tritonia diomedea. We were able to extract full length protein sequences for most queried genes, including those involved in electrical excitability, synaptic vesicle release and neurotransmission, thus confirming that the transcriptome will serve as a useful tool for probing the molecular correlates of behavior in this species. We also generated a neurosecretome database that will serve as a useful tool for probing peptidergic signalling systems in the Tritonia brain.

  3. Providing Virtual Execution Environments: A Twofold Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Grehant, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Platform virtualization helps solving major grid computing challenges: share resource with flexible, user-controlled and custom execution environments and in the meanwhile, isolate failures and malicious code. Grid resource management tools will evolve to embrace support for virtual resource. We present two open source projects that transparently supply virtual execution environments. Tycoon has been developed at HP Labs to optimise resource usage in creating an economy where users bid to access virtual machines and compete for CPU cycles. SmartDomains provides a peer-to-peer layer that automates virtual machines deployment using a description language and deployment engine from HP Labs. These projects demonstrate both client-server and peer-to-peer approaches to virtual resource management. The first case makes extensive use of virtual machines features for dynamic resource allocation. The second translates virtual machines capabilities into a sophisticated language where resource management components can b...

  4. AGRIS: providing access to agricultural research data exploiting open data on the web [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/599

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Celli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AGRIS is the International System for Agricultural Science and Technology. It is supported by a large community of data providers, partners and users. AGRIS is a database that aggregates bibliographic data, and through this core data, related content across online information systems is retrieved by taking advantage of Semantic Web capabilities. AGRIS is a global public good and its vision is to be a responsive service to its user needs by facilitating contributions and feedback regarding the AGRIS core knowledgebase, AGRIS’s future and its continuous development. Periodic AGRIS e-consultations, partner meetings and user feedback are assimilated to the development of the AGRIS application and content coverage. This paper outlines the current AGRIS technical set-up, its network of partners, data providers and users as well as how AGRIS’s responsiveness to clients’ needs inspires the continuous technical development of the application. The paper concludes by providing a use case of how the AGRIS stakeholder input and the subsequent AGRIS e-consultation results influence the development of the AGRIS application, knowledgebase and service delivery.

  5. Price and quality transparency: how effective for health care reform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, John A; Li, Chia-Hsuan W

    2009-07-01

    Many in Minnesota and the United States are promoting price and quality transparency as a means for reforming health care. The assumption is that with such information, consumers and providers would be motivated to change their behavior and this would lead to lower costs and higher-quality care.This article attempts to determine the extent to which publicizing information about the cost and quality of medical care does, in fact, improve quality and lower costs, and thus should be included in any reform strategy. The authors reviewed a number of studies and concluded that there is a general lack of empirical evidence on the effect of price transparency on health care costs and that the evidence on the effectiveness of quality transparency is mixed.

  6. Discourses of transparency in the Intellectual Capital reporting debate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Madsen, Mona Toft

      Our study of the field intellectual capital reporting indicates the necessity of an emancipation from the normative understanding of transparency being merely a question of disclosing as much information as possible. Through a critical discourse analysis of the intellectual capital reporting...... debate, we identify a movement from generic reporting models to frameworks based on management defined information. The latter discourse argues that transparency is a question of providing fewer, more structured disclosures as well as focusing on illustrating flows, e.g. of intellectual capital and value...... information in business reporting, e.g. concerning intellectual capital and sustainability. This, however, has the implication that users of intellectual capital reporting may become victims of management's selected "right" information, by Strathern (2000) designated as the "tyranny of transparency"....

  7. Ranking Water Transparency of Dutch Stock-Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa H. Linneman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A growing world population, changing consumption patterns and climate change are affecting water demands, water scarcity and water quality worldwide, while at present, few companies are incorporating good water stewardship. In order to create awareness on this issue and provide an incentive for companies to improve the water performance in their operations and supply chain, a method for ranking companies based on their water transparency has been developed. The method consists of a checklist that can be completed on the basis of information from annual reports, sustainability reports and websites of companies. This is the first time a ranking of companies regarding water transparency has been carried out. Results show that there are large differences in transparency between and within sectors and that companies are reporting more about their operations than their supply chain.

  8. Price transparency for medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Mark V; Burns, Lawton R

    2008-01-01

    Hospital buyers of medical devices contract with manufacturers with market power that sell differentiated products. The medical staff strongly influences hospitals' choice of devices. Sellers have sought to limit disclosure of transaction prices. Policy-makers have proposed legislation mandating disclosure, in the interest of greater transparency. We discuss why a manufacturer might charge different prices to different hospitals, the role that secrecy plays, and the consequences of secrecy versus disclosure. We argue that hospital-physician relationships are key to understanding what manufacturers gain from price discrimination. Price disclosure can catalyze a restructuring of those relationships, which, in turn, can improve hospital bargaining.

  9. Ultraslow long-living plasmons with electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemkiewicz, D.; Słowik, K.; Zielińska-Raczyńska, S.

    2018-02-01

    We analytically examine propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at a thin metallic film between glass substrate and electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) medium. High-precision and high-resolution in frequency domain provided by EIT paves the way towards plasmonic group velocities reduction even by $4$ orders of magnitude and corresponding lifetime enhancement of SPPs up to microseconds.

  10. Business Models, transparency and efficient stock price formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Vali, Edward; Hvidberg, Rene

    The purpose of this research project has been to clarify and provide expert advice on how to create a sufficiently transparent business model. Too many companies are assessed solely on the basis of factors that have direct influence on their share price, for example changed depreciation principles...

  11. Pitfalls of Transparency: Lessons Learned from the Milford Flats Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Hartwell; D. Shafer; J. Tappen; G. McCurdy; B. Hurley; D. Farmer

    2008-01-16

    The Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) consists of a network of 29 radiation and weather monitoring stations located over a 160,000-km2 area of southern Nevada, southwestern Utah, and southeastern California. The program provides stakeholders with a hands-on role in the monitoring for airborne radioactivity that could result from ongoing or past activities on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The CEMP’s mission includes provisions for the transparency of the monitoring data as well as public accessibility to these data. This is accomplished through direct stakeholder participation, public outreach, and near real-time uploads of monitoring data to a publicly accessible web site located at http://cemp.dri.edu/. In early July 2007, a lightning strike ignited a wildfire just outside the city of Milford in southeastern Utah. This fire, named the Milford Flats Fire, grew rapidly and eventually became the largest wildfire in recorded history in the state, burning approximately 567 square miles. At about the same time, the pressurized ion chamber (PIC) located at the CEMP station in Milford began reporting average exposure rates that ranged from four to seven times normal for the area. Initially, it was believed that elevated readings could be a result of gamma-emitting radon progeny released by the fire and transported in smoke plumes. The U.S. Department of Energy issued a press release offering this as a possible first explanation, and the release received a great amount of attention, particularly in the state of Utah, where concerns were expressed that the fire could be causing re-suspension of radionuclides associated with fallout from past nuclear testing at the NTS. Subsequent analyses of particulate air filter samples obtained from the Milford station, as well as an examination of the data reported by the PIC, the timing of the incident, and diagnostic testing on the PIC, showed that the abnormal gamma readings were a result of instrument malfunction. WM

  12. Healthcare provider perceptions of the role of interprofessional care in access to and outcomes of primary care in an underserved area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shaowei; Teichman, Peter G; Latif, David; Boyd, Jennifer; Gupta, Rahul

    2018-03-01

    To meet the needs of an aging population who often have multiple chronic conditions, interprofessional care is increasingly adopted by patient-centred medical homes and Accountable Care Organisations to improve patient care coordination and decrease costs in the United States, especially in underserved areas with primary care workforce shortages. In this cross-sectional survey across multiple clinical settings in an underserved area, healthcare providers perceived overall outcomes associated with interprofessional care teams as positive. This included healthcare providers' beliefs that interprofessional care teams improved patient outcomes, increased clinic efficiency, and enhanced care coordination and patient follow-up. Teams with primary care physician available each day were perceived as better able to coordinate care and follow up with patients (p = .031), while teams that included clinical pharmacists were perceived as preventing medication-associated problems (p interprofessional care model as a useful strategy to improve various outcomes across different clinical settings in the context of a shortage of primary care physicians.

  13. Open Source Database and Website to Provide Free and Open Access to Inactive U.S. Patents in the Public Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuenyong Nilsiam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Although theoretically the patent system is meant to bolster innovation, the current United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO is cumbersome and involves a significant time investment to locate inactive patents less than 20 years old. This article reports on the development of an open source database to find these public domain ideas. First, a search strategy is explained. Then the operation and use of free and open source software are detailed to meet the needs of open hardware innovators. Finally, a case study is presented to demonstrate the utility of the approach with 3-D printing. The results showed how the Free Inactive Patent Search enables users to search using plain language text to find public domain concepts and then provides a hyperlinked list of ideas that takes users to the USPTO database for the patent for more information. All of the source code to operate the search and the website are open source themselves and provided in the public domain for free. In the case study on 3-D printing the time to identify public domain patents was cut by a factor of more than 1500. This tool has the potential for accelerating the development of open hardware technologies to create high value for the public.

  14. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  15. EXTERNAL EVALUATIONS IN LOMCE: TRANSPARENCY IN RURAL EDUCATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This document is intended to reflect on some articles of the Organic Law 2/2006 of 3 May on Education last modified by Organic Law 8/2013, of 9 December, to improve educational quality. We have selected those linked to external evaluation and transparency were discussed. In turn, the publication of Law 19/2013, of December 9, transparency, access to public information and good governance, imposes new obligations on the administrations and should result in the availability and dissemination of reports, as well as results. Both laws can promote knowledge of rural school if current approaches to external evaluation in Spain who do not usually attend rural uniqueness or do so partially. Thus they contribute to hiding the rural school or show a negative image of it because they have poorly contextualized results.

  16. Open Evaluation: A Vision for Entirely Transparent Post-Publication Peer Review and Rating for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA) is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE), the other side of the coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer-review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs). PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g., scientific societies) and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g., by H-index), and rating scales (e.g., by relevance to a decision process) in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and

  17. Transparency in nanophotonic quantum wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2009-03-28

    We have studied the quantum optics of a photonic quantum nanowire doped with an ensemble of three-level nanoparticles. The wire is made from two photonic crystals A and B. Crystal A is embedded within crystal B and acts as a photonic nanowire. It is considered that the conduction band of crystal A lies below that of crystal B. As a result, photons are confined in crystal A and are reflected from crystal B. The bound states of the confined photons are calculated using the transfer matrix method. It is found that the number of bound states in the wire depends on the size of the wire and the energy difference between the conduction band extrema of crystals A and B. The absorption coefficient of the system has also been calculated using the Schroedinger equation method. It is considered that the nanoparticles interact with the photonic bound states. Numerical simulations show that when one of the resonance energies lies near the bound state, the system becomes transparent. However, when the resonance energy lies away from the bound state the crystal reverts to an absorbing state. Similarly, when the radius of the dielectric spheres is changed the location of the transparency peak is shifted. This means that the present system can be switched between two states by changing the size of the wire and the transition energy. These findings can be used to make new types of optical devices.

  18. Organizational Transparency in the Internet Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyverbom, Mikkel

    as a panacea to concerns about privacy, organizational conduct and accountability, this paper explores the boundary work that goes into doing and promising transparency Using insights from the literature on transparency, ´sociologies of translations' and process approaches to organization, this paper captures......Reporting from an empirical investigation at Google and Facebook, this paper conceptualizes the stabilization of transparency as a form and norm conduct connecting and shaping technical, financial, cultural and political processes in the Internet industry. Rather than approach transparency...... the enactments and circulations of transparency. The paper offers a theoretical contribution to existing STS scholarship by capturing the ‘crystallization of multiple trajectories’ at work when transparency orders and standardizes organizations and their surroundings. While there is a burgeoning literature...

  19. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... narrative transparency. Central to narrative transparency is an emphasis on stake-holder dialogue and an invitation to stake-holders to play the role of auditor. This article illustrates how alternative marketing organisations engage in rhetorical tactics central to a narrative approach, to communicate...... and communications. The central contribution is identification of a narrative approach to transparency, the rhetorical techniques such an approach employs, and an explanation of why an alternative approach to transparency reporting emerges....

  20. Evidence-based medicine for all: what we can learn from a programme providing free access to an online clinical resource to health workers in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtis, Yannis K; Rosenberg, Julie; Bhandari, Sudip; Wachter, Keri; Teichman, Marie; Beauvais, Sophie; Weintraub, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly changing landscape of medical knowledge and guidelines requires health professionals to have immediate access to current, reliable clinical resources. Access to evidence is instrumental in reducing diagnostic errors and generating better health outcomes. UpToDate, a leading evidence-based clinical resource is used extensively in the USA and other regions of the world and has been linked to lower mortality and length of stay in US hospitals. In 2009, the Global Health Delivery Project collaborated with UpToDate to provide free subscriptions to qualifying health workers in resource-limited settings. We evaluated the provision of UpToDate access to health workers by analysing their usage patterns. Since 2009, ∼2000 individual physicians and healthcare institutions from 116 countries have received free access to UpToDate through our programme. During 2013-2014, users logged into UpToDate ∼150 000 times; 61% of users logged in at least weekly; users in Africa were responsible for 54% of the total usage. Search patterns reflected local epidemiology with 'clinical manifestations of malaria' as the top search in Africa, and 'management of hepatitis B' as the top search in Asia. Our programme demonstrates that there are barriers to evidence-based clinical knowledge in resource-limited settings we can help remove. Some assumed barriers to its expansion (poor internet connectivity, lack of training and infrastructure) might pose less of a burden than subscription fees.

  1. Supporting Emergency Medical Care Teams with an Integrated Status Display Providing Real-Time Access to Medical Best Practices, Workflow Tracking, and Patient Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, PoLiang; Nam, Min-Young; Choi, Jeonghwan; Kirlik, Alex; Sha, Lui; Berlin, Richard B

    2017-10-17

    The work of a hospital's medical staff is safety critical and often occurs under severe time constraints. To provide timely and effective cognitive support to medical teams working in such contexts, guidelines in the form of best practice workflows for healthcare have been developed by medical organizations. However, the high cognitive load imposed in such stressful and rapidly changing environments poses significant challenges to the medical staff or team in adhering to these workflows. In collaboration with physicians and nurses from Carle Foundation Hospital, we first studied and modeled medical team's individual responsibilities and interactions in cardiac arrest resuscitation and decomposed their overall task into a set of distinct cognitive tasks that must be specifically supported to achieve successful human-centered system design. We then developed a medical Best Practice Guidance (BPG) system for reducing medical teams' cognitive load, thus fostering real-time adherence to best practices. We evaluated the resulting system with physicians and nurses using a professional patient simulator used for medical training and certification. The evaluation results point to a reduction of cognitive load and enhanced adherence to medical best practices.

  2. Using peer advocates to improve access to services among hard-to-reach populations with hepatitis C: a qualitative study of client and provider relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Jennifer; Surey, Julian; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Stagg, Helen R; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2017-11-28

    Peer support programmes use individuals with specific experiences to improve engagement and outcomes among new clients. However, the skills and techniques used to achieve this engagement have not been mapped. This potentially restricts the development and replication of successful peer advocate models of care. This study explored how a group of peer advocates with experience of homelessness, alcohol and drug misuse made and sustained relationships with their client group. For the purposes of this project, the client group were located among a hepatitis C-positive cohort of people who have a history of injecting drug use and homelessness. Five self-selecting advocates gave a narrative interview lasting 40-90 min. These interviews were double transcribed using both thematic analysis and narrative analysis in order to triangulate the data and provide a robust set of findings about the unique skills of peer advocates in creating and sustaining relationships with clients from hard-to-reach populations. Peer advocates build rapport with clients through disclosing personal details about their lives. While this runs counter to assumptions about the need to maintain distance in client-patient relationships, the therapeutic benefits appear to outweigh the potential costs of this engagement. We conclude the therapeutic benefits of self-disclosure between peer advocates and their clients offer a moral grounding for self-disclosure as a means of building relationships with key hard-to-reach populations.

  3. Transparency and stock price volatility: european evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Elisabete F. Simões; Pinho, Joaquim Carlos da Costa

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the key determinants of the information transparency and its consequences for the market, namely in what concerns the stock price volatility, analysing the disclosure practices of two European countries. A transparency and a volatility model are applied. Based on annual reports information, we could not find any significant relationship between transparency and volatility. However, considering the quarterly reports, we find a negative relation between these variables for th...

  4. The Multi-Faceted Concept of Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Forssbæck , Jens; Oxelheim, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Transparency has become a catchword and in the economic-political debate is often seen as a universal remedy for all sorts of problems. In this paper, we analyze and discuss the meaning and use of the concept of transparency in economic research. We look for common denominators across different areas where the concept is used, and find that transparency in essence is about reductions in information asymmetries, and therefore entails the transfer of information from a sender to a receiver. Tra...

  5. Analysis of normal and transparent silver Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, W. K.; Galuska, A. A.; Uht, J.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of Inconel/silver/Teflon exposed to solar radiation, and atomic oxygen on Solar Max were microcharacterized. Those samples exposed to atomic oxygen from the metallic side had become transparent while those exposed from the Teflon side remained reflective. The difference between the transparent and non-transparent material was determined. Microcharacterization of these Inconel/silver/Teflon samples was performed using scanning electron microscopy with windowless energy dispersive X ray analysis, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  6. Transparency as a Platform for Institutional Politics: The Case of the Council of the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Hillebrandt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The question of transparency is widely regarded as a thermometer of the relation between the Council of the EU and the public at large. Relatively little attention however has been devoted to the implications of transparency (i.e., access for the general public for inter-institutional information politics, even when the limited evidence suggests that the connection is considerable. This article asks how EU actors use Council transparency as a platform and for what reason. It approaches transparency as a policy that is developed in three arenas: the internal, the external political, and the external judicial arena. The article finds strong evidence in support of the view that the Council’s transparency policy played a central role in EU institutions’ attempt to advance their information ambitions. By strongly engaging with the issue of transparency particularly the European Parliament and its members succeeded at expanding their institutional information basis in an area where their political grip was traditionally at its weakest: the Foreign Affairs Council. Acting in turn as a bargaining chip, a political lever, or an alternative to institutional information, the Foreign Affairs Council’s transparency policy was thus clearly used to advance information agendas of oversight and legislative prerogatives.

  7. Transparency in Food Networks ‐ Where to Go

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Schiefer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the core requests in assuring competitiveness and sustainability in the food value chain is transparency. Food is a basic human need and as such of paramount interest to consumers. They expect retail to provide guarantees assuring that food is safe to eat and of the quality they request. Increasingly,interests of consumers reach beyond these basic needs but involve environmental or ethical aspects related to the production and distribution of food. The provision of the guarantees is communicated to consumers through claims that are expressed in messages (‘food is safe’, signals (‘food miles’, labels of various kind, or just clusters of information items (as e.g. ‘origin’. Appropriate communication provides transparency to consumers and allowed them to ‘make informed decisions’ that fit their needs.The complexity of the sector, the absence of focal players in the field, the complexity in the collection, processing and communication of information, and limitations in information and network technology have made it difficult to find concepts and solutions that could solve the transparency problem at consumers’ end. This is where the Future Internet provides opportunities that allowed to meet the challenge and to appropriately address the transparency problem.This paper introduces into the subject through a detailed outline of the transparency complexity of the food sector and the requirements on concepts and systems that could deal with it. This is followed by a presentation and discussion of a suitable concept, building on network elements of the Future Internet.The concept is based on a range of generic functionalities and system components that provide stability but also assure that the concept could easily be adapted to a broad range of sector scenarios in different product lines and food value chain organizations.

  8. Transparency, Trust and Security: An Evaluation of the Insurer's Precontractual Duties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleen Millard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Transparency in insurance law attaches to the rights and duties of the parties, the relationships between insurers, insurance intermediaries such as agents and brokers, insurance supervisory law and insurance dispute resolution procedures. Regarding the rights and duties of the insurer and the prospective policyholder, it requires insurers to disclose precontractual information in a timely manner that is clear, understandable, legible and unambiguous. Transparency as a value is incredibly important in insurance contracts. This contribution focuses exclusively on the insurer's duty of disclosure during precontractual negotiations. Although the insured's duty of disclosure has enjoyed more attention in the past, the duty clearly applies to the insurance proposer as well as the insurer. The purpose of this contribution is to evaluate the nature and extent of the insurer's transparency duties as informed by both common and statutory laws. The insurer's duty is derived primarily from the statutory rights of access to information in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and the Promotion of Access to Information Act. It is furthermore supported by specific insurance consumer protection law found in the detailed provisions on mandatory disclosures in the Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act, the Long-term Insurance Act, the Short-term Insurance Act and, finally, the Policyholder Protection Rules issued in accordance with these acts. Strict rules on advertising can be found in the General Code of Conduct issued under the FAIS Act. The Act furthermore specifically targets the activities of insurance intermediaries in precontractual disclosures. The fact that insurance products and services have been exempted from the scope of the Consumer Protection Act from 28 February 2014 should not diminish the insured's right to rely on universal consumer protection principles as envisaged by South African

  9. Pursuing transparency through science courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, Thomas G. Jr. [Franklin Pierce Law Center, Concord, NH (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Many, disappointed with traditional ways to assess and manage health, safety and environmental risks, have sought alternatives that might better serve democratic values and truth. Arthur Kantrowitz proposed one in 1967. Named the 'Science Court' by the media, it sought to air opposing viewpoints publicly before an independent, neutral and technically competent panel of scientists. The idea has received considerable attention over the years, but some see it as too opaque and elitist. Ironically, others may view it as too transparent. Beyond that, as proposed it might have been too time-consuming and expensive, and few scientists would have welcomed a suggestion for cross-examination. Yet, its key features still offer promise for resolving difficult policy disputes and might be usefully integrated with notions since leading to the creation and endorsement of advisory science boards.

  10. Orthographic Transparency Enhances Morphological Segmentation in Children Reading Hebrew Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurice Haddad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological processing of derived words develops simultaneously with reading acquisition. However, the reader’s engagement in morphological segmentation may depend on the language morphological richness and orthographic transparency, and the readers’ reading skills. The current study tested the common idea that morphological segmentation is enhanced in non-transparent orthographies to compensate for the absence of phonological information. Hebrew’s rich morphology and the dual version of the Hebrew script (with and without diacritic marks provides an opportunity to study the interaction of orthographic transparency and morphological segmentation on the development of reading skills in a within-language design. Hebrew speaking 2nd (N = 27 and 5th (N = 29 grade children read aloud 96 noun words. Half of the words were simple mono-morphemic words and half were bi-morphemic derivations composed of a productive root and a morphemic pattern. In each list half of the words were presented in the transparent version of the script (with diacritic marks, and half in the non-transparent version (without diacritic marks. Our results show that in both groups, derived bi-morphemic words were identified more accurately than mono-morphemic words, but only for the transparent, pointed, script. For the un-pointed script the reverse was found, namely, that bi-morphemic words were read less accurately than mono-morphemic words, especially in second grade. Second grade children also read mono-morphemic words faster than bi-morphemic words. Finally, correlations with a standardized measure of morphological awareness were found only for second grade children, and only in bi-morphemic words. These results, showing greater morphological effects in second grade compared to fifth grade children suggest that for children raised in a language with a rich morphology, common and easily segmented morphemic units may be more beneficial for younger compared to older

  11. Transparency, Prices and Welfare with Imperfect Substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Potters, J.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Markets that are not completely transparent feature complex comparative statics with respect to the effect of number of firms, elasticity of substitution between goods and degree of transparency on equilibrium prices.The main result is that the following 'common wisdom' is incorrect: more

  12. Transparency in netchains : evaluation and perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, G.J.; Schepers, H.E.; Trienekens, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper was written for KLICT to evaluate the focus area Transparency in Netchains. It revisits the definitions and research agenda in the review paper with which the focal area started (Hofstede 2002). The definition of transparency has turned out to serve its purpose. The research has

  13. Organizational transparency as myth and metaphor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, L.T.; Cornelissen, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency has achieved a mythical status in society. Myths are not false accounts or understandings, but deep-seated and definitive descriptions of the world that ontologically ground the ways in which we frame and see the world around us. We explore the mythical nature of transparency from this

  14. A new method for obtaining transparent electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Song, Zhengyong

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we propose a simple scheme to make a metallic film on a semi-infinite substrate optically transparent, thus obtaining a completely transparent electrode in a desired frequency range. By placing a composite layer consisting of dielectric and metallic stripes on top of the metallic...

  15. Single side Emitting Transparent OLED lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lifka, H.; Verschuren, C.A.; Bruls, D.M.; Tanase, C.

    2011-01-01

    Transparent OLEDs offer great potential for novel applications. Preferably, the light should be emitted from one side only. This can bedone to some extent by modifying electrode thicknesses, but at the cost of reduced transparency. Here, we demonstrate a new approach tomake single side emissive

  16. Transparency, price-dependent demand and product variety

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Yiquan; Wenzel, Tobias

    2010-01-01

    This paper revisits the relationship between transparency on the consumer side and product variety as analyzed in Schultz (2009). We identify two welfare effects of transparency. More transparency decreases price-cost margins which is beneficial forwelfare. On the other hand, more transparency reduces variety which can be positive or negative for welfare. Overall, more transparency is always welfareimproving.

  17. Tunable Broadband Printed Carbon Transparent Conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yue; Wan, Jiayu

    Transparent conductors have been widely applied in solar cells, transparent smart skins, and sensing/imaging antennas, etc. Carbon-based transparent conductor has attracted great attention for its low cost and broad range transparency. Ion intercalation has been known to highly dope graphitic materials, thereby tuning materials' optoelectronic properties. For the first time, we successfully tune the optical transmittance of a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/CNT network from mid-IR range to visible range by means of Li-ion intercalation/deintercalation. We also observed a simultaneous increase of the electrical conductivity with the Li-ion intercalation. This printed carbon hybrid thin film was prepared through all solution processes and was easily scalable. This study demonstrates the possibility of using ion intercalation for low cost, tunable broadband transparent conductors.

  18. Price differentiation and transparency in the global pharmaceutical marketplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, David B

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers have increased the availability of their products and sometimes increased their own financial returns by charging lower prices outside of the US and by discounting to lower-income patients in the US. Examples include discounted HIV-AIDS drugs in developing countries and pharmaceutical manufacturers' discount cards in the US. Representatives of some international organisations argue that the price reductions are insufficient to make the medications widely available to lower-income patients. The WHO advocates both differential pricing and price transparency. While its efforts are well meaning, this paper identifies six concerns about its methods of comparing the price of a given molecule across manufacturers and across countries. More significantly, the WHO efforts to increase transparency are likely to lead to less price differentiation and less access to innovative pharmaceuticals. An important reason why manufacturers are reluctant to charge lower prices in lower-income countries is that they fear that such low prices will undermine the prices they charge to higher-income consumers. International organisations should not facilitate transparency but should dissuade governments from making price comparisons and basing their prices on those of lower-income countries. Furthermore, they should endeavour to keep low-priced and free drugs in the hands of the low-income consumers for which they were intended.

  19. Transparency in risk communication: graphical and analog tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz-Milcke, Elke; Gigerenzer, Gerd; Martignon, Laura

    2008-04-01

    Why is it that the public can read and write but only a few understand statistical information? Why are elementary distinctions, such as that between absolute and relative risks, not better known? In the absence of statistical literacy, key democratic ideals, such as informed consent and shared decision making in health care, will remain science fiction. In this chapter, we deal with tools for transparency in risk communication. The focus is on graphical and analog representations of risk. Analog representations use a separate icon or sign for each individual in a population. Like numerical representations, some graphical forms are transparent, whereas others indiscernibly mislead the reader. We review cases of (1) tree diagrams for representing natural versus relative frequency, (2) decision trees for the representation of fast and frugal decision making, (3) bar graphs for representing absolute versus relative risk, (4) population diagrams for the analog representation of risk, and (5) a format of representation that employs colored tinker cubes for the encoding of information about individuals in a population. Graphs have long enjoyed the status of being "worth a thousand words" and hence of being more readily accessible to human understanding than long-winded symbolic representations. This is both true and false. Graphical tools can be just as well employed for transparent and nontransparent risk communications.

  20. All-dielectric resonant cavity-enabled metals with broadband optical transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengqi; Zhang, Houjiao; Liu, Xiaoshan; Pan, Pingping; Liu, Yi; Tang, Li; Liu, Guiqiang

    2017-06-01

    Metal films with broadband optical transparency are desirable in many optoelectronic devices, such as displays, smart windows, light-emitting diodes and infrared detectors. As bare metal is opaque to light, this issue of transparency attracts great scientific interest. In this work, we proposed and demonstrated a feasible and universal approach for achieving broadband optical transparent (BOT) metals by utilizing all-dielectric resonant cavities. Resonant dielectrics provide optical cavity modes and couple strongly with the surface plasmons of the metal film, and therefore produce a broadband near-unity optical transparent window. The relative enhancement factor (EF) of light transmission exceeds 3400% in comparison with that of pure metal film. Moreover, the transparent metal motif can be realized by other common metals including gold (Au), silver (Ag) and copper (Cu). These optical features together with the fully retained electric and mechanical properties of a natural metal suggest that it will have wide applications in optoelectronic devices.

  1. EDITORIAL: On display with transparent conducting films On display with transparent conducting films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-03-01

    the sheet resistance of HNO3 treated carbon-nanotube films than the removal of residual N-methylpyrrolidone. Unsurprisingly graphene, the latest carbon wonder material, has also shown remarkable potential as a transparent conducting film. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) synthesis of graphene has the advantage that it allows fabrication of the sheets to be scaled up. A collaboration of researchers in the USA, Singapore and Korea demonstrated that the conductivity of CVD graphene sheets can be improved by p-doping with AuCl3 [9]. The potential of graphene in a range of applications is also being demonstrated, as researchers in Australia and China show in a report on graphene in transparent conducting electrodes for GaN LED devices [10]. The review in this issue [4] provides a comprehensive overview of graphene as an electrode, including the synthesis, chemical doping and work function engineering of the material, as well as applications in transistors, memories, molecular junctions, touch screens, LCDs, LEDs and solar cells. Back in the early 1950s Gillham and Preston saw the possibility of using their gold sputtered bismuth oxide films for windows that could be electrically heated and took out a patent on their discovery [11]. While they saw potential applications for conducting transparent films, it could be argued that even Gillham and Preston would have been surprised at the extent to which transparent conducting films have infiltrated everyday technology over the 60 years since. It is tempting to wonder what wide reaching ramifications the current fruitful activity in graphene device research may have in the decades to come. References [1] Ayrton W E and Mather T 1894 J. Int. Elec. Eng. 23 376-80 [2] Gillham E J and Preston J S 1952 Proc. Phys. Soc. B 65 649 [3] Ishiguro K, Sasaki T, Arai T and Imai I 1958 J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 13 296-304 [4] Jo G, Choe M, Lee S, Park W, Kahng Y H and Lee T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 112001 [5] Guo P and Aegerter M A 1999 Thin Solid

  2. Chemical Design and Example of Transparent Bipolar Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Iimura, Soshi; Kim, Junghwan; Toda, Yoshitake; Ueda, Shigenori; Hosono, Hideo

    2017-11-29

    Transparent bipolar semiconductors (TBSCs) are in demand for transparent electronics to serve as the basis for next generation optoelectronic devices. However, the poor carrier controllability in wide-bandgap materials makes the realization of a bipolar nature difficult. Only two materials, CuInO2 and SnO, have been reported as TBSCs. To satisfy demand for the coexistence of transparency and bipolarity, we propose a design concept with three strategies; choice of early transition metals (eTM) such as Y3+ and Zr4+ for improving controllability of carrier doping, design of chemical bonds to obtain an appropriate band structure for bipolar doping, and use of a forbidden band-edge transition to retain transparency. This approach is verified through a practical examination of a candidate material, tetragonal ZrOS, which is chosen by following the criteria. ZrOS exhibits an excellent controllability of the electrical conductivity (10-7-10-2 S cm-1), p- or n-type nature with ∼10-2 S cm-1 by Y or F doping, respectively, and optically wide gap (below 10-4 cm-1 up to ∼2.5 eV). This concept provides a new kind of TBSC based on eTM ionic compounds.

  3. Morphology of atmospheric transparent inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Frank D.; Peterson, William A.; Hines, John R.; Drexler, James J.; Soules, David B.; Waldie, Arthur H.; Qualtrough, John A.

    1990-09-01

    Observations are presented displaying the evolution of transparent inhomogeneities in the natural atmosphere. All results are for horizontal paths in the first few meters above ground level. Measurements were taken using both a schlieren optical system capable of sensing fine scale gradients of refractive index and an optical system sensing the fine structure of intensity scintillation over various path lengths. Laser sources were utilized for both systems, and a full description of the two optical systems is included. The schlieren system employs two high quality 10-in-diameter mirrors to produce the illuminated working section. Trade-offs between this and other schlieren optical system configurations are discussed. The intensity scintillation measurements were taken with a collimated laser beam projected on a target board. System characteristics including the CCD camera, sampled frame rates, exposure times, and data processing are discussed. The central problem addressed in this study is to identify the conditions when G. Taylor's "frozen turbulence" hypothesis is justified. The optically derived results are compared to results from previous studies using tower, aircraft, and tethered balloon measurements. Analyses presented include histograms, three-dimensional displays, contour maps of features, and frame subtraction schemes. Simultaneous measurements of integrated path and point measurements of the refractive index structure parameter (Cn2), and wind , are included in the results.

  4. Higher Education Standards Panel: Consultation on the Transparency of Higher Education Admissions Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This document is the result of the Australian Minister for Education and Training's request to the Higher Education Standards Panel for advisement of options to improve the transparency of higher education student admission policies, while minimizing regulatory impact. The Minister intends to improve the accessibility and comparability of…

  5. Relationship between Trustworthiness, Transparency, and Security in Cloud Computing Environments: A Regression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The insider security threat causes new and dangerous dimensions in cloud computing. Those internal threats are originated from contractors or the business partners' input that have access to the systems. A study of trustworthiness and transparency might assist the organizations to monitor employees' activity more cautiously on cloud technologies…

  6. A peripherally inserted central catheter line, inserted the day before surgery, decreases the time from induction to incision for spinal deformity surgery and safely provides central venous access during surgery: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuedemann, Anne E; Schwend, Richard M; Thomas, Valorie K; Leamon, Julia M; Lightner, Tammy S

    2018-03-01

    Pediatric patients undergoing surgery for spinal deformity may benefit from central venous access to provide intraoperative monitoring and fluid resuscitation. For pediatric surgical patients requiring central access, we hypothesized that placing a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line preoperatively should decrease time from induction of anesthesia to incision and result in improved patient safety and decreased operating room charges. This was a retrospective, nonrandomized, and case comparison study. Clinical records of all children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis or neuromuscular scoliosis treated surgically by the senior author between December 2007 and April 2012 were reviewed. Control group patients had a central venous catheter (CVC) placed by the anesthesiologist after induction of anesthesia. The trial group had a PICC placed under local anesthesia the day before surgery by an experienced vascular access team. The time from induction of anesthesia to the time for the surgical incision was determined for each study group. The CVC line placement charges were determined by the operating room time charges at $214/min. Charges saved were the mean time difference multiplied by the operating room time charge, less the charge for PICC line insertion ($1282). There were 29 neuromuscular patients, the mean age was 13 years (SD: 4 years). The mean time from induction to incision for the PICC group was 91 min [95% confidence interval (CI): 67-115 min] and for the CVC group 113 min (95% CI: 99-127 min, P=0.083). For this mean time difference of 22 min, the estimated cost savings would be $3426 per patient. There were 59 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, the mean age was 14 years (SD: 2 years). The mean time from induction to incision for the PICC group was 78 min (95% CI: 74-82 min) and for the CVC group 106 min (95% CI: 96-116  min, P≤0.001). For this mean time difference of 28 min, the estimated cost savings would

  7. The Wisdom of the People: a Framework for Transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo, Raul [Univ. of Lincolnshire and Humberside (United Kingdom). Lincoln School of Management

    2001-07-01

    This contribution is an extension of work done in the context of the RISCOM Project. Its aim is elaborating communications requirements between citizens, experts and politicians in order to increase the transparency of decision processes. In RISCOM transparency was defined in the following terms: In a given policy area, transparency is the outcome of an ongoing process which increases the stakeholders' appreciation of related issues and provides them with channels to stretch the implementer to meet their requirements for technical explanations, proof of authenticity, and legitimacy of actions. Transparency requires a regulator to act as guardian of process integrity. This definition was tentatively applied to the Swedish Nuclear System, with particular emphasis in nuclear waste management. This paper elaborates further some of the components of the above definition, in particular it explores the factors which influence the boundary judgments for the policy area under consideration, the resources and communications required to increase the stakeholders' appreciation of this policy area, the design of channel capacity to stretch the implementer and the resources and organisational processes required to increase the quality of the interactions between experts and policy makers. Underpinning all the above elaborations is the consideration that transparency requires resources to support the self-regulation and self-organisation of stakeholders and experts in a context that clarifies and enforces the ethical concerns of society. In this paper I first discuss a set of key concepts that are used to elaborate the idea of transparency. Next I discuss the idea of a policy issue as an organisation involved in the social articulation of its meanings. In particular 1 explore means to influence the boundaries of these meanings based on wide social debates rather than exclusively on expert debates. The argument is grounded in the need to bootstrap the production of these

  8. Fiscal Transparency and Procyclical Fiscal Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    This paper examines why fiscal policy is procyclical in developing as well as developed countries. We introduce the concept of fiscal transparency into a model of retrospective voting, in which a political agency problem between voters and politicians generates a procyclical bias in government...... spending. The introduction of fiscal transparency generates two new predictions: 1) the procyclical bias in fiscal policy arises only in good times; and 2) a higher degree of fiscal transparency reduces the bias in good times. We find solid empirical support for both predictions using data on both OECD...

  9. Fiscal Transparency, Elections and Public Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable variation in levels and changes in public employment within and between developed democracies. This article highlights the importance of fiscal transparency in determining changes in public employment. It argues that economic growth increases public employment under low fiscal...... transparency and that this effect is strongest in years of election. These hypotheses are tested on a panel of 20 OECD countries from 1995 to 2010. The analyses show substantial evidence in favor of the arguments. Fiscal transparency lowers the positive effect of growth on public employment, a relationship...

  10. Supporting the development of transparent interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bertelsen, Olav Wedege

    1995-01-01

    Transparency has been seen as a necessary aspect of successful human-computer interaction. In this paper we investigate this concept by looking at it from the point of view of activity theory. We show that transparency cannot be understood as a static feature of the interface, but that the crucial...... point in achieving transparent interaction is the ongoing development of unconscious operations, embedded in the process of use. We suggest that the process of deliberate formation and refinement of operations during the course of interaction, is supported by setting conditions for the creation...

  11. Transparent Analogs for Alloy Phase Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Smith, James E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Report describes experiments to add information to data base supporting use of transparent, partially miscible liquids and solids as analogs in studies of alloy solidification. Behavior of these materials observed directly while they undergo liquid/liquid and liquid/solid phase transformations. Light-scattering techniques used to determine phase boundaries. Transparent analogs allow observation of both solidification patterns and processes leading to those patterns, whereas metal alloys require tedious post-solidification metallographic analyses because processes not generally observed. Experiments with transparent substances safer and cheaper since conducted at much lower temperatures.

  12. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  13. Optimal Degrees of Transparency in Monetary Policymaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik

    2002-01-01

    According to most academics and policymakers, transparency in monetary policymaking is desirable. I examine this proposition in a small theoretical model emphasizing forward-looking private sector behavior. Transparency makes it easier for price setters to infer the central bank's future policy...... intentions, thereby making current inflation more responsive to policy actions. This induces the central bank to pay more attention to inflation rather than output gap stabilization. Then, transparency may be disadvantageous. It may actually be a policy-distorting straitjacket if the central bank enjoys low...

  14. Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act frequently asked questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    One stop shop for Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) questions. This frequently asked document will assist with Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act (FFATA) related questions.

  15. When open data is a Trojan Horse: The weaponization of transparency in science and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen EC Levy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Openness and transparency are becoming hallmarks of responsible data practice in science and governance. Concerns about data falsification, erroneous analysis, and misleading presentation of research results have recently strengthened the call for new procedures that ensure public accountability for data-driven decisions. Though we generally count ourselves in favor of increased transparency in data practice, this Commentary highlights a caveat. We suggest that legislative efforts that invoke the language of data transparency can sometimes function as “Trojan Horses” through which other political goals are pursued. Framing these maneuvers in the language of transparency can be strategic, because approaches that emphasize open access to data carry tremendous appeal, particularly in current political and technological contexts. We illustrate our argument through two examples of pro-transparency policy efforts, one historical and one current: industry-backed “sound science” initiatives in the 1990s, and contemporary legislative efforts to open environmental data to public inspection. Rules that exist mainly to impede science-based policy processes weaponize the concept of data transparency. The discussion illustrates that, much as Big Data itself requires critical assessment, the processes and principles that attend it—like transparency—also carry political valence, and, as such, warrant careful analysis.

  16. ZB MED – Open-Access-Publikationsspezialist für die Lebenswissenschaften

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arning, Ursula

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PUBLISSO – the portal for open access publishing by ZB MED – Leibniz Information Centre for Life Sciences actively shapes the digital change by promoting a free and transparent culture in science. The publication of journal articles, contributions to (teaching books and research data goes along with advice and scientific quality assurance by peer reviews. By the allocation of persistent identifiers publications become long-term accessible and citable. Furthermore new formats such as the preparation for text and data mining will be provided.

  17. Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid: towards transparent metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llabres-Campaner, P J; Pitarch-Jarque, J; Ballesteros-Garrido, R; Abarca, B; Ballesteros, R; García-España, E

    2017-06-13

    The preparation of transparent porous materials can offer a different access towards the study of molecules under solid confined space. Metal-organic frameworks represent a unique opportunity due to their tunable pore size, however aromatic linkers present strong absorption and reduce the transparency. Herein, we report the first example of a MOF with bicyclic organic dicarboxylic linkers and its use as a solid solvent.

  18. Optical quantum memory based on electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lijun; Slattery, Oliver; Tang, Xiao

    2017-04-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is a promising approach to implement quantum memory in quantum communication and quantum computing applications. In this paper, following a brief overview of the main approaches to quantum memory, we provide details of the physical principle and theory of quantum memory based specifically on EIT. We discuss the key technologies for implementing quantum memory based on EIT and review important milestones, from the first experimental demonstration to current applications in quantum information systems.

  19. Transparency and Legitimacy in Chinese Criminal Procedure : Beyond Adversarial Dogmas

    OpenAIRE

    S. Zhang

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the legitimacy of China's criminal justice system has been increasingly challenged by the Chinese populace, in part due to the numerous exposed miscarriages of justice. The Chinese academic mainstream as well as the political and judicial authorities have looked towards the classical Anglo-American model of an adversarial criminal justice system to solve this problem. Reforms were subsequently introduced to add weight to court sessions and to provide external transparency of ...

  20. Lifting the Veil: The Benefits of Cost Transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, Bhavya; Buell, Ryan Williams; John, Leslie Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    A firm’s costs are typically tightly-guarded secrets. However, across a field study and six laboratory experiments we identify when and why firms benefit from revealing unit cost information to consumers. A natural field experiment conducted with an online retailer suggests that cost transparency boosts sales. Six subsequent controlled lab experiments replicate this basic effect (Studies 2-6) and provide evidence for why it occurs: just as interpersonal disclosure of intimate information incr...

  1. Transparent, reproducible and reusable research in pharmacoepidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardarsdottir, Helga; Sauer, Brian C.; Liang, Huifang; Ryan, Patrick; Klungel, Olaf; Reynolds, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological research has been criticized as being unreliable. Scientific evidence is strengthened when the study procedures of important findings are transparent, open for review, and easily reproduced by different investigators and in various settings. Studies often have common

  2. Graphene oxide-based transparent conductive films

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zheng, Qingbin; Li, Zhigang; Yang, Junhe; Kim, Jang-Kyo

    2014-01-01

    .... Because of its excellent electrical conductivity, optical transparency and mechanical properties, graphene has been considered an ideal material to replace the existing, expensive indium tin oxide (ITO) as TCFs. Graphene oxide (GO...

  3. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, H. Peter; Overgaard, Per Baltzer

    Economic literature often offers conflicting views on the likely efficiency effects of information exchanges, communication between firms, and market transparency. On the one hand, it is argued that increased information dissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including...

  4. Transparent compact ceramics: Inherent physical issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krell, A.; Klimke, J.; Hutzler, T.

    2009-06-01

    The overview focuses on inherent optical properties, governed by composition and the state of the crystal lattice, and on the interference of these properties with the microstructural optimization of transparent ceramics (e.g. the dependence of the tolerable pore size or grain size on the refractive index). Starting with the general difference between the dispersive performances n( λ) of glasses and transparent ceramics, examples will demonstrate the use of compositional changes for tuning the relationship of index, Abbé number, and anomalous dispersion. Perowskites and cubic zirconia are known candidates for such developments, but their mechanical strength is low. Therefore, physical conditions are investigated for bringing translucent tetragonal ZrO 2 to transparency. Another field of increasing interest is transparency at extreme wave lengths affected by point defects, associated absorption and scattering mechanisms.

  5. Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning, Transparency and Relationship Building: Ethiopian Women Parliamentarians and Young Female University Students. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are ...

  6. Broadband plasmon induced transparency in terahertz metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Zhihua

    2013-04-25

    Plasmon induced transparency (PIT) could be realized in metamaterials via interference between different resonance modes. Within the sharp transparency window, the high dispersion of the medium may lead to remarkable slow light phenomena and an enhanced nonlinear effect. However, the transparency mode is normally localized in a narrow frequency band, which thus restricts many of its applications. Here we present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a broadband PIT metamaterial functioning in the terahertz regime. By integrating four U-shape resonators around a central bar resonator, a broad transparency window across a frequency range greater than 0.40 THz is obtained, with a central resonance frequency located at 1.01 THz. Such PIT metamaterials are promising candidates for designing slow light devices, highly sensitive sensors, and nonlinear elements operating over a broad frequency range. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  7. Coloured Rings Produced on Transparent Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Wilfried; Schlichting, H. Joachim

    2007-01-01

    Beautiful colored interference rings can be produced by using transparent plates such as window glass. A simple model explains this effect, which was described by Newton but has almost been forgotten. (Contains 11 figures.)

  8. Transparent soil for imaging the rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Downie

    Full Text Available Understanding of soil processes is essential for addressing the global issues of food security, disease transmission and climate change. However, techniques for observing soil biology are lacking. We present a heterogeneous, porous, transparent substrate for in situ 3D imaging of living plants and root-associated microorganisms using particles of the transparent polymer, Nafion, and a solution with matching optical properties. Minerals and fluorescent dyes were adsorbed onto the Nafion particles for nutrient supply and imaging of pore size and geometry. Plant growth in transparent soil was similar to that in soil. We imaged colonization of lettuce roots by the human bacterial pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 showing micro-colony development. Micro-colonies may contribute to bacterial survival in soil. Transparent soil has applications in root biology, crop genetics and soil microbiology.

  9. Transparent graphene microstrip filters for wireless communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinchen; Guan, Yifei; Yu, Hua; Li, Na; Wang, Shuopei; Shen, Cheng; Dai, Zhijiang; Gan, Decheng; Yang, Rong; He, Songbai; Zhang, Guangyu

    2017-08-01

    A microstrip is an indispensable component for wireless communication circuits. With the development of 5G technology, optically transparent microstrip filters urgently need to be developed. In this work, we have theoretically and experimentally demonstrated the immense potential of graphene microstrips for transparent wireless communication circuits in the 5G era. Both wideband and dual-band transparent graphene microstrip filters have shown more than 80% optical transmissivity in the region from 250 nm to 2000 nm with good frequency responses. S and C band microwave signals can transmit along the graphene microstrip lines effectively while coupling excitations produce relatively large insertion losses. Our results show that transparent microstrips designed with high-quality graphene will largely scale down the size of the wireless devices and thus play an irreplaceable role in the 5G era.

  10. The Principle of Transparency of the Sign and the Problem of Cognitive Mediation and Epistemological Immediatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Dębowski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. In the first part (I three different formulations of the principle of the transparency of the sign are described. In the first description (E. Husserl it is said that the sign in a proper sense (both an iconic and conventional one is transparent for its denotations. In the second description (A. Schaff only the transparence of its meaning is admitted. As far as the third description is concerned (L. Koj conviction, that every sign is transparent both for a signed object and its meaning, is typical. In the second part of the article (II we consider relationship between the principle of the transparency of the sign and traditional distinction between “transparent” and “opaque” cognitive mediator – distinction between medium quo and medium quod . The main conclusion of this article is included in a thesis that linguistic cognition and significative cognition – because it isn’t a direct cognition in the sense of primary directness (perceptive – isn’t able to guarantee a source of access to a cognized object, so it is not a direct cognition in a proper sense. It means that the transparency of the sign, when it appears in the face of its denotations (E. Husserl’s interpretations a sign or a system of signs are not able to function as a transparent mediator, i e medium quo . It is like that because – as E. Husserl noticed – the sign (due to its transparency indeed shows us its denotations, but always through the mediation of its meaning and some significative intention. 

  11. Mosaic Transparent Armor System Final Report CRADA No. TC02162.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Breslin, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This was a collaborative effort between Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC as manager and operator of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and The Protective Group, Inc. (TPG) to improve the performance of the mosaic transparent armor system (MTAS) for transparent armor applications, military and civilian. LLNL was to provide the unique MTAS technology and designs to TPG for innovative construction and ballistic testing of improvements needed for current and near future application of the armor windows on vehicles and aircraft. The goal of the project was to advance the technology of MTAS to the point that these mosaic transparent windows would be introduced and commercially manufactured for military vehicles and aircraft.

  12. Phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency in integrated metal-dielectric-graphene-dielectric waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin-Tao; Lin, Qi; Zhai, Xiang; Su, Yi; Liang, Mei-Zhen; Liang, Mei-Zhu; Wang, Ling-Ling

    2017-10-01

    We theoretically and numerically investigate the phase-coupled plasmon-induced transparency effect in graphene plasmonic systems that consist of multiple cascade graphene nanoribbon resonators side-coupled to the bus waveguide. The formation of a transparency window is attributed to the superposition of the detuned resonances in graphene nanoribbons. The gap width between the metal and the graphene provides a new degree of freedom for controlling the round-trip phase accumulated in the bus waveguide, which determines the evolution of the transparency window in terms of intensity and symmetry. Our ultracompact configuration can realize slow light with group indices over 250 as well as retain high transmission intensity.

  13. Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Heo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose an initially transparent light shutter using polymer-networked liquid crystals with crossed patterned electrodes. The proposed light shutter is switchable between the transparent and opaque states, and it exhibits a fast response time and a low operating voltage. In the transparent state, the light shutter has high transmittance; in the opaque state, it can block the background image and provides black color. We expect that the proposed light shutter can be applied to see-through displays and smart windows.

  14. Transparency benchmarking on audio watermarks and steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraetzer, Christian; Dittmann, Jana; Lang, Andreas

    2006-02-01

    The evaluation of transparency plays an important role in the context of watermarking and steganography algorithms. This paper introduces a general definition of the term transparency in the context of steganography, digital watermarking and attack based evaluation of digital watermarking algorithms. For this purpose the term transparency is first considered individually for each of the three application fields (steganography, digital watermarking and watermarking algorithm evaluation). From the three results a general definition for the overall context is derived in a second step. The relevance and applicability of the definition given is evaluated in practise using existing audio watermarking and steganography algorithms (which work in time, frequency and wavelet domain) as well as an attack based evaluation suite for audio watermarking benchmarking - StirMark for Audio (SMBA). For this purpose selected attacks from the SMBA suite are modified by adding transparency enhancing measures using a psychoacoustic model. The transparency and robustness of the evaluated audio watermarking algorithms by using the original and modifid attacks are compared. The results of this paper show hat transparency benchmarking will lead to new information regarding the algorithms under observation and their usage. This information can result in concrete recommendations for modification, like the ones resulting from the tests performed here.

  15. Ephemeral Transparency: Glass as a Reflective Screen and Opaque Veil in the New National Gallery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Balik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the dilemma between intentions and outcomes, based on the transparency debate that has recently resurfaced, by undertaking a critical reading of essential architectural history texts. Using the New National Gallery by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, in Berlin, as the central focus, it argues that, in reality, transparent buildings do not always allow clear vision, free flow, circulation, connection, and accessibility. As a result, the building challenges modern notions by presenting glass as an ephemeral and temporal reflective screen and a condensed opaque veil due to its context and content.

  16. Computer Security: transparent monitoring for your protection

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2016-01-01

    Computer security can be handled in one of two ways: in secrecy, behind a black curtain; or out in the open, subject to scrutiny and with full transparency. We believe that the latter is the only right way for CERN, and have always put that belief into practice. In keeping with this spirit, here is a reminder of how we monitor (your) CERN activities in order to guarantee timely responses to computer security incidents.   We monitor all network traffic coming into and going out of CERN. Automatic tools look for suspicious patterns like connections to known malicious IP addresses, web pages or domains. They check for malicious files being downloaded and make statistical analyses of connections in order to identify unusual behaviour. The automatic analysis of the logs from the CERN Domain Name Servers complements this and provides a redundant means of detection. We also constantly scan the CERN office network and keep an inventory of the individual network services running on each device: w...

  17. Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Stadler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs are electrical conductive materials with comparably low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are usually prepared with thin film technologies and used in opto-electrical apparatus such as solar cells, displays, opto-electrical interfaces and circuitries. Here, based on a modern database-system, aspects of up-to-date material selections and applications for transparent conducting oxides are sketched, and references for detailed information are given. As n-type TCOs are of special importance for thin film solar cell production, indium-tin oxide (ITO and the reasonably priced aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al, are discussed with view on preparation, characterization and special occurrences. For completion, the recently frequently mentioned typical p-type delafossite TCOs are described as well, providing a variety of references, as a detailed discussion is not reasonable within an overview publication.

  18. Transparent Conducting Oxides-An Up-To-Date Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Andreas

    2012-04-19

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are electrical conductive materials with comparably low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are usually prepared with thin film technologies and used in opto-electrical apparatus such as solar cells, displays, opto-electrical interfaces and circuitries. Here, based on a modern database-system, aspects of up-to-date material selections and applications for transparent conducting oxides are sketched, and references for detailed information are given. As n-type TCOs are of special importance for thin film solar cell production, indium-tin oxide (ITO) and the reasonably priced aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al), are discussed with view on preparation, characterization and special occurrences. For completion, the recently frequently mentioned typical p-type delafossite TCOs are described as well, providing a variety of references, as a detailed discussion is not reasonable within an overview publication.

  19. Transparent Conducting Oxides—An Up-To-Date Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are electrical conductive materials with comparably low absorption of electromagnetic waves within the visible region of the spectrum. They are usually prepared with thin film technologies and used in opto-electrical apparatus such as solar cells, displays, opto-electrical interfaces and circuitries. Here, based on a modern database-system, aspects of up-to-date material selections and applications for transparent conducting oxides are sketched, and references for detailed information are given. As n-type TCOs are of special importance for thin film solar cell production, indium-tin oxide (ITO) and the reasonably priced aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al), are discussed with view on preparation, characterization and special occurrences. For completion, the recently frequently mentioned typical p-type delafossite TCOs are described as well, providing a variety of references, as a detailed discussion is not reasonable within an overview publication. PMID:28817002

  20. The role of amodal surface completion in stereoscopic transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barton eAnderson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that the visual system can decompose stereoscopic textures into percepts of inhomogeneous transparency. We investigate whether this form of layered image decomposition is shaped by constraints on amodal surface completion. We report a series of experiments that demonstrate that the stereoscopic depth differences are easier to discriminate when the stereo images generate a coherent percept of surface color, than in images that require amodally integrating a series of color changes into a coherent surface. Our results provide further evidence for the intimate link between the segmentation processes that occur in conditions of transparency and occlusion, and the interpolation processes involved in the formation of amodally completed surfaces.

  1. Transparent nanostructured photochromic UV-blocking soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pek, Y Shona; Wu, Hong; Chow, Edwin Py; Ying, Jackie Y

    2016-06-01

    We aim to develop transparent UV-blocking photochromic soft contact lenses via polymerization of a bicontinuous nanoemulsion. Transparent nanostructured polymers were prepared by incorporating a polymerizable surfactant and thermal initiator together with water, monomers, UV blockers and photochromic dyes. The polymers were characterized using oxygen permeometer, tensile tester, electron microscope, UV spectrophotometer, corneal cell culture and testing in rabbits. The polymers have good oxygen permeability, water content, stiffness, strength and UV-blocking ability comparable to commercial UV-blocking soft contact lenses. Their response to UV light is comparable to photochromic spectacle lenses, particularly in reverse transition from colored to colorless state. They are nontoxic and nonleaching. Our photochromic UV-blocking contact lenses provide a novel alternative to photochromic spectacles.

  2. Fundamental limits on transparency: first-principles calculations of absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelaers, Hartwin

    2013-03-01

    Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are a technologically important class of materials with applications ranging from solar cells, displays, smart windows, and touch screens to light-emitting diodes. TCOs combine high conductivity, provided by a high concentration of electrons in the conduction band, with transparency in the visible region of the spectrum. The requirement of transparency is usually tied to the band gap being sufficiently large to prevent absorption of visible photons. This is a necessary but not sufficient condition: indeed, the high concentration of free carriers can also lead to optical absorption by excitation of electrons to higher conduction-band states. A fundamental understanding of the factors that limit transparency in TCOs is essential for further progress in materials and applications. The Drude theory is widely used, but it is phenomenological in nature and tends to work poorly at shorter wavelengths, where band-structure effects are important. First-principles calculations have been performed, but were limited to direct transitions; as we show in the present work, indirect transitions assisted by phonons or defects actually dominate. Our calculations are the first to address indirect free-carrier absorption in a TCO completely from first principles. We present results for SnO2, but the methodology is general and is also being applied to ZnO and In2O3. The calculations provide not just quantitative results but also deeper insights in the mechanisms that govern absorption processes in different wavelength regimes, which is essential for engineering improved materials to be used in more efficient devices. For SnO2, we find that absorption is modest in the visible, and much stronger in the ultraviolet and infrared. Work performed in collaboration with E. Kioupakis and C.G. Van de Walle, and supported by DOE, NSF, and BAEF.

  3. Transparency effect in the emergence of monopolies in social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shirazi, A H; Roohi, A A; Jafari, G R

    2013-01-01

    Power law degree distribution was shown in many complex networks. However, in most real systems, deviation from power-law behavior is observed in social and economical networks and emergence of giant hubs is obvious in real network structures far from the tail of power law. We propose a model based on the information transparency (transparency means how much the information is obvious to others). This model can explain power structure in societies with non-transparency in information delivery. The emergence of ultra powerful nodes is explained as a direct result of censorship. Based on these assumptions, we define four distinct transparency regions: perfect non-transparent, low transparent, perfect transparent and exaggerated regions. We observe the emergence of some ultra powerful (very high degree) nodes in low transparent networks, in accordance with the economical and social systems. We show that the low transparent networks are more vulnerable to attacks and the controllability of low transparent network...

  4. Highly Transparent and Self-Extinguishing Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Monolayer Clay Nanoplatelet Hybrid Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Siyi; Chen, Gang; He, Jiahao; Kuang, Yudi; Liu, Yu; Tao, Ruiqiang; Ning, Honglong; Zhu, Penghui; Liu, Yingyao; Fang, Zhiqiang

    2017-08-29

    A viable solution toward "green" optoelectronics is rooted in our ability to fabricate optoelectronics on transparent nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) film substrates. However, the flammability of transparent NFC film poses a severe fire hazard in optoelectronic devices. Despite many efforts toward enhancing the fire-retardant features of transparent NFC film, making NFC film fire-retardant while maintaining its high transparency (≥90%) remains an ambitious objective. Herein, we combine NFC with NFC-dispersed monolayer clay nanoplatelets as a fire retardant to prepare highly transparent NFC-monolayer clay nanoplatelet hybrid films with a superb self-extinguishing behavior. Homogeneous and stable monolayer clay nanoplatelet dispersion was initially obtained by using NFC as a green dispersing agent with the assistance of ultrasonication and then used to blend with NFC to prepare highly transparent and self-extinguishing hybrid films by a water evaporation-induced self-assembly process. As the content of monolayer clay nanoplatelets increased from 5 wt % to 50 wt %, the obtained hybrid films presented enhanced self-extinguishing behavior (limiting oxygen index sharply increased from 21% to 96.5%) while retaining a ∼90% transparency at 600 nm. More significantly, the underlying mechanisms for the high transparency and excellent self-extinguishing behavior of these hybrid films with a clay nanoplatelet content of over 30 wt % were unveiled by a series of characterizations such as SEM, XRD, TGA, and limiting oxygen index tester. This work offers an alternative environmentally friendly, self-extinguishing, and highly transparent substrate to next-generation optoelectronics, and is aimed at providing a viable solution to environmental concerns that are caused by ever-increasing electronic waste.

  5. Open evaluation (OE: A vision for entirely transparent post-publication peer review and rating for science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus eKriegeskorte

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The two major functions of a scientific publishing system are to provide access to and evaluation of scientific papers. While open access (OA is becoming a reality, open evaluation (OE, the other side of coin, has received less attention. Evaluation steers the attention of the scientific community and thus the very course of science. It also influences the use of scientific findings in public policy. The current system of scientific publishing provides only journal prestige as an indication of the quality of new papers and relies on a non-transparent and noisy pre-publication peer review process, which delays publication by many months on average. Here I propose an OE system, in which papers are evaluated post-publication in an ongoing fashion by means of open peer review and rating. Through signed ratings and reviews, scientists steer the attention of their field and build their reputation. Reviewers are motivated to be objective, because low-quality or self-serving signed evaluations will negatively impact their reputation. A core feature of this proposal is a division of powers between the accumulation of evaluative evidence and the analysis of this evidence by paper evaluation functions (PEFs. PEFs can be freely defined by individuals or groups (e.g. scientific societies and provide a plurality of perspectives on the scientific literature. Simple PEFs will use averages of ratings, weighting reviewers (e.g. by H-factor and rating scales (e.g. by relevance to a decision process in different ways. Complex PEFs will use advanced statistical techniques to infer the quality of a paper. Papers with initially promising ratings will be more deeply evaluated. The continual refinement of PEFs in response to attempts by individuals to influence evaluations in their own favor will make the system ungameable. OA and OE together have the power to revolutionize scientific publishing and usher in a new culture of transparency, constructive criticism, and

  6. Effect of provider-initiated testing and counselling and integration of ART services on access to HIV diagnosis and treatment for children in Lilongwe, Malawi: a pre- post comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV prevalence in Malawi is 12% and Kamuzu Central Hospital (KCH, in the capital Lilongwe, is the main provider of adult and paediatric HIV services in the central region. The Lighthouse at KCH offers opt-in HIV testing and counselling (HTC for adults and children. In June 2004, Lighthouse was the first clinic to provide free antiretroviral treatment (ART in the public sector, but few children accessed the services. In response, provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC and an ART clinic were introduced at the paediatric department at KCH in Quarter 4 (Q4 2004. Methods We analysed prospectively collected, aggregated data of quarterly reports from Q1 2003 to Q4 2006 from HTC centre registers, ART registers and clinic registrations at the ART clinics of both Lighthouse and the paediatric department. By comparing data of both facilities before (Q1 2003 to Q3 2004, and after the introduction of the services at the paediatric department (Q4 2004 to Q4 2006, we assessed the effect of this intervention on the uptake of HIV services for children at KCH. Results Overall, 3971 children were tested for HIV, 2428 HIV-infected children were registered for care and 1218 started ART. Between the two periods, the median (IQR number of children being tested, registered and starting ART per quarter rose from 101 (53-109 to 358 (318-440, 56 (50-82 to 226 (192-234 and 18 (8-23 to 139 (115-150, respectively. The median proportion of tested clients per quarter that were children rose from 3.8% (2.7-4.3 to 9.6% (8.8 to 10.0 (p = 0.0009 and the proportion of ART starters that were children rose from 6.9% (4.9-9.3 to 21.1% (19.2-24.2 (p = 0.0036. The proportion of registered children and adults starting ART each quarter increased similarly, from 26% to 53%, and 20% to 52%, respectively. Conclusions Implementation of PITC and integration of ART services within the paediatric ward are likely to be the main reasons for improved access to

  7. Healthcare access: A sequence-sensitive approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco J. Haenssgen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that healthcare-seeking behaviour is neither limited to nor terminated by access to one single healthcare provider. Yet the sequential conceptualisation of healthcare-seeking processes has not diffused into quantitative research, which continues to analyse healthcare access as a “one-off” event. The ensuing lack of understanding healthcare behaviour is problematic in light of the immense burden of premature death especially in low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents an alternative approach. Based on a novel survey instrument, we analyse original survey data from rural India and China that contain 119 unique healthcare pathways among 637 respondents. We offer three applications of how such sequential data can be analysed to enhance our understanding of people's health behaviour. First, descriptive analysis of sequential data enables more a comprehensive representation of people's health behaviours, for example the time spent in various healthcare activities, common healthcare pathways across different groups, or shifts in healthcare provider access during a typical illness. Second, by analysing the effect of mobile technology on healthcare-seeking process characteristics, we demonstrate that conventional, sequence-insensitive indicators are potentially inconsistent and misleading approximations when compared to a more precise, sequence-sensitive measure. Third, we describe how sequential data enable transparent and flexible evaluations of people's healthcare behaviour. The example of a sequence-insensitive evaluation suggests that household wealth has no statistical link to an illustrative “ideal” form of public healthcare utilisation. In contrast, sequence-sensitive evaluations demonstrate that household wealth is associated with an increased likelihood of bypassing referral processes and approaching unregulated and costly informal and private practitioners before accessing a public clinic. Sequential

  8. Economy and Transparency: The Model Invention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Hassan TALUKDAR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Relation of Transparency and Economic growth is a long global debate in the society. Theoretically, policy makers, scholars and researchers argue that there is a close relation among these two variables. However, the quantitative relation and any global model is yet unrevealed. So, the main aim of this paper is to ascertain the nature, dimension and extent of the relationship between economy and Transparency as well as to invent a global model. This paper is useful for researchers, planners, policy makers and scholars who are directly or indirectly involved or willing to involve in the thrust for quantitative relation of these two variables. Literature review is the main source of information of this study. In introductory section, this paper briefly describes theoretical relationship of economy and Transparency as well as it also describes the proxy variables.GDP (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of Economy and Corruption Perception Index (CPI scores (2012 of different countries are used as proxy of level of Transparency. In methodology section this paper describes the detail methodology, sampling procedure and level of analysis. This study randomly selects 30 countries (10 from higher CPI scores+10 from moderate CPI scores+ 10 from lower CPI scores around the globe as sample. In the third section, this research presents the correlation value which divulge that there is a positive correlation (p=.047 with 95% confidence level. That reveals, if the level of transparency of any country increase, the GDP also increase accordingly. Then in this section two quantitative models are developed using linear regression analysis. First invented model is: Economy (GDP in billion US$ = [(8.983*Level of transparency -108.11]. This paper termed the first invented model as “Mahmud EcoT Model-1”. This model calibrates that one unit improvement of transparency leads 8.98 billion US$ improvement in the GDP of a country. Then taking this unit

  9. Portal do Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação: uma avaliação com foco na transparência e informação pública │ Homepage of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation: an evaluation with focus on transparency and public information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa de Almeida França

    2013-11-01

    transparency in the governmental homepage of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI based on a model of analysis of public information transparency on the web, which consists in verifying three subprinciples: information, motivation and participation. The results showed that there are strengths and weaknesses in relation to these three subprinciples in the MCTI homepage, signaling the need to improve access to information aimed at ensuring transparency and promoting public participation. Keywords Public Transparency, Government Homepages, Electronic Government, Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, Public Information.

  10. Professional Access 2013 programming

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Hepworth, George; Yudovich, Dagi (Doug)

    2013-01-01

    Authoritative and comprehensive coverage for building Access 2013 Solutions Access, the most popular database system in the world, just opened a new frontier in the Cloud. Access 2013 provides significant new features for building robust line-of-business solutions for web, client and integrated environments.  This book was written by a team of Microsoft Access MVPs, with consulting and editing by Access experts, MVPs and members of the Microsoft Access team. It gives you the information and examples to expand your areas of expertise and immediately start to develop and upgrade projects. Exp

  11. Access 2010 Programmer's Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Hennig, Teresa; Griffith, Geoffrey L

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive guide to programming for Access 2010 and 2007. Millions of people use the Access database applications, and hundreds of thousands of developers work with Access daily. Access 2010 brings better integration with SQL Server and enhanced XML support; this Wrox guide shows developers how to take advantage of these and other improvements. With in-depth coverage of VBA, macros, and other programming methods for building Access applications, this book also provides real-world code examples to demonstrate each topic.: Access is the leading database that is used worldwide; While VBA rem

  12. Price-transparency and cost accounting: challenges for health care organizations in the consumer-driven era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilsenrath, Peter; Eakin, Cynthia; Fischer, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Health care reform is directed toward improving access and quality while containing costs. An essential part of this is improvement of pricing models to more accurately reflect the costs of providing care. Transparent prices that reflect costs are necessary to signal information to consumers and producers. This information is central in a consumer-driven marketplace. The rapid increase in high deductible insurance and other forms of cost sharing incentivizes the search for price information. The organizational ability to measure costs across a cycle of care is an integral component of creating value, and will play a greater role as reimbursements transition to episode-based care, value-based purchasing, and accountable care organization models. This article discusses use of activity-based costing (ABC) to better measure the cost of health care. It describes examples of ABC in health care organizations and discusses impediments to adoption in the United States including cultural and institutional barriers. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Semi-transparent polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Gómez, Pablo; Pastorelli, Francesco; Mantilla-Pérez, Paola; Mariano, Marina; Martínez-Otero, Alberto; Elias, Xavier; Betancur, Rafael; Martorell, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades, progress in the organic photovoltaic field has resulted in some device features which make organic cells applicable in electricity generation configurations where the standard silicon-based technology is not suitable, for instance, when a semi-transparent photovoltaic panel is needed. When the thin film solar cell performance is evaluated in terms of the device's visible transparency and power conversion efficiency, organic solar cells offer the most promising solution. During the last three years, research in the field has consolidated several approaches for the fabrication of high performance semi-transparent organic solar cells. We have grouped these approaches under three categories: devices where the absorber layer includes near-infrared absorption polymers, devices incorporating one-dimensional photonic crystals, and devices with a metal cavity light trapping configuration. We herein review these approaches.

  14. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Susan G; Carlson, Thomas A

    2015-04-01

    The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: "transparent" mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illusion unites three classic principles of visual perception: Metelli's constraints for perceptual transparency, the Gestalt principle of good continuation, and depth from contrast and atmospheric scattering. This real-world "failure" of scene segmentation reinforces how ingeniously the human visual system typically integrates complex sources of perceptual information using heuristics based on likelihood as shortcuts to veridical perception.

  15. Metamaterial with electromagnetic transparency under multiband absorptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Qi, Limei

    2017-02-01

    We propose a metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) metamaterial that has an electromagnetic (EM) transparency spectrum under multiband absorptions in the C and the X bands. The ground continuous metal film used in the conventional metamaterial absorber (MA) is replaced by a structured ground plane (SGP) in our design. The band-pass properties of the front patterned metal film and the SGP determine the EM transparency spectrum, while the magnetic and the electric resonances in the MDM structure contribute to the multiband absorptions. Due to the symmetric structure of the unit cell, the absorption bands and the EM transparency spectrum of the metamaterial have the property of polarization independency. Despite the normal incidence, the metamaterial can also be used for non-normal incidence.

  16. Inventory transparency for agricultural produce through IOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Sorna Shanthi, D.; Anand, Aashish V.

    2017-06-01

    Re-structuring the practices of traditional inventory management is becoming more essential to optimize the supply chain transparency and accuracy of agricultural produce. A flexible and transparent inventory management system is becoming the need of any agricultural commodity. It was noticed that the major setback for the farmers who are the suppliers of the farm produce is due to poor supply chain integration. The recent advent technologies and IT explosion can bring up a greater impact in the process of storing, tracking, distributing and monitoring perishable agriculture produce of day to day life. The primary focus of this paper is to integrate IoT into inventory management and other inbound logistics management of agriculture produce. The unique features of agricultural produce like a prediction of supply, demand, the location of warehouses, distribution and tracking of inventory can be integrated through IoT. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for inventory management transparency involved in the supply chain of agriculture produce.

  17. The Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Transparent Atom Chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Chiao Chuang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the design and fabrication of transparent atom chips for atomic physics experiments. A fabrication process was developed to define the wire patterns on a transparent glass substrate to create the desired magnetic field for atom trapping experiments. An area on the chip was reserved for the optical access, so that the laser light can penetrate directly through the glass substrate for the laser cooling process. Furthermore, since the thermal conductivity of the glass substrate is poorer than other common materials for atom chip substrate, for example silicon, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride. Thus, heat dissipation copper blocks are designed on the front and back of the glass substrate to improve the electrical current conduction. The testing results showed that a maximum burnout current of 2 A was measured from the wire pattern (with a width of 100 μm and a height of 20 μm without any heat dissipation design and it can increase to 2.5 A with a heat dissipation design on the front side of the atom chips. Therefore, heat dissipation copper blocks were designed and fabricated on the back of the glass substrate just under the wire patterns which increases the maximum burnout current to 4.5 A. Moreover, a maximum burnout current of 6 A was achieved when the entire backside glass substrate was recessed and a thicker copper block was electroplated, which meets most requirements of atomic physics experiments.

  18. The Design, Fabrication and Characterization of a Transparent Atom Chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Ho-Chiao; Huang, Chia-Shiuan; Chen, Hung-Pin; Huang, Chi-Sheng; Lin, Yu-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the design and fabrication of transparent atom chips for atomic physics experiments. A fabrication process was developed to define the wire patterns on a transparent glass substrate to create the desired magnetic field for atom trapping experiments. An area on the chip was reserved for the optical access, so that the laser light can penetrate directly through the glass substrate for the laser cooling process. Furthermore, since the thermal conductivity of the glass substrate is poorer than other common materials for atom chip substrate, for example silicon, silicon carbide, aluminum nitride. Thus, heat dissipation copper blocks are designed on the front and back of the glass substrate to improve the electrical current conduction. The testing results showed that a maximum burnout current of 2 A was measured from the wire pattern (with a width of 100 μm and a height of 20 μm) without any heat dissipation design and it can increase to 2.5 A with a heat dissipation design on the front side of the atom chips. Therefore, heat dissipation copper blocks were designed and fabricated on the back of the glass substrate just under the wire patterns which increases the maximum burnout current to 4.5 A. Moreover, a maximum burnout current of 6 A was achieved when the entire backside glass substrate was recessed and a thicker copper block was electroplated, which meets most requirements of atomic physics experiments. PMID:24922456

  19. Semantic transparency in free stems: The effect of Orthography-Semantics Consistency on word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marelli, Marco; Amenta, Simona; Crepaldi, Davide

    2015-01-01

    A largely overlooked side effect in most studies of morphological priming is a consistent main effect of semantic transparency across priming conditions. That is, participants are faster at recognizing stems from transparent sets (e.g., farm) in comparison to stems from opaque sets (e.g., fruit), regardless of the preceding primes. This suggests that semantic transparency may also be consistently associated with some property of the stem word. We propose that this property might be traced back to the consistency, throughout the lexicon, between the orthographic form of a word and its meaning, here named Orthography-Semantics Consistency (OSC), and that an imbalance in OSC scores might explain the "stem transparency" effect. We exploited distributional semantic models to quantitatively characterize OSC, and tested its effect on visual word identification relying on large-scale data taken from the British Lexicon Project (BLP). Results indicated that (a) the "stem transparency" effect is solid and reliable, insofar as it holds in BLP lexical decision times (Experiment 1); (b) an imbalance in terms of OSC can account for it (Experiment 2); and (c) more generally, OSC explains variance in a large item sample from the BLP, proving to be an effective predictor in visual word access (Experiment 3).

  20. Medicare Provider Data - Hospice Providers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Hospice Utilization and Payment Public Use File provides information on services provided to Medicare beneficiaries by hospice providers. The Hospice PUF...

  1. Directors’ Remuneration Disclosure Transparency in Nigeria and the Influence of Block Share Ownership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Odewale

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines directors’ remuneration disclosure transparency in an emerging economy (Nigeria. We specifically examine how the block share ownership influences the level of transparency in the disclosure of directors’ remuneration in a sample of companies listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange in 2012. Using ordinary least squares and binary logistic regressions to examine the relationship, we find that block share ownership is associated with lower transparent disclosure of directors’ remuneration. The result shows a positive relationship between audit quality and transparent disclosure of directors’ remuneration. The study finds that the transparency score is less than 40%. On the whole, we provide evidence that managers in Nigerian Listed Companies are inclined not to make voluntary disclosure of their remuneration to the public. This paper has implication for policy makers and regulatory authorities in Nigeria on the need to embark on remuneration disclosures reforms so as to make directors’ remuneration disclosure mandatory for Nigerian Listed Companies to make it comparable with accepted global good practice. This study contributes to the remuneration disclosure transparency literature by providing support for the expropriation hypothesis in the behaviour of block shareholders from an emerging economy whose market is very much different from those of developed economies.

  2. Transparent reporting of a multivariable prediction model for individual prognosis or diagnosis (TRIPOD): the TRIPOD statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Gary S; Reitsma, Johannes B; Altman, Douglas G; Moons, Karel G M

    2015-01-07

    Prediction models are developed to aid health care providers in estimating the probability or risk that a specific disease or condition is present (diagnostic models) or that a specific event will occur in the future (prognostic models), to inform their decision making. However, the overwhelming evidence shows that the quality of reporting of prediction model studies is poor. Only with full and clear reporting of information on all aspects of a prediction model can risk of bias and potential usefulness of prediction models be adequately assessed. The Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual Prognosis Or Diagnosis (TRIPOD) Initiative developed a set of recommendations for the reporting of studies developing, validating, or updating a prediction model, whether for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. This article describes how the TRIPOD Statement was developed. An extensive list of items based on a review of the literature was created, which was reduced after a Web based survey and revised during a three day meeting in June 2011 with methodologists, health care professionals, and journal editors. The list was refined during several meetings of the steering group and in e-mail discussions with the wider group of TRIPOD contributors. The resulting TRIPOD Statement is a checklist of 22 items, deemed essential for transparent reporting of a prediction model study. The TRIPOD Statement aims to improve the transparency of the reporting of a prediction model study regardless of the study methods used. The TRIPOD Statement is best used in conjunction with the TRIPOD explanation and elaboration document. To aid the editorial process and readers of prediction model studies, it is recommended that authors include a completed checklist in their submission (also available at www.tripod-statement.org).To encourage dissemination of the TRIPOD Statement, this article is freely accessible on the Annals of Internal Medicine Web site (www.annals.org) and

  3. Android Access Control Extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Baláž

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to analyze and extend security model of mobile devices running on Android OS. Provided security extension is a Linux kernel security module that allows the system administrator to restrict program's capabilities with per-program profiles. Profiles can allow capabilities like network access, raw socket access, and the permission to read, write, or execute files on matching paths. Module supplements the traditional Android capability access control model by providing mandatory access control (MAC based on path. This extension increases security of access to system objects in a device and allows creating security sandboxes per application.

  4. Customer satisfaction: The role of transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....

  5. Transparent oxide electronics from materials to devices

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Rodrigo; Barquinha, Pedro; Pereira, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Transparent electronics is emerging as one of the most promising technologies for the next generation of electronic products, away from the traditional silicon technology. It is essential for touch display panels, solar cells, LEDs and antistatic coatings. The book describes the concept of transparent electronics, passive and active oxide semiconductors, multicomponent dielectrics and their importance for a new era of novel electronic materials and products. This is followed by a short history of transistors, and how oxides have revolutionized this field. It concludes with a glance at lo

  6. Nuclear transparencies from photoinduced pion production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Cosyn; M.C. Martinez; J. Ryckebusch; B. Van Overmeire

    2006-12-01

    We present a relativistic and cross-section factorized framework for computing nuclear transparencies extracted from A({gamma}, {pi} N) reactions at intermediate energies. The proposed quantum mechanical model adopts a relativistic extension to the multiple-scattering Glauber approximation to account for the final state interactions of the ejected nucleon and pion. The theoretical predictions are compared against the experimental {sup 4}He({gamma},p {pi}{sup -}) data from Jefferson Lab. For those data, our results show no conclusive evidence for the onset of mechanisms related to color transparency.

  7. OGIS Access System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — The OGIS Access System (OAS) provides case management, stakeholder collaboration, and public communications activities including a web presence via a web portal.

  8. OECD guidelines on open access: commercialization in disguise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeyer, Klaus; Svendsen, Mette N; Koch, Lene

    2008-09-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has published a new set of principles and guidelines to promote open access to datasets and results from publicly funded research. However, there is reason to think twice about the implications of making demands for transparency and open access for publicly funded research only. How will such demands affect incentives and research agendas? Might this new regulation of publicly funded research have undesirable effects on the quality and value of research? Placing the OECD guidelines in a broader context of research regulation, we argue that they might provide a further push toward collaboration with commercially sponsored research and reinforce incentive structures that favour the creation of commercial value.

  9. Transparent ‘solution’ of ultrathin magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals for flexible and transparent nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Sun, Qian; Chen, Bo; Wu, Xi; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Cong; Zou, Hai-Kui; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Transparent solutions of nanocrystals exhibit many unique properties, and are thus attractive materials for numerous applications. However, the synthesis of transparent nanocrystal solutions of magnesium hydroxide (MH) with wide applications is yet to be realized. Here, we report a facile two-step process, which includes a direct reactive precipitation in alcohol phase instead of aqueous phase combined with a successive surface modification, to prepare transparent alcohol solutions containing lamellar MH nanocrystals with an average size of 52 nm and an ultrathin thickness of 1-2 nm, which is the thinnest MH nanoplatelet reported in the literatures. Further, highly flexible and transparent nanocomposite films are fabricated with a solution mixing method by adding the transparent MH nanocrystal solutions into PVB solution. Considering the simplicity of the fabrication process, high transparency and good flexibility, this MH/polymer nanocomposite film is promising for flame-resistant applications in plastic electronics and optical devices with high transparency, such as flexible displays, optical filters, and flexible solar cells.

  10. Transparent 'solution' of ultrathin magnesium hydroxide nanocrystals for flexible and transparent nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Sun, Qian; Chen, Bo; Wu, Xi; Zeng, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Cong; Zou, Hai-Kui; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2015-05-15

    Transparent solutions of nanocrystals exhibit many unique properties, and are thus attractive materials for numerous applications. However, the synthesis of transparent nanocrystal solutions of magnesium hydroxide (MH) with wide applications is yet to be realized. Here, we report a facile two-step process, which includes a direct reactive precipitation in alcohol phase instead of aqueous phase combined with a successive surface modification, to prepare transparent alcohol solutions containing lamellar MH nanocrystals with an average size of 52 nm and an ultrathin thickness of 1-2 nm, which is the thinnest MH nanoplatelet reported in the literatures. Further, highly flexible and transparent nanocomposite films are fabricated with a solution mixing method by adding the transparent MH nanocrystal solutions into PVB solution. Considering the simplicity of the fabrication process, high transparency and good flexibility, this MH/polymer nanocomposite film is promising for flame-resistant applications in plastic electronics and optical devices with high transparency, such as flexible displays, optical filters, and flexible solar cells.

  11. Third-Generation Display Technology: Nominally Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Display technology is reshaping the consumer, business, government, and even not-for-profit markets in the midst of the digital convergence, coupled with recent smart phones led by Apple, Inc. First-Generation (1G display technology was dominated by the Cathode Ray Tubes, followed by Liquid Crystal Display and Plasma in 2G. A radically innovative shift as a disruptive technology is expected to follow in 3G to utilize virtually any transparent material, which wirelessly connects to portable access points. This paper studies the feasibility of the 3G Display Technology (DT with Technology S-Curves, and presents possible business models and technology strategies which may be generated from it. Additional subsets of business models may be derived for a wide range of industry applications.

  12. Digital Scholarship and Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losoff, Barbara; Pence, Harry E.

    2010-01-01

    Open access publications provide scholars with unrestricted access to the "conversation" that is the basis for the advancement of knowledge. The large number of open access journals, archives, and depositories already in existence demonstrates the technical and economic viability of providing unrestricted access to the literature that is the…

  13. Antireflective Coatings for Glass and Transparent Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, P.; Burghoorn, M.; Danho Mourad, M.C.; Vroon, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Antireflective coatings (ARCs) are applied to reduce surface reflections. We review coatings that reduce the reflection of the surface of the transparent substrates float glass, polyethylene terephthalate, poly(methyl methacrylate), and polycarbonate. Three main coating concepts exist to lower the

  14. An Analysis of Transparent through Dispossession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Funk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using dispossession as an analytical lens, this essay problematizes the way in which the transgender “coming out” experience is depicted on the Amazon original serial, Transparent (2014-. Contextualizing Butler and Anathasiou’s (2013 work on dispossession within the history of the pathologization of gender expansiveness in the United States of America, this essay argues that Transparent’s use of “coming out” rhetoric dispossesses the transgender protagonist, Maura (Jeffrey Tambor, of the very gender autonomy the show has the potential to portray. While Transparent undoubtedly increases visibility for gender expansive individuals in the media, and often renders Maura in a sympathetic manner, its pilot season ignores the history of the pathologization of gender expansiveness while often reinforcing “wrong body” rhetoric concerning transgender individuals. Transparent depicts Maura as a dynamic character, yet it also depicts her dispossession that results from sociocultural forces and from her own internalized transphobia (cissexism as a “normal” part of “coming out”. The authors conclude that exposing the transgender dispossession depicted in Transparent could disrupt the normality of cisgender privilege to open a critical dialogue about the reification of the gender binary in media.

  15. Making Usable, Quality Opaque or Transparent Soap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Suzanne T.

    2005-01-01

    The experiment to make opaque and transparent soap, using cold and semi boiled processes respectively, and surfactant tests that measure the pH of the prepared soap, is introduced. The experiment shows an easy method to make soap by giving a choice to select oils and scents for the soap, which can be used at home.

  16. Bounded transparency for automated inspection in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, N.J.J.P.; Broekstra, J.; Top, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    In agriculture, a major challenge is to automate knowledge-intensive tasks. Task-performing software is often opaque, which has a negative impact on a system’s adaptability and on the end user’s understanding and trust of the system’s operation. A more transparent, declarative way of specifying the

  17. Transparency in healthcare: transformation or an illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Pamela N; Lacey, Susan; Cox, Karen

    2012-07-01

    A dialogue on the concept of transparency by nurse administrators highlights specifics in the hospital setting. The authors of this column present exemplars from practice and issues related to safety, cost and the importance of data specific to nursing practice. The need for collaboration between service and academe is emphasized.

  18. Market transparency, adverse selection, and moral hazard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Tobias; Lambertz, C.; Stahl, K.O.

    2016-01-01

    We study how an improvement in market transparency affects seller exit and continuing sellers’ behavior in a market setting that involves informational asymmetries. The improvement was achieved by reducing strategic bias in buyer ratings. It led to a significant increase in buyer satisfaction with

  19. Printable Transparent Conductive Films for Flexible Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Lai, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Yi-Zhou; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-10

    Printed electronics are an important enabling technology for the development of low-cost, large-area, and flexible optoelectronic devices. Transparent conductive films (TCFs) made from solution-processable transparent conductive materials, such as metal nanoparticles/nanowires, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and conductive polymers, can simultaneously exhibit high mechanical flexibility, low cost, and better photoelectric properties compared to the commonly used sputtered indium-tin-oxide-based TCFs, and are thus receiving great attention. This Review summarizes recent advances of large-area flexible TCFs enabled by several roll-to-roll-compatible printed techniques including inkjet printing, screen printing, offset printing, and gravure printing using the emerging transparent conductive materials. The preparation of TCFs including ink formulation, substrate treatment, patterning, and postprocessing, and their potential applications in solar cells, organic light-emitting diodes, and touch panels are discussed in detail. The rational combination of a variety of printed techniques with emerging transparent conductive materials is believed to extend the opportunities for the development of printed electronics within the realm of flexible electronics and beyond. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Tackling Production Techniques: Telling Tales with Transparencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1986-01-01

    This lesson introduces students to procedures for creating both hand-drawn and machine-made transparencies and requires each of them to create one example to illustrate the same story. Detailed plans include performance objectives, materials needed, instructions for presenting the lesson, a sample student task card, and suggestions for evaluating…

  1. Exclusive hadronic processes and color transparency

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hadronic processes; color transparency. PACS Nos 24.85.+p; 25.30.-c. 1. Introduction. It is known that at asymptotically large momentum transfer certain exclusive hadronic reac- tions are calculable within the framework of perturbative QCD (pQCD) due to asymptotic freedom. However the applicability of pQCD to exclusive ...

  2. Transparent conducting materials: Overview and recent results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Illiberi, A.; Hovestad, A.; Barbu, I.; Klerk, L.; Buskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to

  3. Stakeholders Perception of Transparency and Accountability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined how the stakeholders of higher education in Lagos State of Nigeria perceive the level of transparency and accountability of higher education financing in the state. Bearing in mind the funding state of the Nigerian education system, with the lowest budgetary allocation in Africa according the Academic ...

  4. Can Nudges Be Transparent and Yet Effective?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bruns (Hendrik); E. Kantorowicz-Reznichenko (Elena); K. Klement (Katharina); M. Luistro Jonsson (Marijane); B. Rahali (Bilel)

    2016-01-01

    textabstract‘Nudges’ receive growing attention as an effective strategy to alter people's decisions without significantly changing economic incentives or limiting options. However, being often very subtle and covert, nudges are also criticized as unethical. By not being transparent about the

  5. Recent changes of global ocean transparency observed by SeaWiFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xianqiang; Pan, Delu; Bai, Yan; Wang, Tianyu; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Zhu, Qiankun; Hao, Zengzhou; Gong, Fang

    2017-07-01

    The water transparency usually quantized by the Secchi Disk depth, is a key index of water quality, and influences light penetration for phytoplankton photosynthesis. Although in situ measurements have provided century-long datasets in different regions, the seasonal and interannual variations as well as the long-term changes of ocean transparency at the global scale are still poorly understood. In the present study, based on the semi-analytic algorithm, the time series of the monthly global ocean transparency over Sept. 1997 to Nov. 2010 were retrieved from the satellite data observed by the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS). The seasonal and interannual variations of global ocean transparency were identified from the SeaWiFS-derived water transparency. Large seasonal variation amplitude occurred at the front zones between subtropical gyres and high latitude oceans. Moreover, ocean transparency increased in the Northern Hemisphere, while it decreased in the Southern Hemisphere, especially in the Southern Ocean from Sept. 1997 to Nov. 2010. The global mean ocean transparency decreased rapidly with a rate of -0.85 m yr-1 (p=0.001) between 1997 and 1999, followed by a small increase with a rate of 0.04 m yr-1 (p=0.05) over 2000-2010, which might be linked to changes of sea surface temperature with rapid decrease over 1998-1999 and slight increase over 2000-2010. These changes of water transparency may alter the available light for phytoplankton photosynthesis, and influence the thermal evolution of the upper ocean.

  6. Root Canal Anatomy Visualization using Three-Dimensional Computed- Tomography and Transparent Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Silin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional Computed Tomography (CT is used to analyze the topography of the root canal anatomy in order to make a decision in choosing root canal preparation method. There is a method that make extracted teeth transparent maintaining its anatomical shape and size. It is important to compare the accuracy of the two visualization methods. Objective: To compare the transmission accuracy of root canals anatomy by two visualization methods, three-dimensional CT and transparent tooth preparation. Methods: Mandibular third molar was used as sample. The three-dimensional CT scan was performed before extracting the teeth. Then teeth were extracted and placed in solutions that made them transparent. Results: Despite the fact that the character of dental origin in terms of the angle of the crown, the curvature of the crown, the deviation of the root showed in three-dimensional CT, other tooth anatomical parameters were equally well detected using a transparent tooth preparation. Overall, the curvature of the root canals is more clearly shown by transparent tooth preparation. Conclusion: Transparent tooth preparation provides superior visualization of real root canal anatomy compared to three-dimensional CT, however the later could give us more information about the relation of the tooth within the jaw.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.152

  7. Ontology Based Access Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgü CAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As computer technologies become pervasive, the need for access control mechanisms grow. The purpose of an access control is to limit the operations that a computer system user can perform. Thus, access control ensures to prevent an activity which can lead to a security breach. For the success of Semantic Web, that allows machines to share and reuse the information by using formal semantics for machines to communicate with other machines, access control mechanisms are needed. Access control mechanism indicates certain constraints which must be achieved by the user before performing an operation to provide a secure Semantic Web. In this work, unlike traditional access control mechanisms, an "Ontology Based Access Control" mechanism has been developed by using Semantic Web based policies. In this mechanism, ontologies are used to model the access control knowledge and domain knowledge is used to create policy ontologies.

  8. Descartes discarded? Introspective self-awareness and the problems of transparency and compositionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werning, Markus

    2010-09-01

    What has the self to be like such that introspective awareness of it is possible? The paper asks if Descartes's idea of an inner self can be upheld and discusses this issue by invoking two principles: the phenomenal transparency of experience and the semantic compositionality of conceptual content. It is assumed that self-awareness is a second-order state either in the domain of experience or in the domain of thought. In the former case self-awareness turns out empty if experience is transparent. In the latter, it can best be conceived of as a form of mental quotation. Various proposed analyses of direct and indirect quotation are discussed and tested regarding their applicability to thought. It is concluded that, on the assumption of compositionality, the inner self is only insofar accessible to awareness as it has an accessible phonological (or otherwise subsymbolic) structure, as apparently only inner speech does. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A meaning for transparency in decision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wene, C.O. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Energy System Technology; Espejo, R. [Univ. of Lincolnshire and Humberside, Lincoln (United Kingdom). Lincoln School of Management

    1999-12-01

    In this paper we discuss transparency in decision processes. We argue that transparency requires fostering, producing and maintaining distributed dialogues and communications between all those affected by (the stakeholders) and those producing these decisions (the decision makers and the actors/experts). The issues raised in these dialogues will not only refer to questions of technical efficiency, but also to what is right and fair and what is considered to be good in society. Social policies, particularly those of wide social significance, are in one form or another the outcome of multiple meaning creation processes, reflecting their multiple spheres of influence, from the local to the global, from the disciplinary to the multi- and transdisciplinary. Each of these processes requires transparency. This paper is focused on the structural requirements to make these dialogues and communications effective at all levels, taking into account the need for technical explanation, proof of authenticity and legitimacy of actions. Moreover it is concerned with the alignment of these meanings creation processes in order to increase the chances of having not only a distributed but also a coherent overall decision process. Our emphasis is in defining forms of interaction among stakeholders in order to ground the debate of the policy throughout the organisation, beyond senior levels of management. The aim is increasing the demands on those responsible for policy implementation, stretching them so that they offer the best of themselves. We argue that this is the basis for a structural mechanism for transparency. The outcome of this paper is a conceptual framework to study issues of transparency in policy making which is illustrated with reference to nuclear waste management in Sweden.

  10. TRANSPARENT COATINGS FOR SOLAR CELLS RESEARCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glatkowski, P. J.; Landis, D. A.

    2013-04-16

    Todays solar cells are fabricated using metal oxide based transparent conductive coatings (TCC) or metal wires with optoelectronic performance exceeding that currently possible with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) based TCCs. The motivation for replacing current TCC is their inherent brittleness, high deposition cost, and high deposition temperatures; leading to reduced performance on thin substrates. With improved processing, application and characterization techniques Nanofiber and/or CNT based TCCs can overcome these shortcomings while offering the ability to be applied in atmospheric conditions using low cost coating processes At todays level of development, CNT based TCC are nearing commercial use in touch screens, some types of information displays (i.e. electronic paper), and certain military applications. However, the resistivity and transparency requirements for use in current commercial solar cells are more stringent than in many of these applications. Therefore, significant research on fundamental nanotube composition, dispersion and deposition are required to reach the required performance commanded by photovoltaic devices. The objective of this project was to research and develop transparent conductive coatings based on novel nanomaterial composite coatings, which comprise nanotubes, nanofibers, and other nanostructured materials along with binder materials. One objective was to show that these new nanomaterials perform at an electrical resistivity and optical transparency suitable for use in solar cells and other energy-related applications. A second objective was to generate new structures and chemistries with improved resistivity and transparency performance. The materials also included the binders and surface treatments that facilitate the utility of the electrically conductive portion of these composites in solar photovoltaic devices. Performance enhancement venues included: CNT purification and metallic tube separation techniques, chemical doping, CNT

  11. Does access to a colorectal cancer screening website and/or a nurse-managed telephone help line provided to patients by their family physician increase fecal occult blood test uptake?: A pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clouston Kathleen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fecal occult blood test screening in Canada is sub-optimal. Family physicians play a central role in screening and are limited by the time constraints of clinical practice. Patients face multiple barriers that further reduce completion rates. Tools that support family physicians in providing their patients with colorectal cancer information and that support uptake may prove useful. The primary objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a patient decision aid (nurse-managed telephone support line and/or colorectal cancer screening website distributed by community-based family physicians, in improving colorectal cancer screening rates. Secondary objectives include evaluation of (disincentives to patient FOBT uptake and internet use among 50 to 74 year old males and females for health-related questions. Challenges faced by family physicians in engaging in collaborative partnerships with primary healthcare researchers will be documented. Methods/design A pragmatic, two-arm, randomized cluster controlled trial conducted in 22 community-based family practice clinics (36 clusters with 76 fee-for-service family physicians in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Each physician will enroll 30 patients attending their periodic health examination and at average risk for colorectal cancer. All physicians will follow their standard clinical practice for screening. Intervention group physicians will provide a fridge magnet to each patient that contains information facilitating access to the study-specific colorectal cancer screening decision aids (telephone help-line and website. The primary endpoint is patient fecal occult blood test completion rate after four months (intention to treat model. Multi-level analysis will include clinic, physician and patient level variables. Patient Personal Health Identification Numbers will be collected from those providing consent to facilitate analysis of repeat screening behavior. Secondary outcome

  12. Supporting open access to clinical trial data for researchers: The Duke Clinical Research Institute-Bristol-Myers Squibb Supporting Open Access to Researchers Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencina, Michael J; Louzao, Darcy M; McCourt, Brian J; Adams, Monique R; Tayyabkhan, Rehbar H; Ronco, Peter; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-02-01

    There are growing calls for sponsors to increase transparency by providing access to clinical trial data. In response, Bristol-Myers Squibb and the Duke Clinical Research Institute have collaborated on a new initiative, Supporting Open Access to Researchers. The aim is to facilitate open sharing of Bristol-Myers Squibb trial data with interested researchers. Key features of the Supporting Open Access to Researchers data sharing model include an independent review committee that ensures expert consideration of each proposal, stringent data deidentification/anonymization and protection of patient privacy, requirement of prespecified statistical analysis plans, and independent review of manuscripts before submission for publication. We believe that these approaches will promote open science by allowing investigators to verify trial results as well as to pursue interesting secondary uses of trial data without compromising scientific integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Stretchable, Transparent, and Stretch-Unresponsive Capacitive Touch Sensor Array with Selectively Patterned Silver Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Young; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Trung, Tran Quang; Nam, Yun Hyoung; Kim, Do-Nyun; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2017-05-31

    Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains. Herein, a stretch-unresponsive stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensor array was demonstrated by employing stretchable and transparent electrodes with a simple selective-patterning process and by carefully selecting dielectric and substrate materials with low strain responsivity. A selective-patterning process was used to embed a stretchable and transparent silver nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (AgNWs/rGO) electrode line into a polyurethane (PU) dielectric layer on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment. This method provides the ability to directly fabricate thin film electrode lines on elastomeric substrates and can be used in conventional processes employed in stretchable electronics. We used a dielectric (PU) with a Poisson's ratio smaller than that of the substrate (PDMS), which prevented changes in the capacitance resulting from stretching of the sensor. The stretch-unresponsive touch sensing capability of our transparent and stretchable capacitive touch sensor has great potential in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.

  14. National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS): A USGS-Boem Partnership to Provide Free and Easy Access to Previously Proprietary Seismic Reflection Data on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triezenberg, P. J.; Hart, P. E.; Childs, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Archive of Marine Seismic Surveys (NAMSS) was established by the USGS in 2004 in an effort to rescue marine seismic reflection profile data acquired largely by the oil exploration industry throughout the US outer continental shelf (OCS). It features a Web interface for easy on-line geographic search and download. The commercial value of these data had decreased significantly because of drilling moratoria and newer acquisition technology, and large quantities were at risk of disposal. But, the data still had tremendous value for scientific research and education purposes, and an effort was undertaken to ensure that the data were preserved and publicly available. More recently, the USGS and Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) have developed a partnership to make similarly available a much larger quantity of 2D and 3D seismic data acquired by the U.S. government for assessment of resources in the OCS. Under Federal regulation, BOEM is required to publicly release all processed geophysical data, including seismic profiles, acquired under an exploration permit, purchased and retained by BOEM, no sooner than 25 years after issuance of the permit. Data acquired prior to 1989 are now eligible for release. Currently these data are distributed on CD or DVD, but data discovery can be tedious. Inclusion of these data within NAMSS vastly increases the amount of seismic data available for research purposes. A new NAMSS geographical interface provides easy and intuitive access to the data library. The interface utilizes OpenLayers, Mapnik, and the Django web framework. In addition, metadata capabilities have been greatly increased using a PostgresSQL/PostGIS database incorporating a community-developed ISO-compliant XML template. The NAMSS database currently contains 452 2D seismic surveys comprising 1,645,956 line km and nine 3D seismic surveys covering 9,385 square km. The 2D data holdings consist of stack, migrated and depth sections, most in SEG-Y format.

  15. Delivery of HIV care during the 2007 post-election crisis in Kenya: a case study analyzing the response of the Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Suzanne; Ndege, Samson; Kimaiyo, Sylvester; Some, Hosea; Wachira, Juddy; Braitstein, Paula; Sidle, John E; Sitienei, Jackline; Owino, Regina; Chesoli, Cleophas; Gichunge, Catherine; Komen, Fanice; Ojwang, Claris; Sang, Edwin; Siika, Abraham; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2013-12-01

    Widespread violence followed the 2007 presidential elections in Kenya resulting in the deaths of a reported 1,133 people and the displacement of approximately 660,000 others. At the time of the crisis the United States Agency for International Development-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (USAID-AMPATH) Partnership was operating 17 primary HIV clinics in western Kenya and treating 59,437 HIV positive patients (23,437 on antiretroviral therapy (ART)). This case study examines AMPATH's provision of care and maintenance of patients on ART throughout the period of disruption. This was accomplished by implementing immediate interventions including rapid information dissemination through the media, emergency hotlines and community liaisons; organization of a Crisis Response leadership team; the prompt assembly of multidisciplinary teams to address patient care, including psychological support staff (in clinics and in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP)); and the use of the AMPATH Medical Records System to identify patients on ART who had missed clinic appointments. These interventions resulted in the opening of all AMPATH clinics within five days of their scheduled post-holiday opening dates, 23,949 patient visits in January 2008 (23,259 previously scheduled), uninterrupted availability of antiretrovirals at all clinics, treatment of 1,420 HIV patients in IDP camps, distribution of basic provisions, mobilization of outreach services to locate missing AMPATH patients and delivery of psychosocial support to 300 staff members and 632 patients in IDP camps. Key lessons learned in maintaining the delivery of HIV care in a crisis situation include the importance of advance planning to develop programs that can function during a crisis, an emphasis on a rapid programmatic response, the ability of clinics to function autonomously, patient knowledge of their disease, the use of community and patient networks, addressing staff needs and developing effective

  16. Fairness through Transparency: The Influence of Price Transparency on Consumer Perceptions of Price Fairness

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenberger, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes that price transparency is a significant factor affecting customer judgments of the fairness of sellers’ prices. Cognitive judgments of fairness require a certain amount of information processing; therefore, the level of transparency and the amount of price information affect fairness judgments. The more clear information consumers possess concerning seller prices, the more positive the judgment will be. Customer price fairness judgment is an effective measurement for the ...

  17. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  18. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2017-06-14

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  19. Central bank corporate governance, financial management, and transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Perry; Financial Services Group

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the Reserve Bank of New Zealand's corporate governance, financial management and transparency practices within the broader context of international efforts to strengthen central bank governance, transparency and risk management.

  20. Access to modern contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Michael J; Stanback, John; Shelton, James

    2006-06-01

    Access to modern contraception has become a recognized human right, improving the health and well-being of women, families and societies worldwide. However, contraceptive access remains uneven. Irregular contraceptive supply, limited numbers of service delivery points and specific geographic, economic, informational, psychosocial and administrative barriers (including medical barriers) undermine access in many settings. Widening the range of providers enabled to offer contraception can improve contraceptive access, particularly where resources are most scarce. International efforts to remove medical barriers include the World Health Organization's Medical Eligibility Criteria. Based on the best available evidence, these criteria provide guidance for weighing the risks and benefits of contraceptive choice among women with specific clinical conditions. Clinical job aids can also improve access. More research is needed to further elucidate the pathways for expanding contraceptive access. Further progress in removing medical barriers will depend on systems for improving provider education and promoting evidence-based contraceptive service delivery.

  1. Rational Transparency Choice in Financial Market Equilibrium¤

    OpenAIRE

    Muendler, Marc-Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Add a stage of signal acquisition to a canonical model of portfolio choice.Under fully revealing asset price, investors' information demand reflects their choice of transparency. In reducing uncertainty, financial transparency raises expected asset price and thus benefits holders of the risky asset. At a natural transparency limit, however, investors pay to inhibit further disclosure in order to forestall the erosion of the asset's expected excess return. The natural transparency limit varies...

  2. 25 Years of Transparency Research : Evidence and Future Directions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cucciniello, Maria; Porumbescu, Gregory A.; Grimmelikhuijsen, Stephan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313875405

    2017-01-01

    This article synthesizes the cross-disciplinary literature on government transparency. It systematically reviews research addressing the topic of government transparency published between 1990 and 2015. The review uses 187 studies to address three questions: (1) What forms of transparency has the

  3. Transparent electrodes in the terahertz regime – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Song, Z.; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    We suggest a new possibility for obtaining a transparent metallic film, thus allowing for completely transparent electrodes. By placing a complementary composite layer on top of the electrode, we can cancel the back-scattering of the latter thus obtaining a perfectly transparent structure. For ea...

  4. VIDARS: Towards Painless Access to Space Physics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, B.; Vega, R.; Raeder, J.

    2006-12-01

    Space physics data sets are notoriously difficult to access, in particular if one wants to combine data sets from different sources. Part of the problem is finding the data. A myriad of different formats and containers poses another problem. Attempts to consolidate data in centers has not solved the problem. We present the prototype of a system (VIDARS, virtual data access and retrieval system) that addresses these issues. Data remain with their originators, but data sets are given unique names, called UDI (Universal Data Identifier), akin to Internet host names or e-mail addresses. The UDIs are known (registered) to one central server where they and associated meta data can be searched. Data access occurs completely transparent to a user such that for a requested UDI the central server returns the IP address of the data provider where the data can be retrieved using simple XML based protocols. This requires some cooperation from the data providers who need to register their data and implement the data server protocol, which is, however, very simple. The data access API allows for a wide variety of clients, ranging from simple ASCII dumps to sophisticated graphical and data mining applications, where the client never needs to know where the data actually reside.

  5. Transparency in Dutch CAM practices: a comparison between CAM and GP physicians.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) is increasing worldwide because the demand is growing. Transparency is needed to provide more objective information about CAM services, to date largely unknown by a majority of care users and mainstream care providers. Despite the fact that

  6. Information Exchange, Market Transparency and Dynamic Oligopoly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Per Baltzer; Møllgaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In the economics literature, various views on the likely (efficiency) effects of information exchange,communication between firms and market transparency present themselves. Often these views oninformation flows are highly conflicting. On the one hand, it is argued that increased informationdisse......In the economics literature, various views on the likely (efficiency) effects of information exchange,communication between firms and market transparency present themselves. Often these views oninformation flows are highly conflicting. On the one hand, it is argued that increased...... informationdissemination improves firm planning to the benefit of society (including customers) and/or allowspotential customers to make the right decisions given their preferences. On the other hand, theliterature also suggests that increased information dissemination can have significant coordinating orcollusive...

  7. Transparent and conductive paper from nanocellulose fibers

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2013-01-01

    Here we report on a novel substrate, nanopaper, made of cellulose nanofibrils, an earth abundant material. Compared with regular paper substrates, nanopaper shows superior optical properties. We have carried out the first study on the optical properties of nanopaper substrates. Since the size of the nanofibrils is much less than the wavelength of visible light, nanopaper is highly transparent with large light scattering in the forward direction. Successful depositions of transparent and conductive materials including tin-doped indium oxide, carbon nanotubes and silver nanowires have been achieved on nanopaper substrates, opening up a wide range of applications in optoelectronics such as displays, touch screens and interactive paper. We have also successfully demonstrated an organic solar cell on the novel substrate. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.

  8. Spall Strength Measurements in Transparent Epoxy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jonathan; Rahmat, Meysam; Petel, Oren

    2017-06-01

    Polymer nanocomposites are seeing more frequent use in transparent armour applications. The role of the microstructure on the performance of these materials under dynamic tensile loading conditions is of particular interest. In the present study, a series of plate impact experiments was conducted in order to evaluate the dynamic response of an epoxy (EPON 828) cured with two differed hardeners. The purpose was to compare the role of these hardeners on the dynamic performance of the resulting transparent epoxy. The material response was resolved with a multi-channel photonic Doppler velocimeter. This system was used to determine the shock Hugoniot and dynamic tensile (spall) strength of the materials. The experimental results are presented in reference to spall theory and are evaluated against results predicted by an analytical model of the impacts. While varying the hardener did not change the shock Hugoniot of the epoxy, it did have an effect on the measured spall strengths.

  9. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  10. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Xinning; Wei, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance. PMID:28809267

  11. Transparent conducting materials: overview and recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deelen, Joop; Illiberi, Andrea; Hovestad, Arjan; Barbu, Ionut; Klerk, Lennaert; Buskens, Pascal

    2012-10-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to make conductive ZnO. Furthermore, the properties of transparent conductive oxides (TCO) can be enhanced by application of metallic grids. This way, sheet resistances of below 0.1 Ω/sq and transmittances above 85 % can be achieved. Modeling indicates that the performance of thin film cells can be enhanced by18% using a grid/TCO combination. Light scattering is a vital element of thin film solar cells and both texturization and multimaterial approaches for advanced light management such as plasmonics are discussed.

  12. Zen Mountains: An Illusion of Perceptual Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G. Wardle

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The human visual system is usually very successful in segmenting complex natural scenes. During a trip to the Nepalese Himalayas, we observed an impossible example of Nature's beauty: “transparent” mountains. The scene is captured in a photograph in which a pair of mountain peaks viewed in the far distance appear to be transparent. This illusion results from a fortuitous combination of lighting and scene conditions, which induce an erroneous integration of multiple segmentation cues. The illusion unites three classic principles of visual perception: Metelli's constraints for perceptual transparency, the Gestalt principle of good continuation, and depth from contrast and atmospheric scattering. This real-world “failure” of scene segmentation reinforces how ingeniously the human visual system typically integrates complex sources of perceptual information using heuristics based on likelihood as shortcuts to veridical perception.

  13. Organizational Transparency as Myth and Metaphor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Thøger; Cornelissen, Joep

    2015-01-01

    Transparency has achieved a mythical status in society. Myths are not false accounts or understandings, but deep-seated and definitive descriptions of the world that ontologically ground the ways in which we frame and see the world around us. We explore the mythical nature of transparency from...... this perspective, explain its social-historical underpinnings and discuss its influence on contemporary organizations. In doing so, we also theorize in a more general sense about the relationship between myth, as a foundational understanding and description of the world, and the constellation of metaphors......, as specific ways of framing and seeing organizational reality, to which it gives rise. While observations and evidence can always be adduced to challenge a particular set of metaphors, the endogenous force of the myth may sustain the overall project. This process is explained with a detailed analysis...

  14. Films of Carbon Nanomaterials for Transparent Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wei

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The demand for transparent conductors is expected to grow rapidly as electronic devices, such as touch screens, displays, solid state lighting and photovoltaics become ubiquitous in our lives. Doped metal oxides, especially indium tin oxide, are the commonly used materials for transparent conductors. As there are some drawbacks to this class of materials, exploration of alternative materials has been conducted. There is an interest in films of carbon nanomaterials such as, carbon nanotubes and graphene as they exhibit outstanding properties. This article reviews the synthesis and assembly of these films and their post-treatment. These processes determine the film performance and understanding of this platform will be useful for future work to improve the film performance.

  15. The ESM and the Principle of Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nes Matteo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This note analyses a peculiar feature of the ESM, namely the lack of an acceptable set of standards for the fundamental democratic principle of transparency. Moving from the particular nature of this mechanism, we will highlight the most critical concerns connected to secrecy, confidentiality and inviolability of documents, looking not only at the ESM Treaty but also at relevant documents approved by its bodies (in particular the Code of Conduct and the By-Laws.

  16. Quantum Heat Engine Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yueyang; Jiang, Yue; Mei, Yefeng; Guo, Xianxin; Du, Shengwang

    2017-08-01

    We report an experiment demonstrating the generation of directional thermal radiation with a spectral brightness that is about 9 times greater than that of the ambient pumping reservoir. The experiment is based on the recent proposal for a nontraditional quantum heat engine and uses cold Rb atoms, electromagnetically induced transparency, and photon correlation spectroscopy [Phys. Rev. A 94, 053859 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.053859].

  17. An Investigation on Properties of Transparent Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Topçu, İlker Bekir; Tayfun UYGUNOĞLU

    2016-01-01

    Transparentconcrete is a cement-based building material which has optical properties dueto the embedded light transmitting elements within the composite. In thisstudy, the design of transparent concrete, its mechanical properties, lighttransmission properties of optical fibers and the use of optic fibers werediscussed. The study was performed as a literature review, and it was focusedon the light absorption of translucent concrete, transmission, the mechanismand losses in the transmission. In...

  18. Transparent Conductive Ink for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, X. J.; Rolin, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Nanotechnology is listed in NASA's Technology Roadmap as a key area to invest for further development.1 This research project focused on using nanotechnology to improve electroluminescent lighting in terms of additive manufacturing and to increase energy efficiency. Specifically, this project's goal was to produce a conductive but transparent printable ink that can be sprayed on any surface for use as one of the electrodes in electroluminescent device design. This innovative work is known as thick film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology. TDEL devices are used for "backlighting, illumination, and identification due to their tunable color output, scalability, and efficiency" (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). These devices use a 'front-to-back' printing method, where the substrate is the transparent layer, and the dielectric and phosphor are layered on top. This project is a first step in the process of creating a 3D printable 'back-to-front' electroluminescent device. Back-to-front 3D-printed devices are beneficial because they can be printed onto different substrates and embedded in different surfaces, and the substrate is not required to be transparent, all because the light is emitted from the top surface through the transparent conductor. Advances in this area will help further development of printing TDEL devices on an array of different surfaces. Figure 1 demonstrates the layering of the two electrodes that are aligned in a parallel plate capacitor structure (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). Voltage is applied across the device, and the subsequent electron excitation results in

  19. Transparence | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin électronique dès maintenant pour recevoir des nouvelles et des articles d'opinion du CRDI chaque mois. Abonnez-vous · Droits d'auteur · Éthique de la recherche · Politique de libre accès · Politique de confidentialité · Transparence · Utilisation du site Web. Suivez-nous; Facebook · Twitter ...

  20. Experiments On Transparent Conductive Films For Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; De Groh, Kim K.; Hung, Ching-Cheh; Malave-Sanabria, Tania; Hambourger, Paul; Roig, David

    1995-01-01

    Report describes experiments on thin, transparent, electrically conductive films made, variously, of indium tin oxide covered by magnesium fluoride (ITO/MgF2), aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO), or pure zinc oxide (ZnO). Films are candidates for application to such spacecraft components, including various optoelectronic devices and window surfaces that must be protected against buildup of static electric charge. On Earth, such films useful on heat mirrors, optoelectronic devices, gas sensors, and automotive and aircraft windows.